WorldWideScience

Sample records for country energy profile

  1. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  2. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  3. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  4. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  5. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2009 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  6. Renewable Energy Policy Country Profiles. 2011 version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teckenburg, E.; Rathmann, M.; Winkel, T. [ECOFYS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Resch, G.; Panzer, C.; Busch, S. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Technical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Konstantinaviciute, I. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2011-08-15

    The core objective of the project RE-Shaping is to assist Member State (MS) governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC and to guide a European policy for RES in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The effectiveness and the efficiency of current and future RES support schemes is analysed with specific focus on a single European market for renewable electricity products. Current best practices are identified, and (future) costs of RES and the corresponding support necessary to initiate stable growth are assessed. Better integration of RES policies with climate and innovation policy as well as liberalised energy markets will be analysed and promoted. Options for flexibility between Member States will be analysed. The future deployment of RES in each MS will be calculated based on the Green-X model to assist MS in implementing national action plans and to support a long term vision of the European RES policy. The latter will be based on an in-depth analysis of the long term RES potentials and costs. The impact of policies on risks for RES financing will be analysed and improved policies and financing instruments will be proposed.

  7. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  8. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  9. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  10. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  11. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  12. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  13. The velocity and energy profiles of elite cross-country skiers executing downhill turns with different radii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Bucher Sandbakk, Silvana; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of turn radius on velocity and energy profiles when skidding and step turning during more and less effective downhill turns while cross-country skiing. Thirteen elite female cross-country skiers performed single turns with a 9- or 12-m radius using the skidding technique and a 12- or 15-m radius with step turning. Mechanical parameters were monitored using a real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System and video analysis. Step turning was more effective during all phases of a turn, leading to higher velocities than skidding (P cross-country skiers when executing downhill turns of varying radii and can be used to assess the quality of such turns.

  14. Country Education Profiles: Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    One of a series of profiles prepared by the Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service, this brief outline provides basic background information on educational principles, system of administration, structure and organization, curricula, and teacher training in Algeria. Statistics provided by the Unesco Office of Statistics show enrollment at all…

  15. The Netherlands: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of the Netherlands covers the country's cities and regions, population growth, households and families, housing, contruction, and spatial planning; ethnicity and religion; education; labor force and income; consumption; and transport and communications. As a small and mineral poor nation with a seafaring tradition, the Netherlands survives on foreign trade. In 1983, total export earnings amounted to nearly 62% of the entire national income. Over 72% of Dutch exports go to other member countries of the European Economic Community (EEC), but imports are more diversified, with 47% originating outside the EEC. Since 1848, the Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. As such, it is one of the most stable democracies in the world. The main administrative units are the 11 provinces, of which Noord-Holland and Zuid-Holland are the most populous and economically most important. Amsterdam remains the commercial center of the country, but its role as the principal port city has been taken over by Rotterdam. No community has more than 700,000 inhabitants, but the country as a whole is highly urbanized because of the large numbers of medium-sized cities. In 1983 the population of the Netherlands totaled 14.34 million, compared to 5.10 million at the turn of the century. In 1965, the total fertility rate was 3.0. The death rate has virtually stabilized at 8/1000. The Dutch life expectancy stands at 72.7 years for men and 79.4 for women (1983). Natural increase has already dropped to 0.4% a year. Apart from the slight impact of net immigration, the positive growth rate reflects the large proportion (53%) of the population in its reproductive years. Mean household sizes in the 11 provinces vary from 2.5 in Noord-Holland (in 1981) to nearly 3 in Overijssel and Noord-Brabant, whereas the proportion of 1 person households ranges from 16% in Drenthe and 17% in the somewhat traditionalist southern provinces of Limburg and

  16. Burundi: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsum, L

    1988-10-01

    One of Africa's most rural and densely populated countries, Burundi is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. The 4.9 million people are 85% Hutus, agricultural people of Bantu origin. However, the Hutus are excluded from power by the minority Tutsis, and the 2 groups have engaged in violent conflict. After a military coup in 1987, a new president, Major Pierre Buyoya, was installed, but restrictions on the Hutus continue. The major difference in Burundi has been a relaxation of restrictions on the Catholic church, which were severe under the former President Bagaza. Most Hutus are Catholic, with a minority of Muslims. For the peasant farmer, faced with diminishing arable land and reliance on 1 export crop (coffee), life is becoming more difficult. An expansion of sugar production was planned to reduce reliance on coffee, although the government has a rather ambivalent approach to development. While promoting private sector development with the help of the World Bank and the U.S. government, the Burundi government maintains a rigid 1-party system with strict control over the lives of the people. Infant mortality stands at 196/1,000 live births and life expectancy is low--43 years for women and 40 years for men. The literacy rate is low (39% for men, 15% for women), and the GNP per capita is low ($230). Most land is used for subsistence crops such as cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, maize, pulses, and sorghum.

  17. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  18. Republic of Austria. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L C

    1985-07-01

    A summary description of Austria's demographic situation, economic conditions, labor force characteristics, housing conditions, household characteristics, and marriage patterns is provided. Austria, the former center of the Hapsburg Empire, covers 32,375 square miles and is divided into 9 provinces, including Vienna, the federal capital. Austria's population increased from 6.9 million in 1950 to 7.6 million in 1980. Since 1980 it declined slightly and in 1985 it was estimated to be 7,487,000. Between 1961-81, the industrial, western region of the country grew more rapidly than the predominantly rural eastern section of the country. Vienna, the largest city in the country, experienced a decline in population size from 1.9 million to 1.5 million since 1923. Part of the decline was due to the annihilation of the city's Jewish population in 1938. Austria has a lower urban population (56%) than most other industrialized countries. This low rate reflects the availability of tourist related jobs in the rural areas. 98% of the population is Austrian, the official language is German, and most of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Due to the homogeneity of the population, the country has few religious and racial problems; however, a recent study indicated that about 1/2 of the population has anti-Semetic attitudes. Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Austria's population is aging. Currently, 18% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 14% is 65 years of age or older. Births are expected to increase slightly until the end of the 1900s and then decline slightly. Austrians place a high value on children and family life. Between 1978-82 the marriage rate increased from 4.5/1000 to 4.8/1000, and the median age at marriage increased from 22.4-23.0 years for women and from 25.6-25.8 years for men. The number of divorces/year increased from 11,168-14.298 between 1976-82. Currently, there are 2,767,000 households, and the average household size is 2

  19. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  20. Enterprise Surveys : Nicaragua Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the business environment. The qualitative and quantitative data collected through the surveys connect a country s business environment characteristics with firm productivity and performance. The country profile for Nicaragua is based on data from the enterprise surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averag...

  1. Republic of Italy (country profile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Italy focuses on the following: cities and regions; population growth; households and families; housing and construction; ethnicity and religion; education; economy and labor force; consumption; and transport and communications. Italy, with its total area of 116,374 square miles, is about the size of Florida and Georgia combined. Its 56.6 million people form the 2nd largest population in Western Europe, after West Germany, but slightly larger than Great Britain and France. The main administrative divisions are 20 regions, subdivided into 95 provinces. The provinces in turn are divided into 8090 "comuni" or municipalities. The 6 cities with more than 500,000 people are Roma, Milano, Napoli, Torino, Genova, and Palermo. They account for 14% of the population. The 43 cities with between 100,000-500,000 account for another 13%. There are 373 middle-sized communities with between 20,000 and 100,000 people, accounting for 26% of population. Italy has a regional problem. The line separating the regions of Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, and Lazio from the regions to the south and east is important. The regions north of it hold 62% of the population but are responsible for 73% of the gross national product (GNP) and 78% of the industrial product. The regions to the south are economically much weaker. At the time of the last Italian census on October 25, 1981, the country counted 56.6 million inhabitants. Compared to 33.5 million at the turn of the century, this implies an average annual growth rate of .61%. Between 1900-70, nearly 20 million Italians left their country. Most settled in the US, Argentina, and Brazil. Beginning in the 1960s, a new sort of migration was added as young Italians temporarily left to work in the more prosperous countries of northern Europe. The birthrate, which had declined slowly to 18/1000 during the 1960s, fell more rapidly during the 1970s, to 10.9/1000 in 1981 and 10.3 in 1984. The death rate in Italy has changed little

  2. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns.

  3. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  4. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  5. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of ind

  6. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  7. Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, P

    1985-09-01

    This article provides a profile of Luxembourg, a country known for its high standard of living and social stability. The total fertility rate in Luxembourg in 1983 was 1.4. 26% of the population are immigrants. The total population of teh country stood at 364,602 in 1981 and is expected to decline to 349,000 by the year 2000 if present trends continue. Immigration is actively promoted to provide manual labor; about 30% of immigrants are from Portugal. The 1981 census counted 128,456 households in the country, with an average household size of 2.83 people. 24% of men over 18 years and 23% of women over 15 years have never married. Although only 19% of men over age 65 years are widowers, 55% of women in this age group are widows. About 50,000 Luxembourgers are over 65 years of age. In 1983, the full time work force was 158,500 and the unemployment rate was 1.6%. Women comprise about 40% of the labor force. The inflation rate has declined sharply, from 8.6% in 1983 to 5.7% in 1984. A large portion of the average household budget is allocate toward further education, leisure, and culture. About 70% of the population are homeowners. The atmosphere of austerity present elsewhere in Europe has not affected Luxembourg; leaders are optimistic about the country's economic future.

  8. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  9. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  10. Steel Energy and Environmental Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    Major steelmaking processes (from ironmaking through fabrication and forming) and their associated energy requirements have been profiled in this 2001 report (PDF 582 KB). This profile by Energetics, Inc. also describes the waste streams generated by each process and estimates annual emissions of CO2 and criteria pollutants.

  11. Solar energy in Argentina: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are included: the country overview; the energy summary; the geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the Republic of Argentina; the energy profile; and international contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  12. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  13. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Mozambique's National STD/AIDS Control Program (NACP) estimates that, at present, about 8% of the population is infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The epidemic is expected to peak in 1997. By 2001, Mozambique is projected to have 1,650,000 HIV-positive adults 15-49 years of age, of whom 500,000 will have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 500,000 AIDS orphans. Incidence rates are highest in the country's central region, the transport corridors, and urban centers. The rapid spread of HIV has been facilitated by extreme poverty, the social upheaval and erosion of traditional norms created by years of political conflict and civil war, destruction of the primary health care infrastructure, growth of the commercial sex work trade, and labor migration to and from neighboring countries with high HIV prevalence. Moreover, about 10% of the adult population suffers from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including genital ulcers. NACP, created in 1988, is attempting to curb the further spread of HIV through education aimed at changing high-risk behaviors and condom distribution to prevent STD transmission. Theater performances and radio/television programs are used to reach the large illiterate population. The integration of sex education and STD/AIDS information in the curricula of primary and secondary schools and universities has been approved by the Ministry of Education. Several private companies have been persuaded to distribute condoms to their employees. Finally, the confidentiality of HIV patients has been guaranteed. In 1993, the total AIDS budget was US $1.67 million, 50% of which was provided by the European Union. The European Commission seeks to develop a national strategy for managing STDs within the primary health care system.

  14. Estonia 2013: Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    One of the fastest-growing economies in the OECD, Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive. The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions. The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market and its timely integration with the Nordic market, as well as the establishment of a regional gas market, are therefore key priorities for Estonia. Following its accession to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2010, Estonia applied for International Energy Agency (IEA) membership in 2011. This review of Estonia’s energy policies is part of the IEA accession process. It analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It is intended to guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  15. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  16. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume III. Country data, LY-PO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. III, are Libya, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, and Portugal. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  17. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume II. Country data, CZ-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. II, are Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany (East), Germany (West), Greece, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, and Korea (South). The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy use; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  18. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IV. Country data, SG-YO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. IV, are Senegal, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  19. Detecting emerging trends and country specializations in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filippo, D.; Pandiella Dominique, A.

    2016-07-01

    upon publication data, enable us to obtain an interesting perspective of the state of scientific research in energy efficiency. This approach allow us identifying topics of interest, detecting emerging research trends and specialization of countries and determining different profile of by country. To achieve these goals, we propose the use of gross quantitative indicators, bibliometric techniques based on multivariate analysis and social network analysis. (Author)

  20. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume I. Country data, AF-CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Volumes 1 through 4 include energy-related information concerning 57 countries. Additional volumes (5 through 11) present review information on international organizations, summaries of energy-related international agreements, and fact sheets on nuclear facilities. Country data on Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, China, and Colombia are included in Volume 1. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  1. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C.; Bangake, Chrysost; Rault, Christophe [Orleans Univ. (France). LEO

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. (orig.)

  2. Profile of emissions reduction options in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetken, S.E.; Bertule, M.; Ipsen Hansen, J.; Karavai, M.; Sandbukt, S.; Staun, F.; Wieben, E.

    2013-06-15

    A second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has just started. International climate negotiations consistently keep new market based approaches on the agenda. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions are rapidly rising as a new signature concept for a future climate treaty. In response to this momentum, many countries still find themselves in search of concrete emissions reduction options. UNEP Risoe, with the support of the UNFCCC Secretariat and the ACP-MEA Programme, has decided to assess the emissions reduction potential in 15 diverse countries. While most of these countries are not seen as obvious targets for emissions reduction activities, they are nevertheless likely to be involved in some form of future emissions reduction. Consequently, 15 country reports have been developed, from which this synthesis report gathers the main messages. The overall assessments of the potential emissions reduction in the 15 countries are presented. Sector details have been presented throughout the text, allowing an accumulation of overviews of the potentials in the 15 countries distributed across the 7 sectors of the economy around which the country reports have been structured. It is evident that the emissions reduction potential by far exceeds the current emissions reported by the UN, following calculations from the United States Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The reason for this is that these figures do not include the indirect emissions caused by current deforestation levels, as presented in the agro and forestry sections of the country reports. The intention behind including these figures is to illustrate that compared to these indirect emissions, almost any emissions reduction initiative, whether CDM or not - even those that may yield hundreds of thousands of tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents - are dwarfed by the main cause of emissions in these countries: deforestation. This source of emissions should be addressed with

  3. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C., E-mail: comlanvi-jude.eggoh@univ-orleans.fr [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Bangake, Chrysost [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Artois and Laboratoire EQUIPPE, Lille 1, FSES, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Rault, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Toulouse Business School (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. - Highlights: > We assess the energy consumption and economic growth nexus in 21 African countries. > There exists a long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. > This result is robust to cross-country dependence and for structural breaks. > Our findings finally support the feedback hypothesis of bidirectional causality.

  4. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, S.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an overview of Philippines energy planning and policy and to analyze its energy resources and economic developments. Geography, population, geothermal reserves, coal, oil industry, electricity, and renewable energy are the major topics included in the report. A chapter is focused on national economy and energy policy. 40 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. A six-country comparison of the internet shopper profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Brashear

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8069.2008v10n21p54As the Internet continues to evolve across the globe, the importance of understanding the similarities and dissimilarities among consumers in different regions is crucial for bothe marketing theory and practice. The authors report the characteristics of Internet shoppers in six countries (United States, England, New Zealand, China, Brazil, and Bulgaria. Internet shoppers and non-shoppers in these countries are profiled and compared on attitudes, motivations, and demographics. The work extends the research of Donthu and Garcia (1999 into an international realm and seeks to build on our current knowledge in this area. Findings show that online shoppers share many similar traits around the world. Internet shoppers in all the countries examined are similar with regard to their desire for convenience, are more impulsive, have more favorable attitudes towards direct marketing and advertising, are wealthier and are heavier users of both email and the Internet.

  6. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  7. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  8. National energy data profile - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This document has been prepared by the Brazilian committee of the World Energy Council and presents general data on the economic aspects related to the Brazilian primary energy supply, transformation sector and demand.

  9. Energy resources in the CDCC member countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This is a background document describing the energy resources of the Caribbean nations. Under the heading of conventional-energy resources, petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydropower, thermal electricity, and fuel-wood and charcoal resources are considered. Non-conventional energy resources of 5 tyupes are examined: solar, geothermal, nuclear, wind, and biological.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Energy Policies of IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This information paper provides policy makers and managers, facing tough energy policy challenges, with a wider perspective of how the same issues are being addressed by different IEA member countries. The topics included are: Government structures for co-ordinating energy and climate policies; The use of long-term energy forecasts and scenarios; and Progress in the delivery of key energy security policies.

  11. Biomedical Publications Profile and Trends in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almundher Al-Maawali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives There is a dearth of studies examining the relationship between research output and other socio-demographic indicators in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The three interrelated aims of this study were, first, to ascertain the number of biomedical publications in the GCC from 1970 to 2010; second, to establish the rate of publication according population size during the same period and, third, to gauge the relationship between the number of publications and specific socio-economic parameters. Methods: The Medline database was searched in October 2010 by affiliation, year and publication type from 1970 to 2010. Data obtained were normalised to the number of publications per million of the population, gross domestic product, and the number of physicians in each country. Results: The number of articles from the GCC region published over this 40 year period was 25,561. Saudi Arabia had the highest number followed by Kuwait, UAE, and then Oman. Kuwait had the highest profile of publication when normalised to population size, followed by Qatar. Oman is the lowest in this ranking. Overall, the six countries showed a rising trend in publication numbers with Oman having a significant increase from 1990 to 2005. There was a significant relationship between the number of physicians and the number of publications. Conclusion: The research productivity from GGC has experienced complex and fluctuating growth in the past 40 years. Future prospects for increasing research productivity are discussed with particular reference to the situation in Oman.

  12. Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    Serbia, and Hungary. The Austrian state- controlled energy firm OMV has agreed to sell a 50% stake in its Baumgarten gas storage and distribution...observers viewed as another possible effort to block Nabucco, the Russian firm Surgutneftegas acquired from OMV a large stake in the Hungarian energy

  13. Energy policies of IEA countries: Luxembourg -- 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-20

    Luxembourg has reformed its energy policies across all sectors since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. The country has fully liberalised its electricity and natural gas markets, and is actively participating in the development of the evolving Central West European regional electricity system. Luxembourg has also prepared a broad action plan on energy efficiency, improved the support system for renewable energy sources and revised taxes to mitigate climate change. The country's energy policy in the coming decade will be shaped by the EU 2020 targets that call for substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and strong increases in renewable energy and energy efficiency. These targets will be hard to meet, given that roughly half of energy-related CO2 emissions come from transport fuel use by foreign truckers and motorists, and that Luxembourg's potential for producing much more renewable energy is limited. Luxembourg is heavily dependent on oil. Although oil sources are well diversified by country of origin, more than 85% of oil stocks are held in neighbouring countries and often based on short-term leasing contracts. This leaves the country vulnerable to potential oil supply disruptions. Luxembourg should swiftly implement a plan to improve the security of oil supply. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards achieving its sustainability targets.

  14. Profiles of phytoestrogens in human urine from several Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Aldous, Kenneth M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-09-08

    biotransformation efficiency of daidzein by the population in Hanoi. High concentrations of equol, in addition to isoflavones, in urine have been linked to reduced breast cancer risk in previous studies, and, thus, the Vietnamese population may have potential protective effect against breast cancer. This study suggests that the dietary intake and profiles of phytoestrogens vary considerably, even among Asian countries.

  15. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  17. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinot, E.; Chaurey, A.; Lew, D.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Past donor efforts achieved modest results but often were not sustained or replicated, which leads now to greater market orientation. Markets for rural household lighting with solar home systems, biogas...

  18. Illustrating Enzyme Inhibition Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles have great utility as teaching and learning tools because they present students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis. Unfortunately, most textbooks divorce discussions of traditional kinetic topics, such as enzyme inhibition, from discussions of these same topics in terms of…

  19. Energy policies of IEA countries: Germany 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The IEA report takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Germany, and through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future. Few countries can have as great an impact on energy policy in Europe as Germany. Its large size and strategic location make it a critical component of the region's energy markets - as a result, sound energy policies and strong energy market design are a necessity. In these respects, Germany continues to make notable progress. The country has continued to reform its electricity and natural gas markets, set a timetable to phase out coal subsidies, is meeting key climate and environmental targets and is bringing energy, efficiency and environment to the top of the world agenda with its presidencies of both the G8 and European Union. The International Energy Agency (IEA) praises these efforts. Nevertheless, work remains to be done to further improve German energy policies and markets. The planned phase-out of nuclear power over the coming years would have major impacts on the country's energy mix, raising concerns about energy security, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability for the country and for Europe as a whole. Furthermore, though progress has been made, more needs to be done to set a truly level playing field for competition to develop in gas and electricity markets, which means effective unbundling of transport activities and a strongly empowered regulatory authority. Finally, the country's environmental policies, though helping meet ambitious goals, are expensive - and sometimes various policies work at cross-purposes. 22 figs., 27 tabs., 4 apps.

  20. Utilization of solar energy in developing countries: Identifying some potential markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Siddiqi, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential use of solar electricity generated from photovoltaic cells is examined for nineteen developing nations. Energy and economic profiles are summarized for each country. A comparison is made between the use of autogeneration and photovoltaics in a rural area of Haiti.

  1. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  2. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  3. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  4. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  7. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  8. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  9. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  10. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  11. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  12. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  13. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  14. Profiles of foreign direct investment in U.S. energy 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-05

    Profiles of Foreign Direct Investment in US Energy 1993 describes the role of foreign ownership in US energy resources. This report also looks at the investment patterns of US energy companies in other countries. The data used in this report come from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US Department of Commerce, company annual reports, and public disclosures of investment activities.

  15. Energy and the oil-importing developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkerly, J.; Ramsay, W.

    1982-05-07

    The article discussed the problems those countries have in securing adequate and reliable quantities of energy to meet minimal economic needs and still maintain development rates. A number of alternatives are available; if possible, each country might use a mix appropriate to its own resource base and level of development. An increase in export earnings might be achieved in many countries (and may be the only answer for countries poorly endowed with energy resources). The countries with fossil fuel reserves and hydroelectric resources need to press ahead with their development. Many countries should pay more attention to biomass, particularly those in which it is their most plentiful fuel resource. Attention should be paid to conservation by increasing the efficiency with which energy is used by the reorientation of development strategy because of higher energy prices. The World Bank has estimated that by 1990, savings in the cost of oil imports from an aggressive conservation and fuel switching policy might be as great as a maximum effort to increase oil production. By 1990, oil bills might be reduced by as much as $30 x 10/sup 9/. The international community can help this process by technical assistance, better money management, and by expansion of capital assistance to oil-importing developing countries.

  16. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Austria - 2014 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The country's decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007. Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions. Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner. A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition. This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  17. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  18. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  19. Alternative energy technologies: their application in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Carmona, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    This paper was presented at the Fourth Annual Conference of INTA, in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1980. It deals with the possibilities of using alternative energy technologies in planned urban areas in the developing countries. The case of Mexico is used to analyze use, energy balance, inventories of energy resources, and forecasts of energy supply by the year 2000. Described is the relationship between urban structures and energy requirements, providing data and commentary with respect to Mexican national urban plans, and with its programs in the energy area. Data in charts, maps, and statistics are included.

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  1. Designing an energy planning concept for enhancing the dissemination of renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper stresses the need for adapting a sustainable energy planning concept, which can support the implementation of renewable energy in developing countries; exemplified by a Vietnamese case. Many developing countries heavily rely on fossil fuel resources and will face energy supply security...... challenges in the future. At the same time their policies on renewable energy, tools and action plans supporting renewables are weak. Thus, to support a local dissemination of renewable energy we suggest applying the sustainable energy planning concept to speed up the utilization of renewables in developing...... countries, while relevant policies, tools and plans etc. simultaneously are being deployed, enhancing the framework conditions for renewable energy implementation...

  2. Designing an energy planning concept for enhancing the dissemination of renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    This paper stresses the need for adapting a sustainable energy planning concept, which can support the implementation of renewable energy in developing countries; exemplified by a Vietnamese case. Many developing countries heavily rely on fossil fuel resources and will face energy supply security...... challenges in the future. At the same time their policies on renewable energy, tools and action plans supporting renewables are weak. Thus, to support a local dissemination of renewable energy we suggest applying the sustainable energy planning concept to speed up the utilization of renewables in developing...... countries, while relevant policies, tools and plans etc. simultaneously are being deployed, enhancing the framework conditions for renewable energy implementation...

  3. Energy consumption by gender in some European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raety, R.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Household total energy use has been estimated in numerous studies in recent decades and differences have mainly been explained by levels of income/expenditure. Studies of gender consumption patterns show that men eat more meat than women and drive longer distances, potentially leading to higher total energy use by men. In this study we calculated the total energy use for male and female consumption patterns in four European countries (Germany, Norway, Greece and Sweden) by studying single households. Significant differences in total energy use were found in two countries, Greece and Sweden. The largest differences found between men and women were for travel and eating out, alcohol and tobacco, where men used much more energy than women. We suggest that these findings are policy relevant for the EU, which aims to mainstream gender issues into all activities and to lower its total energy use. (author)

  4. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  5. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  6. Plant Profiles - Industrial Energy Management in Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-02-01

    This 24-page brochure profiles industrial manufacturing firms who are achieving significant energy savings in their plants. The DOE Office of Industrial Technologies six plant-of-the-year nominees are featured, and an additional 10 projects from other companies are also highlighted. Information on OIT's awards and recognition process, and information on OIT and BestPractices is also included.

  7. Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Developing Countries: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donastorg, A.; Renukappa, S.; Suresh, S.

    2017-08-01

    Access to clean and stable energy, meeting sustainable development goals, the fossil fuel dependency and depletion are some of the reasons that have impacted developing countries to transform the business as usual economy to a more sustainable economy. However, access and availability of finance is a major challenge for many developing countries. Financing renewable energy projects require access to significant resources, by multiple parties, at varying points in the project life cycles. This research aims to investigate sources and new trends in financing RE projects in developing countries. For this purpose, a detail and in-depth literature review have been conducted to explore the sources and trends of current RE financial investment and projects, to understand the gaps and limitations. This paper concludes that there are various internal and external sources of finance available for RE projects in developing countries.

  8. Towards Malaysian LADM Country Profile for 2D and 3D Cadastral Registration System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulkifli, N.A.; Abdul Rahman, A.; Jamil, H.; Teng, C.H.; Tan, L.C.; Looi, K.S.; Chan, K.L.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive Land Administration Domain Model (LADM, ISO 2012) country profile for 2D and 3D cadastral registration system for Malaysia. The proposed Malaysian country profile is partly based on the existing spatial (including survey) and administrative registration systems, a

  9. Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  11. Forecast errors in IEA-countries' energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Every year Policy of IEA Countries includes a forecast of the energy consumption in the member countries. Forecasts concerning the years 1985,1990 and 1995 can now be compared to actual values. The second oil crisis resulted in big positive forecast errors. The oil price drop in 1986 did not have...... the small value is often the sum of large positive and negative errors. Almost no significant correlation is found between forecast errors in the 3 years. Correspondingly, no significant correlation coefficient is found between forecasts errors in the 3 main energy sectors. Therefore, a relatively small...

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  13. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  14. Energy use in the new millenium. Trends in IEA countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-10

    At their Gleneagles Summit in July 2005, G8 leaders identified climate change and securing clean energy and sustainable development as key global challenges. They agreed that we must transform the way we use energy and that we must start now. Improved energy efficiency is essential to meeting this goal. Therefore, the G8 asked the IEA to provide analysis of energy use and efficiency developments in buildings, appliances, transport and industry. This publication is a response to the G8 request. Looking back, it shows how changes in energy efficiency, economic structure, income, prices and fuel mix have affected recent trends in energy use and CO2 emissions in IEA countries. The results are a 'wake-up call' for us all. Since 1990, the rate of energy efficiency improvement in IEA countries has been less than 1% per year - much lower than in previous decades and not nearly enough to stem the growth of CO2 emissions. If we are to tackle climate change and move towards a sustainable energy future then this rate will need to double. We must - and we can - do better. By means of in-depth energy indicators, this publication provides important insights to policy-makers about current energy use and CO2 emission patterns that will help shape priorities for future action.

  15. Total-factor energy efficiency in the EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić-Dizdarević

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the economy-wide energy efficiency changes in the EU countries in the period from 2000 to 2010 and to compare the results with the traditional energy efficiency indicator. The DEA CCR multiple input-oriented model is applied in order to analyze the efficiency of the use of three inputs (capital stock, labor and energy consumption in producing GDP as the output. In order to obtain the dynamics of data as to avoid the use of only a single year in calculating energy efficiency the extended DEA method - window analysis - is adopted. The empirical results confirm that the traditional one-factor energy efficiency indicator is too simplifying and could be misleading. The findings on total-factor energy efficiency scores reflect the possibility of substitution among factors in a medium run and changes in the composition of energy use. Projection values of inputs on efficiency frontier identify the amounts of relative inefficiency and, in that context, suggest improvements for all inefficient countries. The results reveal that all inefficient countries could improve their efficiency by reducing some of the inputs.

  16. Energy and environmental consciousness. Differences between advanced and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Takashi [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to understand how much differences there are between advanced countries and developing countries in terms of environmental and energy consciousness. We are experiencing now a big dilemma of the human desire to continue to exist and, at the same time, to develop the economy against the worsening of the Earth's environmental conditions. Understanding international differences of environmental and energy consciousness is a short way to solve this dilemma. The results of the present study were that peoples from advanced countries feel that science and technology are sometimes unreliable, while those from developing countries, are willing to rely upon them. However regardless of the country, people share the same consciousness about Earth's environment. In both, advanced and developing countries, people are reluctant to give up living comforts, unless this leads to a higher standard of living. Based on this result, the author would like to conduct another survey concerning the consciousness of future lifestyle. (author)

  17. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries - Switzerland. 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-26

    Switzerland is entering decisive times in its energy policy. In 2008, the country should see remarkable advance in electricity market reform. Support for renewable electricity is set to increase massively. Decisions on post-Kyoto targets are getting closer, and a CO{sub 2} tax will be introduced for heating and process fuels. Plus, new measures to increase energy efficiency and the broader use of renewable energy are high on the political agenda. Since the last in-depth review in 2003, Switzerland has made progress in most areas of energy policy. Still, more work remains to be done. Maintaining sufficient electricity capacity implies even stronger policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. At the same time, the country will also need to decide which sources to use for large-scale power supply. High dependency on oil can become a burden in a post-Kyoto world. In particular, Switzerland's climate policy should focus more on reducing emissions from private car use, the largest and fastest-growing emitter. Current measures have not proven effective, and the costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions are being distorted across sectors. Switzerland's world-class energy R and D is expected to more than halve energy needs per capita by the second half of this century. This ambitious goal needs to be supported by consistent policies on energy efficiency and climate change. This book takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Switzerland and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future.

  19. Comprehensive country energy assessments using the MARKAL-MACRO model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisman, A.W.

    1997-07-01

    A number of comprehensive country energy assessments were performed in the late 1970s and early 1980s in cooperation with the governments of various countries. The assessments provided a framework for analyzing the impacts of various national strategies for meeting energy requirements. These analyses considered the total energy framework. Economics, energy supply, national resources, energy use, environmental impacts, technologies, energy efficiencies, and sociopolitical impacts were some of the factors addressed. These analyses incorporated the best available data bases and computer models to facilitate the analyses. National policy makers identified the various strategies to examine. The results of the analyses were provided to the national policy makers to support their decision making. Almost 20 years have passed since these assessments were performed. There have been major changes in energy supply and use, technologies, economics, available resources, and environmental concerns. The available tools for performing the assessments have improved drastically. The availability of improved computer modeling, i.e., MARKAL-MACRO, and improved data collection methods and data bases now permit such assessments to be performed in a more sophisticated manner to provide state of the art support to policy makers. The MARKAL-MACRO model was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory over the last 25 years to support strategic energy planning. It is widely used in the international community for integrating analyses of environmental options, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It was used to perform the analyses in the least cost energy strategy study for the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Improvements continue to be made to MARKAL-MACRO and its capabilities extended. A methodology to conduct Country Energy Assessments using MARKAL-MACRO is discussed.

  20. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  1. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Energy for Cooking in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Bringing modern energy to the world's poor is an urgent necessity. Although steady progress is made in expanding the use of modern household energy services in developing countries, in both scenarios many people still depend on traditional biomass in 2030. Action to encourage more efficient and sustainable use of traditional biomass and help people switch to modern cooking fuels and technologies is therefore urgent.

  2. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  3. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  4. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences bet

  5. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences bet

  6. Energy policies of IEA countries: Sweden - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Sweden is one of the leading IEA countries in the use of renewable energy and has a long tradition of ambitious and successful policies to improve energy efficiency. Compared to the other IEA countries, Sweden's CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP are low, partly owing to efficient and low-carbon space heating, and virtually carbon-free electricity generation. The country also remains a forerunner in electricity market liberalisation. Still, even if Sweden has continued to make progress in most areas of its energy policy since the IEA last conducted an in-depth review in 2004, there is room for improvement. As Sweden plans to further increase the use of renewable energy, it is crucial that these supplies are produced and used in the most sustainable manner for the environment and the economy as a whole. With regard to CO2 emissions, more can be done in all sectors, but as transport is the largest polluter and its emissions are increasing, it is the logical focus for Sweden's efforts to reduce emissions further. This is a significant challenge. Nuclear provides almost half of the electricity in Sweden, at a low cost and without CO2 emissions. But the future of nuclear power in the national power mix is still uncertain. To provide clear guidance to the electricity sector, Sweden will need to resolve the ambiguity about the future of nuclear power in the country. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Sweden and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to provide input to Swedish energy policy makers to help them identify a path towards a more sustainable energy future.

  7. Energy policies of IEA countries: Japan - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    Declaring climate change and environment as a top priority of the 2008 G8 Summit in Hokkaido, host country Japan has demonstrated its commitment to pressing ahead in these domains. Already a world leader in advancing energy technology transfer and environmental policy, the country is determined to further improve its domestic policies, moving it towards a more sustainable and secure energy pathway for the long term. Along with other accomplishments, government support for energy R and D is very strong and policies to enhance the efficiency of appliances - both for domestic consumption and export - are models for other countries. Yet there is still room for progress. Most importantly, a greater reliance on market forces throughout the system could lead customers to choices that enhance security, raise economic efficiency and promote environmental protection. Particularly with respect to climate change goals - Japan is the world's fifth-largest greenhouse gas emitter - strengthening the value on greenhouse gas emissions would help give consumers the appropriate signals they need to make the right choices. Enhancing energy savings through efforts aimed at particular sectors (sectoral approaches) could be a part of the overall policy mix, along with ongoing leadership in promoting energy efficiency. The government should continue to work to complement existing voluntary instruments with stronger ones, including ones that rely more on market incentives, and standards and requirements. This review takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Japan today and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements to help guide the country towards a more sustainable energy future.

  8. A review of building energy regulation and policy for energy conservation in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Augustine Campus, University of West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-12-15

    The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, hfs raised concerns over problems of energy supply and exhaustion of energy resources. Most of the developed countries are implementing building energy regulations such as energy standards, codes etc., to reduce building energy consumption. The position of developing countries with respect to energy regulations implementation and enforcement is either poorly documented or not documented at all. In addition, there is a lack of consistent data, which makes it difficult to understand the underlying changes that affect energy regulation implementation in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the progress of building energy regulations in developing countries and its implication for energy conservation and efficiency. The present status of building energy regulations in 60 developing countries around the world was analysed through a survey of building energy regulations using online survey. The study revealed the present progress made on building energy regulations in relation to implementation, development and compliance; at the same time the study recommends possible solutions to the barriers facing building energy regulation implementation in the developing world. (author)

  9. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, L.

    1986-01-01

    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  10. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [135 Carnwath Road, London SW6 3HR (United Kingdom); Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University, 84 Moorgate, London EC2M 6SQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth. (author)

  11. Ukraine 2012 - Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Ukraine’s energy sector faces unprecedented challenges, from a heavy reliance on expensive fossil-fuel imports to inefficient infrastructure and markets. Yet there is also potential for Ukraine to experience an energy revolution, one that could boost employment, lift economic growth and enhance energy security. Modernisation of Ukraine’s energy-supply sectors has only begun and will require investment on a huge scale, complemented by a fundamental reform of the business environment. A strong dependency on oil and gas imports and often-inefficient energy production, transportation and supply sectors means that reducing energy demand must be a greater priority. The potential for energy efficiency gains in the residential, district heating and industrial sectors is large. Endowed with large conventional energy reserves, alongside sizeable renewable potential, Ukraine can build the capacity to significantly increase its resource production. Releasing this potential will require deep regulatory reform and full implementation of international treaty provisions. Effective competition, alongside a progressive move towards market prices, will also help Ukraine attract investment to develop the sector. A draft energy strategy, which sets out a series of supply-side measures, was published in 2012. Broadening and implementing a comprehensive energy strategy, one that takes greater account of demand-side policies, could significantly improve progress in the medium term. This review analyses the large energy-policy challenges facing Ukraine and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide policy makers in the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  12. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  13. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from COMESA Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chali, Nondo; Mulugeta, Kahsai

    2009-01-01

    This study applies panel data techniques to investigate the long-run relationship between energy consumption and GDP for a panel of 19 African countries (COMESA) based on annual data for the period 1980-2005. In the first step, we examine the degree of integration between GDP and energy consumption by employing three panel unit root tests and find that the variables are integrated of order one. In the second step, we investigate the long-run relationship between energy consumption and GDP. Re...

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  15. Breaking the poverty-energy nexus. The nexus between energy import and poverty in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, S.

    2007-07-01

    The author discusses the energy-poverty nexus within the frame of the current energy-poverty debate as a subject in international development politics. The quantitive analysis of the energy import dependency taking into account trade and economic prosperity is related to the opportunity costs analysis in terms of health spending and educational spending. In most developing countries energy infrastructures ar still on a relatively low level. Biased investment based on fossil energy technologies could lock in conventional energy systems and thus create new dependencies. Renewable energy sources can play an important role in breaking the poverty energy nexus, both on a household level and on the structural level of energy import dependency. For many developing countries renewable energies present a historical opportunity to increase clean and modern energy services without increasing dependency on foreign energy supplies.

  16. Forecast errors in IEA-countries' energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Every year Policy of IEA Countries includes a forecast of the energy consumption in the member countries. Forecasts concerning the years 1985,1990 and 1995 can now be compared to actual values. The second oil crisis resulted in big positive forecast errors. The oil price drop in 1986 did not have...... a similar opposite effect. A correction for economic growth reduces forecast errors during the second oil crisis but not elsewhere. Industry has a relatively big positive error while transportation has a negative forecast error. Even when the forecast error is small, the results are not so "nice" because...

  17. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Slovak Republic 2005 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Slovakia has implemented impressive energy reforms over the recent past, a unique performance in Central and Eastern Europe. The 2000 energy policy prioritised market reforms and sectoral policies, notably on energy security and environment, in order to comply with EU requirements, which were largely met at the time of the country’s EU accession in 2004. Also, Slovakia established new regulations, notably cost reflective pricing enforced by an independent energy regulator, thereby attracting significant foreign direct investment. Notably, this rapid transition has occurred without disruption in this key energy transit country. New challenges ahead include strengthening energy security by diversification, opening energy markets and integrating them into the EU, strongly increasing energy efficiency to offset the high economic burden of energy prices and to help better controlling pollution and CO2 emissions in line with EU and international obligations. This review analyses the Slovak energy sector and policies, and provides recommendations for the government. It is a comprehensive assessment of what constitutes a remarkable case study of effective energy reforms in an economy in transition, which has applied for IEA membership.

  18. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: The United Kingdom 2012 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The United Kingdom is preparing for a deep decarbonisation of its energy system. The country has decided to halve its greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2027 and to cut them by a total of 80% by 2050. For this to happen, significant private-sector investment in new energy infrastructure is needed. As it seeks concrete solutions to the low-carbon investment challenge, the United Kingdom is leading by example. The UK's proposed Electricity Market Reform is a pioneering effort that will be closely observed by other countries. Ideally, this complex and ambitious reform would in the long run lead to a more liberalised marketplace in which low-carbon power generation technologies compete to deliver innovative and least-cost outcomes. Security of supply remains a key focus of energy policy. Fossil fuel production in the United Kingdom has peaked, and a fifth of the country's ageing power generating capacity will have to be closed this decade. However, oil and gas imports are well diversified, and the government intends to promote various technologies to generate low-carbon electricity -- renewable and nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. More efficient energy use is essential to both decarbonisation and energy security. The Green Deal programme, which the UK plans to launch later this year, aims to improve energy efficiency in buildings and public spaces. The programme has the potential to help energy consumers overcome economic challenges, but for it to succeed, the general public must be sufficiently aware of its benefits.

  19. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: United Kingdom 2012 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The United Kingdom is preparing for a deep decarbonisation of its energy system. The country has decided to halve its greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2027 and to cut them by a total of 80% by 2050. For this to happen, significant private-sector investment in new energy infrastructure is needed. As it seeks concrete solutions to the low-carbon investment challenge, the United Kingdom is leading by example. The UK's proposed Electricity Market Reform is a pioneering effort that will be closely observed by other countries. Ideally, this complex and ambitious reform would in the long run lead to a more liberalised marketplace in which low-carbon power generation technologies compete to deliver innovative and least-cost outcomes. Security of supply remains a key focus of energy policy. Fossil fuel production in the United Kingdom has peaked, and a fifth of the country's ageing power generating capacity will have to be closed this decade. However, oil and gas imports are well diversified, and the government intends to promote various technologies to generate low-carbon electricity -- renewable and nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. More efficient energy use is essential to both decarbonisation and energy security. The Green Deal programme, which the UK plans to launch later this year, aims to improve energy efficiency in buildings and public spaces. The programme has the potential to help energy consumers overcome economic challenges, but for it to succeed, the general public must be sufficiently aware of its benefits.

  20. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Poland - 2011 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-02

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R and D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland's energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland's power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland's efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country's energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government's attention to R and D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland's potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides

  1. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Norway - 2011 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    Norway has a unique twin role as a major oil and gas producer and a strong global advocate of climate change mitigation. As the third-largest exporter of energy in the world, it contributes to global energy security by providing reliable supplies to consuming countries. At the same time, the Norwegians highly value environmental sustainability and the country is taking climate policy very seriously. Norway also manages its petroleum resources and revenue in a commendable way, setting a model for other countries. The challenge now for the government is to stimulate further increases in natural gas and petroleum production from safe and environmentally sustainable operations. Norway's large potential for hydropower generation is an asset, as European electricity markets are integrating and variable renewable energy generation is set to increase. More cross-border interconnections are needed to realise the full potential of hydropower for balancing variations in demand and supply in the regional market. Increased interconnections would also improve electricity security in Norway in times of low hydropower availability. Gas-fired power plants should also be considered for use for the same purpose. In order to meet its ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Norway needs to step up efforts at home. Although the dominance of low-carbon electricity in the energy mix limits the scope for domestic measures, large potential for emission reductions remains in oil and gas production, manufacturing and transport. However, measures to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy should be carefully designed, because they often focus on electricity and would thus not reduce emissions. Recent large increases in spending on energy RD and D and ongoing efforts to develop carbon capture and storage are very welcome.

  2. Towards energy sustainability in the world: the implications of energy subsidy for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham [University of West Indies, W. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Augustine Campus (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    Energy subsidies are widespread around the world but they vary greatly in importance and type of fuel and country. The fossil fuel consumption rate is growing every year and in about 50 years we will have depleted most of our fossil fuel reserves, so it is necessary to find alternative sources of energy before that happens. However, the only solution to this challenge is through investment on energy conservation programmes and renewable energy source. In line with this challenge and confusion on fund appropriate for energy. This paper is aimed at examining the effect of energy subsidy on energy conservation and renewable energy in developing countries. The study intends to quantify and analysis a case study of Trinidad and Tobago energy subsidy and its implications for developing countries and energy sustainability in the world. Findings show that huge amount investments and government intervention were being expended on energy subsidy in order to lower the price of energy products for consumers. The study further identified implication of this growing subsidy for developing countries and that the funds could be used for creating renewable energy technology and energy conservation programmes.

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries: Greece 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The report provides an in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Greece and makes recommendations on future policy. Lignite, the main domestic fossil fuel resource of Greece, will continue to play a major role in the country's fuel mix in the future. The government and the regulator should consider introducing more advanced generation technology through retrofits or into new lignite power stations. It may be an option to construct a power station using lignite from unopened deposits, for the exploitation of which a new bidding procedure is currently open. Since the previous review in 2002, Greece has also made significant progress in setting the course for reforming its electricity and gas markets. Energy diversification has improved, with natural gas becoming increasingly important. Significant challenges, however, remain. The market power of the incumbent energy suppliers continues to restrict competition. Unless this issue is addressed, a fully competitive energy market is inconceivable. Of particular concern are the arrangements for ownership of the electricity and gas transmission systems. The review suggests various options to overcome these obstacles. Greece is getting close to missing its target set under the Kyoto Protocol and the government is urged to closely monitor the situation. The supply and demand situation is addressed.. Recommendations are made on how to reduce the country's high oil dependence and advice offered to policy makers on steps to develop a long-term energy efficiency policy with measurable targets that tackle the demand side of the Greek energy sector.

  4. A Country Profile of the Role of English in Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚亮

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a sociolinguistic profile of the English language in Kenya. After a brief description of Kenya, the paper discusses the history of the English language in Kenya, its general presence in Kenya, its users and uses. The attitudes of Kenyans towards the English language, speakers of English and learning English are also discussed. Finally, a conclusion is drawn that the Englishg seemingly irreplaceable and prestigious position in Kenya may be challenged from political.social and educational factors.

  5. Republic of South Africa: unraveling the population puzzle. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, D

    1984-06-01

    This discussion of the Republic of South Africa focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion of the population, age distribution, housing and households, education, employment, income, and marketing and communication. South Africans, condemmed by the world community for their policy of racial discriminatioon, contend that outsiders fail to understand the system they legalized in 1948. Apartheid calls for developing different political institutions for blacks and whites in preparation for their eventual separation. According to this reasoning, black Africans are not considered permanent residents of South Africa, but rather of the "homelands" to which each tribal group has been assigned by the government. 4 homelands have been made independent, and if the remaining 6 become independent as scheduled, South Africa theoretically will no longer have any black citizens. Under this plan, nearly 90% of the current area of South Africa would go to whites, while the remaining 10% would be divided among the 10 homelands. The UN has condemmed the homelands policy, and no country has recognized their independence. By law South Africa has 4 distinct populations: Africans, whites, coloureds, and asians. Rhe combination of Afrikaners and British makes up the white population. Whites are in the minority and numbered only 4.7 million in 1983, or 15% of the total population. Since whites rule the country, their importance is far disproportionate to their numbers. There were 2.7 million coloureds in 1983, approximately 9% of all South Africans. Black africans, the single largest population group, numbered 22.7 million in 1983, or 73% of the total population. Blacks are divided in 10 subgroups corresponding to the 10 ethnicallyy based homelands. The largest groups are the Zulu (5.9 million in 1981) and the Xhosa (3.1 million). Population growth varies by race. The annual growth rate for the entire country was 2.4% in 1983, but for blacks it was 2.7% and for

  6. Health care for older persons in Colombia: a country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen-Lucía; Duque, Gustavo

    2009-09-01

    Colombia is a country of approximately 42 million inhabitants, with some 2.5 million being aged 65 and older. Currently, life expectancy in Colombia is 72.3. By 2025, the population life expectancy at birth will be 77.6 for women and 69.8 for men. The quality of care that people receive as they age in Colombia varies according to where they live. Individuals living in the highly urbanized areas of Colombia receive high-quality care, whereas elderly subjects living in rural areas and in the southern and northern regions are exposed to unemployment, low income, inequity of access to health care, drug trafficking, and armed conflict. In spite of these problems, characteristics of aging of older people in terms of functionality and healthcare access are similar to those of people living in developing countries around the world. This article reviews the particular characteristics of the elderly population in Colombia, especially the significant changes that have happened in recent years, when social instability and conflict have determined that health resources be redirected to other budget priorities such as defense and security.

  7. Energy policies of IEA countries: Belgium 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Belgium continues to make measured progress in its energy policy, particularly with respect to electricity market liberalisation. The country has improved the independent functioning of the electricity market. An electricity exchange will begin operation shortly. However, to enable Belgian customers to fully benefit from energy market liberalisation, more work needs to be done. In 2003, Belgium decided to phase out nuclear power between 2015 and 2025. As nuclear energy supplies about 55% of the country's electricity, this will be a significant challenge. The federal government should conduct more comprehensive long-term studies on the nuclear energy phase-out and its effects on energy security, environmental protection and economic growth. Belgium's natural gas and electricity markets are highly concentrated. Companies owned by the international power group Suez SA dominate at all levels. Belgium has made some efforts to unbundle these industries and reduce their market dominance, but much more must be done to encourage new entry, increase competition and bring real economic benefits to Belgian customers. 50 refs., 40 tabs., 3 annexes.

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: New Zealand 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-23

    New Zealand faces some serious energy sector challenges, requiring special attention to security of supply issues, both in oil and gas domains. Natural gas production from the major Maui field is rapidly declining. New Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions are rising: the most recent estimates put them at 21% above their Kyoto target over the first commitment period. These challenges are not insurmountable. New Zealand's energy policy is characterised by a commitment to free and open markets complimented by light-handed regulation. The IEA commends this approach and encourages continued policy improvements and enhancements. The energy policy review of New Zealand offers a comprehensive analysis of the country's energy sector, evaluating its strengths and weaknesses across the fuel mix, as well as looking at broader issues such as energy efficiency, environmental performance and technology research and development. It also includes policy critiques and recommendations, drawing on experience across IEA member countries. 33 figs., 21 tabs., 3 annexes.

  9. Energy policies of IEA countries: Denmark 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-18

    Denmark has had a very pro-active energy policy in both energy efficiency and renewable energy while at the same time opening its gas and power markets to competition. The share of renewable energy has increased dramatically, going from 3% of all electricity generation in 1990 to 25% in 2004. At the same time, the government's renewable support policies up to the early 2000s came with a high cost for consumers and taxpayers. However, the current government is very attentive to cost-effectiveness and inclined to market-based approaches. Greater use of cost-benefit analysis, including for offshore wind plants, is crucial in shaping future policies. The review indicates that energy efficiency programmes have historically been more cost-effective than renewable energy programmes in lowering emissions and enhancing energy security. Denmark's energy intensity is 35% below the IEA average, due in substantial part to the government's efforts to improve efficiency. This policy provides an excellent example for other countries, although the review notes that more should be done for transport efficiency.

  10. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Switzerland 2012 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Switzerland has taken bold decisions to gradually phase out nuclear power and to reduce by a fifth its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 with domestic measures only. These are challenging objectives, and the country now needs to identify the most viable ways to meet them at least cost and minimum risk to energy security. In the absence of nuclear power, maintaining sufficient electricity capacity will require strong policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy. Such measures have already been outlined, but they will likely not be enough. For baseload generation, gas-fired power plants would be the simplest option. Treating their CO2 emissions the same way as in the neighbouring countries would be a strong positive incentive for investors. Because Switzerland's energy-related CO2 emissions come mostly from oil use in transport and space heating, action is most needed in these areas. Commendably, the country is making polluters pay by using a CO2 tax for financing decarbonisation efforts in space heating. Stronger efforts will be needed to reduce emissions from private car use, however. Since the 2007 IEA energy policy review, Switzerland has made clear progress in electricity market reform. Moving to a fully open market by 2015 would be a further positive step. The system of regulated end-user prices, however, is subsidising electricity consumption at a time when low-carbon power supply is becoming more constrained and expensive. It should be reconsidered. Switzerland should also continue to take an increasingly European approach to developing its electricity infrastructure, to its own benefit and to that of its neighbours.

  11. Thermal Profiling of Residential Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2015-03-01

    This work describes a methodology for informing targeted demand-response (DR) and marketing programs that focus on the temperature-sensitive part of residential electricity demand. Our methodology uses data that is becoming readily available at utility companies-hourly energy consumption readings collected from "smart" electricity meters, as well as hourly temperature readings. To decompose individual consumption into a thermal-sensitive part and a base load (non-thermally-sensitive), we propose a model of temperature response that is based on thermal regimes, i.e., unobserved decisions of consumers to use their heating or cooling appliances. We use this model to extract useful benchmarks that compose thermal profiles of individual users, i.e., terse characterizations of the statistics of these users' temperature-sensitive consumption. We present example profiles generated using our model on real consumers, and show its performance on a large sample of residential users. This knowledge may, in turn, inform the DR program by allowing scarce operational and marketing budgets to be spent on the right users-those whose influencing will yield highest energy reductions-at the right time. We show that such segmentation and targeting of users may offer savings exceeding 100% of a random strategy.

  12. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Sweden 2013 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    Sweden has made progress in recent years towards a more secure, sustainable energy future. The Scandinavian nation already has an almost carbon-free electricity supply and has phased out oil use in residential and power sectors. It is increasingly integrated within the Nordic and Baltic electricity markets, and its joint renewable electricity certificate market with Norway offers a unique model for other countries. Now Sweden must take concrete steps to realise its vision of a fossil-fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 and no net greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050. Although Sweden has decided to allow the replacement of its existing nuclear reactors, further emission reductions will come at a higher cost and require technology change. This means Sweden will need to carefully evaluate the most cost-effective pathways for its transition to a low-carbon economy. Sweden has a high energy-intensity level, which requires greater energy efficiency in industry, buildings, heat and transport. A decarbonisation vision should be mapped out for each industry sector. Starting with transport, Sweden must specify how it will wean its vehicle fleet from fossil fuels by 2030. Sweden’s industry lead in smart grids is an asset. Sweden should scale up investment in clean energy technologies. As all Nordic countries decarbonise, cost-effective regional solutions can control consumers’ costs. The large-scale deployment of renewable and energy technologies in a common Northern European energy market can drive decarbonisation without comprising competitiveness, security of supply and affordability. This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing Sweden, and provides studies and recommendations for each sector.

  13. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy [Italian Version, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more sustainable energy future. The Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous review. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Italy recognises the need to diversify its energy supply portfolio to reduce its heavy dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports, and to decrease its growing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the government announced its intention to recommence the countrys nuclear power program and start building a new nuclear power plant by 2013. To do so, Italy must first develop an efficient process for identifying critical energy infrastructure, including nuclear power, and subjecting it to an effective, streamlined siting and permitting process. Italy will face another major challenge in complying with Europe’s new climate and energy package, particularly in relation to renewable energy and emissions targets. Italy must step up efforts to comply with its new responsibilities, specifically by developing and putting in place a comprehensive climate change strategy for the years until 2020. In mid-2009, the legislature enacted a comprehensive new law that will facilitate the emergence of a robust long-term energy policy. The government must respond to this opportunity and elaborate, with industry, a comprehensive long-term strategy for the development of the energy sector. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more

  14. Economics of Renewable Energy for Water Desalination in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Shouman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the economics of renewable energy- powered desalination, as applied to water supply for remote coastal and desert communities in developing countries. In this paper, the issue of integration of desalination technologies and renewable energy from specified sources is addressed. The features of Photovoltaic (PV system combined with reverse osmosis desalination technology, which represents the most commonly applied integration between renewable energy and desalination technology, are analyzed. Further, a case study for conceptual seawater reverse osmosis (SW-RO desalination plant with 1000 m3 /d capacity is presented, based on PV and conventional generators powered with fossil fuel to be installed in a remote coastal area in Egypt, as a typical developing country. The estimated water cost for desalination with PV/ SW-RO system is about $1.25 m3 , while ranging between $1.22-1.59 for SW-RO powered with conventional generator powered with fossil fuel. Analysis of the economical, technical and environmental factors depicts the merits of using large scale integrated PV/RO system as an economically feasible water supply relying upon a renewable energy source.

  15. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  16. Energy conservation in developing countries using green building idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Akram; Mansoor Qureshi, Ijaz

    2013-06-01

    Green buildings uses processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle. In these buildings Certain energy conservative and environment friendly steps are considered and implemented from design, construction, operation, maintenance and renovation. In present era no doubt new technologies are constantly constructed and used in creating greener structures, energy efficient buildings. The common objective is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health using available energy efficiently. To increase the efficiency of the System or the building, Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomasscan significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. Any how power generation using renewable sources that is Solar system may further enhance energy conservation ideas. Power Factor improvement can also be another source of efficient tool for efficient use of Electrical Energy in green buildings. In developing countries a significant amount of Electrical Energy can be conserved and System efficiency as a whole can be increased by Power Factor correction. The reverse flow of power can be locally engaged instead of creating extra stress and opposition to the existing grid lines.

  17. Municipalities and energy efficiency in countries in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezessy, Silvia [Doctorate candidate, Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary); Dimitrov, Konstantin [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Skopje, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Skopje, Karpos II bb, 91000 Skopje (Macedonia); Urge-Vorsatz, Diana [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary); Baruch, Seth [The Alliance to Save Energy, 1200 18th Street, NW Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that many cost-efficient opportunities to employ end-use energy efficiency measures exist in countries in transition (CITs) and that municipal authorities have an essential role to play in capturing these opportunities. The aim of this paper is to review the factors that determine the degree of involvement of local authorities in the market for energy services and energy efficient (EE) equipment in three CITs: Bulgaria, Hungary and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (hereafter: Macedonia). We achieve this aim by examining the current status of local governments as the most powerful determinant of municipal market involvement. Two broad groups of factors are discussed: statutory obligations and powers of local governments, especially energy-related tasks, and finance. We explain how specific features within these two areas may influence the motivation of local authorities to improve energy efficiency and their capacity to do so. We argue that greater decentralization is the first step in augmenting the role of local authorities in the market for energy services and EE equipment. Based on the analysis we give recommendations on how to encourage municipal authorities to use market mechanisms more extensively to deliver energy efficiency. (author)

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries: Austria - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Since the last review in 2002, Austrian energy policy has seen many positive developments. Today, Austria counts among the IEA member countries with the highest share of renewable energy supply, thus increasing energy security and reducing CO2 emissions. Great progress has also been made in the utilisation of biomass for heat and electricity production. Nevertheless, many challenges remain. The climate strategy revision in 2007 is commendably realistic, but uncertainty remains whether it will be sufficient, and whether renewables and energy efficiency are well-balanced within it. While Austria is strongly promoting an increase of renewables production by adopting challenging targets, it is less ambitious in the area of energy efficiency. To achieve the renewables target, their supply will have to double, leading to significant increases in costs. In energy efficiency, while Austria is leading in developing efficient building solutions, there are concerns about implementation, especially about the lack of ambition and divergence in building codes. Overall, energy intensity has increased in recent years, and the government will have to put a strong focus on reversing this development. Despite the early opening of the energy markets, effective competition has failed to emerge. This is partially due to systemic weaknesses such as dominant incumbents, lack of transparency in price formulation and a weak regulatory system with the potential for conflicts of interest. This review thoroughly analyses Austrian energy policy and identifies the key challenges that need to be addressed. With recommendations for improvements, it is an important guide for Austrian policy makers toward a safer and cleaner energy future.

  19. Small Modular Reactors for Enhancing Energy Security in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kuznetsov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated with SMR deployment could provide a better match (than the large-scale reactors to the limited grid capacity of many developing countries. Because of their lower capital requirements, SMRs could also effectively address the energy needs of small developing countries with limited financial resources. Although SMRs can have substantially higher specific capital costs as compared to large-scale reactors, they may nevertheless enjoy significant economic benefits due to shorter build times, accelerated learning effects and co-siting economies, temporal and sizing flexibility of deployment, and design simplification.

  20. Energy needs, uses, and resources in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, P.F.; Nathans, R.; Beardsworth, E.; Hale, S. Jr.

    1978-03-01

    The report identifies the energy needs, uses, and resources in the developing countries of the world and examines the energy options available to them for their continued social and economic growth. If traditional patterns of development are to continue, oil consumption in the non-OPEC LDCs will grow steadily to become comparable with current U.S. consumption between 2000 and 2020. Attempts to exploit indigenous hydrocarbon resources even in those LDCs with untapped reserves will be limited by shortages of capital and technical manpower. In the absence of major actions to replace noncommercial fuels or to increase the effectiveness with which they are used, a large fraction of the 3 to 4 billion LDC rural population in the year 2000 will not be able to raise their energy usage above subsistence levels. There is a wide variety of solutions to these problems, many of them emerging directly from the changed economics of energy. For example, most LDCs have not adequately explored and developed their own indigenous resources; in virtually all energy conversion and utilization processes there are opportunities for improvements in efficiency and substitution of renewable energy forms. In virtually all these areas there are opportunities for effective assistance activities.

  1. Future of photovoltaic energy conversion in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, S.

    1980-04-01

    Recent studies reveal that photovoltaic energy conversion will be economically viable for usage in developing countries. An overview of programs designed to lower the costs of such conversion systems is presented. Government goals are reviewed, as well as application projects relative to rural usage. A summary of the state-of-the-art in both advanced research and commercially available technology is presented. It is concluded that with the range of the work being done, such systems will be viable for many rural applications within 5 years.

  2. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey including recommendations by the IEA on future policy developments. Recently, Turkey has taken steps to implement energy market reforms which have resulted in clear and significant benefits. Now, continued action is needed to see the process through to a successful conclusion. It is necessary to restructure the state-owned enterprises to operate in a competitive market, to create independent electricity and gas operators and to remove cross-subsidies from electricity and gas prices. Turkey has been very active in international co-operation in the energy sector. Some important oil and gas pipeline projects are underway or almost completed. This will improve the security of supply in Turkey and maintain its role as an important 'energy corridor' between East and West, while avoiding overuse of the Turkish Straits. Synchronisation of Turkey's electricity networks with the European UCTE grid is planned for 2006. Furthermore, the country already has transposed most EU energy laws and standards into national legislation. Turkey's general approach to energy policy has been highly supply-oriented. However, recent efforts have begun to focus more on energy efficiency and conservation. Nevertheless, stronger energy efficiency policies are needed, particularly in the transport sector. Turkey ratified the Framework Convention on Climate Change in February 2004 and is developing its climate change strategy. The government should strive to monitor the cost-effectiveness of its policies, consider defining an emissions target and ensure coordination among the various government bodies. Despite past progress, work remains to be done to achieve further reductions in air pollution. 28 figs., 23 tabs., 3 annexes

  3. Energy efficiency, low-carbon energy production, and economic growth in CIS countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazim, A.; Kochetkova, O.; Azimzhamov, I.; Shvagrukova, E.; Dmitrieva, N.

    2016-09-01

    The paper studies the peculiarities of energy efficiency increase in national economy and decrease of carbon dioxide emission for CIS countries. The conditions that allow achieving parameters of sustainable development are determined according to indexes of GDP energy intensity and carbon intensity. Focusing on the indexes of GDP energy intensity and carbon intensity dynamics as well as on carbon intensity of energy production, a real movement towards implementation of program conditions presented by international organizations is analyzed, namely, economic conversion to the model of sustainable development. The examples demonstrate both the presence of significant differences between 12 countries and the lack of fatality in these differences. At determining dependencies linear models are preferred to non-linear ones, with the explanation of reasons in each particular case. Attention to success of these countries may help to understand the advantages of conversion to the model of sustainable development and also it helps to decrease demands in terms of costs for this conversion.

  4. Blood profiles in elite cross-country skiers: a 6-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morkeberg, J; Saltin, B; Belhage, B

    2009-01-01

    Following the doping scandals at the World Championships in cross-country skiing in 2001, the International Ski Federation decided to generate individual blood profiles. From 2001 to 2007, 7081 blood samples from 1074 male and female elite cross-country skiers were collected and analyzed for hemo......Following the doping scandals at the World Championships in cross-country skiing in 2001, the International Ski Federation decided to generate individual blood profiles. From 2001 to 2007, 7081 blood samples from 1074 male and female elite cross-country skiers were collected and analyzed...... the introduction of an enlarged blood testing program, the mean [Hb] values were lowered to close to normal levels, but over the last 2-3 years there has been a small elevation and an increase in OFF-model scores, which may indicate a change in the manipulations used to elevate the [Hb]....

  5. Use of metabolic profiles in dairy cattle in tropical and subtropical countries on smallholder dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, D A; Goodger, W J; Garcia, M; Perera, B M; Wittwer, F

    1999-01-27

    Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multidisciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favorable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low-producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian, and one southern European countries. Data were also collected on feeding, body condition score (BCS) and weight change, parasitism, and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay, and Venezuela, globulin levels were high in > 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Vietnam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay, 49% of cows had high globulin levels at two to three months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela, high beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation, whereas change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were low in only small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and, hence, did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where

  6. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  7. Inequality across countries in energy intensities: an analysis of the role of energy transformation and final energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio; Padilla, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the energy transformation index and of final energy consumption per GDP unit in the disparities in energy intensity across countries. In that vein, we use a Theil decomposition approach to analyze global primary energy intensity inequality as well as inequality across different regions of the world and inequality within these regions. The paper first demonstrates the pre-eminence of divergence in final energy consumption per GDP unit in explaining global primar...

  8. US solar energy policy for less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russett, B.

    1980-10-01

    By many different standards, solar energy is considered to be, at least potentially, a good thing. The assessment of its utility, however, typically is made on technical engineering grounds, or on economic standards of cost-effectiveness, without close attention to political and sociological implications of its use. While remaining sensitive to engineering and economic considerations, this report will concentrate on some political and sociological issues which will have great affect on decisions whether and how to make use of solar energy technology in less developed countries (LDCs). Only with an understanding of these issues - and with answers to some of the questions raised - can there be any serious effort to devise a satisfactory United States government policy for the promotion of solar energy applications abroad. This report, in the form of tentative propositions outlining issues about which further information is required, is based on the results of interviews in the United States, India and the Middle East, and an analysis of various reports by private individuals, national and transnational organizations, and government agencies.

  9. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W.; Schmitz-Borchert, H.P. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  10. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  11. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  12. Less Developed Countries Energy System Network Simulator, LDC-ESNS: a brief description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisman, A; Malone, R

    1978-04-01

    Prepared for the Brookhaven National Laboratory Developing Countries Energy Program, this report describes the Less Developed Countries Energy System Network Simulator (LDC-ESNS), a tool which provides a quantitative representation of the energy system of an LDC. The network structure of the energy supply and demand system, the model inputs and outputs, and the possible uses of the model for analysis are described.

  13. Energy planning in developing countries; Planejamento energetico nos paises em desenvolvimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotstein, J.

    1994-10-01

    This paper shows prediction series and forecasts for the energy planning in developing countries for the next 30 years. The aspects of energy demand, energy-intensity of the final products and statistic comparisons between energy use and infant mortality/illiteracy rates are also shown for some developing countries. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Financing renewable energy in developing countries. Drivers and barriers for private finance in sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The focus of this report is to identify and portray current barriers to the scaling up of private investment and finance for electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the sub-Saharan region. Best practice in tackling these barriers is identified, partly from a literature review but especially from the results of a survey conducted among 36 financial institutions that are UNEP Finance Initiative members and two non-member banks (all survey respondents have experience in the field of energy infrastructure finance). Promising avenues in the areas of local policy reform, incentive mechanisms and international de-risking instruments are highlighted. In particular, this report addresses the following questions: (a) Why are sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries elsewhere failing to expand electricity generation from renewable sources? What are the barriers to such expansion? What is keeping the risk-return profile of renewable energy investments in sub-Saharan Africa unattractive and projects commercially unviable?; (b) What have been the experiences of private sector lenders and investors in the area of renewable energy projects in developing countries? What barriers and drivers have they encountered, and how can these experiences be of use in sub-Saharan Africa?; (c) What can be learned from the modest but encouraging successes of a few sub-Saharan African countries? Can these results be replicated? What was done in these countries to improve the risk-return profile of renewable energy and unlock private finance?.

  15. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party - January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the January 2010 Country Report Summary is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries since the previous meeting of the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP) held in September 2009. This paper is not meant to be a comprehensive review of every energy efficiency-related policy in IEA member countries. In all of the country reports received, there is evidence of significant energy efficiency policy action. The most significant observations from these country reports cover three areas. The first is that the spending focus on energy efficiency seen in the previous two country reports (31 March and 15 September 2009) appears largely unchanged, and is still concentrated in the building sector. Second, countries are actively undertaking analysis and public consultation to plan for future projects. Third, many countries reported activity taking place in the area of fiscal policy, from amendments to new fiscal measures.

  16. Energy at the Frontier: Low Carbon Energy System Transitions and Innovation in Four Prime Mover Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Kathleen M.

    All too often, discussion about the imperative to change national energy pathways revolves around long timescales and least cost economics of near-term energy alternatives. While both elements certainly matter, they don't fully reflect what can drive such development trajectories. This study explores national energy transitions by examining ways in which four prime mover countries of low carbon energy technology shifted away from fossil fuels, following the first global oil crisis of 1973. The research analyzes the role of readiness, sectoral contributions and adaptive policy in the scale-up and innovations of advanced, alternative energy technologies. Cases of Brazilian biofuels, Danish wind power, French nuclear power and Icelandic geothermal energy are analyzed for a period of four decades. Fundamentally, the research finds that significant change can occur in under 15 years; that technology complexity need not necessarily impede change; and that countries of different governance approaches and consumption levels can effectuate such transitions. This research also underscores that low carbon energy technologies may be adopted before they are competitive and then become competitive in the process. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  17. Profile Tests to Optimize the Utilization of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRCSI, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have to know the property of air movement in hub height of wind turbine onunderstanding that we want to utilize of wind power economically. We can calculate wind speed fromnear ground measurement to hub height but always have mistake in results depend on applied method.In Hungary the Hungarian Meteorological Service carried out expedition wind measurements withSODAR equipment to study wind potential of the country within a frame of a scientific competition.We analysed SODAR data from Budapest, Paks and Szeged with statistical method looking for answerto our following question: How can frequency distributions of wind speed and wind direction indifferent height change? Are there any differences in form of wind profiles and in wind power indifferent wind direction sector? How can daily course of wind speed and potential of wind energy indifferent height change? At the same time, we suppose that there is a so-called “inflection altitude,”where the daily course of the wind speed and wind energy is random. We try to determine this altitudeon the basis of tower measurements in Paks. Finally we get an example to the distribution of specificwind power according to parts of the day.

  18. Renewable energy for rural electrification in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Joy

    The environmental destruction caused by traditional methods of generating electricity and the environmental benefits of using renewable energy technologies are well-known. In additional to the environmental benefits, small, decentralized renewable energy systems are often the most economical way to electrify the rural areas of developing countries, where most of the world's unelectrified population lives. However, diffusion of these systems is proceeding very slowly and many of these projects have failed. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that an important determinant of the success of these projects is the extent to which they are compatible with the social and cultural attributes of the communities in which they are located. The hypothesis was examined by evaluating sixteen solar, wind and hybrid electrification projects in Mexico, using a procedure which rates projects according to criteria which reflect technical, economic and financial, environmental, and sociocultural factors deemed necessary to achieve success. Reasons for poor ratings within these criteria were then used to determine six preconditions for project success. The evaluation indicates that most of the wind and hybrid projects visited had low success ratings because of technical problems. The solar home system projects experienced few technical problems, yet many were unsuccessful. Most of the projects were unsustainable due to lack of financial resources, insufficient financial mechanisms, poor user training. In none of the communities were the projects economically viable, nor were they compatible with the needs of the users. The future success of even the most successful projects seen is doubtful because of the lack of provision for any maintenance by trained technicians and the scarcity of financial resources. A direct relationship between failure at the sociocultural criteria and overall project failure was not found. In most cases, failure at particular criteria could be attributed

  19. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karolis Januševičius; Giedrė Streckienė

    2013-01-01

    .... Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country...

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  1. Comprehensive energy management eco routing & velocity profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Brandstätter, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The book discusses the emerging topic of comprehensive energy management in electric vehicles from the viewpoint of academia and from the industrial perspective. It provides a seamless coverage of all relevant systems and control algorithms for comprehensive energy management, their integration on a multi-core system and their reliability assurance (validation and test). Relevant European projects contributing to the evolvement of comprehensive energy management in fully electric vehicles are also included.

  2. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  3. Supporting industries energy and environmental profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-09-21

    As part of its Industries of the Future strategy, the Industrial Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy works with energy-intensive industries to improve efficiency, reduce waste, and increase productivity. These seven Industries of the Future (IOFs) – aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, mining, and steel – rely on several other so-called “supporting industries” to supply materials and processes necessary to the products that the IOFs create. The supporting industries, in many cases, also provide great opportunities for realizing energy efficiency gains in IOF processes.

  4. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VII. Nuclear facility profiles, AG--CH. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  5. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VIII. Nuclear facility profiles, CO--HU. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  6. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume X. Nuclear facility profiles, PO--ZA. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  7. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IX. Nuclear facility profiles, IN--PL. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  8. Causality between Energy Consumption and GDP: Evidence from 30 OECD and 78 Non-OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jaruwan Chontanawat; Hunt, Lester C.; Richard Pierse

    2006-01-01

    Energy arguably plays a vital role in economic development. Hence many studies have attempted to test for causality between energy and economic growth; however, no consensus has emerged. This paper, therefore, tests for causality between energy and GDP using a consistent data set and methodology for 30 OECD and 78 non-OECD countries. Causality from aggregate energy consumption to GDP and GDP to energy consumption is found to be more prevalent in the developed OECD countries compared to the de...

  9. A new decision support method for local energy planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beeck, N.M.J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy is required for almost any economic activity. Therefore, regions in developing countries that show rapid economic growth experience a substantial increase in energy demand, creating the need for new energy infrastructure. Energy planning is used to match future energy supply with demand. Howe

  10. Household direct energy consumption and CO2 emissions in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirmans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Household direct energy consumption is often regarded as a given and determined using a top-down approach. Furthermore, research regarding household energy consumption tends to focus on western countries. This research uses a bottom-up approach t

  11. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party: October 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries submited to the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP) from March to September 2011.

  12. Computer Profile of School Facilities Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Felix E.

    This document outlines a computerized management tool designed to enable building managers to identify energy consumption as related to types and uses of school facilities for the purpose of evaluating and managing the operation, maintenance, modification, and planning of new facilities. Specifically, it is expected that the statistics generated…

  13. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party - October 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries since the last meeting of the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP) held in March 2011. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency developments across all sectors, but is not meant to be a comprehensive review of every energy efficiency-related policy in IEA member countries.

  14. Implications of Energy Efficiency and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    It is essential that society shift toward more efficient energy consumption patterns. A sector basis analysis of energy consumption provides some suggestions regarding this view. In the residential sector, energy resources change with the advancement of development stages. The industrial sector is characterized by a diverse range of energy intensity in each subsector. Relevant policies and measures are considered based on the relevant sector information.

  15. PROTECTION OF ENERGY CONSUMERS IN THE ECONOMIES OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper realizes an analyze of the position of the energy consumers and presents some ways of influencing the behaviour of the energy consumers. The paper dealt also with the issue of the protection of domestic electricity and gas consumer which aims, in particular, its rights to receive energy at any time, in safe conditions and at affordable prices.

  16. Construction Waste Management Profiles, Practices, and Performance: A Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis in Four Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Wing-Yan Tam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction waste management (CWM has received worldwide attention for some time. As a result, a plethora of research, investigating a wide array of CWM issues such as their profiles, practices, and performance, has been reported in individual economies around the globe. However, a cross-jurisdictional comparison of these issues is limitedly presented in the literature despite its importance to benchmarking performance and identifying best CWM practices in the context of globalization whereby knowledge sharing has already transcended traditional country boundaries. The aim of this ex post facto research is to compare CWM profiles, practices, and performance in Australia, Europe (Europe refers to EU-27 member countries in the European Union, including Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Bulgaria, and Romania., Hong Kong, and the United Kingdom at a national-level, with a view to facilitating CWM knowledge sharing internationally. It does so by triangulating empirical data collected from various national statistical yearbooks with research papers and professional reports on CWM in these economies. It is found that in producing one million (US dollars’ work, construction contributes a volume of solid waste ranging from 28 to 121 tons among countries. Conscientious CWM practices can make a significant difference in reducing, reusing, or recycling construction waste, as evident in the large variation in the CWM performance. While it might be oversimplified to conclude that the best practices in one country can be applied in another, the research provides insightful references into sharing CWM knowledge across boundaries.

  17. Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European

  18. The Eastern European electricity market outlook: country profiles of supply, demand, regulation and infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Europe's electricity markets are rapidly changing and opening up to liberalisation and new market entrants, this is particularly evident in the vibrant Eastern European markets. This report provides an in-depth analysis of 12 highly dynamic Eastern European electricity markets with comprehensive data on supply/demand balance and coverage of the implementation of the EU Electricity Directive. The country profiles also feature an overview of supply/demand, an examination of key governmental, legal and political influences on the sector and an analysis of international trading and infrastructure with forecasts to 2012. 75 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Review on the integration of photovoltaic renewable energy in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, J.; Mbayed, R.; Salloum, George

    2016-01-01

    Following the 2005 Kyoto protocol, developed countries made commitments to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, mostly by integrating renewable energy technologies into their power production systems. It is a more challenging procedure for third world countries, including Lebanon, that have...... limited means and potential to achieve such goals. This paper assesses the status of renewable energy systems in developing countries, and concentrates on the solar photovoltaic energy production due to its abundant availability in these countries relatively to other clean energy production methods....... Comparisons of developing countries׳ achievements and goals each according to their economical, political and social considerations are conducted. Projects ranging from small scale standalone systems such as microgrids and minigrids to large scale energy production stations will be presented by dividing...

  20. Energy policies of IEA countries: Ireland 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Ireland's remarkable economic growth over the last 15 years had strong effects on the energy sector. Due to rapidly increasing demand, Ireland has become much more dependent on international energy markets than it was in the past. For Irish energy policy, 2007 marks the end of the transition in market liberalisation with the introduction of a unified national electricity market. In addition, the publication of a new energy policy should help to ensure future security of supply and bring environmental improvements of energy use. Ireland is highly dependent on oil and increasingly dependent on natural gas. The price of these two commodities has strongly increased recently, which results in a heavy burden for the Irish economy and a risk for energy security. The main alternative in the supply side is coal and peat, which causes greenhouse gas emissions to rise much faster than expected. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Ireland and suggests solutions, focussing on moving ahead with market reform and increasing the energy efficiency of the Irish economy. Establishing the 'all-island' electricity market will be of critical importance. Sharper focus on energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy, but in particular in transport and buildings, must be a priority. Finally, to achieve its ambitious goals for renewables in energy supply, Ireland will have to provide ample resources for research and development, to allow technologies such as ocean power to move from the laboratory to the market. 23 figs., 26 tabs., 4 annexes

  1. Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCourt, D. C.

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is designed to be an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. It builds upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's tribal energy training sessions to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process as well as detailed guidance on the following: how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, including the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects.

  2. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  3. Energy consumption in development countries - effects on economics and compulsory adaptation of oil importers and consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakainski, M.

    1983-09-01

    Energy supply of developing countries is mainly based on mineral oil products and traditional energy carriers. The oil-importing developing countries were hard hit in their development efforts by the two oil-price surges of 1973/74 and, especially, of 1979/80. Any adaptation measures taken by the oil-importing countries of the third world should aim at tapping their own energy reserves, at a mature energy policy concerning concepts and instruments and at restructuring the strong dependence on oil of their consumption structures.

  4. Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraque-Cherni, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…

  5. Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraque-Cherni, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…

  6. Profile of the dentist in the oral healthcare team in countries with developed economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Treasure, E; van Dijk, W; Feldman, C; Groeneveld, H; Kellett, M; Pazdera, J; Rouse, L; Sae-Lim, V; Seth-Smith, A; Yen, E; Zarkowski, P

    2008-02-01

    This paper confines itself to the description of the profile of a general dentist while outlining where the boundary between specialist and generalist may lie. The profile must reflect the need to recognize that oral health is part of general health. The epidemiological trends and disease variation of a country should inform the profile of the dentist. A particular tension between the provision of oral healthcare in publicly funded and private services may result in dentists practicing dentistry in different ways. However, the curriculum should equip the practitioner for either scenario. A dentist should work to standards appropriate to the needs of the individual and the population within the country's legal and ethical framework. He/she should have communication skills appropriate to ascertain the patient's beliefs and values. A dentist should work within the principles of equity and diversity and have the knowledge and clinical competence for independent general practice, including knowledge of health promotion and prevention. He/she should participate in life-long learning, which should result in a reflective practitioner whose clinical skills reflect the current evidence base, scientific breakthroughs and needs of their patients. Within the 4-5 years of a dental degree it is not possible for a student to achieve proficiency in all areas of dentistry. He/she needs to have the ability to know their own limitations and to access appropriate specialist advice for their patients while taking responsibility for the oral healthcare they provide. The dentist has the role of leader of the oral health team and, in this capacity; he/she is responsible for diagnosis, treatment planning and the quality control of the oral treatment. The dental student on graduation must therefore understand the principles and techniques which enable the dentist to act in this role. He/she should have the abilities to communicate, delegate and collaborate both within the dental team and

  7. Clean Energy Solutions Center and SE4All: Partnering to Support Country Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Since 2012, the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) have partnered to deliver information, knowledge and expert assistance to policymakers and practitioners in countries actively working to achieve SE4All objectives. Through SE4All efforts, national governments are implementing integrated country actions to strategically transform their energy markets. This fact sheet details the Solutions Center and SE4All partnership and available areas of technical assistance.

  8. Has the accuracy of energy projections in OECD countries improved since the 1970s?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Linderoth, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1970s, almost all OECD countries have published projections or forecasts of future energy consumption. By now, three decades later, the actual values of energy consumption are available for the same number of countries and thus a considerable amount of empirical data is available...... of energy consumption at the aggregate level and, to a lesser degree, at sectoral levels. Also, in accordance with a priori expectations, the forecasting failure increases with the length of the forecasting horizon....

  9. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Energy Sectors in Some Countries of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Zaharia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of energy sectors of countries all over the world is vital in a context of globalization and economic, social and environmental crises, because represents a way of identifying the problems and finding solutions that were implemented and worked in other countries. Our paper aims to compare the energetic sector of 6 Eastern European countries by analyzing the trend of energy production, consumption, prices and the main indicators needed to assess the achievement of required targets of 2020 Europe Strategy in the energy sector. The results show that each country has strong points or weaknesses in a smaller or a greater extent, but is important that authorities learn from each one of them and, on their basis, to create a sustainable management in the energy sector in each country.

  11. Energy policies of IEA countries: the United Kingdom 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The United Kingdom is facing a critical moment in its energy policy: North Sea oil and gas production is declining, dependence on imported energy is increasing, while rising energy prices and climate change considerations pose further challenges. The second thematic review of the UK addresses these challenges, focusing on energy investment, energy efficiency, and the return of nuclear power to the political agenda. Almost all coal-fired and nuclear power capacity in the United Kingdom will be retired within the next 15 years. The review encourages the government to maintain its trust in the market mechanism for the delivery of required investment and security of supply. However, it also identifies the need for the government to play a more active role in setting the framework. On the demand side, the IEA considers the government's 'Energy Efficiency Commitment' (EEC) an impressive success. The EEC was introduced in 2002 and is an energy-saving programme under which suppliers must achieve efficiency targets in households. Challenges, such as the requirement that 50 per cent of savings come from low-income households, remain, and the review invites the government to investigate ways in which fuel poverty could be reduced without distorting the EEC. The review also assesses the government's shifting direction on nuclear energy and backs this new path. It argues that the development of a positive investment framework in planning and licensing - without direct intervention in investment decisions favouring nuclear - will allow investors to judge the viability of new plants. 3 apps.

  12. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5

  13. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  14. Energy policies of IEA countries: United States - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The United States is the largest economy and energy user in the world. Significant developments have taken place in its energy policy since the last IEA review in 2002. Most important is the Energy Policy Act 2005 - a comprehensive energy legislation which has set new directions, including opening the way for a nuclear renaissance. Two closely connected challenges shape all debates on the nation's energy policy path: how to increase security by reducing the dependence on imported supplies; and how to address growing emissions of greenhouse gases. The United States national strategy is to find solutions largely through technology. It is a world leader in R&D and is driving development of carbon capture and storage and second-generation biofuels. But thus far, no federal government policy is in place to establish as a target an absolute reduction of CO2 emissions. The resulting uncertainty risks holding back investments into new technologies and may delay projects that are urgently required. The transport sector will be a key to a sustainable success. In the short to medium term, reduced fuel demand through higher vehicle efficiency will increase security and reduce CO2 emissions. Yet the policy for the revision of CAFE (the corporate average fuel economy) standards will leave consumers with vehicles that fall short of the technological possibilities. This review takes an in-depth look at these issues and provides recommendations on how the United States can do more to answer the challenges of both improving its security of energy supply and lowering its emissions intensity, demonstrating the significant improvements that can already be realised through existing technologies.

  15. Energy mix in Central European countries of the V4 group: The quest for stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicek, Frantisek; Smitkova, Miroslava; Kubica, Juraj

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the development of the energy mix in the countries of the V4 region (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). Trends over the past two decades are summarised and critically examined but mainly possible energy scenarios by 2030 are presented. Based on existing scenarios for the V4 countries, the impacts are assessed of potential developments for various ratios between domestic and imported fossil fuels, nuclear sources and RES. The analysis spans the development in energy intensity of the national economies, structural changes in energy consumption in various areas in view of the liberalisation of energy markets.

  16. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  17. International inequality in energy intensity levels and the role of production composition and energy efficiency. An analysis of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duro, Juan Antonio; Alcantara, Vicent; Padilla, Emilio

    2010-10-15

    This paper analyses the inequality of energy intensity levels between OECD countries, its causes and evolution. The paper develops a methodology which allows the inequality in energy consumption per capita to be decomposed into explanatory factors. It also analyses the contribution of different groups of countries to this inequality. The results show that although differences in affluence are the most significant factor in explaining inequality in energy consumption per capita, the inequality in energy intensity levels plays a prominent role in reducing the inequality in energy consumption per capita over the analysed period. The paper also develops a methodology which determines the importance of different production structures and energy efficiency of productive sectors in the differences in energy use per unit of GDP between the countries analysed. The results show that sector specialisation becomes increasingly important in explaining the inequality of energy intensity, while there is a significant trend towards the convergence of energy efficiency between countries sector by sector. This trend would explain the decreasing weight of energy intensity as an explanatory factor of the inequalities in energy consumption per capita. (author)

  18. Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M. [Economics Department, University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in three sub-Saharan African countries, namely South Africa, Kenya and Congo (DRC). We incorporate prices as an intermittent variable in a bivariate setting between energy consumption and economic growth - thereby creating a simple trivariate framework. Using the ARDL-bounds testing procedure, we find that the causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies significantly across the countries under study. The results show that for South Africa and Kenya there is a unidirectional causal flow from energy consumption to economic growth. However, for Congo (DRC) it is economic growth that drives energy consumption. These findings have important policy implications insofar as energy conservation policies are concerned. In the case of Congo (DRC), for example, the implementation of energy conservation policies may not significantly affect economic growth because the country's economy is not entirely energy dependent. However, for South Africa and Kenya there is a need for more energy supply augmentations in order to cope with the long-run energy demand. In the short-run, however, the two countries should explore more efficient and cost-effective sources of energy in order to address the energy dependency problem. (author)

  19. Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M., E-mail: nmbaya99@yahoo.co [Economics Department, University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in three sub-Saharan African countries, namely South Africa, Kenya and Congo (DRC). We incorporate prices as an intermittent variable in a bivariate setting between energy consumption and economic growth-thereby creating a simple trivariate framework. Using the ARDL-bounds testing procedure, we find that the causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies significantly across the countries under study. The results show that for South Africa and Kenya there is a unidirectional causal flow from energy consumption to economic growth. However, for Congo (DRC) it is economic growth that drives energy consumption. These findings have important policy implications insofar as energy conservation policies are concerned. In the case of Congo (DRC), for example, the implementation of energy conservation policies may not significantly affect economic growth because the country's economy is not entirely energy dependent. However, for South Africa and Kenya there is a need for more energy supply augmentations in order to cope with the long-run energy demand. In the short-run, however, the two countries should explore more efficient and cost-effective sources of energy in order to address the energy dependency problem.

  20. Profiles of foreign direct investment in US energy, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-16

    The report reviews the patterns of foreign ownership interest in US energy enterprises, exclusive of portfolio investment (<10% ownership of a US enterprise). It profiles the involvement of foreign-affiliated US companies in the following areas: domestic petroleum production (including natural gas), reserve holdings, refining and marketing activities, coal production, and uranium exploration and development.

  1. Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.

  2. Flux profile scanners for scattered high-energy electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R. S.; Decowski, P.; Arroyo, C.; Breuer, M.; Celli, J.; Chudakov, E.; Kumar, K. S.; Olson, M.; Peterson, G. A.; Pope, K.; Ricci, J.; Savage, J.; Souder, P. A.

    2005-11-01

    The paper describes the design and performance of flux integrating Cherenkov scanners with air-core reflecting light guides used in a high-energy, high-flux electron scattering experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The scanners were highly radiation resistant and provided a good signal to background ratio leading to very good spatial resolution of the scattered electron flux profile scans.

  3. Mortality profiles in a country facing epidemiological transition: An analysis of registered data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trelles Miguel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-national analyses of causes of death and time-trends help to define public health policy priorities. They are particularly important in countries undergoing epidemiological transition like Peru. There are no studies exploring Peruvian national and regional characteristics of such epidemiological transition. We aimed to describe Peru's national and regional mortality profiles between 1996 and 2000. Methods Registered mortality data for the study period were corrected for under-registration following standardized methods. Main causes of death by age group and by geographical region were determined. Departmental mortality profiles were constructed to evaluate mortality transition, using 1996 data as baseline. Annual cumulative slopes for the period 1996–2000 were estimated for each department and region. Results For the study period non-communicable diseases explained more than half of all causes of death, communicable diseases more than one third, and injuries 10.8% of all deaths. Lima accounted for 32% of total population and 20% of total deaths. The Andean region, with 38% of Peru's population, accounted for half of all country deaths. Departmental mortality predominance shifted from communicable diseases in 1996 towards non-communicable diseases and injuries in 2000. Maternal and perinatal conditions, and nutritional deficiencies and nutritional anaemia declined markedly in all departments and regions. Infectious diseases decreased in all regions except Lima. In all regions acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of death, but their proportion ranged from 9.3% in Lima and Callao to 15.3% in the Andean region. Tuberculosis and injuries ranked high in Lima and the Andean region. Conclusion Peruvian mortality shows a double burden of communicable and non-communicable, with increasing importance of non-communicable diseases and injuries. This challenges national and sub-national health system performance and

  4. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Vinod [Department of Economics, Monash University, Clyde Road Berwick, VIC. 3086 (Australia); Sharma, Susan [School of Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji); Smyth, Russell [Department of Economics, Monash University, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, VIC. 3145 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands. (author)

  5. Volatile compounds profiles in unroasted Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora beans from different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel KNYSAK

    Full Text Available Abstract Aroma is the most important factor in assessing the quality of coffee. The volatile compounds profile could be very important to confirm the authenticity of Coffea arabica. The study was carried out on two species of unroasted coffee beans: Coffea arabica from Colombia and Nepal and Coffea robusta from Uganda and Vietnam. Both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora were imported to the country of analysis approximately 5 months prior to the research. Before the analysis, the coffee beans were kept in a sealed, dark container, at 21 °C. The tests were performed using an electronic nose. Its functioning is based on gas chromatography with two columns of different polarities in parallel and with 2 ultra sensitive Flame Ionization Detectors (FID. With multivariate statistics – Principal Components Analysis – it was possible to reduce the number of links and present them in two dimensions, which allowed for the unambiguous identification and assignment of samples to a particular species of coffee. By using an electronic nose, one can distinguish and group unroasted coffee beans’ flavours depending on the country of origin and species.

  6. Refinery energy profile. Data collection: Task 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.W.; Olivent, W.P.; Brandt, D.L.; Golden, T.G.; Hanson, O.L.

    1978-04-01

    Under Task 2, the raw data to be used in developing the various energy balances which will make up the refinery energy profile were gathered and recorded on a unit by unit basis. Temperature, pressure, flow, and composition data for each stream flowing to or from a significant energy producer or consumer were gathered to the maximum extent possible using available instrumentation and additional instrumentation moved on site. The procedures used, the problems encountered, the unit time requirements, comments on the instrumentation used, and representative samples of the data collected are included in the report. Many methods and techniques were employed in gathering the data but no techniques are being recommended in this Task 2 Report. Recommendations will be made in the final report after the data have been evaluated and all profiles prepared.

  7. Cooperation between Lithuania and western countries on energy sector development issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskinis, V. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2003-07-01

    Lithuania is one of the country candidates making necessary progress in order to become a member of the European Union and seeking an invitation to join NATO as well as to be involved with other western economic and political structures. The country, being in transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy, is experiencing fundamental transformations and facing many problems. Lithuania has inherited an energy sector with a comparatively good technical infrastructure but inappropriate for a small independent state of its size and access to primary energy. The Lithuanian economy constructed since 1990 is energy intensive. In order to meet the requirements of a modern economy many significant changes occurred during this transformation period, including changes to institutional structure, legal framework, modernisation of technologies, etc. Considerable investments were made in all sectors of the economy. It would be impossible to realise all these positive changes without cooperation with developed countries, technical assistance of the EU-PHARE program and a range of other programs. The paper describes the current situation in the Lithuanian economy and energy sector, changes in energy intensity and in foreign direct investments in Lithuania. The paper aims to analyse the country's progress in transition to a free market economy and the positive contribution from cooperation between Lithuania and industrialised countries in several areas: overall modernisation of the national economy and energy sector, implementation of modem western modelling tools for energy planning, energy efficiency and nuclear safety. (author)

  8. Evaluating the efficiency of nuclear energy policies: an empirical examination for 26 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozgor, Giray; Demir, Ender

    2017-06-24

    The decarbonization of the global economy is an urgent concern. As a potential solution, it can be important to understand the efficiency of nuclear energy policies. For this purpose, the paper analyzes whether there is a unit root in nuclear energy consumption in 26 countries and it uses the unit root tests with two endogenous (unknown) structural breaks. The paper finds that nuclear energy consumption is stationary around a level and the time trend in 25 of 26 countries and nuclear energy consumption contains a unit root only in France. The paper also discusses the potential implications of the findings.

  9. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings. PMID:28561767

  10. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Thomson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  11. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  12. A Moored Underwater Energy Conservation System for Profiling Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There is a need to obtain the hydrologic data including ocean current, wave, temperature and so on in the South China Sea. A new profiling instrument which does not suffer from the damage due to nature forces or incidents caused by passing ships, is under development to acquire data from this area. This device is based on a taut single point mid-water mooring system. It incorporates a small, instrumented vertically profiling float attached via an electromechanical cable to a winch integral with the main subsurface flotation. On a pre-set schedule, the instrument float with sensors is winched up to the surface if there is no ship passing by, which is defined by an on-board miniature sonar. And it can be immediately winched down to a certain depth if the sonar sensor finds something is coming. Since, because of logistics, the area can only be visited once for a long time and a minimum of 10 times per day profiles are desired, energy demands are severe. To respond to these concerns, the system has been designed to conserve a substantial portion of the potential energy lost during the ascent phase of each profile and subsequently use this energy to pull the instrument down. Compared with the previous single-point layered measuring mode,it is advanced and economica1. At last the paper introduces the test in the South China Sea.

  13. Characterization of the profile of energy consumption in isolated regions of Mozambique; Caracterizacao do perfil de consumo energetico em regioes isoladas de Mocambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Cruz, Ricardo A. Passos da; Magalhaes, Ricardo Nogueira

    2008-07-01

    This article summarizes the characterization of energy demand in isolated regions of Mozambique, the result of a work for government of that country. In essence, the profile does not differ much from Brazilian reality in poor regions, except for tribal characteristics, absent here. The importance of anthropogenic energy and almost no zoogenic energy are still points of major difference between the two realities.

  14. CAUSALITY AND DYNAMICS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND OUTPUT: EVIDENCE FROM NON-OECD ASIAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    RUHUL A. SALIM; Shuddhasattwa Rafiq; A. F. M. KAMRUL HASSAN

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the short-run and long-run causal relationship between energy consumption and output in six non-OECD Asian developing countries. Standard time series econometrics is used for this purpose. Based on cointegration and vector error correction modeling, the empirical result shows a bi-directional causality between energy consumption and income in Malaysia, while a unidirectional causality from output to energy consumption in China and Thailand and energy consumption to outpu...

  15. Nuclear energy-economic growth nexus in OECD countries. A panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Burcu [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Dept. of Economics; Ari, Ayse [Nigde Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Economics

    2016-01-15

    The relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in 13 OECD countries from 1980 to 2012 is analyzed. The panel causality results supported the feedback hypothesis in both the short-run and long-run. There is a positive relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. As such, nuclear energy consumption and economic growth complement and reinforce each other. Nuclear energy conservation policies may negatively affect economic growth rates.

  16. Data on examining the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes two publicly available data sources: the new generation of Penn World Table (www.ggdc.net/pwt and the BP Statistical Review of World Energy (http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview which can be used to examine the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries. The critical human capital measure across countries is for the first time made available in the Penn World Table 8.0 and it enables empirical researchers to conduct cross-country analysis involving human capital much easily than ever before.

  17. Data on examining the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng

    2016-12-01

    This article describes two publicly available data sources: the new generation of Penn World Table (www.ggdc.net/pwt) and the BP Statistical Review of World Energy (http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview) which can be used to examine the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries. The critical human capital measure across countries is for the first time made available in the Penn World Table 8.0 and it enables empirical researchers to conduct cross-country analysis involving human capital much easily than ever before.

  18. Cooperation between developed countries and the Republic of Latvia in the field of energy: globalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oss, A. [State Power Company, Riga (Latvia); Zeltina, L. [Riga Technical University (Latvia); Zeltinsh, N. [Latvian Academy of Sciences, Riga (Latvia). Institute of Physical Energetics

    2003-07-01

    This article presents characteristics of Latvian economics. A detailed analysis is given for the cooperation of Latvia with developed and other countries. Our research is based on the methodology worked out and developed introduced into practice by Professor J. Michna, Chairman of the International Centre for Energy and Environmental Policy (ICEEP) for Central and Eastern Europe Countries, intended for the research 'Cooperation between developed and post-transformation countries (in the scope of energy consumption problems) in relation to research results in the years 1994-1997'. Capital investments in Latvian economics are discussed in a global aspect. (author)

  19. Renewable Energies and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Perspectives for Emerging Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwonghi Bizawu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the study of sustainable development in the use of renewable resources by emerging countries. It is noted that the financing of projects and policies related to renewable energy is moving from developed countries to emerging nations. Studies indicate that it will take more targeted investments to fuel production area and power generation, which can set a problem for developing countries, since they do not have sufficient resources to diversify and expand their energy matrixes. The deductive method was adopted based on exploratory research.

  20. MEAN REVERTING BEHAVIOR OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION: EVIDENCE FROM SELECTED MENA COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Bolat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the energy consumption for 15 members of the Middle Eastern & North African (MENA countries is a stationary process over 1971-2010 period. Annual energy consumption data for Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Turkey, is analyzed using the Lagrange Multiplier (LM unit root test, in which structural breaks in level and/or trend are endogenously determined. The results of the LM test with two breaks showed that the energy consumption per capita in 8 MENA countries is a stationary process. This study suggests that it is possible to design consistent energy policies based on econometric models and forecasts of energy consumption in those 8 MENA countries.

  1. A critical overview of industrial energy decoupling programs in six developing countries in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luken, Ralph A., E-mail: SkipLuken@yahoo.com [UNIDO, PO Box 300 (Library), A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Piras, Stefano [UNIDO (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    In reviewing the journal literature on the decoupling of energy use and industrial output in the Asian region, particularly with respect to developing countries, we found little information about most country programs other than for China and India and only one article that compared the programs of these two countries. For this reason, we used diverse sources to identify the key programmatic features that have contributed, but clearly are not totally responsible for, decoupling achievements of two countries ( China and Thailand) and then, on the basis of these findings, reviewed emerging industrial energy decoupling programs in four other countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam). We found that the design of the two successful on-going decoupling programs have common features, which are setting an explicit target for decoupling of energy use and industrial output, a government program that offers financial incentives and imposes specific auditing and reporting requirements and involvement of the manufacturing sector in designing and implementing targets as they apply to individual enterprises. We also found that the emerging programs in the other four countries lack some or all of these essential programmatic features. - Highlights: > We reviewed two on-going and four emerging industrial energy decoupling programs. > These six Asian developing countries have very different rates of decoupling. > The two successful on-going programs share three common features. > These are quantitative targets, supportive programs and industry involvement. > The four emerging programs lack some or all of these features.

  2. The energy-GDP nexus: Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Vinod [Department of Economics, Monash Univ., Clyde Road, Berwick 3806 (Australia); Smyth, Russell [Department of Economics, Monash Univ., Wellington Road, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Sharma, Susan [School of Economics, Univ. of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2009-08-15

    The Pacific Island countries are small island economies that are increasingly dependent on energy for growth and development, yet highly susceptible to climate change. Thus, the relationship between energy consumption and GDP is crucial for realizing their future development and growth objectives. This article tests for Granger causality and provides long-run structural estimates for the relationship between energy consumption, GDP and urbanization for a panel of Pacific Island countries. For the panel as a whole in the long-run there is bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption and GDP and these variables exert a positive impact on each other. A 1% increase in energy consumption increases GDP by 0.11%, while a 1% increase in GDP increases energy consumption by 0.23%. The findings suggest that for the panel as a whole these countries should increase investment in energy infrastructure and regulatory reform of energy infrastructure to improve delivery efficiency, continue to promote alternative energy sources and put in place energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage. These strategies seek to realize the dual objectives of reducing the adverse effects of energy use on the environment, while avoiding the negative effect on economic growth of reducing energy consumption. (author)

  3. Solar energy utilization in residential buildings: A comparative investigation for the EC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, F.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and financial efficiency of solar heating devices in the EC countries was discussed. It can be shown that the attractivity of solar energy utilization in residential buildings depends not only from the local climatic conditions but also considerably from economic factors. Such factors, the significance of which differs from country to country, from the cost level for solar heating devices, for energy price policy and the preparedness for subsidies of the governments and the financial basis available for the buyers of solar heating devices. Solar heating devices used for space heating require to be coordinated with measures taken for the improvement of thermal insulation. In order to further propagate solar energy devices all countries shall have to strive for technical improvements as for example the long term storage of heat and to lower the costs of these devices.

  4. Activity Sectors and Energy Intensity: Decomposition Analysis and Policy Implications for European Countries (1991–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ramos-Real

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the change in Energy Intensity (EI of the main economic activities in the EU15 countries, which represents approximately 45% of their final energy consumption. The purpose is, first, to measure the different patterns between the countries by establishing differentiated typologies, and second, to investigate those reasons that explain the different trends by country. To attain our objective, the changes in EI are decomposed into their structural and efficiency components for EU15 countries for the period 1991–2005. Results reveal four different typologies for this set of countries, and show the importance of identifying those economic activities which, due to their special impact, are key to reducing energy consumption. The changes in the structural component are due mainly to a transformative process in which the importance of industry in the economy as a whole drops, while the opposite holds for services. However, the changes in the efficiency component do not seem to be linked to this same process. It does not appear as though the services sector resulted in a more efficient use of final energy. We have detected significant evidence of convergence for EI in the service sector that would help to understand the recent worsen evolution of EI in this sector (and in overall EI of Southern European countries. It can also be concluded that an analysis of global EI change without distinguishing among its components can result in misleading conclusions and in improperly conceived Energy Policies.

  5. Energy consumption and economic growth relationship: Evidence from panel data for low and middle income countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Ilhan, E-mail: ilhanozturk@cag.edu.t [Cag University, Faculty of Economics and Business, 33800 Mersin (Turkey); Aslan, Alper, E-mail: alperaslan@erciyes.edu.t [Nevsehir University, Faculty of Economics and Business, 50300, Nevsehir (Turkey); Kalyoncu, Huseyin, E-mail: hkalyoncu@meliksah.edu.t [Meliksah University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 38010 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    This paper uses the panel data of energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (GDP) for 51 countries from 1971 to 2005. These countries are divided into three groups: low income group, lower middle income group and upper middle income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is investigated by employing panel cointegration method. Secondly, panel causality test is applied to investigate the way of causality between the energy consumption and economic growth. Finally, we test whether there is a strong or weak relationship between these variables by using method. The empirical results of this study are as follows: i) Energy consumption and GDP are cointegrated for all three income group countries. ii) The panel causality test results reveal that there is long-run Granger causality running from GDP to EC for low income countries and there is bidirectional causality between EC and GDP for middle income countries. iii) The estimated cointegration factor, {beta}, is not close to 1. In other words, no strong relation is found between energy consumption and economic growth for all income groups considered in this study. The findings of this study have important policy implications and it shows that this issue still deserves further attention in future research.

  6. Energy consumption and economic growth relationship. Evidence from panel data for low and middle income countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Ilhan [Cag University, Faculty of Economics and Business, 33800 Mersin (Turkey); Aslan, Alper [Nevsehir University, Faculty of Economics and Business, 50300, Nevsehir (Turkey); Kalyoncu, Huseyin [Meliksah University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 38010 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    This paper uses the panel data of energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (GDP) for 51 countries from 1971 to 2005. These countries are divided into three groups: low income group, lower middle income group and upper middle income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is investigated by employing panel cointegration method. Secondly, panel causality test is applied to investigate the way of causality between the energy consumption and economic growth. Finally, we test whether there is a strong or weak relationship between these variables by using method. The empirical results of this study are as follows: (1) Energy consumption and GDP are cointegrated for all three income group countries. (2) The panel causality test results reveal that there is long-run Granger causality running from GDP to EC for low income countries and there is bidirectional causality between EC and GDP for middle income countries. (3) The estimated cointegration factor, {beta}, is not close to 1. In other words, no strong relation is found between energy consumption and economic growth for all income groups considered in this study. The findings of this study have important policy implications and it shows that this issue still deserves further attention in future research. (author)

  7. Raising the Profile of Energy Efficiency in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Reducing standby power use in China. How much does China stand to gain from greater energy efficiency? The example of improved standby power efficiency in household appliances provides a useful indicator. IEA analysis projects that eight or nine 1-GW power plants could be struck off Chinas list of immediate capacity needs for the period to 2020 if energy-efficient standby devices were vigorously promoted. This impressive finding emerges from this paper. The paper reviews experience with tackling standby power consumption in OECD countries and models implementation of similar action in China and Shanghai. Its scenarios quantify the significant potential gains from standby power conservation campaigns and mandatory regulations.

  8. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Mario, E-mail: m.coccia@ceris.cnr.i [National Research Council of Italy, CERIS-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firm and Growth, Collegio Carlo Alberto-via Real Collegio, n. 30, 10024 Moncalieri (Torino) (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  9. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries. Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Mario [National Research Council of Italy, CERIS-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firm and Growth, Collegio Carlo Alberto - via Real Collegio, n. 30, 10024 Moncalieri (Torino) (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies. (author)

  10. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Tsai, Chung-Ming [Department of Management Science, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper examines dynamic causal relationships between pollutant emissions, energy consumption and output for a panel of BRIC countries over the period 1971-2005, except for Russia (1990-2005). In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions, while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis with the threshold income of 5.393 (in logarithms). In the short term, changes in emissions are driven mostly by the error correction term and short term energy consumption shocks, as opposed to short term output shocks for each country. Short-term deviations from the long term equilibrium take from 0.770 years (Russia) to 5.848 years (Brazil) to correct. The panel causality results indicate there are energy consumption-emissions bidirectional strong causality and energy consumption-output bidirectional long-run causality, along with unidirectional both strong and short-run causalities from emissions and energy consumption, respectively, to output. Overall, in order to reduce emissions and not to adversely affect economic growth, increasing both energy supply investment and energy efficiency, and stepping up energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage of energy can be initiated for energy-dependent BRIC countries. (author)

  11. Energy planning and management in developing countries: thoughts concerning a conceptual framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathans, R.; Palmedo, P.F.

    1977-10-11

    The unique characteristics of the energy situation in developing countries imposes a unique set of requirements on analytical techniques used for energy planning. The urgency of the situation requires the rapid development and use of simplified models which make maximum use of available data but which can reflect the international energy context. Those techniques must also be able to deal with central energy/development issues such as energy equity or the energy implication of social equity policies, centralized vs. decentralized development, and urbanization.

  12. Practical guidance material for the development, energy and climate country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A.; Olhoff, A.; Denton, F.

    2006-10-15

    The document is developed as part of the Development, Energy and Climate project in order to facilitate methodological consistency and the use of common assumptions in national case studies in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa that are conducted as part of the project. In addition to this document the project and country studies are also based on in depth thematic work in three areas namely; 1) Development pathways and climate change; 2) Assessment of Policy Instruments in the Context of Current Market Structure, Institutional Capacities and Risks in Developing Countries; 3) Climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in the energy sector with a special emphasis given to linkages between adaptation and mitigation policies. The Development, Energy, and Climate project will identify promising energy policy options in the participating countries that are consistent with their national sustainable development objectives. The project teams from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Senegal will examine how energy sector policies can be evaluated using specific sustainable development indicators and existing analytical approaches and tools relevant to the countries. The country studies will address energy sector issues, adaptation policies, and alternative scenarios for technology penetration processes. The policy options and the sustainable development impacts of implementing these will be discussed in national stakeholder dialogues with broad participation of government, private sector and NGOs. Cross-country interactions about conceptual and common methodological issues will be covered in three thematic papers. The project will produce a synthesis of the country case studies as an input to various international processes in order to build support for approaches that integrate sustainable development, energy and climate policies. (au)

  13. Developing an Adaptive Exposure Model to Support the Generation of Country Disaster Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Rashmin; Ishizawa, Oscar; Aubrecht, Christoph; Pita, Gonzalo; Pomonis, Antonios; Fane, Kayoum; Murray, Siobhan; Blankespoor, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic disaster risk profiles provide estimates of potential damage to property and life caused by adverse natural hazards. A Country Disaster Risk Profile (CDRP), which is a coarse level analysis, presents an estimate of risk at the national level. We define the exposure model in that context as a geo-referenced database of assets at risk at a 1-km grid level, capturing important attributes such as geographical location, urban/rural classification, type of occupancy (e.g. residential and non-residential), building typology (e.g. wood, steel, masonry), and aggregated asset value. We present here a sensitivity analysis of key parameters of the exposure model developed in relation to CDRPs. Specifically, we analyse the sensitivity in characterisation of built up areas, and associated disaggregation of assets. We evaluate this by comparing datasets such as Modis 500m (2010), Landscan (2012), BuREF (2012), and GUF (2013). We also present a method to integrate exterior wall and roof type typologies to assess vulnerability of buildings to both earthquakes and hurricanes. Finally, developments in determining replacement value of buildings from national and sub national datasets are presented. Integration of all these developments together produces an exposure model. The sensitivity of such a model output is even more crucial in risk analysis of Small Island States (SIS), and we highlight this with case studies from the Caribbean region. This resultant gridded exposure database could be convolved with hazard and vulnerability components to create CDRPs for multiple hazards that include earthquake, flood and windstorms. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.

  14. Determinants of CO2 emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO2 level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO2 emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO2 emissions.

  15. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  16. The energy consumption-GDP nexus: Panel data evidence from 88 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Dipendra

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses panel data from 88 countries to examine the relationship between per capita GDP and per capita energy consumption. The results show that per capita GDP and per capita energy consumption are cointegrated. Also, there is a two-way short-run, long-run and strong causality between the growth of GDP and growth of energy consumption. These results are in contrast to almost all other existing studies.

  17. The relevance of global energy governance for Arab countries: The case of Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, Kerstin, E-mail: fritzsche@adelphi.de [Adelphi, Caspar-Theyss-Str. 14 a, 14193 Berlin (Germany); Zejli, Driss, E-mail: zejli@cnrst.ma [Unite des Technologies et Economie des Energies Renouvelables (TEER), Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST) (Morocco); Taenzler, Dennis, E-mail: taenzler@adelphi.de [Adelphi, Caspar-Theyss-Str. 14 a, 14193 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Global climate and energy governance have led to the creation of a wide range of international and regional institutions, initiatives and financial mechanisms dedicated to fostering renewable energies. Furthermore, a low-carbon economy has evolved in recent years. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential benefits and merits of these institutions, initiatives and mechanisms from the perspective of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The central questions are if and how these organizations, initiatives and finance mechanisms could support a country from MENA in its efforts to implement large-scale capacities for renewable energy production. For this purpose, Morocco was chosen as a case study. The findings in this paper indicate that the existing institutions and financial mechanisms do not sum up to a coordinated governance approach, although the main needs of a country or region appear to be addressed. The existing institutions and financial mechanisms vary significantly in their ability to support countries, especially those taking the lead in renewable energy implementation. - Research Highlights: > A coordinated governance approach is missing for the encouragement of renewable energy application. > Existing institutions and financial mechanisms vary significantly in their ability to support countries. > Front runner countries, such as Morocco, may not find all of their needs adequately addressed.

  18. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential

  19. The global institutional frameworks and the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bodas Freitas, I.M.; E. Dantas; Iizuka, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the global institutional frameworks on the national processes of innovation diffusion. we focus on the influence of the Kyoto mechanisms on the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS countries i.e. Brazil, China India, Russia and South Africa. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the Kyoto Mechanisms may support the diffusion of some simple, low cost and mature technologies which are already diffused in the host countries, rather than the dif...

  20. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party - September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries since the last meeting of the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP)1 held in January 2010. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency developments across all sectors, but is not meant to be a comprehensive review of every energy efficiency-related policy in IEA member countries. At the request of the EEWP, this issue of the country report summary focuses primarily on transport. Countries reported a wide range of energy efficiency policy activity. Compared with past reports, energy efficiency policy planning seems to be giving way to programme implementation in the buildings, lighting and appliances sectors. Planning and implementation is underway in the transport sector. Measures in the transport sector are diverse and include financial support for electric vehicle R&D and pilot projects, fiscal policies to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles, eco-drive programmes and vehicle labelling. Measures of note outside the transport sector include the promotion of smart metering.

  1. Neutron emission profiles and energy spectra measurements at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomelli, L. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, 0X14 3DB, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Conroy, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, 0X14 3DB, United Kingdom and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Belli, F.; Riva, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Roma (Italy); Gorini, G. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy and Istituto di Física del Plasma Piero Caldirola, Milan (Italy); Horton, L.; Joffrin, E.; Lerche, E.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, 0X14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2014-08-21

    The Joint European Toras (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world. It is devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D) or Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. JET has been upgraded over the years and recently it has also become a test facility of the components designed for ITER, the next step fusion machine under construction in Cadarache (France). JET makes use of many different diagnostics to measure the physical quantities of interest in plasma experiments. Concerning D or DT plasmas neutron production, various types of detectors are implemented to provide information upon the neutron total yield, emission profile and energy spectrum. The neutron emission profile emitted from the JET plasma poloidal section is reconstructed using the neutron camera (KN3). In 2010 KN3 was equipped with a new digital data acquisition system capable of high rate neutron measurements (<0.5 MCps). A similar instrument will be implemented on ITER and it is currently in its design phase. Various types of neutron spectrometers with different view lines are also operational on JET. One of them is a new compact spectrometer (KM12) based on organic liquid scintillating material which was installed in 2010 and implements a similar digital data acquisition system as for KN3. This article illustrates the measurement results of KN3 neutron emission profiles and KM 12 neutron energy spectra from the latest JET D experimental campaign C31.

  2. Threshold cointegration and causality relationship between energy use and growth in seven African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esso, Loesse Jacques [CES, Universite Paris 1-Pantheon-Sorbonne (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Statistique et d' Economie Appliquee (ENSEA), Cellule d' Analyse de Politiques Economiques du CIRES (CAPEC) (Ivory Coast)

    2010-11-15

    The paper investigates the long-run and the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for seven Sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1970-2007. Using the Gregory and Hansen testing approach to threshold cointegration, we find that energy consumption is cointegrated with economic growth in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. Moreover, this test suggests that economic growth has a significant positive long-run impact on energy consumption in these countries before 1988 and this effect becomes negative after 1988 in Ghana and South Africa. Furthermore, causality tests suggest bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real GDP in Cote d'Ivoire and unidirectional causality running from real GDP to energy usage in the case of Congo and Ghana. (author)

  3. A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the prevalence of bullying and victimization among boys and girls and by age in 40 countries. (2) In 6 countries, to compare rates of direct physical, direct verbal, and indirect bullying by gender, age, and country. METHODS: Cross-sectional self-report surveys including...... items on bullying and being bullied were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11, 13 and 15 year old school children in 40 countries, N = 202,056. Six countries (N = 29,127 students) included questions about specific types of bullying (e. g., direct physical, direct verbal, indirect......). RESULTS: Exposure to bullying varied across countries, with estimates ranging from 8.6% to 45.2% among boys, and from 4.8% to 35.8% among girls. Adolescents in Baltic countries reported higher rates of bullying and victimization, whereas northern European countries reported the lowest prevalence. Boys...

  4. Data on energy end-use patterns and energy efficiencies in major CO sub 2 emitting countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsing C.

    1990-08-01

    This is a report of the basic data regarding energy end-uses and efficiencies in major CO{sub 2} emitting countries. The task is part of the multi-lab carbon dioxide energy system research program. Fossil energy production and use are the largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions. To gain an insight into the relationship between CO{sub 2} emission and energy use, the global energy consumption patterns and the changing energy efficiencies must be better analyzed and understood. This work attempts to collect and organize the data on energy use and energy efficiency for the ten major CO{sub 2} emitting countries: USA, USSR, the People's Republic of China, Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Italy, and Australia. A wide variety of information sources have been examined. The data base is presented in tabular format. It is documented by three main parts, the first shows the total final energy consumption by fuel type and end-use sector for each nation. The second shows the detailed energy use by fuel type and function for each end-use sector: residential, commercial, transportation and industrial. The third part shows the country-specific energy balances for electricity generation and use. The data base is a living document and will be updated as additional information becomes available. The data base is to be used to accomplish the ultimate objective of improving the reliability of future CO{sub 2}-emissions estimates. 7 refs., 12 tabs.

  5. Study on the PPE Model Based on RAGA to Classify the Country Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiangFu; LikunWang; JianyuLiu

    2004-01-01

    The authors improve the traditional genetic algorithm, and combine the new method named RAGA (Real coded based accelerating Genetic Algorithm) with PPE (Projection Pursuit Evaluation) model. The RAGA-PPE model can optimize several parameters at one time. Based on this method, the authors built up a new evaluating model. Through applying the new model to evaluate the country energy of Pingtan County, the authors gained the good results. Thus, the authors provide a new method and thought for readers who engage in researching country energy planing.

  6. Urine estrogen profiles in European countries with high or low breast cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macmahon, B.; Andersen, A.P.; Brown, J.; Cole, P.; Dewaard, V.; Kauraniemi, T.; Ravhinar, B.; Stormby, N.; Trichopoulos, D.; Westlund, K.

    1980-01-01

    Urine estrogens of women in two age groups, 15 18 and 30-39, were measured in four northern European countries where breast cancer rates are high, two southern European countries where they are low, and in Finland, a northern country where incidence rates are comparable to those of the southern coun

  7. Intervention in Countries with Unsustainable Energy Policies: Is it Ever Justifiable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    This paper explores whether it is ever justifiable for the international community to forcibly intervene in countries that have unsustainable energy policies. The literature on obligations to future generations suggests, philosophically, that intervention might be justified under certain circumstances. Additionally, the world community has intervened in the affairs of other countries for humanitarian reasons, such as in Kosovo, Somalia, and Haiti. However, intervention to deal with serious energy problems is a qualitatively different and more difficult problem. A simple risk analysis framework is used to organize the discussion about possible conditions for justifiable intervention. If the probability of deaths resulting from unsustainable energy policies is very large, if the energy problem can be attributed to a relatively small number of countries, and if the risk of intervention is acceptable (i.e., the number of deaths due to intervention is relatively small), then intervention may be justifiable. Without further analysis and successful solution of several vexing theoretical questions, it cannot be stated whether unsustainable energy policies being pursued by countries at the beginning of the 21st century meet the criteria for forcible intervention by the international community.

  8. Indicators of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy efficiency. Comparison of Finland with other countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The generic technology options recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to reduce fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions include efficiency improvements both in the supply and use of energy, switching to less carbon-intensive fuels, and switching to renewable energy resources. The present study considers, using indicators based on statistics, to which extent these options are already being utilized in various OECD countries. The efficiency of energy production is high in Finland, due to extensive utilization of cogeneration of electricity and heat both for industry and for the tertiary and residential sectors. The use of sustainable produced biomass for combined heat and power generation is the largest in the world. About 10 % of the total national electricity production is generated using wood-derived fuels and modern power plant technologies. Improvements in the energy efficiency of manufacturing industries during the last twenty years in Finland are similar to the average in OECD countries, and the relative decrease in CO{sub 2} intensity has been more rapid than that in the OECD as a whole. In the manufacturing of pulp and paper, and iron and steel, Finnish industries are among the most efficient; however, the differences in energy intensities among the countries considered are relatively small in these sectors. The energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions attributable to the Finnish residential sector are low, despite the cold climate, due to good insulation of houses and cogeneration of heat and power. If the dependency of heating energy demand on climatic conditions is accounted for using heating degree-day corrections, the values for Finland are among the lowest among the western industrialized nations. The energy demand in Finland for the transport sector is in general relatively low; in particular, the energy use in road freight transport per tonnekilometer is the lowest of the countries studied. (orig.) 50 refs.

  9. Indicators of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy efficiency. Comparison of Finland with other countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The generic technology options recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to reduce fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions include efficiency improvements both in the supply and use of energy, switching to less carbon-intensive fuels, and switching to renewable energy resources. The present study considers, using indicators based on statistics, to which extent these options are already being utilized in various OECD countries. The efficiency of energy production is high in Finland, due to extensive utilization of cogeneration of electricity and heat both for industry and for the tertiary and residential sectors. The use of sustainable produced biomass for combined heat and power generation is the largest in the world. About 10 % of the total national electricity production is generated using wood-derived fuels and modern power plant technologies. Improvements in the energy efficiency of manufacturing industries during the last twenty years in Finland are similar to the average in OECD countries, and the relative decrease in CO{sub 2} intensity has been more rapid than that in the OECD as a whole. In the manufacturing of pulp and paper, and iron and steel, Finnish industries are among the most efficient; however, the differences in energy intensities among the countries considered are relatively small in these sectors. The energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions attributable to the Finnish residential sector are low, despite the cold climate, due to good insulation of houses and cogeneration of heat and power. If the dependency of heating energy demand on climatic conditions is accounted for using heating degree-day corrections, the values for Finland are among the lowest among the western industrialized nations. The energy demand in Finland for the transport sector is in general relatively low; in particular, the energy use in road freight transport per tonnekilometer is the lowest of the countries studied. (orig.) 50 refs.

  10. ALK Positive Lung Cancer: Clinical Profile, Practice and Outcomes in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Anuradha; Kane, Subhadha; Kumar, Rajiv; Mahajan, Abhishek; Janu, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the performance and treatment profile of advanced EML4—ALK positive Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in a developing country with potentially restricted access to Crizotinib. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of advanced ALK positive NSCLC patients who were treated from June 2012 to September 2015 was conducted. The primary goal was to evaluate outcomes of advanced ALK positive NSCLC in our practice and examine the logistic constraints in procuring Crizotinib. Results 94 patients were available for analysis. 21 (22.3%) patients were started on Crizotinib upfront, 60 (63.8%) on chemotherapy, 10 (10.6%) on Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (in view of poor PS) and 3 (3.2%) patients were offered best supportive care. Reasons for not starting Crizotinib upfront included symptomatic patients needing early initiation of therapy (23.3%), ALK not tested upfront (23.3%) and financial constraints (21.9%). 69 patients (73.4%) received Crizotinib at some stage during treatment. Dose interruptions (> 1 week) with Crizotinib were seen in 20 patients (29%), with drug toxicity being the commonest reason (85%). Median Progression free survival (PFS) on first line therapy for the entire cohort was 10 months, with a significant difference between patients receiving Crizotinib and those who did not ever receive Crizotinib (10 months vs. 2 months, p = 0.028). Median Overall Survival (OS) was not reached for the entire cohort, with 1 year survival being 81.2%. Patients with an ECOG Performance Status (PS) of >2 had a significantly reduced PFS compared to patients with PS schemes. Conclusion A majority of our ALK positive NSCLC patients were exposed to Crizotinib through the help of various support mechanisms and these patients had similar outcomes to that reported from previously published literature. PMID:27637025

  11. Electric energy costs and firm productivity in the countries of the Pacific Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Anamaria

    This paper explores the relation between energy as an input of production and firm-level productivity for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, all country members of the Pacific Alliance economic bloc. The empirical literature, has explored the impact of infrastructure on productivity; however there is limited analysis on the impact of particular infrastructure variables, such as energy, on productivity at the firm level in Latin America. Therefore, this study conducts a quantitative assessment of the responsiveness of productivity to energy cost and quality for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. For this, the empirical strategy is to estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function using the World Bank's Enterprise Survey to obtain comparable measures of output and inputs of production. This approach provides estimates of input factor elasticities for all of the factors of production including energy. The results indicate that electric energy costs explain cross-country differences in firm level productivity. For the particular case of Colombia, the country exhibits the lowest capital and labor productivity of the PA, and firm output is highly responsive to changes in energy use. As a result, the evidence suggests that policies reducing electric energy costs are an efficient alternative to increase firm performance, particularly in the case of Colombia.

  12. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Auestad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  13. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-08

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  14. Illustrating the Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles provide students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis, making such profiles useful as teaching and learning tools. Traditional kinetic topics, such as the effect of pH on enzyme activity, are often not discussed in terms of Gibbs energy profiles. Herein, the symbolism of Gibbs…

  15. Illustrating the Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles provide students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis, making such profiles useful as teaching and learning tools. Traditional kinetic topics, such as the effect of pH on enzyme activity, are often not discussed in terms of Gibbs energy profiles. Herein, the symbolism of Gibbs…

  16. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus: Evidence from Developed Countries in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Okyay Uçan; Ebru Arýcýoðlu; Fatih Yücel

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth for a panel of fifteen European Union countries over the period 1990-2011 within a multivariate framework. The heterogeneous panel cointegration tests present a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and research and development. The Granger-causality results demonstrate unidirectional causality be...

  17. Project evaluation for energy supply in rural areas of developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Christensen, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the methodological experiences of the project: Energy Supply Technologies in Developing Countries, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Zambia. Existing methods for project evaluation, based on cost-benefit analysis, will be briefly presented, particularly...... for training purposes.Finally, some methodological thoughts based on our practical experiences will be presented and our future work will be briefly discussed....

  18. Health Research Profile to assess the capacity of low and middle income countries for equity-oriented research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerny P

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Commission on Health Research for Development concluded that "for the most vulnerable people, the benefits of research offer a potential for change that has gone largely untapped." This project was designed to assess low and middle income country capacity and commitment for equity-oriented research. Methods A multi-disciplinary team with coordinators from each of four regions (Asia, Latin America, Africa and Central and Eastern Europe developed a questionnaire through consensus meetings using a mini-Delphi technique. Indicators were selected based on their quality, validity, comprehensiveness, feasibility and relevance to equity. Indicators represented five categories that form the Health Research Profile (HRP: 1 Research priorities; 2 Resources (amount spent on research; 3 Production of knowledge (capacity; 4 Packaging of knowledge and 5 Evidence of research impact on policy and equity. We surveyed three countries from each region. Results Most countries reported explicit national health research priorities. Of these, half included specific research priorities to address inequities in health. Data on financing were lacking for most countries due to inadequate centralized collection of this information. The five main components of HRP showed a gradient where countries scoring lower on the Human Development Index (HDI had a lower capacity to conduct research to meet local health research needs. Packaging such as peer-reviewed journals and policy forums were reported by two thirds of the countries. Seven out of 12 countries demonstrated impact of health research on policies and reported engagement of stakeholders in this process. Conclusion Only one out of 12 countries indicated there was research on all fronts of the equity debate. Knowledge sharing and management is needed to strengthen within-country capacity for research and implementation to reduce inequities in health. We recommend that all countries (and external

  19. Renewable energy, carbon emissions, and economic growth in 24 Asian countries: evidence from panel cointegration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-09-23

    This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP. CO2 emissions have a positive effect on renewable energy consumption in the Philippines, Pakistan, China, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. A 1% increase in GDP will increase renewable energy by 0.64%. Renewable energy is significantly determined by GDP in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Malaysia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Mongolia. A unidirectional causality runs from GDP to CO2 emissions, and two bidirectional causal relationships were found between CO2 emissions and renewable energy consumption and between renewable energy consumption and GDP. The findings can assist governments in curbing pollution from air pollutants, execute energy conservation policy, and reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

  20. Energy profile of b-jet for boosted top quarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitadono Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the semileptonic decay of a polarised top-quark with a large velocity based on the perturbative QCD factorisation framework. Thanks to the factorisation and the spin decomposition, the production part and the decay part can be factorised and the spin dependence is introduced in the decay part. The decay part is converted to the top-jet function which describes the distribution of jet observables and the spin is translated to the helicity of the boosted top. Using this top-jet function, the energy profile of b-jet is investigated and it is turned out that the sub-jet energy for the helicity-minus top is accumulated faster than that for the helicity-plus top. This behaviour for the boosted top can be understood with the negative spin-analysing-power of b-quark in the polarised-top decay.

  1. The world energy situation and our country's energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q. (China Energy Study Society (China))

    1993-02-01

    The rapid development of world energy technology has provided China with an opportunity to increase the place in developing her technology, but it has also widened the technological gap between China and the developed world. In order to solve China's energy problem, there must be a new energy strategy which suits the conditions in China. Ultimately it is a strategy which satisfies the demands and optimizes energy conservation.

  2. A simple methodology to assess the energy and electricity utilization of a country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Giraldi–Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple methodology was developed to assess the efficiency of resource utilization in the energy sector. This was made possible by grouping several variables related to the same general concept into one parameter. Similar at tempts have been made in the case of the Human Development Index created by the United Nations, and in a more elaborate concept related to the Sustainable Development Index developed by the University of Yale and the University of Columbia. A comparison is done, and possible correlations are analyzed between these indexes and that developed in this work. Results show that when one variable has a very favorable value in the energy context of the country, the index is greatly influenced. This can be observed by the fact that the proposed index improves in the case of countries with a surplus of energy resources. Despite the general approach of the developed method, the obtained index can be a first hand tool to evaluate the energy and electricity utilization of a country. This index can be properly integrated with similar indexes to achieve a more precise diagnosis of the situation of the country in question.

  3. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyup Dogan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in four low-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using the econometrics in time-series methods. Along the estimation process, I use the annual data on energy consumption and real GDP per capita over the years of 1971 and 2011. The results of the ADF unit root test show that the time series are not stationary for all countries at levels, but log of economic growth in Benin and Congo become stationary after taking the differences of the data, and log of energy consumption become stationary for all countries and LGR in Kenya and Zimbabwe are found to be stationary after taking the second differences of the time-series. The findings of the Johansen co-integration test demonstrate that the variables LEC and LGR are not co-integrated for the cases of Kenya and Zimbabwe, so no long-run relationship between the variables arises in any country. The Granger causality test indicates that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy use to economic growth in Kenya and no causality linkage between EC and GR in Benin, Congo and Zimbabwe.

  4. Scientific Profile of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics Fields in Middle East Countries: Impacts of Iranian Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, a statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the production of scientific papers in the fields of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical during a period of 1996-2007. The study identified the most active countries in the Middle East in comparison with some more developed countries, in which the most scientific impacts have been exerted. Our screenings through the most accessed data bases revealed that USA, Japan, UK and Germany are the leading countries ...

  5. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  6. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas, E-mail: napergis@unipi.g [Chair and Professor of Economics, Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus Karaoli and Dimitriou 80 Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for a panel of twenty OECD countries over the period 1985-2005 within a multivariate framework. Given the relatively short span of the time series data, a panel cointegration and error correction model is employed to infer the causal relationship. The heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The Granger-causality results indicate bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run.

  7. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth. Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus Karaoli and Dimitriou, Piraeus (Greece); Payne, James E. [Interim Dean and Professor of Economics, College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for a panel of twenty OECD countries over the period 1985-2005 within a multivariate framework. Given the relatively short span of the time series data, a panel cointegration and error correction model is employed to infer the causal relationship. The heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The Granger-causality results indicate bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run. (author)

  8. Does Renewable Energy Drive Sustainable Economic Growth? Multivariate Panel Data Evidence for EU-28 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ştefan Armeanu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy is crucial to economic progress, but the contemporary worldwide population increase that demands greater energy generated from conventional exhaustible resources, an energy price upsurge, and environmental concerns, imperils sustainable economic growth. Nevertheless, switching to renewable energy produced from naturally replenished resources promotes energy security, likewise addressing issues such as global warming and climate change. This paper aims at exploring the influence and causal relation between renewable energy, both overall and by type, and sustainable economic growth of European Union (EU-28 countries for the period of 2003–2014. We notice that the mean share of renewable energy in the gross final energy consumption is 15%, while the mean share of renewable energy in transport fuel consumption is 3%, which are below the thresholds of 20% and 10%, respectively, as set by the EU Directive 2009/28/EC. By estimating panel data fixed-effects regression models, the results provide support for a positive influence of renewable energy overall, as well as by type, namely biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind power, and solar energy on gross domestic product per capita. However, biomass energy shows the highest influence on economic growth among the rest of renewable energy types. In fact, a 1% increase of the primary production of solid biofuels increases GDP per capita by 0.16%. Besides, cointegrating regressions set on panel fully modified and dynamic ordinary least squares regressions confirm the positive influence related to the primary production of renewable energies on economic growth. A 1% increase in primary production of renewable energies increases GDP per capita by 0.05%–0.06%. However, the results of Granger causality based on panel vector error correction model indicate both in short-run and long-run a unidirectional causal relationship running from sustainable economic growth to the primary production of

  9. Oil demand and price elasticity of energy consumption in the GCC countries: A panel cointegration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Qaiser Alam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the cointegrating relationship between oil demand and price elasticity of energy consumption in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC countries during the period 1980-2010. The paper has applied the recently developed panel cointegration techniques, Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS and panel DOLS in a panel of GCC countries. The region is being recognized as the major region of oil production and export in the global economy. In recent times, the region is emerging as a fastest growing oil consuming region globally. This fast increase in the level of oil consumption in the major oil exporting countries raises the energy security implications in the sphere of the growing oil demand in the world economy. This is likely to bring many pitfalls in the form of price distortions and reduced growth rates in and outside the oil export region. The empirical finding reveals a cointegrating relationship among the variables and indicates an income elastic and price inelastic demand for oil in the long-run in the GCC countries. The outcomes of income elastic and price inelastic demand for oil are also consistent in the short-run. The income and price inelastic demand for oil though exists for a full panel of countries but vary across the GCC countries. The result of the Granger Causality test also depicts a unidirectional causality running from income to oil consumption and bidirectional causality running between oil prices and income in the GCC countries. Moreover, the outcomes reveal that demand for oil varies positively with the growth of income and negatively with the price level in the economy.

  10. NAFTA countries` energy and environmental interdependence: deviations arising from trading-bloc exclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackay, R.M. [Mackay Research, Sevenoaks (United Kingdom); Probert, S.D. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1995-10-01

    The assessed NAFTA countries (i.e. the USA, Canada and Mexico) are categorised on the bases of their levels of economic development and indigenous energy resources, i.e. classified as energy rich and either: advanced industrialised (i.e. Canada and the USA) or: developing (i.e. Mexico). For each country its energy balance (including considerations of resources, rates of consumption, fuels-demand types as well as the degree of national self-sufficiency with respect to each fuel) is related to the rate of economic development of the nation state. This investigation explores the growing interdependency between the USA, Canada and Mexico and the economic implications for neighbouring countries excluded from this trading bloc. Worldwide, we are failing to address with sufficient urgency and adequate immediate actions the simultaneous related problems and consequences of: the major depletion of fossil-fuel reserves that will occur during the next 50 years; environmental degradation, which is occurring as a result of our non-sustainable lifestyles. These are considered with respect to the NAFTA countries. (Author)

  11. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ephlas01@phd.ceu.hu; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: elvine@lbl.gov

    2006-09-15

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

  12. Profile and professional expectations of medical students from 11 Latin American countries: the Red-LIRHUS project

    OpenAIRE

    Mayta-Trist?n, Percy; Pereyra-El?as, Rene?; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan Jos?; Mejia, Christian R.; Mezones-Holgu?n, Edward; ,; Sanchez-Pozo, Adriana; Cardozo-L?pez, Juan Pablo; Luizaga-Panozo, Silvia; Theodorus-Villar, Rhanniel; Vidal, Milisen; Sep?lveda-Morales, Roxana; Abudin?n A, Gabriel; Alfaro-Toloza, Patricio; Olmos-de-Aguilera, Romina

    2017-01-01

    Background Latin America is undergoing a human resource crisis in health care in terms of labor shortage, misdistribution and poor orientation to primary care. Workforce data are needed to inform the planning of long-term strategies to address this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the academic and motivational profile, as well as the professional expectations, of Latin American medical students. Results We conducted an observational, cross-sectional, multi-country study evaluating medica...

  13. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Energy policies of IEA countries: the Republic of Korea 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Through analysis of its existing policies and comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, this book provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. Covering not only traditional energy sectors, but also energy efficiency, renewables and the environment, the IEA report serves as a guide to understanding - and addressing - the energy challenges that face the modern Republic of Korea. The great strides that the Republic of Korea has made over the last three decades are not confined to its economy. Its energy industry has similarly leapt forward in terms of infrastructure and security. Though it has no links to nearby countries that would allow it to rely on electricity imports or piped natural gas, the country has rapidly electrified, built a diverse portfolio of electricity supply, developed a robust nuclear energy industry and become one of the pioneers in the liquefied natural gas trade. As the most recent member of the International Energy Agency (IEA), this progress is remarkable and its enhancement of its policy goals - adding economic efficiency and environmental sustainability to energy security - is commendable. Building on the liberalisation of its economy, the Republic of Korea set out an ambitious plan for reform of its state-controlled natural gas and electricity industries. However, the plans have been stalled and there is currently little vision for effective reform going forward. As the economy makes the transition to one with less phenomenal, more sustainable and less predictable growth, the IEA encourages the Republic of Korea to press forward with liberalisation in order to underpin a more flexible and efficient energy sector. 22 figs., 33 tabs., 3 apps.

  15. The Country Profiles of the PHARMINE Survey of European Higher Educational Institutions Delivering Pharmacy Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy, and in the impact of the Bologna agreement and the directive of the European Commission on education and training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy on European degree courses. The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy. They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries. In order to assure a full understanding of the country profiles to be published in the journal Pharmacy, this introductory article describes the general format of the survey questionnaire used.

  16. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Actual and potential renewable energy uptake in South Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Survey was conducted on the present situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system and the potential installation in Pacific Island countries. As to the preset situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system, systems installed in Melanesia were 1,699 sets and 529,450 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Micronesia were 1,352 sets and 107,224 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Polynesia were 2,942 sets and 1,171,420 Wp in capacity. By country, the number of those installed in French Polynesia was the largest, 1,749 sets. The number in each of the other countries was approximately 0-500 sets. The amount of the potential installation was calculated from the number of households with no electricity service and the average electricity consumption amount per household. As a result, the amount of the potential installation was 74,328 kWh/d in Papua New Guinea, 11,045 kWh/d in the Fiji Islands, 8,136 kWh/d in the Solomon Islands, 2,870 kWh/d in New Caledonia, and 2,708 kWh/d in Tonga. However, schools, remote health clinics, etc. were excluded in the calculation. Further, all the rural households with no electricity service were converted to those to be served by photovoltaic power system, but in some locations the use of hydroelectric power generation and diesel generator may be more appropriate. (NEDO)

  17. Thermie - industrial cooperation with third countries in the energy technology field: operations in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy, Energy Technology Unit)

    1993-07-01

    Both the Directorate-General XVII and the network of Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPETs) are pursuing the three main objectives as part of the Associated Measures provided for under the Thermie programme: analysis and assessment of European markets for energy technologies; dissemination of information and results from Thermie projects; and international cooperation with third countries in these areas. The article goes on to explain activities undertaken (1) in China, on coal combustion technologies for electricity generation, and their industrial application; (2) in South Korea, in supporting a seminar on European energy technologies and arranging ventures between European and Korean industrialists and (3) in Thailand in organizing an energy technology workshop for 1993 in Bangkok. It is hoped that Thermie can make European firms (especially small to medium-sized manufacturing and development firms on the energy supply side) more competitive by assisting them in opening up new markets outside the Community.

  18. A new tailored scheme for the support of renewable energies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moner-Girona, Magda [Renewable Energies Unit, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Historically the promotion of renewable energy technologies in isolated areas has involved international donors or governments subsidising the initial capital investment. This paper proposes an alternative support mechanism for remote villages based on the generation of renewable electricity. This communication presents an evaluation of the Renewable Energy Premium Tariff (RPT) scheme, a locally adapted variation of the Feed-in Tariff tailored for decentralised grids of developing countries. The RPT scheme stimulates the deployment of renewable energy technologies by paying for renewable electricity generated. A good-quality performance is secured since the support is given based on the electricity produced by renewables, not for the initial capital investment. The mechanism has been designed to provide a cost-effective scheme for the introduction of renewable energy technologies to remote villages, to provide sustainable and affordable electricity to local users, to make renewable energy projects attractive to policy-makers, and concurrently decrease financial risk to attract private sector investment. (author)

  19. Partner Country Series: Understanding Energy Challenges in India - Policies, Players and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector. India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity. Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public. The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.

  20. The Benefits of Creating a Cross-Country Data Framework for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzman, Alex; McNeil, Michael; Pantano, Stephen

    2013-09-11

    As manufacturers now sell a similar range of consumer electronics and home appliances to major markets around the world, the task of identifying a product?s energy efficiency rating has usually been the responsibility of each country and its respective government agency. This has led to a multitude of energy efficiency testing procedures, ratings, and certifications, resulting in disparate data being captured on identical products. Furthermore, lack of consistent product identification criteria means product energy performance is not easily connected to relevant information about the product such as market availability, price or real world energy consumption. This paper presents a new data standard for reporting energy performance and related product information that can be adopted internationally. To inform the development of this standard, we explore the existing energy efficiency market data for the two example products of TVs and Room Air Conditioners. This paper discusses current/future use cases of appliance level energy efficiency data across all stakeholders, including consumers, retailers/manufacturers, global standards organizations, third party service providers, and regulatory agencies. It also explains the key benefits of moving to a common international data framework for energy efficiency, such as: 1) a centralized product information repository for comparing energy use, ratings/certifications, and pricing data 2) improved access to relevant consumer electronics and appliance data to facilitate new policy development and harmonization across markets 3) enablement of retailers and other third parties to embed actionable energy efficiency information as part of the consumer experience.

  1. Benefits of creating a cross-country data framework for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzman, Alex [SEAD Energy Efficiency Data Access Project, Enervee (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Pantano, Stephen [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)

    2013-10-15

    As manufacturers now sell a similar range of consumer electronics and home appliances to major markets around the world, the task of identifying a product’s energy efficiency rating has usually been the responsibility of each country and its respective government agency. This has led to a multitude of energy efficiency testing procedures, ratings, and certifications, resulting in disparate data being captured on identical products. Furthermore, lack of consistent product identification criteria means product energy performance is not easily connected to relevant information about the product such as market availability, price or real world energy consumption. This paper presents a new data standard for reporting energy performance and related product information that can be adopted internationally. To inform the development of this standard, we explore the existing energy efficiency market data for the two example products of TVs and Room Air Conditioners. This paper discusses current/future use cases of appliance level energy efficiency data across all stakeholders, including consumers, retailers/manufacturers, global standards organizations, third party service providers, and regulatory agencies. It also explains the key benefits of moving to a common international data framework for energy efficiency, such as: 1) a centralized product information repository for comparing energy use, ratings/certifications, and pricing data 2) improved access to relevant consumer electronics and appliance data to facilitate new policy development and harmonization across markets 3) enablement of retailers and other third parties to embed actionable energy efficiency information as part of the consumer experience.

  2. What balance do countries exhibit between the central human resources: water, energy and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossak, Julian; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Sufficient water, food and energy is a precondition for human activities. The water, energy and food nexus states that to some extend, these resources can replace each another: land can be used to produce food or energy crops; water can be used as direct water supply, to produce energy or for irrigation; and energy supports water treatment and agricultural yield. We present an overview of the major components of the trade-off together with a set of indicators and data sources to assess these components. The different indicators of the trade-off are summarized and plotted in a novel way on a triangle, which we discuss in view of the resource availability of different countries. Comparing different countries in view of their balance between water, food and energy will inform the discussion about the transition towards more sustainable societies and highlighting alternative strategies for development. This is important in view of possible synergies between the different sectors and as a tool for better coordinated governance approaches.

  3. Determinants of CO{sub 2} emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Ismail, Siti Fatimah [Faculty of Entrepeneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Bandar, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Hamzah, Khairum [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Hang Tuah Jaya,76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Halim, Bushra Abdul [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Perak), Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak (Malaysia); Kun, Sek Siok [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO{sub 2} emissions.

  4. The Energy Challenge for Pacific Island Countries: Sustainable Development and Energy Security through Bio-fuel Substitution for Remote Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, M.J.

    2006-10-15

    Pacific Island Countries (PICs) face a number of development challenges as a result of their small size and geographically-remote locations. One of the most prominent is access to affordable energy supplies. The high cost of petroleum products affects all sectors, impacting islanders' day to day life and undermining achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Measures are needed that can support energy security and fair pricing in PICs, through improved regulatory frameworks and the substitution of local energy resources for imported fuels wherever possible. At the macro level, regional bulk procurement contracts offer one option to address the challenge of expensive imported petroleum products. At the micro level, biofuel substitution may offer another opportunity. Coconut biodiesel, produced from locally-harvested coconuts, may enable these remote island populations to develop their own sustainable energy supplies, and provide sustainable livelihoods for their people.

  5. The renewable energy targets of the Maghreb countries: Impact on electricity supply and conventional power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Bernhard, E-mail: brandb@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Vogelsanger Strasse 321, 50827 Cologne (Germany); Zingerle, Jonas [Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Vogelsanger Strasse 321, 50827 Cologne (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, the three countries of the North African Maghreb region, are showing increased efforts to integrate renewable electricity into their power markets. Like many other countries, they have pronounced renewable energy targets, defining future shares of 'green' electricity in their national generation mixes. The individual national targets are relatively varied, reflecting the different availability of renewable resources in each country, but also the different political ambitions for renewable electricity in the Maghreb states. Open questions remain regarding the targets' economic impact on the power markets. Our article addresses this issue by applying a linear electricity market optimization model to the North African countries. Assuming a competitive, regional electricity market in the Maghreb, the model minimizes dispatch and investment costs and simulates the impact of the renewable energy targets on the conventional generation system until 2025. Special emphasis is put on investment decisions and overall system costs. - Research Highlights: >Market simulation shows impact of RES-E penetration on the conventional power system of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. >Noticeable effects on dispatch and investments in fossil power plants. >Reduced utilization of base-load plants - stronger investments in flexible capacities. >Overall system costs can be decreased by optimizing the RES-E goals.

  6. Country Review of Energy-Efficiency Financial Incentives in the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2011-07-13

    A large variety of energy-efficiency policy measures exist. Some are mandatory, some are informative, and some use financial incentives to promote diffusion of efficient equipment. From country to country, financial incentives vary considerably in scope and form, the type of framework used to implement them, and the actors that administer them. They range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-points rewarding customers for buying highly efficient appliances (Japan). All have the primary objective of transforming the current market to accelerate the diffusion of efficient technologies by addressing up-front cost barriers faced by consumers; in most instances, efficient technologies require a greater initial investment than conventional technologies. In this paper, we review the different market transformation measures involving the use of financial incentives in the countries belonging to the Major Economies Forum. We characterize the main types of measures, discuss their mechanisms, and provide information on program impacts to the extent that ex-ante or ex-post evaluations have been conducted. Finally, we identify best practices in financial incentive programs and opportunities for coordination between Major Economies Forum countries as envisioned under the Super Efficient Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.

  7. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  8. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  9. Bringing Europe and Third countries closer together through renewable Energies (BETTER). D2.1. EU RES cooperation initiatives with third Countries. North Africa, West Balkans and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Dalla Longa, F.; Veum, K.C.; Straver, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Karakosta, C [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-03-15

    One major element of EU's external energy policy is expanding its energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond to achieve its energy policy priorities - safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supply. The importance of external energy policy has been acknowledged in the European Union's 2007 'energy package', and Second Strategic Energy Review and the European Commission's Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation. The EU Renewable Energy Directive provides another element to crossborder cooperation by allowing Member States to fulfil their 2020 renewable energy (RES) targets by implementing joint projects in third countries. Even though the Member States' national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) to reach their RES targets do not indicate any significant use of this mechanism, the RES Directive acknowledges the importance of renewable energy as part of external energy policy. This report aims at presenting the political framework between the EU and the BETTER project target regions (North Africa, Western Balkans and Turkey) with regards to (renewable) energy and the relevant initiatives and the projects to set the scene for RES joint projects as defined in Article 9 of the RES Directive. The main objectives of this study report are (1) to review energy treaties, agreements, and partnerships to assess their relevance to cooperation mechanism with Third countries; and (2) to analyse the relevance of the recent projects and initiatives to BETTER project and improve and trigger the communication and synergies between BETTER project partners and the relevant projects.

  10. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  11. Experience of international organizations in promoting energy efficiency: country report - Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-15

    This report is part of a series of publications that review the performance of multilateral institutions in promoting and financing energy efficiency improvements in selected economies in transition. Ukraine is one of the five participating countries of the Energy Efficiency Investment Project Development for Climate Change Mitigation. Ukraine is 95% self-sufficient in coal production. A programme was launched in 2001 to improve the efficiency of the coal industry. The World Bank has provided two loans to the coal sector. Assistance from the European Commission has gone to institutional, legal and administrative reform. Ukraine is expected to use biofuels and clean coal technologies in the future. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Availability of Biomass for Energy Purposes in Nordic and Baltic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Lars; Andreassen, Kjell; Bergh, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    in a European perspective where 38 % of the land area is forest (EU-27). Although some forest areas are protected, 75–92 % of the area can still be used for wood production. Further, substantial agriculture land areas may also be available for production of biomass for energy. Coniferous species dominate...... areas and changes of tree species and management systems.......This review compiles information on the current state of the forests and analyses the potential of forest fuels for energy purposes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia and Latvia. In these countries the forest area is 61 mill. ha, corresponding to 52 % of the land areas, which is high...

  13. Prospects of concentrating solar power to deliver key energy services in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Karakosta, Charalampos Pappas, John Psarras

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of today's greatest challenges is the response to the worldwide continuously increasing energy demand. The need for supply of electricity is getting greater year by year. In addition, climate change problems and the limited fossil resources require new sustainable electricity generation options, which utilize Renewable Energy Sources (RES and are economical in the meantime. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP generation is a proven renewable energy technology that has the potential to become cost-effective in the future. This analysis explores for Chile the potential of CSP to deliver key energy services for the country. The specific technology has a significant technical potential within Chile, but ‘somehow’ do not receive sufficient attention from relevant stakeholders, because of gaps either in stakeholders awareness of the technology or in domestic research and development and/or public/private investment. The aim of this paper is to establish a well-informed discussion on the feasibility and potential of the specific sustainable energy technology, namely the CSP technology, within a given country context and particularly Chile. It provides an overview of the fundamental (macro-economic forces within an economy and identifies some of the blockages and barriers that can be expected when introducing a new technology.

  14. Mathematical simulation of energy expenditure and recovery during sprint cross-country skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes JF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available John F Moxnes,1 Eldbjørg Dirdal Moxnes21Protection and Societal Security Division, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway; 2Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayPurpose: A cross-country sprint competition relies on maximal effort durations of 3–4 minutes. Significant anaerobic energy contribution is expected. Anaerobic energy contribution has been estimated in different sports to date from the accumulated O2 deficit. However, the O2-deficit model can be questioned. We investigate anaerobic energy contribution by applying other methods than the O2 deficit.Methods: Theoretical model development.Results: For sprint cross-country competitions, the anaerobic energy contribution was 20%–25% independent of the employed mathematical model. Recovery times of a minimum 20 minutes were found to be required after sprint races to be sure that the performance in subsequent heats was not influenced.Conclusion: The O2-deficit model gave anaerobic energy results in agreement with other models from the literature. Recovery times of a minimum 20 minutes were found to be required after sprint races to be sure that the performance in subsequent heats was not influenced.Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic, models, endurance sport, recovery

  15. Availability of Biomass for Energy Purposes in Nordic and Baltic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Lars; Andreassen, Kjell; Bergh, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    in a European perspective where 38 % of the land area is forest (EU-27). Although some forest areas are protected, 75–92 % of the area can still be used for wood production. Further, substantial agriculture land areas may also be available for production of biomass for energy. Coniferous species dominate......, leading to the conclusion that some of the difference may be used for energy purposes in the near future. The current potential for forest fuel resources was estimated to 230–410 TWh yr-1 (830–1,480 PJ yr-1) for the countries included and forest fuels will thus be of utmost importance for the future...... for specific regions. Wood is extensively used for energy purposes and the forests hold a large potential for increasing the production of renewable energy. The potential may be further increased in the future with increased fertilization, extended breeding for enhanced biomass production, larger cultivation...

  16. Sustaining Energy Access: Lessons from Energy Plus Approach and Productive Use in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel; Larsen, Thomas Hebo; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    This publication summarizes the report: ‘Energy Plus Approach: Case studies in developing countries’ by GNESD member Centres of Excellence. This summary for policymakers (SPM) and other reports can be freely obtained from the GNESD Secretariat and also from the website: www.gnesd.org...

  17. Towards Design of Sustainable Energy Systems in Developing Countries: Centralized and Localized Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursun, Berrin

    Energy use in developing countries is projected to equal and exceed the demand in developed countries in the next five years. Growing concern about environmental problems, depletion and price fluctuation of fossil fuels pushes the efforts for meeting energy demand in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way. Hence, it is essential to design energy systems consisting of centralized and localized options that generate the optimum energy mix to meet this increasing energy demand in a sustainable manner. In this study, we try to answer the question, "How can the energy demand in Rampura village be met sustainably?" via two centralized clean coal (CCC) technology and three localized energy technology options analyzed. We perform the analysis of these energy technologies through joint use of donor-side analysis technique emergy analysis (EA) and user-side analysis technique life cycle assessment (LCA). Sustainability of such an energy combination depends on its reliance on renewable inputs rather than nonrenewable or purchased inputs. CCC technologies are unsustainable energy systems dependent on purchased external inputs almost 100%. However, increased efficiency and significantly lower environmental impacts of CCC technologies can lead to more environmentally benign utilization of coal as an energy source. CCC technologies supply electricity at a lower price compared to the localized energy options investigated. Localized energy options analyzed include multi-crystalline solar PV, floating drum biogas digester and downdraft biomass gasifier. Solar PV has the lowest water and land use, however, solar electricity has the highest price with a high global warming potential (GWP). Contrary to general opinion, solar electricity is highly non-renewable. Although solar energy is a 100% renewable natural resource, materials utilized in the production of solar panels are mostly non-renewable purchased inputs causing the low renewability of solar electricity. Best

  18. On the causal dynamics between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in developed and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [University of Piraeus, Department of Banking and Financial Management, Piraeus, Attiki (Greece); Payne, James E. [University of South Florida Polytechnic, Lakeland, FL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study extends recent work on the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth to the case of developed and developing countries over the period 1990-2007. Heterogeneous panel cointegration procedures show a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficient estimates positive and statistically significant for developed and developing country panels. The results from the panel error correction models reveal bidirectional causality between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in the short- and long-run for each country panel. (orig.)

  19. A New Maximum Likelihood Approach for Free Energy Profile Construction from Molecular Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Sung; Radak, Brian K.; Pabis, Anna; York, Darrin M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel variational method for construction of free energy profiles from molecular simulation data is presented. The variational free energy profile (VFEP) method uses the maximum likelihood principle applied to the global free energy profile based on the entire set of simulation data (e.g from multiple biased simulations) that spans the free energy surface. The new method addresses common obstacles in two major problems usually observed in traditional methods for estimating free energy surfaces: the need for overlap in the re-weighting procedure and the problem of data representation. Test cases demonstrate that VFEP outperforms other methods in terms of the amount and sparsity of the data needed to construct the overall free energy profiles. For typical chemical reactions, only ~5 windows and ~20-35 independent data points per window are sufficient to obtain an overall qualitatively correct free energy profile with sampling errors an order of magnitude smaller than the free energy barrier. The proposed approach thus provides a feasible mechanism to quickly construct the global free energy profile and identify free energy barriers and basins in free energy simulations via a robust, variational procedure that determines an analytic representation of the free energy profile without the requirement of numerically unstable histograms or binning procedures. It can serve as a new framework for biased simulations and is suitable to be used together with other methods to tackle with the free energy estimation problem. PMID:23457427

  20. A New Maximum Likelihood Approach for Free Energy Profile Construction from Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Sung; Radak, Brian K; Pabis, Anna; York, Darrin M

    2013-01-08

    A novel variational method for construction of free energy profiles from molecular simulation data is presented. The variational free energy profile (VFEP) method uses the maximum likelihood principle applied to the global free energy profile based on the entire set of simulation data (e.g from multiple biased simulations) that spans the free energy surface. The new method addresses common obstacles in two major problems usually observed in traditional methods for estimating free energy surfaces: the need for overlap in the re-weighting procedure and the problem of data representation. Test cases demonstrate that VFEP outperforms other methods in terms of the amount and sparsity of the data needed to construct the overall free energy profiles. For typical chemical reactions, only ~5 windows and ~20-35 independent data points per window are sufficient to obtain an overall qualitatively correct free energy profile with sampling errors an order of magnitude smaller than the free energy barrier. The proposed approach thus provides a feasible mechanism to quickly construct the global free energy profile and identify free energy barriers and basins in free energy simulations via a robust, variational procedure that determines an analytic representation of the free energy profile without the requirement of numerically unstable histograms or binning procedures. It can serve as a new framework for biased simulations and is suitable to be used together with other methods to tackle with the free energy estimation problem.

  1. Energy investments and environmental implications: key policy issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddayao, Corazon M. (World Bank Washington, DC (USA). Economic Development Institute)

    1992-03-15

    Energy investments imply changes in the physical, social, and economic environment. Hence, both the short-term and the long-term costs and benefits of these investments must be taken into account. These changes may affect not only the immediate environment of the investment site but may extend geographically far beyond national borders as well as beyond the lifetimes of the people for whom the investments are intended. This paper reviews the issues relevant to developing countries. General conceptual and policies issues are discussed. Issues about the measurement of costs and benefits (including issues of 'sustainability' and the internalization of externalities resulting from environmental changes) as well as the role of opportunity costs in deciding a country's energy investment strategies are raised. The macroeconomic and institutional issues relevant to environmental impacts that might be incorporated in energy planning are suggested. The paper is based on a presentation to the 'Workshop on energy investments and the environment'. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Are renewable energy policies upsetting carbon dioxide emissions? The case of Latin America countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso; Koengkan, Matheus

    2017-06-01

    The impact of renewable energy policies in carbon dioxide emissions was analysed for a panel of ten Latin American countries, for the period from 1991 to 2012. Panel autoregressive distributed lag methodology was used to decompose the total effect of renewable energy policies on carbon dioxide emissions in its short- and long-run components. There is evidence for the presence of cross-sectional dependence, confirming that Latin American countries share spatial patterns. Heteroskedasticity, contemporaneous correlation, and first-order autocorrelation cross-sectional dependence are also present. To cope with these phenomena, the robust dynamic Driscoll-Kraay estimator, with fixed effects, was used. It was confirmed that the primary energy consumption per capita, in both the short- and long-run, contributes to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions, and also that renewable energy policies in the long-run, and renewable electricity generation per capita both in the short- and long-run, help to mitigate per capita carbon dioxide emissions.

  3. Economic growth, energy conservation and emissions reduction: A comparative analysis based on panel data for 8 Asian-Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Shuwen, E-mail: shuwenn@lzu.edu.c [College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environment Systems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ding Yongxia; Niu Yunzhu; Li Yixin; Luo Guanghua [College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the causality between energy consumption, GDP growth and carbon emissions for eight Asia-Pacific countries from 1971 to 2005 using the panel data. The results indicate that there are long-run equilibrium relationships between these variables. Additionally, causality from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions was observed generally, but there were some opposite relationships also. Parameter estimations of the panel data model indicate that there are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. The base carbon emissions, per capita energy consumption and efficiency of energy use in developing countries are far lower than in developed countries; however, the CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of energy use is higher. Although developing countries may reduce their CO{sub 2} emission per unit energy use, total energy consumption will rise rapidly with economic development. Thus, developing countries must determine how to undergo economic growth while conserving energy and reducing emissions. To respond to global climate change, it is necessary to develop innovative technology for energy use, transform the energy structure and conduct the clean development mechanism. - Research highlights: {yields} There is a complex nexus between GDP-energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, the causalities from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions are observed generally, but there are some opposite relationships also. {yields} There are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. {yields} There is a large potential for carbon emission reduction in the developing countries through transforming the energy structure, improving energy utilization efficiency and controlling the total energy

  4. The relationship between energy and economic growth: Empirical evidence from 66 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Susan Sunila [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, 70 Elgar Road, Burwood, 3125 Victoria, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the impact of electricity and non-electricity variables on economic growth for a global panel consisting of 66 countries. The time component of our dataset is 1986-2005 inclusive. We also estimate this relationship for four regional panels; namely, East/South Asian and the Pacific region, Europe and Central Asian region, Latin America and Caribbean region, and Sub-Saharan, North Africa and Middle Eastern region. In total, we use six proxies for energy. The empirical analysis is based on a sound theoretical framework, in that we draw on growth theory and augment the classical growth model, which consists of inflation, capital stock, labour force and trade, with energy. Generally, the results on the impact of energy are mixed. (author)

  5. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond

    2013-01-01

    markets are dominated by handicraft-based individual solutions. In this paper we have analyzed the opportunities for implementation of one-stop-shop business models where an overall contractor offers full-service renovation packages including consulting, independent energy audit, renovation work, follow-up...... (independent quality control and commissioning) and financing. A comparative assessment of emerging business models in the Nordic countries shows that different types of actors can provide such a service. Financing is included in some models. There are differences in how customers are contacted, while...... the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses...

  6. Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

    2011-03-15

    This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

  7. Profiles and experiences of women undergoing genital fistula repair: findings from five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Evelyn; Frajzyngier, Vera; Ruminjo, Joseph; Asiimwe, Frank; Barry, Thierno Hamidou; Bello, Abubakar; Danladi, Dantani; Ganda, Sanda Oumarou; Idris, Sa'ad; Inoussa, Maman; Kanoma, Bashir; Lynch, Maura; Mussell, Felicity; Podder, Dulal Chandra; Wali, Abba; Mielke, Erin; Barone, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data from 1354 women from five countries who participated in a prospective cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2010. Women undergoing surgery for fistula repair were interviewed at the time of admission, discharge, and at a 3-month follow-up visit. While women's experiences differed across countries, a similar picture emerges across countries: women married young, most were married at the time of admission, had little education, and for many, the fistula occurred after the first pregnancy. Median age at the time of fistula occurrence was 20.0 years (interquartile range 17.3-26.8). Half of the women attended some antenatal care (ANC); among those who attended ANC, less than 50% recalled being told about signs of pregnancy complications. At follow-up, most women (even those who were not dry) reported improvements in many aspects of social life, however, reported improvements varied by repair outcome. Prevention and treatment programmes need to recognise the supportive role that husbands, partners, and families play as women prepare for safe delivery. Effective treatment and support programmes are needed for women who remain incontinent after surgery.

  8. A policy study on energy supply and demand of several countries (China, Indonesia, Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ryeal [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Korea is depending 97% of primary energy consumption on imports. To have a stable supply of energy required for a continuous growth, it is recommended to utilize international energy market actively for short-term while it is required to reinforce resources diplomacy with other countries with full of resources for mid- and long-term. This study reviewed energy supply and demand and major policies of China, Indonesia and Mexico, which give direct or indirect influence on energy supply and demand of Korea. With the geographical adjacency, Korea imports coal from China and exports petroleum products to China. Furthermore, it is very likely to have a trade related to nuclear power plant and natural gas. Indonesia exports coal, crude oil, and LNG to Korea. Especially LNG is occupied 60% of total amount of imports. It is expected to get help from Mexico because there are many similar aspects between Mexico and Korea such as GNP or a conservative idea on energy industry. (author). 49 refs., 6 figs., 42 tabs.

  9. Strengthening financial innovation in energy supply projects for rural exploitations in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy, Carlos Rodriguez [Department of Business Administration, School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Antonio San Segundo [Department of Business Administration, School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. San Luis, 77, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Sustainable energy supply models are needed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals established by the United Nations for 2015. On the other hand, sustainability of agricultural exploitations in rural areas is a pre-requisite to achieve the objective of halving the proportion of people that lives in poverty, and productivity of such exploitations is closely related to energy supply. This article analyses the results of a survey of experts, suggesting that there may be good chances to innovate in the financing of agricultural electrification projects in developing countries. The experts' opinion suggests that new sources of financing could be mobilised and oriented towards the promotion of sustainable initiatives in developing countries. Financial mechanisms should be adapted to the characteristics of decentralised systems of energy production with renewable sources or with mixed technologies, in order to overcome the barriers derived from the high initial price of the applications, and to the specific conditions of the agricultural sector. The participation of funds from the beneficiaries and the incorporation of the beneficiaries in the initial phases of project organisation would allow for the development of productive solutions with a higher potential to generate resources and to articulate sustainable proposals. (author)

  10. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  11. Dynamics of Producing Renewable Energy in Poland and EU-28 Countries within the Period of 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuła Karol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the estimation of trends describing the level of renewable energy resources in Poland and in EU-28 countries within the years 2004–2012. The process of the increase of the percentage of renewable energy in total production of energy was also presented. Comparative statistical analysis was carried out within the dynamics of the phenomena discussed in the paper with respect both to Poland and EU countries. It follows from the investigation that both in Poland and in the EU countries the increase in renewable energy resources has been observed. However, the rate of the increase of the level of renewable energy in Poland is not enough to catch up with the leading EU countries in near future.

  12. Implementation of renewable energy technology - Opportunities and barriers. Summary of country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P.; Fenhann, J.V.

    2002-07-01

    The project was launched to identify barriers to the implementation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) and explore measures to overcome the identified barriers. National institutions in Egypt, Ghana and Zimbabwe carried out the country studies based on the basic methodological framework provided by the UNEP Centre. The objectives of the project included strengthening institutional capacity for analysis and implementation of RET projects in the participating countries and bring out experiences on RETs barriers and removal measures for dissemination so that others can benefit from the knowledge so gained. An important highlight of the studies was involvement of stake holders in the process of identification of barriers and measures to remove them. A preliminary identification of relevant RETs for their countries was done by the country teams in the initial stage of the project. After that, national workshops involving various stake holders were held between July and September 1999 to discuss the RETs and barriers to their implementation. Based on the discussions, a few important RETs were identified for more detailed study. PV systems for rural electrification, solar water heating systems and large-scale biogas system were identified and analysed for barriers in the Egypt country study. Economic, information and policy barriers were identified as major barriers for these technologies. Solar water pumps, biogas and small hydro were the focus of study in Ghana. In this case also, economic, information and policy barriers were found to be the important barriers for the selected technologies. In the case of Zimbabwe, focus was on identification of primary and secondary barriers to RETs dissemination. The primary barriers included lack of capacity to develop proposals, lack of information for policy making and framework for information dissemination. The study concluded that the secondary barriers as seen and experienced by the stake holders are due to primary

  13. A bottom-up assessment method of limitations to and vulnerability of energy supply in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Sufficient energy access is essential for development and adequate livelihood conditions, as the majority of societal activities depend on reliable and sufficient energy. Especially in developing and threshold countries, energy access remains limited and intermittent. Moreover, compared to developed countries, often the expenditures for energy constitute a huge part of the available money. The vulnerability of energy systems to the impacts of climate change differs depending on the utilized source of energy. A special characteristic of developing and threshold countries is the fact that the spatial heterogeneity of the energy supply structure, especially between urban and rural regions, is generally larger than in developed countries, while the adaptive capacity of people is often much lower. A sound consideration of these complex conditions is a necessary basis for determining in how far climate change impacts can further diminish energy access in regions, where energy access is already limited. The topic of energy vulnerability has often been addressed for developed countries, but assessments for less developed countries remain scarce. On the one hand, data needed for energy vulnerability assessments, as they exist for the developed world, is usually not available. On the other hand, existing assessment methods for the developed world are often not transferable because they focus on specific supply infrastructure or energy carriers. Transferability is also hindered by the large differences in energy access and energy use patterns. We propose a novel approach to assess domestic energy supply vulnerability, by reversing the usual chain of assessment. On the basis of a basket of household energy needs for different purposes, we first assess which sources are used in order to fulfil specific energy needs. By focussing on the regionally specific energy carriers, we are able to significantly reduce data needs and assess directly, how energy vulnerability may play out

  14. Renewable energy clusters recurring barriers to cluster development in eleven countries

    CERN Document Server

    Jaegersberg, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    Taking eleven countries in Europe, Canada, South Africa, America, Latin America and Australia, this book discusses recurring barriers to cluster development in the renewable energy sector. The authors look at the real-world dynamics and tensions between stakeholders on the ground, with a particular focus on the relationships between SMEs and other actors. This trans-regional study is unique in its scale and scope, drawing on a decade of field research to show how by learning from the successes and failures of other clusters, costs and risk can be reduced. The book fills a significant gap in the literature for policymakers, managers and economic developers in a key market.

  15. Road freight energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Arvidsson, Niklas; Hovi, Inger Beate

    2014-01-01

    and their impact on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. A joint analysis method was developed to compare data. Quantitative data was used to conduct a decomposition analysis for several sectors, taking several indicators into account. Statistics from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden include continuous road...... haulier surveys, national account data and fuel consumption data. The CO2 emissions of road freight transport in the Nordic countries vary from 1.14 Mt in Denmark to 2.27 Mt in Sweden. While the size of the economy, measured in gross value added (GVA), is a major determinant for the emissions...

  16. The economics of energy conservation in developing countries: A case study for the electrical sector in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Williams, Robert H.

    1985-11-01

    A wide range of high efficiency, energy-using technologies have become commercially available in recent years, in North America, Western Europe, and Japan. Contrary to the widely held view that these technologies are relevant mainly to the rich, already-industrialized countries, we show that from an economic perspective, energy efficiency improvements often make as much or even more sense for capital-poor, developing countries. We illustrate the relevance to developing countries of more energy-efficient end-use technology, with an analysis of the economics of energy-efficient refrigerators and light bulbs in the context of the electrical system of Brazil, from both the consumer's perspective and that of society. We show that the required extra investments in energy efficiency generate attractive returns in electricity savings for the consumer. Moreover, for the country as a whole, investments in energy efficiency can lead to net savings of scarce capital resources, by reducing the need for new electrical generating capacity. Because electricity in Brazil is largely based on low-cost hydro-electric power, showing the importance of energy efficiency improvements in this situation is an ``acid-test'' for the relevance of energy efficiency to developing countries more generally. Capturing the economic benefits of energy efficiency improvements probably requires that utilities be transformed from being energy supply companies into companies that market energy services, by facilitating investments on the ``customer's side of the meter'' as well as in new supplies. Some utilities in industrialized countries are already beginning to shift their activities in this direction. An even more active utility role may be desirable in developing countries, because there most of the population is poor, and the poor tend to be far more first-cost sensitive, and thus resistant to making investments in energy efficiency improvement, than higher income consumers.

  17. The Relation between Environmental Quality Indices and Energy Consumption in the Selected Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is regarded as an applied research in terms of objective and an ex post facto research in terms of data collection, because past data of the research variables is used. Also it is a descriptive- correlative research. Data is gathered by using the library method. Also a major part of data pertaining to the research variables has been derived from time series data of the World Bank and Yale University. To determine the relation between environmental quality indices and energy consumption, data pertaining to the research variables namely, energy consumption based on oil consumption (ENERGY, under-5 children mortality (CHMORT, agricultural subsidies (AGSUB, access to drinking water (WATSUP, access to sanitation (ACSAT, CO2 per capita (CO2CAP during 2007 to 2011 was used. The statistical universe of this study comprises high energy-consuming countries namely, America, China, Japan, India and Russia. Panel data and Chow Test (constrained F test have been applied to select the fixed effects. The main result of this study indicates that there is a significant relation between life quality indices (Agricultural subsidies, access to sanitation, under-5 children mortality, CO2 per capita, access to drinking water and energy consumption. The effect of this relation for agricultural subsidies, access to sanitation, under-5 children mortality, CO2 capitation, access to drinking water indices are 17.8, 68.57, 21.16, 129.77, 4.03, respectively.

  18. Energy-income causality in OECD countries revisited: The key role of capital stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang [Department of Applied Economics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung (China); Chang, Chun-Ping [Department of Business Administration, Shih Chien University Kaohsiung Campus, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Pei-Fen [Department of International Business, National Chi Nan University, Taiwan, Nantou (China)

    2008-09-15

    This paper applies a recent advance in panel analysis to estimate the panel cointegration and panel vector error correction models for a set of 22 OECD countries using annual data covering the period 1960-2001. We investigate the relationship between energy consumption and income using an aggregate production function and controlling for the capital stock, as well as by exploring the dynamic directions of the causality among these three variables. We firstly obtain solid and convincing evidence of a fairly strong long-run equilibrium relationship among them. Secondly, it is found that the capital stock is much more productive than energy consumption. Third, it is observed that neglecting the impact of the capital stock on income tends to overestimate the effect of energy consumption. Finally, the panel causality test shows bi-directional causal linkages exist among energy consumption, the capital stock and economic growth. Overall, the findings reveal that the capital stock plays a critical role in realizing the dynamic relationship between energy and income. (author)

  19. Review of energy efficiency CO2 and price policies and measures in EU countries and Norway in 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    For each countries of the European Union and the Norway, this document provides statistical data and analysis of the situation concerning the energy efficiency context, the measures and programs on the energy policy, the energy taxes and prices, the budget. (A.L.B.)

  20. Basis set effects on the energy and hardness profiles of the hydrogen fluoride dimer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Miquel Torrent-Sucarrat; Miquel Duran; Josep M Luis; Miquel Solà

    2005-09-01

    In earlier work, the present authors have shown that hardness profiles are less dependent on the level of calculation than energy profiles for potential energy surfaces (PESs) having pathological behaviors. At variance with energy profiles, hardness profiles always show the correct number of stationary points. This characteristic has been used to indicate the existence of spurious stationary points on the PESs. In the present work, we apply this methodology to the hydrogen fluoride dimer, a classical difficult case for the density functional theory methods.

  1. Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C

    2017-01-01

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance....... The STT was repeated four times on a 1300-m simulated sprint course including three flat (1°) double poling (DP) sections interspersed with two uphill (7°) diagonal stride (DS) sections. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously during the four STTs and data were averaged. Supramaximal GE...... during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy...

  2. Analysis of PV system's values beyond energy - by country and stakeholder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Polo, A.; Hass, R.; Suna, D.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme and PV-Up-Scale analyses, identifies, evaluates and quantifies the major values and benefits of urban scale photovoltaics (PV) based on country and stakeholder specifics. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The values evaluated and quantified in this report are categorised under the following groups: Avoiding fossil fuels, environmental benefits, benefits for electric utilities, industry development and employment benefits and the customer's individual benefits. The relevance of PV to meeting peak demand is discussed, as are the benefits for architects and building developers.

  3. Task Force on Integrated Energy and Environmental Planning: The Netherlands - Poland. Working Paper 2: Government institutions of the energy sector in the EC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, A.D. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands); Verhagen, H.M. [Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, The Hague (Netherlands)

    1993-07-01

    The Polish Government is interested in a broad perspective of institutional arrangements in the national energy sector. A brief review of energy administrations in the EC countries illustrates that only a few of the energy ministries established in 1970`s after the oil crisis still remain. At present, energy departments are incorporated in a ministry of economic affairs or trade and industry and have broad energy policy responsibilities. Their subdivisions are oriented towards energy resources and in some cases also with energy conservation. Energy is not treated as a common commodity, but is strongly controlled by legislation. Germany and United Kingdom have the most strongly privatized energy sectors in EC but nevertheless still have a plethora of laws concerning pricing, investment, organization, monopolies, supply areas, grid development, maintenance, etc. Government involvement in energy sector is still far greater than set by EC policies directed to privatisation and competition. Comparison of energy administrations of Poland and EC countries is hampered by incomparable key economic figures and different political and cultural traditions; however the overall institutional set-up for energy has some common characteristics in the EC countries: Energy departments within a ministry of economic affairs are subdivided according to energy carriers and include energy conservation and energy planning units in general energy policy units. Polish parliament is responsible for election and establishment of an adequate and competent energy administration structure. Energy planning plays an important role in EC countries. National energy plans are strongly related to key economic figures for economic sectors and subsectors and are usually commissioned by general policy units in the department of energy and updated at regular intervals. They function as anchor points for industry, thus providing basic data.

  4. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  5. Promoting renewable energy sources for heating and cooling in EU-27 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansino, Jose M., E-mail: jmcansino@us.es [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Pablo-Romero, Maria del P. [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Roman, Rocio, E-mail: rroman@us.es [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Yniguez, Rocio [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    In addition to public policies aimed at improving the energy efficiency of buildings, EU authorities have also promoted the use of Renewable Energy Sources for heating and cooling uses (RES H and C). This paper analyses the main policy measures implemented in EU-27 countries up to 2009: i.e. subsidies, tax incentives, financial support and feed-in tariffs. Twenty-three Member States (MSs) have developed some of these policy measures. The most widespread measure is the subsidy (22 MSs have implemented these) because from a political point of view, subsidies provide a straightforward approach to promote the use of RES H and C. Secondly, tax incentives have been used for reducing investment costs and making renewable energy profitable. Thirdly, financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly. While financial incentives might be used more extensively for promoting RES H and C if they are accompanied by other policy measures, feed-in tariffs are not likely to be implemented significantly in the future because this measure is not designed for household heat producers. - Highlights: > Main EU policies to reduce energy consumption are focused on buildings' efficiency. > Alternative incentives to promote the use of RES H and C in EU-27 are now studied. > Subsidies are the most widespread measure. > Tax incentives are used for reducing investment costs and making RES profitable. > Financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly.

  6. Building for the Pacific Rim Countries. Energy-efficient building strategies for hot, humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinkopf, K. [ed.

    1991-09-01

    This book has been published by the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), the US trade association of the solar thermal, photovoltaic, and passive solar manufacturers, distributors, and component suppliers. Its purpose is to help architects, builders, and developers construct energy-efficient homes in hot humid climates like the Pacific Rim Countries, and to allow occupants of these homes to enjoy enhanced comfort without reliance on mechanical air-conditioning systems. Two important factors are addressed in this book. First, the past few years have seen a tremendous increase in practical applications of new research. The current popularity of ceiling paddle fans, attic radiant barriers and natural daylighting attest to the importance of keeping up with the latest concepts in energy-reduction and comfort-awareness. Professionals who have been in the field for the past few years may be unaware of the latest research findings--some of which dramatically alter prior thinking on such subjects as natural ventilation or mechanical air conditioning. The second factor is the importance of site-specific characteristics, which greatly affect building strategies and designs. A thorough understanding of the climate is a prerequisite to good building design. Such factors as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation must be understood and properly integrated into the design for the home to be truly energy-efficient.

  7. Energy consumption and GDP relationship: evidence from a panel cointegration of ten Latin America Countries between 1971 - 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Campo Robledo, Jacobo; Sarmiento Guzmán, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    In this paper estimates the long-term relationship in the relationship Energy Consumption - GDP and GDP - Energy Consumption for 10 Latin America countries during the period 1971 to 2007. Through Cointegration test of Westerlund (2006) for panel data, which takes into account the possible dependence between countries (Cross-Section) and any existing structural breaks in long-run relationship, we calculate the elasticities, both individual and regional level. Above, to provide empirical eviden...

  8. Rural energy in the EU. Country studies for France, Germany, Italy, Poland and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Deng, Y.; Noothout, P.; Van den Bos, A.; Van Melle, T.

    2011-09-15

    A sustainable energy future for the European Union is important for all its citizens. Some areas within Europe are still deprived of access to a secure supply of clean and affordable energy. Gas and electricity networks are less well developed in rural areas, so the choice of fuel is more limited. Yet, these areas have also a role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% in 2020. To date, the role of energy in the development of rural areas in the EU has been less well considered than other aspects. A better insight is required into energy consumption patterns in these areas, and in differences between areas, to provide an evidence base for developing regional policies on sustainable energy supply. This report provides that insight based on analysis of national and subnational energy data and on interviews with national energy experts. It presents energy demand patterns in rural, intermediate, and urban areas and areas. We also provide an insight into the way lower economic activity in rural areas plays a role in energy demand patterns. The study shows how differences in the fuels used can lead to different emission levels, for greenhouse gases and for air pollutants such as SOx, NOx, and particulate matter (PM). Differences in the fuel mix will also have an economic effect because of different fuel prices, although detailed consideration of this effect was outside the scope of this study. The focus of this study was on five of the larger EU Member States: France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom. These countries represent 61% of the EU population, 61% of total final energy consumption in the EU, and 62% of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In this study, the transport and industry sectors were not analysed in detail. There are very few differences in the fuel mix used in the transport sector in urban and rural areas. In industry, differences in fuel mix are due primarily to the nature of an industry rather than its

  9. How the diffusivity profile reduces the arbitrariness of protein folding free energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hinczewski, Michael; Dzubiella, Joachim; Netz, Roland R

    2010-01-01

    The concept of a protein diffusing in its free energy folding landscape has been fruitful for both theory and experiment. Yet the choice of the reaction coordinate (RC) introduces an undesirable degree of arbitrariness into the problem. We analyze extensive simulation data of an alpha-helix in explicit water solvent as it stochastically folds and unfolds. The free energy profiles for different RCs exhibit significant variation, some having an activation barrier, others not. We show that this variation has little effect on the predicted folding kinetics if the diffusivity profiles are properly taken into account. This kinetic quasi-universality is rationalized by an RC rescaling, which, due to the reparameterization invariance of the Fokker-Planck equation, allows the combination of free energy and diffusivity effects into a single function, the rescaled free energy profile. This rescaled free energy indeed shows less variation among different RCs than the bare free energy and diffusivity profiles separately d...

  10. NEDO`s solar energy program in developing countries; Hatten tojokoku ni okeru NEDO no taiyo energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    This paper describes the solar energy program promoted in developing countries by NEDO. Research of photovoltaic power generation systems for middle-scale villages has been conducted in Indonesia between FY 1984 and FY 1989. International cooperative demonstration development for photovoltaic power generation systems has been conducted in Nepal, Mongolia, Thailand and Malaysia for five to six years since FY 1994. For the research of solar heat, air heat collection type drying systems using solar heat has been promoted between FY 1993 and FY 1998. Employment of solar micro hydraulic power hybrid systems is planned in regions with rainy and dry seasons. In FY 1997, photovoltaic power generation systems were constructed in Gansu, Sinkiang Uighur, and Hopeh in China for operation researches. Durability tests have been conducted in Oman. A plan of construction of photovoltaic power generation systems with a capacity from a few MW to 1 GW at maximum in deserts is to be promoted as international cooperative activities with PVPS of IEA and CTI. Japan will play a major role on the activities as a proposal country based on the achievement of PVTEC. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. What is the role of Financial Development and Energy Consumption on Economic Growth? New Evidence from North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohamed Salman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to test the validity of the causality between financial development and economic growth on energy consumption in three of North African countries. The study employs error coreection model and Granger causaility test to analyza a dataset for three North African countries covering a period from 1980 to 2010. The applied model is based on demand function for energy to assess the existing of causal relationship of energy with financial development, and economic growth, in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia.  Empirical results provide a positive significant relating financial development and energy consumption in Algeria, and Tunisia. On the other hand, Egypt’s results show a negative significant relationship relating energy consumption and financial development. The paper is valuable to policy makers in North African countries in their pursuit for achieving economic growth as it clarifies the urge for the financial development reforms to stimulate investment and growth. 

  12. Growth potential of energy sector reforms: new evidence on EU and Southeast European countries by exploring impact on electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić Lenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of energy sector reforms on electricity generation and thus economic growth in EU and Southeast European countries. The paper aims at clarifying whether the impact of energy sector reforms on generation efficiency differs among countries according to their level of development and regional characteristics. Our hypothesis is that the EU reform model is not appropriate for all Member States and Southeast European countries since it does not improve efficiency in electricity generation in all countries and therefore, it can hamper economic growth. For testing the defined hypothesis the panel regression model with fixed effects has been used. The research results show that unlike in the EU-15 (old Member States, energy sector reforms in the EU-12 (new Member States, and selected Southeast European countries (Energy Community contracting parties have no significant impact on electricity transmission and distribution losses. These evidences imply that the uniform EU reform model does not improve efficiency of electricity generation in less developed countries. On the contrary it can even hamper economic growth and therefore it cannot be appropriate for all Member States. The reason lies in the fact that successful reform model requires adequate level of institutional resources that are missing in most transition and post-transition countries.

  13. Evolution of Wave Energy Deposition Profile in HT-7 Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德; 石跃江; 匡光力; 刘岳修; 沈慰慈; 丁伯江

    2001-01-01

    Lower hybrid waves (LHWs) with a selected n‖ spectrum have been used to control the energy deposition profiles, and then the wave driven current profiles effectively in tokamak discharges. In our lower hybrid current drive experiment in the HT-7 tokamak, it was found that the set-up of the wave energy deposition profile is a graduation process. In the beginning phase of the wave injection duration, the waves (with different n‖ spectra)deposit almost all their energy in the central region of the plasma column, even if their n‖ are very different. Up to around one hundred milliseconds, the wave energy deposition profiles can only take their corresponding shapes according to the n‖ spectra of LHWs. It also shown that this evolution process is affected obviously by the LHW driven current profile, which has been formed early.

  14. Renewable Energy Services For Developing Countries - In support of the millennium development goals: recommended practice and key lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Almost 1.6 billion people currently live without electricity in developing countries. These people live in either remote rural areas that have no connection to electrical power grids, or urban areas with inadequate utility systems. The demand for energy in these countries is expected to grow with increases in population and living standards. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that developing countries will need to double their electrical power output by 2020. Despite the growth in energy consumption, the number of people disadvantaged by a lack of modern energy services has remained relatively unchanged. The focus of the international donor community is clearly aimed at poverty alleviation in general, and specifically at achieving the targets known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Renewable energy technologies have a tremendous potential in providing energy services to developing countries and in helping achieve the MDGs. This document highlights how meeting the MDGs can be facilitated through a sustainable energy supply, and provides case studies from around the world to demonstrate that these technologies are applicable in real-life situations. Based on these cumulative experiences and in order for energy services to be delivered effectively, key lessons and recommendations are put forward with regard to policy, finance and implementation. (author)

  15. Gait models and mechanical energy in three cross-country skiing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Zamparo, Paola; Schena, Federico

    2014-11-01

    Fluctuations in mechanical energy of the body center of mass (COM) have been widely analyzed when investigating different gaits in human and animal locomotion. We applied this approach to estimate the mechanical work in cross-country skiing and to identify the fundamental mechanisms of this particular form of locomotion. We acquired movements of body segments, skis, poles and plantar pressures for eight skiers while they roller skied on a treadmill at 14 km h(-1) and a 2 deg slope using three different techniques (diagonal stride, DS; double poling, DP; double poling with kick, DK). The work associated with kinetic energy (KE) changes of COM was not different between techniques; the work against gravity associated with potential energy (PE) changes was higher for DP than for DK and was lowest for DS. Mechanical work against the external environment was 0.87 J m(-1) kg(-1) for DS, 0.70 J m(-1) kg(-1) for DP and 0.79 J m(-1) kg(-1) for DK. The work done to overcome frictional forces, which is negligible in walking and running, was 17.8%, 32.3% and 24.8% of external mechanical work for DS, DP and DK, respectively. The pendulum-like recovery (R%) between PE and KE was ~45%, ~26% and ~9% for DP, DK and DS, respectively, but energy losses by friction are not accounted for in this computation. The pattern of fluctuations of PE and KE indicates that DS can be described as a 'grounded running', where aerial phases are substituted by ski gliding phases, DP can be described as a pendular gait, whereas DK is a combination of both.

  16. Profiling energy consumption of VMs for green cloud computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qingwen, C.; Grosso, P.; van der Veldt, K.; de Laat, C.; Hofman, R.; Bal, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    The GreenClouds project in the Netherlands in- vestigates a system-level approach towards greening High- Performance Computing (HPC) infrastructures and clouds. In this paper we present our initial results in profiling virtual machines with respect to three power metrics, i.e. power, power efficienc

  17. Nonequilibrium study of the intrinsic free-energy profile across a liquid-vapour interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Carlos, E-mail: ccorreia@imperial.ac.uk; Muscatello, Jordan, E-mail: jordan.muscatello@imperial.ac.uk; Lau, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.lau07@imperial.ac.uk; Müller, Erich A., E-mail: e.muller@imperial.ac.uk; Jackson, George, E-mail: g.jackson@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW72AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-28

    We calculate an atomistically detailed free-energy profile across a heterogeneous system using a nonequilibrium approach. The path-integral formulation of Crooks fluctuation theorem is used in conjunction with the intrinsic sampling method to calculate the free-energy profile for the liquid-vapour interface of the Lennard-Jones fluid. Free-energy barriers are found corresponding to the atomic layering in the liquid phase as well as a barrier associated with the presence of an adsorbed layer as revealed by the intrinsic density profile. Our findings are in agreement with profiles calculated using Widom’s potential distribution theorem applied to both the average and the intrinsic profiles as well as the literature values for the excess chemical potential.

  18. Regional profile, energy-impacted communities: Region VIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    This report has data on population, administration, finance, housing, health and safety, human services, education, and water and sewage for 325 energy-impacted communities. A review of current and potential energy developments in the region shows over 900 energy resource impacts listed for the 325 impacted communities. Coal development represents over one-third of the developments listed. Communities reporting coal development are distributed as follows: Colorado (36), Montana (42), North Dakota (61), South Dakota (13), Utah (73), and Wyoming (35). Energy-conversion initiatives represent another high incidence of energy-resource impact, with uranium development following closely with 83 communities reporting uranium development impact in the region. These projections indicate continued development of regional energy resources to serve national energy requirements. The 325 impacted communities as reported: Colorado (46), Montana (73), North Dakota (62), South Dakota (21), Utah (80), and Wyoming (43) follow a distribution pattern similar to that of future projects which illustrates that no area of the region will escape the impacts of energy development. (ERA citation 04:041706)

  19. Energy infrastructure in India: Profile and risks under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit; Naswa, Prakriti; Shukla, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    India has committed large investments to energy infrastructure assets-power plants, refineries, energy ports, pipelines, roads, railways, etc. The coastal infrastructure being developed to meet the rising energy imports is vulnerable to climate extremes. This paper provides an overview of climate...... risks to energy infrastructures in India and details two case studies - a crude oil importing port and a western coast railway transporting coal. The climate vulnerability of the port has been mapped using an index while that of the railway has been done through a damage function for RCP 4.5.0 and 8......-benefits. The key policy recommendations include: i) mandatory vulnerability assessment to future climate risks for energy infrastructures; ii) project and systemic risks in the vulnerability index; iii) adaptation funds for unmitigated climate risks; iv) continuous monitoring of climatic parameters...

  20. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE consumption and economic growth (EG in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA, Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK. The overall results indicate that (1 a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2 long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3 a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4 both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5 Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  1. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Agreed record. Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-20

    The Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000) was held in Tarawa, Kiribati, from September 20 to September 26, 2000. This meeting was sponsored by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. Countries present in the meeting were the Cook Islands, Micronesia, the Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Japan. In the meeting, a draft Regional Energy Logical Framework Matrix was recognized, and it was advised that the plan should be achieved by June 2001 by cooperation of CROP-EWG (the Committee of the Regional Organizations of the Pacific Working Group). In the meeting, the report on hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation was presented by CROP-EWG. For the hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation, efforts have been made, but they are still in a stage of the laboratory level. There is arising a feeling of unrest because the commercial exhibition is being made only in the Pacific region. To advise the order of priority in the energy field, CROP-EWG started the investigation into activities/plans of regional energy organizations. (NEDO)

  2. Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C; Ørtenblad, N

    2017-04-01

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance. The STT was repeated four times on a 1300-m simulated sprint course including three flat (1°) double poling (DP) sections interspersed with two uphill (7°) diagonal stride (DS) sections. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously during the four STTs and data were averaged. Supramaximal GE during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy contribution was 18 ± 5%, with an accumulated O2 deficit of 45 ± 13 mL/kg. Block-wise multiple regression revealed that VO2 , O2 deficit, and GE explained 30%, 15%, and 53% of the variance in STT time, respectively (all P < 0.05). This novel GE-based method of estimating the O2 deficit in simulated sprint-skiing has demonstrated an anaerobic energy contribution of 18%, with GE being the strongest predictor of performance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  4. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  5. On the cointegration and causality between oil market, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: evidence from developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naser, Hanan [Arab Open University, Faculty of Business Studies, A' ali (Bahrain)

    2017-06-15

    This study uses Johansen cointegration technique to examine both the equilibrium relationship and the causality between oil consumption, nuclear energy consumption, oil price and economic growth. To do so, four industrialized countries including the USA, Canada, Japan, and France are investigated over the period from 1965 to 2010. The cointegration test results suggest that the proposed variables tend to move together in the long run in all countries. In addition, the causal linkage between the variables is scrutinized through the exogeneity test. The results point that energy consumption (i.e., oil or nuclear) has either a predictive power for economic growth, or feedback impact with real GDP growth in all countries. Results suggest that oil consumption is not only a major factor of economic growth in all the investigated countries, it also has a predictive power for real GDP in the USA, Japan, and France. Precisely, increasing oil consumption by 1% increases the economic growth in Canada by 3.1%., where increasing nuclear energy consumption by 1% in Japan and France increases economic growth by 0.108 and 0.262%, respectively. Regarding nuclear energy consumption-growth nexus, results illustrate that nuclear energy consumption has a predictive power for real economic growth in the USA, Canada, and France. On the basis of speed of adjustment, it is concluded that there is bidirectional causality between oil consumption and economic growth in Canada. On the other hand, there is bidirectional causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP growth in Japan. (orig.)

  6. Epidemiologic profile of surgery for spinomedullary injury at a referral hospital in a country town of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Magnani Bernardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the epidemiological profile of patients undergoing surgery at a referral hospital in a small, country town. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out between February 2009 and May 2010, in a Regional Referral unit, with a total of 24 patients. The cases study included all patients undergoing surgery for spinal trauma during this period, with or without neurological deficits. The data analyzed were: sex, age, location and degree of the injury, and mechanism of the injury. Results: The medianage of the patients was 35.8 years, and 75% were male. The mechanisms of the injury were motorcycle accidents in 37.5%, falls in 33.3%, automobile accidents in 25%, and diving into shallow water in 4.2%. The vertebral level affected was the cervical spine in 44%, the thoracic spine in 36%, and the thoracolumbar level in 20%. The neurological damage, classified according ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association was complete, or category A in 37.5%, incomplete, or category B in 4.2%, incomplete, or category C in 12.5%, incomplete, or category D in 8.3%, and incomplete, or category E in 37.5%. In terms of access route, 64% of the procedures were performed with posterior access and 36% with anterior access. Conclusion: The epidemiological profile maintains the trend towards a prevalence of injuries among young men, affecting the cervical level, with the presence of spinal cord lesion. However, accidents involving motorcycles and fallings from heights are factors that can be modified by safety measures on the roads and in the workplace, which can reverse the high prevalence of these accidents.

  7. Influence of an imperfect energy profile on a seeded free electron laser performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Jia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A single-pass high-gain x-ray free electron laser (FEL calls for a high quality electron bunch. In particular, for a seeded FEL amplifier and for a harmonic generation FEL, the electron bunch initial energy profile uniformity is crucial for generating an FEL with a narrow bandwidth. After the acceleration, compression, and transportation, the electron bunch energy profile entering the undulator can acquire temporal nonuniformity. We study the influence of the electron bunch initial energy profile nonuniformity on the FEL performance. Intrinsically, for a harmonic generation FEL, the harmonic generation FEL in the final radiator starts with an electron bunch having energy modulation acquired in the previous stages, due to the FEL interaction at those FEL wavelengths and their harmonics. The influence of this electron bunch energy nonuniformity on the harmonic generation FEL in the final radiator is then studied.

  8. Survey of strategies for low-energy buildings in EU countries; Kortlaegning af strategier for lavenergibyggeri i EU lande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The overall objective of this task is to identify and analyze several European countries' approaches to regulate energy efficiency in new buildings. In addition, the study maps the initiatives established in relation to introduce voluntary low energy mechanisms at national level. As part of this work it has been a major goal to explore how individual countries are preparing the introduction of a ''nearly zero'' energy framework. The introduction of a ''nearly zero'' framework has been invoked via the new revised Building Directive (2010/31/EU) which requires that all new buildings are ''Nearly Zero'' by 31 December 2020, however, new public buildings must meet ''nearly zero'' requirement already by 31. December 2018. Finally, the survey also includes an examination of national and political conditions and current legislation on energy consumption in buildings. The countries in the survey are: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Britain, France, Switzerland and to a limited extent Ireland and Poland. The comparative analysis of the countries' efforts is presented in the main part of the report, and the individual country reports are presented in appendices. (LN)

  9. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 1: Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 1: Country reports) is the first report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This first report is the presentation of the countries studied in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The policy system and the political framework conditions that underpin energy related industrial activity are reviewed for each country. This includes energy strategies, laws and regulations, R&D and innovation policies and instruments, and international collaboration. Key actors and institutions in the public domain, research and education, and non-governmental organisations are mapped. Finally, the descriptions of the countries include also technology specific overviews of R&D-intensive firms in the energy sector. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports Part 3: Special reports The results are summarised in the Synthesis report. (Author). refs., 24 figs., 49 tabs

  10. Kinetic effect of high energy ions on the temperature profile in the boundary plasma region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezumi, N., E-mail: ezumi@nagano-nct.ac.jp [Nagano National College of Technology, 716 Tokuma, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Hayashi, Y.; Todoroki, K. [Nagano National College of Technology, 716 Tokuma, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Graduated School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Masuzaki, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduated School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Importance of ion dynamics in the boundary region has been discussed with experimental results of ion temperature (T{sub i}) measurements in linear plasma devices and its analytical model. Radial profiles of T{sub i} have been measured by using an ion sensitive probe in the linear devices CTP-HC and NAGDIS-II. The experiments indicate that T{sub i} is growing radially. Analytical ion-mean-energy profiles based on the ion Larmor motion are qualitatively consistent with the experimental T{sub i} profiles. These results clarify that the higher energy ions exist in the outside region of plasma flux tube.

  11. Person and consumption profiles. Building integrated energy supply; Person- og forbrugsprofiler. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The present report describes how person and consumption profiles used in this project are developed, and which data that form the basis for these profiles. The increasing requirements for energy in the building sector mean that the primary energy consumption ends close to or below zero within the next years. Therefore, the consumption in buildings becomes a relatively larger and larger part of the total energy demand in dwellings. It is important to investigate whether there are seasonal distributions of power and water consumption, because it might give a more exact result and describe the reality better than by using yearly values. First, the personal load determined, and then humidity and consumption of both power and hot water is defined. Second, the hourly profiles are developed based on analyses of seasonal distributions. These profiles also include cold domestic water to see whether there is a correlation between this and hot domestic water. (ln)

  12. Uzbekistan Country Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Pentecostal ("Full Gospel"),  10 Seventh-day Adventist,  8 Jewish organizations,  5 Roman Catholic,  6 Baha’i,  4 "New Apostolic ,"  3...Lutheran  2 Armenian Apostolic ,  1 Jehovah’s Witnesses, 1 Krishna Consciousness group,  1 Temple of Buddha,  1 Christian "Voice of God" Church

  13. Country profile: Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    A relatively minor oil exporter on Middle Eastern terms, Syria is a member of OPEC and one of the first Arab states to take control of its hydrocarbon resources from foreign domination. After a period of decline, a major discovery is opening new perspectives of Syria's future. The author describes Syria's history since it emerged from the Ottoman Empire and a period of French domination into a period of industrialization and economic development. Oil is the largest single item in the balance of payments and the leading provider of revenues for investment by the government. Since the first discoveries in the 1950s, a number of fields have become productive. The configuration of refineries makes it necessary to export crude oil and import light crude from the new discoveries, making crude oil and petroleum products the largest negative items on the balance of payments. 1 figure.

  14. Benin: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, A

    1987-10-01

    Since 1972, Benin has had an official Marxist-Leninist ideology; however, centralized state control contributed to economic stagnation and a search for capital investment. A special section of the World Bank is advising the Government of Benin on public sector reform and privatization, and an agreement with the International Monetary Fund seems likely. At present, 65% of Benin's labor force is engaged in subsistence agriculture, most of which is collectivized, and the gross national product per capita is US$260. The main cash crops are seed cotton and palm oil kernels used in soap and margarine. While women occupy key trade positions in the south of Benin, they are very oppressed in the north. Benin has a population of 4 million. The infant mortality rate is 115/1000 lives births and life expectancy is 43 years. Only 21% of the population has access to clean water. 40% of men, compared to just 17% of women, are literate.

  15. Kazakhstan Country Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Russia” party in Russia, President Nazarbaev controls the legislation through his proxy party the “Nur Otan ” in bicameral parliament which consists...of the Senate (47 seats) and the Mazhilis (107 seats). The People’s Democratic Party “Nur Otan ” is the pro-president party dominating the...lucrative positions. The party claims to have nearly 700,000 members nationwide. The Otan was founded in 1999 and was joined by the Civic Party, the

  16. Hong Kong: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozzard, A

    1988-09-01

    In the 1840s, the small fishing community that is now Hong Kong became a British colony and an important naval base for the Opium Wars. Now it is a leading capitalist center operating on mainland communist China. Hong Kong is scheduled to go back to China in 1997. In the agreement signed between the British government and China, Hong Kong's present lifestyle is guaranteed for at least 50 years. Textbook colonialism rules here. Foreigners hold the key jobs and earn much more than do the indigenous people. They even receive subsidized housing in this very high rent colony. As for the Hong Kong Chinese, overcrowding into 2 room apartments is the norm even though the government tries to provide more housing units. The large skyscrapers in the New Territories breed their unique social and mental health problems, such as poverty, drug abuse and frustration. Essentially all food is imported from communist China, yet agriculture in Hong Kong does exist--pig farms, duck lakes, and fields of the popular vegetable choi sum. Major industry comprise textiles and sweat shops which pay their workers (mostly illegal immigrants and children with no legal protection) wages that are 1/4 of those paid in Great Britain. Financial services, trade, and tourism may soon dominate Hong Kong's economy. Almost 4 million tourists visit Hong Kong yearly, often looking for bargains. Despite Hong Kong's active Western-like business climate, Chinese culture still abounds. Traditional incense burns in Buddhist temples. Snake soup is served in restaurants. Plus traditional medicine practiced alongside Western medicine contributes to Hong Kong having 1 of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (9/1000) and to its high life expectancy of 76 years.

  17. Country Profile Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2012-01-01

    This Danish national expert report for the social housing sector decribes the the legal framework for the sector, it's role for national and local housing matters, how it is managed etc. The information and the data in the report is included in the final report from the SSGI study (STUDY ON SOCIAL...... SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST publised by European Commission - DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion....

  18. Kyrgyzstan Country Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    1. Presidential elections on July 23, 2009 28 2. Return of a large army of labor migrants put additional pressure...beds: Number of beds per 10,000 population19 13 “Kuda dvizhetsa sistema obrazovaniya Kyrgyzskoy...Science Abdulda Musaev Minister of Healthcare Marat Mambetov Minister of Labor and Social Development Nazgul Tashpaeva Minister of Culture

  19. Country Profile Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2012-01-01

    This Danish national expert report for the social housing sector decribes the the legal framework for the sector, it's role for national and local housing matters, how it is managed etc. The information and the data in the report is included in the final report from the SSGI study (STUDY ON SOCIA...... SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST publised by European Commission - DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion....

  20. Are Fluctuations in Energy Consumption Transitory or Permanent? Evidence From a Panel of East Asia & Pacific Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita for 15 East Asia & Pacific countries employing the Lagrange Multiplier (LM panel unit root test with one structural break for 1971-2007. When we apply the LM univariate test without break, we find a unit root in per capita consumption for Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Myanmar. However, when we apply LM unit root with structural break, we find overwhelming evidence that there is no unit root in per capita energy consumption for these 15 East Asia & Pacific countries.

  1. Asynchronous event driven distributed energy management using profile steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, G.; Molderink, A.; Hurink, J. L.; Smit, G. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed Energy Management methodologies with a scheduling approach based on predictions require means to avoid problems related to prediction errors. Various approaches deal with such prediction errors by applying a different online control mechanism, such as a double-sided auction. However,

  2. Energy profile and secondary structure impact shRNA efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a cellular mechanism in which a short/small double stranded RNA induces the degradation of its sequence specific target mRNA, leading to specific gene silencing. Since its discovery, RNAi has become a powerful biological technique for gene function studies and drug discovery. The very first requirement of applying RNAi is to design functional small interfering RNA (siRNA that can uniquely induce the degradation of the targeted mRNA. It has been shown that many functional synthetic siRNAs share some common characteristics, such as GC content limitation and free energy preferences at both terminals, etc. Results Our three-phase algorithm was developed to design siRNA on a whole-genome scale based on those identified characteristics of functional siRNA. When this algorithm was applied to design short hairpin RNA (shRNA, the validated success rate of shRNAs was over 70%, which was almost double the rate reported for TRC library. This indicates that the designs of siRNA and shRNA may share the same concerns. Further analysis of the shRNA dataset of 444 designs reveals that the high free energy states of the two terminals have the largest positive impact on the shRNA efficacy. Enforcing these energy characteristics of both terminals can further improve the shRNA design success rate to 83.1%. We also found that functional shRNAs have less probability for their 3' terminals to be involved in mRNA secondary structure formation. Conclusion Functional shRNAs prefer high free energy states at both terminals. High free energy states of the two terminals were found to be the largest positive impact factor on shRNA efficacy. In addition, the accessibility of the 3' terminal is another key factor to shRNA efficacy.

  3. Energy performance requirements for new buildings in 11 countries from Central Europe. Exemplary comparison of three buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Knissel, Jens; Diefenbach, Nikolaus

    2008-12-05

    The objective of the present comparison study is to show which energy efficiency require-ments have to be complied in different European countries when a new building is going to be constructed. For this purpose three Model Buildings were defined: a single-family house, a multi-family house and a school building. For each involved country (or region) the energy quality of the thermal envelope was determined which is necessary in order to just comply with the building code. Due to requirements on the overall energy performance the requested envelope quality usually depends also on the type of heat supply system or energy carrier. Therefore the systems were varied in a parameter study. The main result for each of the three Model Buildings is a comparison table which shows the heat transfer coefficient by transmission (a sort of mean U-value) for the different countries differenti-ated by supply system types. In a final step the primary energy demand according to the German regulation (EnEV 2007) was calculated for every envelope/system combination of the different countries. This allows a comparison of buildings with different supply systems. The study was performed by experts from 11 European member states: Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Denmark, UK, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazlioglu, Saban, E-mail: snazlioglu@pau.edu.tr [Department of Econometrics, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Lebe, Fuat, E-mail: fuat.lebe@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey); Kayhan, Selim, E-mail: selim.kayhan@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: > Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. > Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. > The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  5. National health policy-makers' views on the clarity and utility of Countdown to 2015 country profiles and reports: findings from two exploratory qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Benjamin M; Requejo, Jennifer H; Pope, Ian; Daelmans, Bernadette; Murray, Susan F

    2014-08-15

    The use of sets of indicators to assess progress has become commonplace in the global health arena. Exploratory research has suggested that indicators used for global monitoring purposes can play a role in national policy-making, however, the mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly understood. This article reports findings from two qualitative studies that aimed to explore national policy-makers' interpretation and use of indicators from country profiles and reports developed by Countdown to 2015. An initial study aimed at exploring comprehension of Countdown data was conducted at the 2010 joint Women Deliver/Countdown conference. A second study was conducted at the 64th World Health Assembly in 2011, specifically targeting national policy-makers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 29 and 22 participants, respectively, at each event. Participants were asked about their understanding of specific graphs and indicators used or proposed for use in Countdown country profiles, and their perception of how such data can inform national policy-making. Responses were categorised using a framework analysis. Respondents in both studies acknowledged the importance of the profiles for tracking progress on key health indicators in and across countries, noting that they could be used to highlight changes in coverage, possible directions for future policy, for lobbying finance ministers to increase resources for health, and to stimulate competition between neighbouring or socioeconomically similar countries. However, some respondents raised questions about discrepancies between global estimates and data produced by national governments, and some struggled to understand the profile graphs shown in the absence of explanatory text. Some respondents reported that use of Countdown data in national policy-making was constrained by limited awareness of the initiative, insufficient detail in the country profiles to inform policy, and the absence of indicators felt to

  6. Output, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and international trade: Evidence from a panel of 69 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses panel cointegration techniques to examine the causal relationship between output, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, and international trade for a sample of 69 countries during the period 1980-2007. In the short-run, Granger causality tests show that there is evidence of a bidirectional causality between output and trade (exports or imports), a one way causality running from renewable energy consumption to trade, and a bidirectional feedback causality between non-...

  7. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  8. Regional developments in energy systems, economics and climate. 6.2. China, India and other rapidly developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.; Dhar, S.; Halsnaes, K.

    2008-12-15

    Despite fluctuations in global economic growth, some countries' economic growth consistently outperforms that of others. These rapidly growing economies are powerhouses for regional economic growth. Through market reforms, their productivity and competitiveness on the global market are increasing. The dynamics and influence of these countries cannot be neglected in an analysis of global economy, energy, and GHG emissions in the coming decades because of their large economic sizes and big populations. China, India, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa, and other large and rapidly-emerging economies are important forces, shaping global trends in development, energy, and climate change mitigation. The enormous investments in energy infrastructure in these countries in the years to come will provide a rare window of opportunity for low-carbon development and low-cost reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, they face the challenge of supporting economic growth and eliminating poverty for billions of people in a world already facing many constraints on energy and carbon emissions. Of all the emerging economies, China and India deserve special attention due to their huge populations, large economies, and remarkable economic growth over the last three decades. This section will examine the recent trends in the economic, energy, and climate development in China and India and sets the stage for the analysis of the future energy system and climate implication analysis in the next chapter. (au)

  9. 77 FR 43591 - Tri-State Financial Co., LLC, (d/b/a North Country Ethanol), Red River Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tri-State Financial Co., LLC, (d/b/a North Country Ethanol), Red River Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 10, 2012, Tri-State Financial Co., LLC, d/ b/a North Country Ethanol (Tri-State), and Red River Energy, LLC (Red River) filed an application, pursuant...

  10. Non-Compliance with Building Energy Regulations: The Profile, Issues, and Implications on Practice and Policy in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Garmston

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The built environment consumes as much as 50% of many countries’ primary energy resources. Building energy regulations aim to reduce building energy consumption. However, non-compliance risks efficacy of such regulations and monetary costs to the construction industry and consumers. This paper examines the profile, issues and implications of non-compliance internationally with a focus on the case of new-build dwellings in England and Wales. Non-compliance has been observed internationally in both developed and developing countries. The issues underlying the non-compliance include perceptions of triviality towards the energy efficiency regulations, piecemeal dissemination, and a lack of familiarisation and training. Such lack of compliance may paradoxically risk ever more stringent regulations being accompanied by persistent non-compliance. To address the underlying issues, significant attention of both policy and practice must be paid to the formation, implementation and enforcement of building energy regulations, as well as to the training and education in building practices.

  11. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives

  12. Basic investigation project for energy consumption efficiency improvement in developing countries. Invitation of engineers from developing countries (Vietnam, Philippines, and India); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo. Hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo (Betonamu, Philippines, Indo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The International Center of Environmental Technology Transfer has invited seven engineers from Vietnam, eight from Philippines and two from India for human resource education project for environmental preservation in developing countries. Those who were invited are administrative officials and engineers who work at administrative agents, research institutes and corporations related to energy conservation and environment preservation. In this invitation program, lecturers were invited from governmental offices, universities and corporations according to their expertise fields to carry out lectures and site training. With respect to energy conservation, lectures were given on a `summary of energy saving methods` by a lecturer invited from the Chubu Governmental Department of Trade and Industry, and on an `introduction to new energies` by Prof. Shimizu at the Engineering Faculty of the Mie University. Both lecturers emphasized the necessity of energy conservation, and importance of new energies as clean energies. The trainees showed strong interest when they visited a `cement factory` and a `coal burning thermal power plant` as the key industries. Their experience would be reflected strongly on guiding operations of factories in their own countries. 56 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Interpretation of Wire-Scanner asymmetric profiles in a Low-Energy ring

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086340; Benedetto, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In the CERN PS Booster, wire-scanner profile measurements performed at injection energy are affected by a strong asymmetry. The shape was reproduced with the code PyORBIT, assuming that the effect is due to the beam evolution during the scans, under the influence of space-charge forces and Multiple Coulomb Scattering at the wire itself. Reproducing the transverse profiles during beam evolution allows to use them reliably as input for simulation benchmarking.

  14. Renewable energy sources in Basque Country. Recursos energeticos renovables en la comunidad autonoma del Pais Vasco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ente Vasco de la Energia (EVE. Vitoria (Spain))

    1992-07-01

    The Autonomous Basque Energy Authority makes an analysis on the final results obtained during 1980 decade promoting renewable energies: Minihydroelectric power plants, solar thermal, photovoltaics, biomass and Wind Energy. New goals until the year 2000 are outlined.

  15. Energy Consumption, Trade and GDP: A Case Study of South Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Majeed, Muhammad Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Using panel co-integration approach over the period 1980-2009 for South Asian economies, this study investigates the dynamic linkages between energy consumption, trade and GDP. The results show that, in the short run, feedback relationship holds between energy consumption and GDP and between energy consumption and exports. In the long run, the feedback relation holds between energy and GDP while unidirectional causality holds from export to energy. Thus, feedback hypothesis between energy and...

  16. Basic principles of thermo-acoustic energy and temporal profile detection of microwave pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V G; Vdovin, V A

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles of a thermo-acoustic method developed for the detection of powerful microwave pulses of nanosecond duration are discussed.A proposed method is based on the registration of acoustic pulse profile originated from the thermal expansion of the volume where microwave energy was absorbed.The amplitude of excited acoustic transient is proportional to absorbed microwave energy and its temporal profile resembles one of a microwave pulse when certain conditions are satisfied.The optimal regimes of microwave pulse energy detection and sensitivity of acoustic transient registration with piezo-transducer are discussed.It was demonstrated that profile of a microwave pulse could be detected with temporal resolution of 1 - 3 nanosecond.

  17. From Smart-Eco Building to High-Performance Architecture: Optimization of Energy Consumption in Architecture of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinejad, M.; Bitaab, N.

    2017-08-01

    Search for high-performance architecture and dreams of future architecture resulted in attempts towards meeting energy efficient architecture and planning in different aspects. Recent trends as a mean to meet future legacy in architecture are based on the idea of innovative technologies for resource efficient buildings, performative design, bio-inspired technologies etc. while there are meaningful differences between architecture of developed and developing countries. Significance of issue might be understood when the emerging cities are found interested in Dubaization and other related booming development doctrines. This paper is to analyze the level of developing countries’ success to achieve smart-eco buildings’ goals and objectives. Emerging cities of West of Asia are selected as case studies of the paper. The results of the paper show that the concept of high-performance architecture and smart-eco buildings are different in developing countries in comparison with developed countries. The paper is to mention five essential issues in order to improve future architecture of developing countries: 1- Integrated Strategies for Energy Efficiency, 2- Contextual Solutions, 3- Embedded and Initial Energy Assessment, 4- Staff and Occupancy Wellbeing, 5- Life-Cycle Monitoring.

  18. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC. (author)

  19. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel, E-mail: dr09@aub.edu.l [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

  20. Predicting Low Energy Dopant Implant Profiles in Semiconductors using Molecular Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardmore, K.M.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.

    1999-05-02

    The authors present a highly efficient molecular dynamics scheme for calculating dopant density profiles in group-IV alloy, and III-V zinc blende structure materials. Their scheme incorporates several necessary methods for reducing computational overhead, plus a rare event algorithm to give statistical accuracy over several orders of magnitude change in the dopant concentration. The code uses a molecular dynamics (MD) model to describe ion-target interactions. Atomic interactions are described by a combination of 'many-body' and pair specific screened Coulomb potentials. Accumulative damage is accounted for using a Kinchin-Pease type model, inelastic energy loss is represented by a Firsov expression, and electronic stopping is described by a modified Brandt-Kitagawa model which contains a single adjustable ion-target dependent parameter. Thus, the program is easily extensible beyond a given validation range, and is therefore truly predictive over a wide range of implant energies and angles. The scheme is especially suited for calculating profiles due to low energy and to situations where a predictive capability is required with the minimum of experimental validation. They give examples of using the code to calculate concentration profiles and 2D 'point response' profiles of dopants in crystalline silicon and gallium-arsenide. Here they can predict the experimental profile over five orders of magnitude for <100> and <110> channeling and for non-channeling implants at energies up to hundreds of keV.

  1. eProS--a database and toolbox for investigating protein sequence-structure-function relationships through energy profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, Florian; Schildbach, Stefan; Stockmann, Daniel; Labudde, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Gaining information about structural and functional features of newly identified proteins is often a difficult task. This information is crucial for understanding sequence-structure-function relationships of target proteins and, thus, essential in comprehending the mechanisms and dynamics of the molecular systems of interest. Using protein energy profiles is a novel approach that can contribute in addressing such problems. An energy profile corresponds to the sequence of energy values that are derived from a coarse-grained energy model. Energy profiles can be computed from protein structures or predicted from sequences. As shown, correspondences and dissimilarities in energy profiles can be applied for investigations of protein mechanics and dynamics. We developed eProS (energy profile suite, freely available at http://bioservices.hs-mittweida.de/Epros/), a database that provides ∼76 000 pre-calculated energy profiles as well as a toolbox for addressing numerous problems of structure biology. Energy profiles can be browsed, visualized, calculated from an uploaded structure or predicted from sequence. Furthermore, it is possible to align energy profiles of interest or compare them with all entries in the eProS database to identify significantly similar energy profiles and, thus, possibly relevant structural and functional relationships. Additionally, annotations and cross-links from numerous sources provide a broad view of potential biological correspondences.

  2. The energy profiles of atomic conformational transition intermediates of adenylate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaping; Yang, Lei; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L

    2009-11-15

    The elastic network interpolation (ENI) (Kim et al., Biophys J 2002;83:1620-1630) is a computationally efficient and physically realistic method to generate conformational transition intermediates between two forms of a given protein. However it can be asked whether these calculated conformations provide good representatives for these intermediates. In this study, we use ENI to generate conformational transition intermediates between the open form and the closed form of adenylate kinase (AK). Based on C(alpha)-only intermediates, we construct atomic intermediates by grafting all the atoms of known AK structures onto the C(alpha) atoms and then perform CHARMM energy minimization to remove steric conflicts and optimize these intermediate structures. We compare the energy profiles for all intermediates from both the CHARMM force-field and from knowledge-based energy functions. We find that the CHARMM energies can successfully capture the two energy minima representing the open AK and closed AK forms, while the energies computed from the knowledge-based energy functions can detect the local energy minimum representing the closed AK form and show some general features of the transition pathway with a somewhat similar energy profile as the CHARMM energies. The combinatorial extension structural alignment (Shindyalov et al., 1998;11:739-747) and the k-means clustering algorithm are then used to show that known PDB structures closely resemble computed intermediates along the transition pathway.

  3. Derisking Renewable Energy Investment. A Framework to Support Policymakers in Selecting Public Instruments to Promote Renewable Energy Investment in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waissbein, Oliver; Glemarec, Yannick; Bayraktar, Hande; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2013-03-15

    This report introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers to quantitatively compare the impact of different public instruments to promote renewable energy. The report identifies the need to reduce the high financing costs for renewable energy in developing countries as an important task for policymakers acting today. The framework is structured in four stages: (i) risk environment, (ii) public instruments, (iii) levelised cost and (iv) evaluation. To illustrate how the framework can support decision-making in practice, the report presents findings from illustrative case studies in four developing countries. It then draws on these results to discuss possible directions for enhancing public interventions to scale-up renewable energy investment. UNDP is also releasing a financial tool for policymakers to accompany the framework. The financial tool is available for download on the UNDP website.

  4. Breed and parity effects on energy balance profiles through lactation: evidence of genetically driven body energy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friggens, N C; Berg, P; Theilgaard, P; Korsgaard, I R; Ingvartsen, K L; Løvendahl, P; Jensen, J

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of energy balance through lactation of cows kept under constant feeding conditions. Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Jersey cows were studied during consecutive lactations and remained on the same dietary treatment throughout. They were fed a normal (13.55 MJ of digestible energy/kg of dry matter) or a lower energy diet (12.88 MJ of digestible energy/kg of dry matter) ad libitum throughout lactation. Energy balance was calculated using the effective energy (EE) system in such a way that energy balance equated to body energy reserve change. In the EE system the energy values assigned to feeds are directly equivalent to the energy requirements of the animal; 1 MJ of EE supply has the same energy value as 1 MJ of lipid loss from the body. The resulting body energy change data were analyzed using a linear spline model. There was no evidence to suggest that different combinations of breed and parity required different knot placements. The Holstein mobilized significantly more body energy in early lactation than the Danish Red and Jersey breeds. Parity 1 cows mobilized significantly less than parity 2 and 3 cows. There was a significant interaction between breed and parity in the first half of lactation due to parity 1 Jersey cows having a greater mobilization than would be expected of the difference between parities in the other breeds. As lactation progressed, the differences between parities and between breeds decreased. Cows on the higher energy diet had a more positive energy balance. Within breed and parity, the following possible predictors of individual differences in body energy change were examined: fatness-corrected live weight, condition score at calving, and genotype. There was no difference in the predicted cow effect or residual energy balance profile when grouped according to quartiles of corrected live weight or according to condition score at calving. During the period of most negative energy balance (d

  5. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and Co{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted for China, India, Indonesia and South Korea in Asia.

  6. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of Energy in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketoff, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist energy demand in developing will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted fro Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela in Latin America.

  7. Impacts of NMVOC emissions on human health in European countries for 2000-2010: Use of sector-specific substance profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    available speciation profiles, i.e. distributions of substances emitted per type of sources, and sectoral NMVOC information to reach country-specific, substance-specific emission profiles. Annual emission inventories, including 270 single substances and 52 unrefined groups of substances, were determined...... impacts (i) are caused by few substances, such as formaldehyde, acrolein and furan, (ii) primarily stem from transportation sectors and from residential sources, and (iii) are found not to correlate with total NMVOC emissions. Our findings therefore suggest the need for supporting air pollution abatement...... strategies with comprehensive impact assessments, which, in addition to complementing emission- and concentrationbased indicators, should allow identifying country-specific improvement potentials at substance and sector levels. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  9. Gem Detectors For the Transverse Profile Measurement of Low Energy Antiprotons and High Energy Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Spanggaard, J; Duarte Pinto, S; Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are finding more and more applications in beam instrumentation. Gas Electron Multiplication is a very similar physical phenomenon to that which occurs in Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC), but for small profile monitors GEMs are much more cost effective to produce and maintain. \

  10. Energy conversion strategies in the European paper industry : A case study in three countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurijssen, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Worrell, E.

    2012-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry both uses and produces large amounts of energy and rising fuel prices bring along significant challenges to the sector. Several strategies can be applied in order to remain competitive e.g. an increase in energy efficiency, a switch in fuel and/or a novel energy

  11. Nutrient flows in small-scale bio-energy use in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Wösten, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the opportunities for the retention and return of nutrients in local bio-energy production using energy crops (oil palm, jatropha and cassava), fuel wood, manure, rice husks and a common pest plant (water hyacinth). For all bio-energy systems some return of nutrients is possible,

  12. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209...

  13. Surface energy from order parameter profile: At the QCD phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Z.; Patkos, A.

    1989-01-01

    The order parameter profile between coexisting confined and plasma regions at the quantum chromodynamic (QCD) phase transition is constructed. The dimensionless combination of the surface energy (Sigma) and the correlation length (Zeta) is estimated to be Sigma Zeta 3 approximately equals 0.8.

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: California Energy Standards Recognize the Importance of Filter Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America research on HVAC air filter sizing that prompted a change in the California “Title 24” Energy Code requiring filter manufacturers, HVAC designers, and HERS raters to make changes that will encourage the use of higher MERV filters without degrading HVAC performance.

  15. Load profile impact on the gross energy requirement of stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiaux, Y.; Seigneurbieux, J.; Multon, B.; Ben Ahmed, H. [SATIE, ENS CACHAN Bretagne, CNRS, UEB, Avenue Robert Schuman, F-35170 Bruz (France)

    2010-03-15

    The sizing optimization of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic system (SAPV) is a very complex issue. Therefore, a compromise solution must be made between having an acceptable energy and economic cost for the consumer, and a relatively correct energy supply quality. The Gross Energy Requirement (GER) of an SAPV system corresponds to the primary energy total amount required for the production, the maintenance and the recycling of this system. Reducing the GER is thus, an effective way to promote the development of SAPV systems. Therefore, the load profile management, in order to get closer to the ideal 'solar' consumer, allows the downsizing of the system. In this paper, a methodology for studying the impact of load profiles on GER is proposed. Two different modifications parameters have been considered theoretically on idealized load and production profiles: the load shifting which seems simpler to implement in the reality, and the amplitude modulation. Furthermore, the NSGA-II genetic algorithm has been used to confirm theoretical outcomes and to optimize SAPV system sizing for three realistic load profiles, with the aim of quantifying the GER reduction, by minimizing the storage capacity (taking into account the replacements due to cycling) which is one of the weak points of such a system, and by PV panels downsizing. (author)

  16. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs(+) beams (organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs(+) ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  17. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  18. The environmental profile of a community's health: a cross-sectional study on tobacco marketing in 16 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Gilmore, Anna B; Sims, Michelle; Mony, Prem K; Koon, Teo; Yusoff, Khalid; Lear, Scott A; Seron, Pamela; Ismail, Noorhassim; Calik, K Burcu Tumerdem; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Kruger, Annamarie; Swidan, Hany; Gupta, Rajeev; Igumbor, Ehimario; Afridi, Asad; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Mohan, V; Mohan, Deepa; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Poirier, Paul; Orlandini, Andres; Li, Wei; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim; Chow, Clara K

    2015-12-01

    To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing. Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders. Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15-1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17-5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23-5.17, respectively). Of the 11,842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24-76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities. Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities.

  19. The environmental profile of a community’s health: a cross-sectional study on tobacco marketing in 16 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Gilmore, Anna B; Sims, Michelle; Mony, Prem K; Koon, Teo; Yusoff, Khalid; Lear, Scott A; Seron, Pamela; Ismail, Noorhassim; Calik, K Burcu Tumerdem; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Kruger, Annamarie; Swidan, Hany; Gupta, Rajeev; Igumbor, Ehimario; Afridi, Asad; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Mohan, V; Mohan, Deepa; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Poirier, Paul; Orlandini, Andres; Li, Wei; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing. Methods Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders. Findings Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15–1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17–5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23–5.17, respectively). Of the 11 842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24–76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities. Conclusion Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities. PMID:26668437

  20. Energy diplomacy under scrutiny: parliamentary control of intergovernmental agreements with third‐country suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herranz-Surrallés, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on legislative‒executive relations in foreign affairs has generally assumed that parliaments are more active in ‘intermestic’ affairs than in traditional foreign policy issues. This paper revisits this assumption by examining whether parliaments in European countries scrutinise crucial deci

  1. A new scheme for the promotion of renewable energies in developing countries: the renewable energy regulated purchase tariff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Aulich, H.; Ahm, P.; Adelmann, P.; Bounia, A.; Fabre, E.; Fioravanti, E.; Hosini, F.; Jongerden, G.J.; Jourde, P.; Kukuczka, T.; Llamas, P.; Macias, E.; Mayer, D.; Maigne, Y.; Moner, M.; McNelis, B.; Nemac, F.; Sener, O.; Ribeiro, F.; Samak, I.; Schmid, J.; Shah, Arvind; Shanker, A.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Vallvé, X.; Wohlthat, A.; Wollny, M.; Wouters, F.

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this policy-support document is to attract policy-makers attention in renewable energies deployment, offering to energy and development stakeholders an alternative subsidy-scheme to support electrification in a village-scale mini-grid based on the good performance of the renewable el

  2. Viva la revolucion energetica : in two short years, energy-smart Cuba has bolted past every country on the planet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Stone, L. [Solar Energy International, Carbondale, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) recently declared Cuba to be the only country in the world that is approaching sustainable development. The assessment was based on the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI) which is calculated using life expectancy, literacy and education per capita GDP. In the mid-1990s Cuba embarked on a campaign to save energy and use more renewables, including wind and solar energy. Equipping off-grid public schools, health clinics and social centres with solar energy panels made lights, computers and educational television programs accessible to all students. An effort in 2005 to decentralize energy involved generating electricity in smaller substations. More than 3,000 MW of power is now produced in 110 municipalities and blackouts have been essentially eliminated. In 2006, Cuba launched its Revolucion Energetica, an energy conservation plan to upgrade its 11 antiquated and inefficient thermoelectric plants. The country now consumes 34 per cent less kerosene, 37 per cent less liquefied petroleum gas and 80 per cent less gasoline. The five main aspects of the energy conservation plan are energy efficiency and conservation; increasing the availability and reliability of the national grid; incorporating more renewable energy technologies into its energy portfolio; increasing the exploration and production of local oil and gas; and international cooperation. In 2 years, nearly 2 million refrigerators, 1 million fans, 182,000 air conditions and 260,000 water pumps were replaced with more energy efficient models and compact fluorescent light bulbs were handed out for free until all incandescent bulbs were replaced. Cuba's per capita energy consumption is one-eighth that of the United States, while its access to health services, education levels and life expectancy match those of the United States. A new residential electricity tariff gives a favourable rate to residents who consume less than 100 kWh per month

  3. Profile and imbalance cost of wind energy in 2012; Profiel- en onbalanskosten van windenergie in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Lensink, S. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-03-28

    This paper describes the method to determine the profile and imbalance costs of wind energy under the SDE+ scheme (Renewable Energy Incentive Plus). This method was first applied in the advice on the final correction figures for 2012. For 2012, the sum of profile and imbalance charges is set at 12.4% of the market index. This implies a slight increase with respect to the percentage in previous years (11%) [Dutch] Deze notitie beschrijft de methode om de profiel- en onbalanskosten van windenergie te bepalen in het kader van de SDE+-regeling (Stimuleringsregeling Duurzame Energie Plus). Deze methode is voor het eerst toegepast in het advies over de definitieve correctiebedragen 2012. Voor 2012 is de som van profiel- en onbalanskosten bepaald op 12,4% van de marktindex. Dit impliceert een geringe stijging ten opzichte van het percentage in voorgaande jaren (11%)

  4. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzkes, J.; Zeil, K.; Kraft, S. D.; Karsch, L.; Sobiella, M.; Rehwald, M.; Obst, L.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schramm, U.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ˜4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source.

  5. Nutrient-dense food groups have high energy costs: an econometric approach to nutrient profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Darmon, Nicole; Darmon, Michel; Lafay, Lionel; Drewnowski, Adam

    2007-07-01

    Consumers wishing to replace some of the foods in their diets with more nutrient-dense options need to be able to identify such foods on the basis of nutrient profiling. The present study used nutrient profiling to rank 7 major food groups and 25 subgroups in terms of their contribution to dietary energy, diet quality, and diet cost for 1332 adult participants in the French National INCA1 Study. Nutrient profiles were based on the presence of 23 qualifying nutrients, expressed as the percentage of nutrient adequacy per 8 MJ, and 3 negative or disqualifying nutrients, expressed as the percentage of the maximal recommended values for saturated fatty acids, added sugar, and sodium per 1.4 kg. Calculated cost of energy (euro/8 MJ) was based on the mean retail price of 619 foods in the nutrient composition database. The meat and the fruit and vegetables food groups had the highest nutritional quality but were associated with highest energy costs. Sweets and salted snacks had the lowest nutritional quality but were also one of the least expensive sources of dietary energy. Starches and grains were unique because they were low in disqualifying nutrients yet provided low-cost dietary energy. Within each major food group, some subgroups had a higher nutritient-to-price ratio than others. However, the fact that food groups with the more favorable nutrient profiles were also associated with higher energy costs suggests that the present structure of food prices may be a barrier to the adoption of food-based dietary guidelines, at least by low-income households.

  6. Energy profiling of demersal fish: a case-study in wind farm artificial reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troch, Marleen; Reubens, Jan T; Heirman, Elke; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-12-01

    The construction of wind farms introduces artificial hard substrates in sandy sediments. As Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and pouting (Trisopterus luscus) tend to aggregate in order to feed around these reefs, energy profiling and trophic markers were applied to study their feeding ecology in a wind farm in the Belgian part of the North Sea. The proximate composition (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) differed significantly between liver and muscle tissue but not between fish species or between their potential prey species. Atlantic cod showed to consume more energy than pouting. The latter had a higher overall energy reserve and can theoretically survive twice as long on the available energy than cod. In autumn, both fish species could survive longer on their energy than in spring. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in high concentrations in fish liver. The prey species Jassa and Pisidia were both rich in EPA while Jassa had a higher DHA content than Pisidia. Energy profiling supported the statement that wind farm artificial reefs are suitable feeding ground for both fish species. Sufficient energy levels were recorded and there is no indication of competition.

  7. Enhancement and Optimization Mechanisms of Biogas Production for Rural Household Energy in Developing Countries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is common but vital process used for biogas and fertilizer production as well as one method for waste treatment. The process is currently used in developing countries primarily for biogas production in the household level of rural people. The aim of this review is to indicate possible ways of including rural households who own less than four heads of cattle for the biogas programs in developing countries. The review provides different research out puts on using biogas substrates other than cow dung or its mix through different enhancement and optimization mechanisms. Many biodegradable materials have been studied for alternative methane production. Therefore, these substrates could be used for production by addressing the optimum conditions for each factor and each processes for enhanced and optimized biogas production.

  8. INCOME AND ENERGY SOURCES AMONG AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW CARBON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mkpado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon power comes from sources that produce fewer greenhouse gases than do traditional means of power generation. It includes zero carbon power generation sources, such as wind power, solar power, geothermal power and (except for fuel preparation nuclear power, as well as sources with lower-level emissions such as natural and petroleum gas, and also technologies that prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon capture and storage. This article correlated value of income from different sources to energy sources used by agrarian households in Nigeria and drew implications for low carbon development in Africa. It analysis included use of wind power for irrigation purposes, harnessing solar energy for lightening and possible cost implications. Secondary data were collected from Community Based Monitoring System Nigeria Project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and qualitative analysis were employed. The average annual income of agrarian households from different sources such as crop farming, livestock farming, petty trading, forest exploitation, remittance and labour per day was below the poverty line of $1 per day. The source of energy that had the highest number of significant correlation was electrical energy (low carbon electrical energy. It showed the possibility of pooling resources as farmers group to attract grants or equity financing to build wind mills for irrigation. The study recommended use of energy efficient bulbs to reduce CO2 emissions. This requires creating awareness among rural dwellers of the need to make such change.

  9. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  10. Evolution of density and velocity profiles of dark matter and dark energy in spherical voids

    CERN Document Server

    Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Kulinich, Yurij

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the evolution of cosmological perturbations which leads to the formation of large isolated voids in the Universe. We assume that initial perturbations are spherical and all components of the Universe (radiation, matter and dark energy) are continuous media with perfect fluid energy-momentum tensors, which interact only gravitationally. Equations of the evolution of perturbations for every component in the comoving to cosmological background reference frame are obtained from equations of energy and momentum conservation and Einstein's ones and are integrated numerically. Initial conditions are set at the early stage of evolution in the radiation-dominated epoch, when the scale of perturbation is much larger than the particle horizon. Results show how the profiles of density and velocity of matter and dark energy are formed and how they depend on parameters of dark energy and initial conditions. In particular, it is shown that final matter density and velocity amplitudes change within range $\\sim$4-7...

  11. Energy drink usage among university students in a Caribbean country: Patterns of use and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sandra D; Ramsarran, Jonathan; Brathwaite, Rachel; Lyman, Sarika; Baker, Ariane; Cornish, D'Andra C; Ganga, Stefan; Mohammed, Zahrid; Sookdeo, Avinash T; Thapelo, Cathrine K

    2015-06-01

    There has been little inquiry addressing whether or not concerns about adverse effects of energy drink usage are relevant in the Caribbean. This survey investigated energy drink usage and adverse consequences among tertiary level students in Trinidad and Tobago. A cross-sectional survey of 1994 students from eight institutions was conducted using a de novo questionnaire based on findings from a focus group of students. Chi-squared analyses and logistic regression were used to assess relationships between energy drink usage, adverse effects and other factors affecting energy drink use, and to verify predictors of energy drink use. Prevalence of use was 86%; 38% were current users. Males were more likely to use, used more frequently and at an earlier age. Energy drinks were used most commonly to increase energy (50%), combat sleepiness (45%) and enhance academic performance (40%), and occurred during sports (23%) and mixed with alcohol (22.2%). The majority (79.6%) consumed one energy drink per sitting; 62.2% experienced adverse effects, most commonly restlessness (22%), jolt and crash (17.1%) and tachycardia (16.6%). Awareness of adverse effects was associated with no use (p=0.004), but adverse effects were not a deterrent to continued use. Energy drink usage is prevalent among students. The use is not excessive, but associated with high rates of adverse effects and occurs in potentially dangerous situations like during exercise and with alcohol. There is a need to educate students about the potential adverse effects of energy drinks. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating Heat Fluxes by Merging Profile Formulae and the Energy Budget with a Variational Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张述文; 邱崇践; 张卫东

    2004-01-01

    A variational technique (VT) is applied to estimate surface sensible and latent heat fluxes based on observations of air temperature, wind speed, and humidity, respectively, at three heights (1 m, 4 m, and 10m), and the surface energy and radiation budgets by the surface energy and radiation system (SERBS). The method fully uses all information provided by the measurements of air temperature, wind, and humidity profiles, the surface energy budget, and the similarity profile formulae as well. Data collected at Feixi experiment station installed by the China Heavy Rain Experiment and Study (HeRES) Program are used to test the method. Results show that the proposed technique can overcome the well-known unstablility problem that occurs when the Bowen method becomes singular; in comparison with the profile method, it reduces both the sensitivities of latent heat fluxes to observational errors in humidity and those of sensible heat fluxes to observational errors in temperature, while the estimated heat fluxes approximately satisfy the surface energy budget. Therefore, the variational technique is more reliable and stable than the two conventional methods in estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  13. Orbital momentum profiles and binding energy spectra for the complete valence shell of molecular fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.; Brion, C.E. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Brunger, M.J.; Zhao, K.; Grisogono, A.M.; Braidwood, S.; Weigold, E. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Electronic Structure of Materials Centre; Chakravorty, S.J.; Davidson, E.R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sgamellotti, A. [Univ di Perugia (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica; von Niessen, W. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst fuer Physikalische

    1996-01-01

    The first electronic structural study of the complete valence shell binding energy spectrum of molecular fluorine, encompassing both the outer and inner valence regions, is reported. These binding energy spectra as well as the individual orbital momentum profiles have been measured using an energy dispersive multichannel electron momentum spectrometer at a total energy of 1500 eV, with an energy resolution of 1.5 eV and a momentum resolution of 0.1 a.u. The measured binding energy spectra in the energy range of 14-60 eV are compared with the results of ADC(4) many-body Green`s function and also direct-Configuration Interaction (CI) and MRSD-CI calculations. The experimental orbital electron momentum profiles are compared with SCF theoretical profiles calculated using the target Hartree-Fock approximation with a range of basis sets and with Density Functional Theory predictions in the target Kohn-Sham approximation with non-local potentials. The truncated (aug-cc-pv5z) Dunning basis sets were used for the Density Functional Theory calculations which also include some treatment of correlation via the exchange and correlation potentials. Comparisons are also made with the full ion-neutral overlap amplitude calculated with MRSD-CI wave functions. Large, saturated basis sets (199-GTO) were employed for both the high level SCF near Hartree-Fock limit and MRSD-CI calculations to investigate the effects of electron correlation and relaxation. 66 refs., 9 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. Panel estimation for CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization of newly industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif Hossain, Md., E-mail: sharif@en.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Economic Engineering, Faculty of Economics, Kyushu University, 6-19-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    This paper empirically examines the dynamic causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization for the panel of newly industrialized countries (NIC) using the time series data for the period 1971-2007. Using four different panel unit root tests it is found that all panel variables are integrated of order 1. From the Johansen Fisher panel cointegration test it is found that there is a cointegration vector among the variables. The Granger causality test results support that there is no evidence of long-run causal relationship, but there is unidirectional short-run causal relationship from economic growth and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions, from economic growth to energy consumption, from trade openness to economic growth, from urbanization to economic growth and from trade openness to urbanization. It is found that the long-run elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions with respect to energy consumption (1.2189) is higher than short run elasticity of 0.5984. This indicates that over time higher energy consumption in the newly industrialized countries gives rise to more carbon dioxide emissions as a result our environment will be polluted more. But in respect of economic growth, trade openness and urbanization the environmental quality is found to be normal good in the long-run. - Highlights: > Dynamic causal relationships are conducted for different panel variables of NIC. > Test results support only existence of unidirectional short-run causal relationships. > Environment will be polluted more due to energy consumption in the long-run. > But environmental quality is found to be normally good in respect of other variables. > NIC should use solar energy as the substitute of oil to control CO{sub 2} emissions.

  15. Systems dynamics modelling to assess the sustainability of renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available supply, and the related cost implications, for water supply; concentrated solar thermal technology options are currently considered. In this paper a systems dynamics approach is used to assess the sustainability of these types of renewable energy...

  16. Creating prospective value chains for renewable road transport energy sources up to 2050 in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessberg, Nina; Leinonen, Anna; Tuominen, Anu

    2013-01-01

    If the Nordic energy and transport sectors are to meet the 2050 energy and climate policy targets, major systemic changes are necessary. Along with new technologies, changes are required also in other societal functions such as business models and consumer habits. The transition requires cooperat......If the Nordic energy and transport sectors are to meet the 2050 energy and climate policy targets, major systemic changes are necessary. Along with new technologies, changes are required also in other societal functions such as business models and consumer habits. The transition requires...... alternative, but partly overlapping technology platforms, namely electricity, biofuels and hydrogen. The approach outlined in the paper combines elements from the fields of system level changes (transitions), value chain analysis and forward looking policy design. It presents a novel, policy relevant...

  17. Indian Energy Beat. Spring/Summer 2014: News on Actions to Accelerate Energy Development in Indian Country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    Articles include: Arizona Apache tribe set to break ground on new solar project; Native leaders give tribes a voice on White House Climate Task Force; Chaninik Wind Group Pursues Innovative Solutions to native Alaska energy challenges; and sections, Message from the Director, Tracey Lebeau; On the Horizon, Sharing Knowledge, and Building Bridges.

  18. Profiling high performance dense linear algebra algorithms on multicore architectures for power and energy efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2011-08-31

    This paper presents the power profile of two high performance dense linear algebra libraries i.e., LAPACK and PLASMA. The former is based on block algorithms that use the fork-join paradigm to achieve parallel performance. The latter uses fine-grained task parallelism that recasts the computation to operate on submatrices called tiles. In this way tile algorithms are formed. We show results from the power profiling of the most common routines, which permits us to clearly identify the different phases of the computations. This allows us to isolate the bottlenecks in terms of energy efficiency. Our results show that PLASMA surpasses LAPACK not only in terms of performance but also in terms of energy efficiency. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Poverty, energy, and resource use in developing countries: focus on Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M; Kirubi, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Energy poverty affects poor communities and poor nations far more severely, and more directly, than in developed nations. Poor rural communities are particularly vulnerable, and the poor globally spend by far the largest percentage of income on energy. To make matters worse, record-high oil prices combined with sharp decline in foreign exchange earnings are key processes influencing the energy sector in Africa. These increases cause tremendous local hardships, but can be used to steer development decisions toward renewable energy technologies. At the same time, breaking up of public monopolies and liberalizing generation and distribution provides an opportunity for a new approach to rural electrification. Given the right incentives and institutional framework, a new set of players (e.g., private entrepreneurs, cooperatives, nongovernmental organizations, and communities) are likely to emerge and dominate reformed rural electricity markets in the future. Through technological and institutional "leap-frogging," Africa stands to gain significantly by augmenting current initiatives with experience and lessons recently gained in South Asia and Latin America. In these regions, a number of remarkable recent strides to seed and grow rural electricity markets while stimulating and encouraging private investments. Examples of innovative regulatory tools to address poverty include licensing, standards and guidelines, metering, tariffs, transmission charges, and performance-based contracting for energy services.

  20. Profiles in renewable energy: Case studies of successful utility-sector projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anson, S.; Sinclair, K.; Swezey, B.

    1993-10-01

    As considerations of fuel diversity, environmental concerns, and market uncertainties are increasingly factored into electric utility resource planning, renewable energy technologies are beginning to find their place in the utility resource portfolio. This document profiles 10 renewable energy projects, utilizing six different renewable resources, that were built in the US throughout the 1980s. The resources include: biomass, geothermal, hydropower, photovoltaics, solar thermal, and wind. For each project, the factors that were key to its success and the development issues that it faced are discussed, as are the project`s cost, performance, and environmental impacts and benefits.

  1. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs+ beams (hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs+ ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  2. Measuring Beach Profiles along a Low-Wave Energy Microtidal Coast, West-Central Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring storm-induced dramatic beach morphology changes and long-term beach evolution provides crucial data for coastal management. Beach-profile measurement using total station has been conducted along the coast of west-central Florida over the last decade. This paper reviews several case studies of beach morphology changes based on total-station survey along this coast. The advantage of flexible and low-cost total-station surveys is discussed in comparison to LIDAR (light detection and ranging method. In an attempt to introduce total-station survey from a practical prospective, measurement of cross-shore beach profile in various scenarios are discussed, including: (1 establishing a beach profile line with known instrument and benchmark locations; (2 surveying multiple beach profiles with one instrument setup; (3 implementation of coordinate rotation to convert local system to real-earth system. Total-station survey is a highly effective and accurate method in documenting beach profile changes along low-energy coasts.

  3. Transition Pathway and Its Free-Energy Profile: A Protocol for Protein Folding Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ho Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a protocol that provides a systematic definition of reaction coordinate and related free-energy profile as the function of temperature for the protein-folding simulation. First, using action-derived molecular dynamics (ADMD, we investigate the dynamic folding pathway model of a protein between a fixed extended conformation and a compact conformation. We choose the pathway model to be the reaction coordinate, and the folding and unfolding processes are characterized by the ADMD step index, in contrast to the common a priori reaction coordinate as used in conventional studies. Second, we calculate free-energy profile as the function of temperature, by employing the replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD method. The current method provides efficient exploration of conformational space and proper characterization of protein folding/unfolding dynamics from/to an arbitrary extended conformation. We demonstrate that combination of the two simulation methods, ADMD and REMD, provides understanding on molecular conformational changes in proteins. The protocol is tested on a small protein, penta-peptide of met-enkephalin. For the neuropeptide met-enkephalin system, folded, extended, and intermediate sates are well-defined through the free-energy profile over the reaction coordinate. Results are consistent with those in the literature.

  4. One-dimensional free-energy profiles of complex systems: progress variables that preserve the barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivov, Sergei V; Karplus, Martin

    2006-06-29

    We show that the balanced minimum-cut procedure introduced in PNAS 2004, 101, 14766 can be reinterpreted as a method for solving the constrained optimization problem of finding the minimum cut among the cuts with a particular value of an additive function of the nodes on either side of the cut. Such an additive function (e.g., the partition function of the reactant region) can be used as a progress coordinate to determine a one-dimensional profile (FEP) of the free-energy surface of the protein-folding reaction as well as other complex reactions. The algorithm is based on the network (obtained from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation) that represents the calculated reaction behavior. The resulting FEP gives the exact values of the free energy as a function of the progress coordinate; i.e., at each value of the progress coordinate, the profile is obtained from the surface with the minimal partition function among the surfaces that divide the full free-energy surface between two chosen end points. In many cases, the balanced minimum-cut procedure gives results for only a limited set of points. An approximate method based on p(fold) is shown to provide the profile for a more complete set of values of the progress coordinate. Applications of the approach to model problems and to realistic systems (beta-hairpin of protein G, LJ38 cluster) are presented.

  5. Annex 1: 1998 review of energy efficiency policy in EU countries and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document makes a status for the year 1998 of the energy efficiency policies implemented in the European Union member states and Norway (residential, transport and industrial sectors, institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, utilities, pricing, efficiency standards, voluntary agreements, investment subsidies, taxation and tax exemptions). (J.S.)

  6. Shanxi, A Vital Energy Supplier Expects Cooperation with the Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ shanxi province, a vital supplier of energy and raw material in China, is blessed with rich mineral resources,such as coal, iron, aluminum and magnesium. In a press conference held in August in Beijing, Song Beishan, Vice Governor of the Province Government introduced the current situation of Shanxi.

  7. Shanxi, A Vital Energy Supplier Expects Cooperation with the Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      shanxi province, a vital supplier of energy and raw material in China, is blessed with rich mineral resources,such as coal, iron, aluminum and magnesium. In a press conference held in August in Beijing, Song Beishan, Vice Governor of the Province Government introduced the current situation of Shanxi.……

  8. Revisiting the emissions-energy-trade nexus: evidence from the newly industrializing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2016-04-01

    This paper applies Pedroni's panel cointegration approach to explore the causal relationship between trade openness, carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth for the panel of newly industrialized economies (i.e., Brazil, India, China, and South Africa) over the period of 1970-2013. Our panel cointegration estimation results found majority of the variables cointegrated and confirm the long-run association among the variables. The Granger causality test indicates bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. A unidirectional causality is found running from trade openness to carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption and economic growth to carbon dioxide emissions. The results of causality analysis suggest that the trade liberalization in newly industrialized economies induces higher energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, the causality results are checked using an innovative accounting approach which includes forecast-error variance decomposition test and impulse response function. The long-run coefficients are estimated using fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) method, and results conclude that the trade openness and economic growth reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the long run. The results of FMOLS test sound the existence of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. It means that trade liberalization induces carbon dioxide emission with increased national output, but it offsets that impact in the long run with reduced level of carbon dioxide emissions.

  9. Public policy influence on renewable energy investments—A panel data study across OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzin, Friedemann; von Flotow, Paschen; Migendt, Michael; Taeube, Florian

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of public policy measures on renewable energy (RE) investments in electricity-generating capacity made by institutional investors. Using a novel combination of datasets and a longitudinal research design, we investigate the influence of different policy measures in a s

  10. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Ketoff, A.

    1991-02-01

    This study examines energy use and carbon emissions in the developing world. Based on analyses of present energy-use patterns in 17 developing nations, this study presents high emissions and low emissions scenarios for these nations in the year 2025. These nations combined account for two thirds of the energy-related carbon emissions presently generated in the developing world. The analysis reveals that energy demand expands dramatically by 2025 and grows increasingly carbon intensive. In the high emissions scenario, carbon emissions from these countries increase four-fold. The greatest share of carbon stems from the industrial sector in 2025, followed by the transport and residential sectors. With the implementation of policies aimed at reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, the low emissions scenario reduces the level of carbon in 2025 by 20 percent relative to the high emissions scenario figure. These nations achieve 80 percent of the carbon reductions by improving the efficiency of energy production and use and the remaining 20 percent by implementing fuel-switching measures. Of all the sectors examined, the industrial sector offers the greatest opportunity for absolute carbon savings (39 percent of the total). This summary is volume one of five volumes.

  11. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Ketoff, A.

    1991-02-01

    This study examines energy use and carbon emissions in the developing world. Based on analyses of present energy-use patterns in 17 developing nations, this study presents high emissions and low emissions scenarios for these nations in the year 2025. These nations combined account for two thirds of the energy-related carbon emissions presently generated in the developing world. The analysis reveals that energy demand expands dramatically by 2025 and grows increasingly carbon intensive. In the high emissions scenario, carbon emissions from these countries increase four-fold. The greatest share of carbon stems from the industrial sector in 2025, followed by the transport and residential sectors. With the implementation of policies aimed at reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, the low emissions scenario reduces the level of carbon in 2025 by 20 percent relative to the high emissions scenario figure. These nations achieve 80 percent of the carbon reductions by improving the efficiency of energy production and use and the remaining 20 percent by implementing fuel-switching measures. Of all the sectors examined, the industrial sector offers the greatest opportunity for absolute carbon savings (39 percent of the total). This summary is volume one of five volumes.

  12. Reconstruction of Longitudinal Profiles of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Showers from Fluorescence and Cherenkov Light Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Unger, M; Engel, R; Schüssler, F; Ulrich, R

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for the reconstruction of the longitudinal profile of extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. In contrast to the typically considered shower size profile, this method employs directly the ionization energy deposit of the shower particles in the atmosphere. Due to universality of the energy spectra of electrons and positrons, both fluorescence and Cherenkov light can be used simultaneously as signal to infer the shower profile from the detected light. The method is based on an analytic least-square solution for the estimation of the shower profile from the observed light signal. Furthermore, the extrapolation of the observed part of the profile with a Gaisser-Hillas function is discussed and the total statistical uncertainty of shower parameters like total energy and shower maximum is calculated.

  13. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjekumhene, I.; Atakora, S.B.; Atta-Konadu, R.; Brew-Hammond, A. [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to

  14. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjekumhene, I.; Atakora, S.B.; Atta-Konadu, R.; Brew-Hammond, A. [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to

  15. THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH ASYMMETRIC CAUSALITY TEST: NEW EVIDENCE FROM NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyyaz Zeren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between energy consumption and financial development is investigated via Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test (2012 which is able to separate positive and negative shocks in analysis. In order to determine different dimensions of financial system, deposit money bank assets to GDP (dbagdp, financial system deposits to GDP (fdgdp and private credit to GDP (pcrdbgdp were used as three different indicators. As a result of this study on Newly Industrialized 7 Countries spanning the period 1971 till 2010, both positive and negative shocks existed for Malaysia and Mexico, causality from energy consumption to financial developments emerged for Philippines in only negative shocks. While two-way causality occurred for India, Turkey and Thailand, there was not for South Africa.

  16. Solar Kilns: Feasibility of Utilizing Solar Energy for Drying Lumber in Developing Countries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    evaluation of shelf type solar driers. Sol. Energy 16(2):81-88. N Selcuk, M. K. 1967. Final report of the solar fruit dryer . Cooperation Medi- terraneenne...at one dryer orientation (long axis north-south) from 30 percent to 10 percent moisture content. 49 Table 15.--Greenhouse-type solar kiln capacity...out the success or failure of some design features, construction details, and applications of solar dryers . Feasibility _; estimates concluded that

  17. Analysis on Energy Conversion of Screw Centrifugal Pump in Impeller Domain Based on Profile Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Quan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the power capability of impeller and energy conversion mechanism of screw centrifugal pump, the methods of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation by computational fluid dynamics theory (CFD were adopted, specifically discussing the conditions of internal flow such as velocity, pressure, and concentration. When the medium is sand-water two-phase flow and dividing the rim of the lines and wheel lines of screw centrifugal pump to segments to analyze energy conversion capabilities which along the impeller profile lines with the dynamic head and hydrostatic head changer, the results show that the energy of fluid of the screw centrifugal pump is provided by helical segment, and the helical segment of the front of the impeller has played the role of multilevel increasing energy; the sand-water two phases move at different speeds because the different force field and the impeller propeller and centrifugal effect. As liquid phase is the primary phase, the energy conversion is mainly up to the change of liquid energy, the solid phase flows under the wrapped action of liquid, and solid energy is carried out through liquid indirectly.

  18. Evolution of density and velocity profiles of dark matter and dark energy in spherical voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Tsizh, Maksym; Kulinich, Yurij

    2017-02-01

    We analyse the evolution of cosmological perturbations which leads to the formation of large isolated voids in the Universe. We assume that initial perturbations are spherical and all components of the Universe (radiation, matter and dark energy) are continuous media with ideal fluid energy-momentum tensors, which interact only gravitationally. Equations of the evolution of perturbations for every component in the comoving to cosmological background reference frame are obtained from equations of energy and momentum conservation and Einstein's ones and are integrated numerically. Initial conditions are set at the early stage of evolution in the radiation-dominated epoch, when the scale of perturbation is much larger than the particle horizon. Results show how the profiles of density and velocity of matter and dark energy are formed and how they depend on parameters of dark energy and initial conditions. In particular, it is shown that final matter density and velocity amplitudes change within range ˜4-7 per cent when the value of equation-of-state parameter of dark energy w vary in the range from -0.8 to -1.2, and change within ˜1 per cent only when the value of effective sound speed of dark energy vary over all allowable range of its values.

  19. Modelling the stellar soft-photon energy density profile of globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Prinsloo, P L; Buesching, I; Kopp, A

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations by e.g. Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) have revealed globular clusters (GC) to be sources of high-energy (HE) and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. It has been suggested that the presence of large numbers of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) within these clusters may be either directly responsible for these gamma-ray fluxes through emission of pulsed curvature radiation, or indirectly through the injection of relativistic leptons into the cluster. These relativistic particles are plausibly re-accelerated in shocks, created by the collision of stellar winds, before interacting with the soft-photon radiation field set up by the stellar population of the host cluster. Inverse Compton (IC) scattering then produces gamma radiation in the TeV band. In order to calculate the IC spectrum, an accurate profile for the energy density of the soft-photon field is required. We construct such a profile by deriving a radially-dependent expression for the stel...

  20. Access to sustainable energy in emerging and developing countries: exploring multi-stakeholder partnerships and emerging business models on an international-to-local scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Buuse, D.; Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2012-01-01

    The critical role of access to energy in developing countries is widely recognized as a condition for sustainable development, given that at present an estimated 1.4 billion people in developing countries still lack access to electricity, while the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) stipulate that

  1. Access to sustainable energy in emerging and developing countries: exploring multi-stakeholder partnerships and emerging business models on an international-to-local scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Buuse, D.; Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2012-01-01

    The critical role of access to energy in developing countries is widely recognized as a condition for sustainable development, given that at present an estimated 1.4 billion people in developing countries still lack access to electricity, while the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) stipulate that

  2. Making the market right for environmentally sound energy-efficient technologies: US buildings sector successes that might work in developing countries and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1991-12-01

    Between 1973 and 1985, when energy prices were high, all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries improved their E/GNP by about 2.5% annually. Increased energy efficiency accounted for 2/3rds of this improvement; the remaining portion was due to structural changes in the economy. In the US, analytic and policy tools that have successfully promoted energy efficiency include integrated resource planning, energy use labels, energy use standards, ``Golden Carrot`` incentive programs, and revenue-neutral ``feebates.`` In addition, a number of low cost, environmentally sound, energy-efficient technologies, such as electronic ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows, have recently been developed. We discuss how many of these policies and technologies are probably exportable to developing countries and Eastern Europe, giving examples of successful starts in India, the ASEAN countries, and Brazil.

  3. Spatial profiles of positrons injected at low energies into water: influence of cross section models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Wade J.; Cocks, Daniel G.; Boyle, Gregory J.; Brunger, Michael J.; Buckman, Stephen J.; García, Gustavo; Petrović, Zoran Lj; Sullivan, James P.; White, Ronald D.

    2017-04-01

    We present a collated set of interaction cross sections for positrons in water, and study how the choice of ionisation energy sharing and of anisotropy in elastic cross sections influences low-energy spatial transport. A Monte Carlo code has been developed to model the transport of a beam of positrons injected at 60 eV into water, in which we compare several ionisation energy sharing models, and also vary the anisotropic scattering behaviour for elastic collisions. While the cross sections are primarily applicable to water vapour, we have investigated the inclusion of coherent elastic scattering which is present in liquid water. We present comparative profiles of positron number density, energy deposition, positronium formation, and secondary electron generation. Anisotropic scattering can increase radial diffusion by a factor of two, and a similar effect occurs as a result of coherent elastic scattering, though only at energies below the positronium formation threshold. The results emphasise the need for detailed knowledge of scattering cross sections that are differential in both scattering angles and energy transfer.

  4. Transportation energy consumption and conservation policy options in the Northeast. [1972 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    This report presents a profile of 1972 transportation energy consumption in the Northeast region. Transportation energy projections for the region are given by mode for the years 1985 and 2000. Conservation actions which could significantly affect future transportation energy demand levels are described and their impacts evaluated. It is estimated that while the demand for energy in the transportation sector might increase by as much as 88% by the year 2000, strong conservation actions could reduce the projected level of demand by over 30%. Recent changes in the growth and distribution of population and industrial and commercial activities are reviewed. Both the factors that affect these growth and distribution patterns and the implications of changes in existing patterns on energy use in the transportation sector are discussed. It is shown, for example, that land-use controls could substantially reduce the growth of energy demand in the transportation sector. Finally, conservation actions are discussed within the context of how they might be implemented by Federal, State, or local governments. Interactions between actions are discussed and groupings of actions that minimize the disadvantages of individual actions while taking advantage of complementary effects between actions are presented.

  5. Clinicopathological Profile of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi Infections Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin in a Tropical Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nayyar; Basheer, Aneesh; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Ramdas, Anita; Varghese, Renu G’Boy; Padhi, Somanath; Shrimanth, Bhairappa; Chidambaram, Saranya; Anandhalakshmi, S.; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Background Enteric fever, a common infection in the tropics and endemic to India, often manifests as an acute febrile illness. However, presentation as fever of unknown origin (FUO) is not uncommon in tropical countries. Methods We aim to describe the clinical, laboratory and pathological features of patients hospitalized with fever of unknown origin and diagnosed as enteric fever. All culture proven cases of enteric fever were analyzed retrospectively over a period of three years from January 2011 to December 2013. Results Seven of 88 (8%) cases with enteric fever presented as FUO. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom besides fever. Relative bradycardia and splenomegaly were uncommon. Thrombocytopenia was the most common haematological abnormality while leucopenia was rare. Transaminase elevation was almost universal. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A were isolated from six cases and one case respectively. Yield of organisms from blood culture was superior to that of bone marrow aspirate. Multiple granulomas were identified in 4 out of 6 (67%) of the bone marrows studied, including that due to S. Paratyphi A and histiocytic hemophagocytosis was noted in two cases. Conclusion FUO is a relatively common manifestation of enteric fever in the tropics. Clinical and laboratory features may be atypical in such cases, including absence of relative bradycardia, leucopenia, and presence of thrombocytopenia, bicytopenia or pancytopenia. In addition, in endemic countries, enteric fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis, next to tuberculosis, in the evaluation of bone marrow granulomas in cases with FUO and culture correlation should be mandatory. PMID:25745548

  6. Challenges for Sustainable Energy Sectors in Developing Countries- with Case Studies from Zambia, Zimbabwe, India and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Regine

    1997-12-31

    Most of the developing countries have severe constraints on economic development caused by serious problems in their power sector. This report analyses the technical and financial situation of the sector from the perspective of sustainable electricity strategies. The core problem of the electricity sector is the complete lack of energy efficiency at all levels from generation to end user. The current emphasis on private participation in new electricity generation projects fails to solve the core problem and even diverts attention from the real challenge. An arm`s length relationship between governments and utilities is of central importance for a sound performance of the power sector. But more autonomous power sector decisions, such as reformed tariff structures, might contribute to inflation and political unrest. This is a main barrier to steps towards power sector autonomy. Another barrier is the lack of institutional capacity, despite over staffed utilities. Most important is the fact that the organizational structures are designed for supply-side management and that the incentive structures for good performance are often weak. The case of Thailand shows that end-use efficiency can be developed considerably by means of incentives and regulations and that transparency was an important condition for achieving this. The real challenge for development cooperation is to support the improvement of energy efficiency at all levels and the institutional and financial preconditions. It is also an important challenge to support developing countries in preparing for future utilization of viable new renewable energy carriers. Apart from this, it is important to continue the work for environmental impact assessments of planned power projects, and to support measures for minimizing the environmental impacts of old power plants. 48 refs., 2 figs.

  7. The profile likelihood ratio and the look elsewhere effect in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ranucci, Gioacchino

    2012-01-01

    The experimental issue of the search for new particles of unknown mass poses the challenge of exploring a wide interval to look for the usual signatures represented by excess of events above the background. A side effect of such a broad range quest is that the significance calculations valid for signals of known location are no more applicable when such an information is missing. This circumstance is commonly termed in high energy physics applications as the look elsewhere effect. How it concretely manifests in a specific problem of signal search depends upon the particular strategy adopted to unravel the sought-after signal from the underlying background. In this respect an increasingly popular method is the profile likelihood ratio, especially because of its asymptotic behavior dictated by one of the most famous statistic result, the Wilks' theorem. This work is centered on the description of the look elsewhere effect in the framework of the profile likelihood methodology, in particular proposing a conjectu...

  8. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SALMONELLA TYPHI AND PARATYPHI INFECTIONS PRESENTING AS FEVER OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN IN A TROPICAL COUNTRY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric fever, a common infection in the tropics and endemic to India, often manifests as an acute febrile illness. However, presentation as fever of unknown origin (FUO is not uncommon in tropical countries. Methods: We aim to describe the clinical, laboratory and pathological features of cases hospitalized with fever of unknown origin and diagnosed as enteric fever. All culture proven cases of enteric fever were analyzed retrospectively over a period of three years from January 2011 to December 2013. Results: Seven of 88(8% cases with enteric fever presented as FUO. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom besides fever. Relative bradycardia and splenomegaly were uncommon. Thrombocytopenia was the most common haematological abnormality, while leucopenia was rare. Transaminase elevation was almost universal. S.Typhi and S.Paratyphi were isolated from six cases and one case respectively.  Yield of organisms from blood culture was superior to that of bone marrow aspirate. Multiple granulomas were identified in 4 out of 6 (67% of the bone marrows studied, including that due to S. Paratyphi and histiocytic hemophagocytosis was noted in two cases. Conclusion: FUO is a relatively common manifestation of enteric fever in the tropics. Clinical and laboratory features may be atypical in such cases, including absence of relative bradycardia, leucopenia and presence of thrombocytopenia, bicytopenia or pancytopenia.  Moreover, in endemic countries, enteric fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis, next to tuberculosis, in the evaluation of bone marrow granulomas in cases with FUO and culture correlation should be mandatory.

  9. Si1- x Ge x /Si Interface Profiles Measured to Sub-Nanometer Precision Using uleSIMS Energy Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. J. H.; Hase, T. P. A.; Sanchez, A. M.; Rowlands, G.

    2016-10-01

    The utility of energy sequencing for extracting an accurate matrix level interface profile using ultra-low energy SIMS (uleSIMS) is reported. Normally incident O2 + over an energy range of 0.25-2.5 keV were used to probe the interface between Si0.73Ge0.27/Si, which was also studied using high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). All the SIMS profiles were linearized by taking the well understood matrix effects on ion yield and erosion rate into account. A method based on simultaneous fitting of the SIMS profiles measured at different energies is presented, which allows the intrinsic sample profile to be determined to sub-nanometer precision. Excellent agreement was found between the directly imaged HAADF-STEM interface and that derived from SIMS.

  10. Biogas production using water hyacinths to meet collective energy needs in a sahelian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Almoustapha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot project that investigates the possibility of producing biogas from a mixture of water hyacinth and fresh rumen residue – replacing firewood as a source of fuel – to meet the energy needs of a maternity facility in Niamey (Niger. The discontinuous-type installation (batch reactors is made up of six digesters measuring 5 m3 each. The output during hot and cool seasons, 0.52 m3 and 0.29 m3 respectively of biogas per m3 of digester per day, has met the energy needs of the maternity facility, estimated at 8 m3 of biogas per day. The study revealed strong seasonal variations: output during the hot season is approximatively 1.8 times greater than it is during the cool season. Large quantities of water hyacinth, an invasive plant present in Niger since 1986, are manually harvested in aquatic environments. The project is run by a local NGO, the Groupe d’Initiative pour les Energies Renouvelables (GIER, and supported by UNICEF and the Niger Basin Authority. The duration of the project is 8 months.Ce papier présente un projet pilote vérifiant la possibilité de produire du biogaz à partir d’un mélange de jacinthe d’eau et de résidu frais de rumen, en substitution au bois de chauffe pour satisfaire aux besoins en énergie d’une maternité de Niamey (Niger. L’installation de type discontinu (réacteurs batch est composée de six digesteurs de 5 m3. Les rendements en saison chaude et en saison fraîche, respectivement 0,52 et de 0,29 m3 de biogaz par m3 de digesteur par jour et ont permis de couvrir les besoins de la maternité évalués à 8 m3 de biogaz par jour. L’étude révèle une forte variation saisonnière : le rendement en saison chaude est d’environ 1,8 fois supérieur à celle de la saison fraîche. La jacinthe d’eau est une plante envahissante présente au Niger depuis 1986, dont des quantités importantes sont récoltées en  milieux aquatiques. Le projet est porté par une ONG locale, le

  11. Problems of introducing first nuclear power plant in a developing country with some natural energy resources. The case of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subki, I.R. [National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan), Jakarta (India)

    1997-12-31

    Indonesia, an archipelagic country, has limited hydro, oil/gas, coal and geothermal resources distributed unevenly over many islands. The use of nuclear energy is very potential not only for optimal energy mix but also to reduce the depletion rates of the fossil fuels. This potential was seriously studied by launching a comprehensive Feasibility Study and Site Investigation from November 1991 to May 1996. The study gives positive results for Nuclear Power Plant`s (NPP) introduction, especially from technoeconomic aspects which cover : technology, safety, economy, radioactive waste management and acceptable site at Ujung Lemahabang in Central Java. Financial aspects pose some problem due to the government`s policy of accepting no risks both political and financial in big projects undertaking. But, this can be overcome through Build Operate Own (BOO) and barter financing projects. The most difficult problems are non-technical, they are : people`s perception on nuclear safety and psycho-political aspects of nuclear energy. We propose a combined solution of continuing more effective public information and developing a wisdom in decision making process. (author)

  12. Development of Technological Profiles for Transfer of Energy- and Resource Saving Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko, V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methodological foundations for the development of technological profiles for «System of Transfer of Energy- and Resource Saving Technologies». It is determined that a compliance with the methodology and standards of the European network «Relay Centers» (Innovation Relay Centers — IRC network, since 2008 — EEN, the Russian Technology Transfer Network RTTN and Uk rainian Technology Transfer Network UTTN is the main pri nciple of the development process of technological requests and offers.

  13. Dielectric properties of WS2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes studied by energy-loss spectroscopic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolojan, Vlad; Silva, S. R. P.; Goringe, Michael J.; Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, Wang K.; Walton, D. R. M.; Kroto, Harold W.

    2005-02-01

    We investigate experimentally the electronic properties of the coating for multiwalled carbon nanotubes covered in tungsten disulfide (WS2) of various thicknesses. Coatings of thicknesses between 2 and 8 monolayers (ML) are analyzed using energy-loss spectroscopic profiling (ELSP), by studying the variations in the plasmon excitations across the coated nanotube, as a function of the coating thickness. We find a change in the ELSP for coatings above 5 ML thickness, which we interpret in terms of a change in its dielectric properties.

  14. Direct prediction of profiles of sequences compatible with a protein structure by neural networks with fragment-based local and energy-based nonlocal profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixiu; Yang, Yuedong; Faraggi, Eshel; Zhan, Jian; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2014-10-01

    Locating sequences compatible with a protein structural fold is the well-known inverse protein-folding problem. While significant progress has been made, the success rate of protein design remains low. As a result, a library of designed sequences or profile of sequences is currently employed for guiding experimental screening or directed evolution. Sequence profiles can be computationally predicted by iterative mutations of a random sequence to produce energy-optimized sequences, or by combining sequences of structurally similar fragments in a template library. The latter approach is computationally more efficient but yields less accurate profiles than the former because of lacking tertiary structural information. Here we present a method called SPIN that predicts Sequence Profiles by Integrated Neural network based on fragment-derived sequence profiles and structure-derived energy profiles. SPIN improves over the fragment-derived profile by 6.7% (from 23.6 to 30.3%) in sequence identity between predicted and wild-type sequences. The method also reduces the number of residues in low complex regions by 15.7% and has a significantly better balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues at protein surface. The accuracy of sequence profiles obtained is comparable to those generated from the protein design program RosettaDesign 3.5. This highly efficient method for predicting sequence profiles from structures will be useful as a single-body scoring term for improving scoring functions used in protein design and fold recognition. It also complements protein design programs in guiding experimental design of the sequence library for screening and directed evolution of designed sequences. The SPIN server is available at http://sparks-lab.org.

  15. Simulation calculation for the energy deposition profile and the transmission fraction of intense pulsed electron beam at various incident angles

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Hai Liang; Zhang Jia Sheng; Huang Jian Jun; Sun Jian Feng

    2002-01-01

    The incident angles have a heavy effect on the intense pulsed electron beam energy deposition profile, energy deposition fraction and beam current transmission fraction in material. The author presents electron beam energy deposition profile and energy deposition fraction versus electron energy (0.5-2.0 MeV), at various incident angles for three aluminum targets of various thickness via theoretical calculation. The intense pulsed electron beam current transmission fractions versus electron energy (0.4-1.4 MeV) at various incident angles for three thickness of carbon targets were also theoretically calculated. The calculation results indicate that the deposition energy in unit mass of material surface layer increase with the rise of electron beam incident angle, and electron beam with low incident angle (closer to normal incident angle) penetrates deeper into the target material. The electron beams deposit more energy in unit mass of material surface layer at 60 degree-70 degree incident angle

  16. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family based on SNP and VNTR typing profiles in Asian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB Beijing strain is highly virulent, drug resistant, and endemic over Asia. To explore the genetic diversity of this family in several different regions of eastern Asia, 338 Beijing strains collected in Taiwan (Republic of China were analyzed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR typing and compared with published MIRU-VNTR profiles and by the Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI of Beijing strains from Japan and South Korea. The results revealed that VNTR2163b (HGDI>0.6 and five other loci (VNTR424, VNTR4052, VNTR1955, VNTR4156 and VNTR 2996; HGDI>0.3 could be used to discriminate the Beijing strains in a given geographic region. Analysis based on the number of VNTR repeats showed three VNTRs (VNTR424, 3192, and 1955 to be phylogenetically informative loci. In addition, to determine the geographic variation of sequence types in MTB populations, we also compared sequence type (ST data of our strains with published ST profiles of Beijing strains from Japan and Thailand. ST10, ST22, and ST19 were found to be prevalent in Taiwan (82% and Thailand (92%. Furthermore, classification of Beijing sublineages as ancient or modern in Taiwan was found to depend on the repeat number of VNTR424. Finally, phylogenetic relationships of MTB isolates in Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan were revealed by a minimum spanning tree based on MIRU-VNTR genotyping. In this topology, the MIRU-VNTR genotypes of the respective clusters were tightly correlated to other genotypic characters. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that clonal evolution of these MTB lineages has occurred.

  17. Energy-water-food nexus under financial constraint environment: good, the bad, and the ugly sustainability reforms in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Khalid; Shamsuddin, Sadaf; Ahmad, Mehboob

    2017-05-01

    Environmental sustainability agenda are generally compromised by energy, water, and food production resources, while in the recent waves of global financial crisis, it mediates to increase the intensity of air pollutants, which largely affected the less developing countries due to their ease of environmental regulation policies and lack of optimal utilization of economic resources. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are no exception that majorly hit by the recent global financial crisis, which affected the country's natural environment through the channel of unsustainable energy-water-food production. The study employed panel random effect model that addresses the country-specific time-invariant shocks to examine the non-linear relationship between water-energy-food resources and air pollutants in a panel of 19 selected SSA countries, for a period of 2000-2014. The results confirmed the carbon-fossil-methane environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) that turned into inverted U-shaped relationships in a panel of selected SSA countries. Food resources largely affected greenhouse gas (GHG), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions while water resource decreases carbon dioxide (CO2), fossil fuel, and CH4 emissions in a region. Energy efficiency improves air quality indicators while industry value added increases CO2 emissions, fossil fuel energy, and GHG emissions. Global financial crisis increases the risk of climate change across countries. The study concludes that although SSA countries strive hard to take some "good" initiatives to reduce environmental degradation in a form of improved water and energy sources, however, due to lack of optimal utilization of food resources and global financial constraints, it leads to "the bad" and "the ugly" sustainability reforms in a region.

  18. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term. Volume 4, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy profile of Paracetamol in DPPC and DMPC lipid bilayers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yousef Nademi; Sepideh Amjad Iranagh; Abbas Yousefpour; Seyedeh Zahra Mousavi; Hamid Modarress

    2014-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and biased MD simulation were carried out for the neutral form of Paracetamol inserted in fully hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipid bilayers. For comparison, fully hydrated DMPC and DPPC lipid bilayers were also simulated separately without Paracetamol. The simulation time for each system was 50 ns. At two concentrations of Paracetamol, various properties of the lipid bilayer such as area per lipid, order parameter, diffusion coefficient, radial distribution function, electrostatic potential, mass density and hydrogen bonds have been calculated. Also, the convergence in time of the free energy profile of the Paracetamol along a DPPC bilayer normal was calculated by umbrella sampling method. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that neutral form of Paracetamol shows a generally similar behaviour in DPPC and DMPC lipid bilayers. It was shown that the addition of Paracetamol causes a decrease in tail order parameter of both DPPC and DMPC lipid bilayers and the tail of Paracetamol adopts an inward orientation in the lipid bilayers. Also from the free energy profile, the high penetration barrier in the bilayer centre was determined.

  20. Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Mescheryakov, G; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Senchishin, V; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2007-01-01

    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are...

  1. Profiling Space Heating Behavior in Chilean Social Housing: Towards Personalization of Energy Efficiency Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in the demand for energy are imposing strong pressures over the environment while compromising the capacity of emerging economies to achieve sustainable development. In this context, implementation of effective strategies to reduce consumption in residential buildings has become a priority concern for policy makers as minor changes at the household scale can result in major energy savings. This study aims to contribute to ongoing research on energy consumer profiling by exploring the forecasting capabilities of discrete socio-economic factors that are accessible through social housing allocation systems. Accordingly, survey data gathered by the Chilean Ministry of Social Development was used identify key characteristics that may predict firewood usage for space heating purposes among potential beneficiaries of the Chilean social housing program. The analyzed data evidences strong correlations between general household characteristics and space heating behavior in certain climatic zones, suggesting that personalized delivery of energy efficiency measures can potentially increase the effectiveness of initiatives aimed towards the reduction of current patterns of consumption.

  2. Political Aspects of Nuclear Energy Market Development in the Countries of South Asia. NSG Factor in Promoting Nuclear Energy in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available South Asian geopolitical face-off of Delhi and Islamabad revealed breaches of the nuclear nonproliferation. This encouraged the greatest nuclear powers to create a mechanism for additional regulation of the nuclear technology and materials export, which is now known as “Nuclear Suppliers’ Group”. This mechanism aims to impose restrictions for the nuclear technology and materials export to the countries that are not members of NPT. These are nuclear programs of India and Pakistan that are pressing challenge on the agenda. India has been a very attractive market for nuclear suppliers, especially the United States, so the restrictions were lifted from Delhi in 2008. However, they remained valid for Pakistan, which wasn’t an appealing market for the American nuclear exporters. As a result, China, which has been a member of NSG since 2004, has initiated building new NPPs in Pakistan getting mixed reaction of the international community. Despite the clearly contradicting Guidelines, the members of NSG haven’t reached common ground on how to restore its supporting role in maintaining the non-proliferation regime. Thus, the Asian nuclear market develops mostly spontaneously, and its future is shaped primarily by the international relations between importers and exporters. Russia isn’t able to influence all the NSG members to change the position, however it can take advantage of the situation for developing nuclear cooperation with the Asian countries to support sustainable development of the South Asian energy market.

  3. Fundamental reaction mechanism and free energy profile for (-)-cocaine hydrolysis catalyzed by cocaine esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjun; Hamza, Adel; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2009-08-26

    The fundamental reaction mechanism of cocaine esterase (CocE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of (-)-cocaine and the corresponding free energy profile have been studied by performing pseudobond first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy (QM/MM-FE) calculations. On the basis of the QM/MM-FE results, the entire hydrolysis reaction consists of four reaction steps, including the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of (-)-cocaine benzoyl ester by the hydroxyl group of Ser117, dissociation of (-)-cocaine benzoyl ester, nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of (-)-cocaine benzoyl ester by water, and finally dissociation between the (-)-cocaine benzoyl group and Ser117 of CocE. The third reaction step involving the nucleophilic attack of a water molecule was found to be rate-determining, which is remarkably different from (-)-cocaine hydrolysis catalyzed by wild-type butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; where the formation of the prereactive BChE-(-)-cocaine complex is rate-determining) or its mutants containing Tyr332Gly or Tyr332Ala mutation (where the first chemical reaction step is rate-determining). Besides, the role of Asp259 in the catalytic triad of CocE does not follow the general concept of the "charge-relay system" for all serine esterases. The free energy barrier calculated for the rate-determining step of CocE-catalyzed hydrolysis of (-)-cocaine is 17.9 kcal/mol, which is in good agreement with the experimentally derived activation free energy of 16.2 kcal/mol. In the present study, where many sodium ions are present, the effects of counterions are found to be significant in determining the free energy barrier. The finding of the significant effects of counterions on the free energy barrier may also be valuable in guiding future mechanistic studies on other charged enzymes.

  4. The changing epidemiological and complications profile of chronic suppurative otitis media in a developing country after two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orji, Foster T; Ukaegbe, Onyinyechi; Alex-Okoro, Jideofor; Ofoegbu, Vincent C; Okorafor, Ijeoma J

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the shift in epidemiological and complication profiles of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) over two decades in a resource-limited economy. A retrospective analysis of the prevalence of CSOM and its complications in tertiary health institution a over a period of 2 years were compared between 203 cases seen in 2009 and December 2010 (present era); and 343 cases seen in 1990 and 1991 (previous era). Data were collected on the demographic characteristics of the patients, age of onset of otorrhoea, the disease type, laterality and complications of CSOM. The prevalence of CSOM significantly reduced from 9 % in the previous era to 5.1 % in the present era (P 20 years of age (P ≤ 0.001). More significant cases of cholesteatoma were documented in the recent group (3.4 %) than previous era (0.9 %) (P = 0.02). Although no significant change was noted regarding the rates of complication of CSOM in the two eras (P = 0.18), there was a notable shift toward predominant extracranial pattern of complication in the recent group (P = 0.04). The prevalence of CSOM has shown a significant reduction after two decades and it appears that there has been a shift in the epidemiology of CSOM towards a predominantly adult population in the recent years. Despite an overall reduction in the incidence of intracranial complications of CSOM in our series, its complication rates have not changed remarkably after 20 years.

  5. Energy efficiency in Germany. Analysis based on the ODYSSEE database from the SAVE project 'Cross-country comparison on energy efficiency indicators'. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Mannsbart, W.; Schlomann, B.

    1998-03-01

    The most important change in the German data situation compared to the last national report in October 1995 was the adjustment of the national statistical system to the unified Germany including eastern Germany (in the following referred to as Germany). Therefore, the existing time series for western Germany (in the following referred to as ex-FRG) had not only to be updated, but German data had to be included in the ODYSSEE database, too. It is intended to improve in the future the quality of the data further and to extend the data through reasonable estimates as far as justified (improvement of the data for the ex-FRG up to 1994, completion and verification of the data for Germany in 1990/1991). It is clear that the re-unification (in combination with the change in 1995 of the national industrial energy consumption statistics to a classification which is compatible with the European NACE Rev. 1 classification) poses considerable difficulties for the Energy Efficiency Indicators (EEI) approach, in which longer time series improve the reliability of the results. The German reunification shows therefore the limitations of the approach which encounters difficulties in periods of rapid changes. It is, however, not a principle argument against the methodology. The difficulty stems rather from the fact that in periods of radical changes, statistical systems simply may break down for some time, and cannot be reconstructed afterwards. Fortunately, the German re-unification is exceptional within the European Union. However, in the case of the inclusion of Eastern European accession countries (PHARE countries) in the EEI approach, the same type of difficulties will occur, though to a lesser degree, because the changes were less radical, and because there was not a complete break in statistics. (orig.)

  6. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain” study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old. A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women. The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women. The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day, followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day, adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day. Cereals or grains (27.4%, meats and derivatives (15.2%, oils and fats (12.3%, and milk and dairy products (11.8% contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%, fish and shellfish (3.6%, sugars and sweets (3.3% and alcoholic beverages (2.6% were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  7. Differences in weight status and energy-balance related behaviors among schoolchildren in German-speaking Switzerland compared to seven countries in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Michael

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight in children and adolescents have increased significantly and are a major public health problem. To allow international comparisons, Switzerland joined the European study ‘ENERGY’ cross sectional survey consortium that investigated the prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as selected dietary, physical and sedentary behaviors of 10–12 years old pupils across seven other countries in Europe. The aims of the present study was to compare body composition and energy-balance related behaviors of Swiss schoolchildren to those of the seven European ENERGY-countries and to analyze overweight and energy-balance related behaviors of Swiss children according to socio-demographic factors. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study among 10–12 year old children was conducted in Switzerland and seven other European countries using a standardized protocol. Body height, weight and waist-circumference were measured by trained research assistants. Energy-balance related behaviors –i.e. selected dietary, physical activity and screen-viewing behaviors were assessed by questionnaires. Weight status and behaviors in Switzerland were compared to the seven European ENERGY countries. Within the Swiss sample, analyses stratified by gender, parental education and ethnicity were performed. Results Data of 546 Swiss children (mean age 11.6±0.8y, 48% girls were obtained and compared to the ENERGY- results (N=7.148; mean age 11.5±0.8y, 48% girls. In Switzerland significantly less children were overweight (13.9% or obese (2.3% compared to the average across the ENERGY-countries (23.7% and 4.7%, respectively, and were even somewhat lower than the ENERGY countries with the lowest prevalence. Sugar sweetened beverage intakes and breakfast habits of Swiss children did not differ significantly from those of ENERGY. However, the mean time devoted by Swiss children to walking or cycling to school and attending sports activities was

  8. Metabolic profile in growing buffalo heifers fed diet with different energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to verify the relation among the mediators and indicators of nutritional status like insulin, glucagon, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins in growing buffalo heifers, fed diets with different energy density. 12 Murrah heifers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatments (High, Group H; Low, Group L that differed in energetic levels (Group H: 5.8 UFL/d; Group L: 3.6 UFL/d. Every 30 days, for a total of five times, blood samples were collected at 08.00 h, before feeding, from the jugular vein in vacutainer tubes and analysed to determine metabolic profile. Data on haematic constants were analysed by ANOVA for repeated measures with treatment as the main factor. Low energy availability and low NSC reduced the glucose and insulin and increased glucagone and urea blood levels. The increase of NSC in the diet of group H during the experiment may caused a reduction of the fibre digestibility after the period of adaptation of the rumen microflora and, as a paradox effect, suffered for an energetic lack with a subsequent activation of lipolysis and mobilization of their body reserves. Liver and muscular synthesis increase in group with a high energy availability.

  9. Kinetic-Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms from Analysis of the D Lyman-Alpha Line Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, M.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D(2p) atoms resulting from electron-impact dissociation of D2 has been measured. A high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer was employed for the first measurement of the D Lyman-alpha (D L(alpha)) emission line profiles at 20- and 100-eV excitation energies. Analysis of the deconvoluted line profile of D L(alpha) at 100 eV reveals the existence of a narrow line central peak of 29+/-2 mA full width at half maximum and a broad pedestal wing structure about 190 mA wide. The wings of the line can be used to determine the fast atom distribution. The wings of D L(alpha) arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited states that cross the Franck-Condon region between 23 and 40 eV. The fast atom distribution at 100-eV electron impact energy spans the energy range from 1 to 10 eV with a peak value near 6 eV. Slow D(2p) atoms characterized by a distribution function with peak energy near 100 meV produce the central peak profile, which is nearly independent of the impact energy. The deconvoluted line profiles of the central peak at 20 eV for dissociative excitation of D2 and H2 are fitted with an analytical function for use in calibration of space flight instrumentation equipped with a D/H absorption cell. The kinetic-energy and line profile results are compared to similar measurements for H2. The absolute cross sections for the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coefficients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  10. 我国城市化对能源消费的影响浅析%Analysis of the impact of urbanization in our country on energy consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邴华琳; 胡德宝; 邢万里; 李颖; 杜雪明; 张艳飞

    2014-01-01

    Based on four aspects ,i .e .the energy consumption scale ,energy consumption structure , energy consumption terminal and energy consumption efficiency ,this paper makes a comprehensive analysis of the influence of urbanization in our country on energy consumption and a prediction about the future trend of energy consumption in the process of urbanization in our country .The conclusions are :① the total energy and per capita consumption in the process of urbanization in our country grows rapidly ,and its proportion in global demand is gradually increasing ;② during a period of time in the future ,coal will still be the main body of energy consumption in our country ,but the percentage will gradually decrease ;③ in the process of urbanization in China ,industry took the principle part of the energy consumption terminal ;④ the energy efficiency in the process of urbanization in our country is increasing .As to the future ,with energy efficiency increasing and energy consumption for the third industry decreasing ,and at the same time ,the problem of energy security in our country will become increasingly prominent .%本文从能源消费规模,能源消费结构,能源消费终端和能源消费效率等四个方面,综合分析了我国城市化对能源消费的影响,并对未来我国城市化进程中能源消费趋势进行了预测。分析得出:①我国城市化过程中能源消费总量及人均消费量快速增长,全球占比逐渐增大;②未来一段时间煤炭依然是我国能源消费的主体,但占比将会逐渐下降;③我国城市化过程中能源消费终端主要以工业为主;④我国能源效率在城市化过程中不断提升。预测未来,随着我国城市化进程的推进,我国能源结构将有所改善,消费效率将会提高,第三产业能耗将会降低,同时我国能源安全问题将会日益凸显。

  11. Instruments and options for environmental policy during the accession process of EU associated countries in the area of environment and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.; Matthes, F.C.; Baer, S.; Oberthuer, S.; Krug, M.; Mez, L.; Tempel, S.

    2001-07-01

    With regard to the leading role of the EU in climate protection policies, it is important to consider the impact of the accession process on EU climate policy. This study includes the analysis of the most important issues related to environment and energy within the accession process, namely: 1) status quo and development of the energy sector and structural CO{sub 2} mitigation options; 2) legal gap assessment and analysis of performance in the accession process; 3) identification of implementation patterns through detailed policy analysis; 4) evaluation of co-operation projects in the field of environment and energy in order to develop new projects that promote the accession process. This volume includes comparative analysis of the five Accession Countries. The detailed analysis of each country is documented in five country reports, each in a separate volume available only on the attached CD. (orig.)

  12. Recent energy situation in the U.S. and Europe. Trend of discussions on energy safety security and energy policies in the E.U. and CIS (commonwealth of independent states) countries; Obei ni okeru saikin no energy jijo. Energy anzen hosho ni kansuru giron no doko to EU oyobi CIS shokoku no energy seisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The E.U. intends to establish the stabilized new partnership and economic area, based on free trades and tighter economic cooperation with Mediterranean countries. For the purpose of establishing the effective cooperative relationship in the energy field, the E.U. committee taking the short- and medium-term initiative prepares as follows: The establishment of the European/Mediterranean Energy Forum is thought of. This is for the joint management of cooperation in the energy field and the organization of the conferences and meetings of information exchanges between partners. The discussion is started for the final joining in the organization of partners of Mediterranean countries who do not participate in the Pan-European Energy Charter conference. They study options adoptable for easing investments. They cooperate with the related countries for carrying out the project having common interest in the TENs (Trans-European energy networks) field. The working-out of plans and projects is promoted for coordinating energy projects according to the purposes and procedures of MEDA. 59 refs.

  13. Energy profiling of FPGA-based PHY-layer building blocks encountered in modern wireless communication systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bartzoudis, Nikolaos; Font Bach, Oriol; Payaró Llisterri, Miquel; Pascual Iserte, Antonio; Rubio López, Javier; García Fernández, Juan José; García Armada, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Proceeding at: IEEE 8th Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM), took place 2014, Jun, 22-25 in Coruña (españa). The event web site of http://www.gtec.udc.es/sam2014/ . Characterizing the energy cost of different physical (PHY) layer building blocks is becoming increasingly important in modern cellular-based communications, considering the cross sector requirements for performance enhancements and energy savings. This paper presents energy profiling metrics of diffe...

  14. Analysis of energy dispersive x-ray diffraction profiles for material identification, imaging and system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily Jane

    2008-12-01

    This thesis presents the analysis of low angle X-ray scatter measurements taken with an energy dispersive system for substance identification, imaging and system control. Diffraction measurements were made on illicit drugs, which have pseudo- crystalline structures and thus produce diffraction patterns comprising a se ries of sharp peaks. Though the diffraction profiles of each drug are visually characteristic, automated detection systems require a substance identification algorithm, and multivariate analysis was selected as suitable. The software was trained with measured diffraction data from 60 samples covering 7 illicit drugs and 5 common cutting agents, collected with a range of statistical qual ities and used to predict the content of 7 unknown samples. In all cases the constituents were identified correctly and the contents predicted to within 15%. Soft tissues exhibit broad peaks in their diffraction patterns. Diffraction data were collected from formalin fixed breast tissue samples and used to gen erate images. Maximum contrast between healthy and suspicious regions was achieved using momentum transfer windows 1.04-1.10 and 1.84-1.90 nm_1. The resulting images had an average contrast of 24.6% and 38.9% compared to the corresponding transmission X-ray images (18.3%). The data was used to simulate the feedback for an adaptive imaging system and the ratio of the aforementioned momentum transfer regions found to be an excellent pa rameter. Investigation into the effects of formalin fixation on human breast tissue and animal tissue equivalents indicated that fixation in standard 10% buffered formalin does not alter the diffraction profiles of tissue in the mo mentum transfer regions examined, though 100% unbuffered formalin affects the profile of porcine muscle tissue (a substitute for glandular and tumourous tissue), though fat is unaffected.

  15. Compendium of energy-dependent sensitivity profiles for the TRX-2 thermal lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, E.T.; Lucius, J.L.; Drischler, J.D.

    1978-03-01

    Energy-dependent sensitivity profiles for five responses calculated for the TRX-2 thermal lattice with the ORNL sensitivity code system FORSS are presented here both in graphical form and in SENPRO format. The responses are the multiplication factor, k/sub eff/; the ratio of epithermal-to-thermal captures in /sup 238/U, /sup 28/rho; the ratio of epithermal-to-thermal fissions in /sup 235/U, /sup 25/delta; the ratio of fissions in /sup 238/U to fissions in /sup 235/U, /sup 28/delta; and the ratio of captures in /sup 238/U to fissions in /sup 235/U, CR. A summary table of the total sensitivities is also presented.

  16. Air-Sea Spray Airborne Radar Profiler Characterizes Energy Fluxes in Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Esteban-Fermandez, D.

    2010-01-01

    A report discusses ASAP (Air-sea Spray Airborne Profiler), a dual-wavelength radar profiler that provides measurement information about the droplet size distribution (DSD) of sea-spray, which can be used to estimate heat and moisture fluxes for hurricane research. Researchers have recently determined that sea spray can have a large effect on the magnitude and distribution of the air-sea energy flux at hurricane -force wind speeds. To obtain information about the DSD, two parameters of the DSD are required; for example, overall DSD amplitude and DSD mean diameter. This requires two measurements. Two frequencies are used, with a large enough separation that the differential frequency provides size information. One frequency is 94 GHz; the other is 220 GHz. These correspond to the Rayleigh and Mie regions. Above a surface wind speed of 10 m/ s, production of sea spray grows exponentially. Both the number of large droplets and the altitude they reach are a function of the surface wind speed.

  17. Molybdenum carbide nanoparticles as catalysts for oil sands upgrading: Dynamics and free-energy profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingchen; Salahub, Dennis R. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Quantum Science and Technology, and Centre for Molecular Simulation, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    There is no doubt that a huge gap exists in understanding heterogeneous catalysis between a cluster model of a few atoms and a bulk model of periodic slabs. Nanoparticles, which are crucial in heterogeneous catalysis in industry, lie in the middle of the gap. We present here our work on the computational modelling of molybdenum carbide nanoparticles (MCNPs) as the catalysts for the upgrading of oil sands in the in-situ environment, using benzene hydrogenation as a model reaction. With a cluster model, efforts were first made to understand the mechanism of the reaction with a density functional theory (DFT) study on the adsorption of benzene and its hydrogenation product – cyclohexane, as well as the cyclic hydrogenation reaction intermediates on the Mo{sub 2}C(0001) surface. From the thermodynamic data, along with literature information, it was found that the benzene hydrogenation reaction on molybdenum carbide happens most likely through a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism with the gradual lifting up of the benzene molecule. The electron localization function (ELF) was then used to help understand the nature of the interactions between the MCNPs, identifying strong multi-center interactions between the adsorbates and the MCNPs. To enable the treatment of larger nanoparticles, a fast semi-empirical density functional tight-binding (DFTB) method was parameterized. With this method, the potential energy profiles of benzene hydrogenation reactions on different sizes of MCNPs are calculated. The study was then extended to consider a MCNP embedded in solvent (benzene), using a quantum mechanical (DFTB) / molecular mechanical approach. Calculations on the free energies profiles with the umbrella sampling method show that the entropy of the MCNPs and the solvent are essential in understanding the catalytic activity of the transition metal related nanoparticles for solid/liquid heterogeneous catalysis.

  18. Molybdenum carbide nanoparticles as catalysts for oil sands upgrading: Dynamics and free-energy profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingchen; Salahub, Dennis R.

    2015-12-01

    There is no doubt that a huge gap exists in understanding heterogeneous catalysis between a cluster model of a few atoms and a bulk model of periodic slabs. Nanoparticles, which are crucial in heterogeneous catalysis in industry, lie in the middle of the gap. We present here our work on the computational modelling of molybdenum carbide nanoparticles (MCNPs) as the catalysts for the upgrading of oil sands in the in-situ environment, using benzene hydrogenation as a model reaction. With a cluster model, efforts were first made to understand the mechanism of the reaction with a density functional theory (DFT) study on the adsorption of benzene and its hydrogenation product - cyclohexane, as well as the cyclic hydrogenation reaction intermediates on the Mo2C(0001) surface. From the thermodynamic data, along with literature information, it was found that the benzene hydrogenation reaction on molybdenum carbide happens most likely through a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism with the gradual lifting up of the benzene molecule. The electron localization function (ELF) was then used to help understand the nature of the interactions between the MCNPs, identifying strong multi-center interactions between the adsorbates and the MCNPs. To enable the treatment of larger nanoparticles, a fast semi-empirical density functional tight-binding (DFTB) method was parameterized. With this method, the potential energy profiles of benzene hydrogenation reactions on different sizes of MCNPs are calculated. The study was then extended to consider a MCNP embedded in solvent (benzene), using a quantum mechanical (DFTB) / molecular mechanical approach. Calculations on the free energies profiles with the umbrella sampling method show that the entropy of the MCNPs and the solvent are essential in understanding the catalytic activity of the transition metal related nanoparticles for solid/liquid heterogeneous catalysis.

  19. The effect of weight loss by energy restriction on metabolic profile and glucose tolerance in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Hesta, M; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2008-10-01

    In nine initially obese ponies, a weekly weight loss according to 1% of their ideal body weight was evaluated for its impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolic profile. Weight loss was obtained solely through energy restriction, initially at 70% of maintenance energy requirements, but to maintain constant weight loss, feed amount had to be decreased to 50% and 35% of maintenance energy requirement during the course of the trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17. Fasted blood samples were taken on weeks 0, 3, 10, 17 for analysis of triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), T(3), T(4) and leptin. Total average weight loss was 18.2%. When the OGTT was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17, ponies had lost 0.22%, 9.9% and 16.3% of their initial weight respectively. Weight loss was associated with a decreased AUC for glucose and insulin. Moreover, greater % weight loss was associated with a significantly lower glucose peak and a lower area under the curve (AUC glucose). The lower glucose response after an OGTT in lean ponies was not the result of an increased insulin secretion, but an improved insulin sensitivity. Restricted feeding led to mobilization of TG and NEFA and to a reduced basal metabolism, with lower LDH, CPK, T(3) and leptin. in obese Shetland ponies, weight loss at a rate of 1% of ideal body weight per week through restricted energy intake, ameliorated insulin sensitivity.

  20. Fundamental reaction pathway and free energy profile for butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yan; Han, Keli; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2013-09-17

    The pharmacological function of heroin requires an activation process that transforms heroin into 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), which is the most active form. The primary enzyme responsible for this activation process in human plasma is butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The detailed reaction pathway of the activation process via BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis has been explored computationally, for the first time, in this study via molecular dynamics simulation and first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy calculations. It has been demonstrated that the whole reaction process includes acylation and deacylation stages. The acylation consists of two reaction steps, i.e., the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the 3-acetyl group of heroin by the hydroxyl oxygen of the Ser198 side chain and the dissociation of 6-MAM. The deacylation also consists of two reaction steps, i.e., the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the acyl-enzyme intermediate by a water molecule and the dissociation of the acetic acid from Ser198. The calculated free energy profile reveals that the second transition state (TS2) should be rate-determining. The structural analysis reveals that the oxyanion hole of BChE plays an important role in the stabilization of rate-determining TS2. The free energy barrier (15.9 ± 0.2 or 16.1 ± 0.2 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step is in good agreement with the experimentally derived activation free energy (~16.2 kcal/mol), suggesting that the mechanistic insights obtained from this computational study are reliable. The obtained structural and mechanistic insights could be valuable for use in the future rational design of a novel therapeutic treatment of heroin abuse.

  1. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  2. Micro-energy systems in low-income countries. Learning to articulate the solar home system niche in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryrne, Rob [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Business, Management and Economics

    2011-07-01

    Despite multiple efforts over two decades in Tanzania to apply a solar home system (SHS) diffusion ''model'' generated in Kenya, it is only in recent years that a Tanzanian SHS market has begun to grow. Why is it that the Kenyan ''model'' seemed to fail in Tanzania, even as the SHS market grow rapidly in Kenya; and why has the Tanzanian market grown rapidly since the early 2000s? The objective of this paper is to explain the evolution of the Tanzanian SHS market. It applies the strategic niche management approach to the Tanzanian photovoltaic (PV) ''niche'' - the empirically identified set of actors, technologies and practices concerned with household electricity services using PV. By focusing primarily on the learning stimulated by a number of events, processes and projects, the research traces the dynamics of the socio-technical trajectory of the Tanzanian PV niche. This then enables reflection on the Kenyan SHS market and about the diffusion of sustainable energy technologies in poor developing countries more generally. (orig.)

  3. The overnight effect of dietary energy balance on postprandial plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in Japanese adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion.

  4. The overnight effect of dietary energy balance on postprandial plasma free amino acid (PFAA profiles in Japanese adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Nishioka

    Full Text Available The plasma free amino acid (PFAA profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N or high protein meal (meal H at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion.

  5. System for measuring temporal profiles of scintillation at high and different linear energy transfers by using pulsed ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Masanori; Kurashima, Satoshi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Atsushi; Asai, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a system for measuring the temporal profiles of scintillation at high linear energy transfer (LET) by using pulsed ion beams from a cyclotron. The half width at half maximum time resolution was estimated to be 1.5-2.2 ns, which we attributed mainly to the duration of the pulsed ion beam and timing jitter between the trigger signal and the arrival of the ion pulse. The temporal profiles of scintillation of BaF2 at different LETs were successfully observed. These results indicate that the proposed system is a powerful tool for analyzing the LET effects in temporal profiles of scintillation.

  6. System for measuring temporal profiles of scintillation at high and different linear energy transfers by using pulsed ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshimizu, Masanori, E-mail: koshi@qpc.che.tohoku.ac.jp; Asai, Keisuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kurashima, Satoshi [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kimura, Atsushi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    We have developed a system for measuring the temporal profiles of scintillation at high linear energy transfer (LET) by using pulsed ion beams from a cyclotron. The half width at half maximum time resolution was estimated to be 1.5–2.2 ns, which we attributed mainly to the duration of the pulsed ion beam and timing jitter between the trigger signal and the arrival of the ion pulse. The temporal profiles of scintillation of BaF{sub 2} at different LETs were successfully observed. These results indicate that the proposed system is a powerful tool for analyzing the LET effects in temporal profiles of scintillation.

  7. Heterogeneity in genetic and nongenetic variation and energy sink relationships for residual feed intake across research stations and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelman, R J; Spurlock, D M; Coffey, M; Veerkamp, R F; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K A; de Haas, Y; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Lu, Y; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-03-01

    Our long-term objective is to develop breeding strategies for improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, phenotypic data were pooled across multiple research stations to facilitate investigation of the genetic and nongenetic components of feed efficiency in Holstein cattle. Specifically, the heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) was estimated and heterogeneous relationships between RFI and traits relating to energy utilization were characterized across research stations. Milk, fat, protein, and lactose production converted to megacalories (milk energy; MilkE), dry matter intakes (DMI), and body weights (BW) were collected on 6,824 lactations from 4,893 Holstein cows from research stations in Scotland, the Netherlands, and the United States. Weekly DMI, recorded between 50 to 200 d in milk, was fitted as a linear function of MilkE, BW0.75, and change in BW (ΔBW), along with parity, a fifth-order polynomial on days in milk (DIM), and the interaction between this polynomial and parity in a first-stage model. The residuals from this analysis were considered to be a phenotypic measure of RFI. Estimated partial regression coefficients of DMI on MilkE and on BW0.75 ranged from 0.29 to 0.47 kg/Mcal for MilkE across research stations, whereas estimated partial regression coefficients on BW0.75 ranged from 0.06 to 0.16 kg/kg0.75. Estimated partial regression coefficients on ΔBW ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 across stations. Heritabilities for country-specific RFI were based on fitting second-stage random regression models and ranged from 0.06 to 0.24 depending on DIM. The overall heritability estimate across all research stations and all DIM was 0.15±0.02, whereas an alternative analysis based on combining the first- and second-stage model as 1 model led to an overall heritability estimate of 0.18±0.02. Hence future genomic selection programs on feed efficiency appear to be promising; nevertheless, care should be taken to allow for potentially

  8. Profile Evolution and Energy Dissipation for Internal Soliton Transmitting over Different Submarine Ridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Yuan CHEN; I-Fan TSENG; Hsien-Chueh Peter YANG; Cheng-Wu CHEN; Tsung-Hao CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental experiments were carried out in a wave flume on internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression-type propagating over a submerged ridge. The seabed ridge included either triangular or semicircular shape- regarded as topographic obstacles. Influenced by the submarine ridge, the transmitted waves were found to always consist of a leading pulse (a solitary wave) followed by a dispersive wave train. The wave profile propagating over a triangular ridge was similar to that caused by a semicircular obstacle. Apparently, the smooth face of a semicircular ridge produced time lag of wave propagation. From experimental results available, the reduction in wave energy induced by a semicircular ridge was larger than that by a triangular one. The events of wave distortion, strong breaking, internal bolus, and stratification mixing happened in case that the crest of an ISW was great enough to interact with the topographic obstacle. The reduction in wave energy strong breaking, and it depended on the ridge height rather than the geometric shape of the ridge.

  9. Economic development, energy demand and electricity necessities in some emergent and industrialized countries; Desarrollo economico, demanda de energia y necesidades de electricidad en algunos paises emergentes e industrializados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos A, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The electricity has become a strategic support for the operation of the societies in its group, because it is being used intensively in the production, transport, communication, administration, science, education and the daily life through the personal computer, for what we can affirm that the electricity is in full expansion. Nevertheless, at the present time more of half of petroleum consumed in the world it is used for the terrestrial, air and marine transport. Many texts have been published in energy that they remind that the success of an industrial society, the growth of their economy, the quality of their inhabitants life and their impact in other societies and in the environment they are largely determined by the quantity and class of energy sources that it exploits and for the effectiveness of their systems to transform the potential energy into work and heat. In this work we observe tendencies in the energy consumption of 21 countries with complete conscience that the energy situation of each one of them depends, in first pla