WorldWideScience

Sample records for countries historical perspective

  1. Promoting astronomy in developing countries: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Rk

    2006-08-01

    Any international effort to promote astronomy world wide today must necessarily take into account its cultural and historical component. The past few decades have ushered in an age, which we may call the Age of Cultural Copernicanism. In analogy with the cosmological principle that the universe has no preferred location or direction, Cultural Copernicanism would imply that no cultural or geographical area, or ethnic or social group, can be deemed to constitute a superior entity or a benchmark for judging or evaluating others. In this framework, astronomy (as well as science in general) is perceived as a multi-stage civilizational cumulus where each stage builds on the knowledge gained in the previous stages and in turn leads to the next. This framework however is a recent development. The 19th century historiography consciously projected modern science as a characteristic product of the Western civilization decoupled from and superior to its antecedents, with the implication that all material and ideological benefits arising from modern science were reserved for the West. As a reaction to this, the orientalized East has often tended to view modern science as "their" science, distance itself from its intellectual aspects, and seek to defend, protect and reinvent "our" science and the alleged (anti-science) Eastern mode of thought. This defensive mindset works against the propagation of modern astronomy in most of the non-Western countries. There is thus need to construct a history of world astronomy that is truly universal and unselfconscious. Similarly , the planetarium programs , for use the world over, should be culturally sensitive. IAU can help produce cultural-specific modules. Equipped with this paradigmatic background, we can now address the question of actual means to be adopted for the task at hand. Astronomical activity requires a certain minimum level of industrial activity support. Long-term maintenance of astronomical equipment is not a trivial task

  2. Do countries “graduate” from crises? Some historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen; Qian, Rong; Rogoff, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The widespread banking crises since 2007 among advanced economies and the “near” default of Greece in 2010 dashed the popular notion that rich countries have outgrown severe financial crises. Record or near-record declines in output accompanying these events signaled the end of the short-lived “great moderation era.” In fact, graduation from recurring sovereign external debt crises is a very tortuous process that sometimes takes a century or more. For banking crises, we simply do not know ...

  3. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics: A Historical Cross-Country Perspective 1820-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    Standard theoretical arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820-2000 to explore whether institutional reforms have differential growth effects in monarchies a...... reforms in republics while monarchies benefit from such reforms in the ten-year perspective adopted here. We offer some tentative thoughts on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the results....

  4. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics: A Historical Cross-Country Perspective 1820-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    Standard theoretical arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820-2000 to explore whether institutional reforms have differential growth effects in monarchies...

  5. Econophysics: historical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, G.; Sornette, D.

    2008-01-01

    Econophysics embodies the recent upsurge of interest by physicists into financial economics, driven by the availability of large amount of data, job shortage in physics and the possibility of applying many-body techniques developed in statistical and theoretical physics to the understanding of the self-organizing economy. This brief historical survey emphasizes that Econophysics has many historical precursors, and is in fact rooted in a continuous cross-fertilization between economics and phy...

  6. Energy Sources: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Constance M.

    1983-01-01

    Putting the present energy situation into an historical perspective provides meaning to today's energy concerns and demonstrates how important energy has always been to our life style. Primary energy sources of the United States from 1850 to the present are examined. (RM)

  7. Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishteswar, K

    2011-10-01

    Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12(th) cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15(th) century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18(th)century.

  8. Critical perspectives on historical collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Karl W; Endfield, Georgina H

    2012-03-06

    Historical collapse of ancient states or civilizations has raised new awareness about its possible relevance to current issues of sustainability, in the context of global change. This Special Feature examines 12 case studies of societies under stress, of which seven suffered severe transformation. Outcomes were complex and unpredictable. Five others overcame breakdown through environmental, political, or socio-cultural resilience, which deserves as much attention as the identification of stressors. Response to environmental crises of the last millennium varied greatly according to place and time but drew from traditional knowledge to evaluate new information or experiment with increasing flexibility, even if modernization or intensification were decentralized and protracted. Longer-term diachronic experience offers insight into how societies have dealt with acute stress, a more instructive perspective for the future than is offered by apocalyptic scenarios.

  9. Plants as De-Worming Agents of Livestock in the Nordic Countries: Historical Perspective, Popular Beliefs and Prospects for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingebrigtsen K

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparations derived from plants were the original therapeutic interventions used by man to control diseases (including parasites, both within humans and livestock. Development of herbal products depended upon local botanical flora with the result that different remedies tended to develop in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, in some instances, the same or related plants were used over wide geographic regions, which also was the result of communication and/or the importation of plant material of high repute. Thus, the Nordic countries have an ancient, rich and diverse history of plant derived anthelmintic medications for human and animal use. Although some of the more commonly used herbal de-wormers were derived from imported plants, or their products, many are from endemic plants or those that thrive in the Scandinavian environment. With the advent of the modern chemotherapeutic era, and the discovery, development and marketing of a seemingly unlimited variety of highly efficacious, safe synthetic chemicals with very wide spectra of activities, herbal remedies virtually disappeared from the consciousness – at least in the Western world. This attitude is now rapidly changing. There is a widespread resurgence in natural product medication, driven by major threats posed by multi-resistant pest, or disease, organisms and the diminishing public perceptions that synthetic chemicals are the panacea to health and disease control. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the depth of historical Nordic information available on herbal de-wormers, with emphasis on livestock and to provide some insights on potentially rewarding areas of "re-discovery" and scientific evaluation in this field.

  10. VARIETIES OF SOCIAL DISCIPLINING, HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás A. Mantecón Movellán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical thought has tended to explain social disciplining according to two main analytical perspectives: on one hand, German tradition about the so-called sozialdisziplinierung and, on the other hand, Foucault perspectives (focussed on disciplines practiced on the bodies-and/or-minds of people by the authorities. From these both viewpoints social disciplining was a dynamic ingredient of change, from traditional societies up to contemporary liberal societies; a machinery to provoke top-down changes (from above. On the bases of historical evidences, this research claims for a third viewpoint that stresses dynamics of social discipline and social disciplining from below; underlines the need of integrating this third perspective in the historical explanation of change in past societies throughout the analysis of social practices of everyday life; the values underneath them and, in the end, taking into account varieties of discipline and perspectives of social disciplining from below.

  11. The Principalship in Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a review of the existing historiography of the American school principal. Although a small and incomplete body of research, scholarship on the history of the principalship demonstrates that it has always been a complex and multifaceted role and that principals have historically drawn on shifting sources of authority to assert…

  12. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-01-01

    Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  13. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  14. Active Learning: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marilyn

    The purposes of the first two parts of this literature review are to clarify the concept of active learning and discuss the use and value of active learning models. In Part I, the perspectives of five historical proponents of active learning, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Dewey, Kilpatrick, and Piaget, are discussed. The views of four contemporary…

  15. Child Language Disability: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Montfort Supple, Marie; Soderpalm, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the historical foundations of the identification of language disorders in childhood through an international perspective. It describes the development of the profession of speech-language pathology, initially in Western Europe and later in North America. The roles played by key researchers in the area of child language are…

  16. Historical perspective: surgery for chronic thromboembolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Stuart W

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective for our current understanding of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and surgery for this disease. It chronicles the developments in surgical techniques that have made pulmonary endarterectomy the procedure of choice for obstruction of pulmonary vessels by organized thromboemboli and secondary vessel wall thickening.

  17. Academic Perspectives on Internationalisation in Three Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertova, Patricie

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of senior academics on internationalisation of higher education across three countries: England, Czech Republic and Australia. In particular, it investigates the perspectives and experiences of academics in a range of leadership positions in university faculties and schools. The research utilises a critical…

  18. Molecular Evolution in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2016-12-01

    In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms. These developments sparked important debates between defendants of the molecular and organismic approaches. The most vocal confrontations focused on the relation between primates and humans, and the neutral theory of molecular evolution. By the 1980s and 1990s, the construction of large protein and DNA sequences databases, and the development of computer-based statistical tools, facilitated the coming together of molecular and evolutionary biology. Although in its contemporary form the field of molecular evolution can be traced back to the last five decades, the field has deep roots in twentieth century experimental life sciences. For historians of science, the origins and consolidation of molecular evolution provide a privileged field for the study of scientific debates, the relation between technological advances and scientific knowledge, and the connection between science and broader social concerns.

  19. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C. during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20 th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation′s first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835, Calcutta (1835 and Mumbai (1848. Prior to India′s independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI. Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN. Design/Methods: Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Results: Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930′s. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951 include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991. The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in

  20. Teaching Historical Memories in an Intercultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibel, Katrine Vinther; Wrochem, Oliver

    How can we approach historical remembrance in history teaching? This question lies at the heart of the three-year, EU-funded project TeacMem,which involves partners from Denmark, Germany and Norway. The participants (teacher trainers, historians, teachers, memorial educators, disseminators and st...... and students) have studied the memory cultures regarding the Nazi era and World War II in the three countries. Together, they have developed and tested a range of educational methods focusing on the development of historical and intercultural competence in memorials and schools...

  1. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  2. Management perspectives on country of origin

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, A.; Barnes, L; Warnaby, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a new perspective by conceptualising country of origin (COO) from a management perspective, identifying the impact different COO constructs have in the context of fashion retailer and manufacturer businesses.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – This qualitative study comprises a series of in-depth interviews with key informants from large-scale fashion retailers and manufacturers in the UK.\\ud \\ud Findings - The major findings of this researc...

  3. [Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced

  4. INCUBATORS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladin Stefanovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators aim to maximize the chances of success of start - up companies by creating a supportive environment. Typically, this involves offering management assistance, mentoring, access to financing, flexible and low - cost leases, office services, etc. There is large number of business incubators in the world. In this paper issues concerned status, development and overview of existing practice in the world will be presented as well as general issues and perspectives for developing countries.

  5. Astronomy in India a historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    India has a strong and ancient tradition of astronomy, which seamlessly merges with the current activities in Astronomy and Astrophysics in the country. While the younger generation of astronomers and students are reasonably familiar with the current facilities and the astronomical research, they might not have an equally good knowledge of the rich history of Indian astronomy. This particular volume, brought out as a part of the Platinum Jubilee Celebrations of Indian National Science Academy, concentrates on selected aspects of historical development of Indian astronomy in the form of six invited chapters. Two of the chapters – by Balachandra Rao and M.S. Sriram – cover ancient astronomy and the development of calculus in the ancient Kerela text Yuktibhasa. The other four chapters by B.V. Sreekantan, Siraj Hasan, Govind Swarup and Jayant Narlikar deal with the contemporary history of Indian astronomy covering space astronomy, optical astronomy, radio astronomy and developments in relativistic astrophysic...

  6. Statistical methods and applications from a historical perspective selected issues

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The book showcases a selection of peer-reviewed papers, the preliminary versions of which were presented at a conference held 11-13 June 2011 in Bologna and organized jointly by the Italian Statistical Society (SIS), the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and the Bank of Italy. The theme of the conference was "Statistics in the 150 years of the Unification of Italy." The celebration of the anniversary of Italian unification provided the opportunity to examine and discuss the methodological aspects and applications from a historical perspective and both from a national and international point of view. The critical discussion on the issues of the past has made it possible to focus on recent advances, considering the studies of socio-economic and demographic changes in European countries.

  7. DPAL: historical perspective and summary of achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Knize, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Alkali vapor lasers are under extensive research and development during the past decade because of their potential for scaling to high powers while maintaining a good beam quality. Also, a possibility of using efficient diode lasers for pumping alkali vapor promises high total wall plug efficiency for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL). Since the first DPAL demonstration with output power of 130 mW in 20051, a significant progress in this field was achieved. The output power of about 1 kW in continuous wave (CW) operation with optical efficiency close to 50% was recently demonstrated for a Cs DPAL2. Also, the DPALs based on other alkali metals (Rubidium and Potassium) were demonstrated3,4 . In spite of these significant achievements, there are still several problems in DPAL power scaling exist that must be addressed. Among them are the thermal5 and photoionization6 issues that become important even at power level about several tens of watts. In this paper we present a historical review of the alkali laser research and development, discuss the most important achievements and future perspectives in this field of research.

  8. Technical writing in America: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The standard distinction between poetic and referential language, the gulf between science and the humanities, and the distress many teachers of English feel when faced for the first time with the prospect of teaching technical writing are discussed. In the introduction of many technical writing textbooks. Technical communication is divorced from other forms of linguistic experience by making language limiting and reductive rather than creative and expansive. The emphasis on technical/scientific writing as radically different had blinded people to those traits it has in common with all species of composition and has led to a neglect of research, on fundamental rhetorical issues. A complete rhetorical theory of technical discourse should include information about the attitudes and motives of writers, the situations which motivate (or coerce) them to write, definitive features of technical style and form, interrelationship of expression and creativity, and functions of communication in shaping and preserving scientific networds and institutions. The previous areas should be explored with respect to contemporary practice and within an historical perspective.

  9. Epidemiological profile of India: Historical and contemporary perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M D Gupte; Vidya Ramachandran; R K Mutatkar

    2001-11-01

    Knowledge and understanding of the epidemiological profile is an essential pre-requisite to assess and address public health needs in the country and to enable efficient programme planning and management. The need for adequate and accurate health information and data to undertake such an exercise cannot be over-emphasized. The present effort is a modest attempt to critically analyse the epidemiological profile of India from the historical and contemporary perspective. In order to assess the successes achieved as well caution against the daunting challenges awaiting the country, parameters such as disease burden and health status indicators, are increasingly being used. Changes in the population age structure, improvements in the nation’s economic status, altered lifestyles of people and duality of disease burden testify to the demographic, development and health transition occurring in the country. Population stabilization, poverty alleviation, life-style modification, surveillance and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases constitute the major challenges demanding urgent attention in the future.

  10. The Capital Market in Nigeria in Historical Perspective | Balogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Capital Market in Nigeria in Historical Perspective. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... It is against this background that this paper considers the establishment and operation of the Securities and Exchange Commission.

  11. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  12. Concerns for the Historical Profession: A Liberal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarausch, Konrad H.

    This paper contends that the debate over multiculturalism in the university is best understood from a broadened historical perspective. The experiences of educational reformers in Germany and the impact of fascism and communism are explored. Based on a historical approach to the multiculturalism debate, three areas of particular concern are…

  13. Perspectives: Using Historical Documents To Think about NIF Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of using historical documents in the classroom is to generate and enhance discussion by providing a historical perspective for issues. Five documents are included in this packet and are to be used as a supplemental material for the National Issues Forum (NIF) topics. Issues raised include (1) an analysis of the documents and (2)…

  14. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  15. Global Transfer and Indian Management A Historical Hybridity Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Raaijman, Tico

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of Indian management and to challenge more generally ahistorical and essentialist notions of indigenous management perspectives. Drawing selectively on postcolonial theory, we suggest that a historical hybridity perspective serves as

  16. An Historical Perspective on Collaborative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillet, Lynee Lewis

    1994-01-01

    Presents a historical study of the contribution of George Jardine to the field of composition. Considers why Jardine has been omitted from histories of writing instruction. Outlines Jardine's plan for using collaborative learning and peer editing in the classroom. (HB)

  17. Radio listening in a life-historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    . The pivot of my exploration of radio-listening in a life-historical perspective is a fieldwork among Danish people above 70 years. These people are interviewed, followed in their daily practices while listening to radio, and we also listen to and discuss selected radioprogrammes from the archive. The aim......-historical perspective inspired by, but not adapting completely to Tamara Harevens (2000) three analytic "times" : "individual time", "family time” and ”historical time”, and In my digestion, this develops into three formats upon which I build my analysis: -Individual aspects: Taste and practice, identification......, emotionality and daily routines, -Social aspects: Sociability, joint experiences of listening, (in real or in imaged communities), feelings of community -Cultural aspects: Historical and generationally specific experiences and memories This analysis includes materiality, time and space, memory and experience...

  18. Introduction: Communicating European Integration: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Müller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s the so-called 'democratic deficit' of the EU became an increasingly discussed topic in both academic and political circles. In this context, the (apparently insufficient communication of European politics to its citizens has been of especially great importance. Academic research has invested considerable efforts in trying to analyse and explain these problematic relationships. However, because this still growing area of research is still dominated by social scientists, historical approaches seem to be somewhat underrepresented. Against this background, this special issue will present historical studies on actors, means and contents of communicating the process of European integration from its beginnings to the present day.

  19. The concept of learning in cultural-historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2015-01-01

    A cultural-historical perspective on learning is presented. The key idea is to conceptualise learning as self-mastery of action, using existing psychological functions. The main part of the chapter provides an overview of Vygotsky’s theory of higher psychological functions, and discusses their im......A cultural-historical perspective on learning is presented. The key idea is to conceptualise learning as self-mastery of action, using existing psychological functions. The main part of the chapter provides an overview of Vygotsky’s theory of higher psychological functions, and discusses...

  20. Contemporary Social Psychology in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Dorwin

    1979-01-01

    The current state of social psychology is assessed in light of its historical and social context. The discipline is viewed as a social system, and it is argued that the properties of this system have influenced the research techniques, substantive content, and theories of contemporary social psychology. (Author/RD)

  1. Social Justice: An Historical and Philosophical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon Kay

    2011-01-01

    Social justice in education concerns three questions: whom do we teach, what do we teach, and how do we teach? In this article the author briefly discusses social justice and its related concepts, its historical underpinnings, the social climate that brought about social change, and its effect on teaching physical activity. She also gives personal…

  2. Historical Perspective on Technology and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explores the historical developments in technology that affected music education. Describes the developments in hardware, such as gears and levers, electricity, vacuum tubes, transistors, and integrated circuits. Discusses the changes in computer software from the 1950s to the present. (CMK)

  3. Putting Barack Obama's Candidacy in Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    Senator Barack Obama's historic candidacy for president of the United States has generated an intense and thoughtful national discussion within Black America. His campaign has brought several issues to the fore. Recently, the author spoke with five of the most preeminent Black scholars in the nation to search out some of their thoughts on five key…

  4. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  5. Children's Rights in Education: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stuart N.; Pavlovic, Zoran

    1991-01-01

    Major historical themes of the childrens rights movement dealing with education are briefly traced. The meaning and significance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child are considered as they relate to education. The roles of school psychology in future advances in children's rights are discussed. (SLD)

  6. A historical perspective on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, W. Ray

    1991-01-01

    The historical development of space stations is presented through a series of various spacecraft configurations including: (1) Salut 6; (2) Skylab; (3) the Space Operations Center (SOC); (4) the Manned Science and Applications Space Platform; (5) Space Station Freedom; and (4) the Mir Space Station.

  7. A Historical Perspective on Professional Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ruth Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of historical research to improve the present allied health practice. Explores the relationship between social values and the emergence of occupational therapy between 1890 and 1920. The relationship established between physician and therapist still influences the status of both professions. (JOW)

  8. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  9. Measuring food environments: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    Food and nutrition environments are believed to contribute to obesity and chronic diseases. There is a need for valid, reliable measures of nutrition environments. Familiarity with previous efforts to measure food and nutrition environments can help researchers and practitioners build on past accomplishments. This article describes sources of food-environment data, discusses how they have been used, and places the definition and measurement of food and nutrition environments in historical context. Review articles, agency websites, and peer-reviewed articles were the main sources of information. The review is organized around three main types of data sources identified as historic traditions: government, industry, and research. Types of data include archives, business monitoring records, surveys, observational assessments, and self-report surveys. Future development of clear, adaptable measures of food and nutrition environments will build on lessons of the past and will update and improve on past tools.

  10. Risk and Risk society in Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Since the mid-1980s “risk” has constituted a sort of banner to which the social sciences have rallied. It has given rise to a whole range of research in the political science, sociology and economics spheres. This paper is a general introduction to a History and Technology special issue which attempt to construct analytical frameworks and research proposals that may contribute to a historization and a denaturalization of risk. This paper considers the role of history i...

  11. Some economic historic perspectives on the 2009 world trade collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe paper puts the collapse of the world trade volume in 2009 into two historic perspectives. First, the paper analyses 18 major post-1980 / pre-2007 financial crises and uses these observations as a basis to critically evaluate presently available projections for world trade. Second, th

  12. Some economic historic perspectives on the 2009 world trade collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe paper puts the collapse of the world trade volume in 2009 into two historic perspectives. First, the paper analyses 18 major post-1980/pre-2007 financial crises and uses these observations as a basis to critically evaluate presently available projections for world trade. Second, the

  13. Historical perspectives on theories of periodontal disease etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hujoel, Philippe; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the causes of periodontal disease have changed greatly over time. The aim of this review is to provide a critical and historical perspective, dating back over more than a century, on two competing paradigms. While we understand that this stark dichotomization may be viewed...

  14. The Voting Rights Act--An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, Bayard; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This address to the morning session of the Southern Policy Conference on the Voting Rights Act of 1965 puts the Act in an historical perspective in which its importance is clearly perceived; also includes is a discussion of the address by Nicholas Katzenbach, Vernon Jordan, James P. Turner, and George H. Esser, persons who either were involved in…

  15. People Recognition: A Historical/Anthropological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Using current neurological and neuropsychological literature, and the analysis of different cultural and historical conditions, people recognition is analyzed. Different “subsystems” or “modules” could be involved in individuals' recognition: living versus non-living, own species versus other species, familiar versus non-familiar, males versus females, and individual identification versus emotional identification. Not only visual, but also auditory and even olfactory information may be involved in people recognition. Visual information involved in people recognition is proposed to include not only the perception of faces, but also the perception of whole body and gait, clothes, emotional expressions, and individual marks.

  16. Preparation for labor: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, N C; Geden, E A; Brouder, G T

    1979-05-01

    A historical analysis of the literature pertaining to psychoprophylaxis demonstrates that contemporary treatment methods have diverse and complex origins. Although many training manuals are presented as outlines of the "Lamaze" method, historical evidence indicates that Grantly Dick-Read (Natural Childbirth. London, Heinemann, 1933; Childbirth Without Fear. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1944), an English obstetrician, made the most substantive contributions to this area. Although Fernand Lamaze is generally regarded as the pre-eminent authority on psychoprophylaxis, a comparison of his 1958 text with the original Soviet source (I. Velvovsky et al., (Eds.), Painless Childbirth Through Psychoprophylaxis, Moscow, Foreign Languages Publ. House, 1960) demonstrates that he deleted and modified substantial portions of the treatment regimen and failed to keep abreast of developments in Soviet theory. Neither Dick-Read, Velvovsky et al. or Lamaze (Painless Childbirth. London, Burke, 1958) present data which permit cause and effect conclusions regarding treatment and outcome. By the same token, none of these authors demonstrated interest in the empirical validation of their theories regarding pain, anxiety, or fear reduction.

  17. Geomagnetic storms: historical perspective to modern view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2016-12-01

    The history of geomagnetism is more than 400 years old. Geomagnetic storms as we know them were discovered about 210 years ago. There has been keen interest in understanding Sun-Earth connection events, such as solar flares, CMEs, and concomitant magnetic storms in recent times. Magnetic storms are the most important component of space weather effects on Earth. We give an overview of the historical aspects of geomagnetic storms and the progress made during the past two centuries. Super magnetic storms can cause life-threatening power outages and satellite damage, communication failures and navigational problems. The data for such super magnetic storms that occurred in the last 50 years during the space era is sparce. Research on historical geomagnetic storms can help to create a database for intense and super magnetic storms. New knowledge of interplanetary and solar causes of magnetic storms gained from spaceage observations will be used to review the super magnetic storm of September 1-2, 1859. We discuss the occurrence probability of such super magnetic storms, and the maximum possible intensity for the effects of a perfect ICME: extreme super magnetic storm, extreme magnetospheric compression, and extreme magnetospheric electric fields.

  18. Modeling Concept Evolution: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Flavio; Velegrakis, Yannis; Mylopoulos, John; Bykau, Siarhei

    The world is changing, and so must the data that describes its history. Not surprisingly, considerable research effort has been spent in Databases along this direction, covering topics such as temporal models and schema evolution. A topic that has not received much attention, however, is that of concept evolution. For example, Germany (instance-level concept) has evolved several times in the last century as it went through different governance structures, then split into two national entities that eventually joined again. Likewise, a caterpillar is transformed into a butterfly, while a mother becomes two (maternally-related) entities. As well, the concept of Whale (a class-level concept) changed over the past two centuries thanks to scientific discoveries that led to a better understanding of what the concept entails. In this work, we present a formal framework for modeling, querying and managing such evolution. In particular, we describe how to model the evolution of a concept, and how this modeling can be used to answer historical queries of the form "How has concept X evolved over period Y". Our proposal extends an RDF-like model with temporal features and evolution operators. Then we provide a query language that exploits these extensions and supports historical queries.

  19. Biomolecular simulation: historical picture and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Dolenc, Jozica

    2008-02-01

    Over the last 30 years, computation based on molecular models is playing an increasingly important role in biology, biological chemistry and biophysics. Since only a very limited number of properties of biomolecular systems are actually accessible to measurement by experimental means, computer simulation complements experiments by providing not only averages, but also distributions and time series of any definable, observable or non-observable, quantity. Biomolecular simulation may be used (i) to interpret experimental data, (ii) to provoke new experiments, (iii) to replace experiments and (iv) to protect intellectual property. Progress over the last 30 years is sketched and perspectives are outlined for the future.

  20. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  1. The vector algebra war: A historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, James M; Hartnett, John G; Abbott, Derek

    2015-01-01

    There are a wide variety of different vector formalisms currently utilized in science. For example, Gibbs three-vectors, spacetime four-vectors, complex spinors for quantum mechanics, quaternions used for rigid body rotations and Clifford multivectors. With such a range of vector formalisms in use, it thus appears that there is as yet no general agreement on a vector formalism suitable for the whole of science. This surprising situation exists today, despite the fact that one of the main goals of nineteenth century science was to correctly describe vectors and the algebra of three-dimensional space. This situation has also had the unfortunate consequence of fragmenting knowledge across many disciplines and requiring a very significant amount of time and effort in learning the different formalisms. We thus review historically the development of our various vector systems and conclude that the Clifford algebra multivector fulfills the goal of correctly describing vectorial quantities in three dimensions.

  2. The population health approach in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szreter, Simon

    2003-03-01

    The origin of the population health approach is an historic debate over the relationship between economic growth and human health. In Britain and France, the Industrial Revolution disrupted population health and stimulated pioneering epidemiological studies, informing the early preventive public health movement. A century-long process of political adjustment between the forces of liberal democracy and propertied interests ensued. The 20th-century welfare states resulted as complex political mechanisms for converting economic growth into enhanced population health. However, the rise of a "neoliberal" agenda, denigrating the role of government, has once again brought to the fore the importance of prevention and a population health approach to map and publicize the health impacts of this new phase of "global" economic growth.

  3. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  4. An Historical Perspective on Fractional Calculus in Linear Viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Mainardi, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The article provides an historical survey of the early contributions on the applications of fractional calculus in linear viscoelasticty. The period under examination covers four decades, since 1930's up to 1970's and authors are from both Western and Eastern countries. References to more recent contributions may be found in the bibliography of a recent book by the author.

  5. Biological warfare in a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F

    2002-08-01

    There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse.

  6. Poverty, Population, Inequality, and Development: the Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilosi, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seen in historical perspective the main economic predicaments of the present world (such as poverty, inequality, backwardness appear in a somewhat different light than in many current discussions, especially by sociologists, radical economists and political scientists. In the present paper the achievements of the modern age, and in particular of the post- World War II period, are considered in the perspective of economic and demographic history, and in their connection with the systems of production and of international relations. Some considerations concerning future possible developments conclude the paper.

  7. Historical perspective on developmental concepts and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    In their ontogeny and phylogeny all living beings are historical entities. The revolution in biology of the 18th and 19th centuries that did away with the scala naturae according to which we humans, the acme of creation, "made a little lower than the angels," also led to the gradual realization that a humble one-celled protist ("protoctist"), such as Entamoeba histolytica of ill repute [Margulis and Chapman, ] has the same 4-billion-year phylogeny as that of Homo sapiens, vivid testimony to common ancestry and the relatedness of all living beings on earth. The group of medical geneticists who assembled at the NIH, Bethesda, MD this January to address terms pertaining to human ontogeny, did so in the long tradition of Sydenham, Linnaeus, Meckel, Geoffroy St-Hilaire père et fils, Wilhelm His and so many others before who had over the previous two centuries wrestled as earnestly as they could with concepts of "classification" and nomenclature of developmental anomalies. The prior massive need for classification per se in medical morphology has diminished over the years in favor of ever more sophisticated understanding of pathogenesis and cause through experimental biology and genetics; however, in the winter of 2013 it was still found prudent to respect terminological precedent on general terms while recognizing recent advances in developmental pathology requiring clarification and definition of special terms. Efforts along similar lines instigated by the German Society of Anatomists at their first meeting in Leipzig in 1887 culminated, after intense years of work by hundreds of experts and consultants under the goad of Wilhelm His, in the Basel Nomina Anatomica [BNA, His (1895)]. His, himself, stated prefatorily that the BNA had no legislative weight, only an evanescent consensus of many to be amended in the future as needed and indicated. Without hubris, no one before or after will do the same. The more substantial the consensus the more permanent the structure

  8. Science and technology from global and historical perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Karagözoğlu, Bahattin

    2017-01-01

    This book provides science and technology ethos to a literate person. It starts with a rather detailed treatment of basic concepts in human values, educational status and domains of education, development of science and technology and their contributions to the welfare of society. It describes ways and means of scientific progresses and technological advancements with their historical perspectives including scientific viewpoints of contributing scientists and technologists. The technical, social, and cultural dimensions are surveyed in relation to acquisition and application of science, and advantages and hindrances of technological developments. Science and Technology is currently taught as a college course in many universities with the intention to introduce topics from a global historical perspective so that the reader shall stretch his/her vision by mapping the past to the future. The book can also serve as a primary reference for such courses.

  9. PSYCHOTHERAPY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY Psychotherapy is being increasingly recognised as an important treatment modality for various mental health problems. However, minimal efforts have been made to examine the utility of psychotherapy from the public health perspective, especially for developing countries. This paper outlines the present situation in developing countries with respect to the magnitude of mental health and related problems requiring psychotherapeutic help, the existing health and mental health facilities, ...

  10. The Economic Impact of Medical Migration: A Receiving Country's Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine the macroeconomic impacts of migration of skilled medical personnel from a receiving country's perspective. The resource allocation issues are explored in theory, by developing an extension of the Rybczynski theorem in a low-dimension Heckscher–Ohlin framework, and empi

  11. Plant taxonomy: a historical perspective, current challenges, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhan, Germinal; Gaudeul, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is the science that explores, describes, names, and classifies all organisms. In this introductory chapter, we highlight the major historical steps in the elaboration of this science that provides baseline data for all fields of biology and plays a vital role for society but is also an independent, complex, and sound hypothesis-driven scientific discipline.In a first part, we underline that plant taxonomy is one of the earliest scientific disciplines that emerged thousands of years ago, even before the important contributions of Greeks and Romans (e.g., Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides). In the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, plant taxonomy benefited from the Great Navigations, the invention of the printing press, the creation of botanic gardens, and the use of the drying technique to preserve plant specimens. In parallel with the growing body of morpho-anatomical data, subsequent major steps in the history of plant taxonomy include the emergence of the concept of natural classification, the adoption of the binomial naming system (with the major role of Linnaeus) and other universal rules for the naming of plants, the formulation of the principle of subordination of characters, and the advent of the evolutionary thought. More recently, the cladistic theory (initiated by Hennig) and the rapid advances in DNA technologies allowed to infer phylogenies and to propose true natural, genealogy-based classifications.In a second part, we put the emphasis on the challenges that plant taxonomy faces nowadays. The still very incomplete taxonomic knowledge of the worldwide flora (the so-called taxonomic impediment) is seriously hampering conservation efforts that are especially crucial as biodiversity enters its sixth extinction crisis. It appears mainly due to insufficient funding, lack of taxonomic expertise, and lack of communication and coordination. We then review recent initiatives to overcome these limitations and to anticipate how taxonomy

  12. Summer 2015 Extremes over South Asia within the Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, D.; Ashfaq, M.

    2015-12-01

    South Asian summer in 2015 has been marked by weather events of extremely different nature, including hot extremes over India and Pakistan, and wet extremes over northern, western and eastern states of India. Interestingly, these extremes are happening against the backdrop of warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the equatorial Pacific, which has historically reduced the strength of summer monsoon over South Asia. Given the occurrence of the contrasting anomalies at large and regional scales, in this study, we analyze 2015 extremes over South Asia within the historical perspective. We study the anomalies in the land, atmospheric and oceanic processes that potentially led to the regional heat waves and wet extremes throughout the summer and their connection to the large-scale anomalies in the monsoon dynamic. Additionally, we analyze historical simulations of the CMIP5 GCMs to investigate the likelihood of these anomalies with respect to the pre-industrial time period. Our analysis suggests evolving changes in the monsoon dynamics over South Asia where the lesser-known regional and local drivers have influence on the historical tele-connections.

  13. Historic perspectives from anthropology. Reflections proposed to Transcultural Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach Viadas, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    History brings together meanings related to earlier periods, being aware of the past as a panorama to reread the present. Madeleine Leininger presented in 1970 an implicit and respectful message to the Nursing Profession when introducing Nursing and Anthropology. Two Worlds to Blend. Implicitly: Nursing you disregard culture. This article shows the absence of the history of anthropology and of nursing within Transcultural Nursing and it includes how education has influenced theoretic, methodological, and comparative approaches giving researchers the responsibility to decide their fundamentals. Berthoud (2001) has inspired the anthropological and historic perspectives of the author, thus universalism, relativism, and comparison are presented.

  14. Historic perspectives from anthropology. Reflections proposed to Transcultural Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rohrbach Viadas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available History brings together meanings related to earlier periods, being aware of the past as a panorama to reread the present. Madeleine Leininger presented in 1970 an implicit and respectful message to the Nursing Profession when introducing Nursing and Anthropology. Two Worlds to Blend. Implicitly: Nursing you disregard culture. This article shows the absence of the history of anthropology and of nursing within Transcultural Nursing and it includes how education has influenced theoretic, methodological, and comparative approaches giving researchers the responsibility to decide their fundamentals. Berthoud (2001 has inspired the anthropological and historic perspectives of the author, thus universalism, relativism, and comparison are presented.

  15. Historical perspective and advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Harandi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids and melphalan were used for decades to treat multiple myeloma. Combination chemotherapy has been extensively studied with similar overall survival rates to melphalan and prednisone. In the last decade, the development of new agents has progressed significantly. Thalidomide and its newer derivatives lenalidomide, bortezomib, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin have drastically revolutionized treatment approaches. As a result, numerous clinical trials have yielded exciting treatment strategies resulting in therapeutic advances, and improved responses and overall survival of patients. This review summarizes the international uniform response criteria for multiple myeloma and gives a historical perspective on previous therapies with updates on the newest available treatments.

  16. Vibrio cholerae in an Historically Cholera-Free Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Bradd J; Chen, Arlene; Grim, Christopher J; Clark, Philip; Diaz, Celia Municio; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A; Sancomb, Elizabeth; Elnemr, Wessam Mahmoud; Islam, Muhammad A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Benediktsdóttir, Eva

    2012-08-01

    We report the autochthonous existence of Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters of Iceland, a geothermally active country where cholera is absent and has never been reported. Seawater, mussel, and macroalgae samples were collected close to and distant from sites where geothermal activity causes a significant increase in water temperature during low tides. V. cholerae was detected only at geothermal-influenced sites during low-tides. None of the V. cholerae isolates encoded cholera toxin (ctxAB) and all were non-O1/non-O139 serogroups. However, all isolates encoded other virulence factors that are associated with cholera as well as extra-intestinal V. cholerae infections. The virulence factors were functional at temperatures of coastal waters of Iceland, suggesting an ecological role. It is noteworthy that V. cholerae was isolated from samples collected at sites distant from anthropogenic influence, supporting the conclusion that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment of Iceland.

  17. Separations chemistry for f elements: Recent developments and historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    With the end of the cold war, the principal mission in actinide separations has changed from production of plutonium to cleanup of the immense volume of moderately radioactive mixed wastes which resulted from fifty years of processing activities. In order to approach the cleanup task from a proper perspective, it is necessary to understand the nature of the problem and how the wastes were generated. In this report, the history of actinide separations, both the basic science and production aspects, is examined. Many of the separations techniques in use today were developed in the 40`s and 50`s for the identification and production of actinide elements. To respond to the modern world of actinide separations new techniques are being developed for separations ranging from analytical methods to detect ultra-trace concentrations (for bioassay and environmental monitoring) to large scale waste treatment procedures. Some of these new methods are ``improvements`` or adaptations of the historical techniques. Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separations, and selective partitioning of actinides from inert constituents are of primary concern. This report, offers a historical perspective, review the current status of f element separation processes, and suggest areas for continued research in both actinide separations and waste cleanup/environment remediation.

  18. Conduct of clinical trials in developing countries: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Singh, Kavita; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2009-07-01

    To provide a broad perspective of contextual factors involved in the conduct of clinical trials in developing countries. The quantity of research in developing countries continues to be inadequate, with clinical trials comprising a small fraction of the total research output. Most trials done in developing countries tend to be designed in developed countries and led by investigators in those nations. The main challenges in the conduct of trials in developing countries stem from the vulnerability of the populations due to illiteracy, poverty, limited research infrastructure, lack of sufficient numbers of experienced investigators and trained support personnel, and fragmented healthcare system. There is a need to formulate and conduct trials to test treatments that are context-specific and socially relevant. With careful planning in advance and shared partnership among sponsors, host-country research practitioners, government agencies and the community, many of the challenges facing clinical trial research can be overcome over the medium to long term. This would enable conformity to contemporary guidelines in both letter and spirit and hopefully develop research questions addressing the needs of developing countries.

  19. Using Digital Primary Sources to Teach Historical Perspective to Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Scott M.; Torrez, Cheryl A. Franklin

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of digital primary sources to teach historical perspective to preservice teachers. Discussed here are the experiences of 90 elementary education majors during their inquiry-based elementary social studies methods course. A variety of digital primary sources were used to teach historical perspective and to model…

  20. THE ISLAMIC SENSE ON LITERARY CRITICISM: A BRIEF HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Fathoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available New Historicism and cultural history have opened up the new approaches to writing histories. However, the last decade national and transnational literary histories have continued to take different approaches, by typical new national literary histories have distinguished the teleology of grand narratives by revised the linear ways into specific subjects and certain conception. In the following discussion, I shall describe how ‘new’ perspective of moral and ideological on history of literary criticism reacted to the crisis of history writing, by appearing the writing of the history of Islamic literary criticism—especially to perceiving the historical writing proposed by M.A.R. Habib, A History of Literary Criticism (2005.

  1. Historical Responsibility for Climate Change - from countries emissions to contribution to temperature increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Mario; Gütschow, Johannes; Rocha, Marcia; Schaeffer, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    The notion of historical responsibility is central to the equity debate and the measure of responsibility as a countries' share of historical global emissions remains one of the essential parameters in so-called equity proposals, which attempt to distribute effort among countries in an equitable manner. The focus of this contribution is on the historical contribution of countries, but it takes it one step further: its general objective lies on estimating countries' contribution directly to the change in climate. The historical responsibility is not based on cumulative emissions but instead measured in terms of the countries' estimated contribution to the increase in global-mean surface-air temperature. This is achieved by (1) compiling a historical emissions dataset for the period from 1850 until 2012 for each individual Kyoto-greenhouse gas and each UNFCCC Party using a consistent methodology and (2) applying those historical emissions to a revised version of the so-called Policy-maker Model put forward by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Federative Republic of Brazil, which is a simple, yet powerful tool that allows historical GHG emissions of individual countries to be directly related to their effect on global temperature changes. We estimate that the cumulative GHG emissions until 2012 from the USA, the European Union and China contribute to a total temperature increase of about 0.50°C in 2100, which is equivalent to about 50% of the temperature increase from total global GHG emissions by that year (of about 1.0°C). Respectively, the USA, the European Union, and China are responsible for 20.2%, 17.3%, and 12.1% of global temperature increase in 2100. Russian historical emissions are responsible for 0.06°C temperature increase by 2100, ranking as the fourth largest contributor to temperature increase with 6.2% of the total contribution. India ranks fifth: Indian emissions to date would contribute to roughly 0.05°C of global mean temperature

  2. Country perspective on medical tourism: the Malaysian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Manaf, Noor Hazilah; Hussin, Husnayati; Jahn Kassim, Puteri Nemie; Alavi, Rokiah; Dahari, Zainurin

    2015-01-01

    The study seeks to explore the perception of international patients on Malaysia as a medical tourism destination country, as well as overall patient satisfaction, perceived value and future intention for repeat treatment and services. Self-administered questionnaire was the main method of data collection. The survey covered major private hospitals in medical tourists' states in the country, namely, Penang, Melaka, Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. Convenience sampling was used due to the condition of patients as respondents. Indonesian patients formed the largest majority of international patients in the country. Five dimensions of medical tourism in Malaysia was identified, namely, hospital and staff, country factor, combining tourism and health services, cost saving and insurance and unavailability of treatment. Of these, hospital and staff was found to be the most important factor for the patients. Perception of value, overall satisfaction and intention for future treatment was also found to be high. This indicates that Malaysia is on the right footing in this burgeoning industry. Findings from the study will enable policy-makers to better position Malaysia as a medical tourist destination country. Medical tourism is a recent phenomenon and very little empirical research has been carried out at the patient level. This study is one of the first few studies which seek to explore medical tourism from the perspective of the patients themselves.

  3. Republic of Korea's Health Aid Governance: Perspectives from Partner Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Allison Baer; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Minah; Oh, Juhwan

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has a remarkable development history, including its status as the first country to transition from aid recipient to member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Development Assistance Committee (DAC). However, since becoming a donor country, the ROK has struggled to achieve internationally accepted agreements related to aid effectiveness and several evaluations have identified the ROK as being one of the weakest DAC member countries at providing good aid. A survey was conducted to assess partner countries' perceptions of the ROK's governance of health official development assistance (ODA). The survey was administered to government officials based in partner countries' Ministries of Health and therefore presents the unique perspective of ODA recipients. The survey questions focused on governance principles established in the internationally-accepted Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The total response rate was 13 responses out of 26 individuals who received the email request (50%). The survey results indicate that progress has been made since earlier international evaluations but the ROK has not overcome all areas of concern. This confirms that the ROK is continuing to develop its capacity as a good donor but has yet to achieve all governance-related targets. The results of this survey can be used to inform a future aid strategy.

  4. RACK(1) to the future - a historical perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ron, Dorit

    2013-08-01

    This perspective summarises the first and long overdue RACK1 meeting held at the University of Limerick, Ireland, May 2013, in which RACK1’s role in the immune system, the heart and the brain were discussed and its contribution to disease states such as cancer, cardiac hypertrophy and addiction were described. RACK1 is a scaffolding protein and a member of the WD repeat family of proteins. These proteins have a unique architectural assembly that facilitates protein anchoring and the stabilisation of protein activity. A large body of evidence is accumulating which is helping to define the versatile role of RACK1 in assembling and dismantling complex signaling pathways from the cell membrane to the nucleus in health and disease. In this commentary, we first provide a historical perspective on RACK1. We also address many of the pertinent and topical questions about this protein such as its role in transcription, epigenetics and translation, its cytoskeletal contribution and the merits of targeting RACK1 in disease.

  5. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  6. Exploring historical conflicts between midwives and nurses: a perspective from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Ricardo; Binfa, Lorena; Vanderstraeten, Raf; Bracke, Piet

    2015-05-01

    This article explores issues of historical disputes between nurses and midwives based in Chile. The interaction of these two professions in that country has become an arena of competition which leads to conflicts periodically, such as those related to the ownership of the care of new-borns, and that of projects aimed at relieving nurse shortages by enhancing midwives' nursing skills. Specifically, this article aims to build on historical and contemporary resources analysed from a sociological perspective, and present comparatively a rationale concerning nursing/midwifery jurisdictional conflicts through a social history account. Our analysis suggests that nurses/midwives interaction has been shaped by social-historical transformations and the continuous evolution of the healthcare system as a whole, resulting in a race towards technologisation. These interprofessional conflicts can be explained partly by mechanisms of boundary expansion within an organisational/interpretive domain, as well as varying degrees of medicalisation; and partly by a competition possibly originating from a middle-class consciousness. An eventual merger of the two professions might lead to the enhancement of the political power of the caring professions and integrated care.

  7. Crisis discussions in psychology--New historical and philosophical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Thomas; Mülberger, Annette

    2012-06-01

    In this introductory article, we provide a historical and philosophical framework for studying crisis discussions in psychology. We first trace the various meanings of crisis talk outside and inside of the sciences. We then turn to Kuhn's concept of crisis, which is mainly an analyst's category referring to severe clashes between theory and data. His view has also dominated many discussions on the status of psychology: Can it be considered a "mature" science, or are we dealing here with a pre- or multi-paradigmatic discipline? Against these Kuhnian perspectives, we point out that especially, but not only in psychology distinctive crisis declarations and debates have taken place since at least the late 19th century. In these, quite different usages of crisis talk have emerged, which can be determined by looking at (a) the content and (b) the dimensions of the declarations, as well as (c) the functions these declarations had for their authors. Thus, in psychology at least, 'crisis' has been a vigorous actor's category, occasionally having actual effects on the future course of research. While such crisis declarations need not be taken at face value, they nevertheless help to break the spell of Kuhnian analyses of psychology's history. They should inform ways in which the history and philosophy of psychology is studied further.

  8. Virtual water trade and country vulnerability: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on

  9. Visual archives in perspective: enlarging on historical medical photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifflin, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Examining historical photographs can open paths to improved understanding of the history of most disciplines, including medicine. Images can be "read" and advantageously integrated with other historical "traces." Documents, including photographs, are "orphaned" when separated from their creators and used out of context. Archivists share with historians the responsibility for considering interpretations of the documentary record. Cultivating subject-specific understanding as well as general historical awareness expands our competency to read photographs and promotes more contextualized and historically grounded uses of information.

  10. Geohistorical Archaeology: A Perspective for Considering the Historic Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, John R.

    2002-01-01

    The term geohistorical archaeology was adopted to describe the combination of the techniques and concepts of historical geography, historical archaeology, and history. It is suggested that the field offers the potential of enhanced research and instruction as it pertains to the early historical settlement of an area. Particular emphasis is placed…

  11. Review of retrofit strategies decision system in historic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bostenaru Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a process. In structuring and developing its phases different actors are implied, who act under different, sometimes opposite, dynamic conditions and within different reference systems. This paper aims to explore the contribution of participatism to disaster mitigation, when this concerns earthquake impact on urban settlements, through the support provided to multi-criteria decision in matters of retrofit. The research broadness in field of decision making on one side and the lack of a specific model for the retrofit of existing buildings on another side led to an extensive review of the state of the art in related models to address the issue. Core idea in the selection of existing models has been the preoccupation for collaborative issues, in other words, the consideration for the different actors implied in the planning process. The historic perspective on participative planning models is made from the view of two generations of citizen implication. The first approaches focus on the participation of the building owner/inhabitant in the planning process of building construction. As current strategies building rehabilitation and selection from alternative retrofit strategies are presented. New developments include innovative models using the internet or spatial databases. The investigated participation approaches show, that participation and communication as a more comprehensive term are an old topic in the field politics-democratisation-urbanism. In all cases it can be talked of 'successful learning processes', of the improvement of the level of the professional debate. More than 30 years history of participation marked a transition in understanding the concept: from participation, based on a central decision process leading to a solution controlled and steered by the political-administrative system, to communication, characterised by simultaneous decision processes taking place outside politics and administration in co

  12. Care of the dying: an ethical and historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, L T; Young, E; Raffin, T A

    1992-10-01

    To provide a historical perspective, from ancient Greece to the middle of the 20th century, on ethical issues and principles commonly associated with medical care for the dying in Western civilization. Writings of noted philosophers, historians, ethicists, and physicians, as well as published legal and ethical guidelines. INFORMATION EXTRACTION: The sources used highlight the origins of various ethical principles associated with care of the dying. They also identify the opinions of prominent individuals throughout the history of medical ethics. Devotion to medical beneficence, concern for the quality of life, and respect for the sanctity of life are all expressed in the earliest medical and philosophical writings of ancient Greece. With regard to care of the dying, these considerations led to a wide acceptance of avoiding or terminating treatment in hopeless cases. They also led to active debate regarding medicine's role in hastening the dying process. The rise of Christianity during the Middle Ages markedly suppressed such debate by strongly reinforcing the principle of sanctity of life. Later, the optimism of the enlightenment added the hope of prolonging life. Finally, modern advances in medical science have made that hope a reality of complex ethical dimensions. Ethical debates regarding appropriate care for the dying are as old as medicine itself. Although beneficent concerns have characterized the medical community in almost every period of history, tensions have repeatedly arisen as diverse religious and philosophical ideologies have produced varying standards to define such beneficence. In the Christian world, the sanctity of life was often extolled as the paramount standard. For the ancient Greeks and Romans, and again in many post-Renaissance philosophies, quality of life considerations assumed equal or greater importance. Modern life-prolonging technologies heighten the debate by allowing these two standards to dramatically conflict, particularly in the

  13. Historical Perspectives: Pioneering Definitions and Theoretical Positions in the Field of Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    The previous Historical Perspectives column focused on the foundations of gifted education and the influence that Francis Galton, Alfred Binet, and Cesare Lombroso had in shaping the field. This work seeks to extend the examination of the historical roots of gifted education by focusing on definitions and theoretical underpinnings of giftedness…

  14. Parental Involvement and Participation in German Schools: Insights from Historical, Jurisdictional, and Empirical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauckmann, Stefan; Geißler, Gert; Weishaupt, Horst

    2013-01-01

    This article starts with a historical perspective on parental involvement in German schools' decision making in the context of historical developments and societal conditions as well as those specific to federal states. Subsequently, a presentation of contemporary school legislation highlights parental rights and duties with respect to parental…

  15. Countries, Within-Country Regions, and Multiple-Country Regions in International Management: A Functional, Institutional, and Critical Event (FICE) Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael; Peterson, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the focused issue by offering a functional, institutional and critical event or FICE perspective on the relationship between cultural boundaries and the boundaries of modern nation states (termed countries here). Our perspective draws from three kinds of theory that suggest how...

  16. Greenhouse effect and ice ages: historical perspective; Effet de serre et glaciations, une perspective historique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, E. [College de France, Chaire d' Evolution du Climat et de l' Ocean, 75 - Paris (France); CEREGE (UMR 6635), 13 - Aix en Provence (France)

    2004-06-01

    This article provides a brief historical perspective on the first scientific research on the greenhouse effect and glaciations. While these two aspects of our climate can be investigated separately, naturalists, physicists and chemists during the 19. century were interested jointly in both issues, as well as the possible relationship between them. The contributions of famous pioneers are mentioned, ranging from scholars with encyclopedic knowledge such as Horace-Benedict de Saussure, to modern scientists like Svante Arrhenius, who was first to predict global warming as a consequence of using fossil fuels. Despite fragmentary observations, these pioneers had prophetic insights. Indeed, the main fundamental concepts used nowadays have been developed during the 19. century. However, we must wait until the second half of the 20. century to see a true revolution of investigative techniques in the Earth Sciences, enabling full access to previously unknown components of the climate system, such as deep oceans and the interior of the polar ice caps. (author)

  17. A Dataset on Comparative Historical National Accounts, ca.1870-1950 : A Time-Series Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.-P.; Woltjer, P.; Ma, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper accompanies the Historical National Accounts datahub which presents an overview of the currently available studies on long-term economic growth across countries. Now that more and more detailed historical national accounts have become available, the Groningen Growth and Development Centre

  18. Testing elementary and secondary school students’ ability to perform historical perspective taking: the constructing of valid and reliable measure instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; van Boxtel, Carla; van de Grift, Wim; Holthuis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Historical reasoning competencies play an important role in history education. However, valid and reliable large-scale measurement instruments to assess these competencies are scarce. This study considers two instruments for measuring students’ ability to perform historical perspective taking (HPT)

  19. Historical Perspectives on Games and Education from the Learning Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Brett E.; Satwicz, Tom; Caswell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews three classic theorists' writing on games, learning, and development. Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner all wrote about games and play as important to thinking and learning. This review attempts to synthesize their perspectives as a means to revisit underused theoretical perspectives on the role of games in education. The views of…

  20. The National Commitment Towards Conserving the Heritage (documentation of Historical and Cultural Sites in Gcc Countries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSulaiti, F.

    2013-07-01

    The five Arab Gulf countries of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman possess many shared characteristics and historical ties across their common peninsula. The prime factor uniting them is the historical nature of their entwined involvement with peoples and nations beyond the region. That the Gulf has been an important water passageway since ancient times suggests that the inhabitants of its shores met early on with other civilizations. The knowledge of one's roots, history, and traditional arts supports awareness of inherited culture and can help contextualize and illuminate community reflection and identification. The intricacy of the recording and understanding processes of documentation requires skilled professionals, with knowledge and awareness for the associated tasks. Responsible of cultural heritage should provide the adequate documentations, recording and updating of the records. Collaboration of different individuals such as specialist heritage, archaeologists, surveyors, conservators, researchers, architectural historians, and many other expert personnel is the golden key of successful documentation. The purpose of this document is to show the authorities of Gulf Arab countries and their planning measures, management and sharing effect of recording the cultural heritage. This essay identifies key points in the approach to contextualizing and developing cultural identity in a way that respects organic qualities. Through highlighting a number of archeological ruins and outlining management plans, the essay explores frameworks that can be applied to promote and preserve integral identity of important sites and their greater surrounding communities.

  1. The Materiality of Digital Collections: Theoretical and Historical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoff, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    Digital and textual objects are coming under a new kind of scrutiny as scholars are becoming more interested in physical artifacts and their relation to their social and cultural environment. This study of material culture suggests a need to explore the nature of digital materiality, as well as the broader historical context in which electronic…

  2. Polynomial Approximation of Functions: Historical Perspective and New Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Ivy

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of applying symbolic computation and graphics to enhance students' ability to move from a visual interpretation of mathematical concepts to formal reasoning. The mathematics topics involved, Approximation and Interpolation, were taught according to their historical development, and the students tried to follow the…

  3. Historic perspective: Prebiotics, probiotics, and other alternatives to antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic applications in agricultural and human medical arenas have resulted in tremendous increases in food animal production and historically unprecedented gains in human health protection. Successes attributed to wide-spread antibiotic use have been accompanied by the inadvertent emergence of r...

  4. Art as an investment in a historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation studies the price formation mechanisms on the art market. More specifically, it uses historical data to test the impact of several factors on the French art market between 1860 and 1950 and on the Belgian art market between 1945 and 1950. The first paper investigates the link betwe

  5. Male-Female Wage Differentials: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiker, B. F.; Traynham, Earle C.

    This paper reviews some of the past literature on male-female wage differentials in order to determine the early hypotheses which are the historical roots of the current theoretical and empirical work analyzing male-female wage differentials. Part 1 reviews the discrimination hypotheses, which emphasize differences in the labor market conditions…

  6. Accumulation and management in global historical perspective: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2014-01-01

    This essay introduces a special issue dedicated to the theme ‘accumulation and management in global historical perspective’. The concepts and practices of accumulation and management are explored in ways that work to de-center the history of science and empire. Particular attention is paid to four

  7. The Aesthetic As Immediately Sensuous: An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenfort, Duke

    1974-01-01

    The views of Immanuel Kant, Soren Kierkegaard, Henri Bergson, John Dewey, and Susanne Langer were discussed. In this article they served as five important figures in a historical account of the concept of the aesthetic as the immediately sensuous. (Author/RK)

  8. A Cartographic Interpretation of Visual Literacy: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalik, Cindy L.; Lambdin, Kim

    This paper presents findings from an historical investigation of visual literacy, a unique aspect being that the approach relied on the marriage of two disciplines--geography and history--which study change over time. Maps and their interpretation of data by cartographers tend to provide a foundational context that can illuminate past and present…

  9. The Aesthetic As Immediately Sensuous: An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenfort, Duke

    1974-01-01

    The views of Immanuel Kant, Soren Kierkegaard, Henri Bergson, John Dewey, and Susanne Langer were discussed. In this article they served as five important figures in a historical account of the concept of the aesthetic as the immediately sensuous. (Author/RK)

  10. Pirates, ports, and coasts in Asia: historical and contemporary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; Osseweijer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pirates, Ports and Coasts in Asia aims to fill in some of the historical gaps in the coverage of maritime piracy and armed robbery in Asia. The authors highlight a variety of activities ranging from raiding, destroying and pillaging coastal villages and capturing inhabitants to attacking and taking

  11. LISP: Program is data. A historical perspective on MACLISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    There was a continuing development of the MACLISP system, spurred in great measure by the needs of MACSYMA development. In a mosaic, historical style, the major features of the system are reported. For each feature discussed, an attempt is made to mention the year of initial development, and the names of persons or projects primarily responsible for requiring, needing, or suggesting such features.

  12. College Student Values: An Historical and Conceptual Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William E.

    A historical survey of the literature and research on values and value measurement is presented. Various approaches to value study such as the Allport-Vernon-Lindsey model and the work of Adorno, et al in "The Authoritarian Personality" are discussed and analyzed. The author suggests that the models set forth in these works are not…

  13. Researching Children's Musical Culture: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M.

    2010-01-01

    When she was invited to present a keynote address at the Exeter Conference, the author was asked to offer "a particular perspective on a field of research within music education or a related domain". Given her interest in the related disciplines of sociology and ethnomusicology, and acknowledging the centrality of children's music making in the…

  14. Worldwide Importance of Medicinal Plants: Current and Historical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahzad Aslam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no existence of life without plants. Plants are the essential foundation of medicine. Some important drugs that are still in use today are derived from traditional medicinal herbs. The hunt for new medicines has engaged ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology—a new route as an important source of knowledge, which led toward different sources and classes of compounds. Nowadays, studies on structure-activity relationships, and their impact on the design of novel drugs have rendered them one of the utmost valuable and thus significant accomplishments of pharmacochemistry, an advance constituent in the group of pharmaceutical sciences. In this paper, we have discussed the historical importance of medicinal plants, geographical importance throughout the world, some important historical observations of medicinal plants, and leading drugs of plant origin which are still being used to treat various ailments, with or without any structural modifications.

  15. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Nuno Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article reviews the use of non-human animals in biomedical research from a historical viewpoint, providing an insight into the most relevant social and moral issues on this topic across time, as well as to how the current paradigm for ethically and publically acceptable use of animals in biomedicine has been achieved. Abstract The use of non-human animals in biomedical research has given important contributions to the medical progress achieved in our day, but it has also been a cause of heated public, scientific and philosophical discussion for hundreds of years. This review, with a mainly European outlook, addresses the history of animal use in biomedical research, some of its main protagonists and antagonists, and its effect on society from Antiquity to the present day, while providing a historical context with which to understand how we have arrived at the current paradigm regarding the ethical treatment of animals in research. PMID:26487317

  16. Historical and current perspectives on Clostridium botulinum diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Theresa J; Hill, Karen K; Raphael, Brian H

    2015-05-01

    For nearly one hundred years, researchers have attempted to categorize botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia and the toxins that they produce according to biochemical characterizations, serological comparisons, and genetic analyses. Throughout this period the bacteria and their toxins have defied such attempts at categorization. Below is a description of both historic and current Clostridium botulinum strain and neurotoxin information that illustrates how each new finding has significantly added to the knowledge of the botulinum neurotoxin-containing clostridia and their diversity.

  17. The (de)Militarization of Humanitarian Aid: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Humanitarian workers often complain that international aid to victims of armed conflicts is more and more militarized because relief organizations are embedded into peacekeeping operations, used as a "force multiplier", or manipulated as an instrument of diplomacy by proxy. Historically, however, charity has always been a military issue in times of war. We can distinguish four types of militarization of relief organizations in this regard. First is the use of charities to make "war by proxy",...

  18. A Medieval Perspective of Historical California and Nevada Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, B.; Boyle, D. P.; Garner, C.; Putnam, A. E.; Bassett, S.; Kaplan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Dryland closed basin lake systems are ideal natural laboratories for model-proxy evaluations of how climate change alters the regional water balance. We use an existing water balance and lake-evaporation model of the Walker Lake Basin, a 1600-year reconstruction of Walker Lake shoreline elevations, and fields from the 20th Century Reanalysis to provide the following insights: 1) The three major historical (post-Little Ice Age) droughts observed in the California-western Nevada region (the 1930s, 1987-1992, and 2012-2015) are comparable in magnitude to the severe droughts of the Medieval Climate Anomaly but not in duration; 2) The atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with these events include poleward deflections of storm tracks and reduced moisture transport into the region; 3) To produce the Medieval lowstands of Walker Lake, precipitation and circulation anomalies comparable to historical droughts must persist for a minimum of 50 years. These insights show how severe historical and ongoing droughts in this region are within the range of natural variability. The 2012-2015 drought is also shown to be exacerbated by recent positive temperature anomalies that may be outside of the range of natural variability. These results can help to improve future water resource planning for the western United States, where ongoing and future changes in climate leading to increased water scarcity will have significant negative impacts on socioeconomic and ecological systems.

  19. Historical Perspectives and Recent Trends in the Coastal Mozambican Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Blythe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical data describing changing social-ecological interactions in marine systems can help guide small-scale fisheries management efforts. Fisheries landings data are often the primary source for historical reconstructions of fisheries; however, we argue that reliance on data of a single type and/or from a single scale can lead to potentially misleading conclusions. For example, a narrow focus on aggregate landings statistics can mask processes and trends occurring at local scales, as well as the complex social changes that result from and precipitate marine ecosystem change. Moreover, in the case of many small-scale fisheries, landings statistics are often incomplete and/or inaccurate. We draw on case study research in Mozambique that combines national landings statistics and career history interviews with fish harvesters to generate a multi-scale historical reconstruction that describes social-ecological interactions within the coastal Mozambican fishery. At the national level, our analysis points toward trends of fishing intensification and decline in targeted species, and it highlights the significant impact of small-scale fisheries on marine stocks. At the local level, fishers are experiencing changes in fish abundance and distribution, as well as in their physical, social, and cultural environments, and have responded by increasing their fishing effort. We conclude with a discussion of the governance implications of our methodological approach and findings.

  20. Who's in Control? Teachers from Five Countries Share Perspectives on Power Dynamics in the Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovorn, Michael; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Christensen, Lois McFadyen; Sunal, Dennis W.; Shwery, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This article explores perspectives and strands of thought among teachers from five countries about power dynamics in learning environments, perspectives on power of dominant cultures and impacts of power on concepts of citizenship and social justice. Discourses revealed teachers have some understanding of how power impacts teaching and learning,…

  1. Migration Flows from the Perspective of Sending and Receiving Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    -based selectivity effects" in international migration. We test whether immigrants from low-income countries, where the educational level is relatively low, tend to go to countries with higher welfare and lower income inequality and whether immigrants from high-income countries tend to go to countries with a lower......There are two specific phenomena that have had a large influence on the development in international migration during the last decades. First, while labor migration flows were dominating in the past, refugee immigrants and family reunion migrants from less developed non-Western countries have been......, the former communist countries have become a relatively new and large source of immigration. In my PhD thesis I analyze the recent developments in international migration by using a rich dataset, which I collected myself by contacting national statistical offices. I use state-of-art econometric tools in my...

  2. A Commentary on "Historical Perspectives on Invariant Measurement: Guttman, Rasch, and Mokken"

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ayala, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    In "Historical perspectives on invariant measurement: Guttman, Rasch, and Mokken," Engelhard (2008) discusses one of the keystones of modern measurement, measurement invariance (cf. Thurstone, 1928), and traces its evolution through the work of three principal measurement theorists. Although these scholars span both parametric and nonparametric…

  3. Computer Science Education in French Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Georges-Louis; Drot-Delange, Beatrice; Grandbastien, Monique; Tort, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Computer science as a school subject in France is characterized by a succession of promising starts that have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions. The main goal of this article is to analyze this complex situation from a historical perspective, and describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer Science course in the last year…

  4. Curricular and Didactic Conceptions of Interdisciplinarity in the Field of Education: A Socio-Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Yves; Hasni, Abdelkrim; Froelich, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Although interdisciplinary approaches to education are found throughout the West, interdisciplinarity is not everywhere conceived and implemented the same way. Adopting a socio-historical perspective, this article presents two conceptions of interdisciplinarity in primary and middle school education (though the conceptions are apparent at other…

  5. A Historical Perspective on Gender Inequality and Development in the World Economy, c. 1850-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilli, S.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370724267

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to add a historical perspective to the debate on the link between gender inequality and development. To do so, the dissertation first documents global gender differences in life expectancy and sex ratios (to cover health status); in average years of

  6. A Historical Perspective on Gender Inequality and Development in the World Economy, c. 1850-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilli, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to add a historical perspective to the debate on the link between gender inequality and development. To do so, the dissertation first documents global gender differences in life expectancy and sex ratios (to cover health status); in average years of schooli

  7. Computer Science Education in French Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Georges-Louis; Drot-Delange, Beatrice; Grandbastien, Monique; Tort, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Computer science as a school subject in France is characterized by a succession of promising starts that have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions. The main goal of this article is to analyze this complex situation from a historical perspective, and describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer Science course in the last year…

  8. A Historical Perspective on Gender Inequality and Development in the World Economy, c. 1850-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilli, S.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370724267

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to add a historical perspective to the debate on the link between gender inequality and development. To do so, the dissertation first documents global gender differences in life expectancy and sex ratios (to cover health status); in average years of schooli

  9. Mass loss and evolution of stars and star clusters: a personal historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The development and progress of the studies of winds and mass loss from hot stars, from about 1965 up to now, is discussed in a personal historical perspective. The present state of knowledge about stellar winds, based on papers presented at this workshop, is described. About ten years ago the mecha

  10. [The world system of Jewish migration in historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Pergola, S

    1996-01-01

    "This article examines the main tendencies of international Jewish migration during the last century. An [effort has been made] to reconstruct the global volume of these migrations from all departure places to all destinations. The intensity of the major trends [has] been evaluated...[to] distinguish the variable weight of migrations towards the major Western countries and towards the State of Israel (and before its creation, of Palestine). The migratory waves towards Israel are subject to a more detailed analysis through which we attempt to understand better the various levels of emigration from the different countries, the context of these migrations, and their main causes." (EXCERPT)

  11. Physics in the Andean Countries: A Perspective from Condensed Matter, Novel Materials and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, P.

    2009-05-01

    We will discuss the current state of R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology in the Andean nations. We will initially consider Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to then visualize individual developments, as well as those for the region as a whole in these fields of knowledge in each of the nations constituting the Andean Region (Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, and Colombia). Based on Science & Technology watch exercises in the countries involved, along with the Iberian American and Inter-American Science & Technology Network of Indicators (Red de indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (RICYT) iberoamericana e interamericana)1, we will reveal statistical data that will shed light on the development in the fields mentioned. As will be noted, total R&D investment in Latin American and Caribbean countries remained constant since 1997. In spite of having reached a general increase in publications without international collaboration in LAC nations, the countries with greatest research productivity in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile) have strengthened their international collaboration with the United States, France, Germany, and Italy through close links associated with the formation processes of their researchers. Academic and research integration is evaluated through joint authorship of scientific articles, evidencing close collaboration in fields of research. This principle has been used in the creation of cooperation networks among participating nations. As far as networks of research on condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology, the Andean nations have not consolidated a regional network allowing permanent and effective cooperation in research and technological development; as would be expected, given their idiomatic and cultural similarities, their historical background, and geographical proximity, which have been integrating factors in other research areas or socio-economic aspects. This

  12. Surgical robotics: the early chronicles: a personal historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satava, Richard M

    2002-02-01

    The use of robotics has been emerging for approximately 75 years, but only during the past 5 years has the potential of robotics been recognized by the surgical community as a whole. This personal perspective chronicles the development of robotics for the general surgical community, the role of the military medical research effort, and many of the major programs that contributed to the current success of robotics.

  13. Scientific cosmology meets western theology: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, O

    2001-12-01

    Traditional sacred geography of Christendom met a challenge not so much from Copernicus' heliocentrism per se as from the greatly expanded vision of the cosmos that it ushered in. The twentieth-century view of the vastness of both space and time has brought revolutionary conceptual changes to the sacred landscape. From a theistic perspective, God is not simply the source of the Big Bang, but the Creator in the larger sense of designer and intender of the universe.

  14. THE ISLAMIC SENSE ON LITERARY CRITICISM: A BRIEF HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Moh. Fathoni

    2015-01-01

    New Historicism and cultural history have opened up the new approaches to writing histories. However, the last decade national and transnational literary histories have continued to take different approaches, by typical new national literary histories have distinguished the teleology of grand narratives by revised the linear ways into specific subjects and certain conception. In the following discussion, I shall describe how ‘new’ perspective of moral and ideological on history of literary cr...

  15. Migration Flows from the Perspective of Sending and Receiving Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    , the former communist countries have become a relatively new and large source of immigration. In my PhD thesis I analyze the recent developments in international migration by using a rich dataset, which I collected myself by contacting national statistical offices. I use state-of-art econometric tools in my...... by and the migration propensity decreases with the distance between two districts. Overall, the scale of interregional migration in the Czech Republic is very low given the large interregional disparities, indicating relatively low migration propensity of Czechs. But the behavior is driven strongly by wages. While......-based selectivity effects" in international migration. We test whether immigrants from low-income countries, where the educational level is relatively low, tend to go to countries with higher welfare and lower income inequality and whether immigrants from high-income countries tend to go to countries with a lower...

  16. Comparison of real development levels of countries: Genesis and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekajac Zora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of levels of development among countries is usually done by reducing values in national currencies with a common denominator, using the official exchange rate. Because of its unreality, the values calculated in this way do not illustrate real relations between compared countries. That brings about the launching of the UN International Comparison Project (latter Programme with two fold aims: developing a method for international comparison of real domestic product which could be applied to a number of very heterogeneous countries, and the comparison of growing number of very different countries. Until now six phases of comparisons are finished. Taking into consideration problems that appeared in the realization of the VI ICP phase as well as quality improvement proposals, a decision has been made to launch a new, global round for 2003-2006. Comparison will cover 150 countries (the widest coverage ever. This will give global character to the comparison, which was the end cause of the ICP.

  17. Innovation in science and organizational renewal historical and sociological perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Münch, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the types of new research organizations that drive scientific innovation and how ground-breaking science transforms research fields and their organization. Based on historical case studies and comparative empirical data, the book presents new and thought-provoking evidence that improves our knowledge and understanding about how new research fields are formed and how research organizations adapt to breakthroughs in science. While the book is firmly based in science history, it discusses more general sociological and policy propositions regarding scientific innovations and organizational change. The volume brings together leading scholars both from the United States and Europe.

  18. Contingent and Continuing Employment: Comparative National and Historical Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marens, Richard; Tackney, Charles T.

    This symposium focuses on the comparative impact of social institutions and labor laws on both contingent and continuing employment. Presenters will apply a wide range of analytical concepts to the history and culture of five individual nations. These concepts include a diverse set of theoretical...... approaches aimed at understanding the web of rules governing comparative industrial and employment relations around the world. The approaches include path dependence, institutional theory, historical materialism, and post-modernism. The central strength of this symposium is its comprehensive and inclusive...

  19. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Henrique Franco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-human animals in biomedical research has given important contributions to the medical progress achieved in our day, but it has also been a cause of heated public, scientific and philosophical discussion for hundreds of years. This review, with a mainly European outlook, addresses the history of animal use in biomedical research, some of its main protagonists and antagonists, and its effect on society from Antiquity to the present day, while providing a historical context with which to understand how we have arrived at the current paradigm regarding the ethical treatment of animals in research.

  20. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Henrique Franco

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article reviews the use of non-human animals in biomedical research from a historical viewpoint, providing an insight into the most relevant social and moral issues on this topic across time, as well as to how the current paradigm for ethically and publically acceptable use of animals in biomedicine has been achieved. Abstract The use of non-human animals in biomedical research has given important contributions to the medical progress achieved in our day, but it has also b...

  1. A historical perspective on the collaboration between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvagnat, François; Wiss, Matthias; Clément, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to present and discuss the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience from a historical viewpoint. We start by examining how Sigmund Freud can be viewed as a pioneer in the interaction between these two fields. Freud was himself a neurologist and had maintained an interest in biology as he developed the key concepts of psychoanalysis. His ideas regarding psychosomatics are described. We will also explore how the concept of drive is essential to the connection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Then, we describe several key actors and historical events and characters at the interface of these two fields, namely Sándor Radó Lawrence S. Kubie and Mc Culloch, the debates that took place during the Macy conferences, as well as the positions of Jacques Lacan, George L. Engel, and Eric Kandel. Finally, we present a synthesis of the main fields in which the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience are already fruitful, and those where they should be developed: the classification of mental diseases, the link between the scientific and psychic dimensions, therapeutics, the organization of the body, intersubjectivity, the subjective division and ambivalence, as well as transferential effects like such as the placebo and nocebo effects. In the conclusion, we advocate several strategic alliances and underscore the complementarity between rigorous scientific experimentation and the individualized psychoanalytic approach.

  2. Bitcoin and Potosí Silver: Historical Perspectives on Cryptocurrency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zac

    Bitcoin, the digital cryptocurrency, has been celebrated as the future of money on the Internet. Although Bitcoin does present several forward-looking innovations, it also integrates a very old concept into its digital architecture: the mining of precious metals. Even though Bitcoin explicitly invokes mining as a metaphor and gold as an example for understanding the cryptocurrency, there has been little critical work on the connections between Bitcoin and previous metalist currency regimes. The following essay proposes a historical comparison with colonial South American silver mining and the global currency regime based on the New World silver peso it created as a way to interrogate Bitcoin. The comparison with colonial South America, and specifically the silver mining economy around the Cerro Rico de Potosí, will help to develop a historical and political understanding of Bitcoin's stakes, including questions of resources, labor, energy, and ecology. Mining and the extractive apparatus that accompanies it always imply massive-scale earthworks that reshape the planet itself, a process known as terraforming. The Potosí comparison will reveal Bitcoin to form part of a similar process of digital primitive accumulation we can provisionally name cryptoforming.

  3. Mask data volume: historical perspective and future requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Chris; Goad, Scott; Buck, Peter; Gladhill, Richard; Cinque, Russell; Preuninger, Jürgen; Griesinger, Üwe; Blöcker, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Mask data file sizes are increasing as we move from technology generation to generation. The historical 30% linear shrink every 2-3 years that has been called Moore's Law, has driven a doubling of the transistor budget and hence feature count. The transition from steppers to step-and-scan tools has increased the area of the mask that needs to be patterned. At the 130nm node and below, Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) has become prevalent, and the edge fragmentation required to implement OPC leads to an increase in the number of polygons required to define the layout. Furthermore, Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RETs) such as Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) or tri-tone Phase Shift Masks (PSM) require additional features to be defined on the mask which do not resolve on the wafer, further increasing masks volumes. In this paper we review historical data on mask file sizes for microprocessor, DRAM and Flash memory designs. We consider the consequences of this increase in file size on Mask Data Prep (MDP) activities, both within the Integrated Device Manufacturer (IDM) and Mask Shop, namely: computer resources, storage and networks (for file transfer). The impact of larger file sizes on mask writing times is also reviewed. Finally we consider, based on the trends that have been observed over the last 5 technology nodes, what will be required to maintain reasonable MDP and mask manufacturing cycle times.

  4. A historical perspective on the male sexual case history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quallich, Susanne A

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary sexual medicine case history is grounded in the Biopsychosocial Model and its recognition that the past influences one's current interpretation of symptoms. However, the thread of this model can be found throughout the case studies of the early pioneers of sexology. These early investigators began with examinations of homosexual men, slowly moving toward awareness that male sexuality comprises a continuum, while striving to place sexual behavior in a biologic context. Their perspectives served to establish the groundwork for the emerging construct of sexuality and helped shape current methods for identification of sexual function concerns.

  5. Historical review of surgical simulation--a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satava, Richard M

    2008-02-01

    Although simulation is relatively new to surgical education, there is a long history in many other disciplines, such as military, aviation, and nuclear power plant operations, among others. In the late 1980s these technologies began to be adapted to the surgical world, along with the new technology of virtual reality. This is a review of the introduction of manikins, computers, and virtual reality into education and training for surgical skills. Two concomitant revolutions occurred: objective assessment of surgical skills and converting training from the apprenticeship model to one of criterion-based training. A personal perspective on these developments adds information not previously published.

  6. Eradication of Poliomyelitis in Iran, a Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Zahraei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nPoliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus. It invades the nervous system, and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours. After initiation of polio eradication programme in 1988 by WHO, number of polio cases abruptly de­creased. In 1988, polio paralyzed nearly 350000 children annually worldwide while in 2007 just 1360 cases reported. The programme has been started in Iran since 1991 and based on high routine immunization coverage, robust Acute Flaccid Pa­ralysis surveillance system and very qualified supplementary immunization activities which has been established and im­plemented in all the country, number of reported cases decreased from 50 to zero in 2001 and Iran has been polio free since 2001. However due to endemicity of poliomyelitis in Afghanistan and Pakistan (two neighboring countries of Iran and high level of international traveling between these countries, risk of polio importation and re-emergence of wild polio virus is very high.

  7. Patient vs. disease in medicine: Historical perspectives and contemporary concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, Dietrich

    2004-01-01

    Subjectivity and objectivity are central dimensions or perspectives in medicine. During modern times, the "history of the disease" (objectivity) has more and more re-placed the "history of the patient" (subjectivity). But if medicine wants to be human, the physician's and patient's subjectivity and ethics cannot be ignored. During the Middle Ages, the concepts of health and disease are seen from a transcendental point of view, subjectivity was given an objective or spiritual meaning. Processes of secularization, naturalization and individualization deeply influenced medicine in Modern Times. The positivist 19th century laid the foundations of successful scientific medicine; the concept of disease became objective, the length and the quality of life were increased, at the same time, however, medicine witnessed anthropological losses. The 20th century stressed anew the patient's subjectivity and ethics against the scientific objectivity. Integrating psychology and sociology is a similar initiative in this anthropological perspective. The anthropological and ethical permeation of medicine is essential. Disease is not just a physical phenomenon, it is also a psychic, social, and spiritual one. Medical science behaving as human medicine should always and above all see the ill and suffering person.

  8. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Peck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and more than 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surrounding these neurotoxins. Worldwide, researchers are faced with the possibility that toxins having identical sequences may be given different designations or novel toxins having unique sequences may be given the same designations on publication. In order to minimize these problems, an ad hoc committee consisting of over 20 researchers in the field of botulinum neurotoxin research was convened to discuss the clarification of the issues involved in botulinum neurotoxin nomenclature. This publication presents a historical overview of the issues and provides guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature in the future.

  9. [The psychodynamics of anti-Judaism in the historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenberg, P

    1992-12-01

    In the author's view, anti-Jewishness is the expression of covert anti-Christianism, which in its turn conceals an unconscious revolt against Christ. Unconscious aggression is unleashed against the Jews, who thus become scapegoats against whom three constantly recurring accusations are levelled: the killing of Christ; the desecration of the Host; and the ritual murder of children. The author traces the history of these accusations from the Middle Ages to the present. The search for scapegoats is a universal phenomenon not limited to anti-Jeweshness but encountered more generally in situations of social and political uncertainty. To substantiate his claims, the author draws upon historical documents from the Second World War dealing with the threat to China from Japan's armed forces, and also makes reference to the race riots in Los Angeles early this year.

  10. Historical perspectives on the evolution of surgical procedures in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, James L; Gutmann, Marylou S

    2010-01-01

    The historical pathway to current surgical endodontic procedures and their applications has been tortuous and tumultuous. Influenced heavily in their development by the European sector, these surgical procedures faced many challenges over the decades. Fortunately for today's practitioners, influential members of the oral surgery community, and a few staunch believers in retaining devitalized teeth, persisted in their investigation of and search for improved procedures that had predictable outcomes. Many so-called "revolutionary" or newer techniques practiced today are but a re-emergence of surgical concepts that were lost in the archives of time. With the advent of evidence-based endodontics, these procedures are now supported extensively by science and by the integration of science into materials usage, technique applications and outcomes research. However, in many respects, this story is just beginning, as the "roots" of surgical endodontics are explored.

  11. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael W.; Smith, Theresa J.; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Austin, John W.; Bano, Luca; Bradshaw, Marite; Cuervo, Paula; Cheng, Luisa W.; Derman, Yagmur; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Fisher, Audrey; Hill, Karen K.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia; Lista, Florigio; Lúquez, Carolina; Mazuet, Christelle; Pirazzini, Marco; Popoff, Michel R.; Rossetto, Ornella; Rummel, Andreas; Sesardic, Dorothea; Singh, Bal Ram; Stringer, Sandra C.

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and more than 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surrounding these neurotoxins. Worldwide, researchers are faced with the possibility that toxins having identical sequences may be given different designations or novel toxins having unique sequences may be given the same designations on publication. In order to minimize these problems, an ad hoc committee consisting of over 20 researchers in the field of botulinum neurotoxin research was convened to discuss the clarification of the issues involved in botulinum neurotoxin nomenclature. This publication presents a historical overview of the issues and provides guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature in the future. PMID:28106761

  12. Typhoid transmission: a historical perspective on mathematical model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakach, Iurii; Just, Matthew R; Gambhir, Manoj; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical models of typhoid transmission were first developed nearly half a century ago. To facilitate a better understanding of the historical development of this field, we reviewed mathematical models of typhoid and summarized their structures and limitations. Eleven models, published in 1971 to 2014, were reviewed. While models of typhoid vaccination are well developed, we highlight the need to better incorporate water, sanitation and hygiene interventions into models of typhoid and other foodborne and waterborne diseases. Mathematical modeling is a powerful tool to test and compare different intervention strategies which is important in the world of limited resources. By working collaboratively, epidemiologists and mathematicians should build better mathematical models of typhoid transmission, including pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, which will be useful in epidemiological and public health practice.

  13. Historical perspective on the moon base: the British experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.M.; Finney, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    Among the many historical episodes that have relevance to the establishment of a human base, the voyages of Captain Cook, and the founding of Britain's Botany Bay colony in Australia seems particularly appropriate. The process resulting in the selection of Cook rewards study, as do his relations with the Admiralty, with the scientific establishment and with the scientists who accompanies him. Britain's tight control of the Botany Bay settlement and its unwillingness to promote early self-sufficiency may have delayed the time when Australia became self-supporting. Structuring the lunar base to offer opportunities for private initiatives may hasten the day when it becomes a self-supporting settlement rather than an externally supported scientific base on an Antarctic model.

  14. Historical perspectives on long distance transport of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Blancou

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since Roman Antiquity, domestic and wild animals have been transported over long distances for purposes as different as improvement of livestock production, food supply, scientific interest, public entertainment, war and numerous other purposes. This long distance transportation was originally limited to the Mediterranean area but, during the Middle Ages extended to the rest of Europe. The conquest of the New World was the first major occasion to transport large numbers of horses and other livestock across the oceans. Domestic animals were necessary for the new colonies and their armies. European expansion to Asia and the Pacific also required the transportation of large numbers of domestic animals. Data, figures and description of the conditions of transport of animals as different as wild beasts, horses, camels, elephants or poultry are reported for each historical period.

  15. Comparative Comparison of Implementing School-Based Management in Developed Countries in the Historical Context: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Saeid; Beidokhti, Aliakbar Amin; Fathi, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to study the comparative comparison of implementing school-based management in developed countries in the historical context: from theory to practice. School-based management is not by itself and objective but a valuable tool in order to reach sagacity, capabilities and the enthusiasm from most people having shares in school.…

  16. The WCCES and Intercultural Dialogue: Historical Perspectives and Continuing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark

    2008-07-01

    The World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES) has been strongly concerned with intercultural dialogue since the Council was created in 1970. Indeed advancement of education "for international understanding in the interests of peace, intercultural cooperation, mutual respect among peoples and observance of human rights" is one of the goals built into the WCCES Statutes. This paper begins with a focus on the origins and goals of the WCCES, noting in particular links with the mission of UNESCO. The paper then considers dimensions of evolution in the work of the WCCES in the domain of intercultural dialogue. It underlines the growth of the WCCES and the continuing challenges for securing balanced representation of voices and perspectives.

  17. The Cytoplasm-to-Vacuole Targeting Pathway: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Umekawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From today's perspective, it is obvious that macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy is an important pathway that is connected to a range of developmental and physiological processes. This viewpoint, however, is relatively recent, coinciding with the molecular identification of autophagy-related (Atg components that function as the protein machinery that drives the dynamic membrane events of autophagy. It may be difficult, especially for scientists new to this area of research, to appreciate that the field of autophagy long existed as a “backwater” topic that attracted little interest or attention. Paralleling the development of the autophagy field was the identification and analysis of the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt pathway, the only characterized biosynthetic route that utilizes the Atg proteins. Here, we relate some of the initial history, including some never-before-revealed facts, of the analysis of the Cvt pathway and the convergence of those studies with autophagy.

  18. Free Fall and Self-Force: an Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallicci, Alessandro

    Free fall has signed the greatest markings in the history of physics through the leaning Pisa tower, the Woolsthorpe apple tree and the Einstein lift. The perspectives offered by the capture of stars by supermassive black holes are to be cherished, because the study of the motion of falling stars will constitute a giant step forward in the understanding of gravitation in the regime of strong field. After an account on the perception of free fall in ancient times and on the behaviour of a gravitating mass in Newtonian physics, this chapter deals with last century debate on the repulsion for a Schwarzschild-Droste black hole and mentions the issue of an infalling particle velocity at the horizon. Further, black hole perturbations and numerical methods are presented, paving the way to the introduction of the self-force and other back-action related methods. The impact of the perturbations on the motion of the falling particle is computed via the tail, the back-scattered part of the perturbations, or via a radiative Green function. In the former approach, the self-force acts upon the background geodesic; in the latter, the geodesic is conceived in the total (background plus perturbations) field. Regularisation techniques (mode-sum and Riemann-Hurwitz z function) intervene to cancel divergencies coming from the infinitesimal size of the particle. An account is given on the state of the art, including the last results obtained in this most classical problem, together with a perspective encompassing future space gravitational wave interferometry and head-on particle physics experiments. As free fall is patently non-adiabatic, it requires the most sophisticated techniques for studying the evolution of the motion. In this scenario, the potential of the self-consistent approach, by means of which the background geodesic is continuously corrected by the self-force contribution, is examined.

  19. Vibrio cholerae: A historical perspective and current trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Oyenike Oladokun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae is a Gram-negative, curved, rod-shaped bacteria with two of its strains V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 known to cause cholera, a deadly diarrheal disease that has repeatedly plagued the world in pandemics since 1817 and still remains a public health problem globally till today. The pathogens’ persistence in aquatic milieux during inter-epidemic periods is facilitated by the production of a biofilm, thus evolving from being an infection of oral-fecal transmission to a more composite ecological framework of a communicable disease. The outbreaks of cholera spread rapidly in various intensities within and among countries and even continents and the World Health Organization estimates that 3–5 million cases outbreak and over 200 000 die yearly from cholera. Also, the impact of a cholera epidemic is not limited to its high morbidity and mortality rates alone, but also the grievous impact on the economy of the countries experiencing the outbreaks. In this review, we carried out an overview of V. cholerae including its isolation and detection, genetics as well as a comparison of the toxigenic and non-toxigenic determinants in the human host and the host defences. Furthermore, the history of global pandemics, cost implications, conflict and ecological methodologies of cholera prevention and control. The management of disease and antibiotic resistance in V. cholerae are also highlighted.

  20. Sex chromosome evolution: historical insights and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    Many separate-sexed organisms have sex chromosomes controlling sex determination. Sex chromosomes often have reduced recombination, specialized (frequently sex-specific) gene content, dosage compensation and heteromorphic size. Research on sex determination and sex chromosome evolution has increased over the past decade and is today a very active field. However, some areas within the field have not received as much attention as others. We therefore believe that a historic overview of key findings and empirical discoveries will put current thinking into context and help us better understand where to go next. Here, we present a timeline of important conceptual and analytical models, as well as empirical studies that have advanced the field and changed our understanding of the evolution of sex chromosomes. Finally, we highlight gaps in our knowledge so far and propose some specific areas within the field that we recommend a greater focus on in the future, including the role of ecology in sex chromosome evolution and new multilocus models of sex chromosome divergence. PMID:28469017

  1. Vertical transmission of arboviruses in mosquitoes: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2014-12-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are mainly transmitted horizontally among vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding invertebrate vectors, but can also be transmitted vertically in the vector from an infected female to its offspring. Vertical transmission (VT) is considered a possible mechanism for the persistence of arboviruses during periods unfavorable for horizontal transmission, but the extent and epidemiological significance of this phenomenon have remained controversial. To help resolve this question, we reviewed over a century of published literature on VT to analyze historical trends of scientific investigations on experimental and natural occurrence of VT in mosquitoes. Our synthesis highlights the influence of major events of public health significance in arbovirology on the number of VT publications. Epidemiological landmarks such as emergence events have significantly stimulated VT research. Our analysis also reveals the association between the evolution of virological assays and the probability of VT detection. Increased sensitivity and higher-throughput of modern laboratory assays resulted in enhanced VT detection. In general, VT contribution to arbovirus persistence is likely modest because vertically infected mosquitoes are rarely observed in nature. Taken together, however, our results call for caution when interpreting VT studies because their conclusions are context- and method-dependent.

  2. Reflexes from the lungs and airways: historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, John

    2006-08-01

    Historical aspects of respiratory reflexes from the lungs and airways are reviewed, up until about 10 yr ago. For most of the 19th century, the possible reflex inputs into the "respiratory center," the position of which had been identified, were very speculative. There was little concept of reflex control of the pattern of breathing. Then, in 1868, Breuer published his paper on "The self-steering of respiration via the Nervus Vagus." For the first time this established the role of vagal inflation and deflation reflexes in determining the pattern of breathing. Head later extended Breuer's work, and Kratschmer laid a similar basis for reflexes from the nose and larynx. Then, 50-60 yr later, the development of the thermionic valve and the oscilloscope allowed recording action potentials from single nerve fibers in the vagus. In 1933, Adrian showed that slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors were responsible for the inflation reflex. Later, Knowlton and Larrabee described rapidly adapting receptors and showed that they mediated deep augmented breaths and the deflation reflex. Still later, it was established that rapidly adapting receptors were, at least in part, responsible for cough. In 1954, Paintal began his study of C-fiber receptors (J receptors), work greatly extended by the Coleridges. Since approximately 10 yr ago, when the field of this review stops, there has been an explosion of research on lung and airway receptors, many aspects of which are dealt with in other papers in this series.

  3. Understanding autism: parents and pediatricians in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Chloe; Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2007-04-01

    Both primary care providers and subspecialists in pediatrics encounter families who are actively involved in the diagnosis and treatment of their children. Parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder in particular are often aware of scientific issues, and their expertise and desire for a medical cure for autism sometimes put them at odds with the medical team. We investigated the role of parents and advocates in autism research and treatment over the last 50 years. Our review of scientific publications and archival sources documents how parents and advocacy groups have done the following: (1) organized research funding; (2) constructed clinical research networks; (3) suggested new avenues for research; (4) popularized empirically based therapies; and (5) anticipated paradigmatic shifts in the understanding of autism. We believe that this historical account will help pediatricians and researchers recognize that families can contribute to expert understanding of complex medical conditions such as autism and that the existence of partnerships with families of children with autism is a critical component of future research and treatment programs.

  4. Accurate nomenclature for forefoot nerve entrapment: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ethan E; Barrett, Stephen L; Battiston, Bruno; Maloney, Christopher T; Dellon, A Lee

    2005-01-01

    Current medical nomenclature is often based on the early history of the condition, when the true etiology of the disease or condition was not known. Sadly, this incorrect terminology can become inextricably woven into the lexicon of mainstream medicine. More important, when this is the case, the terminology itself can become integrated into current clinical decision making and ultimately into surgical intervention for the condition. "Morton's neuroma" is perhaps the most striking example of this nomenclature problem in foot and ankle surgery. We aimed to delineate the historical impetus for the terminology still being used today for this condition and to suggest appropriate terminology based on our current understanding of its pathogenesis. We concluded that this symptom complex should be given the diagnosis of nerve compression and be further distinguished by naming the involved nerve, such as compression of the interdigital nerve to the third web space or compression of the third common plantar digital nerve. Although the nomenclature becomes longer, the pathogenesis is correct, and treatment decisions can be made accordingly.

  5. The (deMilitarization of Humanitarian Aid: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian workers often complain that international aid to victims of armed conflicts is more and more militarized because relief organizations are embedded into peacekeeping operations, used as a “force multiplier”, or manipulated as an instrument of diplomacy by proxy. Historically, however, charity has always been a military issue in times of war. We can distinguish four types of militarization of relief organizations in this regard. First is the use of charities to make “war by proxy”, as in Afghanistan or Nicaragua in the 1980s. The second pattern is “embedment”, like the Red Cross during the two world wars. The third is “self-defense”, as with the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (now Malta in the 12th Century. The fourth, finally, is the model of “International Brigades” alongside the Spanish Republicans in 1936 or various liberation movements in the 1970s. In comparison, humanitarian aid today appears to be much less militarized. However, this perception also depends on the various definitions of the word “humanitarian”.

  6. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    . The main research question is why it is so difficult for new entrepreneurs to enter markets, or in other words, why are the barriers to entry seemingly higher in developing countries? Development writers such as Hernando de Soto and Daron Acemoglu suggest that this question is closely related...... such as competition policy. The model is tested using the World Bank's BEEPS dataset which is a repeated cross section survey of firms across countries in development and transition. This data gives access to observe among other firm size and whether firms pay a bribe or not. This data is combined with Stephan Voigt...

  7. Free fall and self-force: an historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Spallicci, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Free fall has signed the greatest markings in the history of physics through the leaning Pisa tower, the Cambridge apple tree and the Einstein lift. The perspectives offered by the capture of stars by supermassive black holes are to be cherished, because the study of the motion of falling stars will constitute a giant step forward in the understanding of gravitation in the regime of strong field. After an account on the perception of free fall in ancient times and on the behaviour of a gravitating mass in Newtonian physics, this chapter deals with last century debate on the repulsion for a Schwarzschild black hole and mentions the issue of an infalling particle velocity at the horizon. Further, black hole perturbations and numerical methods are presented, paving the way to the introduction of the self-force and other back-action related methods. The impact of the perturbations on the motion of the falling particle is computed via the tail, the back-scattered part of the perturbations, or via a radiative Green...

  8. A historical perspective on malaria control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean Michael; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Silva-Flannery, Luciana

    2015-09-01

    Malaria has always been an important public health problem in Brazil. The early history of Brazilian malaria and its control was powered by colonisation by Europeans and the forced relocation of Africans as slaves. Internal migration brought malaria to many regions in Brazil where, given suitable Anopheles mosquito vectors, it thrived. Almost from the start, officials recognised the problem malaria presented to economic development, but early control efforts were hampered by still developing public health control and ignorance of the underlying biology and ecology of malaria. Multiple regional and national malaria control efforts have been attempted with varying success. At present, the Amazon Basin accounts for 99% of Brazil's reported malaria cases with regional increases in incidence often associated with large scale public works or migration. Here, we provide an exhaustive summary of primary literature in English, Spanish and Portuguese regarding Brazilian malaria control. Our goal was not to interpret the history of Brazilian malaria control from a particular political or theoretical perspective, but rather to provide a straightforward, chronological narrative of the events that have transpired in Brazil over the past 200 years and identify common themes.

  9. Stigma and disability in schizophrenia: developing countries' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Kumar, Chennaveerachari Naveen

    2012-10-01

    Stigma and disability are two important consequences of schizophrenia that individuals afflicted with it experience. Sociocultural milieu can influence these. We review the literature on stigma and disability experienced by individuals with schizophrenia in the developing countries. We searched English-language literature from developing countries on stigma and disability in schizophrenia using PubMed and Scopus databases. As individual studies adopted widely varying methodologies, the retrieved papers did not yield themselves for a systematic review. We present a narrative review. Much of the literature on stigma and disability in schizophrenia has come from India and only a few other developing countries. Stigma associated with schizophrenia is highly prevalent across regions and across patients themselves, families, communities and professionals. Research is scanty with regard to determinants of stigma and interventions against stigma. A number of tools have been developed for assessment of disability. Preliminary evidence suggests that initiation and continuation of antipsychotic medications is associated with lesser disability. Psychosocial interventions may reduce disability further. Comprehensive, prospective studies evaluating the determinants of stigma and disability need to be conducted in the developing countries. Models of interventions to minimize these adverse consequences, developed based on their results, need to be tested.

  10. NOx emissions in China: historical trends and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, S. X.; Liu, H.; Xu, J. Y.; Fu, K.; Klimont, Z.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.; Cofala, J.; Amann, M.

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are key pollutants for the improvement of ambient air quality. Within this study we estimated the historical NOx emissions in China for the period 1995-2010, and calculated future NOx emissions every five years until 2030 under six emission scenarios. Driven by the fast growth of energy consumption, we estimate the NOx emissions in China increased rapidly from 11.0 Mt in 1995 to 26.1 Mt in 2010. Power plants, industry and transportation were major sources of NOx emissions, accounting for 28.4%, 34.0%, and 25.4% of the total NOx emissions in 2010, respectively. Two energy scenarios, a business as usual scenario (BAU) and an alternative policy scenario (PC), were developed to project future energy consumption. In 2030, total energy consumption is projected to increase by 64% and 27% from 2010 level respectively. Three sets of end-of-pipe pollution control measures, including baseline, progressive, and stringent control case, were developed for each energy scenario, thereby constituting six emission scenarios. By 2030, the total NOx emissions are projected to increase (compared to 2010) by 36% in the baseline while policy cases result in reduction up to 61% in the most ambitious case with stringent control measures. More than a third of the reduction achieved by 2030 between least and most ambitious scenario comes from power sector, and more than half is distributed equally between industry and transportation sectors. Selective catalytic reduction dominates the NOx emission reductions in power plants, while life style changes, control measures for industrial boilers and cement production are major contributors to reductions in industry. Timely enforcement of legislation on heavy-duty vehicles would contribute significantly to NOx emission reductions. About 30% of the NOx emission reduction in 2020 and 40% of the NOx emission reduction in 2030 could be treated as the ancillary benefit of energy conservation. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to

  11. Concepts of neurosurgical management of chronic subdural haematoma: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, R; Krauss, J K; Schmiedek, P

    2004-02-01

    The history of chronic subdural haematoma (CSH), spanning from its possibly earliest beginnings throughout the centuries until the early 1980s, was investigated within the context of four different epochs. In the 'era of uncertainty', successful trephination, the modem method of choice for the treatment of CSH, was developed by neolithic men. Various historical sources indicate that patients with CSH might have undergone surgery at that time. CSH might have been one of the ailments that had spectacular courses of salvation after trephination. The entity of CSH was first described in the 'era of pioneers' in the seventeenth century by Johann Jacob Wepfer. The misconception of 'pachymeningitis hemorrhagica interna' was introduced by Rudolf Virchow in 1857. By the end of the nineteenth century it became more widely accepted that trauma was a possible cause of CSH. Successful neurosurgical treatment of CSH was first reported by Hulke in 1883. Putnam and Cushing, in 1925, focused on surgery as the treatment of choice for CSH. In the 'era of diagnostic refinement', the introduction of pneumencephalography and angiography allowed the diagnosis of CSH much earlier. Subsequently, the typical signs and symptoms of patients suffering from CSH changed from apathy and coma to headaches and discrete focal neurological symptoms. In the 'era of surgical routine', neurosurgical approaches became smaller and less invasive. Removal of the haematoma was identified as the primary goal of surgery. The use of closed system drainage markedly improved reexpansion of the brain after surgery. Burr hole craniostomy and twist drill craniostomy became the surgical treatment of first choice because of their low morbidity and mortality. There is growing evidence, however, that the neurosurgical learning curve has reached a plateau.

  12. NOx emissions in China: historical trends and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen oxides (NOx are key pollutants for the improvement of ambient air quality. Within this study we estimated the historical NOx emissions in China for the period 1995–2010, and calculated future NOx emissions every five years until 2030 under six emission scenarios. Driven by the fast growth of energy consumption, we estimate the NOx emissions in China increased rapidly from 11.0 Mt in 1995 to 26.1 Mt in 2010. Power plants, industry and transportation were major sources of NOx emissions, accounting for 28.4, 34.0, and 25.4% of the total NOx emissions in 2010, respectively. Two energy scenarios, a business as usual scenario (BAU and an alternative policy scenario (PC, were developed to project future energy consumption. In 2030, total energy consumption is projected to increase by 64 and 27% from 2010 level respectively. Three sets of end-of-pipe pollution control measures, including baseline, progressive, and stringent control case, were developed for each energy scenario, thereby constituting six emission scenarios. By 2030, the total NOx emissions are projected to increase (compared to 2010 by 36% in the baseline while policy cases result in reduction up to 61% in the most ambitious case with stringent control measures. More than a third of the reduction achieved by 2030 between least and most ambitious scenario comes from power sector and more than half is distributed equally between industry and transportation sectors. Selective Catalytic Reduction dominates the NOx emission reductions in power plants, while life style changes, control measures for industrial boilers and cement production are major contributors to reductions in industry. Timely enforcement of legislation on heavy duty vehicles would contribute significantly to NOx emission reductions. About 30% of the NOx emission reduction in 2020, and 40% of the NOx emission reduction in 2030 could be treated as the ancillary benefit of energy conservation. Sensitivity analysis was

  13. Clinical trials in luminal Crohn's disease: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryckx, Pieter; Baert, Filip; Hart, Ailsa; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Panès, Julian; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    It goes back to 1932 when Dr. Burrill Bernard Crohn and co-workers published their landmark paper, describing regional ileitis as a disease entity. However, clinical trial research has been developing rather slowly in luminal Crohn's disease. It took until the early seventies before the first randomized clinical trial was set up by the National Co-operative Crohn's Disease Study (NCCDS) group. Although the efforts of this group triggered a first wave of clinical trials in Crohn's disease, the lack of guidelines for conducting a clinical trial in this research area resulted in a variety of study designs and much criticism. Besides having a rather small sample size and a short follow-up time, they were often characterized by vague and subjective assessment of disease activity and treatment response. Following the advent of a new and very potent drug class in the late nineties, the anti-TNF agents, investigators started to re-think their study protocols and the first guidelines were set up by the regulatory authorities. Over the last 15years, clinical trials in luminal Crohn's disease have been evolving significantly. Inclusion criteria have been shifting from clinical scores such as Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) to more objective disease activity parameters such as biomarkers (C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin) and endoscopic lesions. Primary endpoints have been developing from clinical response to corticosteroid-free remission and more ambitious end-points such as mucosal healing. In this paper, we will give a historical overview on clinical trials in luminal Crohn's disease, before and within the biologic era, and provide insight into how they have shaped our current understanding of trial designs in Crohn's disease.

  14. [Swimming, physical activity and health: a historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A A

    2015-01-01

    Swimming, which is the coordinated and harmonic movement of the human body inside a liquid medium by means of the combined action of the superior and inferior limbs, is a physical activity which is diffused throughout the whole world and it is practiced by healthy and non-healthy subjects. Swimming is one of the physical activities with less contraindications and, with limited exceptions, can be suggested to individuals of both sexes and of every age range, including the most advanced. Swimming requires energy both for the floating process and for the anterograde progression, with a different and variable osteo-arthro-muscular involvement according to the different styles. The energetic requirement is about four times that for running, with an overall efficiency inferior to 10%; the energetic cost of swimming in the female subject is approximately two thirds of that in the male subject. The moderate aerobic training typical of swimming is useful for diabetic and hypertensive individuals, for people with painful conditions of rachis, as also for obese and orthopaedic patients. Motor activity inside the water reduces the risk of muscular-tendinous lesions and, without loading the joints in excess, requires the harmonic activation of the whole human musculature. Swimming is an activity requiring multiple abilities, ranging from a sense of equilibrium to that of rhythm, from reaction speed to velocity, from joint mobility to resistance. The structured interest for swimming in the perspective of human health from the beginning of civilization, as described in this contribution, underlines the relevance attributed to this activity in the course of human history.

  15. Mismanagement and reform failures in Nigeria: historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian economy started experiencing economic recession from 1981 which was characterized by low capacity utilization, incomes, and consumption patterns. Public enterprises were operating at the lowest ebb. Government discovered that, without any exception, such enterprises were infested with problems of confused and conflicting missions; political interference in operating decisions; abuse of monopoly powers; defective capital structures; bureaucratic redtapism in their relations with supervisory agencies; mismanagement; nepotism and corruption. Consequently, reform failures and entrenched bureaucratic corruption have created systemic poverty amidst robust economic growth in Nigeria; a situation that supports the phenomenon of poor people in a rich country. Nigeria at present is ranked among the poorest nations in the world and also has one of the highest unemployment rates. It is estimated that more than one in every five adults in Nigeria is either unemployed or underemployed with about 67 million youths unemployed which is not unrelated to the effects of mismanagement and reform failures. The exploratory research design was used in the study. Qualitative data provided empirical evidence that most past reform programmes in Nigeria did not achieve the objectives for which they were established. With a Negative – Positive Ratio of 7:2 based on the study, it was found that government reform policies have not made the desired positive impact on socio-economic development in Nigeria.

  16. The Phenological Network of Catalonia: an historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    ). Fenocat technicians are also involved in data rescue initiatives that allow the study of historical phenological series. The La Serra d'Almos (near Tarragona) phenological series is an example that shows the life cycle trends for plants and birds observed since 1971. The Phenological Network of Catalonia has marked a turning point in the recording of the rhythms of nature in Catalonia and works to preserve sensitive information for the study of climate change in the fragile Mediterranean ecosystem.

  17. Rights of patients: comparative perspectives from five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, John D; Talib, Norchaya; Carstens, Pieter; Nasser, Muhammad; Tomkin, David; McAuley, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Recognition and articulation of patient rights are core issues in the medical jurisprudence of most nations. While the nature of rights in medical care may vary from country to country, reflecting the idiosyncrasies of domestic law and health delivery, there are commonalities in this area of law that cut across borders. This paper presents five case studies in the patient rights area from Malaysia, Ireland, South Africa, Indonesia and the United States, respectively. The case discussions range from ongoing and fundamental concerns over broad patient rights issues, such as access to health care and informed consent, to rights concerns of those suffering from HIV/AIDS, to a novel consideration over ethical and legal issues concerning ownership of infant organs. It is the hope of the authors that individually, and collectively, the cases will provide helpful insights into this core area of medical law.

  18. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    with a sizeable informal sector in developing countries and corruption. Other leading transition researchers such as Andrei Shleifer offer a variety of views on the informal sector from the romantic to the parasitic. This paper leans on the realist interpretation of de Soto grounded in institutional theory. High...... entry barriers push the entrepreneurs towards the informal sector. Whether entrepreneurs succeed in the transition towards the formal sector depends on the size of the entry barriers which are indirectly regulated both by informal institutions such as corruption and formal institutions...... such as competition policy. The model is tested using the World Bank's BEEPS dataset which is a repeated cross section survey of firms across countries in development and transition. This data gives access to observe among other firm size and whether firms pay a bribe or not. This data is combined with Stephan Voigt...

  19. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: An historical perspective and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbles, John [Steel Industry Consultant, Mason, OH (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Renowned industry expert Dr. John Stubbles has projected the energy savings that the U.S. steel industry could reasonably expect to achieve in the report, Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities (PDF 432 KB). The report examines the potential impacts of state-of-the-art technologies and operating practices, as well as structural changes in the industry itself.

  20. Arts and ageing; life expectancy of historical artists in the Low Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshta Mirzada

    Full Text Available Practising arts has been linked to lowering stress, anxiety and blood pressure. These mechanisms are all known to affect the ageing process. Therefore, we examine the relation between long-term involvement in arts and life expectancy at age 50 (LE50, in a cohort of 12,159 male acoustic, literary and visual artists, who were born between 1700 and 1899 in the Low Countries. We compared the life expectancy at age 50 of the various artists with the elite and middle class of that time. In the birth cohorts before 1850, acoustic (LE50:14.5-19.5 and literary artists (LE50:17.8-20.8 had a similar life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite (LE50:18.0-19.0. Only visual artists (LE50:15.5-17.1 had a lower life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite at that time. For the most recent birth cohorts from 1850 through 1899, the comparison between artists and the elite reversed and acoustic and literary artist had a lower life expectancy at age 50, while visual artists enjoyed a similar life expectancy at age 50. Although artists belonged to the middle socioeconomic class and lived predominantly in urban areas with poor living conditions, they had a life expectancy similar to the elite population. This is in line with observed favourable effects of practicing arts on health in the short-term. From our historical analysis, we hypothesize several mechanisms through which artistic creativity could influence the ageing process and life expectancy. These hypotheses, however, should be formally tested before any definite conclusions on effects of arts on ageing can be drawn.

  1. Arts and ageing; life expectancy of historical artists in the Low Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzada, Fereshta; Schimberg, Anouk S; Engelaer, Frouke M; Bijwaard, Govert E; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J; van Poppel, Frans W A

    2014-01-01

    Practising arts has been linked to lowering stress, anxiety and blood pressure. These mechanisms are all known to affect the ageing process. Therefore, we examine the relation between long-term involvement in arts and life expectancy at age 50 (LE50), in a cohort of 12,159 male acoustic, literary and visual artists, who were born between 1700 and 1899 in the Low Countries. We compared the life expectancy at age 50 of the various artists with the elite and middle class of that time. In the birth cohorts before 1850, acoustic (LE50:14.5-19.5) and literary artists (LE50:17.8-20.8) had a similar life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite (LE50:18.0-19.0). Only visual artists (LE50:15.5-17.1) had a lower life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite at that time. For the most recent birth cohorts from 1850 through 1899, the comparison between artists and the elite reversed and acoustic and literary artist had a lower life expectancy at age 50, while visual artists enjoyed a similar life expectancy at age 50. Although artists belonged to the middle socioeconomic class and lived predominantly in urban areas with poor living conditions, they had a life expectancy similar to the elite population. This is in line with observed favourable effects of practicing arts on health in the short-term. From our historical analysis, we hypothesize several mechanisms through which artistic creativity could influence the ageing process and life expectancy. These hypotheses, however, should be formally tested before any definite conclusions on effects of arts on ageing can be drawn.

  2. Historical perspective on neurosurgery in Germany after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmann, Hartmut; Vitzthum, Hans-Ekkehart

    2008-11-01

    AFTER THE COLLAPSE of the Third Reich, the specialty of neurosurgery in Germany, although well developed in the late 1930s, had to start anew, and for decades to come, had to deal with the physical and political consequences of World War II. Because of the division of the country, neurosurgery developed separately in the two independent states. In West Germany, the evolution was promoted by a few personalities who represented different schools according to their own training: these "surgical neurologists" emphasized the neurological basis of neurosurgery and were represented by Traugott Riechert and the students of Otfrid Foerster, such as Arist Stender and Hans Kuhlendahl. In contrast, the "neurological surgeons" stressed their origins in general surgery. Their main proponent was Wilhelm Tönnis, who gained particular merit for promoting neurosurgical teaching, the development of new neurosurgical units, and the recognition of neurosurgery as an autonomous specialty. In East Germany, progress was delayed by a weak economy and a repressive political system. Yet several excellent neurosurgeons won international recognition, predominantly Georg Merrem, who came from the school of Fedor Krause. Following a worldwide trend, the number of neurosurgical units in West Germany increased dramatically from 18 in 1950 to 85 in 1988. In 2006, in the unified nation, 1200 certified neurosurgeons in 138 hospital departments and 75 private practices served 82 million people. Since its founding in 1949, the German Neurosurgical Society has promoted the idea of reconciliation and has focused on international collaboration in both science and education. This idea, shared by other European nations, eventually gave rise to the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. At present, escalating costs in the health sector pose a problem to neurosurgical services and have led to reconsiderations about their structure and financing.

  3. Assessment of Drought Severity Techniques - A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panu, U. S.; Crinklaw, T.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts are natural phenomenon experienced by all nations across the globe. Drought inherently means a scarcity of water, which adversely affects various sectors of human socio-economic spectrum, e.g. agriculture, hydropower generation, water supply, industry, recreation, navigation, fish production etc. The prime cause of droughts is the occurrence of less than optimal (below normal) precipitation, which has its origin to various natural reasons, the most important being the global climatic forcing. Droughts are also referred to as sustained and regionally extensive occurrences of below average water availability which invariably cultivate into environmental disasters. The evolution of a drought event is defined into four types; meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and socio-economic. Drought affects all aspects of societal systems irrespective of how it is defined. This has led to a wide range of studies conducted by meteorologists, ecologists, environmentalists, hydrologists, geologists and agricultural scientists in attempts to understand drought processes as required to analyze and predict the impacts of droughts. A conceptual definition, such as a shortage of water relied on by human activity, avoids quantification of a drought event. On the other hand, the purpose of an operational definition is to determine the beginning, termination, and severity of a drought event. The severity assessment of droughts is of primary importance for allocation and management of available water resources. The progression and impact of historical droughts in a region is helpful for developing relationships and techniques to investigate relevant characteristics of droughts. For optimum drought preparedness and mitigative responses, professional bodies need to provide information to private and government agencies in a manner that may also be understood by their employers, stakeholders and the general public. Drought indicators bridge this communication gap between all

  4. Surgery for anterior cruciate ligament deficiency: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Oliver S

    2012-01-01

    ACL reconstruction as a common procedure within the realm of most surgeons' ability. More recently, the principle of anatomic ACL reconstruction, aiming at the functional restoration of native ACL dimensions and insertion sites, has been introduced, superseding the somewhat ill-advised concept of isometric graft placement. Double-bundle reconstruction is gaining in popularity, and combined extra- and intra-articular procedures are seeing a revival, but more accurate and reliable pre- and post-operative assessment tools are required to provide customised treatment options and appropriate evaluation and comparability of long-term results. Modern ACL surgery is united in the common goal of re-establishing joint homoeostasis with normal knee kinematics and function which may ultimately assist in reducing the prevalence of post-operative joint degeneration. This review hopes to provide an insight into the historical developments of ACL surgery and the various controversies surrounding its progress. Level of evidence V.

  5. North American osprey populations and contaminants: Historic and contemporary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Johnson, Branden L.

    2010-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations were adversely affected by DDT and perhaps other contaminants in the United States and elsewhere. Reduced productivity, eggshell thinning, and high DDE concentrations in eggs were the signs associated with declining osprey populations in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The species was one of the first studied on a large scale to bring contaminant issues into focus. Although few quantitative population data were available prior to the 1960s, many osprey populations in North America were studied during the 1960s and 1970s with much learned about basic life history and biology. This article reviews the historical and current effects of contaminants on regional osprey populations. Breeding populations in many regions of North America showed post-DDT-era (1972) population increases of varying magnitudes, with many populations now appearing to stabilize at much higher numbers than initially reported in the 1970s and 1980s. However, the magnitude of regional population increases in the United States between 1981 (first Nationwide Survey, ≈8,000 pairs), when some recovery had already occurred, 1994 (second survey, ≈14,200), and 2001 (third survey, ≈16,000–19,000), or any other years, is likely not a simple response to the release from earlier contaminant effects, but a response to multi-factorial effects. This indirect "contaminant effects" measurement comparing changes (i.e., recovery) in post-DDT-era population numbers over time is probably confounded by changing human attitudes toward birds of prey (shooting, destroying nests, etc.), changing habitats, changing fish populations, and perhaps competition from other species. The species' adaptation to newly created reservoirs and its increasing use of artificial nesting structures (power poles, nesting platforms, cell towers, channel markers, offshore duck blinds, etc.) are two important factors. The timing of the initial use of artificial nesting structures, which replaced

  6. Three Norwegian Varieties of a Nordic Model — A Historical Perspective on Working Life Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Heiret

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of a historical perspective, the aim of this article is to discuss and clarify the concurrent and conflicting interests and norms that have characterized the establishment and development of important institutions in Norwegian working life. The article concentrates on collective bargaining systems, the arrangements for codetermination, and the working environment regulations in both the public and private sector, which are regarded as the main institutions in the Norwegian and Nordic models of working life relations. The article is structured by an analytical distinction between three different historical periods that have constituted three distinct versions of the Norwegian model. By presenting a historical synthesis of Norwegian experiences, the article is a contribution to the ongoing debate on the varieties in the Nordic model, as to further comparisons and broader transnational studies.

  7. Woodland caribou management in Alberta: historical perspectives and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston H. Dzus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou conservation has been the topic of much debate for the past few decades. By the late 1970s there was growing concern about declining woodland caribou populations and the interaction between industrial activities and woodland caribou. Initial concerns led to the closure of the licensed hunting season in 1981. Early confrontation between government and industry in the late 1980s transformed into a series of evolving collaborative ventures. Improving our understanding of the basic ecology of woodland caribou in Alberta was at the center of early research efforts; more recent studies have examined the effects of industrial activities on caribou and effectiveness of various mitigation factors. Despite having amassed an impressive body of information from a research and monitoring perspective, progress on implementing effective management actions has been less dramatic. Industry has endured significant costs implementing a variety of perceived conservation initiatives, but caribou populations continued to decline through the last few decades. While some parties feel more research is needed, there is growing consensus that changes to habitat as induced by human activities are important factors influencing current caribou declines. Predation is a proximate cause of most caribou mortality. Climate change mediated alterations to habitat and predator-prey interactions remain a key source of uncertainty relative to future caribou population trends. Management actions will need to deal with long term habitat changes associated with human land use and short term implications of increased predation. In 2005, the provincial minister responsible for caribou conservation responded to the draft 2004 recovery plan and created the Alberta Caribou Committee (ACC. The goal of the ACC is to maintain and recover woodland caribou in Alberta’s forest ecosystems while providing opportunities for resource development, following guidance provided by the

  8. Historical perspectives and recent research on superovulation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bó, Gabriel A; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-01-01

    Superovulation protocols have evolved greatly over the past 40 to 50 years. The development of commercial pituitary extracts and prostaglandins in the 1970s, and partially purified pituitary extracts and progesterone-releasing devices in the 1980s and 1990s have provided for the development of many of the protocols that we use today. Furthermore, the knowledge of follicular wave dynamics through the use of real-time ultrasonography and the development of the means by which follicular wave emergence can be controlled have provided new practical approaches. Although some embryo transfer practitioners still initiate superstimulatory treatments during mid-cycle in donor cows, the elective control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation has had a great effect on the application of on-farm embryo transfer, especially when large groups of donors need to be superstimulated at the same time. The most common treatment for the synchronization of follicular wave emergence for many years has been estradiol and progestins. In countries where estradiol cannot be used, practitioners have turned to alternative treatments for the synchronization of follicle wave emergence, such as mechanical follicle ablation or the administration of GnRH to induce ovulation. An approach that has shown promise is to initiate FSH treatments at the time of the emergence of the new follicular wave after GnRH-induced ovulation of an induced persistent follicle. Alternatively, it has been suggested recently that it might be possible to ignore follicular wave status, and by extending the treatment protocol, induce small antral follicles to grow and superovulate. Recently, the mixing of FSH with sustained release polymers or the development of long-acting recombinant FSH products have permitted superstimulation with a single or alternatively, two gonadotropin treatments 48 hours apart, reducing the need for animal handling during superstimulation. Although the number of transferable embryos per donor

  9. Perspective has a strong effect on the calculation of historical contributions to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie; Allen, Myles; Kallbekken, Steffen

    2017-02-01

    The politically contentious issue of calculating countries’ contributions to climate change is strongly dependent on methodological choices. Different principles can be applied for distributing efforts for reducing human-induced global warming. According to the ‘Brazilian Proposal’, industrialized countries would reduce emissions proportional to their historical contributions to warming. This proposal was based on the assumption that the political process would lead to a global top-down agreement. The Paris Agreement changed the role of historical responsibilities. Whereas the agreement refers to equity principles, differentiation of mitigation efforts is delegated to each country, as countries will submit new national contributions every five years without any international negotiation. It is likely that considerations of historical contributions and distributive fairness will continue to play a key role, but increasingly so in a national setting. Contributions to warming can be used as a background for negotiations to inform and justify positions, and may also be useful for countries’ own assessment of what constitutes reasonable and fair contributions to limiting warming. Despite the fact that the decision from COP21 explicitly rules out compensation in the context of loss and damage, it is likely that considerations of historical responsibility will also play a role in future discussions. However, methodological choices have substantial impacts on calculated contributions to warming, including rank-ordering of contributions, and thus support the view that there is no single correct answer to the question of how much each country has contributed. There are fundamental value-related and ethical questions that cannot be answered through a single set of calculated contributions. Thus, analyses of historical contributions should not present just one set of results, but rather present a spectrum of results showing how the calculated contributions vary with a

  10. Reliability and risk analysis data base development: an historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragola, Joseph R

    1996-02-01

    altogether (Cushing, M. et al., Comparison of electronics-reliability assessment approaches. Trans. Reliab., 42 (1993) 542-546 Wat son, G.F., MIL Reliability: a new approach. IEEE Spectrum, 29 (1992) 46-49). Authors who have suggested that the concept of generic data collection be abolished in favor of a physics-of-failure approach (Watson, G.F., MIL Reliability: a new approach. IEEE Spectrum, 29 (1992) 46-49) now seem to be suggesting that the concept of 'failure rate' be banished altogether and with it the concept of reliability prediction (Pecht., M. and Nash, F., Predicting the reliability of electronic equipment. Proc. IEEE, 82 (1994) 992-1004). There can be no doubt that abuses of generic data exist and that the physics-of-failure approach has merit, especially in design development, however, does the situation really justify the abandonment of the collection, analysis, and classification of empirical failure data and the elimination of reliability or risk prediction? If not, can the concepts of 'failure rate' and 'prediction' be redefined so as to allow for meaningful support to be provided to logical decision making? This paper reviews both the logical and historical context within which reliability and risk data bases have been developed so as to generate an understanding of the motivations for and the assumptions underlying their development. Further, an attempt is made to clarify what appears to be fundamental confusion in the field of reliability and risk analysis. With these clarifications in hand, a restructuring of the conceptual basis for reliability data base development and reliability predictions is suggested, and some hopeful recent developments are reported upon.

  11. Vaccines to prevent pneumonia in children - a developing country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliwa, Jacquie N; Marais, Ben J

    2017-03-01

    Pneumonia accounted for 15% of the 6.3 million deaths among children younger than five years in 2013, a total of approximately 935,000 deaths worldwide. Routine vaccination against common childhood illnesses has been identified as one of the most cost-effective strategies to prevent death from pneumonia. Vaccine-preventable or potentially preventable diseases commonly linked with respiratory tract infections include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza type-b (Hib), pertussis, influenza, measles, and tuberculosis. Although here have been great strides in the development and administration of effective vaccines, the countries that carry the largest disease burdens still struggle to vaccinate their children and newer conjugated vaccines remain out of reach for many. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) has identified priority areas for innovation in research in all aspects of immunisation development and delivery to ensure equitable access to vaccines for all. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Teachers’ perspectives on professional learning communities in some Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser F. Alhendawi Al-Mahdy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the perceptions of public school teachers in three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia & Oman based on the dimensions of Professional Learning Communities (PLCs and related attributes. A quantitative approach is implemented using the Professional Learning Communities Assessment–Revised (PLCA-R questionnaire developed by (Olivier; Hipp, & Huffman, 2010. The measure is administered to public school teachers in Egypt, KSA, and Oman. The PLCA-R utilizes a four-point, forced Likert Scale. A sample of (1486 subjects is selected during 2014-2015 school years. The data is analyzed through descriptive statistics. The research concluded that both Saudi and Omani teachers showed positive perceptions regarding the degree to which their schools function as PLCs; whereas Egyptians showed negative perceptions, and there were significant differences between male and female teachers regarding their perceptions of the degree to which their schools function as PLCs in favor of female teachers.

  13. Wastage in the health workforce: some perspectives from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovlo Delanyo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa faces a human resources crisis in the health sector. Over the past two decades its population has increased substantially, with a significant rise in the disease burden due to HIV/AIDS and recurrent communicable diseases and an increased incidence of noncommunicable diseases. This increased demand for health services is met with a rather low supply of health workers, but this notwithstanding, sub-Saharan African countries also experience significant wastage of their human resources stock. Methods This paper is a desk review to illustrate suggestions that the way human resources for health (HRH are trained and deployed in Africa does not enhance productivity and that countries are unable to realize the full potential expected from the working life of their health workers. The paper suggests data types for use in measuring various forms of "wastage". Results "Direct" wastage – or avoidable increases in loss of staff through factors such as emigration and death – is on the rise, perhaps as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. "Indirect" wastage – which is the result of losses in output and productivity from health professionals' misapplied skills, absenteeism, poor support and lack of supervision – is also common. HIV/AIDS represents a special cause of wastage in Africa. Deaths of health workers, fear of infection, burnout, absenteeism, heavy workloads and stress affect productivity. Conclusion The paper reviews strategies that have been proposed and/or implemented. It suggests areas needing further attention, including: developing and using indicators for monitoring and managing wastage; enhancing motivation and morale of health workers; protecting and valuing the health worker with enhanced occupational safety and welfare systems; and establishing the moral leadership to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS and the brain drain.

  14. A Short Account of RRKM Theory of Unimolecular Reactions and of Marcus Theory of Electron Transfer in a Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The RRKM Theory of Unimolecular Reactions and Marcus Theory of Electron Transfer are here briefly discussed in a historical perspective. In the final section, after a general discussion on the educational usefulness of teaching chemistry in a historical framework, hints are given on how some characteristics of Marcus' work could be introduced in…

  15. A Short Account of RRKM Theory of Unimolecular Reactions and of Marcus Theory of Electron Transfer in a Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The RRKM Theory of Unimolecular Reactions and Marcus Theory of Electron Transfer are here briefly discussed in a historical perspective. In the final section, after a general discussion on the educational usefulness of teaching chemistry in a historical framework, hints are given on how some characteristics of Marcus' work could be introduced in…

  16. The Diffusion of IT in the Historical Context of Innovations from Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The well-known s-shaped diffusion of technology curve generally works well in developed countries. But how does it perform in the very different context of developing countries? Across a wide range of new technologies imported from the developed countries it works poorly. In most cases the penetration rate fails to reach 25% of the population. The…

  17. Oral submucous fibrosis: a historical perspective and a review on etiology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilakaratne, Wanninayake Mudiyanselage; Ekanayaka, Rasika Priyadharshani; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2016-08-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, insidious disease characterized by progressive submucosal fibrosis of the oral cavity and the oropharynx. People affected by this disease mostly live in south Asia, but migrants from these countries to the United States and Europe may present with OSF. We provide a historical background of the disease, and the objective of this review is to update the current knowledge on the etiology and etiopathogenesis of OSF.

  18. M-Learning Adoption: A Perspective from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Iqbal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available M-learning is the style of learning for the new millennium. Decreases in cost and increases in capabilities of mobile devices have made this medium attractive for the dissemination of knowledge. Mobile engineers, software developers, and educationists represent the supply side of this technology, whereas students represent the demand side. In order to further develop and improve this medium of learning it is imperative to find out students’ perceptions about m-learning adoption. To achieve this objective a survey was conducted among the students of 10 chartered universities operating in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan. The results indicate that perceived usefulness, ease of use, and facilitating conditions significantly affect the students’ intention to adopt m-learning, whereas perceived playfulness is found to have less influence. Social influence is found to have a negative impact on adoption of m-learning. The findings of this study are useful in providing guidance to developers and educators for designing m-learning courses specifically in the context of developing countries.

  19. Proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia: a historical perspective on a novel and evolving entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Molina-Infante

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is an emerging chronic esophageal disease, first described in 1993, with a steadily increasing incidence and prevalence in western countries. Over the 80's and early 90's, dense esophageal eosinophilia was mostly associated gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. For the next 15 years, EoE and GERD were rigidly considered separate entities: Esophageal eosinophilia with pathological acid exposure on pH monitoring or response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy was GERD, whereas normal pH monitoring or absence of response to PPIs was EoE. Updated guidelines in 2011 described a novel phenotype, proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE, referring to patients who appear to have EoE clinically, but who achieve complete remission after PPI therapy. Currently, PPI-REE must be formally excluded before diagnosing EoE, since 30-40 % of patients with suspected EoE are eventually diagnosed with PPI-REE. Interestingly, PPI-REE and EoE remain undistinguishable based on clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings, pH monitoring, and measurement of tissue markers and cytokines related to eosinophilic inflammation. This review article aims to revisit the relatively novel concept of PPI-REE from a historical perspective, given the strong belief that only GERD, as an acid peptic disorder, could respond to the acid suppressing ability of PPI therapy, is becoming outdated. Evolving evidence suggests that PPI-REE is genetically and phenotypically undistinguishable from EoE and PPI therapy alone can almost completely reverse allergic inflammation. As such, PPI-REE might constitute a subphenotype of EoE and PPI therapy may be the first therapeutic step and diet/ steroids may represent step up therapy. Possibly, the term PPI-REE will be soon replaced by PPI-responsive EoE. The mechanism as to why some patients respond to PPI therapy (PPI-REE while others do not (EoE, remains to be elucidated.

  20. Historical perspective on the synonymization of the four major pest species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Alvin K W; Wee, Suk-Ling; Nishida, Ritsuo; Ono, Hajime; Hendrichs, Jorge; Haymer, David S; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA-sponsored coordinated research project on integrative taxonomy, involving close to 50 researchers from at least 20 countries, culminated in a significant breakthrough in the recognition that four major pest species, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera invadens, belong to the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. The successful conclusion of this initiative is expected to significantly facilitate global agricultural trade, primarily through the lifting of quarantine restrictions that have long affected many countries, especially those in regions such as Asia and Africa that have large potential for fresh fruit and vegetable commodity exports. This work stems from two taxonomic studies: a revision in 1994 that significantly increased the number of described species in the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex; and the description in 2005 of Bactrocera invadens, then newly incursive in Africa. While taxonomically valid species, many biologists considered that these were different names for one biological species. Many disagreements confounded attempts to develop a solution for resolving this taxonomic issue, before the FAO/IAEA project commenced. Crucial to understanding the success of that initiative is an accounting of the historical events and perspectives leading up to the international, multidisciplinary collaborative efforts that successfully achieved the final synonymization. This review highlights the 21 year journey taken to achieve this outcome.

  1. Advances for prosthetic technology from historical perspective to current status to future application

    CERN Document Server

    LeMoyne, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the advances in transtibial prosthetic technology and targets research in the evolution of the powered prosthesis such as the BiOM, which was derived from considerable research and development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The concept of the book spans the historical evolution of prosthetic applications from passive to new and futuristic robotic prosthetic technologies.  The author describes the reasons for amputation, surgical procedures, and an historical perspective of the prosthesis for the lower limb. He also addresses the phases and sub-phases of gait and compensatory mechanisms arising for a transtibial prosthesis and links the compensatory mechanisms to long-term morbidities.  The general technologies for gait analysis central to prosthetic design and the inherent biomechanics foundations for analysis are also explored.  The book reports on recent-past to current-term applications with passive elastic prostheses.  The core of the book deals with futuristic robo...

  2. Historical perspective and contemporary management of acute coronary syndromes: from MONA to THROMBINS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kristopher P; Conti, C Richard; Winchester, David E

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a major burden on morbidity and mortality in the United States. Medical professionals and students often use the mnemonic 'MONA' (morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerin and aspirin) to recall treatments for ACS; however, this list of therapies is outdated. We provide a historical perspective on 'MONA,' attempt to uncover its origin in the medical literature, and demonstrate the myriad changes that have occurred over the last 50 years of ACS management. We have developed a novel mnemonic, 'THROMBINS2' (thienopyridines, heparin/enoxaparin, renin-angiotensin system blockers, oxygen, morphine, beta blocker, intervention, nitroglycerin, statin/salicylate) to help bedside clinicians recall all the elements of contemporary ACS management. We demonstrate the mortality benefit for each component of contemporary ACS management, correlating the continued improvement with historical data on mortality after myocardial infarction. We encourage providers to utilize this mnemonic to explore options and guide treatments in ACS patients.

  3. What are check dams made for? An historical perspective from the French experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Carladous, Simon; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    technical and sociological reasons. The Mountain lands' conservation and restoration law of 1882 aimed to better fit local issues. The idea of the presentation is thus to highlight how evolved the historical comprehension of torrential hazards and of the usefulness of check dams in mitigation plans in a changing environment on the technical as well as on the sociological and regulatory points of view. Pioneering scientific and technical works on torrential hydraulics and check dams will be presented. Describing the global context that leads to French laws of 1860,1864 and 1882 will allow us to explain the extensive development of the works in more than a thousand of torrents and a hundred of big landslides. We then will discuss the evolution of technics during the beginning of the 20th century and the changes induced after WWII by the arrival of reinforced-concrete technics. We will conclude the presentation with a synthesis table aiming to highlight the different functions of check dams based on a description of their situations in the watershed, compare to other structures' situations and on shape criteria. This historical perspective will hopefully help people to better understand for which purposes some structures have been built in the past centuries and what lessons can be learnt from this assessment.

  4. The Declaration of Helsinki in relation to medical research: historical and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B M

    2012-09-01

    Medical research aims at improving diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic measures and understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of diseases in humans, and their application to improve the quality of life and survival. The subjects involved are exposed to hazards inherent to the experiments. In order to protect the human subjects and to maintain high ethical standards, the World Medical Association had adopted the "Declaration of Helsinki" in 1964. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on the historical and current perspectives on the Declaration of Helsinki in relation to medical research on human subjects.

  5. Care provider perspectives on medical travel: A three-country study of destination hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Andrew N; Johnson, Tricia J; Lynch, Elizabeth B; Satjapot, Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the current and potential role of medical travel in U.S. patient care, very little research has been conducted on clinician and other provider organizations' perspectives on providing international patient care. The present study sought to gain formative insights about medical travel from the providers' perspectives, by conducting structured interviews and focus groups in six hospitals from three countries catering to patients traveling from the United States. Findings highlighted the surprising role of international events and policies in the evolution of medical travel, as well as both the desire and need for more transparent quality standards.

  6. Political Economy, Capability Development, and Fundamental Cause: Integrating Perspectives on Child Health in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Burroway

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several dominant theoretical perspectives attempt to account for health disparities in developing countries, including political economy, the capability approach, and fundamental cause. This study combines the perspectives in a multi-level analysis of child malnutrition and diarrhea in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of who faces increased health risks and who is shielded from them. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys and World Bank data, I estimate a series of models that predict the likelihood of child malnutrition and diarrhea, based on a set of country- and individual-level explanatory variables. Results suggest that at the individual-level, household wealth and maternal education are the most robust predictors of child health. These social factors are even more important than more proximate factors like clean water or sanitation. At the country-level, gross domestic product (GDP per capita reduces malnutrition, but does not significantly affect incidence of diarrhea. Contrary to the predominant economic development paradigm, health care and education are more important in accounting for the prevalence of diarrhea than GDP. Finally, trade in and of itself is not harmful to well-being in developing countries. It is when countries become too dependent on one or a few commodities that trade starts to have detrimental costs. Thus, a synthesis of theoretical frameworks best illustrates the complex web of social structural factors that manifest as unequal life chances for children.

  7. Finding the "Right-Size" Physical Therapy Workforce: International Perspective Across 4 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Tiago S; Koh, Gerald; Landry, Michel; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Lopes, António M F; Green, Peter L; Hoenig, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Finding the "right-size" physical therapy workforce is an increasingly important issue, but it has had limited study, particularly across nations. This perspective article provides a comprehensive examination of physical therapy workforce issues across 4 countries (United States, Singapore, Portugal, and Bangladesh), which were deliberately selected to allow consideration of key contextual factors. This investigation provides a theoretical model uniquely adapted to focus on variables most likely to affect physical therapy workforce needs. This theoretical model was used to guide acquisition of public domain data across the respective countries. The data then were used to provide a contextualized interpretation about the physical therapy workforce supply (ie, physical therapists per capita) across the 4 countries in light of the following factors: indicators of physical therapy need, financial and administrative barriers affecting physical therapy access and demand, the proportion of physical therapy graduates (with varying trends over time across the countries), and the role of emigration/immigration in supply inequalities among countries of lower and higher income. In addition, both the physical therapy workforce supply and scope of practice were analyzed in the context of other related professions across the 4 countries. This international comparison indicated that there may not be a "one-size-fits-all" recommendation for physical therapy workforce supply across countries or an ideal formula for its determination. The optimal, country-specific physical therapy workforce supply appears to be affected by discipline-specific health care and contextual factors that may vary across countries, and even within the same country. This article provides a conceptual framework and basis for such contextualized evaluations of the physical therapy workforce. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. India–EU engagement and international migration: Historical perspectives, future challenges, and policy imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant Kumar Potnuru

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of a multilateral framework and a rule based global structure for the governance of international migration of people in all its complexities, countries engage in bilateral or regional cooperation in an attempt to engage and harmonize international movements and work towards a win–win situation. The current paper examines if and how the bilateral relationship or engagement between India and the EU has historically evolved and influenced international migration flows between them, and what potential future challenges and policy options they face for a successful engagement and facilitation of movement of people.

  9. Industrial Property and global competitiveness in historical perspective; Propiedad industrial y competitividad global en perspectiva historica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz, P.

    2011-07-01

    The ability to compete globally changes over time. The processes of technological innovation and education largely determine economic growth and international competitiveness. The development and evolution of Intellectual Property Rights in the long term have been essential for the management of R and D and of creative and innovative competence's in several countries. Thus, economic and technological history becomes an essential tool for analysts and political economists. And the historical archive of the Spanish Patents and Trademarks Office turns out to be a laboratory of the past for thinking on the future. (Author) 48 refs.

  10. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in select countries - volume 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saraswat, V.; Norris, S.; de Knegt, R. J.; Sanchez Avila, J. F.; Sonderup, M.; Zuckerman, E.; Arkkila, P.; Stedman, C.; Acharya, S.; Aho, I.; Anand, A. C.; Andersson, M. I.; Arendt, V.; Baatarkhuu, O.; Barclay, K.; Ben-Ari, Z.; Bergin, C.; Bessone, F.; Blach, S.; Blokhina, N.; Brunton, C. R.; Choudhuri, G.; Chulanov, V.; Cisneros, L.; Croes, E. A.; Dahgwahdorj, Y. A.; Dalgard, O.; Daruich, J. R.; Dashdorj, N. R.; Davaadorj, D.; de Vree, M.; Estes, C.; Flisiak, R.; Gadano, A. C.; Gane, E.; Halota, W.; Hatzakis, A.; Henderson, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Hornell, J.; Houlihan, D.; Hrusovsky, S.; Jarcuska, P.; Kershenobich, D.; Kostrzewska, K.; Kristian, P.; Leshno, M.; Lurie, Y.; Mahomed, A.; Mamonova, N.; Mendez-Sanchez, N.; Mossong, J.; Nurmukhametova, E.; Nymadawa, P.; Oltman, M.; Oyunbileg, J.; Oyunsuren, Ts.; Papatheodoridis, G.; Pimenov, N.; Prabdial-Sing, N.; Prins, M.; Puri, P.; Radke, S.; Rakhmanova, A.; Razavi, H.; Razavi-Shearer, K.; Reesink, H. W.; Ridruejo, E.; Safadi, R.; Sagalova, O.; Sanduijav, R.; Schreter, I.; Seguin-Devaux, C.; Shah, S. R.; Shestakova, I.; Shevaldin, A.; Shibolet, O.; Sokolov, S.; Souliotis, K.; Spearman, C. W.; Staub, T.; Strebkova, E. A.; Struck, D.; Tomasiewicz, K.; Undram, L.; van der Meer, A. J.; van Santen, D.; Veldhuijzen, I.; Villamil, F. G.; Willemse, S.; Zuure, F. R.; Silva, M. O.; Sypsa, V.; Gower, E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver related morbidity and mortality. In many countries, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological data that are crucial in implementing disease control measures as new treatment options become available. Published literature, u

  11. Comparison of the historic recycling risk for BSE in three European Countries by calculating RO.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwermer, H.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Brülisauer, F.; Heim, D.

    2007-01-01

    Adeterministic model of BSE transmission is used to calculate the R0 values for specific years of the BSE epidemics in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), and Switzerland (CH). In all three countries, theR0 values decreased below 1 after the introduction of a ban on feeding meat and bone

  12. Johann P. Arnason & Kurt A. Raaflaub, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gibbons

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arnason and Raaflaub’s edited volume, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, is the fifth volume in a series entitled The Ancient World: Comparative Histories. The overarching aim of the series is to bring a comparative perspective to studies of ancient histories, and earlier titles focus either on content or geography. This is the only volume to date that focuses on a specific civilization, and Rome is of course significant enough to merit its own volume.

  13. Historical perspectives on typhoons and tropical storms in the natural and socio-economic system of Nam Dinh (Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinen, John

    2007-02-01

    This contribution starts with a brief introduction of the effects of typhoons and tropical storms on Vietnam, focusing in particular on the coastal region of Nam Dinh, a province in the northern part of the country and part of the Red River Delta. The magnitude of damage caused by a natural disaster is not solely determined by the direct physical impact of the event, but also depends on the socio-economic and political circumstances that shape a person or a groups' daily life. Such conditions define where and how people live and work. An overview of the major events since the 19th century shows how important it is to study these events in historical perspective. This paper briefly considers various conceptualizations and definitions of vulnerability. It analyses the destruction caused by a natural disaster in terms of peoples' vulnerability in a deltaic region. A distinction is made between collective vulnerability and individual vulnerability, each leading to different levels of perception of the disaster. The levels overlap in the discussion because they are interwoven and dependent on one another.

  14. Hunger strikers: historical perspectives from the emergency management of refugee camp asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M; Chan, Jimmy T S; Yeung, Richard D S

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of hunger strikers is always contentious, chaotic and complex. The management is particularly difficult for health professionals as it raises unprecedented clinical, ethical, moral, humanitarian, and legal questions. There are never any easy answers. The current situation of prisoners from the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars currently at the Guantanamo Bay Detention Center in Cuba demands unprecedented transparency, accountability and multilevel coordination to ensure that the rights of the strikers are properly met. There are scant references available in the scientific literature on the emergency management of these tragedies. This historical perspective documents the complex issues faced by emergency physicians in Hong Kong surrounding refugee camp asylum seekers from Vietnam in 1994 and is offered as a useful adjunct in understanding the complex issues faced by emergency health providers and managers.

  15. On the origins and the historical roots of the Higgs boson research from a bibliometric perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Andreas; Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Ruediger

    2014-01-01

    Subject of our present paper is the analysis of the origins or historical roots of the Higgs boson research from a bibliometric perspective, using a segmented regression analysis in a reference publication year spectroscopy (RPYS). Our analysis is based on the references cited in the Higgs boson publications published since 1974. The objective of our analysis consists of identifying concrete individual publications in the Higgs boson research context to which the scientific community frequently had referred to. As a consequence, we are interested in seminal works which contributed to a high extent to the discovery of the Higgs boson. Our results show that researchers in the Higgs boson field preferably refer to more recently published papers - particular papers published since the beginning of the sixties. For example, our analysis reveals seven major contributions which appeared within the sixties: Englert and Brout (1964), Higgs (1964, 2 papers), and Guralnik et al. (1964) on the Higgs mechanism as well as ...

  16. On the concept of “variant” in lexicon studies from a historic-variational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Venâncio Lopes Machado Filho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though the concept of linguistic variant has been fully established in contemporary sociolinguistic studies, it demands a theoretical review when it is considered from the perspective of lexicon studies, especially when related to historical and variational biases. In this paper, we present limits on identification and characterization of lexical variation, considering formal changes that may occur at other levels of analysis, especially at the morphological or phonetic ones. To support the reflections on the topic, we discuss the process of lexicon constitution in Portuguese and the results of etymological convergence and divergence present in the history of the language. Based on the analysis presented, it is proposed that research on lexical variation should incorporate to this notion any significant formal or content changes.

  17. Searching for social capital: historical perspectives on health, poverty and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshman, John

    2006-11-01

    Social capital has been seen as having a positive effect on health, and the concept of social capital has been viewed as of central importance to debates about healthy, sustainable communities. More generally, behaviour and its relationship with health has become much more central to policy-making, as illustrated in the Choosing Health White Paper (2005), and the concept of social capital has been one influence on the concept of social exclusion. Robert Putnam's arguments, both those expressed in Making Democracy Work (1993) and the revised version seen in Bowling Alone (2000) have been taken up by numerous social scientists and policy-makers. But despite the explicitly historical perspective that Putnam employs in Bowling Alone in particular, the history of social capital remains rather neglected in the available literature. This article is concerned with providing a historical perspective on social capital, especially the ways in which social investigators have viewed the relationships between health, poverty and behaviour. The article puts social capital alongside that of 'underclass' concepts such as the culture of poverty thesis, and examines how the latter has been invented and reinvented in the U.K. and the U.S.A. over the last 120 years. It argues that there are important similarities between the culture of poverty and social capital, but also significant differences, and these have implications for current policy initiatives. One way of analysing concepts like social capital and social exclusion more rigorously is by locating them within this longer-term history of social investigation, in which debates about health, poverty, and culture have been of

  18. Assessing the Constructive Potential of Union Citizenship A Socio-Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Wiener

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In European integration studies citizenship policy has not received much attention as a practice. Instead much of the literature has predominantly focused on legal assessments of Union citizenship shedding light on the limitations of supranational citizenship compared to the familiar statist concepts of citizenship. Legal approaches have thus often adopted a minimalist perspective on citizenship, establishing what Union citizenship is not leaving aside the constructive potential of Union citizenship. This paper seeks to demonstrate that a constructive perspective on the practice of citizenship facilitates valuable information about the creation of the institutionalised terms of citizenship over time. If it is true that Union citizenship is different from other types of citizenship, what is new about it? Constructive approaches suggest, that if we are to establish the dynamics which characterise Union citizenship analyses need to allow for a way of appreciating historical variability of context and contents of citizenship. To that end the major part of this paper seeks to develop a way of assessing the constructive potential of citizenship based on its newly institutionalised terms such as the shared values, objectives and regulations that have been established by citizenship policy over time. Beyond describing the emergence of EC/EU citizenship the paper promotes a systematic approach to reconstruct the policy in this supranational context. It is assumed that citizenship did not emerge out of the blue on the agenda of the Maastricht Intergovernmental Conference but that it is possible to identify agenda-setting steps in earlier stages of the policy process. If this assumption is correct, then a historical account could bring the various steps of citizenship policy which led to the history-making decision at Maastricht summit to the fore.

  19. Assessing the Constructive Potential of Union Citizenship – A Socio-Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Wiener

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In European integration studies citizenship policy has not received much attention as a practice. Instead much of the literature has predominantly focused on legal assessments of Union citizenship shedding light on the limitations of supranational citizenship – compared to the familiar statist concepts of citizenship. Legal approaches have thus often adopted a minimalist perspective on citizenship, establishing what Union citizenship is not leaving aside the constructive potential of Union citizenship. This paper seeks to demonstrate that a constructive perspective on the practice of citizenship facilitates valuable information about the creation of the institutionalised terms of citizenship over time. If it is true that Union citizenship is different from other types of citizenship, what is new about it? Constructive approaches suggest, that if we are to establish the dynamics which characterise Union citizenship analyses need to allow for a way of appreciating historical variability of context and contents of citizenship. To that end the major part of this paper seeks to develop a way of assessing the constructive potential of citizenship based on its newly institutionalised terms such as the shared values, objectives and regulations that have been established by citizenship policy over time. Beyond describing the emergence of EC/EU citizenship the paper promotes a systematic approach to reconstruct the policy in this supranational context. It is assumed that citizenship did not emerge out of the blue on the agenda of the Maastricht Intergovernmental Conference but that it is possible to identify agenda-setting steps in earlier stages of the policy process. If this assumption is correct, then a historical account could bring the various steps of citizenship policy which led to the history-making decision at Maastricht summit to the fore.

  20. Assessing the Constructive Potential of Union Citizenship A Socio-Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Wiener

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In European integration studies citizenship policy has not received much attention as a practice. Instead much of the literature has predominantly focused on legal assessments of Union citizenship shedding light on the limitations of supranational citizenship compared to the familiar statist concepts of citizenship. Legal approaches have thus often adopted a minimalist perspective on citizenship, establishing what Union citizenship is not leaving aside the constructive potential of Union citizenship. This paper seeks to demonstrate that a constructive perspective on the practice of citizenship facilitates valuable information about the creation of the institutionalised terms of citizenship over time. If it is true that Union citizenship is different from other types of citizenship, what is new about it? Constructive approaches suggest, that if we are to establish the dynamics which characterise Union citizenship analyses need to allow for a way of appreciating historical variability of context and contents of citizenship. To that end the major part of this paper seeks to develop a way of assessing the constructive potential of citizenship based on its newly institutionalised terms such as the shared values, objectives and regulations that have been established by citizenship policy over time. Beyond describing the emergence of EC/EU citizenship the paper promotes a systematic approach to reconstruct the policy in this supranational context. It is assumed that citizenship did not emerge out of the blue on the agenda of the Maastricht Intergovernmental Conference but that it is possible to identify agenda-setting steps in earlier stages of the policy process. If this assumption is correct, then a historical account could bring the various steps of citizenship policy which led to the history-making decision at Maastricht summit to the fore.

  1. Economic Mentalities And Present Day Values In Romanian Business Higher Education. A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MURESAN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mentalities and behaviours are the result of the interactions between persons/groups and the environment. The present paper explores the way mentalities and behaviours have been created by and have themselves determined the economic, social and political processes on the present day Romanian territory at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. A historical perspective to the study of mentalities shows that the adaptation of a certain mindset, of the mainstream values characteristic of an epoch, to the changes in the evolution of the economy and society was also responsible for preparing the changes in the development of the economy. The present paper explores the differences between economic and business mentalities of people belonging to developed and emerging market economies by considering their historical development. The paper looks at the importance of the presence in the curriculum of business schools of the history of economy and/or of economic thought disciplines in order to help Romanian business higher education become a driving force in changing present day mentalities into values that pro-actively help Romanian students to become effective employees on the globalized labour markets.

  2. On the origins and the historical roots of the Higgs boson research from a bibliometric perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Marx, W.; Bornmann, L.; Mutz, R.

    2014-06-01

    The subject of our present paper is the analysis of the origins or historical roots of the Higgs boson research from a bibliometric perspective, using a segmented regression analysis in combination with a method named reference publication year spectroscopy (RPYS). Our analysis is based on the references cited in the Higgs boson publications published since 1974. The objective of our analysis consists of identifying specific individual publications in the Higgs boson research context to which the scientific community frequently had referred to. We are interested in seminal works which contributed to a high extent to the discovery of the Higgs boson. Our results show that researchers in the Higgs boson field preferably refer to more recently published papers —particularly papers published since the beginning of the sixties. For example, our analysis reveals seven major contributions which appeared within the sixties: Englert and Brout (1964), Higgs (1964, 2 papers), and Guralnik et al. (1964) on the Higgs mechanism as well as Glashow (1961), Weinberg (1967), and Salam (1968) on the unification of weak and electromagnetic interaction. Even if the Nobel Prize award highlights the outstanding importance of the work of Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, bibliometrics offer the additional possibility of getting hints to other publications in this research field (especially to historical publications), which are of vital importance from the expert point of view.

  3. Strategy for Self-Centered Development from the Perspective of an Historical Analysis of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pérez Sánchez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available After acknowledging the three phases of historical analysis of development, and especially considering the research work done in the last twenty-five years by the Germans Dieter Sengcheus and Ulrich Mezel, the author presents the principle elements of a self-centered development strategy which highlights the following perspectives:dissociation, economic restructuring, and the new forms of an international division of labor among Third World economies.This document calls into question the underlying operation of the conventional theory of development and its current policy, which call for the increasing integration of the Third World in the world market as a means of going beyond development as it is commonly understood. Though being an integral element in the theory of self-centereddevelopment, temporary dissociation from the world market is proposed. The justification for the strategy of dissociation, excepting the recourse to some historical and paradigmatic reflections sketched by Friedrich List, has kept itself, of necessity, to the global and abstract level. This position is nothing, however, but a most direct analytical result deduced fromthe principle theoretical beginnings and the empirical observations of both the Theory of Dependence and Peripheral Capitalism. Although the review vents its criticism on (and mainly questions the practicality of the aforesaid conception, a more penetratingunderstanding of what the wager for such a strategy entails is found. Thus, the notion of self-centered development influences and gives impulse to a most extensive ideologicallymarked debate about the alternative conceptions of development.

  4. Heritage Conservation and Urban Landscaping of Ancient Pan Pool Neighborhood, Qufu: a Historical and Indigenous Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gu Pan Pool neighborhood got its name because of Gu Pan Chi, (古泮池,the ancient Pan Pool, located in the southeastern part of Confucius’ birthplace, Qufu, the birth place of Confucius with a history of 3000 year. Gu Pan Pool has been recently under preservation with the joint efforts of World Bank cultural heritage conservation project and the local municipal government. With disparate interests in mind, the three stakeholders of heritage, the world bank, Qufu municipal government and local residents are contradictory with each other in the regeneration process, in which the local voices are often ignored. The purpose of this paper is to rethink heritage making from a historical and indigenous perspective in the contemporary Chinese urban historic landscape planning process. The author contends that the cultural value and pluralism embedded in the ritual way of thinking in Chinese Classics inherited and transmitted for thousands of years could be an alternative way of thinking for the landscape planning practices in the homogenizing culture of global capitalism. This research aims to reinterpret and re-activate Confucianism as cultural heritage to enrich the understanding and hence the sustainability related to human action in urban spaces with emphasis on planning processes in contemporary China.

  5. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands: A Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; van Poppel, F.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime smoki

  6. Object Recognition and Object Segregation in Infancy: Historical Perspective, Theoretical Significance, "Kinds" of Knowledge, and Relation to Object Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2001-01-01

    Reflects on Needham's findings on infants' object recognition and segregation. Examines the role for perceptual bias in explaining infant performance, places Needham's studies in historical perspective, and assesses their theoretical significance. Discusses the merits of positing different kinds of information sources for object segregation, and…

  7. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands: A Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; van Poppel, F.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime smoki

  8. Early Intervention Approaches to Enhance the Peer-Related Social Competence of Young Children with Developmental Delays: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a framework for future research and program development designed to support children's peer-related social competence. Intervention research is examined within a historical perspective culminating with a discussion of contemporary translational approaches capable of integrating models of normative development, developmental…

  9. The Historical Perspective of Formation of Offshore Jurisdictions as the Global System of Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synyutka Nataliya G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is improving the knowledge about the genesis of formation of offshore jurisdictions. The article characterizes the historical stages of origination of tax havens on the basis of theoretical generalizations and comparing the results of studies and publications on the specified issues. The article identifies the main groups of tax havens: offshores of the colonies of the former British Empire; the European havens; the group of simulators (such as Panama, Uruguay, Dubai, new havens in the countries with transition economy and in African countries. A comprehensive list of offshores in terms of actors by the domestic classification has been provided. The authors suggest, as a timely measures, establishing a coordinated international campaign to counter the aggressive tax planning. For the purpose of stabilization of the internal capital markets, as well as success of the fiscal control, the main directions of the anti-offshore policy have been proposed as follows: unification of the taxation rules for residents and non-residents within the offshore countries; global limitation of the bank secrecy along with transparency of information for the taxation purposes, ensuring transparency of ownership and tracing of end the beneficiaries of assets; changing the model convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the data exchange.

  10. Record Rainfall and Flooding in Texas and Oklahoma, May 2015; Extent and Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy rains began in Texas and Oklahoma in early May 2015 and continued through the end of the month. Both states set all-time records for mean statewide precipitation; Texas - 227mm (8.93 in), Oklahoma - 357mm (14.06 in) -- for the period of record (1895-2015). These new statewide records were set despite the fact that the western portions of both Texas and Oklahoma received only modest rainfall. Parameters used in this study to evaluate the magnitude and historical perspective of the May 2015 rainfall included daily and total storm precipitation, stream flow, changes in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and changes in reservoir water levels. Although the Dallas-Fort Worth area and the cities of Austin, Houston and Oklahoma City sustained the most serious flood events, more than 100 localities in the two states reported some flooding. The region with the largest amounts of precipitation extended from north-central Texas northeastward into eastern Oklahoma. Cumulative May rainfall in this region exceeded 508 mm (20 in). Provisional stream flow data for the river basins most affected -- Red River, Brazos, Colorado, and Trinity rivers -- reveal significant peaks, but the peaks generally are within the ranges of the historical record. With the exception of the Red River the most significant flooding relative to historic flood peaks, occurred on tributaries to the major rivers. Comparison of the PDSI for the months of April and June reveals the dramatic impact of the precipitation during May. By the first week of June both states are classified as moderately moist - with the exception of the extreme northeastern corner of Oklahoma. Changes in Reservoir levels (as a percent of capacity) between April and June was greatest for the Rolling Plains region (+ 15.5%), with lesser, but significant gains in South and Central Texas and the Central Oklahoma region.

  11. Modernity Strikes Back? A Historical Perspective on the Latest Increase in Interpersonal Violence (1960–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eisner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a plethora of criminological explanations why criminal violence increased during the three decades between the early 1960s and the early 1990s. This paper argues that most available interpretations are lacking in three respects: they lack a historical perspective that anchors the three critical decades in a wider understanding of long-term trends; they take the nation-state as their unit of analysis and disregard important commonalities across the Western world; and they pay insufficient attention to different trends in broad categories of physical violence. This paper therefore takes a macro-level and long-term perspective on violent crime, focussing on European homicide during the past 160 years. It demonstrates that the period of increase was preceded by a long-term decline and convergence of homicide rates from the 1840s to the 1950s. Also, it shows that both the decline and the increase primarily resulted from temporal variation in the likelihood of physical aggression between men in public space. It argues that explanations of these common trends need to take into account broad long-term cultural change common to Western societies. In particular, the paper suggests that shifts in culturally transmitted and institutionally embedded ideals of the conduct of life may provide an explanation for long-term change in levels of interpersonal violence.

  12. Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective : A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Kalmijn, Mathijs

    2005-01-01

    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants

  13. Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective : A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Kalmijn, Mathijs

    2005-01-01

    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants

  14. Economists, capitalists, and the making of globalization: North American free trade in comparative-historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Malcolm

    2014-03-01

    Why did globalization happen? Current explanations point to a variety of conditions under which states have made the free market policy changes driving international economic integration since the 1980s. Such accounts disagree, however, about the key actors involved. This article provides a reconciliation, showing how two different combinations of actors, and two different political economic pathways, have led to globalization in recent decades. In developed countries, mobilization by business has been central; elsewhere, technocrats both constrained and empowered by international finance have pursued globalization more independently of business. In both contexts, economists' technical authority has helped legitimate liberalization, despite the limited diffusion of their ideas. The article validates and elaborates this model using a comparative-historical study of how the United States, Canada, and Mexico proposed, negotiated, and ratified agreements for free trade in North America.

  15. Designing Online Interaction to Address Disciplinary Competencies: A Cross-Country Comparison of Faculty Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barberà

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business, to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing in-depth interviews was selected. Results show that disciplinary knowledge takes precedence when faculty members select competencies to be developed in online courses for their respective professions. In all three disciplines, the design of interaction to correspond with disciplinary competencies was often influenced by contextual factors that modify faculty intention. Therefore, instructional design will vary across countries in the same discipline to address the local context, such as the needs and expectations of the learners, faculty perspectives, beliefs and values, and the needs of the institution, the community, and country. The three disciplines from the three countries agreed on the importance of the following competencies: knowledge of the field, higher order cognitive processes such as critical thinking, analysis, problem solving, transfer of knowledge, oral and written communication skills, team work, decision making, leadership and management skills, indicating far more similarities in competencies than differences between the three different applied disciplines. We found a lack of correspondence between faculty’s intent to develop collaborative learning skills and the actual development of them. Contextual factors such as faculty prior experience in design, student reluctance to engage in collaborative learning, and institutional assessment systems that focus on individual performance were some of these reasons.

  16. The nude in medical photography: a historical perspective, with modern legal ramifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S B

    1996-01-01

    Taking medical photographs of nude patients was common in the nineteenth century and was related to the diagnostic promises of photography. Nude photography today, while just as diagnostically important, is a carefully thought out practice fraught with serious legal ramifications especially when dealing with children and adolescents. As members of the human race, we are diverse in our practices and not only on a country wide but a regional level. What is acceptable in New York is not necessarily acceptable in central Kansas. Unfortunately, in many circumstances, it is difficult to measure intent. Vintage medical photographs have become valued as art, as well as historic and cultural documents. Nude vintage medical photographs fully expose the human condition and have become among the most valued of historic medical photographs. The implications for the future treatment of nude medical photography is well established. The passage of time, nostalgia, and, most importantly, the attempt to learn the secrets of life and means of death in past epochs will result in preserving and valuing these most important clinical photographs.

  17. Comparing World Economic and Net Energy Metrics, Part 3: Macroeconomic Historical and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey W. King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I use energy cost share to characterize the role of energy in the economy. Specifically, I use an estimate of monetary expenditures for primary energy on an annualized basis for forty-four countries from 1978 to 2010 for natural gas, coal, petroleum, and electricity. I show that global energy cost share is significantly correlated to a one-year lag in the change in gross domestic product as well as measures of total factor productivity. Given the historical reduction in the relative cost of energy (including food and fodder for animate power since the start of the Industrial Revolution, combined with a global energy cost share estimate, I conclude that the turn of the 21st Century represents the time period with the cheapest energy in the history of human civilization (to date. This potential historical nadir for energy expenditures around 2000 has important ramifications for strategies to solve future social, economic, and environmental problems such as reducing annual emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Rapidly decreasing annual GHG emissions while internalizing their costs into the economy might feedback to increase energy expenditures to such a degree as to prevent economic growth during that transition.

  18. Thinking Historically, Teaching Historically: Perspectives on the Professional Development of Teachers from a Teaching American History Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    In teacher's idealized history classroom, students are abuzz with questions. They are eager to jump into a serious analysis of primary sources. They relish additional opportunities to engage historiographical debates. They are, as teachers like to say, "thinking historically." While there are few easy ways to create these idealized…

  19. A Historical Perspective on Primary and Possible Secondary Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric sources of Carbon Tetrachloride (CTC) have been controversial since its detection in the early 1970. Initial proposals were that it is globally uniformly distributed and its lack of current emissions and inferred lifetime indicated that it was likely of natural origin. Historical analysis of CTC use and emissions showed that atmospheric CTC was long-lived and mainly of man-made origin although small natural sources and sinks (e. g. oceans) could not be ruled out. This deduction was hard because a majority of emissions had occurred in early part of the 20th century when CTC was commonly used as a fumigant, a solvent, and a raw material for the manufacture of many chemicals. In the 1940's adverse health effects of exposure to CTC became evident and its emissions were greatly curtailed and substituted with C2Cl4 which was thought to be much safer. There were smog chamber studies that showed that C2Cl4, a widely used solvent during the late 20th century, could produce CTC with up to a 7% yield. Subsequently it was discovered that this chemistry probably required Cl atoms and since Cl atoms were not abundant in the atmosphere actual yields based on OH oxidation were probably closer to 0.1%. CTC was subsequently banned by the Montreal Protocol to prevent stratospheric ozone depletion and its preferred substitute C2Cl4 was also banned by EPA for reasons of potential carcinogenicity and toxicity. CTC since has been measured in many airborne NASA campaigns in which plumes have been sampled from a variety of regions which may still be emitting CTC. I will briefly discuss this historical perspective of CTC and show some recent data that may shed light on its current sources or lack there off.

  20. Bacterial, Fungal, and Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation and Historical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Robert Y; Koeller, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in prevention and treatment, infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system remain an important source of morbidity and mortality, particularly in less-developed countries and in immunocompromised persons. Bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens are derived from living organisms and affect the brain, spinal cord, or meninges. Infections due to these pathogens are associated with a variety of neuroimaging patterns that can be appreciated at magnetic resonance imaging in most cases. Bacterial infections, most often due to Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Neisseria species, cause significant meningitis, whereas the less common cerebritis and subsequent abscess formation have well-documented progression, with increasingly prominent altered signal intensity and corresponding contrast enhancement. Atypical bacterial infections are characterized by the development of a granulomatous response, classically seen in tuberculosis, in which the tuberculoma is the most common parenchymal form of the disease; spirochetal and rickettsial diseases are less common. Fungal infections predominate in immunocompromised hosts and are caused by yeasts, molds, and dimorphic fungi. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal infection, whereas candidiasis is the most common nosocomial infection. Mucormycosis and aspergillosis are characterized by angioinvasiveness and are associated with high morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In terms of potential exposure in the worldwide population, parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, echinococcosis, malaria, and schistosomiasis, are the greatest threat. Rare amebic infections are noteworthy for their extreme virulence and high mortality. The objective of this article is to highlight the characteristic neuroimaging manifestations of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases, with emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation and historical perspectives.

  1. The Dark Triad Traits from a Life History Perspective in Six Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Work on the Dark Triad traits has benefited from the use of a life history framework but it has been limited to primarily Western samples and indirect assessments of life history strategies. Here, we examine how the Dark Triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism relate to two measures of individual differences in life history strategies. In Study 1 (N = 937, we replicated prior observed links between life history strategies, as measured by the Mini-K, and the Dark Triad traits using samples recruited from three countries. In Study 2 (N = 1032, we measured life history strategies using the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale and correlated it with the Dark Triad traits in samples recruited from three additional countries. While there was some variability across participants’ sex and country, the results were generally consistent in that psychopathy and (to a lesser extent Machiavellianism were related to faster life history strategies and narcissism was related to slower life history strategies. These results add cross-cultural data and the use of two measures of life history speed to understand the Dark Triad traits from a life history perspective.

  2. Resurgence of malaria in Bombay (Mumbai) in the 1990s: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, V

    2000-06-01

    Bombay has achieved extraordinary success in controlling its malaria problem for nearly six decades by relying primarily on legislative measures and non-insecticidal methods of mosquito abatement. In 1992, however, malaria reemerged in Bombay with a vengeance. During 1992-1997, the city witnessed a manifold increase in the number of malaria cases diagnosed and treated by the public health system. The large number of malaria patients treated by private practitioners was not recorded by the municipal malaria surveillance system during this period. In 1995, at the peak of the resurgence, public health officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) confirmed that 170 persons in the city had died due to malaria. The crisis was unprecedented in Bombay's modern public health history. In response to intense criticism from the media, the city's public health officials attributed the resurgence to the global phenomenon of mosquito-vector resistance to insecticides, and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Local scientists who investigated the problem offered no support to this explanation. So what might explain the resurgence? What factors led the problem to reach an epidemic level in a matter of two or three years? In addressing the above principal questions, this paper adopts a historical perspective and argues that in the resurgence of malaria in Bombay in the 1990s, there is an element of the 'presence of the past'. In many ways the present public health crisis in Bombay resembles the health scenario that characterized the city at the turn of the 19th century. It is possible to draw parallels between the early public health history of malaria control in Bombay, which was punctuated by events that followed the bubonic plague epidemic of 1896, and the present-day malaria epidemic punctuated by the threat of a plague epidemic in 1994. As such, the paper covers a long period, of almost 100 years. This time-depth is used to

  3. Cultural politics and masculinities: multiple-partners in historical perspective in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mark

    2005-05-01

    Drawing from ethnographic, archival and secondary research, this article examines multiple-sexual partners in historical perspective in KwaZulu-Natal, a South Africa province where one in three people are thought to be HIV positive. Research on masculinities, multiple partners, and AIDS has been predominantly directed towards the present day. This article stresses the importance of unraveling the antecedents of contemporary masculinities particularly the gendered cultural politics through which they have been produced. Arguing against dominant conceptions of African masculinity as being innate or static, it charts the rise and fall of the isoka, the Zulu man with multiple-sexual partners, over the last century. Showing how the isoka developed through changing conditions occasioned by capitalism, migrant labor and Christianity, it contends that an important turning point took place from the 1970s when high unemployment threatened previous expressions of manliness, notably marriage, settings up an independent household and becoming umnumzana (a household head). The high value placed on men seeking multiple-partners increasingly filled the void left by men's inability to become men through previous means. Turning to the contemporary period, the articles argues that, shaken by the huge AIDS deaths, men are betraying increasing doubts about the isoka masculinity.

  4. Teaching a changing paradigm in physiology: a historical perspective on gut interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumm, Bernard T; Baker, Salah A

    2017-03-01

    The study and teaching of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology necessitates an understanding of the cellular basis of contractile and electrical coupling behaviors in the muscle layers that comprise the gut wall. Our knowledge of the cellular origin of GI motility has drastically changed over the last 100 yr. While the pacing and coordination of GI contraction was once thought to be solely attributable to smooth muscle cells, it is now widely accepted that the motility patterns observed in the GI tract exist as a result of a multicellular system, consisting of not only smooth muscle cells but also enteric neurons and distinct populations of specialized interstitial cells that all work in concert to ensure proper GI functions. In this historical perspective, we focus on the emerging role of interstitial cells in GI motility and examine the key discoveries and experiments that led to a major shift in a paradigm of GI physiology regarding the role of interstitial cells in modulating GI contractile patterns. A review of these now classic experiments and papers will enable students and educators to fully appreciate the complex, multicellular nature of GI muscles as well as impart lessons on how shifting paradigms in physiology are fueled by new technologies that lead to new emerging discoveries.

  5. Parent-child relationship in Serbia (Vojvodina in historical perspective and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author have studied out and analyzed family law relations between parents and children in Vojvodina in the period between two world wars according to acts, court precedent, private law rules and legal doctrine. The author have studied family law relations between parents and children in contemporary Serbia and in European law. In historical perspective in Vojvodina (including Medjumurje and Prekomurje the Hungarian law (acts was in use, except in Srem and Vojna granica where the Austrian law was in use. The issues of family status of children, in other words, the rules of establishing and contesting paternity, parental rights and duties, exercise of parental rights were analyzed. The father had paternal authority and priority role if the child was born in wedlock. If the child was born out of wedlock, mother had priority role in exercising rights and duties. If parents were divorced or separated the priority role had the parent who had custody of the child, the other parent had visitation rights. In the second part of this paper the court cases in parent-child relation in twentieth and thirtieth years of XX century kept in Archive of Vojvodina, were analyzed. In particular, the author has studied cases in which the court made a decision according to court precedent, private law rules and legal doctrine.

  6. Profiles in chemistry: a historical perspective on the national organic symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Edward E; Myers, Brian J

    2013-06-21

    This perspective delineates the history of the National Organic Chemistry Symposium (NOS) and, in doing so, traces the development of organic chemistry over the past 88 years. The NOS is the premier event sponsored by the ACS Division of Organic Chemistry (ORGN) and has been held in odd-numbered years since 1925, with the exceptions of 1943 and 1945. During the 42 symposia, 332 chemists have given 549 plenary lectures. The role the NOS played in the launch of The Journal of Organic Chemistry and Organic Reactions and the initiation of the Roger Adams Award are discussed. Representative examples highlighting the chemistry presented in each era are described, and the evolution of the field is examined by assigning each NOS talk to one of seven subdisciplines and analyzing how the number of talks in each subdiscipline has changed over time. Comparisons of the demographics of speakers, attendees, and ORGN members are made, and superlatives are noted. Personal interest stories of the speakers are discussed, along with the relationships among them, especially their academic lineage. Logistical aspects of the NOS and their historical trends are reviewed. Finally, the human side of science is examined, where over the past century, the NOS has been intertwined with some of the most heated debates in organic chemistry. Conflicts and controversies involving free radicals, reaction mechanisms, and nonclassical carbocations are discussed.

  7. Portfolio Risk of International Diversification of Kosovo Pension Fund: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Aliu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finance do not stand on static variables like exact sciences, they are changeable and influenced from human actions. The question where to invest funds, is a crucial task for financial managers. The study aimed at assessing the portfolio risk of different asset managers of the Kosovo Pension and Saving Trust. In general, the assessment has been categorized in two historical perspectives. The first phase is an assessment of the portfolio risk of the fund from 2003 to 2009 and the second phase is from 2003 to 2013. In general, portfolio risk in the second stage has shown a reduction as compared to the first stage. However, the return side shows also a reduction in the second phase than the first one. The overall risk of Kosovo Pension and Saving Trust has been in accepted range. Majority of money have been invested in stocks which automatically exposes huge risk on KPST portfolio, since it is proven that financial markets are not stable and they are prone to asset bubbles.

  8. THE ROLE PLAY AND THE CHILD WITH AUTISM IN THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the play of make-believe for children with autism, focusing on the symbolic resources it uses in asserting roles. It is based on the theoretical contributions of the historical-cultural perspective, with Vygotsky as its main exponent. The research was carried out in a public school of Early Childhood Education, in Brasília. From the microgenetic analysis, the research had six children diagnosed with autism, at the ages of 4 and 6 years, included in Special Class, as participants. The play situations were videotaped and later transcribed in episode format. In the data analysis, we identified two axes, namely: 1 The construction of the role play and; 2 Assumption of roles by the child with autism: set design and imagery resources. The results reveal the role of the other (intentional participation in the constitution of play activity, especially the role of the adult. In addition, they demonstrate that pedagogical mediation, including the creation of 'scenarios', is fundamental for the extension of the symbolic experience of the child with autism.

  9. Analysing young children’s thinking about natural phenomena: A sociocultural/cultural historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JILL ROBBINS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vygotsky’s sociocultural/cultural historical theory emphasised the notion of semiotic mediation – or how thinking is transformed through signs (such as language and cultural tools (such as drawings from an intermental to an intramental plane. While the ideas of Vygotsky have become well-accepted within research in early childhood education in Australia, they are somewhat slower to be adopted within science education research. Yet they offer the potential for gaining new understandings of how young children’s thinking about the world develops. This article will demonstrate one way in which aspects of Vygotsky’s (1987-1999 work, particularly his ideas about semiotic mediation can inform analysis of children’s thinking about the world. Focusing on conversations with children about natural phenomena, and drawings they completed during those conversations, the analysis identifies a number of significant issues that are not normally revealed within the dominant forms of analysis which draw on constructivist perspectives. The findings, which reveal complex and dynamic aspects of children’s thinking, have implications for both teachers and researchers working with young children – especially within science education and science education research.

  10. A cultural historical theoretical perspective of discourse and design in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Megan

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article The discourse of design- based science classroom activities by using a specific perspective within a sociocultural framework. Through using a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The history and development of higher mental functions, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) reading of design based activity and discourse in the science classroom, it is proposed that learning should be an integral part of these processes. Therefore, everyday and scientific concepts are explained and expanded in relation to Inventing Graphing and discourse presented in Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article. This response reports on the importance of teacher's being explicit in relation to connecting everyday and scientific concepts alongside design based activity and related science concepts when teaching students. It is argued that explicit teaching of concepts should be instigated prior to analysis of discourse in the science classroom as it is only with experience and understanding these processes that students have the resources to call upon to argue like practicing scientists.

  11. Spa treatment (balneotherapy) for fibromyalgia-a qualitative-narrative review and a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablin, Jacob N; Häuser, Winfried; Buskila, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms "Spa therapy," "Balneotherapy," and "Fibromyalgia" between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS.

  12. The Canadian Management of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Historical and Scientific Perspective, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Alexandra E; Shamy, Michel C F

    2015-11-01

    On February 11, 2015, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced that a cow born and raised in Alberta had tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease. BSE is a prion disease of cattle that, when transmitted to humans, produces a fatal neurodegenerative disease known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We believe that this latest case of BSE in Canadian cattle suggests the timeliness of a review of the management of BSE in Canada from a historically and scientifically informed perspective. In this article, we ask: how did the Canadian management of BSE between 1990 and 2014 engage with the contemporary understanding of BSE's human health implications? We propose that Canadian policies largely ignored the implicit medical nature of BSE, treating it as a purely agricultural and veterinary issue. In this way, policies to protect Canadians were often delayed and incomplete, in a manner disturbingly reminiscent of Britain's failed management of BSE. Despite assurances to the contrary, it is premature to conclude that BSE (and with it the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is a thing of Canada's past: BSE remains very much an issue in Canada's present.

  13. An analysis of the healthcare informatics and systems in Southeast Asia: a current perspective from seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q T; Naguib, R N G; Abd Ghani, M K; Bali, R K; Lee, I M

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the healthcare systems in Southeast Asia, with a focus on the healthcare informatics development and deployment in seven countries, namely, Singapore, Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, the Philippines and Vietnam. Brief geographic and demographic information is provided for each country, followed by a historical review of the national strategies for healthcare informatics development. An analysis of the state-of-the-art healthcare infrastructure is also given, along with a critical appraisal of national healthcare provisions.

  14. Is the Perspective of a Closer French Policy toward Russian a threat for Eastern European Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim BELGACEM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current world is not moving as all specialists predicted. Brexit, Trump, everyone was wrong. This paper will have two targets: describing the French policy toward Russia, making a perspective on the future policy, whatever the new French presidency in 2017, Francois Hollande will transmit the key to his successor with new election. He refused to compete for a second mandate. It is good to remind that Hollande was involving in the Ukrainian affairs and had managed with Germany the Minsk I and II agreements. He also had suspended Mistral ships selling and approving sanctions against Russia. How will be the future with François Fillon, Marine Le Pen or other? The analysis will be focusing on the future relationships toward Russia and Eastern European Countries.

  15. The aim and participation of scientific tourism in evaluation, recognition and widening of the country's historical and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2015-07-01

    Though the phenomenon of scientific tourism is widely spread in the USA and Europe, it is a new branch in Armenian tourism. The aim of the scientific tourism is to establish relationship between the tourist and the scientist, without the tourist having any material interest. The main aim is to involve the tourist in the scientific works, giving him a chance to be a part of the expedition. One of the main goals is also to involve the local tourist in the exploration of the historical and cultural heritage. It is important to mention that besides having the chance to take part in the scientific exploration, they also enjoy the time. It gives an opportunity to make the relation between the tourist and the scientist more strengthen, and let them partnering for future. The scientific tourism gives the scientist an opportunity to get new volunteers to make it wide known for the society. What refers to a tourist it is a good chance for him to be a part of a scientific exploration, to satisfy his own interest, to get new knowledge, and take part in the development of his own country.

  16. GENDER BIAS AND CHILD LABOR: SPAIN, LATIN AMERICA AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FROM A LONG-TERM COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Camps-Cura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, several historical scenarios are compared, each very different to the each other in both institutional and geographical terms. What they have in common is the relative poverty of part of the population. This approach allows combining micro historical analysis (in the Catalan case with a macro comparative approach in developing countries. Through these micro historical and macro regression analyses we obtain the result that adult women’s skills and real wages are a key factor when we wish to explain the patterns of child labor. While female real wages increased sharply in 19th century Catalonia, we obtain very different results in the case of developing countries. This gender bias is identified as one of the very significant effects of human capital which held by women and helps to explain why in some cases children continue to work and also why some parts of the world continue to be poor according to our regression analysis.

  17. Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, P.R.

    1996-09-25

    This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

  18. Can all cause readmission policy improve quality or lower expenditures? A historical perspective on current initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    All-cause readmission to inpatient care is of wide policy interest in the United States and a number of other countries (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in the United Kingdom by the National Centre for Health Outcomes Development, and in Australia by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). Contemporary policy efforts, including high powered incentives embedded in the current US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and the organizationally complex interventions derived in anticipation of this policy, have been touted based on potential cost savings. Strong incentives and resulting interventions may not enjoy the support of a strong theoretical model or the empirical research base that are typical of strong incentive schemes. We examine the historical broad literature on the issue, lay out a 'full' conceptual organizational model of patient transitions as they relate to the hospital, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of previous and proposed policies. We use this to set out a research and policy agenda on this critical issue rather than attempt to conduct a comprehensive structured literature review. We assert that researchers and policy makers should consider more fundamental societal issues related to health, social support and health literacy if progress is going to be made in reducing readmissions.

  19. The midwives ordinance of Palestine, 1929: historical perspectives and current lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katvan, Eyal; Bartal, Nira

    2010-06-01

    Until 1929, midwifery in Palestine was relatively open to anyone and only partially regulated by the 1918 Public Health Ordinance, legislated shortly after the beginning of British rule. This article describes the factors that guided the shaping of midwifery and suggests possible sources of inspiration for the British legislator in crafting the Midwives Ordinance in 1929, including American, local (Jews and Arabs), and British ones. The Midwives Ordinance reflects the adjustment of midwifery to changes in the society that evolved under the British Mandate. The ordinance shows how the modern midwife's role contracted relative to the traditional one, in the context of social processes in other countries, east and west. This historical research project is based on interviews, archive documents and research literature. It analyzes the British interests in regulating midwifery, including the rationale of preserving public health and reducing infant mortality, against a background of political power struggles as well as cultural, social and professional diversity in Palestine (the tensions between the powers of doctors, nurses, and pharmacists).

  20. The evolution of the Japanese medical education system: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David

    2015-03-01

    The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the "Galapagos Islands" for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tokyo International Research center.1 Japanese medical schools are currently working to increase their students' clinical hours or else these students may not be able to train in the United States for residencies. Knowing the history of the Japanese Medical education system is paramount to understanding the current system in place today. Studying the historical foundation of this system will also provide insight on how the system must change in order to produce better clinicians. This article provides a glimpse into the medical system of another nation that may encourage needed reflection on the state of current healthcare training in the United States.

  1. Modelling and simulation of dielectric heterostructures: a physical survey from an historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosseau, Christian [Laboratoire d' Electronique et Systemes de Telecommunications and Departement de Physique, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, CS 93837, 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France)

    2006-04-07

    Basic physical concepts and theoretical ideas concerning dielectric heterostructures are reviewed from a historical perspective. This background for today's theory of dielectric heterostructures is discussed in some detail because the guiding principles for our understanding can be traced to the earliest developments in electromagnetism. To give an impression of the accelerating progress, I shall distinguish five stages in the development of our understanding of the dielectric properties of heterostructures. Historical remarks are included and technical concepts are introduced informally. For each stage, I call attention to synthetic works or compendia created during the interval. The first stage was reached towards the second half of the 19th century with the work of James Clerk Maxwell. Next the second stage was initiated by Bruggeman through the concept of an effective medium. Bounding methods form the third stage, with many investigators involved, beginning with the work of Wiener; the importance and ingenuity of these methods cannot be overstated. The fourth stage was the introduction of the crucial concept of percolation through an infinite cluster of connected particles and the modern approach to criticality which began in the mid-20th century with the work of Broadbent and Hammersley. Finally, the fifth stage we have experienced in the last decades involves the rapidly developing subject of computational electromagnetics: computers have moved the emphasis away from the general theory of macroscopic electromagnetism towards a better look at the detailed features of the randomness and connectedness of heterostructures. It is concluded that computational techniques provide a versatile tool for studying the dielectric properties of complex composite materials and that considerable progress can be achieved by comparing numerical results against analytical predictions for the properties of these models. As the capabilities for performing realistic

  2. Ringhals unit 3 and 4 - Fluence determination in a historic and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, E.L. [Primary Systems Inspection and Repair, Vattenfall/Ringhals AB, 432 85 Vaeroebacka (Sweden); Rouden, J. [Material and Analytical Services, Vattenfall/Ringhals AB, 432 85 Vaeroebacka (Sweden); Efsing, P. [Materials Mechanics, Research and Nuclear Development, Vattenfall/Ringhals AB, 432 85 Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: The Ringhals site is situated on the Swedish southwest coastline. At the site, there are four operating nuclear power plants. Historically, the Swedish policy has been that the nuclear power plants were to be closed in 2010. The present position is to operate the units until their technical and economic lifetime has run out. The units shall be maintained and invested in to ensure a lifetime of at least 50 years, but the actions taken shall not limit the time to this date. When the initial surveillance capsules were evaluated, it was noted that the material properties of the weld material of unit 3 and 4 showed some deviations from the expected behaviour. Currently there is an extensive project running for re-evaluating the embrittlement situation from a long-term operating perspective. One part of the project is aimed at more accurately determining the fluence levels of the reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The basis for the early evaluations of the dosimeters in the surveillance capsules and the corresponding fluence evaluation had an operating lifetime of 25 years as a target value. Therefore, the accuracy and refinement of the measurement and calculation were taken to be good enough to suit this life span. Looking back at the results from the dosimetry measurements there are a few discrepancies. Some of the dosimeters were disintegrated and some measurements had comparatively large uncertainties. When starting this project there were some re-evaluations done with the old fluence prediction model. For every new run and refinement there appeared new difficulties, and the decision was to start the evaluation from scratch. Then there are two questions remaining regarding the fluence: What is the current fluence level? What will the resulting fluence be after 60 years of operation, when we have up-rated output power of both reactors? This paper aims to describe the view of the fluence evaluation

  3. Health Promotion Development in the Spa Treatment. Perspectives for the European Countries Learned from Poland's Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna; Romaniuk, Piotr; Holecki, Tomasz; Frączkiewicz-Wronka, Aldona; Jaruga, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to outline the perspective for future developments of the spa treatment in light of demographic transitions characterized by the increasing number of seniors, as well as changing expectations and health needs of younger population. We made a systematic review of literature referring to the experience of Poland, and similar experiences of other countries in Central Europe. Based on the existing knowledge we conclude that spa treatment should become one of the preferred directions of development of health systems in European countries. Moreover, we state that a desirable direction to modify the therapeutic paradigm used in spa treatment is to put a far-reaching greater emphasis on the provision of innovative health promotion, which is justified by both its effectiveness, and strongly good foundation for its provision in spas. For this purpose it is necessary to extend the specialized health sector personnel with qualified health educators, which will enable an effective implementation of health promotion actions and their proper alignment to the specific target groups. Developing this category of specialists will also enable other professionals to concentrate on therapeutic activity fitting their competence.

  4. Benefits of new tools in biotechnology to developing countries in south Asia: a perspective from UNESCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, Ahmed

    2011-12-20

    South Asia, once considered as a laggard, has grown at about 6% on average over the past two decades and the current growth outlook is much brighter. However, this growth is not always well distributed and the challenges of institutionalising policies and mechanisms to ensure inclusive growth are now being seriously considered by these countries governments. The targets set by south Asian countries are primarily based on the investments in infrastructural sector with an objective to generate educated and skilled human resources. The other most important inclusive growth area is the core public services; Agriculture, Health, and Energy, which are increasingly becoming technology driven. Biotechnology has been increasingly seen now to be an area of technology that holds the greatest new potential to address problems arising from low productivity, overburdened health systems, high-cost unsustainable energy supplies and the need for developing new materials for industrial and environmental applications. This article attempts to highlight perspectives on some of the emerging areas of biotechnology that have good potential for economic development in the context of south Asia, as well as discuss briefly some of UNESCO's initiatives in biotechnology for that region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. RELIGION AND BANKING SYSTEM: THE FUTURE OF SYARIAH BANKING PRACTICES Historical and Contemporary Fiqh Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamka Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The momentum of the development of Sharia banking has been noticed since the 1970s, which generally had two patterns: first, establishing the Islamic bank side by side with conventional one (dual-banking system as practiced in Egypt, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Bangladesh; and second, restructuring the banking system as a whole in accordance with Islamic Sharia (full-fledged Islamic financial system as applied in Sudan, Iran and Pakistan. The development of the Sharia-based banks which have been established across the world since the 1970s, became the motivation of the Indonesian ulemas to draft law on Sharia banking, so that Sharia banking could also be developed. As a result, these last few years, the banking world in Indonesia has witnessed the establishment of the public Sharia banks and Sharia business units, like Bank Muamalat and Bank Syariah Mandiri to mention a few. Using historical and contemporary jurisprudence perspective, this paper provides discussion on the future of Sharia banking.

  6. Human embryonic stem cell cultivation: historical perspective and evolution of xeno-free culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nina; Rambhia, Pooja; Gishto, Arsela

    2015-02-22

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have emerged as attractive candidates for cell-based therapies that are capable of restoring lost cell and tissue function. These unique cells are able to self-renew indefinitely and have the capacity to differentiate in to all three germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm). Harnessing the power of these pluripotent stem cells could potentially offer new therapeutic treatment options for a variety of medical conditions. Since the initial derivation of hESC lines in 1998, tremendous headway has been made in better understanding stem cell biology and culture requirements for maintenance of pluripotency. The approval of the first clinical trials of hESC cells for treatment of spinal cord injury and macular degeneration in 2010 marked the beginning of a new era in regenerative medicine. Yet it was clearly recognized that the clinical utility of hESC transplantation was still limited by several challenges. One of the most immediate issues has been the exposure of stem cells to animal pathogens, during hESC derivation and during in vitro propagation. Initial culture protocols used co-culture with inactivated mouse fibroblast feeder (MEF) or human feeder layers with fetal bovine serum or alternatively serum replacement proteins to support stem cell proliferation. Most hESC lines currently in use have been exposed to animal products, thus carrying the risk of xeno-transmitted infections and immune reaction. This mini review provides a historic perspective on human embryonic stem cell culture and the evolution of new culture models. We highlight the challenges and advances being made towards the development of xeno-free culture systems suitable for therapeutic applications.

  7. Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now: A Historical and Scientific Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay P; Thaker, Nikki; Heimur, Juliana; Aredo, Jacqueline V; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Gerber, Lynn

    2015-07-01

    The intent of this article is to discuss the evolving role of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) from both a historical and scientific perspective. MTrPs are hard, discrete, palpable nodules in a taut band of skeletal muscle that may be spontaneously painful (i.e., active) or painful only on compression (i.e., latent). MPS is a term used to describe a pain condition that can be acute or, more commonly, chronic and involves the muscle and its surrounding connective tissue (e.g. fascia). According to Travell and Simons, MTrPs are central to the syndrome-but are they necessary? Although the clinical study of muscle pain and MTrPs has proliferated over the past two centuries, the scientific literature often seems disjointed and confusing. Unfortunately, much of the terminology, theories, concepts, and diagnostic criteria are inconsistent, incomplete, or controversial. To address these deficiencies, investigators have recently applied clinical, imaging (of skeletal muscle and brain), and biochemical analyses to systematically and objectively study the MTrP and its role in MPS. Data suggest that the soft tissue milieu around the MTrP, neurogenic inflammation, sensitization, and limbic system dysfunction may all play a role in the initiation, amplification, and perpetuation of MPS. The authors chronicle the advances that have led to the current understanding of MTrP pathophysiology and its relationship to MPS, and review the contributions of clinicians and researchers who have influenced and expanded our contemporary level of clinical knowledge and practice.

  8. Stopping the "Flow of Co-Eds and Other Female Species": A Historical Perspective on Gender Discrimination at Southern (U.S.) Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Amy Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The interrelated nature of gender and racial constructs in the culture of the southern United States accounts for much of the historical prejudice against coeducation in the region's institutions of higher education. This essay offers a historical perspective on gender discrimination on the campuses of Southern universities from the attempts to…

  9. How three countries in the Americas are fortifying dietary salt reduction: a north and south perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka

    2011-09-01

    A chronic disease/risk factor prevention framework with three policy environments--communications, physical and economic--was used to organize population level interventions that address the "over consumption of dietary salt", a key risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The framework was then used to map the population based strategies to reduce dietary salt consumption being applied in three countries in the Americas--Argentina, Canada and Chile--each with a history of multi-sector approaches to deal with the risk factors for chronic disease, offering a north versus south perspective. Results show that in all three countries policy instruments are concentrated in the communications environment, e.g., media and education campaigns and/or regulations for standardized information on the salt or sodium content of packaged food products. Notable gaps are the requirement for nutrient information on meals and food items prepared by food establishments and restrictions on advertising and marketing of foods to children. In the physical environment, referring to the sodium levels in commercially prepared foods and meals available on the market, voluntary reformulation of food products is underway at this time in the three countries. Argentina and Chile began with bread and have gradually added other food categories; Canada at the outset is addressing all food categories where products have added salt. Argentina alone is at this point actively approaching regulations to limit the salt content of food, preferring this over ongoing monitoring of voluntary targets. No government in the three counties has yet considered action in the economic environment, a complex area where the research on and initiatives to limit or disadvantage energy-dense food products to address obesity may also capture foods that are highly salted. In the meantime, with recent research estimating substantially higher gains in population health from government legislation to limit salt in foods

  10. Future energy shifts in historical perspective; Framtida energiomstaellningar i historiskt perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaijser, Arne; Kander, Astrid

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the knowledge about historical changes that may be relevant to assess the opportunities and challenges that climate policy faces when it should steer towards future radical changes of infrastructure and energy systems. Scenarios for these transitions and change strategies for implementing them are presented including in the reports 'Two-degree target in sight? Scenarios for Swedish energy and transport by 2050' and 'Choice of path to 2050 - Governance challenges and change strategies for a transition to a carbon constrained society'. In this report, we analyze a number of major changes since the mid-1800s. These changes are of two types: on one hand what we call tailwind changes, on the other hand what we call head wind changes. Tailwind changes have been initiated by fundamental technological innovation and has led to growth opportunities and benefits for both the individual and for the economy. Head wind changes was initiated by crises in the world of various types and can be viewed as the necessity forced conversions where there is in the short and medium term, only losses. Any such change are treated both qualitatively and quantitatively: what institutional conditions were important conditions or obstacles, and how change can be described using different indicators. The main focus is on changes in Sweden, but since these processes are included in international development, we also make outlooks outside Sweden to clarify characteristics in Sweden and to discuss the reasons why some countries were converted faster than others.

  11. Access to Archives in Post-Communist Countries: The Victim’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruodytė Edita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of the communist regime at the end of the twentieth century resulted in a wave of democratization in Central and Eastern Europe. While trying to establish democracy, many states in this region had to demonstrate their ability to protect human rights and to deal with the past of the repressive regime. As these states decided to join various human rights instruments they also became subject to certain obligations towards their people. One of these obligations is the requirement to provide remedies in case of human rights abuses, and the right to know the truth is recognized as part of it. Therefore the goal of this article is to identify the abilities of the victim of the communist regime to access the files of former secret services in post-communist countries in the light of the right to know the truth. The answer is provided using an analysis of international documents, historic, comparative and systemic methods, providing and evaluating the practice of different states dealing with the files of former secret services or government files of the repressive past and academic literature.

  12. Email communication in a developing country: different family physician and patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nisrine N; Antoun, Jumana

    2016-01-01

    Email communication between physicians and patients could improve access to and delivery of health care. Most of the literature studies about email communication between physicians and patients have been conducted in developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the practices, attitudes, and barriers of both physicians' and patients' use of email within the same health care setting of a developing country. A cross-sectional paper-based survey was conducted among 39 physicians and 500 patients at the Family Medicine clinics of the American University of Beirut, a tertiary academic medical center. Most of the surveyed patients and physicians reported that they would like to communicate through email and agreed that it is useful. However, only 19% of the patients have ever communicated with their physicians via email, and only 5.1% of physicians have often communicated with their patients via email. Almost half of the patients surveyed were unaware of the possibility of this form of communication, and only 17% reported that their physician offered them his or her email address. In addition, physicians and patients did not agree on the services to be provided by email communication. For instance, almost half of the patients indicated consultation for an urgent medical matter as suitable for email communication. The use of email communication in health care is still scarce. Patients and physicians have different perspectives of its use and importance. Further rigorous research is needed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of this form of communication, especially in the developing world. Interested physicians are encouraged to establish appropriate personal policies for email communication with adequate announcement and patient education plans.

  13. Poseidon's paintbox : historical archives of ocean colour in global-change perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernand, M. R.

    2011-11-01

    In the thesis introduction issues are discussed on the historical background of marine optics and on marine optical devices that were used over the past centuries to observe and measure; as in all sciences, in marine optics we can see a steady development: that of ‘measuring’, beginning many centuries ago, to 'knowing' and since less than a century to the understanding of the phenomenon. Hereafter, six themes are treated successively. The first theme, ‘Ocean optics from 1600 (Hudson) to 1930 (Raman), shift in interpretation of natural water colouring’, addresses the question of why it took so long a time to explain the phenomenon ‘the colouring of the sea’, especially the blue colour, despite the age-long interest of sailors, for practical purposes of navigation and detection of fish - of which more later. The second theme ‘On the history of the Secchi disc’, describes the search to establish methods for the determination of (sea) water clarity concerning purposes of navigation (near coast colour changes) just mentioned to detect shoals, and for a more basic purpose, tracing lost objects. The search to determine the clarity of lakes and seas culminated in the invention of the Secchi disc, used since the late 19th century. The third theme, ‘Spectral analysis of the Forel-Ule ocean colour comparator scale’, addresses the accuracy of a colour scale proposed, used in limnology and oceanography. Scale observations are put into perspective with contemporary measurements on the colour of the sea. The fourth theme, ‘Ocean colour changes in the North Pacific since 1930’, handles the question whether long-term ocean colour changes using historic Forel-Ule observations, in this part of the ocean made very frequently over time, can be determined in relation to global change. In principal global warming may cause a gradual change in ocean colour due to the effect of biological, chemical and physical aspects of the ocean-surface. The fifth theme,

  14. Choice of rotatable plug seals for prototype fast breeder reactor: Review of historical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, N.K., E-mail: nksinha@igcar.gov.in; Raj, Baldev, E-mail: baldev.dr@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Choice and arrangement of elastomeric inflatable and backup seals as primary and secondary barriers. • With survey (mid-1930s onwards) of reactor, sealing, R&D and rubber technology. • Load, reliability, safety, life and economy of seals and reactors are key factors. • PFBR blends concepts and experience of MOX fuelled FBRs with original solutions. • R&D indicates inflatable seal advanced fluoroelastomer pivotal in unifying nuclear sealing. - Abstract: Choice and arrangement of elastomeric primary inflatable and secondary backup seals for the rotatable plugs (RPs) of 500 MW (e), sodium cooled, pool type, 2-loop, mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is depicted with review of various historical perspectives. Static and dynamic operation, largest diameters (PFBR: ∼6.4 m, ∼4.2 m), widest gaps and variations (5 ± 2 mm) and demanding operating requirements make RP openings on top shield (TS) the most difficult to seal which necessitated extensive development from 1950s to early 1990s. Liquid metal freeze seals with life equivalent to reactor prevailed as primary barrier (France, Japan, U.S.S.R.) during pre-1980s in spite of bulk, cost and complexity due to the abilities to meet zero leakage and resist core disruptive accident (CDA). Redefinition of CDA as beyond design basis accident, tolerable leakage and enhanced economisation drive during post-1980s established elastomeric inflatable seal as primary barrier excepting in U.S.S.R. (MOX fuel, freeze seal) and U.S.A. (metallic fuel). Choice of inflatable seal for PFBR RPs considers these perspectives, inherent advantages of elastomers and those of inflatable seals which maximise seal life. Choice of elastomeric backup seal as secondary barrier was governed by reliability and minimisation as well as distribution of load (temperature, radiation, mist) to maximise seal life. The compact sealing combination brings the hanging RPs at about the same elevation to reduce

  15. Initial versus ongoing education: Perspectives of people with type 1 diabetes in 13 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, David; Golay, Alain

    2017-05-01

    To understand the perspectives of people with type 1 diabetes with regards to the diabetes education they receive within the health system. Grounded Theory was used for the collection and analysis of data from interviews with 101 people with type 1 diabetes from 13 countries. There are two aspects to education, namely initial education received when diagnosed and the ongoing education people continue to receive. Within these two categories content and process of diabetes education are important as are factors linked to the healthcare worker and setting. Tangible elements are the "what" that is delivered and are the different skills and information needed for people to manage their diabetes. Process elements are the "how" this is delivered. Finally intangible elements are those, which were found to be specific to certain contexts and health professionals. These could be the hardest to replicate, but possibly the most important. Health systems can provide the tangible elements and organize themselves to have processes in place to deliver education. The challenge is how can the intangible elements be seen as important and developed and delivered to improve management, but also meet the needs of people with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Inside, Out: Diaries as Entry Points to Historical Perspective-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemisko, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Diaries can serve as meaningful entry points for advancing historical consciousness and develop historical thinking (Seixas, 2002) because they can connect readers/learners with the diverse emotions, thoughts and motivations of the people who wrote them in particular times and particular places. According to philosopher and historian, R.G.…

  17. Historical Facts and Fictions: Representing and Reading Diverse Perspectives on the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Patricia E.; Jenkins, Christine; Rogers, Theresa; Tyson, Cynthia; Marshall, Elizabeth; Robinson, Dwan; Wissman, Jackie; Price-Dennis, Detra; Core, Elizabeth; Morss, Betty; Cordova, Carmen; Youngsteadt-Parish, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Presents brief descriptions of 22 recently published books for children and adolescents that present untold stories that begin to fill in the gaps of mainstream versions of the past. Includes categories of historical fiction, historical nonfiction, biography/memoir, and poetry and verse. Discusses these books in tandem with numerous landmark…

  18. A historical perspective on precipitation, drought severity, and streamflow in Texas during 1951-56 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Karl E.

    2013-01-01

    The intense drought throughout Texas during 2011 resulted in substantial declines in streamflow. By April 2011, nearly all of the State was experiencing severe to extreme drought according to data from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln Drought Monitor. By the end of July 2011, more than 75 percent of the State was experiencing exceptional drought. The worst of the drought occurred around October 4, 2011, when 97 percent of Texas was suffering from extreme to exceptional drought. The historical drought of 1951–56 has long been used by water-resource managers, engineers, and scientists as a point of reference for water-supply planning. A comparison of drought conditions during the 2011 water year (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) to the historical drought of 1951–56 from a hydrologic perspective serves as an additional reference for water-supply planning.

  19. Pathology Residency Programme of a Developing Country--Landscape of Last 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ali, Natasha; Kayani, Naila

    2016-01-01

    We report the evolution of a residency programme in Pathology from a developing country. This article highlights the historical perspective of our application procedure, the number of inductions, the programme framework, acheivements and limitations.

  20. Social contract of academic medical centres to the community: Dr Howard Atwood Kelly (1858-1943), a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Academic medical centres have traditionally been bastions of teaching and research. Outreach to the community at large and involvement in community affairs have sometimes been lacking in the overall mission and activities of academic medical centres. This paper provides an historical perspective first on the numerous achievements of a physician and surgeon and then on the topic of involvement in community affairs by reviewing the many contributions of America's pioneer gynaecological surgeon and one of the four physician founders of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine in 1889 - Dr Howard Atwood Kelly.

  1. Constraints on the general solutions of Einstein cosmological equations by Hubble parameter times cosmic age: a historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalo, Julio A

    2013-01-01

    In a historical perspective, compact solutions of Einstein's equations, including the cosmological constant and the curvature terms, are obtained, starting from two recent observational estimates of the Hubble's parameter (H0) and the "age" of the universe (t0). Cosmological implications for {\\Lambda}CDM ({\\Lambda} Cold Dark Matter), KOFL (k Open Friedman-Lemaitre), plus two mixed solutions are investigated, under the constraints imposed by the relatively narrow current uncertainties. Quantitative results obtained for the KOFL case seem to be compatible with matter density and the highest observed red-shifts from distant galaxies, while those obtained for the {\\Lambda}CDM may be more difficult to reconcile.

  2. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  3. The nutrition and health impact of cash cropping in west Africa: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, T A

    1991-01-01

    The impact of cash cropping in West Africa cannot be isolated from its social and historical background. Among the many changes brought to West African economies by cash cropping since the beginning of the century, the present document shows how the extension of trade with European merchants and colonizers created new sets of values and criteria for wealth. Food crops gradually lost their prominent cultural and economics roles to the benefit of export crops or goods. Traditional systems of agricultural production were profoundly disrupted by military actions. They imposed colonial rule and control of trade of tropical crops and goods. Forced labor and compulsory (poorly paid) work assignments were instituted for private and public enterprises: construction of roads, railways, public buildings and plantations. The main justification was the need for cheap labor to cultivate, transport and build roads for the extraction of raw materials. This in turn caused massive migrations from countries such as Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) to Ivory Coast. Cash cropping made systematic collection of taxes possible. An imposition on a per capita basis became the rule and the major incentive of small farmers to engage in commercial farming. Cash cropping made also possible extensive monetarization of West Africa. This results in both favorable and unfavorable effects on the quality of the diet. In profoundly disrupted traditional societies, the diffusion of new consumption patterns was easier and faster. It led to massive food imports of wheat, rice, sugar, alcohol, etc. Cash cropping was (and still is) practiced as a 'mining' agriculture, exhausting soils and deteriorating their fertility for extended periods of time. In the Sudanian and Sahelian zones cash cropping conflicted with the cultivation of grains because peak demands for labor were similar. Therefore, millet and sorghum production declined. Cash cropping was developed in response to the need of European economies for

  4. The territoriality of spatial-economic governance in historical perspective: the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, A.; Boekema, F.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores how shifts in governmentality and the rise of new forms of governance in the field of regional innovation policies have impacted upon perspectives on territoriality and practices of territorialisation. The debate centres on two dominant perspectives, both endorsed by neo-libera

  5. Monitoring Colonial Waterbird Populations in the Northeast: Historical and Future Perspectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this paper the author documents both historical and current programs or activities affecting waterbird populations and their habitats in the Northeast, review...

  6. A Historical Perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical...... development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP100), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies...

  7. The Marine Engineers in Today’s MAGTF: Historical Perspective, Consequences and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    responsive to the needs of the force. 1 INTRODUCTION “More than most professions , the military is forced to depend on intelligent... profession , the soldier makes maximum use of the historical record to function effectively in emergency. The facts derived from historical analysis, he...years of experience and broad exposure to varying mission sets. Senior officers and SNCOs in the utilities and hygiene support, heavy equipment

  8. "A terror to their neighbors": beliefs about mental disorder and violence in historical and cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, J

    1992-01-01

    This tribute to the enduring legacy of Bernard Diamond explores public perceptions of a link between mental disorder and violent behavior. Research on contemporary American beliefs is summarized and compared both to historical accounts of public perceptions in Western cultures and to anthropological investigations of public perceptions in non-Western cultures. The conclusion of these reviews is that the belief that mental disorder bears some moderate association with violent behavior is both historically invariant and culturally universal.

  9. An Historical Perspective on the Theory and Practice of Soil Mechanical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of soil mechanical analysis. Evaluates this history in order to place current concepts in perspective, from both a research and teaching viewpoint. Alternatives to traditional separation techniques for use in soils teaching laboratories are discussed. (TW)

  10. Radioactive waste storage: historical outlook and socio technical analysis; Le stockage des dechets radioactifs: perspective historique et analyse sociotechnique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    The radioactive waste storage remains, in most of the industrialized concerned countries, one extremely debated question. This problem may, if an acceptable socially answer is not found, to create obstacles to the whole nuclear path. This study aim was to analyze the controversy in an historical outlook. The large technological plans have always economical, political, sociological, psychological and so on aspects, that the experts may be inclined to neglect. ``Escape of radioactivity is unlikely, as long as surveillance of the waste is maintained, that is, as long as someone is present to check for leaks or corrosion or malfunctioning of and to take action, if any of these occur. 444 refs., 32 figs.

  11. [The proof of paternity. An andrological-forensic challenge in historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, K; Schultheiss, D

    2004-10-01

    For centuries, difficulties have occurred in determining unresolved paternities. In addition to the modern standard methods, such as the examination of DNA or serological proof, expert opinion on fertility once played an important role. The andrological difference between incapability to fertilise and the inability to participate in sexual intercourse was also distinguished historically. Of special significance was the discovery of spermatozoa by the medical student Johan Ham in 1677 and their further investigation by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.Recently, modern DNA methods have also been applied for historical investigations. Illustrious examples are the DNA analysis in the case of Kaspar Hauser of Ansbach and the dispute about Thomas Jefferson, President of the U.S., fathering a child by one of his slaves. In this discourse, a medicinal-forensic review of the development of expert opinion, illustrated with historical case studies, is given.

  12. [A historical-epistemological perspective of the ontological problem of Positivism. Positivism and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The present article reviews epistemological problems related to the philosophical and scientific current known as Positivism. The revision begins with the study of the historical period during which the Logical Positivism emerges (early in the decade of 1920); and finishes with the analysis of its influence on psychiatry and its relation with other epistemological currents in the same period. The article reviews the historical and epistemological outlook at te beginning of the XX th century, when the problem of language became ontologically outstanding. The question of language remains important in the present discussions.

  13. On Narrative Strategies Embodied in The Known World under New His-torical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying-ying; QIU Jia-ling

    2014-01-01

    With the multiple clues, rambling narrative and multidimensional architecture, Jones, in TheKnownWorld, constructs a fairly layered, three-dimensional world and presents a panorama of the entire slave society. The so-called mongline History be-fore is decomposed into a number of linear histories, and history which was non-narrative and non-representational is dismantled into histories narrated by many single narrators. Cultural discourse and historical discourse blend together. Jones shares the same conception on history and literature with New Historical critics who emphasize the complex mix-and-match interaction be-tween history and text.

  14. Hiromeri: a specialty ham of Cyprus--historical evidence, culinary and cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patapiou, Nasa; Lazarou, Chrystalleni

    2013-01-01

    Hiromeri is a specialty ham of Cyprus, made of smoked pork leg that is matured in wine. Until now there has been no systematic effort to present historical evidence that will support the Cypriot authenticity of this product. In this article, the historical evidence from sixteenth to twentieth centuries, referring to the production and trade of hiromeri in Cyprus, is presented. The evidence is drawn from archival testimony, travelers' descriptions, old history books, and essays on agricultural production. Moreover, a description of the hiromeri production process as well as past and current culinary uses and customs associated with its production and consumption are presented.

  15. History, Arcaeology and the Bible Forty Years after "Historicity". changing Perspectives 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after “Historicity”, Hjelm and Thompson argue that a ‘crisis’ broke in the 1970s, when several new studies of biblical history and archaeology were published, questioning the historical-critical method of biblical scholarship. The crisis formed...... articles from some of the field’s best scholars with comprehensive discussion of historical, archaeological, anthropological, cultural and literary approaches to the Hebrew Bible and Palestine’s history. The essays question: “How does biblical history relate to the archaeological history of Israel...

  16. Translating Bourdieu: cultural capital and the English middle class in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Simon

    2005-03-01

    This article examines the ways in which Pierre Bourdieu's work on culture and cultural capital can be applied to the study of the English middle class in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Drawing on a wide historical literature, the article argues for the significance of culture as a constitutive element of middle-class identities in England since 1800. It goes on to examine Bourdieu's ideas of 'objectivated', 'instutionalized' and 'incorporated' cultural capital, in the context of family, inheritance, education and the body. The article identifies changes in the historical forms which cultural capital has taken and emphasizes the importance of analysing family processes of intergenerational transmission.

  17. Multiple perspectives approach as a framework to analyse social systems in a developing country context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turpin, M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available , and needs to be translated into a method. In both cases, methods were tried out to generate Multiple Perspectives on a problem situation, namely technical, organisational, personal, ethical and aesthetic perspectives. In the second case, the use of a group...

  18. Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and meteorological data collected in the Arctic Ocean and Atlantic Ocean by various countries from 20 Jul 1870 to 17 Jul 1995 (NODC Accession 0085914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and meteorological data collected in the Arctic Ocean and Atlantic Ocean by various countries from 1870 to 1995,...

  19. Looking through the Looking Glass: A Historical and Factual Perspective on Black Higher "Book Learning."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dease, Barbara C.

    1982-01-01

    The history of Black colleges and universities is chronicled through excerpts from five articles. Four stages in the colleges' historical development are noted, and the history treats the topics of origins, objectives, legislative landmarks, controversies and conflicts, foreign language education's role, curriculum development, enrollment,…

  20. Skyscape of an Amazonian Diaspora : Arawak Astronomy in Historical Comparative Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jara Gomez, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    The title of this article “Arawak Astronomy” suggests that the research matter concerns the astronomy of an already well-defined ethnographic entity. This however does not do justice to the complexities of Arawak (pre)history. This contribution aims to discuss and connect the available historical an

  1. Historical Empathy as Perspective Recognition and Care in One Secondary Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the place that historical empathy, as both a subjective and an objective endeavor, occupied in one teacher's instruction and her students' response. Data--collected over five months--include 29 hours of classroom observations in an Advanced Placement European History course, instructional artifacts, and…

  2. Understanding and Dismantling Barriers for Partnerships for Inclusive Education: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, universities and school districts share responsibility for teacher and student learning. Sharing responsibility demands that both institutions work to develop closer relationships through ongoing engagement, dialogue and negotiation. Drawing from Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), we examined one school/university…

  3. Historical Perspectives and Recommendations for revision of the Agricultural Handbook 296

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the most recent edition of Agriculture Handbook 296 was released in 2006, many of the geographic boundaries consistently mimic historic map products of generalized regional and national soil-survey maps (some dating back to the 1930s). Furthermore, the underlying concepts and technologies used...

  4. Young People Who Sexually Abuse: A Historical Perspective and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a historical overview of research on sexually abusive youth. The evolution of the field over the past 30 years is discussed--from the initial development of treatment interventions to contemporary efforts of professionals to move from traditional, adult-oriented interventions toward developmentally sensitive assessment…

  5. Differences and Deficits in Psychological Research in Historical Perspective: A Commentary on the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This commentary traces discussions of psychological differences and deficits from the mid-1950s to the current day, positioning the disciplinary discussions in the social-historical context in which they took place. The challenges of assessing diagnoses of deficit and the potential harms that result when misdiagnosis is implemented as social…

  6. The Ecology of Coeducational Opportunity: The Higher Education of American Women in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Patricia Foster

    A case study of Cornell University in its formative years (1868-1900) is presented to suggest the value of the historical approach in understanding the problem of sex-role channeling in the coeducational environment. The case of Cornell illustrates how nineteenth century concepts of femininity and masculinity were fundamental to evolution of both…

  7. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  8. Conceptualising and Researching the Professionalisation of Religious Education Teachers: Historical and International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freathy, Rob; Parker, Stephen G.; Schweitzer, Friedrich; Simojoki, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Current discussions on Religious Education (RE), both in Germany and England, focus on the quality of teaching and the professionality of teachers, but neglect the historical and institutional process of professionalisation upon which conceptions of teaching quality and teacher professionality hinge. This article seeks to provide definitional…

  9. Science Education and Religion in the Post-Darwin Era: An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of the author's current research into science teachers' perspectives on the theory of evolution and its teaching in the classroom. Anti-evolutionary views have recently become very prominent in the context of science education, with almost one third of science teachers in the United Kingdom agreeing that creationism should be…

  10. The Influence of Country-Level Governance on Business Environment and Entrepreneurship: a Global Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Grosanu; Cristina Bota-Avram; Paula Ramona Rachisan; Roumen Vesselinov

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of country-level governance on business environment and entrepreneurship for an international large sample of countries for a period of six years (2007-2012). The dimensions of country-level governance at macroeconomic level will be captured by using the following six indicators developed by the World Bank: 1. Voice and accountability; 2. Political stability and absence of violence; 3. Government effectiveness; 4. Regulatory quality; ...

  11. [A golden age of the elderly? Old age in a historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Andreas

    2003-08-01

    The subject of the following article is 'old age' of women and men in prehistoric times, in the ancient Greek and Roman times, in the Middle Ages, in the Age of Enlightenment, in the times of the western industrial civilization and finally in the so-called post-modern civilization (in German terms "Erlebnisgesellschaft") of the present. There is a double focus on the subject. On one hand, the examination deals with the concrete circumstances of living of the elderly people. On the other hand, the examination analyzes the images of old age and the dominant image of the elderly people in the different times. The historical focus shows that old age is no anthropological or biological, unchangeable condition. Old age is a social and cultural construction that is historically formed and can be changed by society. This statement is valid for the number of the elderly in relation to the whole population of a historical society, it is valid for the way of every day life of the elderly and it is also valid to answer the question, who is an 'old' person. 'Old age' and the appearance of 'old age' depends on gender, on sociological items and last but not least on individual conditions during the different historical times. Dominant and strongly changing images of old age can be seen in all periods of human culture, in ancient times, in the Middle Ages and also in modern times. These images (negative or positive) depend strongly on the economic circumstances and conditions of living. Connected with these analyzed images of old age in all former cultures are concrete systems of values that have a leading function for the whole society.

  12. Europe in world regional perspective: formations of modernity and major historical transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    The paper seeks to present a world regional approach to the analysis of modernity and in doing so it also aims to make a contribution to comparative sociology and social theory. It is argued that world regions are the most suitable entry-point for comparing different socio-political constellations of our time, preferable to continents, civilizations and nation-states. However, a world regional foundation on its own is insufficient, due to the internal plurality and historically changing forms of world regions, and therefore needs to be accompanied by a concept that provides some degree of coherence within world regions and a tool for comparison with other world regions. The notion of modernity offers this level of generality while at the same time allowing for variety in its historical forms. Six main formations of modernity are identified, of which the European model was the first one and often a cultural reference for many other parts of the world. The thesis is that in the present day the most important developments are in the Asian and Latin American varieties, which unlike Europe are witnessing major historical transformation. Decisive in all of this is the question of democratization in the shaping of social imaginaries. Beginning with the problem of how to define the specificity of Europe, the paper provides an exploratory analysis of some of the salient considerations around a number of world regions, their formations of modernity, and the extent of major historical transformations in their present constitution. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  13. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  14. The development of ICT across the curriculum in Irish schools: a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McGarr, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    peer-reviewed This literature review explores the historical development of ICT in Irish postprimary/ secondary schools and examines how the education system has responded to the various ICT initiatives and policy changes. The review has found that despite national policy and significant ICT initiatives, it appears that the use of computer technology has instead evolved independent of these changes. The various policy nudges throughout the past three decades have had limited...

  15. Tourism promotion and urban space in Barcelona : historic perspective and critical review, 1900-1936

    OpenAIRE

    Cocola Gant, Agustin; Palou-Rubio, Saida

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic connections between tourist promotion as a factor for both capital attraction and competitiveness and its influence on the urban configuration of Barcelona. Today, tourism represents a strategic value in the urban organisation of Barcelona and constitutes an excuse for the design, management and planning of the city, but the genealogy of this process has not been considered. In analysing this origin, the paper emphasises the validity of the strategies that w...

  16. The meaning of 'community' in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Simon

    2015-03-01

    This paper critically examines the term 'community' as applied to people with intellectual disabilities over time and aims to describe its shifting conceptualisation from the eighteenth century to the present day. Unpublished documentary sources from Old Bailey criminal trials in the eighteenth century, the Earlswood Idiot asylum in the mid-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth-century government reports have been used to explore historical changes in the concept of community. The word community is historically contingent both in its past and present uses. Its meaning has been adapted to strengthen and justify professional claims to own, treat and manage people with intellectual disabilities. Inclusion and community acceptance were normative in the eighteenth century. In later medicalized institutionalization programmes the meaning of community was subverted to endorse and vindicate professional claims. It has been further adapted since deinstitutionalization to support contemporary claims for the social model of community inclusion. Today's language of inclusion emanates from these historical conceptual shifts, masking a set of unconscious assumptions and meanings attached to the status of intellectually disabled people. The modern concept of community is based on an assumption that people with intellectual disabilities have always been excluded. In the collective memory, it has been forgotten that they were, before the asylum, natural members of community embedded within social, economic, and familial networks. It is communities themselves that must adapt and remodel rather than trying to remodel those people they originally excluded.

  17. China’s Land-Use Changes during the Past 300 Years: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Miao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes of historical land-use change is crucial to the research of global environmental sustainability. Here we examine and attempt to disentangle the evolutionary interactions between land-use change and its underlying causes through a historical lens. We compiled and synthesized historical land-use change and various biophysical, political, socioeconomic, and technical datasets, from the Qing dynasty to modern China. The analysis reveals a clear transition period between the 1950s and the 1980s. Before the 1950s, cropland expanded while forested land diminished, which was also accompanied by increasing population; after the 1980s land-use change exhibited new characteristics: changes in cropland, and decoupling of forest from population as a result of agricultural intensification and globalization. Chinese political policies also played an important and complex role, especially during the 1950s–1980s transition periods. Overall, climate change plays an indirect but fundamental role in the dynamics of land use via a series of various cascading effects such as shrinking agricultural production proceeding to population collapse and outbreaks of war. The expected continuation of agricultural intensification this century should be able to support increasing domestic demand for richer diets, but may not be compatible with long-term environmental sustainability.

  18. Godzilla in the corridor: The Ontario SARS crisis in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, John

    2006-06-01

    Ontario nurses were employed as the front-line workers when SARS descended upon Toronto in March 2003. Once the crisis had subsided, many nurses remarked that SARS had forever altered their chosen profession; employment, which they once viewed as relatively safe, had been transformed into potentially life-threatening. This discussion provides descriptions of these expressions through nurses who experienced the crisis and chose to go on the public record. Secondly, it compares the subjective perceptions of those nurses to those held by nurses who worked through historical epidemics of unknown or contested epidemiology. The historical literature on nursing in yellow fever, cholera and influenza epidemics has been employed to offer insight. The goal is to determine whether the SARS outbreak was a unique experience for nurses or whether similar experiences were shared by nurses in the past? In summary, the reactions of nurses when confronted with the possibility of contracting a deadly disease remain altogether human, not dissimilar in past or present. Nurses' responses to SARS can be usefully studied within a larger historical vision of crisis nursing, and information or impressions from earlier crises are potentially of interest to the nursing profession.

  19. China’s Land-Use Changes during the Past 300 Years: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lijuan; Zhu, Feng; Sun, Zhanli; Moore, John C.; Cui, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes of historical land-use change is crucial to the research of global environmental sustainability. Here we examine and attempt to disentangle the evolutionary interactions between land-use change and its underlying causes through a historical lens. We compiled and synthesized historical land-use change and various biophysical, political, socioeconomic, and technical datasets, from the Qing dynasty to modern China. The analysis reveals a clear transition period between the 1950s and the 1980s. Before the 1950s, cropland expanded while forested land diminished, which was also accompanied by increasing population; after the 1980s land-use change exhibited new characteristics: changes in cropland, and decoupling of forest from population as a result of agricultural intensification and globalization. Chinese political policies also played an important and complex role, especially during the 1950s–1980s transition periods. Overall, climate change plays an indirect but fundamental role in the dynamics of land use via a series of various cascading effects such as shrinking agricultural production proceeding to population collapse and outbreaks of war. The expected continuation of agricultural intensification this century should be able to support increasing domestic demand for richer diets, but may not be compatible with long-term environmental sustainability. PMID:27571087

  20. Worldwide food recall patterns over an eleven month period: A country perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petróczi Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the World Health Organization Forum in November 2007, the Beijing Declaration recognized the importance of food safety along with the rights of all individuals to a safe and adequate diet. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the patterns in food alert and recall by countries to identify the principal hazard generators and gatekeepers of food safety in the eleven months leading up to the Declaration. Methods The food recall data set was collected by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC, UK over the period from January to November 2007. Statistics were computed with the focus reporting patterns by the 117 countries. The complexity of the recorded interrelations was depicted as a network constructed from structural properties contained in the data. The analysed network properties included degrees, weighted degrees, modularity and k-core decomposition. Network analyses of the reports, based on 'country making report' (detector and 'country reported on' (transgressor, revealed that the network is organized around a dominant core. Results Ten countries were reported for sixty per cent of all faulty products marketed, with the top 5 countries having received between 100 to 281 reports. Further analysis of the dominant core revealed that out of the top five transgressors three made no reports (in the order China > Turkey > Iran. The top ten detectors account for three quarters of reports with three > 300 (Italy: 406, Germany: 340, United Kingdom: 322. Conclusion Of the 117 countries studied, the vast majority of food reports are made by 10 countries, with EU countries predominating. The majority of the faulty foodstuffs originate in ten countries with four major producers making no reports. This pattern is very distant from that proposed by the Beijing Declaration which urges all countries to take responsibility for the provision of safe and adequate diets for their nationals.

  1. Policy Options for Managing International Student Migration: The Sending Country's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Cate

    2008-01-01

    A consequence of the dramatic rise in international student mobility is the trend for international students to remain in the country in which they study after graduation. Countries such as Australia, the UK and Canada stand to benefit from international student migration, as they are able to fill skill shortages with locally trained foreign…

  2. How few countries will do? Comparative survey analysis from a Bayesian perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, Joop; van de Schoot, Rens; Matthijsse, Suzette

    2012-01-01

    Meuleman and Billiet (2009) have carried out a simulation study aimed at the question how many countries are needed for accurate multilevel SEM estimation in comparative studies. The authors concluded that a sample of 50 to 100 countries is needed for accurate estimation. Recently, Bayesian estimati

  3. Perezhivanie and classroom discourse: a cultural-historical perspective on "Discourse of design based science classroom activities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the `argumentation focus of science lessons' and propose that through a `design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a "preliminary contribution to a general theory" regarding the link between activity types and discourse practices. Azevedo, Martalock and Keser offer a general perspective with a sociocultural framing for analysis of classroom discourse. Interestingly the specific concepts drawn upon are from conversation analysis; there are few sociocultural concepts explored in detail. Therefore, in this article we focus on a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. The history and development of higher mental functions, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York, 1987; The Vygotsky reader. Black, Cambridge, 1994) methodology to explore, analyse and explain how we would use a different theoretical lens. We argue that a cultural historical reading of argumentation in science lessons and design based activity will expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's proposed general theory of activity types and discourse practices. Specifically, we use Lev Vygotksy's idea of perezhivanie as the unit of analysis to reconceptualise this important paper. We focus on the holistic category of students' emotional experience through discourse while developing scientific awareness.

  4. Gender issues and Japanese family-centered caregiving for frail elderly parents or parents-in-law in modern Japan: From the sociocultural and historical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a sociocultural and historical literature review of gender related issues associated with family-centered caregiving for frail, elderly relatives in modern Japan. Issues addressed from a Japanese perspective are (a) women and social norms of caregiving, (b) feminine identity and caregiving, (c) women in the workforce, and (d) women and caregiving. Implications for research are also discussed.

  5. Gender issues and Japanese family-centered caregiving for frail elderly parents or parents-in-law in modern Japan: from the sociocultural and historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a sociocultural and historical literature review of gender related issues associated with family-centered caregiving for frail, elderly relatives in modern Japan. Issues addressed from a Japanese perspective are (a) women and social norms of caregiving, (b) feminine identity and caregiving, (c) women in the workforce, and (d) women and caregiving. Implications for research are also discussed.

  6. How few countries will do? Comparative survey analysis from a Bayesian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop J.C.M. Hox

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meuleman and Billiet (2009 have carried out a simulation study aimed at the question how many countries are needed for accurate multilevel SEM estimation in comparative studies. The authors concluded that a sample of 50 to 100 countries is needed for accurate estimation. Recently, Bayesian estimation methods have been introduced in structural equation modeling which should work well with much lower sample sizes. The current study reanalyzes the simulation of Meuleman and Billiet using Bayesian estimation to find the lowest number of countries needed when conducting multilevel SEM. The main result of our simulations is that a sample of about 20 countries is sufficient for accurate Bayesian estimation, which makes multilevel SEM practicable for the number of countries commonly available in large scale comparative surveys.

  7. The future of higher education in BRIC countries: a demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rangel de Meireles Guimarães

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In regard to the development and reform of higher education (HE, recent and projected evidence suggest that enrollment growth is likely to be slower than it is at present (or even negative as a result of ageing populations. The case of the BRIC countries is particularly interesting for the study of the impact of demographic changes on HE because these countries show considerable diversity regarding their demographic transition. This paper explores how demographic changes are likely to affect the demand for higher education in BRIC countries. I argue that these countries are now facing a great expansion of enrollment but, given declining fertility levels, diversification of the HE clientele will become a common strategy. But diversification of the student population will place a new and complex set of demands on HE institutions, and equity in higher education in the near future will depend on how HE systems are structured in these countries.

  8. A Historical and Gendered Perspective on HIV/AIDS in Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evolution of the country's economy and the importance of labour migration are necessary to ... sexual history as well as knowledge and views on HIV I AIDS. He returned for a ...... Goody, J.R. (1976) Production and reproduction. A comparative ...

  9. Education, Social Capital and State Formation in Comparative Historical Perspective: Preliminary Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadie, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between education and state formation in the United States differed from that in other countries in ways that have yet to be adequately accounted for in comparative and theoretical literatures. Specifically, in the northern United States, very high levels of mass school attendance and funding were achieved prior to and outside…

  10. Extending Traditional Explanations of Illiteracy: Historical and Cross-Cultural Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitescarver, Keith; Kalman, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Providing a richer understanding of why the populations of economically underdeveloped countries are less literate than those who live in wealthier nations is the goal of this paper. Our analysis relies primarily on insights from our own research: ethnographic studies concerning literacy learning and use among unschooled and under-schooled women…

  11. Fish and fisheries in the Lower Rhine 1550-1950: A historical-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, H J Rob

    2016-09-09

    Regulation and intensive use of most of the world's large rivers, has led to dramatic decline and even to extinction of riverine fish populations like salmon and sturgeon in the river Rhine. In general this decline is considered an unwelcome side-effect of the Industrial Revolution and large-scale river regulation (c. 1800), but the deterioration of stocks of some species may have started well before the 19th century. For the river Rhine, data on fish landings as proxies of abundance in the period 1550-1950 can be derived from historical market prices, fisheries taxation and fishery and fish auctions statistics, especially for commercially interesting species like Atlantic salmon, sturgeon, Allis shad and Twaite shad. Most data from which abundance of these species can be derived, however, appear to be missing in historical sources until decline of the investigated species sets in and the species become economically scarce goods. Atlantic salmon in the Rhine catchment appears to be already in decline during Early Modern Times (post 1500 AD) after which time river regulation, pollution and intensified fisheries finished off the remaining stocks in the 20th century. Salmon decline caused a cascade in the River Rhine ecosystem as fisheries shifted to, especially, Allis shad and Twaite shad, followed by (near-)extinction of these species. Dropping yields of salmon fishery did not lead to increased sturgeon fishery, although numbers of sturgeon also dwindled to extinction in the river Rhine. The onset of sturgeon decline appears to coincide with the period of the first large regulation works. It is shown that historical-ecological data on fish abundance can quantitatively underpin detrimental long-term processes in river ecosystems.

  12. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  13. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  14. The Regulation of Market Manipulation in Australia: A Historical Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Chitimira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Notably, in Australia, market abuse practices like market manipulation and other market misconduct practices are expressly prohibited under the Corporations Act as amended by the Financial Services Reform Act. In the light of this, and for the purposes of this article, a brief historical analysis of the market manipulation prohibition will be presented first. Secondly, the available penalties and remedies for market manipulation are discussed. Thereafter, possible recommendations and significant Australian anti-market abuse enforcement approaches that may be utilised in South Africa are briefly stated. Lastly, concluding remarks are provided.

  15. The hunt for the dynamical resonances in chemical reaction dynamics: a perspective on historical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Angyang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical background and basic definition of the resonances in chemical reaction dynamics have been introduced in this article. The historical breakthrough in the experimental search for the reaction resonances has been reviewed in this report, with an emphasis on the crossed molecular beam apparatus. The research of the chemical reaction resonances has attracted many scientists’ attention from 80s of last century. The chemical reaction resonances in the F+H2 reaction were firstly observed by the researchers of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2006. Besides, the partial wave resonances in the chemical reactions have been observed for the first time in 2010.

  16. A conceptual perspective for investigating motive in cultural-historical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief discussion of the other chapters in this edited volume, and then presents a brief introduction to the concept of motive within cultural-historical theory. This discussion includes a discussion of why the concept is needed, the ontological shift in the explanatory logic...... of the theory, the relation of the concept in the theory of activity. The main section of the chapter provides a methodological discussion of ways to research the motive concept. The chapter concludes with three open research problems in relation to the motive concept....

  17. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  18. Italian Chemists’ Contributions to Named Reactions in Organic Synthesis: An Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Papeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From the second half of the 19th century up to modern times, the tremendous contribution of Italian chemists to the development of science resulted in the discovery of a number of innovative chemical transformations. These reactions were subsequently christened according to their inventors’ name and so entered into the organic chemistry portfolio of “named organic reactions”. As these discoveries were being conceived, massive social, political and geographical changes in these chemists’ homeland were also occurring. In this review, a brief survey of known (and some lesser known named organic reactions discovered by Italian chemists, along with their historical contextualization, is presented.

  19. Myth of the ideal cesarean section rate: commentary and historic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Ronald M

    2006-04-01

    Attempts to define, or enforce, an "ideal" cesarean section rate are futile, and should be abandoned. The cesarean rate is a consequence of individual value-laden clinical decisions, and is not amenable to the methods of evidence-based medicine. The influence of academic authority figures on the cesarean rate in the US is placed in historic context. Like other population health indices, the cesarean section rate is an indirect result of American public policy during the last century. Without major changes in the way health and maternity care are delivered in the US, the rate will continue to increase without improving population outcomes.

  20. Multiaxial and Thermomechanical Fatigue of Materials: A Historical Perspective and Some Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    2013-01-01

    Structural materials used in engineering applications routinely subjected to repetitive mechanical loads in multiple directions under non-isothermal conditions. Over past few decades, several multiaxial fatigue life estimation models (stress- and strain-based) developed for isothermal conditions. Historically, numerous fatigue life prediction models also developed for thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction, predominantly for uniaxial mechanical loading conditions. Realistic structural components encounter multiaxial loads and non-isothermal loading conditions, which increase potential for interaction of damage modes. A need exists for mechanical testing and development verification of life prediction models under such conditions.

  1. Europe of Monnet, Schumann and Mitrany: A Historical Glance to the EU from the Functionalist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introductory article to this special issue pursues two main objectives, one empirical the other theoretical. This paper investigates the European Coal and Steel Community, established in 1951, as an empirical reality. After explaining the historical background of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, the paper tries to explain the ECSC through functionalist approach or theory, which is very debatable among scholars. The paper then concludes that at the very beginning the best way to understand the process of European integration within the framework of theoretical conceptualization is to take functionalism as an approach or perhaps a mid-range theory what Simon Hix (2004 used.

  2. Europe of Monnet, Schumann and Mitrany: A Historical Glance to the EU from the Functionalist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Kurt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The introductory article to this special issue pursues two main objectives, one empirical the other theoretical. This paper investigates the European Coal and Steel Community, established in 1951, as an empirical reality. After explaining the historical background of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, the paper tries to explain the ECSC through functionalist approach or theory, which is very debatable among scholars. The paper then concludes that at the very beginning the best way to understand the process of European integration within the framework of theoretical conceptualization is to take functionalism as an approach or perhaps a mid-range theory what Simon Hix (2004 used.

  3. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alicia Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1 A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2 A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America; and (3 A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses

  4. Reconceptualising the Holocaust and Holocaust Education in Countries that Escaped Nazi Occupation: A Scottish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the establishment of a national Holocaust Memorial Day in 2001, the Holocaust was not part of Scotland's historical narrative and its teaching was marginal in Scotland. This article examines Scotland's connections with the Holocaust and reflects on the impact that the history of the Holocaust has had on Scotland. Investigating Holocaust…

  5. Renewable Energies and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Perspectives for Emerging Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwonghi Bizawu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the study of sustainable development in the use of renewable resources by emerging countries. It is noted that the financing of projects and policies related to renewable energy is moving from developed countries to emerging nations. Studies indicate that it will take more targeted investments to fuel production area and power generation, which can set a problem for developing countries, since they do not have sufficient resources to diversify and expand their energy matrixes. The deductive method was adopted based on exploratory research.

  6. The Measurement of Organizational Culture: Cross-country Perspective. Organisatsioonikultuuri mõõtmine: kultuuriülene perspektiiv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Karma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the research on organizational culture (OC from a crosscountry perspective. From the economic point of view we see that society today has led us to increasing international cooperation and globalization. Despite the opening of economic borders there are still limits to consider when operating across national boundaries. One of those limits can be associated with culture – the way things are commonly understood and accepted in different national entities. This can be of special importance for small countries, as they need to adjust to their larger counterparts in order to be economically competitive. Research focuses on different aspects when studying OC, but it is generally agreed that task orientation and interpersonal relationships become important dimensions when we analyze this phenomenon. In order to understand OC and to measure it in cross cultural settings, a universal measurement tool is needed; however, drafting such a tool has for some time been a sticky task. In this paper the measurement invariance of the Organizational Culture Questionnaire (Vadi et al. 2002 is examined by comparing the data from seven countries representing Eastern and Western Europe, Russia, and China. This sample covers both small and large countries. A confirmative factor analysis was used as a means to test measurement invariance across the selected samples. In addition, Multidimensional Scaling technique was applied to provide a visual representation of the data. An analysis was carried out using the statistical software SPSS/AMOS 17.0. The results indicate that task orientation can be found as a common dimension whereas relationship orientation seems to hold a diverse meaning across countries. Instead of relationship orientation, a dimension reflecting negative employee emotions towards the organization was detected. It also turned out that the strength of the relationship between the obtained subscales shows interesting variation

  7. A historical perspective on the economics of the ownership of mineral rights ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawood, F.T.; Minnitt, R.C.A. [Technikon SA, Florida (South Africa). Dept. of Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Inauguration of the new political dispensation in South Africa, initiated a dynamic period in the historical development of its minerals policy. The process of substituting the current South African mineral policy framework with an acceptable `post apartheid` system, started soon after the 1994 election of the African National Congress (ANC) government. The Green Paper on a Minerals and Mining Policy for South Africa released for public discussion in February 1998, calls for radical transformation in mineral rights ownership. A shift towards exclusive state ownership of mineral rights, away from the present dual system of private and state ownership, is the most significant proposal. The current holders of mineral rights, or their nominees, who lawfully enjoyed security of tenure under past and present mineral laws are opposed to this transformation because mineral rights were often acquired at considerable cost. The situation is compounded by poor public record-keeping and passive mineral rights administration over a very long period. This paper represents a summary of the historical developments leading to the current legislative environment and forms the basis for any discussion on which future sculpturing of South Africa`s policy regarding mineral rights can take place. One cannot plan for the future without considering the past. 21 refs.

  8. A Historical Perspective in the Christian-Muslim Relations in Nigeria since 1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamolekun Taiye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Christian- Muslim relations in Nigeria since 1914. In achieving the objective in this paper, Historical approach is adopted. It gives a historical survey of the evolution of Nigeria and the attitude of colonial administration to religious propaganda. The method of conversion adopted by Islam and Christianity in pre-independence is discussed .The independence and republican constitution provision for religious freedom is pointed out. The role of military Government on religious development and interaction is identified. 1978 Nigeria constituent Assembly debate on Sharia court of appeal and 1979 constitution on Religious affairs are discussed. New dimension in Religious propaganda, fanaticism, fundamentalism, and Religious Politics since 1980 is discussed. The 1999 constitution and Sharia law in the civilian dispensation is identified. Religious terrorism as practised by maitasine and Boko Haram sects is discussed. It is discovered that various factors contributed and affected Christian-Muslim relationship in Nigeria. The paper concludes with suggestions and solutions to the problems affecting Christian-Muslim relations.

  9. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H; Christensen, Per

    2013-09-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP(100)), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) to net saving of 670 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) of MSWM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Komal, E-mail: koh@kbm.sdu.dk [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohr’s Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, DK-9220 Aalborg OE (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} of MSWM.

  11. Religious attendance in cross-national perspective : a multilevel analysis of 60 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, S.; Tubergen, F.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Why are some nations more religious than others? This article proposes a multilevel framework in which country differences in religious attendance are explained by contextual, individual, and crosslevel interaction effects. Hypotheses from different theories are simultaneously tested with data from

  12. Monitoring of trace organic air pollutants – a developing country perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available for domestic heating and cooking purposes in developing countries. This paper focuses on the current status of organic air pollutant monitoring in southern Africa, and discusses developments in this regard. Screening methods and monitoring of indicator...

  13. Growth and yield models in Spain: Historical overview, Contemporary Examples and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, F.; Alvarez-Gonzalez, J. G.; Rio, M. del; Barrio, M.; Bonet, J. a.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; Calama, R.; Castedo-Dorado, F.; Crecente-Campo, F.; Condes, S.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.; Gonzalez-Martinez, S. C.; Lizarralde, I.; Nanos, N.; Madrigal, A.; Martinez-Millan, F. J.; Montero, G.; Ordonez, C.; Palahi, M.; Pique, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Rodriguez-Soalleiro, R.; Rojo, A.; Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.; Trasobares, A.; Vazquez-Pique, J.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present a review of forest models developed in Spain in recent years for both timber and non timber production and forest dynamics (regeneration, mortality,..). Models developed are whole stand, size (diameter) class and individual-tree. The models developed to date have been developed using data from permanent plots, experimental sites and the National Forest Inventory. In this paper we show the different sub-models developed so far and the friendly use software. Main perspectives of forest modelling in Spain are presented. (Author) 107 refs.

  14. Cancer Pain Management Insights and Reality in Southeast Asia: Expert Perspectives From Six Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Francis O; Irawan, Cosphiadi; Mansor, Marzida Binti; Sriraj, Wimonrat; Tan, Kian Hian; Thinh, Dang Huy Quoc

    2016-08-01

    This expert opinion report examines the current realities of the cancer pain management landscape and the various factors that hinder optimal pain control in six countries in Southeast Asia, describes ongoing efforts to advance patient care, and discusses approaches for improving cancer pain management. Information was gathered from leading experts in the field of cancer pain management in each country through an initial meeting and subsequent e-mail discussions. Overall, there are vast disparities in cancer pain management practices and access to opioids in the Southeast Asian countries. The experts considered cancer pain as being generally undermanaged. Access to opioids is inadequate in most countries, and opioid use for analgesia remains inadequate in the region. Several system-, physician-, and patient-related barriers to adequate pain relief were identified, including widespread over-regulation of opioid use, shortage of trained health care workers, inadequacies in pain assessment and knowledge about managing pain, and widespread resistance among patients and physicians toward opioid treatment. According to the experts, many of the ongoing initiatives in the Southeast Asian countries are related to educating patients and physicians on cancer pain management and opioid use. Efforts to improve opioid availability and reduce regulatory barriers in the region are limited, and much work is still needed to improve the status of cancer pain management in the region. Enacting necessary change will require recognition of the unique needs and resources of each country and collaboration across interdisciplinary professional teams to improve cancer pain care in this region.

  15. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  16. Capital-centric versus knowledge-centric paradigms of human resource management: A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Central to understanding the contemporary state of the human resource management (HRM field is knowledge of its history, and the underlying rationales as to why it has changed over time. This research attempts to identify one such important ‘rationale’.Research purpose: This article relates certain changes in HRM over time to the argument that there has been a shift from an industrial paradigm (on which many human resource [HR] systems, practices and theoretical frameworks are still based to a knowledge paradigm (of knowledge work, in which employee knowledge and skills offer compound advantages that are not substitutable which explains a great deal of the variance in changes of the field over time.Motivation for the study: It is argued that in order for the field to move forward, it may needto bring to the surface certain assumptions and differentiate between theoretical frameworkswhen dealing with knowledge work versus non-knowledge work.Research design, approach and method: This article offers a perspective of HR theory development over time. It is a conceptual/perspectives article and is not qualitative nor quantitative in nature. Further research will be able to test the ideas presented here.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resources managers need to differentiate between knowledge and non-knowledge work. The latter is associated with increased heterogeneity and complexity, and differences in power relationships, as knowledge work shifts power away from capital into the hands of skilled knowledge labour.

  17. Paradigms and public policies on drought in northeast Brazil: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, José Nilson B

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the evolution of drought-related public policies in Northeast Brazil (NEB). Using a historical approach, we show that the evolution of public policy has not been characterized by abrupt shifts, but has instead been shaped through debates between renowned intellectuals. The resulting public policies formed a hydrological infrastructure that delivers clean water needed for robust economic activity. However, outcomes of the 2012-2013 drought show that populations that depend on rain fed agriculture are as vulnerable to drought as they were at the start of the 20th century. Although government, social, and emergency programs have aided drought victims, drought analysts agree that rain fed agriculture has remained vulnerable since drought policies were first formulated. Drought policies formulate integrated water resources management (IWRM) strategies that are geared toward supplying safe drinking water, and debates surrounding the IWRM paradigm have been affected by outcomes of major international events such as the World Water Forum.

  18. The Hydraulic Option in Former Soviet Central Asia. Historical Perspective and Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vea Rodríguez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the situation of water resource management in the five Central Asian republics that formed part of the USSR. By way of introduction, it lists the characteristics of water as a resource and then analyses the uses and distribution of water in the region.For this, it outlines a brief historical approach which helps to understand, in all its magnitude, the current situation of ecological degradation and how it determines living conditions in the region. Likewise, it deals with the policies of intervention in water resource management of the Central Asian states and of international institutions, and it includes the description of two specific case studies which form part of initiatives devoted to reversing a processwhich has led to the greatest ecological disaster on the planet, the most well-known aspect of which is the practical disappearance of the Aral Sea.

  19. Quantitative analysis of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems-A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T.E.; Goodman, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Although much progress has been made toward the mathematical description of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems since the late 19th century, the advective and dispersive mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. This article documents the major historical advances in this subject and summarizes the major direction of current studies. From the time of Badon Ghyben and Herzberg, it has been recognized that density is important in mathematically describing saltwater-freshwater systems. Other mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic dispersion, were identified later and are still not fully understood. Quantitative analysis of a saltwater-freshwater system attempts to mathematically describe the physical system and the important mechanisms using reasonable simplifications and assumptions. This paper, in developing the history of quantitative analysis discusses many of these simplifications and assumptions and their effect on describing and understanding the phenomenon. ?? 1985.

  20. Dharmic projects, imperial reservoirs, and new temples of India: An historical perspective on dams in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As international attention continues to focus on large dam projects across Asia, it is worth noting that conflicts over the politics of and environmental changes caused by dams in India are not new. Population dislocation, siltation, disease, floods caused by catastrophic dam failure, raised water tables, high costs and low returns-all of these concerns, and others, can be discussed in the context of reservoir projects ten, one hundred, or even one thousand years old. In this paper, I identify some of the major issues in the political ecology of contemporary dam projects and show how these same issues have played out in southern India over the last thousand years, suggesting that historical attention to the cultural and political context of reservoir construction might help us to understand some aspects of contemporary conflicts.

  1. [The Gioconda from the historical and medical perspective (hypotheses of pathology in her painting)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Hermida, J

    2001-01-01

    As a preamble, some historical and biographical brushtrokes of the Gioconda, Leonardo and his painting will be outlined. Following these observations, a series of medical interpretations will be put forth regarding his painting with the aim of analysing possible pathologies related to: the skin, hair, eyes, hands and the reproductive and endocrine systems. We will conclude by observing the famous work The Smile and by extracting a hypothesis on pathologies of various natures such as: neurological, muscular, hypoacusic, asthmatic, psychoneurotic, psychiatric, ethylic, sexual, stress-related, stomatological (bruxismo) and the driving force that lies behind setting off the Stendhal Syndrome: a psychosomatic disorder known to be due to the human being's susceptibility to saturation from having received impressions of great artistic beauty.

  2. Native American men-women, lesbians, two-spirits: Contemporary and historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    People living in the role of the "other" sex in Native American cultures, often entering into same-sex relationships, have been subject to various anthropological, historical, and psychological analyses and interpretations. Most recently, there has been a shift to an indigenist/decolonial interdisciplinary focus on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer Native people. This article gives a discussion of approaches to the subject, with a focus on female gender variability. An overview is given of the latter, complemented by a discussion of the identities and concerns of contemporary Native lesbians, many of whom identify as "two-spirit," a term that alludes to the dual, spiritually powerful nature traditionally attributed in a number of Native American cultures to individuals who combine the feminine and masculine.

  3. Cluster Analysis in Nursing Research: An Introduction, Historical Perspective, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Heather; Quinn, Laurie; Corbridge, Susan J; Eldeirawi, Kamal; Kapella, Mary; Collins, Eileen G

    2017-05-01

    The use of cluster analysis in the nursing literature is limited to the creation of classifications of homogeneous groups and the discovery of new relationships. As such, it is important to provide clarity regarding its use and potential. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to distance-based, partitioning-based, and model-based cluster analysis methods commonly utilized in the nursing literature, provide a brief historical overview on the use of cluster analysis in nursing literature, and provide suggestions for future research. An electronic search included three bibliographic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Key terms were cluster analysis and nursing. The use of cluster analysis in the nursing literature is increasing and expanding. The increased use of cluster analysis in the nursing literature is positioning this statistical method to result in insights that have the potential to change clinical practice.

  4. Discourse about Synthetic Biology and Responsible Innovation: Notes from a Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Coenen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominated as it is by visionary images of the future and influenced by the ‘Responsible Research and Innovation’ (RRI approach, the discourse about synthetic biology (SynBio and the prospects for its application may be interpreted as an arena for argument about the future of our societies generally. At a time when the widespread end of the systemic conflict between capitalism and socialism has made it rare for the whole of society to engage in debates on fundamental political and socioeconomic issues, discourses on science and technology can apparently be used to address questions of this kind indirectly. It is possible to clarify this function of SynBio discourse by setting it in its historical context, in which respect the focus is placed on older discourses about the societal significance of biology and its technological applications.

  5. A historical perspective on peripheral reflex cardiovascular control from animals to man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Although drug treatment of human hypertension has greatly improved, there is renewed interest in non-drug methods of blood pressure reduction. Animal experiments have now shown that arterial baroreflexes do control long-term blood pressure levels, particularly by nervously mediated renal excretion of sodium and water. This Paton Lecture provides a review of the historical development of knowledge of peripheral circulatory control in order to supplement prior Paton Lectures concerned with cerebral cortical and other areas of influence. I also discuss how improved understanding of nervous control of the circulation has led to current methods of non-drug blood pressure control in man by implanted carotid baroreceptor pacemakers or by renal denervation. Finally, the role of other therapy, particularly listening to music, is reviewed. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  6. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  7. Religious morality (and secular humanism in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Faria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals - i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA or Lancet - be heard, speaking with one "consensual," authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics - e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular.

  8. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries.

  9. Trauma treatment across Europe: where do we stand now from a perspective of seven countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Kazlauskas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of knowledge about the state of affairs of the trauma treatments in Europe. To start to fill in this gap, key persons from seven European countries—Georgia, Germany, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, and Turkey—accepted the invitation to give their expert opinion on the state of affairs in their country at an invited panel discussion at the XIV 2015 ESTSS Conference in Vilnius, Lithuania. Brief reports from the seven countries reveal significant diversities among different European countries in terms of awareness of health problems related to trauma, the availability of trauma treatments, and treatment approaches. Political and economic differences across the European countries contribute to the diversities in the developments of trauma treatments. European national psychotrauma societies are active in establishing training curricula and dissemination of trauma-focused treatments. Despite the growing acknowledgment of trauma and dissemination of trauma-focused treatments, there is a lack of Europe-wide policies to ensure availability of trauma treatment in Europe for trauma survivors. The need for more detailed analysis of trauma treatment in all European countries and development of European-level trauma-informed health care policies is outlined.

  10. The Influence of Country-Level Governance on Business Environment and Entrepreneurship: a Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Groşanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of country-level governance on business environment and entrepreneurship for an international large sample of countries for a period of six years (2007-2012. The dimensions of country-level governance at macroeconomic level will be captured by using the following six indicators developed by the World Bank: 1. Voice and accountability; 2. Political stability and absence of violence; 3. Government effectiveness; 4. Regulatory quality; 5. Rule of law; 6. Control of corruption. To capture the quality of business environment we use the Ease of doing business index developed by the World Bank in its Doing Business report series. To measure entrepreneurship we use the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey where the number of new registered businesses, as a percentage of the working age population is defined as a measure of formal entrepreneurship. In order to capture the extent to which country-level governance does influence business environment and entrepreneurship, we analyze the data using cross-sectional time-series random effects generalized least square (GLS models. The results of this panel data analysis clarifies and quantifies the influence that various characteristics of country-level governance could have on business environment and entrepreneurship. Therefore, this study could have significant implications for policy-makers as well as for businesses.

  11. Inventory of managed aquifer recharge sites in Europe: historical development, current situation and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, C.; Hartog, N.; Hernández, M.; Vilanova, E.; Grützmacher, G.; Scheibler, F.; Hannappel, S.

    2017-03-01

    Different types of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes are widely distributed and applied on various scales and for various purposes in the European countries, but a systematic categorization and compilation of data has been missing up to now. The European MAR catalogue presented herein contains various key parameters collected from the available literature. The catalogue includes 224 currently active MAR sites found in 23 European countries. Large quantities of drinking water are produced by MAR sites in Hungary, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Poland, Switzerland and France. This inventory highlights that, for over a century, MAR has played an important role in the development of European water supply and contributes to drinking-water production substantially. This development has occurred autonomously, with "trial-and-error" within the full range of climatically and hydrogeologically diverse conditions of the European countries. For the future, MAR has the potential to facilitate optimal (re)use and storage of available water resources and to take advantage of the natural purification and low energy requirements during MAR operations. Particularly with respect to the re-use of wastewater treatment-plant effluent and stormwater, which is currently underdeveloped, the use of MAR can support the public acceptance of such water-resource efficient schemes. Particularly for the highly productive and urbanized coastal zones, where the pressure on freshwater supplies increases by growing water demand, salinization and increased agricultural needs for food production (such as along the Mediterranean and North Sea coasts), MAR is expected to be increasingly relied on in Europe.

  12. Inventory of managed aquifer recharge sites in Europe: historical development, current situation and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, C.; Hartog, N.; Hernández, M.; Vilanova, E.; Grützmacher, G.; Scheibler, F.; Hannappel, S.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes are widely distributed and applied on various scales and for various purposes in the European countries, but a systematic categorization and compilation of data has been missing up to now. The European MAR catalogue presented herein contains various key parameters collected from the available literature. The catalogue includes 224 currently active MAR sites found in 23 European countries. Large quantities of drinking water are produced by MAR sites in Hungary, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Poland, Switzerland and France. This inventory highlights that, for over a century, MAR has played an important role in the development of European water supply and contributes to drinking-water production substantially. This development has occurred autonomously, with "trial-and-error" within the full range of climatically and hydrogeologically diverse conditions of the European countries. For the future, MAR has the potential to facilitate optimal (re)use and storage of available water resources and to take advantage of the natural purification and low energy requirements during MAR operations. Particularly with respect to the re-use of wastewater treatment-plant effluent and stormwater, which is currently underdeveloped, the use of MAR can support the public acceptance of such water-resource efficient schemes. Particularly for the highly productive and urbanized coastal zones, where the pressure on freshwater supplies increases by growing water demand, salinization and increased agricultural needs for food production (such as along the Mediterranean and North Sea coasts), MAR is expected to be increasingly relied on in Europe.

  13. My Historical Perspective on the ONR Coastal Science Program and the Kinder Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, E. B.

    2001-12-01

    My perspective on the ONR Coastal Science program and the role of Tom Kinder is presented. The history of the program and how it evolved is presented, starting with my participation in the early 70's to the present. Comprehensive near shore field experiments from NSTS and "the Ducks", to RIPEX and the future NCEX and their importance to improving our knowledge base is discussed. The evolution of instrumentation techniques used in nearshore field experiments are reviewed. The importance of the efficiencies of digital technology and improvements in instrumentation with increased temporal and spatial resolution to field measurements are presented. A view toward the future with emphasis on how Tom has helped lead us is discussed.

  14. Emerging markets & emerging needs: developing countries vaccine manufacturers' perspective & its current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Suresh S; Gautam, Manish; Gairola, Sunil

    2009-06-01

    The success of vaccination has remained an important contribution towards public health in both industrialised and developing countries. However, there are still unmet public health needs in vaccine preventable diseases owing to issues related to affordability, supply, public awareness, research and development, intellectual property, skilled human resource, etc. Various global initiatives are being taken to tackle such issues. DCVMN, Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers' Network, is one of such novel initiatives by developing countries, and is playing an important role in facilitating cheaper and quality vaccines to children of the world. DCVMN has become an international body for emerging vaccine manufacturers from the developing world. This manuscript provides an overview of DCVMN with respect to its origin, objectives, achievements, limitations and expectations.

  15. What Prevents Quality Midwifery Care? A Systematic Mapping of Barriers in Low and Middle Income Countries from the Provider Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Filby

    Full Text Available Quality of care is essential for further progress in reducing maternal and newborn deaths. The integration of educated, trained, regulated and licensed midwives into the health system is associated with improved quality of care and sustained decreases in maternal and newborn mortality. To date, research on barriers to quality of care for women and newborns has not given due attention to the care provider's perspective. This paper addresses this gap by presenting the findings of a systematic mapping of the literature of the social, economic and professional barriers preventing midwifery personnel in low and middle income countries (LMICs from providing quality of care.A systematic search of five electronic databases for literature published between January 1990 and August 2013. Eligible items included published and unpublished items in all languages. Items were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria, yielding 82 items from 34 countries. 44% discussed countries or regions in Africa, 38% in Asia, and 5% in the Americas. Nearly half the articles were published since 2011. Data was extracted and presented in a narrative synthesis and tables. Items were organized into three categories; social; economic and professional barriers, based on an analytical framework. Barriers connected to the socially and culturally constructed context of childbirth, although least reported, appear instrumental in preventing quality midwifery care.Significant social and cultural, economic and professional barriers can prevent the provision of quality midwifery care in LMICs. An analytical framework is proposed to show how the overlaps between the barriers reinforce each other, and that they arise from gender inequality. Links are made between burn out and moral distress, caused by the barriers, and poor quality care. Ongoing mechanisms to improve quality care will need to address the barriers from the midwifery provider perspective, as well as the underlying

  16. Can ethnic-linguistic diversity explain cross country differences in social capital?: a global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong; Steiner, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    and developing countries, this paper has found a significant negative effect of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital. Countries with fractionalized ethnic and linguistic groups as captured by both log number of languages and Desmet et al. (2012) and La Porta et al. (1999)’s measures on linguistic......Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Putnam, 2007) that assert a negative impact of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital, this paper aims to provide some empirical evidence on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a cross section sample of 68 developed...

  17. Dynamics of Techonology Upgrading of the Central and Eastern Europe Countries in a Comparative Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Radosevic, Slavo

    in the upgrading process indicators measure technological knowledge sourcing across countries and interactions between foreign and indigenous actors. Based on 7 patent indicators covering the three upgrading dimensions the comparative analysis focuses on EU27 and its subregions and on the BRICS countries...... is within the BRIC pattern (with exception of China which in terms of technology upgrading has de facto delinked from BRICS). In the BRIC context, the CEE characterize very open innovation system with a high share of coinventions and foreign actors exploiting local inventions. This reveals weak...

  18. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intentions in ICT Industry: Gender and country of origin perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Bach Mirjana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although many researchers agree that environmental and personal characteristics are important for becoming an entrepreneur, it is still not clear if their influence is equally significant. Numerous authors have pointed out unresolved matters regarding the relationship among innovativeness, gender, and entrepreneurial intensions. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of gender and country of origin in relation to entrepreneurial intentions and innovative cognitive style. Research was conducted using a sample of students majoring in information and communication technologies from Croatia and Slovenia. The results revealed the influence of gender, country, attitudes toward entrepreneurship, and innovative cognitive style on entrepreneurial intentions.

  19. Comparison of the historic recycling risk for BSE in three European countries by calculating the basic reproduction ratio R0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwermer, Heinzpeter; de Koeijer, Aline; Brülisauer, Franz; Heim, Dagmar

    2007-10-01

    A deterministic model of BSE transmission is used to calculate the R(0) values for specific years of the BSE epidemics in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), and Switzerland (CH). In all three countries, the R(0) values decreased below 1 after the introduction of a ban on feeding meat and bone meal (MBM) to ruminants around the 1990s. A variety of additional measures against BSE led to further decrease of R(0) to about 0.06 in the years around 1998. The calculated R(0) values were consistent with the observations made on the surveillance results for UK, but were partially conflicting with the surveillance results for NL and CH. There was evidence for a dependency of the BSE epidemic in NL and CH from an infection source not considered in the deterministic transmission model. Imports of MBM and feed components can be an explanation for this discrepancy, and the importance of imports for these observations is discussed.

  20. RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE OF BUSINESS ETHICS PRINCIPLES IN TURKEY AND ROMANIA: A CROSS COUNTRY COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    Filiz AGAOGLU

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to research in business ethics application, by studying one of the contemporary instruments of applying business ethics. The research focuses on Islamic business ethics in comparison to Christian business ethics and discusses its application using a comparative perspective. First, this chapter aims to address the Islamic understanding of what ethics means? What is the relationship between ethics, human nature and religion in Islam? While providing an introductory...

  1. Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence and the Old Masters . Non-destructive in situ characterisation of the varnish of historical Low Countries stringed musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Saverwyns, Steven; Van Bos, Marina; Chillura Martino, Delia Francesca; Ceulemans, Anne-Emmanuelle; de Valck, Joris; Caponetti, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, a growing attention has been addressed to the study of the varnish from early musical instruments. The surfaces of nine historical Low Countries stringed musical instruments from the collection of the "Musical Instruments Museum" in Brussels were non-destructively analysed by in situ micro-X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy in dispersive mode. It was found that the main pigments dispersed in the varnish were iron- and manganese-based earths. The presence of a chromium-based pigment in one of the analysed instruments makes it appreciably different from the others. Other findings were discussed and compared with previously published results. The collection of such information plays a relevant role in the recovery of the applied formulations that is an interesting issue for conservators, luthiers and art historians.

  2. Baculovirus Insecticides in Latin America: Historical Overview, Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Haase

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Baculoviruses are known to regulate many insect populations in nature. Their host-specificity is very high, usually restricted to a single or a few closely related insect species. They are amongst the safest pesticides, with no or negligible effects on non-target organisms, including beneficial insects, vertebrates and plants. Baculovirus-based pesticides are compatible with integrated pest management strategies and the expansion of their application will significantly reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. Several successful baculovirus-based pest control programs have taken place in Latin American countries. Sustainable agriculture (a trend promoted by state authorities in most Latin American countries will benefit from the wider use of registered viral pesticides and new viral products that are in the process of registration and others in the applied research pipeline. The success of baculovirus-based control programs depends upon collaborative efforts among government and research institutions, growers associations, and private companies, which realize the importance of using strategies that protect human health and the environment at large. Initiatives to develop new regulations that promote the use of this type of ecological alternatives tailored to different local conditions and farming systems are underway.

  3. A socio-historical perspective on the Amazigh (Berber cultural movement in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Aissati

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available North Africa has known various colonizations which in contact with indigenous ones have given the area a special character. One continuing presence since antiquity is that of the Berbers, or the Imazighen, the indigenous population of the area. In this article an attempt is made to shed light on the status of the language and culture of the Imazighen, and in particular on the recent calls for official recognition of the Amazigh language in the constitutions of the two countries with the highest presence of Imazighen, namely Morocco and Algeria. Although some recent developments, like the teaching of the Amazigh language in primary schools, give reason enough to be optimistic about the future of the indigenous language and culture, a closer look at the ideological background of pan Arab-nationalists casts doubts on any serious government intentions to guarantee the maintenance and development of the Amazigh language and culture. This ideology will be brought to light by contrasting the constitutional rights that some Muslim and/or African countries grant to their citizens who speak different languages than the official one(s.

  4. Exploring the (knot of relationship between lecturers and management at a historically Black university: The lecturer’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. May

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Within the new South African socio-political context this research focussed on lecturers’ at historically Black universities who were confronted with unresolved experiences in their relationship with management. The analysis of these experiences provided an in-depth understanding of systems psychodynamics in tertiary education.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe the experiences of nine lecturers in a particular historically Black university (HBU, in order to analyse and interpret the conscious and unconscious dynamics operating in their relationship with management.Motivation for the study: The researchers were interested in the in-depth psychological experiences of lecturers at this HBU as a platform towards understanding present day South African lecturing experiences.Research design, approach and method: Qualitative, descriptive research was used. Hermeneutic phenomenology, using the systems psychodynamic perspective, allowed for the description and interpretation of the lecturers’ experiences of their relationship with management. In-depth interviews with nine lecturers were thematically analysed which resulted in five themes. Five working hypotheses were formulated and integrated into the research hypothesis.Main findings: Five themes manifested, namely, the (knot of performance, mutual disqualification and mistrust, White lecturers and Black management, power struggle and the (knot of relationship.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlighted the importance of understanding the psychodynamics operating in the relationship between lecturers and management as a result of certain ineffective socio-technical aspects in the organisation.Contribution/value-add: The research contributed towards knowledge about inter-group relations between different role players in HBUs and how these dynamics impact on the performance of both lecturers and management.

  5. The Strategy of Multinational Country in Modern China-The Exploration for the Historical Reason of minzu Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas SMullaney; Lang Lina

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese Communist Party ( CCP ) launched a nationwide census and voter registration campaign in the summer of 1953 .After debating which questions should be posed to their nearly six hundred million respondents , officials ultimately decided upon only five .The first four of these involved the most basic of demographic infor-mation, including name , age, gender , and rela-tionship to the head of one ’ s household .The fifth one was settled upon a question:that of nationality or minzu.The outcome of the census proved shock-ing to Communist authorities and ultimately precip-itated the Ethnic Classification Project . Why the Communists wished to include minzu on the census schedule? The author argues that there were three reasons .The first reason is the deeply historical problem of maintaining the territo-rial integrity of a highly diverse empire .The sec-ond problem is more proximate , and originates in the ongoing rivalry between the Communists and the Nationalists during the first half of the twentieth century.Third, with regards to categorization , the advent of the Classification is attributable to a po-litical crisis prompted by the failure of the state ’ s initial experiment with a highly noninterventionist policy of self-categorization . To understand each of these questions , the author brings the readers to explore the history of the term minzu itself, and suggests that the very in-clusion of minzu in the 1953-54 census schedule was itself the culmination of a complex history dat-ing back to the fall of the Qing dynasty ( 1644 -1911 ) and the formation of the first Chinese repub-lic.

  6. Problems with biogas implementation in developing countries from the perspective of labor requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Moll, Henri C.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2016-01-01

    Most households in rural developing countries depend on firewood from public forests or agricultural bio-wastes for cooking. Public forests, though, are declining due to an increasing population and inefficient use of wood. Use of agricultural wastes on the other hand involves loss of soil nutrients

  7. PARTICIPATION AND INTEGRATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF PERSONS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY FROM FIVE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruoranen, Kaisa; Post, Marcel W. M.; Juvalta, Sibylle; Reinhardt, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the subjective understanding of participation and integration of persons with spinal cord injuries from 5 European countries and to compare these findings with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)'s conceptualization of participation. Met

  8. Global crises and developing countries: financial, environmental, resource and food perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The global financial crisis has potentially many adverse effects on the developing world: falls in exports of goods and services to the OECD, dramatic falls in commodity prices and resource exports, and falls in remittances. Many of the poorer countries are heavily specialized and dependent on natur

  9. Mother-Child Emotional Availability in Ecological Perspective: Three Countries, Two Regions, Two Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Heslington, Marianne; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Giusti, Zeno; de Galperin, Celia Zingman

    2008-01-01

    This study used a cross-national framework to examine country, region, and gender differences in emotional availability (EA), a prominent index of mutual socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Altogether 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. mothers and their daughters and sons from both rural and metropolitan areas took part in home…

  10. Certification of Sustainable Forest Management Practices : a Global Perspective on Why Countries Certify

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Nelson, H.; Vertinsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we examine national conditions that encourage the growth of a private regulatory environmental system to govern forests. Economic, institutional and social capital variables for 117 countries are used to examine factors determining forest certification under the Forest Stewardship Cou

  11. Real economic activity and earnings management from a cross-country perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tylsch (Romy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides empirical evidence on differences in the extent of earnings management across countries. I use an earnings management detection model developed by Leuz et al. (2003) to determine this extent in Germany, Japan, and the USA. Based on previous research, I hypothesize due

  12. Real economic activity and earnings management from a cross-country perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tylsch (Romy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides empirical evidence on differences in the extent of earnings management across countries. I use an earnings management detection model developed by Leuz et al. (2003) to determine this extent in Germany, Japan, and the USA. Based on previous research, I hypothesize due

  13. Biofuels, trade and sustainability: a review of perspectives for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent growth in demand for biofuels is resulting in rapid increases in their production and trade. Although this may offer interesting export opportunities for tropical countries who can produce biomass more efficiently, whether this effectively leads to growing exports depends to a large extent on

  14. The effects of labour force migration in Romania to the comunity countries -realities and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szarka Arpad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the migration of active labour force is a phenomenon with a rapid dynamics, generated mainly by globalization. The international migration is appreciated to imply about 200 million persons, which is double than 25 years ago. .The migration is determined by economical, social and political causes. .The migration of active labour force in Romania registered in the Community Countries reaches low levels, about 200.000 person, but the illegal one is appreciated to reach 1.7-2 milion persons. The effects of migration are mainly due to: the loss of the tax payer – active labour force formed in Romania, the weakening of the social solidarity in the social security system, and in the same time, its increase in the destination countries , the remittance of some important amounts of money in the origin countries, the contact with other economical, social, cultural models. The evolution of remittance in the world is very dynamic, in 2007 it is said to be about 250 billion dollars ,from which 7,1 billion euro for our country, compared to 9,1 billion euro representing direct investments.

  15. Biofuels, trade and sustainability: a review of perspectives for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent growth in demand for biofuels is resulting in rapid increases in their production and trade. Although this may offer interesting export opportunities for tropical countries who can produce biomass more efficiently, whether this effectively leads to growing exports depends to a large extent on

  16. Problems with biogas implementation in developing countries from the perspective of labor requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Moll, Henri C.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2016-01-01

    Most households in rural developing countries depend on firewood from public forests or agricultural bio-wastes for cooking. Public forests, though, are declining due to an increasing population and inefficient use of wood. Use of agricultural wastes on the other hand involves loss of soil nutrients

  17. Antibiotic Resistance in the Food Chain: A Developing Country-Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founou, Luria Leslie; Founou, Raspail Carrel; Essack, Sabiha Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are now “endangered species” facing extinction due to the worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistance (ABR). Food animals are considered as key reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria with the use of antibiotics in the food production industry having contributed to the actual global challenge of ABR. There are no geographic boundaries to impede the worldwide spread of ABR. If preventive and containment measures are not applied locally, nationally and regionally, the limited interventions in one country, continent and for instance, in the developing world, could compromise the efficacy and endanger ABR containment policies implemented in other parts of the world, the best-managed high-resource countries included. Multifaceted, comprehensive, and integrated measures complying with the One Health approach are imperative to ensure food safety and security, effectively combat infectious diseases, curb the emergence and spread of ABR, and preserve the efficacy of antibiotics for future generations. Countries should follow the World Health Organization, World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recommendations to implement national action plans encompassing human, (food) animal, and environmental sectors to improve policies, interventions and activities that address the prevention and containment of ABR from farm-to-fork. This review covers (i) the origin of antibiotic resistance, (ii) pathways by which bacteria spread to humans from farm-to-fork, (iii) differences in levels of antibiotic resistance between developed and developing countries, and (iv) prevention and containment measures of antibiotic resistance in the food chain. PMID:27933044

  18. Psychiatry and political-institutional abuse from the historical perspective: the ethical lessons of the Nuremberg Trial on their 60th anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; Dudley, Michael; Rubio, Gabriel; García-García, Pilar; Molina, Juan D; Okasha, Ahmed

    2007-05-09

    Sixty years ago at the Nuremberg Trials, 23 Nazi leaders were tried as war criminals, in what was known as "The Doctors' Trial". This trial exposed a perverse system of the criminal use of medicine in the fields of public health and human research. These practices, in which racial hygiene constituted one of the fundamental principles and euthanasia programmes were the most obvious consequence, violated the majority of known bioethical principles. Psychiatry played a central role in these programmes, and the mentally ill were the principal victims. The aim of the present work is to review, from the historical perspective, the antecedents of the shameful euthanasia programmes for the mentally ill, the procedures involved in their implementation and the use of mentally ill people as research material. The Nuremberg Code, a direct consequence of the Doctors' Trial, is considered to be the first international code of ethics for research with human beings, and represented an attempt to prevent any repeat of the tragedy that occurred under Nazism. Nevertheless, the last 60 years have seen continued government-endorsed psychiatric abuse and illegitimate use of psychoactive drugs in countries such as the Soviet Union or China, and even in some with a long democratic tradition, such as the United States. Even today, the improper use of psychiatry on behalf of governments is seen to be occurring in numerous parts of the globe: religious repression in China, enforced hospitalization in Russia, administration of psychoactive drugs in immigrant detention centres in Australia, and the application of the death penalty by lethal injection and psychiatric participation in coercive interrogation at military prisons, in relation to the USA. The Declaration of Madrid in 1996 constituted the most recent attempt to eradicate, from the ethical point of view, these horrendous practices. Various strategies can be used to combat such abuses, though it is uncertain how effective they are in

  19. Foul weather friends: big business and health care reform in the 1990s in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Peter; Greer, Scott

    2002-08-01

    Existing accounts of the Clinton health reform efforts of the early 1990s neglect to examine how the change in big business reform interests during the short period between the late 1980s and 1994 might have altered the trajectory of compulsory health insurance legislation in Congress. This article explores evidence that big employers lost their early interest in reform because they believed their private remedies for bringing down health cost inflation were finally beginning to work. This had a discouraging effect on reform efforts. Historical analysis shows how hard times during the Great Depression also aligned big business interests with those of reformers seeking compulsory social insurance. Unlike the present case, however, the economic climate did not quickly improve, and the social insurance reform of the New Deal succeeded. The article speculates, therefore, that had employer health expenditures not flattened out, continuing and even growing big business support might have neutralized small business and other opposition that contributed heavily to the failure of reform. Thus in light of the Clinton administration's demonstrated willingness to compromise with business on details of its plan, some kind of major reform might have succeeded.

  20. “Grammar-translation” method, a linguistic historic err or of perspective: origins, dynamics and inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Grammar-Translation method is frequently referred to as the traditional ineffective approach par excellence. Such view is often justified by the claim that before the Audiolingual method oral performance in foreign language was not reached, and language classes were reduced to memorizing grammar rules and lists of vocabulary. Nevertheless, this opinion is derived from unproved claims, mainly made by misinformed authors for they offer no compelling empirical evidence to validate their restrictive descriptions where translation is shown as an invalid metacognitive strategy. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that Grammar-Translation is merely an arbitrary historic label, developed by methodologists and theoreticians to encompass the history of language teaching from 1790 through 1950. References to Grammar-Translation are critically reviewed to make evident they are biased inferences based on partial evidence to account for the existence of any such methodology. The assumption that Grammar-Translation did exist, and that it is the negative model of teaching practices that should be better avoided at all costs, might reflect an unconstructive and unfounded ideological interest of mainstream theoreticians and unsuspecting teachers.

  1. Historical perspective: The problem of the origin of life in the context of developments in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Harmke

    1988-03-01

    The structure of the history of scientific ideas on the origin of life, after Darwin's theory of evolution brought the problem into focus, is discussed. 19th-century theories in the mainstream of historical development already included some notion of chemical evolution. These theories were limited, however, by their reliance on a protoplasmic view of life, according to which the protoplasmic substance combines all vital properties. It was only when this holistic concept of protoplasm was abandoned that a clear distinction between different vital functions such as metabolism and replication was made. This led to two schools of thought in the origin of life field, one inspired by biochemistry and one by genetics. Oparin's theory, which was rooted in the metabolic traditions of biochemistry, provided a model which has had a lasting impact in methodological terms and which helped to transform the field from a largely theoretical one to an area of active research. Genetically based theories, on the other hand, had a delayed impact in this respect, because of long-lasting uncertainty regarding the structural basis of gene function.

  2. Vectorcardiographic diagnostic & prognostic information derived from the 12-lead electrocardiogram: Historical review and clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Sumche; Maan, Arie C; Schalij, Martin J; Swenne, Cees A

    2015-01-01

    In the course of time, electrocardiography has assumed several modalities with varying electrode numbers, electrode positions and lead systems. 12-lead electrocardiography and 3-lead vectorcardiography have become particularly popular. These modalities developed in parallel through the mid-twentieth century. In the same time interval, the physical concepts underlying electrocardiography were defined and worked out. In particular, the vector concept (heart vector, lead vector, volume conductor) appeared to be essential to understanding the manifestations of electrical heart activity, both in the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and in the 3-lead vectorcardiogram (VCG). Not universally appreciated in the clinic, the vectorcardiogram, and with it the vector concept, went out of use. A revival of vectorcardiography started in the 90's, when VCGs were mathematically synthesized from standard 12-lead ECGs. This facilitated combined electrocardiography and vectorcardiography without the need for a special recording system. This paper gives an overview of these historical developments, elaborates on the vector concept and seeks to define where VCG analysis/interpretation can add diagnostic/prognostic value to conventional 12-lead ECG analysis.

  3. Historical Perspective on the Rise and Fall and Rise of Antibiotics and Human Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolsky, Scott H

    2017-01-17

    In recent medical and popular literature, audiences have been asked to consider whether antibiotics have contributed to the rising obesity epidemic. Prominent magazines have stated that weight may be adversely affected by antibiotics that destroy existing microbiomes and replace them with less helpful ones. However, there is a long history of efforts to investigate the relationship between antibiotics and human weight gain. In the early 1950s, amid initial findings that low doses of antibiotics served as growth promoters in animal livestock, investigators explored the role of antibiotics as magic bullets for human malnutrition. Nevertheless, early enthusiasm was tempered by controlled studies showing that antibiotics did not serve as useful, nonspecific growth promoters for humans. In subsequent decades, against the backdrop of rising concern over antibiotic resistance, investigators studying the role of antibiotics in acute malnutrition have had to navigate a more complicated public health calculus. In a related historical stream, scientists since the 1910s have explored the role of the intestinal microflora in human health. By the 2000s, as increasing resources and more sophisticated tools were devoted to understanding the microbiome (a term coined in 2001), attention would turn to the role of antibiotics and the intestinal microflora in the rising obesity epidemic. Despite scientific and commercial enthusiasm, easy answers (whether about antibiotics or probiotics) have again given way to an appreciation for the complexity of human growth. History encourages caution about our hopes for simplistic answers for presumed "fat drugs" and slimming probiotics alike.

  4. Historical Perspectives and Future Needs in the Development of the Soil Series Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudette, Dylan E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Indorante, Samuel J.

    2016-04-01

    The soil series concept is an ever-evolving understanding of soil profile observations, their connection to the landscape, and functional limits on the range in characteristics that affect management. Historically, the soil series has played a pivotal role in the development of soil-landscape theory, modern soil survey methods, and concise delivery of soils information to the end-user-- in other words, soil series is the palette from which soil survey reports are crafted. Over the last 20 years the soil series has received considerable criticism as a means of soil information organization (soil survey development) and delivery (end-user application of soil survey data), with increasing pressure (internal and external) to retire the soil series. We propose that a modern re-examination of soil series information could help address several of the long-standing critiques of soil survey: consistency across survey vintage and political divisions and more robust estimates of soil properties and associated uncertainty. A new library of soil series data would include classic narratives describing morphology and management, quantitative descriptions of soil properties and their ranges, graphical depiction of the relationships between associated soil series, block diagrams illustrating soil-landscape models, maps of series distribution, and a probabilistic representation of a "typical" soil profile. These data would be derived from re-correlation of existing morphologic and characterization data informed by modern statistical methods and regional expertise.

  5. Source and fate of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett Shale: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Costley, Ruth A

    2014-02-18

    Considerable controversy continues about water availability for and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (HF) of hydrocarbon assets on water resources. Our objective was to quantify HF water volume in terms of source, reuse, and disposal, using the Barnett Shale in Texas as a case study. Data were obtained from commercial and state databases, river authorities, groundwater conservation districts, and operators. Cumulative water use from ∼ 18,000 (mostly horizontal) wells since 1981 through 2012 totaled ∼ 170,000 AF (210 Mm(3)); ∼ 26 000 AF (32 Mm(3)) in 2011, representing 32% of Texas HF water use and ∼ 0.2% of 2011 state water consumption. Increase in water use per well by 60% (from 3 to 5 Mgal/well; 0.011-0.019 Mm(3)) since the mid-2000s reflects the near-doubling of horizontal-well lengths (2000-3800 ft), offset by a reduction in water-use intensity by 40% (2000-1200 gal/ft; 2.5-1.5 m(3)/m). Water sources include fresh surface water and groundwater in approximately equal amounts. Produced water amount is inversely related to gas production, exceeds HF water volume, and is mostly disposed in injection wells. Understanding the historical evolution of water use in the longest-producing shale play is invaluable for assessing its water footprint for energy production.

  6. Has player development in men's tennis really changed? An historical rankings perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, Michael Kenneth; Reid, Machar; Morgan, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Tennis federations are regularly faced with decisions regarding which athletes should be supported in financial terms, and for how long. The financial investments can be considerable, given the cost of competing on tour has been estimated at a minimum $121,000 per year and only the top 130 professionally ranked athletes earned enough prize money to cover this cost in 2012. This study investigates key points of progression in tennis players' careers, to determine how these have changed over time and how that evolution may inform talent development. Approximately 400,000 weekly rankings for 273 male professional tennis players between 1985 and 2010 were compiled, and historical trends in the time taken to reach career milestones were investigated by least-squares regression. The time between earning a first professional ranking point and entry into the Top 100 significantly increased over time for all considered athletes. This was at the detriment of time spent within the Top 100 for some athletes. Career peak Top 50-100 athletes have shown an increase in longevity. These results assist tennis federations in assessing the progress of developing athletes and highlight the evolving nature of the competition for top players.

  7. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke. An Historical Perspective of Several Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the significant advancements in fractionation, analytical, and characterization technologies since the early 1960s, hundreds of components of complex mixtures have been accurately characterized without the necessity of actually isolating the individual component. This has been particularly true in the case of the complex mixtures tobacco and tobacco smoke. Herein, an historical account of a mid-1950 situation concerning polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in cigarette smoke is presented. While the number of PAHs identified in tobacco smoke has escalated from the initial PAH, azulene, identified in 1947 to almost 100 PAHs identified by late 1963 to more than 500 PAHs identified by the late 1970s, the number of PAHs isolated individually and characterized by several of the so-called classical chemical means (melting point, mixture melting point, derivative preparation and properties in the mid-1950s and since is relatively few, 14 in all. They were among 44 PAHs identified in cigarette mainstream smoke and included the following PAHs ranging from bicyclic to pentacyclic: Acenaphthylene, 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene, anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, fluoranthene, 9H-fluorene, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. One of them, benzo[a]pyrene, was similarly characterized in another study in 1959 by Hoffmann.

  8. Pelvic Fixation in Adult and Pediatric Spine Surgery: Historical Perspective, Indications, and Techniques: AAOS Exhibit Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Strike, Sophia A; Menga, Emmanuel N; Sponseller, Paul D; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-09-16

    Achieving solid osseous fusion across the lumbosacral junction has historically been, and continues to be, a challenge in spine surgery. Robust pelvic fixation plays an integral role in achieving this goal. The goals of this review are to describe the history of and indications for spinopelvic fixation, examine conventional spinopelvic fixation techniques, and review the newer S2-alar-iliac technique and its outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with spinal deformity. Since the introduction of Harrington rods in the 1960s, spinal instrumentation has evolved substantially. Indications for spinopelvic fixation as a means to achieve lumbosacral arthrodesis include a long arthrodesis (five or more vertebral levels) or use of three-column osteotomies in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine, surgical treatment of high-grade spondylolisthesis, and correction of lumbar deformity and pelvic obliquity. A variety of techniques have been described over the years, including Galveston iliac rods, Jackson intrasacral rods, the Kostuik transiliac bar, iliac screws, and S2-alar-iliac screws. Modern iliac screws and S2-alar-iliac screws are associated with relatively low rates of pseudarthrosis. S2-alar-iliac screws have the advantages of less implant prominence and inline placement with proximal spinal anchors. Collectively, these techniques provide powerful methods for obtaining control of the pelvis in facilitating lumbosacral arthrodesis.

  9. Clinical manifestations of hysteria: an epistemological perspective or how historical dynamics illuminate current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros De Bustos, Elisabeth; Galli, Sylvio; Haffen, Emmanuel; Moulin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Hysteria has generated the most heated debates among physicians, from antiquity to the present day. It has been long confused with neuroses and neurological pathologies such as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy, principally associated with women and sexual disorders. The clinical manifestations must first be seen in their historical context, as interpretation varies according to the time period. Recently, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by the American Psychiatric Association marked a break in the consensus that previously seemed to apply to the concept of hysteria and approach to the clinical manifestations. The clinical manifestations of hysteria are numerous and multifaceted, comprising 3 main classifications: paroxysms, attacks, and acute manifestations; long-lasting functional syndromes, and visceral events. Each main classification can be subdivided into several subgroups. The first main group of paroxysms, attacks, and acute manifestations includes major hysterical attacks, such as prodrome, trance and epileptic states, minor hysterical attacks such as syncope and tetany, twilight states, paroxysmal amnesia, and cataleptic attacks. The second group includes focal hysterical symptoms, paralyses, contractures and spasms, anesthesia, and sensory disorders. Visceral manifestations can be subdivided into spasms, pain, and general and trophic disorders. The diversity of the symptoms of hysteria and its changing clinical presentation calls into question the same hysterical attacks and the same symptoms, which have had only a few differences for over 2,000 years. A new definition of hysteria should be proposed, in that it is a phenomenon that is not pathological, but physiological and expressional.

  10. Exploring Child Play within the Framework of Cultural-Historical Psychology: Experience and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Elkoninova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper reconstructs the history of the problem of the development of mind on the example of child play. It reveals how researchers from the cultural-historical school of thought explored the developmental function of play, recorded quantitative leaps in its development and attempted to reconstruct it — from the works of L.S. Vygotsky and his followers (activity approach to role play: A.N. Leontiev, D.B. Elkonin, N.Ya. Mikhaylenko, N.A. Korotkova and others to the works of researchers who studied the very act of development in play (L.I. Elkoninova, T.V. Bazhanova, K.O. Yuryeva. It is argued that the concept of the cultural form of play that contains the Challenge (limited by possibilities of action, by risk and the Response to it serves as a foundation not only for role-playing games, but also for games with rules and computer games too. The Challenge is associated with action which transforms the situation of acting and is typical of all forms of play that are required to tie together everything that is separated in an everyday behavior of a child.

  11. Social network analysis in the study of nonhuman primates: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lauren J.N.; Lehmann, Julia; Ramos-Fernández, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Advances over the last fifteen years have made social network analysis (SNA) a powerful tool for the study of nonhuman primate social behavior. Although many SNA-based techniques have been only very recently adopted in primatological research, others have been commonly used by primatologists for decades. The roots of SNA also stem from some of the same conceptual frameworks as the majority of nonhuman primate behavioral research. The rapid development of SNA in recent years has led to questions within the primatological community of where and how SNA fits within this field. We aim to address these questions by providing an overview of the historical relationship between SNA and the study of nonhuman primates. We begin with a brief history of the development of SNA, followed by a detailed description of the network-based visualization techniques, analytical methods and conceptual frameworks which have been employed by primatologists since as early as the 1960s. We also introduce some of the latest advances to SNA, thereby demonstrating that this approach contains novel tools for study of nonhuman primate social behavior which may be used to shed light on questions that cannot be addressed fully using more conventional methods. PMID:21433047

  12. Financial requirements of immunisation programmes in developing countries: a 2004-2014 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peny, Jean-Michel; Gleizes, Olivier; Covilard, Jean-Pierre

    2005-08-31

    Vaccines are a key contributor to public health, especially in developing countries. Despite numerous demonstrations of the cost-effectiveness of immunisation, vaccines spending accounted for only 1.7% of the total pharmaceutical market in 2002, when UNICEF estimated that 34 million children were not reached by routine immunisation, most of them in developing countries. Several international organizations or initiatives, like the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI), have defined a long-term goal of universal immunisation in developing countries. There is an urgent need to estimate the financial resources required to meet this goal. The objective of this study was to anticipate the funding needs for childhood immunisation in developing countries over the 2004-2014 period. The study scope includes all the 75 countries eligible for support from GAVI, and covers existing vaccines that are considered as a priority for GAVI (DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis), hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b (as a stand alone presentation or in combination with DTP) and yellow fever) as well as future vaccines (meningitis A and C, rotavirus, human papilloma virus (HPV), malaria, Streptococcus pneumoniae and tuberculosis) likely to be available within the 10-year period. We developed a methodology to estimate the number of doses required, based on disease prevalence and incidence, target populations, introduction dates of new vaccines, coverage dynamics and dosing regimen. The introduction price and price evolution of vaccines over time were modelled, taking into account the type of vaccine, the expected return on investment from vaccine manufacturers and the competitive landscape. Non-vaccine costs (capital costs and non-vaccine recurrent costs) were estimated based on the number of people immunised and number of doses dispensed, using available case studies as a reference. According to the optimal scenario that would consider the provision of all vaccines

  13. Stem cells and the reproductive system: historical perspective and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Cindy M P; Taylor, Hugh S

    2013-11-01

    Recent findings in stem cell biology have presented new perspectives and opportunities for the treatment of reproductive disease. In a departure from the long held dogma of embryologically fixed numbers of oocytes, current literature suggests that human ovaries contain stem cells which form new oocytes even in adulthood and that these stem cells can be cultured in vitro to develop into mature oocytes. These findings have provided new hope and broader options for fertility preservation. Evidence of endometrial regeneration by bone marrow stem cells in endometrial tissue of women who received bone marrow transplant highlight potential for the novel treatments of uterine disorders and supports new theories for the etiology of endometriosis - ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Further, endometrial derived stem cells have been demonstrated to be useful in the treatment of several chronic and often debilitating diseases, including Parkinson's Disease and Diabetes. Other cells that may present future therapeutic benefits for a myriad of disease states include placental and fetal cells which enter maternal circulation during pregnancy and can later promote parenchymal regeneration in maternal tissue. These findings highlight novel functions of the uterus and ovaries. They demonstrate that the uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells capable of transdifferentiation as well as a renewable source of multipotent stem cells. While we still have much to understand about stem cells, their potential applications in reproductive biology and medicine are countless.

  14. Skyscape of an Amazonian Diaspora: Arawak Astronomy in Historical Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Fabiola

    The title of this article "Arawak Astronomy" suggests that the research matter concerns the astronomy of an already well-defined ethnographic entity. This however does not do justice to the complexities of Arawak (pre)history. This contribution aims to discuss and connect the available historical and ethnographic data on Arawak astronomies as gathered by the author (Jara 2000), with the most recent research on the archeology and comparative linguistics of the Arawak diaspora. The article argues that Arawak astronomy has to be related to the cultural and sociopolitical continuities and discontinuities of the Arawak diaspora throughout the lowlands of tropical South America. This article recognizes the need to consider Arawak astronomy has an object to be discovered and explained within its local and regional contexts. Notwithstanding these remarks, based on a sustained examination of ethnohistorical and ethnographic sources, this article proposes that Arawak astronomy can be characterized by at least four elements: firstly, a horizon system of observation which combines the observation of the solar solstices and equinoxes with the near heliacal and near cosmic rising or setting of at least seven star groups - the Pleiades, the Hyades, the upper stars of the constellation of Scorpius (including α Sco), Corvus, the Belt of Orion, several stars near Sirius, and the Milky Way. Secondly, the association of the rising and setting of these star groups with the seasonal cycle, mainly with the start and/or of the end of rainy and dry seasons. Thirdly, the widespread association of the stars of the year (most commonly the Pleiades but sometimes Orion or the head of Scorpius) with the beginning of the agricultural cycle and consequently with the end of the heavy rains announcing the time to plant the new fields. The last and fourth commonality are the inscriptions or markings of the origin of the stars in the local landscape, lakes, mountains, and other salient landscape

  15. Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Carmichael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis. Objective: Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii unfolded as a component of it. Methods: Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk. Results: Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred. Conclusions: Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

  16. Supply/Demand in Radiology: A Historical Perspective and Comparison to other Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafinski, Mark E; Nussbaum, David; Jha, Saurabh

    2016-02-01

    There has been attention on the job market recently and on radiology's supply/demand calculus. Supply is influenced by the number of trained radiologists, while demand is driven by demographics and technological innovation. We analyze the supply of radiologists historically and compare to other labor markets-medical and non-medical, domestic and foreign. We review National Resident Matching Program data in radiology and several other specialties from 1991 to 2015. We also review surveys, physician recruitment data, and peer-reviewed commentaries on medical specialty job markets. Trends are compared across specialties. The regulation of American medical training is compared to that in the United Kingdom and to a nonmedical labor market, unionized theatrical stage employees. Radiology residency positions have increased since 1998 despite a downturn in the job market. This expansion coincides with a decreasing percentage of positions filled by domestic graduates. A similar trend has been seen in pathology, a notoriously oversupplied specialty. Conversely, other specialties have maintained their proportion of domestic graduates by way of limited supply or implicit demand. The radiology job market is currently oversupplied, primarily a result of increasing residency positions despite indicators of decreasing demand. The percentage of residency positions filled by domestic graduates has decreased during the same period, suggesting that medical student interest is responsive to the market. Other specialties, particularly pathology, demonstrate the dangers of chronic oversupply. We advocate a reduction of radiology residency positions such that supply closely approximates demand without exceeding it. Additional measures may be taken, if necessary, to restore market equilibrium in the event of a mild undersupply. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Cultural Industry and educational criticism in Latin America: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Soto Sandoval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study three authors from different academic fields who have contributed to the development of educational knowledge systems in Latin America in the areas of culture, media communication, and education. In order to do so, I will first explore a historical study about the importance of the Cultural Industry in Latin America, based on academic contributions by Andres Bello, who focused intellectually to give cohesion to national unity in the recently established XIX century Latin American states. Enlightened culture emerges from its written and spoken language, and with support of the media at the time, the “bellista project” would become the first media communication and educational strategy aimed at capturing the new and varied dimensions of a nascent South American Culture. Similarly and in the same vein, I will look into the stance of writers and journalists, José Martí and Rubén Darío, who had to face Modernity as it began to replace the Enlightenment for a Culture for the Masses. Their poems and writings in newspapers back then, established an academic standpoint, for the first time, linked to media analysis and education, such as questioning the cultural industry and media narratives that were operating towards the end of the XIX century, in different media outlets. Finally, I examine how media analysis in Latin America emerged in the face of processes of domination that came not only from the economic but the so called cultural industries that surfaced with so much power in the mid-twentieth century. These media outlets show cultural processes as a marketable product while diluting the true real dimensions of culture.

  18. A historical perspective on protein crystallization from 1840 to the present day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegé, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Protein crystallization has been known since 1840 and can prove to be straightforward but, in most cases, it constitutes a real bottleneck. This stimulated the birth of the biocrystallogenesis field with both 'practical' and 'basic' science aims. In the early years of biochemistry, crystallization was a tool for the preparation of biological substances. Today, biocrystallogenesis aims to provide efficient methods for crystal fabrication and a means to optimize crystal quality for X-ray crystallography. The historical development of crystallization methods for structural biology occurred first in conjunction with that of biochemical and genetic methods for macromolecule production, then with the development of structure determination methodologies and, recently, with routine access to synchrotron X-ray sources. Previously, the identification of conditions that sustain crystal growth occurred mostly empirically but, in recent decades, this has moved progressively towards more rationality as a result of a deeper understanding of the physical chemistry of protein crystal growth and the use of idea-driven screening and high-throughput procedures. Protein and nucleic acid engineering procedures to facilitate crystallization, as well as crystallization methods in gelled-media or by counter-diffusion, represent recent important achievements, although the underlying concepts are old. The new nanotechnologies have brought a significant improvement in the practice of protein crystallization. Today, the increasing number of crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank could mean that crystallization is no longer a bottleneck. This is not the case, however, because structural biology projects always become more challenging and thereby require adapted methods to enable the growth of the appropriate crystals, notably macromolecular assemblages.

  19. Selective elimination of breast cancer surgery in exceptional responders: historical perspective and current trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van la Parra, Raquel F D; Kuerer, Henry M

    2016-03-08

    With improvements in chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and our fundamental understanding of the relationship of tumor subtype and pathologic complete response (pCR), there has been dramatic improvement in pCR rates in the past decade, especially among triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancers. Rates of pCR in these groups of patients can be in the 60 % range and thus question the paradigm for the necessity of breast and nodal surgery in all cases, particularly when the patient will be receiving adjuvant local therapy with radiotherapy. Current practice for patients who respond well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is often to proceed with the same breast and axillary procedures as would have been offered women who had not received NCT, regardless of the apparent clinical response. Given these high response rates in defined subgroups among exceptional responders it is appropriate to question whether surgery is now a redundant procedure in their overall management. Further, definitive radiation without surgical resection with or without systemic therapy has been proven effective for several other malignant disease sites including some stages of esophageal, anal, laryngeal, prostate, cervical, and lung carcinoma. The main impediments for potential elimination of surgery have been the fact that prior and current standard and functional breast imaging methods are incapable of accurate prediction of residual disease and that integrating percutaneous biopsy of the breast primary and nodes following NCT may circumvent this issue. This article highlights historical attempts at omission of surgery following NCT in an earlier era, the current status of breast and nodal imaging to predict residual carcinoma, and ongoing and planned trials designed to identify appropriate patients who might be selected for clinical trials designed to test the safety of selected elimination of breast cancer surgery in percutaneous image

  20. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc.

    2017-09-21

    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  1. Childhood central nervous system leukemia: historical perspectives, current therapy, and acute neurological sequelae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laningham, Fred H. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN (United States); Kun, Larry E. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN (United States); Reddick, Wilburn E.; Ogg, Robert J. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Translational Imaging Research, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Morris, E.B. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Pui, Ching-Hon [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2007-11-15

    During the past three decades, improvements in the treatment of childhood leukemia have resulted in high cure rates, particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Unfortunately, successful therapy has come with a price, as significant morbidity can result from neurological affects which harm the brain and spinal cord. The expectation and hope is that chemotherapy, as a primary means of CNS therapy, will result in acceptable disease control with less CNS morbidity than has been observed with combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy over the past several decades. In this review we discuss the poignant, historical aspects of CNS leukemia therapy, outline current methods of systemic and CNS leukemia therapy, and present imaging findings we have encountered in childhood leukemia patients with a variety of acute neurological conditions. A major objective of our research is to understand the neuroimaging correlates of acute and chronic effects of cancer and therapy. Specific features related to CNS leukemia and associated short-term toxicities, both disease- and therapy-related, are emphasized in this review with the specific neuroimaging findings. Specific CNS findings are similarly important when treating acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and details of leukemic involvement and toxicities are also presented in this entity. Despite contemporary treatment approaches which favor the use of chemotherapy (including intrathecal therapy) over radiotherapy in the treatment of CNS leukemia, children still occasionally experience morbid neurotoxicity. Standard neuroimaging is sufficient to identify a variety of neurotoxic sequelae in children, and often suggest specific etiologies. Specific neuroimaging findings frequently indicate a need to alter antileukemia therapy. It is important to appreciate that intrathecal and high doses of systemic chemotherapy are not innocuous and are associated with acute, specific, recognizable, and often serious neurological

  2. Dynamics of Techonology Upgrading of the Central and Eastern Europe Countries in a Comparative Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Radosevic, Slavo

    in the upgrading process indicators measure technological knowledge sourcing across countries and interactions between foreign and indigenous actors. Based on 7 patent indicators covering the three upgrading dimensions the comparative analysis focuses on EU27 and its subregions and on the BRICS countries...... capabilities are often less advanced. The CEE profile is much less coherent in terms of technology diversification/specialization and share of joint inventions. However, differences among CEECs are not significant. Still there are some notable national features. Poland, Romania and Slovenia have above average...... is within the BRIC pattern (with exception of China which in terms of technology upgrading has de facto delinked from BRICS). In the BRIC context, the CEE characterize very open innovation system with a high share of coinventions and foreign actors exploiting local inventions. This reveals weak...

  3. LABOUR SUBCONTRACTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRIES OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: AN ASSESSMENT FROM TWO PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Wells

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of employing labour through subcontractors (often referred to as the ‘outsourcing’ of labour is both long established and widespread in the construction industries of developing countries. Recent studies show that it is also increasing in both developing and developed countries. An assessment of the advantages of the practice from the viewpoint of the contractors and of the labour force, suggests it is unlikely to disappear. The paper goes on to explore the implications for the development of the construction industry, as well as for the welfare of the workers and the achievement of broader development objectives. It is concluded that interventions may be needed to deal with some of the negative repercussions, but they have to accept and build on current labour practices.

  4. The impact of immigration on health systems: a legal analysis from a three-country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J; Carstens, P; Talib, N

    2005-06-01

    The focus of this paper will be on how health care systems in three countries, Malaysia, South Africa and the United States, are responding to the health needs of immigrants with a strong focus on the legal aspects of the respective national responses. The Malaysia portion emphasizes legal immigration and analyses as to how the country's Ministry of Health and the delivery system itself is responding to the demands of immigrant's health. In the context of South Africa, the paper explores implications of the South African Constitution, which establishes a right to access health care, and explores whether such a right can be extended to non-citizens, or can be tempered by economic constraints. In the American discussion the focus is on whether publicly supported health care programs can be accessed to provide coverage for undocumented residents, and highlights recent constraints in using government monies in this area.

  5. Advancing the country image construct from a public relations perspective: from model to measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Buhmann, Alexander; Ingenhoff, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a new model for the measurement of the constitution and effects of the country image as a central target construct in international public relations. Design/methodology/approach – The authors combine concepts from reputation management (Eisenegger and Imhof, 2008; Ingenhoff and Sommer, 2007), national identity theory (Smith, 1987), and attitude theory (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) to derive a four-dimensional model, conceptualizing count...

  6. Radiation-sparing managements for cervical cancer: a developing countries perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Garza Jaime

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer is the seventh most frequent cancer worldwide but more than 80% of cases occur in developing countries. Till date, radiation therapy with external beam and brachytherapy remains as the core treatment for most stages of cervical cancer. However, radiation treatment protocols and equipment modelled on the best developed countries can be seldom applied directly to developing countries owing to financial constraints and lack of qualified personnel, thus, a substantial proportion of patients do not have access to even palliative radiation therapy. Treatment options when the standard therapy is either not available or difficult to reproduce in particular settings is highly desirable with the potential to save lives that otherwise could be lost by the lack of adequate treatment. These options of treatment ideally had to have show, 1 that these are not inferior to the "standard" in terms of either survival or quality of life; 2 that these can be delivered in settings were the "standard" is not available or if available its quality is poor; and 3 that the treatment option be accepted by the population to be treated. Based on these considerations, it is obvious that cervical cancer patients, particularly those who live in countries with limited resources and therefore may not have sufficient radiation therapy resources are in need of newer therapeutical options. There is now a considerable amount of information emanating from clinical studies where surgery has a major role in treating this disease. These forms of "radiation-sparing" treatments include total mesometrial resection that could make unnecessary the use of adjuvant radiation; neoadjuvant chemotherapy that could avoid the use of adjuvant radiation in around 85% of patients and preoperative chemoradiation that could make brachytherapy dispensable. The feasibility and therapeutical value of these potential forms of management need to be prospectively evaluated.

  7. An inquiry into the causes for the multiple goals of the United States Antitrust Law from a historical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Tie

    2006-01-01

    It is not the case as Robert Bork claims that the U.S.antitrust law had only one goal-maximization of consumer welfare of efficiency-at the very beginning and should have been kept that way for its later development.Partly because of the fighting among different interest groups as well as spokesmen of different regions at the 51 st Congress,the Sherman Antitrust Act came out as a legislation with multiple goals,which were also taking shape under the influence of the Republican idea of balance of power,the liberal belief in property rights,the freedom of contract of classic economics,and the price theory of neoclassic economics.In more than a hundred years after that,the U.S.antitrust law has shifted the center of its goals as a result of the change of regulatory regimes with different emphases such as market function,economic stabilization,social concern,and economic efficiency during different periods.From a historical perspective,it is beyond dispute that the U.S.antitrust law has had multiple goals instead of only one.

  8. Assessing trade in health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean from a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Shennawy, Azza; Mirza, Zafer; Drager, Nick; Sabri, Belgacem

    2010-01-01

    Assessing trade in health services (TiHS) in developing countries is challenging since the sources of information are diverse, information is not accessible and professionals lack grasp of issues. A multi-country study was conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR)--Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Yemen. The objective was to estimate the direction, volume, and value of TiHS; analyze country commitments; and assess the challenges and opportunities for health services.Trade liberalization favored an open trade regime and encouraged foreign direct investment. Consumption abroad and movement of natural persons were the two prevalent modes. Yemen and Sudan are net importers, while Jordan promotes health tourism. In 2002, Yemenis spent US$ 80 million out of pocket for treatment abroad, while Jordan generated US$ 620 million. Egypt, Pakistan, Sudan and Tunisia export health workers, while Oman relies on import and 40% of its workforce is non-Omani. There is a general lack of coherence between Ministries of Trade and Health in formulating policies on TiHS.This is the first organized attempt to look at TiHS in the EMR. The systematic approach has helped create greater awareness, and a move towards better policy coherence in the area of trade in health services. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES IN ECONOMIC CRISES GEOGRAPHY. ECONOMIC STRATEGIES IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Maria Grecu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategies for structural-systemic crisis management have generated, to a geographical level, a number of differences between EU countries. These cleavages are the result of differentialmacroeconomic policies. In this context, this article has the aim of achieving a comparative approach between countries of the south, west and east of the EU space. Also our approach is focused on observing the nature of macroeconomic policies and also on identifying a "pattern" associated with a common ideal -type of "rational choice" in the efficient and effective management of systemic crises. This article aims to identify areas of growth and economic stability of a particular model of public policy and political-economic ideology, to set up a mechanism for "economic engineering”. From the methodological point of view, this article uses a quantitativemethodology, derived from mathematical analysis, statistics and stochastic, in order to explain, understand and predict the possible evolution of the systemic crises in the EU countries. The interest lies in the possibility of giving a model of macroeconomic policy for the adjustment of inflationist imbalances, labor market and pricepolicy, and also in regulating the equation of production-consumption.

  10. Perspectives of low cost arsenic remediation of drinking water in Pakistan and other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amir Haider; Khan, Zahid Mehmood; Mahmood, Qaisar; Nasreen, Sadia; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    2009-08-30

    Arsenic concentrations above acceptable standards for drinking water have been detected in many countries and this should therefore is a global issue. The presence of arsenic in subsurface aquifers and drinking water systems is a potentially serious human health hazard. The current population growth in Pakistan and other developing countries will have direct bearing on the water sector for meeting the domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Pakistan is about to exhaust its available water resources and is on the verge of becoming a water deficit country. Water pollution is a serious menace in Pakistan, as almost 70% of its surface waters as well as its groundwater reserves have contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. In some areas of Pakistan, a number of shallow aquifers and tube wells are contaminated with arsenic at levels which are above the recommended USEPA arsenic level of 10 ppb (10 microg L(-1)). Adverse health effects including human mortality from drinking water are well documented and can be attributed to arsenic contamination. The present paper reviews appropriate and low cost methods for the elimination of arsenic from drinking waters. It is recommended that a combination of low cost chemical treatment like ion exchange, filtration and adsorption along with bioremediation may be useful option for arsenic removal from drinking water.

  11. Aging in Asia: a cultural, socio-economical and historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H

    2005-06-01

    Asia has about 60% of the world population and population aging is occurring more rapidly in Asia than in Western countries. The group aged 65 years and above will increase from 207 million in 2000 to 857 million in 2050, a staggering increase of 314%. The diversity in economic, demographic, religious, cultural and geo-political factors in Asia is unparalleled by any other continent, and is, in part, contributory to the rapid rise in population aging. By 2050, those under 15 years old will have shrunk from 30% in 2000 to 19%, while those aged 65 years and above will increase from 6% to 18%. In addition, the gender divide still persists with 100 elderly women to 70 elderly men. These projected demographic changes pose three major challenges: 1) how best to address the rising population of the group aged 65 years and above, 2) how to address the shrinking population of the young as well as the working adults, and 3) how to address the problems arising from the disproportionate increase in older women than men. From now to 2050, it will be expeditious for each country in Asia to look into ways of reversing the decline in total fertility rates (TFRs) and restore to replacement levels. If not, at least introduce measures to halt its free fall. Due to the complexity of factors that have influenced the fall in TFRs in Asia, it will be a daunting task to reverse this fall. There is no "single size fits all" solution to this complex problem. Research work in this short-term strategy in addressing the aging population is urgent. In the longer term, the East-West Centre have suggested four modalities, 1) establish policies and programmes that enhance traditional Asian systems of family support for the elderly; 2) introduce policy reform that encourages the elderly who are still capable of remaining in the work force; 3) create institutions and systems that support high levels of personal saving; and 4) formulate public programmes, including pension schemes and national

  12. Current meningitis outbreak in Ghana: Historical perspectives and the importance of diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Alexander; Amuasi, John; Annan, Augustina; Ahuno, Samuel; Opare, David; Nagel, Michael; Vinnemeier, Christof; May, Jürgen; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial meningitis continues to be one of the most dreaded infections in sub-Saharan Africa and other countries that fall in the "meningitis belt" due to recurrent nature of the infection and the sequel of deliberating effects among survivors even after treatment. Ghana has had recurrent epidemics in the past but has been free from high mortality levels. Whereas reasons for the low reported number of deaths in the past are unclear, we hypothesize that it may be due to increased vaccination from expanded program on immunization (EPI) and consequent herd immunity of the general population. As at the end of February, 2016, 100 individuals were reported to have died out of 500 recorded cases. The infection may cause severe brain damage and kills at least 1 out of 10 individuals if quick interventions are not provided. The Ghana Health Service (GHS) and the Ministry of Health (MoH), together with other local and international stakeholders are working intensely to control the spread of the infection in affected communities with treatment and other health management programmes. This review presents a quick overview of meningitis in Ghana with emphasis on S. pneumoniae (responsible for about 70% of cases in the recent epidemic) together with some recommendations aimed at ensuring a "meningitis-free Ghana". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Historic perspectives and recent advances in major animal models of hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-jie SUN; Zhong-e ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in many countries. The etiology of human essential hypertension is largely unknown. It is highly likely that hypertension is a complex and multifactorial disease resulting from the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors.Animal models of hypertension have been proved to be useful to study the pathogenesis of, and to find a new therapy for, hypertension. The aim of this article is to briefly review the most widely used rodent models of experimental hypertension,including history and recent advances. These models are classified as genetically-induced, environmentally-induced, pharmacologically-induced, and renalinduced hypertension according to the way of induction; the typical representatives of each of these major types of experimental hypertension are spontaneous hypertension, cold-induced hypertension, DOCA-salt-induced hypertension, and renal-induced hypertension, respectively. The processes of induction of hypertension, possible pathogenesis, characteristics, advantages, and limitations of these animal models are reviewed. In addition, the clinical implications of the above experimental models of hypertension are addressed.

  14. Bluetongue: a historical and epidemiological perspective with the emphasis on South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coetzee Peter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bluetongue (BT is a non-contagious, infectious, arthropod transmitted viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV, the prototype member of the Orbivirus genus in the family Reoviridae. Bluetongue was first described in South Africa, where it has probably been endemic in wild ruminants since antiquity. Since its discovery BT has had a major impact on sheep breeders in the country and has therefore been a key focus of research at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute in Pretoria, South Africa. Several key discoveries were made at this Institute, including the demonstration that the aetiological agent of BT was a dsRNA virus that is transmitted by Culicoides midges and that multiple BTV serotypes circulate in nature. It is currently recognized that BT is endemic throughout most of South Africa and 22 of the 26 known serotypes have been detected in the region. Multiple serotypes circulate each vector season with the occurrence of different serotypes depending largely on herd-immunity. Indigenous sheep breeds, cattle and wild ruminants are frequently infected but rarely demonstrate clinical signs, whereas improved European sheep breeds are most susceptible. The immunization of susceptible sheep remains the most effective and practical control measure against BT. In order to protect sheep against multiple circulating serotypes, three pentavalent attenuated vaccines have been developed. Despite the proven efficacy of these vaccines in protecting sheep against the disease, several disadvantages are associated with their use in the field.

  15. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbles, John

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in

  16. Management of urinary tract infections: historical perspective and current strategies: Part 2--Modern management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, J Curtis

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of the microbial origin of infectious diseases and the introduction of antimicrobial therapy stimulated more advances in the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the 20th century than had occurred in the previous 5 centuries. Numerous resources were used to collect the information described in this review. Medical texts from the 19th and 20th century contain information regarding the traditional contemporary treatment of UTI during those eras. Early volumes of the Journal of Urology from the beginning of the 20th century describe the first attempts at chemotherapy for UTI. MEDLINE searches were used to collect appropriate information after 1969. Modern medical journals and modern medical texts were used to collect information on antimicrobial therapy since the late 1960s through today. Numerous advances in the diagnosis and management of UTI were made during the 20th century. Advances in microbiological and chemical assays have facilitated the development of historical uroscopy into modern day urinalysis and culture techniques, which are the cornerstone of UTI diagnosis. Imaging technologies, including x-ray, ultrasound, nuclear imaging, magnetic resonance and computerized tomography, have been particularly helpful in the diagnosis of complicated or recurrent UTIs. Major innovations in nonpharmacological therapy include noninvasive shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous drainage of kidney abscesses. The most profound advance in UTI management during the 20th century was the discovery of antimicrobial agents. Nitrofurantoin was the first truly effective and safe antimicrobial therapy for UTI but its spectrum of activity is limited. Broad use of amoxicillin (and other beta-lactams) after its introduction in the 1970s led to the development of resistance to this antimicrobial, prompting a gradual change to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) as first line therapy for UTI. However, wide use of TMP/SMX also resulted in the progressive

  17. The representation of the country man in Patativa do Assaré under the perspective of post-colonial theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Marques Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we aim to study and analyze the representation of the country man in the poetry of Antonio Gonçalves da Silva, popularly known as Patativa do Assaré. From the perspective of Gayatri Chakravorti Spivak and other theorists - as Frantz Fanon, Homi K. Bhabha and Edward Said, particularly with regard to cultural identity – we propose a new approach to the construction of poetic voice and image of the frontiersman in the main works of Assaré. Thus, the article will be built through studies related to the issue of culture, identity and its representations in the literature. We believe that, with this, we can understand better the figuration of the poetic voice of Assaré in the context of its space and how this voice can somehow represent the class of the disadvantaged or the subordinated ones.

  18. The role of private organisations in welfare work. The historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, B

    1992-06-01

    The Danish welfare measures originated in private initiatives. From the end of the last century, welfare activities have developed through private relief organisations and with support from the State, local governments, and counties. Since the 1960s, many institutions which had been built up by private relief organisations were actually taken over by local governments or counties. By way of illustration, the development of EGV DaneCare (the Danish Association for the Care of the Elderly), from its origin as a voluntary relief organisation based on voluntary work and collected funds, is described. From 1910, EGV was the pioneer within the field of, for example, old people's homes, winter shelters, and holidays in the country for elderly people. In the 1960s, EGV became a professional service organisation which assisted the local governments in developing a wide range of variegated offers within the work for elderly people. Assistance offered to the local governments became the organisation's principal project up to the 1980s. The population's confidence in the ability of the public authorities to cope with the social tasks was at the time undermined by increasing scepticism. That was why EGV founded the DaneAge Association, which soon became a national cause with more than 200,000 members. The DaneAge Association operates as an association independent of the public authorities pursuing both local and national policies concerning the elderly and implementing humanitarian initiatives based on voluntary work. Studies made by the DaneAge Association show, among other things, that 20 per cent of the people aged 60 and over need practical assistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The RAFT Telemedicine Network in Low and Middle Income Countries: Educational and Clinical Services, Lessons Learnt and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eBediang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this paper are to: i provide an overview of the educational and clinical experiences of the RAFT network, ii analyse key challenges and lessons learnt throughout a decade of activity and, iii draw a vision and perspectives of its sustainability.Methods: The study was carried out following three main stages: i a literature review, ii the analysis of key documents and iii discussions with key collaborators of the RAFT.Results: RAFT has been offering an important quantity of educational, clinical and public health activities during the last decade. The educational activities include: the weekly delivery of video-lectures for continuing and postgraduate medical education, the use of virtual patients for training in clinical decision making, research training activities using ICTs and other e-learning activities. The clinical and public health activities include: tele-expertise to support health professionals in the management of difficult clinical cases, the implementation of clinical information systems in African hospitals, the deployment of mHealth projects, etc. Since 2010, the RAFT has been extended to the Altiplano in Bolivia and Nepal (in progress. Lessons learnt and perspectives: Important lessons have been learnt from the accumulated experiences throughout these years. These lessons concern: social and organization, human resources, technologies and data security, policy and legislation, and economy and financing. Also, given the increase of the activities and the integration of eHealth and telemedicine in the health system of most of the countries, the RAFT network faces many other challenges and perspectives such as: learning throughout life, recognition and valorisation of teaching or learning activities, the impact evaluation of interventions, and the scaling up and transferability out of Africa of RAFT activities. Based on the RAFT experience, effective integration and optimum use of eHealth and

  20. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: perspectives on patient selection in low- to middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearne, Nicola; Kilonzo, Kajiru; Effa, Emmanuel; Davidson, Bianca; Nourse, Peter; Ekrikpo, Udeme; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem that continues to show an unrelenting global increase in prevalence. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease has been predicted to grow the fastest in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). There is evidence that people living in LMICs have the highest need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) despite the lowest access to various modalities of treatment. As continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) does not require advanced technologies, much infrastructure, or need for dialysis staff support, it should be an ideal form of RRT in LMICs, particularly for those living in remote areas. However, CAPD is scarcely available in many LMICs, and even where available, there are several hurdles to be confronted regarding patient selection for this modality. High cost of CAPD due to unavailability of fluids, low patient education and motivation, low remuneration for nephrologists, lack of expertise/experience for catheter insertion and management of complications, presence of associated comorbid diseases, and various socio-demographic factors contribute significantly toward reduced patient selection for CAPD. Cost of CAPD fluids seems to be a major constraint given that many countries do not have the capacity to manufacture fluids but instead rely heavily on fluids imported from developed countries. There is need to invest in fluid manufacturing (either nationally or regionally) in LMICs to improve uptake of patients treated with CAPD. Workforce training and retraining will be necessary to ensure that there is coordination of CAPD programs and increase the use of protocols designed to improve CAPD outcomes such as insertion of catheters, treatment of peritonitis, and treatment of complications associated with CAPD. Training of nephrology workforce in CAPD will increase workforce experience and make CAPD a more acceptable RRT modality with improved outcomes. PMID:28115864

  1. RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE OF BUSINESS ETHICS PRINCIPLES IN TURKEY AND ROMANIA: A CROSS COUNTRY COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz AGAOGLU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to research in business ethics application, by studying one of the contemporary instruments of applying business ethics. The research focuses on Islamic business ethics in comparison to Christian business ethics and discusses its application using a comparative perspective. First, this chapter aims to address the Islamic understanding of what ethics means? What is the relationship between ethics, human nature and religion in Islam? While providing an introductory analysis on Islamic ethical standards, the chapter highlights first (1 the business ethical values and principles of Islamic ethics, second (2 the business ethical values and principles of Turkish Islamic ethics, third (3, the business ethical values and principles of Christian Romanian ethics.

  2. A general equilibrium model of guest-worker migration: the source-country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S; Milbourne, R

    1988-11-01

    "This paper examines the problem of guest-worker migration from an economy populated by identical, utility-maximizing individuals with finite working lives. The decision to migrate, the rate of saving while abroad, as well as the length of a migrant's stay in the foreign country, are all viewed as part of a solution to an intertemporal optimization problem. In addition to studying the microeconomic aspects of temporary migration, the paper analyses the determinants of the equilibrium flow of migrants, the corresponding domestic wage, and the level of welfare enjoyed by a typical worker. Effects of an emigration tax are also investigated."

  3. The Effect of the Country of Origin on the Consumer, from the Placebo Effect Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muresan Lavinia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although it is mostly used in Medicine, the placebo effect has been exploited in Marketing as well, in recent years. In Medicine, the placebo effect is defined as the improving state of a patient as a result of administering a simulated treatment, without any therapeutic healing effect. The current paper presents the results obtained in the studies that tested the placebo effect in marketing, and the conclusions of an experiment in which the possibility of producing the placebo effect on the consumer when the country of origin of an identical product differs was tested

  4. Building surgical capacity in low-resource countries: a qualitative analysis of task shifting from surgeon volunteers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliu, Oluseyi; Corlew, Scott D; Heisler, Michele E; Pannucci, Christopher J; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    Surgical volunteer organizations (SVOs) focus considerable resources on addressing the backlog of cases in low-resource countries. This model of service may perpetuate dependency. Efforts should focus on models that establish independence in providing surgical care. Independence could be achieved through surgical capacity building. However, there has been scant discussion in literature on SVO involvement in surgical capacity building. Using qualitative methods, we evaluated the perspectives of surgeons with extensive volunteer experience in low-resource countries. We collected data through in-depth interviews that centered on SVOs using task shifting as a tool for surgical capacity building. Some of the key themes from our analysis include the ethical ramifications of task shifting, the challenges of addressing technical and clinical education in capacity building for low-resource settings, and the allocation of limited volunteer resources toward surgical capacity building. These themes will be the foundation of subsequent studies that will focus on other stakeholders in surgical capacity building including host communities and SVO administrators.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sour gas effects on the eye. A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy William; Goodwin, Verona Marie; Stefani, Dennis; Strosher, Lisa

    2006-08-15

    The toxicology of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and sour gas on the eye has a long history beginning at least with Ramazzini's observations [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers--De Morbis Artificum Diatriba--1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc.; 1964. 98-99 pp.]. In contrast, a recent review by Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW Report) concluded that there is little evidence of eye irritation following short-term exposures to H(2)S at concentrations up to 100ppm and that the H(2)S literature on the eye is a series of unsubstantiated claims reproduced in review articles dating back to the 1930s [Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW report). Health effects associated with short-term exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide: a technical review, Alberta Health and Wellness, October 2002, 81pp.]. In this paper, we evaluated this claim through a historical review of the toxicology of the eye. Ramazzini noted the effects of sewer gas on the eye [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers--De Morbis Artificum Diatriba--1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc. 1964. 98-99 pp.]. Lehmann experimentally showed eye effects in men at 70-90ppm H(2)S and also in animals [Lehmann K. Experimentalle Studien uber den Einfluss technisch und hygienisch wichtiger Gase und Dampfe auf den Organismus. Arch Hyg 1892;14:135-189]. In 1923, Sayers, Mitchell and Yant reported eye effects in animals and men at 50ppm H(2)S. Barthelemy showed eye effects in animals and men at 20ppm H(2)S [Barthelemy HL. Ten years' experience with industrial hygiene in connection with the manufacture of viscose rayon. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 1939;21:141-51]. Masure experimentally showed that H(2)S is the causative agent of eye impacts in animals and men [Masure R. La Keratoconjunctivite des filatures de viscose; etude clinique and experiementale. Rev Belge Pathol 1950;20:297-341]. Michal upon microscopic examination of the rat's cornea, found nuclear pyknosis, edema and separation of cells in

  6. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: perspectives on patient selection in low- to middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wearne N

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Wearne,1 Kajiru Kilonzo,2 Emmanuel Effa,3 Bianca Davidson,1 Peter Nourse,4 Udeme Ekrikpo,1,5 Ikechi G Okpechi1 1Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Medicine, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Moshi, Tanzania; 3Department of Medicine, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 4Division of Paediatric Nephrology, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Department of Internal Medicine, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria Abstract: Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem that continues to show an unrelenting global increase in prevalence. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease has been predicted to grow the fastest in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs. There is evidence that people living in LMICs have the highest need for renal replacement therapy (RRT despite the lowest access to various modalities of treatment. As continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD does not require advanced technologies, much infrastructure, or need for dialysis staff support, it should be an ideal form of RRT in LMICs, particularly for those living in remote areas. However, CAPD is scarcely available in many LMICs, and even where available, there are several hurdles to be confronted regarding patient selection for this modality. High cost of CAPD due to unavailability of fluids, low patient education and motivation, low remuneration for nephrologists, lack of expertise/experience for catheter insertion and management of complications, presence of associated comorbid diseases, and various socio-demographic factors contribute significantly toward reduced patient selection for CAPD. Cost of CAPD fluids seems to be a major constraint given that many countries do not have the capacity to manufacture fluids but instead rely heavily on fluids imported from developed countries. There is need to invest in fluid manufacturing (either nationally or

  7. Computer-aided technology for fabricating complete dentures: systematic review of historical background, current status, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidra, Avinash S; Taylor, Thomas D; Agar, John R

    2013-06-01

    Computer-aided technology is an emerging method for fabricating complete dentures. Consolidated information about historical background, current status, and scope for the future is lacking. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the existing literature on computer-aided technology for fabricating complete dentures and provide the reader with a historical background, current status, and future perspectives on this emerging technology. An electronic search of the English language literature between the periods of January 1957 and June 2012 was performed by using PubMed/MEDLINE with the following specific search terms: CAD-CAM complete dentures, digital complete dentures, computer dentures, designed dentures, machined dentures, manufactured dentures, milled dentures, and rapid prototyping dentures. Additionally, the search terms were used on the Google search engine to identify current commercial manufacturers and their protocols. A total of 1584 English language titles were obtained from the electronic database, and the systematic application of exclusion criteria resulted in the identification of 8 articles pertaining to computer-aided technology for complete dentures. Since the first published report in 1994, multiple authors have described different theoretical models and protocols for fabricating complete dentures with computer-aided technology. Although no clinical trials or clinical reports were identified in the scientific literature, the Google search engine identified 2 commercial manufacturers in the United States currently fabricating complete dentures with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology for clinicians world-wide. These manufacturers have definitive protocols in place and offer exclusive dental materials, techniques, and laboratory support. Their protocols contrast with conventional paradigms for fabricating complete dentures and allow the fabrication of complete dentures in 2 clinical appointments

  8. Exploring Consumers’ Propensity for Online Shopping in a Developing Country: A Demographic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwarteng Michael Adu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the Internet continues to open new frontiers in digital marketing. One visible impact of the Internet in marketing has been the growing increase in online transactions which profits marketers and seemingly satisfies customers. However, in developing countries, the potential of online shopping has not been fully explored, and in some cases, are just non-existent. Lack of online infrastructure has often been attributed to the slower growth in online transactions in Africa, however, the customers’ preparedness and inclination to use the service is ignored. .Against this backdrop, this study seeks to analyze consumers’ propensity to engage in online transactions with a focus on demographic attributes such as age, gender and education. Using customers in Ghana as a case study, key reasons as well as the demographics that fancy online transactions are revealed. The results indicate that delivery problems, poor internet connection, privacy and security issues are some of the reasons preventing customers to shop online

  9. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment.

  10. A Comparative Study of the Distance Education History in China and the United States: A Socio-Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of international distance education development through comparison of the distance education historical developments in China and the United States (U.S.). This study, utilizing a document analysis method, studied historical documents, explored the historical development of…

  11. Infectious diseases and migrant worker health in Singapore: a receiving country's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Sapna P; Lim, Poh Lian; Vasoo, Shawn

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 1.4 million migrant workers reside in Singapore, presenting unique infectious disease challenges to both migrants and Singapore. A Pubmed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EBSCO Host (Global Health) and Google Scholar search was performed for both peer, non-peer reviewed articles and reports relevant to migrant health in Singapore, published between 1 January 1989 and 1 September 2016. Additional studies were identified from citations within searched articles. We also reviewed published data and policy documents from the Ministries of Health and Manpower, Singapore. A significant proportion of malaria, enteric fevers, hepatitis A and E and tuberculosis diagnosed in Singapore involve migrant workers. From the 1990-2000 through 2009-11, while malaria and hepatitis A cases have decreased and remain sporadic, enteric fevers and tuberculosis cases have increased, possibly due to greater influx of migrant workers. Hepatitis E numbers remain low but migrant workers account for half of diagnosed cases. In an interplay of immune naivete, work and living conditions, migrants in the construction industry are at higher risk of arboviral infections such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya. Infections such as chikungunya were likely introduced into Singapore by travellers including migrant workers from the Indian subcontinent but autochthonous transmission continued due to the presence of competent mosquito vectors. There is less data regarding sexual health, networks and infections amongst migrant workers, an area which merits further attention. Migrant workers appear to be at higher risk than Singaporeans for specific infectious diseases, probably due to a complex interplay of several factors, including higher disease prevalence in their countries of origin, socio-economic factors, their living conditions in Singapore and financial, language and cultural barriers to healthcare access. Receiving countries need improved surveillance, expansion of preventive measures and decreased

  12. Discovering misattributed paternity in genetic counselling: different ethical perspectives in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate.

  13. Respiratory medicine and research at McGill University: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James G; Schwartzman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    , areas of particular clinical strength and investigation included asthma, occupational and immunological lung diseases. In 1989, the Meakins Christie Laboratories relocated to its current site on Rue St Urbain, adjacent to the Montreal Chest Institute. Dr Qutayba Hamid, on faculty at the Brompton Hospital, joined the Meakins-Christie Labs in 1994. In addition to an outstanding career in the area of the immunopathology of human asthma, he broadened the array of techniques routinely applied at the labs and has ably led the Meakins-Christie Labs from 2008 to the present. The Meakins Christie Laboratories have had a remarkable track record that continues to this day. The basis for its enduring success is not immediately clear but it has almost certainly been linked to the balance of MD and PhD scientists that brought perspective and rigour. The diverse disciplines and research programs also facilitated adaptation to changing external research priorities. The late 1990s and the early 21st century also saw the flourishing of the Respiratory Epidemiology Unit, under the leadership of Drs Pierre Ernst, Dick Menzies and Jean Bourbeau. It moved from McGill University to the Montreal Chest Institute in 2004. This paved the way for expanded clinical and translational research programs in COPD, tuberculosis, asthma, respiratory sleep disorders and other pulmonary diseases. The faculty now comprises respiratory clinician-researchers and PhD scientists with expertise in epidemiological methods and biostatistics. Respiratory physiology and medicine at McGill benefitted from a strong start through the influence of Meakins and Christie, and a tight linkage between clinical observation and physiological research. The subsequent recruitment of talented and creative faculty members with absolute dedication to academic medicine continued the legacy. No matter how significant the scientific contributions of the individuals themselves, their most important impact resulted from the training of a

  14. On the genesis of heterogeneous photocatalysis: a brief historical perspective in the period 1910 to the mid-1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpone, N; Emeline, A V; Horikoshi, S; Kuznetsov, V N; Ryabchuk, V K

    2012-07-01

    The concept Photocatalysis and, of greater import here, Heterogeneous Photocatalysis were first introduced in the second decade (1910-1920) of the 20th century according to the CAPLUS and MEDLINE databases (SciFinder). This review reports a brief historical perspective on the origins of the two concepts, whether implied or explicitly stated, in some detail up to about the mid-1980s when heterogeneous photocatalysis witnessed the beginning of an exponential growth, with particular emphasis on the use of nanosized TiO(2) particles in powdered form as the (so-called) photocatalyst of choice in environmental applications because of its inherent properties of abundance and chemical stability in acidic and alkaline aqueous media (in the dark), in contrast to ZnO that had been the metal oxide of choice in the early days. The early workers in this area often used the term photosensitization rather than the current popular term photocatalysis, used since the early 1980s. The term Photocatalysis appeared in the literature as early as 1910 in a book by Plotnikow (Russia) and a few years later it was introduced in France by Landau. The review also reports on contributions during the early years by Terenin at the University of St. Petersburg (previously Leningrad, Soviet Union), and in the decade spanning 1975-1985 contributions by Bard's group at the University of Texas at Austin (USA) as well as those of other groups. Some activities into the conversion of light energy to chemical fuels (e.g. H(2)) during the 1975-1985 decade are also considered.

  15. Relations between Adolescents' Self-Evaluations, Time Perspectives, Motivation for School and Their Achievement in Different Countries and at Different Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetsma, Thea; Hascher, Tina; van der Veen, Ineke; Roede, Ewoud

    2005-01-01

    The present study focused on the relations between the self-efficacy, social self-concept, time perspectives, school investment and academic achievement of students in four different European countries and in different adolescence periods. A total of 1623 students completed questionnaires. The relations between the concepts proved not to be…

  16. Relations between adolescents' self-evaluations, time perspectives, motivation for school and their achievement in different countries and at different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; Hascher, T.; van der Veen, I.; Roede, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study focused on the relations between the self-efficacy, social self-concept, time perspectives, school investment and academic achievement of students in four different European countries and in different adolescence periods. A total of 1623 students completed questionnaires. The relat

  17. The cultural narratives of Francophone and Anglophone Quebecers: using a historical perspective to explore the relationships among collective relative deprivation, in-group entitativity, and collective esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougie, Evelyne; Usborne, Esther; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Taylor, Donald M

    2011-12-01

    Responding to calls to contextualize social psychological variables in history, the present research examines the relationship between collective relative deprivation and collective esteem using a historical perspective. We hypothesized that collective relative deprivation perceived to be experienced during an important low-point in a group's history serves to define the group's current collective identity, which is in turn associated with collective esteem. In Study 1, cultural narrative interviews were conducted with Francophone and Anglophone Quebecers in order to identify key historical chapters for these groups and to examine the extent to which historical low-points were identity-defining features of their narratives. In Study 2, using the information obtained from these narratives, collective relative deprivation was explored across group members' perceived histories and related to current in-group entitativity and collective esteem. The relationship between collective relative deprivation thought to be experienced by one's group during a historical low-point and collective esteem was positive for both Anglophone and Francophone Quebecers and was mediated by in-group entitativity. Collective relative deprivation perceived to be experienced during a historical low-point serves to define one's collective identity, which is in turn associated with greater collective esteem. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  18. A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE ON THE LABOUR VALUING IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Raluca Mazilescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the world economy over the last decades has demonstrated that knowledge is the major source of wealth and can also play an important role in fighting poverty. In a knowledge economy, education, research and development represent the “new currency” by which nations achieve and maintain economic competitiveness. These sectors offer important enabling effects that can contribute to sustainable development of the respective economies. Nevertheless, reaching these broader objectives requires first of all certain corresponding measures such as ensuring optimum labour conditions and stimulating levels of wage earnings, both contributing to the increase of the motivation degree for education, research and development staff and to the attractiveness degree of the respective professions. The purpose of this study is to assess the place of education and research in the wage hierarchy in EU Member States and their relationship with the wages achieved in other fields. The results of our analysis indicate the existence of significant gaps between wages in European countries.

  19. Managing Unplanned Pregnancies in Five Countries: Perspectives on Contraception and Abortion Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Why is induced abortion common in environments when modern contraception is readily available? This study analyzes qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with women and men from low income areas in five countries -- the U.S., Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Mexico -- to better understand how couples manage their pregnancy risk. Across all settings, women and men rarely weigh the advantages and disadvantages of contraception and abortion before beginning a sexual relationship or engaging in sexual intercourse. Contraception is viewed independently of abortion, and the two are linked only when the former is invoked as a preferred means to avoiding repeat abortion. Contraceptive methods are viewed as suspect because of perceived side effects, while abortion experience, often at significant personal risk, raised the specter of social stigma and motivation for better contraceptive practice. In all settings, male partners figure importantly in pregnancy decisions and management. Although there are inherent limitations from small sample sizes, the study narratives reveal psychosocial barriers to effective contraceptive use and identify nodal points in pregnancy decision-making that can inform and structure future investigation. PMID:21756080

  20. Integrated care: a fresh perspective for international health policies in low and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Unger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To propose a social-and-democrat health policy alternative to the current neoliberal one. Context of case: The general failure of neoliberal health policies in low and middle-income countries justifies the design of an alternative to bring disease control and health care back in step with ethical principles and desired outcomes. Data sources: National policies, international programmes and pilot experiments—including those led by the authors—are examined in both scientific and grey literature. Case description: We call for the promotion of a publicly-oriented health sector as a cornerstone of such alternative policy. We define ‘publicly-oriented’ as opposed to ‘private-for-profit’ in terms of objectives and commitment, not of ownership. We classify development strategies for such a sector according to an organisation-based typology of health systems defined by Mintzberg. As such, strategies are adapted to three types of health systems: machine bureaucracies, professional bureaucracies and divisionalized forms. We describe avenues for family and community health and for hospital care. We stress social control at the peripheral level to increase accountability and responsiveness. Community-based, national and international sources are required to provide viable financing. Conclusions and discussion: Our proposed social-and-democrat health policy calls for networking, lobbying and training as a joint effort in which committed health professionals can lead the way.

  1. New perspectives on the pedagogy of programming in a developing country context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2012-09-01

    Programming education is a widely researched and intensely discussed topic. The literature proposes a broad variety of pedagogical viewpoints, practical approaches, learning theories, motivational vehicles, and other elements of the learning situation. However, little effort has been put on understanding cultural and contextual differences in pedagogy of programming. Pedagogical literature shows that educational design should account for differences in the ways of learning and teaching between industrialized and developing countries. However, the nature and implications of those differences are hitherto unclear. Using group interviews and quantitative surveys, we identified several crucial elements for contextualizing programming education. Our results reveal that students are facing many similar challenges to students in the west: they often lack deep level learning skills and problem-solving skills, which are required for learning computer programming, and, secondly, that from the students' viewpoint the standard learning environment does not offer enough support for gaining the requisite development. With inadequate support students may resort to surface learning and may adopt extrinsic sources of motivation. Learning is also hindered by many contextually unique factors, such as unfamiliar pedagogical approaches, language problems, and cultural differences. Our analysis suggests that challenges can be minimized by increasing the number of practical exercises, by carefully selecting between guided and minimally guided environments, by rigorously monitoring student progress, and by providing students timely help, repetitive exercises, clear guidelines, and emotional support.

  2. Healthy ageing and home: the perspectives of very old people in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, J; Sixsmith, A; Fänge, A Malmgren; Naumann, D; Kucsera, C; Tomsone, S; Haak, M; Dahlin-Ivanoff, S; Woolrych, R

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on in-depth research, using a grounded theory approach, to examine the ways in which very old people perceive healthy ageing in the context of living alone at home within urban settings in five European countries. This qualitative study was part of a cross-national project entitled ENABLE-AGE which examined the relationship between home and healthy ageing. Interviews explored the notion of healthy ageing, the meaning and importance of home, conceptualisations of independence and autonomy and links between healthy ageing and home. Data analysis identified five ways in which older people constructed healthy ageing: home and keeping active; managing lifestyles, health and illness; balancing social life; and balancing material and financial circumstances. Older people reflected on their everyday lives at home in terms of being engaged in purposeful, meaningful action and evaluated healthy ageing in relation to the symbolic and practical affordances of the home, contextualised within constructions of their national context. The research suggests that older people perceive healthy ageing as an active achievement, created through individual, personal effort and supported through social ties despite the health, financial and social decline associated with growing older. The physicality and spatiality of home provided the context for establishing and evaluating the notion of healthy ageing, whilst the experienced relationship between home, life history and identity created a meaningful space within which healthy ageing was negotiated.

  3. Creating an entire community covering population based injury registration system: a developed country perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turin Nahid Rumana

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available "nThe public-health approach to injury prevention and control includes epidemiological assessment, development of prevention strategies, and evaluation of these strategies. Injury-surveillance systems should be capable of providing essential information for each of these elements. The scale of injury problem is not a matter of dispute. The costs of injury mortality and morbidity are immense not only in terms of lost economic opportunity and demands on national health budget but also in terms of personal and social sufferings. Despite this, few countries have comprehensive surveillance system that generates reliable information on the nature and extent of injuries, especially with regards to non-fatal injuries. Without reliable information health care planners are severely handicapped. They are unable to allocate resources efficiently in order to achieve the greatest impact in preventing injuries. This is true for planners at all levels, whether they are concerned with the world wide injury problem or national, regional or local level injury problems. Injury registries are indispensable in determining the incidence and trends in a particular population. A registry complements the cross-sectional studies of the differences in disease rates by longitudinal investigation. The initiation of the simultaneous monitoring of the incidence, mortality, morbidity, risk factor levels, social and behavioral tendency within defined community over a period of years will help in clarify the interrelation between these variables in terms of the dynamics of change in the natural history of injury trend. Information of injury occurrences and risk factors in population is very essential and surveillance provides this essential information that can be used for designing effective prevention strategies, appropriate allocation of health resource, assessment of effectiveness of the health programs, etc. The purpose of this registration is to follow the injury incidence

  4. Problems with Biogas Implementation in Developing Countries from the Perspective of Labor Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudina Terefe Tucho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most households in rural developing countries depend on firewood from public forests or agricultural bio-wastes for cooking. Public forests, though, are declining due to an increasing population and inefficient use of wood. Use of agricultural wastes on the other hand involves loss of soil nutrients since these resources are used as a substitute for inorganic fertilizers. Biogas energy can be an alternative in providing clean energy for cooking as well as improving soil fertility with the slurry. However, the labor spent on producing biogas can limit its use as a source of energy and fertilizers. Therefore, this study aims to determine the labor requirement of different mono and co-digestion biogas energy systems. The assessment is made by using simple models involving different schemes of resources collection and transportation based on reported relevant literature. The analysis shows that biogas production can be labor intensive when transportation of feedstock, water, and slurry is involved. Transporting these resources over a one kilometer (km distance requires about ten times the amount of time spent on firewood collection and transportation. The largest part of the time for biogas production activities is spent on water collection and transportation. Low labor biogas production is possible only if all the resources are available nearby (not transported. One of the advantages of the biogas energy system is to use the slurry for soil enrichment. However, this can only be realized when the slurry is converted to compost or directly applied on nearby lands. In general, biogas production involving resources (feedstock, water and slurry transportation is not a viable alternative to save the time spent on the traditional use of firewood. However, a community biogas system involving resource system integration is an option to provide clean energy with acceptable labor requirements of production.

  5. Contemporary Capitalism and the Building of Harmonious Society in World Historical Perspectives%世界历史视角·当代资本主义与和谐世界建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶富源

    2012-01-01

    World historical perspectives are views and approaches derived from the mutual connections among nations and countries, which are of critical epistemological importance. World historical perspectives must be adopted to perceive contemporary capitalism and chart the blueprint of human future. Contemporary capitalism is state monopoly capitalism, which is the full embodiment of systematic defects, giving rise to socialist factors and global polarization between extreme richness and poverty. Global polarization is the major demonstration of capitalist corruption. While it is fundamental to replace capitalism with socialism in the worldwide for mankind to get a way out, a feasible road to address current global problems is to build a harmonious world.%世界历史视角有着重要的认识功能,必须用世界历史视角来认识当代资本主义和规划人类的出路。当代资本主义是国家垄断资本主义,是制度性缺陷充分暴露、萌生了一些社会主义因素、造成全球贫富两极分化的资本主义。而全球两极分化是当代资本主义腐朽性的主要表现。人类出路的根本取向是在全世界用社会主义取代资本主义,而在当前解决全球性问题的一条现实道路则是构建和谐世界。

  6. Globalisations in a nutshell: Historical perspectives on the changing governance of the shea commodity chain in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wardell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-colonial patterns of trade in West Africa included exchanges of shea in periodic local and regional markets. The collection, processing and marketing of shea products in such markets continues to be predominantly by women to both meet subsistence needs, and exchange of surpluses. In the early part of the 20th century, the British colonial administration considered the possibilities of starting large-scale exports of shea kernels to Europe. Multiple colonial initiatives to develop the global trade were not successful due to a composite of factors. Contemporary patterns of production, trade and regulation are contrasted in the context of globalisation in the post-independence era. The government of Ghana has progressively reinforced its ambitions to expand the shea nut trade as part of the state’s portfolio of major non-traditional agricultural export commodities. This policy is embedded within the (now dominant orthodoxy of neo-liberalism, which privileges monetized production systems and private over public regulation. Historically and culturally-embedded patterns of shea production and trade by women in northern Ghana may now be challenged by the emergence of new processing technologies, the emergence of an oligopolistic global commodity chain and the anticipated continued growth in global demand for cocoa butter equivalents.  Nevertheless, the cumulative impacts of increasing commercialisation and world market integration at the national and local level in Ghana, and other West African producer countries, are still unknown. There are risks, however, that this process may result in social differentiation, changes in household consumption patterns and loss of livelihoods, particularly for women.

  7. Prevention and control of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berti C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Berti,1 Mieke Faber,2 Cornelius M Smuts11Centre for Excellence in Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; 2Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South AfricaAbstract: Despite strategies employed to tackle micronutrient malnutrition, limited progress has been achieved in the developing countries. Of global concern are deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, zinc, folate, and iodine. This review aims to explore up-to-date scientific evidence on the effect of different micronutrient strategies on biomarkers and health outcomes, and for each strategy, to highlight strengths, limitations, and factors contributing to success or failure. PubMed/MEDLINE and EBSCO databases and Google-indexed scientific literature were searched for relevant articles and documents, limited to human studies reported since 2003. Evidence shows that the most cost-effective approaches to address symptoms of micronutrient malnutrition are targeted supplementation and/or fortification with iron, iodine, zinc, folic acid, vitamin A, and multimicronutrients, provided that households have access to primary health care and that there is consistent long-term coverage, monitoring, adequate marketing, and commercial commitment. Dietary diversification/modification interventions are probably the most sustainable strategies to address causes of deficiency, but permanent solutions are still required in controlling micronutrient malnutrition at both research and public health levels. Furthermore, many scientific gaps remain, hindering the development of robust public health guidance. These gaps are due to the paucity of well-designed community-based studies, lack of information on biological mechanisms behind relationships between micronutrients and outcomes, and inconsistent results. Further adequately powered long-term trials are needed to fill these gaps. Lessons learned from large-scale nutritional

  8. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hussain I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Results Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48% were males and 408 (52% females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85 years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63 years. Out of these, 358 (45.6% respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction score while 426 (54.4% had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7% were male and 265 (65.0% were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3% were male and 143 (35.0% were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p Conclusions Our study confirmed the tendency of the media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in males as compared to females. Likewise, positive BID scores were more prevalent amongst females.

  9. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amad N; Khalid, Salema; Khan, Hussain I; Jabeen, Mehnaz

    2011-05-24

    Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48%) were males and 408 (52%) females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85) years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63) years. Out of these, 358 (45.6%) respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction) score while 426 (54.4%) had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7%) were male and 265 (65.0%) were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3%) were male and 143 (35.0%) were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p media exposure and negative body image dissatisfaction. Finally, we looked at the association between gender and image dissatisfaction. Again a statistically significant association was found between positive body image dissatisfaction and female gender and negative body image dissatisfaction and male gender (p media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in

  10. Infant mortality evolution in Romania: perspectives from a country in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlea, A.-M.; Muntele, I.

    2012-04-01

    In the last two decades transition was a word used to describe the important mutations that have characterized social and economic structures in Romania. All the changes left their mark on every aspects of life including on population health status, and all modifications were reflected in the evolution of health indicators. Considered one of the most sensitive indicators of living conditions, population health literacy level and healthcare system efficiency infant mortality rate is a negative indicator which reflects the intensity of children deaths before their first anniversary. Based on the current statistical data collected at county level, this research aims to underline the existing spatial differences in Romania at county level, to identify spatial patterns, time trend and to point out the territories that need special attention and a more profound analysis for understanding the causes that are generating them. Using mathematical and statistical methods we have calculated infant mortality for a previous and available period of time (1990 - 2010) and identified a trend influenced by exogenous and endogenous factors. With the help of GIS techniques we have created cartographic material for allowing us an easier identification of spatial disparities. Following the global trend, Romania achieved significant progress in reduction infant mortality. From values that exceeded 26 ‰ at the beginning of the nineties this indicator has continued to diminish until 9.79 ‰ in 2010. But, with all the improvements, value is still double in compare with European Union average. Although characteristic for Romania is the general downward trend, at the county level there can be identified different types of evolution and different spatial pattern. Having the lowest economic development level in the country, Northeast and Southeast counties maintain high values for infant mortality rate. Positive examples are given by Bucharest and some central and western districts, all with

  11. Conservation science in developing countries: an inside perspective on the struggles in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, Joaquin [Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita, Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Apartado 144, Porlamar, Isla Margarita (Venezuela)], E-mail: jbuitrago@edimar.org; Guada, Hedelvy J. [Centro de Investigacion y Conservacion de Tortugas Marinas CICTMAR, Red de Conservacion de Tortugas Marinas en el Gran Caribe, WIDECAST, Apdo. 50.789, Caracas 1050-A (Venezuela); Doyle, Emma [5 Woodvale Close, St. Ives, N.S.W. 2075 (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    Human exploitation of sea turtles in Venezuela dates back at least 800 years and continues to the present day. The first concerns about the status of sea turtle populations arose in the 1970s, and the projects from this early era were a tagging program, beach evaluation and in situ nest protection. Since then, efforts to develop a sea turtle research and conservation sector in Venezuela have resulted in a number of successes and rather more failures. Among the achievements is a course 'Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation Techniques', which has now been run for 15 years and has educated several hundred participants and enabled the establishment of a valuable professional network, and the publication of the Venezuelan 'Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan' in 2000. But Venezuela shares with other developing countries some crucial shortcomings which have restricted the success of conservation and research efforts. Whilst regulations relating to protected areas and natural resource use have proliferated, enforcement is weak. Community-based projects and environmental education programs exist, but levels of participation are low. A large number of conservation approaches have been applied, including head-starting and nest translocation to hatcheries, but their value as conservation tools remains unproven. Research has increased, but its impact on decision-making is not significant. Taking an insider's perspective on the challenges to date in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela reveals much about the reality facing conservation scientists in developing countries and the forces that shape and can potentially derail research and conservation efforts.

  12. HBT Interferometry: Historical Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, S S

    2004-01-01

    I review the history of HBT interferometry, since its discovery in the mid 50's, up to the recent developments and results from BNL/RHIC experiments. I focus the discussion on the contributions to the subject given by members of our Brazilian group.

  13. Historical perspective of peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schrader

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides have been studied for over 100 years, but for most of this time the focus was on a specific peptide or peptides, and not on the general peptidome of a biological sample. In the 1990s, mass spectrometry techniques were developed for the analysis of proteins, usually after digestion into peptides. The field of peptidomics started soon after proteomics and has grown to over 600 publications that use the word “peptidomic” or “peptidomics”. Although peptidomics is related to proteomics, there are fundamental differences. In this review, we discuss these differences along with the history of the field of peptidomics.

  14. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  15. A Historical Comparative Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    significant Australian anti-market abuse enforcement approaches that may .... This occurs when a person negligently or intentionally employs a scheme, device or .... misleading or deceptive takeover, compulsory acquisition and fund raising ...

  16. Placebo, a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Efrat; Davidson, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Substances and interventions with no specific therapeutic effect have been in use since the dawn of history. The term placebo has first been mentioned in the Scriptures, but it was not until the 19th century that it appeared in a medical context. Although lay people like Voltaire, and physicians such as Sir William Osler, have raised the possibility that much of what physicians did had no specific therapeutic effect, this notion was not shared by the public at large or by the medical profession. It was only by the end of the 18th century that a placebo-controlled trial has been conducted, repudiating the therapeutic effect of mesmerism. The advent, in the late 1940s, of effective treatments, which also had serious adverse effects, made the distinction between placebo and putative, active drug effects more relevant and urgent, and cleared the way for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. This in turn triggered an ethical debate on the use of placebo, both in research and in clinical practice. Anthropologists, sociologists, physiologists, and medical researchers are all focusing their efforts on understanding the mechanism, role and modulating factors of placebo.

  17. Historical Perspective of COIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-24

    Chemically, these reactions should be about equal in rate. A recording mercury manometer was devised (we couldn’t afford a capacitance manometer) to measure... Mercury Manometer . Journal of Chemical Education, 1976. 14. McDermott, W.E., et al. Chemical Generation of Molecular 02( 1 Ag). in Summer Colloquium

  18. Forensic odontology, historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansare, K

    1995-01-01

    According to the old testament Adam was convinced by eve to put a "Bite Mark" on the apple. Interest in Forensic Odontology was heightened in the latter part of 19th Century. The first formal instructional programme was given at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, U.S. Since then the number of cases reported has played a significant role in expanding the role of Forensic Odontology. The earliest reported case was of Lollia Paulina in the year 49 A. D. One of the early reported case is also found in India in the year 1193. In the last few decades, the basic pattern of Forensic Odontology has changed quite a lot. Advances in dental material and laboratory techniques, with improvements in scientific and photographic technology, have made the proof of presentation much to forensic science.

  19. STS Historical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. O.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a collection of poems from the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries that have asked questions about the social consequences of science and technology. Discussed are the beliefs of poets toward scientific knowledge and advances in technology. (KR)

  20. Reprint of: From the 90's to now: A brief historical perspective on more than two decades of estrogen neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, E.B.; Singh, M.; Simpkins, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Historical perspective abstract: From the 90's to now: a historical perspective on more than two decades of estrogen neuroprotection: In the early 90's, estrogens were known to exert organizational and activational effects on reproductive tissues and sexual behavior. As well, the role of sex and gonadal hormones in altering the risk for developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD) was only beginning to be elucidated. Preliminary investigations suggested that estrogen-containing therapies typically given for the management of disruptive menopausal symptoms could reduce AD risk, attenuate disease-associated cognitive deficits, and modulate brain substrates known to be dysregulated by the condition, such as the cholingeric system. The findings from our seminal paper demonstrating cognitive benefits and cholinergic impacts with exogenous estrogen treatment in a rodent model of surgical hormone depletion provided initial support for use of estrogen-containing therapies as a treatment for age-related brain disorders. We then went on to demonstrate neuroprotective actions of estrogen in several other in vivo and in vitro models of neurological challenge, including stroke and AD. Further, our findings of the chemical structure requirements for estrogen's neuroprotective effects identified a novel approach for optimizing future estrogen-containing hormone therapy options. These early efforts laid the groundwork for later, large-scale clinical investigations into the potential of estrogen-based menopausal hormone therapies for the prevention of a variety of age-related disorders. Although findings of these studies were equivocal, the neuroprotective actions of estrogen, and specifically 17β-estradiol, identified by early investigations, remain well-documented. Future development of interventions that optimize cognitive aging are crucial and, with proper understanding of the factors that influence the realization of beneficial impacts, estrogen-containing treatments may still be

  1. Crucial differences between undergraduate biochemical education in Brazil and developed countries: history and perspectives - (Symposium SBBq Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracht

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The crucial difference between the biochemical education in Brazil and more developed countries resides not in the highest degrees but inthe lowest ones: the bachelor degree in Biochemistry is still a rarity in Brazil. Whereas more than 600 institutions in the US offer the bachelor degree in biochemistry/molecularbiology, presently only 3 are offered in Brazil. This situation may be surprising, but ithas historical reasons among others. The field of Biochemistry in Brazil played a pioneering role in institutionalizing master’s and doctoral programs, thus reinforcing also research activities. Teachers and researchers involved in these programs, however, had in general little if any interest in implementing undergraduate biochemistry studies, except as a fundamental one year discipline to be taken by future biologists, pharmacists, medical students, etc. The second reason for the virtual absence of the biochemistry bachelor degree before 2005 in Brazil are the so called baccalaureates in “Pharmacy and Biochemistry” a strange denomination whose more correct name should be “Pharmacy and Clinical Analyses”. This situation generated the notion, within and outside academic circles, that there is a very especial relationship between Pharmacy and Biochemistry or even that they are one and the same thing. These and other erroneous notions have proven to be adverse for the brazilian biochemistry in both professionaland academic spheres, especially in more recent times when the master’s and doctoral programs ceased to offer the more basic disciplines. Many graduates with a master’s or even doctoral degree have a highly defficient background on physical and organic chemistry, or even on metabolic biochemistry and enzymology if the program is centered on molecular biology.

  2. Importance of the Country of Origin from the Consumers’ Perspective in the Research Context of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Čutura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to establish the level of importance of the country of origin (COO in the purchasing process of different categories of consumer goods in the research context of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. Design/Methodology/Approach – The study is based on primary data collected through a survey questionnaire on a consumer sample in B&H. The analysis consists of several levels: establishing a level of COO importance for consumers; establishing a level of consumer familiarity with a COO; identifying the influence of consumer ethnocentrism on the level of COO importance. Findings and implications – ANOVA and T-paired tests highlighted the importance of COO to vary across product categories. The results of regression analysis showed that consumer ethnocentrism significantly influences the level of COO importance in the purchasing process. The results contribute to the thesis that COO has a diagnostic value for the consumers in the purchasing process and can therefore be used as a marketing tool in providing better market acceptance and positioning of products. Limitations – This research has a limited scope considering that it is a single-market study, but also because of the small range of researched product categories. Further research studies should consider a wider range of product categories, as well as a cross-cultural research approach to explore the importance of COO on the overall purchasing process. Originality – This study represents an integrative approach to the phenomenon of COO, consisting of consumer ethnocentrism, product characteristics, and consumer perspective regarding COO importance and familiarity.

  3. Exploring the (k)not of relationship between lecturers and management at a historically Black university : the lecturer's perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cilliers, Frans; Van Deventer, Vasie; May, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    Orientation : Within the new South African socio-political context this research focussed on lecturers' at historically Black universities who were confronted with unresolved experiences in their relationship with management...

  4. A Historical Perspective of Deaf People and Its Constitution as aMeans of Social Movement in Brazil, in Contemporary Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingrid Karla da Nobrega Beserra

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present the historical constitution of the Deaf Movement (Movimento Surdo) and theirrespective events and claims in the national socio-political scene. Among the numerous social movements operatingin the country and the world we identified the Deaf Movement while present in the social struggles and the poorvisibility conferred on it in the context of listener culture, considering their undeniable importance in the currentform of society. Search up from the use of surveys and interviews to understand this movement as the set of actionsdeveloped by the deaf community around the historical issues, identity, cultural, social and political. Among themany claims of this movement highlights the proposed bilingual education for deaf people seeking socialknowledge of deafness would mean not only the best form of education for the deaf, but also for themaintenance/affirmation of deaf culture.

  5. Tropical systems from the southwest Indian Ocean making landfall over the Limpopo River Basin, southern Africa: a historical perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study provides perspective on the contribution of landfalling tropical systems (cyclones, depressions, storms and lows) from the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) towards rainfall over the eastern interior of southern Africa, over the period 1948...

  6. Historical consciousness - Contemporary history and the problem of historical perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hollander, JC

    2002-01-01

    Historical consciousness is an elusive concept, as long as we try to understand it from the narrow perspective of professional historians. Therefore, a wider perspective is needed. If we accept that historical understanding has become a general trait of modern culture, we may try to explain it in te

  7. Earthquake induced liquefaction hazard, probability and risk assessment in the city of Kolkata, India: its historical perspective and deterministic scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Srivastava, Nishtha; Ghatak, Chitralekha; Adhikari, Manik Das; Ghosh, Ambarish; Sinha Ray, S. P.

    2017-09-01

    synthesized bedrock ground motion for both the 1897 and 1934 earthquakes on non-linear analysis of local site conditions through DEEPSOIL Geotechnical analysis package present surface level peak ground acceleration of the order of 0.05-0.14 g for the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake while for the 1897 Shillong earthquake it is found to be in the range of 0.03-0.11 g. The factor of safety (FOS) against liquefaction, the probability of liquefaction (P L), the liquefaction potential index (LPI), and the liquefaction risk index are estimated under the influence of these two earthquakes wherein the city is classified into severe (LPI > 15), high (5 65% comprising of coarse-grained sediments of sand, silty sand, and clayey silty sand in mostly the deltaic plain geomorphologic unit with 39.1% sites depicting severe liquefaction hazard with a median LPI of 28.3. A non-linear regression analysis on both the historical and deterministic liquefaction scenarios in P L versus LPI domain with ± 1 standard deviation confidence bound generated a cubic polynomial relationship between the two liquefaction hazard proxies. This study considered a bench mark for other cities in the country and elsewhere forms an integral part of the mega-seismic microzonation endeavors undertaken in all the earthquake-prone counties in the world.

  8. Characterizing the burden of premature ejaculation from a patient and partner perspective: a multi-country qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannix Sally

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ejaculation (PE is a common sexual dysfunction among men which affects men and their partners. Little qualitative data are available to characterize the impact of PE on men and their partners about ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and relationships. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of PE from the perspective of men with PE and the female partners of men with PE on their sexual experience, distress and relationships. Methods Qualitative data were collected through 14 focus groups in the US and through one-on-one interviews in the US, UK, Italy, France, Germany, and Poland. Study participants included heterosexual men with PE and female partners of males with PE. All participants were asked about how PE affects their daily life, including emotional impacts. One-on-one interviews also included obtaining feedback on the male and female versions of 4-single item measures of PE focusing on ejaculatory control, satisfaction with intercourse, interpersonal distress, and relationship difficulty. Results Participants included 172 males with PE and 67 female partners of men with PE. Lack of control over ejaculation and dissatisfaction with intercourse emerged as central themes of PE. Lack of ejaculatory control resulted in greater dissatisfaction and greater emotional distress, including feelings of inadequacy, disappointment, and anxiety. Continued PE ultimately leads to greater problems with partners and often disrupts partner relationships. Participants indicated that PE was keeping them from attaining complete intimacy in their relationships even when their partners were generally satisfied with sexual intercourse. Impacts of PE on sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and partner relationships were consistent across countries. Feedback on the single-item PE measures confirmed relevance of the item content and further confirmed major themes identified from the qualitative

  9. On the Inevitability and Importance of Civic Education from the Perspective of Historical Materialism%从历史唯物主义的角度看公民教育存在的必然性与重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭琳

    2012-01-01

    The existence of civic education has its necessity and importance,for it advents and develops with the development and change of human society from the perspective of historical materialism,so we can see that the history of human development determines the identity and status of civic education.At present,civic education has become an indispensable content of education system for a country,for it plays an important role in unifying civic ideology,standardizing limited behavior,and condensing force.%公民教育的存在有着必然性和重要性,从历史唯物主义的角度来看公民教育,可以了解其是跟随人类社会的发展变革而产生和发展的,是人类发展的历史决定了公民教育的身份与地位。当下,公民教育已经成为一个国家教育体系当中不可或缺的重要内容,在统一其公民意识形态、规范限制行为、凝聚力量等方面发挥着重要的作用。

  10. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  11. Video "Reading" and Multimodality: A Study of ESL/Literacy Pupils' Interpretation of "Cinderella" from Their Socio-Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Hispanic ESL/literacy learners used their socio-historical experiences and multimodal resources to mediate interpretation and representation of "Cinderella". Eighteen third-grade pupils "read" the video and re-created their understandings in pictures and sentences. The findings suggest that (a)…

  12. Human Capital or Humane Talent? Rethinking the Nature of Education in China from a Comparative Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Limin

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of human capital theory on contemporary Chinese education, this paper first draws a conceptual outline of how this theory was introduced and interpreted to suit the Chinese quest for modernization. The study then adopts a comparative historical approach to the points of similarity between Neo-Confucian educational…

  13. History of Science in the Science Curriculum: An Historical Perspective. Part I: Early Interest and Roles Advocated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses some of the factors underlying early calls for history of science in the science curriculum of English secondary schools. These factors focus on attacks on science, disquiet among science teachers, and parallelism between intellectual and historical development. Also discusses roles seen for historial materials advocated up to World War…

  14. A Cultural History of the Avant-Garde in the Nordic Countries 1900-1925

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The first publication to deal with the avant-garde in the Nordic countries at the start of the twentieth century. It is the first major historical work to consider the Nordic avant-garde in a transnational perspective which includes all the arts and to discuss the role of the avant-garde not only...

  15. SafeCare: Historical Perspective and Dynamic Development of an Evidence-Based Scaled-Up Model for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn M. Guastaferro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SafeCare is an evidence-based parent-training program that reduces child maltreatment, particularly neglect. The risk of child maltreatment, a public health issue affecting millions of U.S. children each year, can be markedly reduced by interventions such as SafeCare that deliver in-home services. Drawing from applied behavioral analysis roots, SafeCare focuses on providing parents with concrete skills in three areas: health, home safety, and parent-child/-infant interaction. This paper will include an overview of the SafeCare model, an historical perspective of its history and dynamic development, description of the theoretical underpinnings of the model, a description of the program targets and content by describing its modules and delivery, an overview of program outcomes, and data discussion of dissemination and implementation.

  16. [A historical perspective on the evolution of the concepts of motor activity and physical exercise in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Andrea A; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2008-02-01

    A historical analysis of Western medicine clearly indicates high attention to the body dimension and to corporeal functions. Even if what today may be defined "the science of physical exercise in medicine" goes back only to the last fifty years, the great Mediterranean cultures have always dedicated great care to the harmonic development of the human body. The importance of the role of physical exercise in maintaining an appropriate health status is mentioned in the Hippocratic Corpus (V-IV century before Christ). In the contemporaneous Hippocratic Oath one may read that the physicians of the Hippocratic School are called upon to "regulate the lifestyle of sick people in the light of their well being". At that time the prescriptions regarding patients' lifestyle, taking into account the limited effectiveness of therapeutic measures, were primarily concentrated on an appropriate diet and motor activity. This historical review describes the evolution of physical activity in medicine with regard to the current awareness of its relevance at every stage of life; the presentation of the historical roots of the concepts of motor activity and of physical exercise and of their progress through time aims at defining their current preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitative roles.

  17. The community impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in the WHO European region: a comparison with historical seasonal data from 28 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martirosyan, L.; Paget, W.J.; Jorgensen, P.; Brown, C.S.; Meerhoff, T.J.; Pereyaslov, D.; Mott, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The world has recently experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century that lasted 14 months from June 2009 to August 2010. This study aimed to compare the timing, geographic spread and community impact during the winter wave of influenza pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 to historical

  18. The community impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in the WHO European region: a comparison with historical seasonal data from 28 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martirosyan, L.; Paget, W.J.; Jorgensen, P.; Brown, C.S.; Meerhoff, T.J.; Pereyaslov, D.; Mott, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The world has recently experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century that lasted 14 months from June 2009 to August 2010. This study aimed to compare the timing, geographic spread and community impact during the winter wave of influenza pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 to historical

  19. International perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology: comparison across 14 countries around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Christopher L; Novitski, Julia I

    2016-11-01

    To review and summarize data provided by special issue authors regarding the education, training, and practice of neuropsychologists from 14 surveyed countries. A table was constructed to present an overview of variables of interest. There is considerable diversity among surveyed countries regarding the education and training required to enter practice as a clinical neuropsychologist. Clinical neuropsychologists are typically well compensated, at least in comparison to what constitutes an average salary in each country. Despite substantial variations in education and training pathways, and availability of neuropsychologists from country to country, two common areas for future development are suggested. First, identification, development, and measurement of core competencies for neuropsychological education and practice are needed that can serve as a unifying element for the world's clinical neuropsychologists. Second, greater emphasis on recognizing and addressing the need for assessment and treatment of diverse populations is needed if the world's citizens can hope to benefit from the expertise of practitioners in our field.

  20. The perception of corruption in a cross-country perspective: why are some individuals more perceptive than others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Melgar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the foundations of corruption perception at the micro-level. Using micro and macro data, we focus on the incidence of personal characteristics and country effects. We extend previous researches by estimating sub-models taking into account differences in the countries of residence. Our database comes from the 2004 International Social Survey Program survey that includes more than 35 countries. Ordered probit models were estimated in order to study the impact of independent variables on the perceived level of corruption. This article argues that there are socio-demographic variables that play a relevant role in determining corruption perception (such as: gender, education, etc.. We find that country of residence matters and the model shows some relevant patters of behavior. Finally, we find a strong relationship between our ranking of countries and the Corruption Perception Index computed by Transparency International.