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Sample records for countries epidemiological aspects

  1. BETA THALASSEMIA MAJOR IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY ASPECT

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    Mohamed Bejaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia major (TM remains to be one of the major health problems particularly in developing countries. Tunisia is a part of the Mediterranean countries mostly affected by this disease which is highly concentrated in small towns in families with low-income earners. The main objectives of this study are to provide a description of the demographic, clinical features and transfusion-related complications in patients with TM living in Tunisia. A standardized questionnaire was sent to clinicians throughout 33 different medical institutions caring for thalassemic patients. 391 transfusion dependant thalassemic patients with a median age of 10.7 years (range 3 months- 31 years were included in the study.The majority were originated from the north west of the country .A moderate overload between 1501 and 2500ng/ml was found in 61patients, while 81 patients (26.9% had ferritin level more than 2500 ng/ml and greater than 5000ng/ml in 21 patients (6.9%. 51 patients died from complications related to their disease. Heart failure was the main cause of death. The incidence of cardiac, endocrine, and infectious complications will be reviewed. Preventive measures such as health education, carrier screening and premarital screening remain the best ways for lowering the incidence of these diseases, which might be reflected in financial saving, social benefits and health benefits.

  2. Epidemiological aspects of suicide among the young in selected European countries.

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    Moens, G F; Haenen, W; Van de Voorde, H

    1988-01-01

    Trends in reported suicide rates were analysed for the ages 5-24 years in 21 selected European countries in 1970-74 and 1980-84. In children the precision of the rates was found to be low though there appeared to be a trend to increased suicide in boys. In adolescent and young adult males, however, there was a definite increase in suicide over the period studied, and this was much more marked than in females, in whom the rates had declined in eight countries. The Belgian situation was investigated in detail. Increases were most pronounced in 20-24 year-old males. Around 1981, about half of youth suicides were committed by firearms and medicaments, and these methods showed the largest increases in risk. The estimated under-reporting error diminished with increasing age and over the past ten years. It was larger in females, but did not bias the trends substantially. On the aggregated level, youth suicide was found most strongly associated with indicators of anomie and social isolation. The relevance of these findings in the search for determinants and for preventive strategies is discussed. PMID:3251009

  3. Organizational aspects and implementation of data systems in large-scale epidemiological studies in less developed countries

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    Deen Jacqueline L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the conduct of epidemiological studies in less developed countries, while great emphasis is placed on study design, data collection, and analysis, often little attention is paid to data management. As a consequence, investigators working in these countries frequently face challenges in cleaning, analyzing and interpreting data. In most research settings, the data management team is formed with temporary and unskilled persons. A proper working environment and training or guidance in constructing a reliable database is rarely available. There is little information available that describes data management problems and solutions to those problems. Usually a line or two can be obtained in the methods section of research papers stating that the data are doubly-entered and that outliers and inconsistencies were removed from the data. Such information provides little assurance that the data are reliable. There are several issues in data management that if not properly practiced may create an unreliable database, and outcomes of this database will be spurious. Results We have outlined the data management practices for epidemiological studies that we have modeled for our research sites in seven Asian countries and one African country. Conclusion Information from this model data management structure may help others construct reliable databases for large-scale epidemiological studies in less developed countries.

  4. Epidemiology of tattoos in industrialized countries.

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    Kluger, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In 1974, the first professional French tattooist C. Bruno wrote a book, entitled 'Tatoués, qui êtes-vous?', depicting his experience as a tattooist in the picturesque Pigalle tourist district of Paris. However, we have come a long way since then. Tattooing has gained tremendous visibility, notoriety and popularity in Western countries. In Germany, 8.5% of the population (aged between 14 and 90 years) has a tattoo. Similar trends have been found in France, Finland and Australia, where approximately 10% of the populations have at least one tattoo. However, the overall tattoo prevalences overseas and in Europe are even higher, especially among the youth, for whom it is up to 15-25% according to the country. Much has been written about the tattooed and tattooists. However, who are they currently? What motivates them to get tattooed and give tattoos? How do they see themselves? Why do some individuals remove their tattoos? Is there a 'profile' of the tattooed? Are they really 'risk takers'? And how do the nontattooed perceive them? Through a critical review of the literature, we will reconsider tattooing from an epidemiological aspect, challenge current beliefs and explore new insights into the motivations and fears of tattoo artists and their clients.

  5. [Epidemiological aspects of childhood cancer].

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    Lacour, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    In France, cancer hits around 1700 children (0-14 years) each year. The age-standardized incidence rate for all cancers combined is 152 cases per million children per year, with a sex ratio of 1.2. In other terms, one child out of 440 develops a cancer before the age of 15 in industrial countries. The most frequent cancers were leukaemia (29%), embryonal tumours apart central nervous system (25%), central nervous system tumour (23%) and lymphoma (12%). The incidence varies between countries with higher overall rates in industrialized countries. These variations may reflect differences in diagnostic techniques or registration or in the distribution of possible risk factors. Five-year survival after childhood cancer has dramatically improved in the last 30 years, reaching yet 80%.

  6. Measuring male infertility: epidemiological aspects

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    Pasqualotto Fábio Firmbach

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that human semen quality may have been deteriorating in recent years. Most of the evidence is retrospective, based on analysis of data sets collected for other purposes. Measures of male infertility are needed if we want to monitor the biological capacity for males to reproduce over time or between different populations. We also need these measures in analytical epidemiology if we want to identify risk indicators, risk factors, or even causes of an impaired male fecundity-that is, the male component in the biological ability to reproduce. The most direct evaluation of fecundity is to measure the time it takes to conceive. Since the time of conception may be missed in the case of an early abortion, time to get pregnant is often measured as the time it takes to obtain a conception that survives until a clinically recognized pregnancy or even a pregnancy that ends with a live born child occurs. A prolonged time required to produce pregnancy may therefore be due to a failure to conceive or a failure to maintain a pregnancy until clinical recognition. Studies that focus on quantitative changes in fecundity (that does not cause sterility should in principle be possible in a pregnancy sample. The most important limitation in fertility studies is that the design requires equal persistency in trying to become pregnant and rather similar fertility desires and family planning methods in the groups to be compared. This design is probably achievable in exposure studies that make comparisons with reasonable comparable groups concerning social conditions and use of contraceptive methods.

  7. Epidemiological, clinical and developmental aspects of chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological, clinical and developmental aspects of chronic kidney ... Biologically , anemia was present in 100% of our patents. ... Conclusion : The prevalence of CKD in children in our study was 0.62 %. ... Keywords: Chronic kidney disease (chronic renal failure), Children, Glomerulopathy,Haemodialysis, Sénégal ...

  8. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

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    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  9. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin

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    Arbia Abir Gorrab MD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively. The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7% only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001. The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31. The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  10. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries.

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    Benamer, Hani T S; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2010-02-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1-9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine prevalence was 2.6-5% in Saudi Arabia and 7.9% in Qatar, while the 1-year migraine prevalence was 10.1% in Oman. The results show a migraine prevalence within that estimated worldwide. However, it is clear that epidemiological data from Arab countries are lacking, and there is disparity in the reported prevalence from Saudi Arabia when compared with its two neighbours, Qatar and Oman. Wider study adopting the same methodology in the six Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait) is needed to examine variations in headache and migraine prevalence.

  11. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries

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    Benamer, Hani T. S.; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1–9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine preva...

  12. Epidemiological aspects of cadmium in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscator, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cadmium is highly toxic to man and it has an extremely long biological half-time. Under long-term low level exposure about one third of the total body burden is in the kidneys. In some European countries and USA mean renal cortical concentrations of cadmium 24-50 ppM wet weight at age 50 have been reported. In three areas in Japan the corresponding concentrations were 60 to 125 ppM wet weight. These normal concentrations have been thought to cause hypertension but so far epidemiological data are not available to support such a hypothesis. Renal tubular dysfunction may begin at a renal cortical concentration of about 200 ppM wet weight. In Japan extensive investigations have been carried out in several areas polluted by cadmium. Available data indicate that the prevalence of proteinuria is higher in the cadmium polluted areas and that the proteinuria is of the tubular type. Studies on dose-response relationships must include accurate and sensitive methods for the detection of low molecular weight proteinuria, which is an early sign in cadmium intoxication. 6 references, 1 table.

  13. Vestibular migraine: clinical and epidemiological aspects

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    Ligia Oliveira Gonçalves Morganti; Márcio Cavalcante Salmito; Juliana Antoniolli Duarte; Karina Cavalcanti Sumi; Juliana Caminha Simões; Fernando Freitas Ganança

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Vestibular migraine (VM) is one of the most often common diagnoses in neurotology, but only recently has been recognized as a disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with VM. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, and descriptive study, with analysis of patients' records from an outpatient VM clinic. RESULTS: 94.1% of patients were females and 5.9% were males. The mean age was 46.1 years; 65.6% of patients h...

  14. Genetic aspects and genetic epidemiology of parasomnias.

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    Hublin, Christer; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2003-10-01

    Parasomnias are undesirable phenomena associated with sleep. Many of them run in families, and genetic factors have been long suggested to be involved in their occurrence. This article reviews the present knowledge of the genetics of the major classical behavioral parasomnias as well as present results from genetic epidemiological studies. The level and type of evidence for genetic effects varies much from parasomnia to parasomnia. The genetic factors are best established in enuresis, with several linkages to chromosomal loci, but their functions are not so far known. Environmental causes and gene-environment interactions are most probably also of great importance in the origin of complex traits or disorders such as parasomnias.

  15. Tennis elbow. Anatomical, epidemiological and therapeutic aspects.

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    Verhaar, J A

    1994-10-01

    Five studies of tennis elbow are presented. Epidemiological studies showed an incidence of tennis elbow between 1 and 2%. The prevalence of tennis elbow in women between 40 and 50 years of age was 10%. Half of the patients with tennis elbow seek medical attention. Local corticosteroid injections were superior to the physiotherapy regime of Cyriax. Release of the common forearm extensor origin resulted in 70% excellent or good results one year after operation and 89% at five years. Anatomical investigations and nerve conduction studies of the Radial Tunnel Syndrome supported the hypothesis that the Lateral Cubital Force Transmission System is involved in the pathogenesis of tennis elbow.

  16. Epidemiology of noise and legal aspects

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    Simone Alexandrino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief interdisciplinary approach to the health-disease phenomenon in the workplace related to occupational noise exposure and regulatory developments involving the subject. What justifies the discussion of this theme is the constant regulatory changes in the regulation of the maximum tolerance limit for exposure to occupational noise in decibels, which despite being the result of tests carried out in accredited laboratories by the Ministry of Labor and Employment can not be effective for avoid the illness of workers. It is intended to answer the following questions: What is epidemiology and how occupational noise exposure can be a risk factor for workers; why there are so many changes in the rules governing the fixing of maximum decibels to which workers can be "safely" exposed; whether the rules governing the safety of workers exposed to occupational noise are effective in protecting the health of these people.

  17. Epidemiology and sociodemographic aspects of ocular traumatic injuries in Iran.

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    Jafari, Alireza Keshtkar; Anvari, Faramarz; Ameri, Ahmad; Bozorgui, Shima; Shahverdi, Nooshin

    2010-12-01

    Although the incidence of ocular trauma has been clearly described in developed countries, few published data are available on the epidemiology and the effects of parameters that can influence the incidence and severity of ocular injuries in Iran. The present study tried to determine epidemiological aspects of ocular traumatic injuries and evaluate their effects on different types of ocular injury. The case series included 1950 consecutive patients with acute ophthalmic trauma presented to the emergency ward of Farabi Hospital in Tehran. Information was collected by interviewing patients and having them fill in a questionnaire. The final diagnosis was made by a medical resident. If there was a difficulty or doubt in diagnosis or classification, confirmation of diagnosis was made by senior faculty. Ocular injuries were classified into globe and non-globe injuries according to the site of injury. Mechanical globe injuries were classified according to Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT) into closed and open injuries. The mean age of patients was 28.8 ± 12.8 years; 87.6% were male. The most common causes of injury were work-related (49.0%) and chance events (42.0%). The most frequent ocular injury was globe injury (95.6%), including mechanical (77.6% closed and 5.9% open), chemical (7.6%), photic (2.3%) and thermal (2.2%) injuries. Non-globe injury also occurred in 10.8% of patients; both globe and non-globe injuries occurred in 6.5% of patients. The hospitalization rate in all patients was 8.8%. Previous history of eye trauma was significantly more common in the group with isolated globe injuries (P < 0.001). History of eye trauma is a risk factor for globe injuries and female gender is a risk factor only for non-globe injuries. These two factors may predict future eye injury and increase its risk by 5.2 and 1.6 times, respectively.

  18. Epidemiological aspects of cutaneous malignant melanoma (review).

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    Serraino, D; Fratino, L; Gianni, W; Campisi, C; Pietropaolo, M; Trimarco, G; Marigliano, V

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the etiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Once considered a rare tumour, CMM is now the fourth commonest cancer in Australia and New Zeland, the tenth in the Usa, Canada and Scandinavia and the eighteenth in Great Britain. The growing scientific concern on the urgent need to highlight the cause/s of CMM is well documented by the large number of well-designed and well-conducted epidemiological studies reported in the last two decades. Such studies facilitated testing of many etiological hypotheses derived from earlier descriptive investigations and contributed to significant progress in understanding the etiology of such disease. The quantification of the extent to which the increases in CMM incidence and mortality rates are related to new lifestyles and to new patterns of exposure to potential carcinogenetic agents is essential in order to establish an appropriate preventive strategy. In population of mainly European origin a substantial proportion of the increased incidence of CMM is attributable to steady change from predominantly occupational to predominantly recreational exposure to solar radiation. Therefore the present review puts particular emphasis on exposure to sunlight as well as to artificial ultraviolet light, as modifiable causes of CMM. Incidence and mortality data and other potential risk factors for the development of CMM will also be briefly reviewed.

  19. Vestibular migraine: clinical and epidemiological aspects

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    Ligia Oliveira Gonçalves Morganti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Vestibular migraine (VM is one of the most often common diagnoses in neurotology, but only recently has been recognized as a disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with VM. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, and descriptive study, with analysis of patients' records from an outpatient VM clinic. RESULTS: 94.1% of patients were females and 5.9% were males. The mean age was 46.1 years; 65.6% of patients had had headache for a longer period than dizziness. A correlation was detected between VM symptoms and the menstrual period. 61.53% of patients had auditory symptoms, with tinnitus the most common, although tonal audiometry was normal in 68.51%. Vectoelectronystagmography was normal in 67.34%, 10.20% had hyporeflexia, and 22.44% had vestibular hyperreflexia. Electrophysiological assessment showed no abnormalities in most patients. Fasting plasma glucose and glycemic curve were normal in most patients, while the insulin curve was abnormal in 75%. 82% of individuals with MV showed abnormalities on the metabolism of carbohydrates. CONCLUSION: VM affects predominantly middle-aged women, with migraine headache representing the first symptom, several years before vertigo. Physical, auditory, and vestibular evaluations are usually normal. The most frequent vestibular abnormality was hyperreflexia. Most individuals showed abnormality related to carbohydrate metabolism.

  20. Gastric cancer - clinical and epidemiological aspects.

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    Venerito, Marino; Link, Alexander; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) ranks fifth for cancer incidence and second for cancer deaths. Epidemiological data showed that survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and patients with pernicious anemia etiologically linked to autoimmune gastritis are at increased risk of GC. Screening of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease by means of pepsinogen (PG) I and PG I/II detected autoimmune gastritis with oxyntic gastric atrophy in one of four patients and may be recommended for GC prevention purposes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer reported a positive association between consumption of processed meet and increased GC risk. A new GC risk prediction model based on biological markers, age, gender, smoking status, family history of GC, and consumption of highly salted food showed good predictive performance, and might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programs. A novel GC classification based on gene expression of primary resected cancers correlated with clinicopathological features. Noncoding RNA for GC screening remains the focus of multiple studies. Patients with early GC undergoing endoscopic resection are more likely to develop metachronous lesions than patients undergoing surgery and endoscopic surveillance is warranted in this special cohort. The addition of gastrectomy to chemotherapy did not improve survival of patients with advanced GC and a single noncurable factor. Apatinib, a novel oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved the median overall survival of patients with advanced GC and progressive disease after two or more lines of prior chemotherapy of nearly 3 months.

  1. Epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of sheep conidiobolomycosis in Brazil

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    Carla Weiblen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging disease caused by fungi of the cosmopolitan genus Conidiobolus . Particular strains of Conidiobolus coronatus, Conidiobolus incongruus and Conidiobolus lamprauges , mainly from tropical or sub-tropical origin, cause the mycosis in humans and animals, domestic or wild. Lesions are usually granulomatous and necrotic in character, presenting two clinical forms: rhinofacial and nasopharyngeal. This review includes the main features of the disease in sheep, with an emphasis on the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and diagnosis of infections caused by Conidiobolus spp. in Brazil. In this country, the disease is endemic in the Northeast and Midwest, affecting predominantly woolless sheep breeds and occasioning death in the majority of the studied cases. The species responsible for infections of sheep are C. coronatus and C. lamprauges and the predominant clinical presentation is nasopharyngeal. These fungal infections are very important, since they compromise the health status of the sheep flock and cause serious economic losses to the sheep industry. Thus, research is needed to investigate faster tools for diagnosis and effective methods for the control and treatment of conidiobolomycosis.

  2. Scorpion fauna and epidemiological aspects of scorpionism in southeastern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jalil Nejati; Ehsan Mozafari; Abedin Saghafipour; Malek Kiyani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the scorpion fauna and classify the epidemiological aspects of scorpionism in an endemic region, Southeast Iran. Methods: Scorpionism data were collected from health centers and hospitals in Sistan-Baluchestan Province during 2010-2011. Specimens were collected at night, using UV light, between May and October 2012.Results:Five species including Odontobuthus odonturus, Hottentotta (Buthotus) jayakari, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Scorpio maurus and Orthochirus scrobiculosus are reported for the first time from this area. Androctonus crassicauda was the dominant species. In total, 3638 scorpion sting cases were recorded by health system, the majority of which were females. Stings mostly occurred in July and the age group of 15-24 years presented the highest frequency. Scorpionism decreased during 2011 compared with that in 2010 (68.2%). In total, 246 scorpions were collected from two families (Buthidae and Scorpionidae). Conclusions: Based on the results, scorpionism is a serious health problem in this area and increasing knowledge of residents regarding the prevention methods of scorpion stings is recommended. Additional research on the scorpion fauna, their ecological and molecular variety in this part of the country is needed as well as the correlation between scorpions’ species and the clinical signs and symptoms.

  3. Feline sporotrichosis: epidemiological and clinical aspects.

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    Gremião, Isabella D F; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Schubach, Tânia M P; Figueiredo, Anna B F; Cavalcanti, Maíra C H; Pereira, Sandro A

    2015-01-01

    Feline sporotrichosis, which is caused by species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex, is endemic to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. More than 4000 cases of the disease were diagnosed at Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil, between 1998 and 2012. Sporotrichosis in cats has been reported in several countries, but nowhere has an outbreak of animal sporotrichosis been as large as that seen in Brazil. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from an isolated skin lesion that can progress to multiple skin lesions and even fatal systemic involvement. Nodules and ulcers are the most common types of lesions, and respiratory signs and mucosa involvement are frequent. The definitive diagnosis depends on isolation of the etiologic agent in culture. Cytology, histopathology, and serology are useful tools for preliminary diagnosis. Severe pyogranulomatous inflammatory infiltrate, high fungal load, and extension of lesions to mucosa, cartilage, and bone in the nose of cats are indicative of an agent of high virulence in this endemic region. Itraconazole is the drug of choice, while, in refractory cases, amphotericin B or potassium iodide might be alternative treatments; however, recurrence after discharge may occur. Sporotrichosis persists as a neglected disease in Rio de Janeiro, and the treatment of cats remains a challenging and long-term endeavor.

  4. Sexually transmitted diseases: epidemiological and clinical aspects in adults.

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    Siracusano, Salvatore; Silvestri, Tommaso; Casotto, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the first 10 causes of unpleased diseases in young adult women in the world. The concept of STDs includes a series of syndromes caused by pathogens that can be acquired by sexual intercourse or sexual activity.Adolescents and young adults are responsible for only 25% of the sexually active population and they represent almost 50% of all newly acquired STDs.In this way, we evaluated the epidemiological and clinical aspects of most relevant pathogens as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus Ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus (HPV) with the exception of hepatitis, and HIV infections for which we suggest specific guidelines.To attain this objective, we analyzed the results of epidemiological and clinical aspects of STDs through a review of the literature using MEDLINE and PubMed database for original articles published using the terms "sexual transmitted disease, epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy" from 2005 to 2014.

  5. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of a hepatitis E outbreak in Bangui, Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Komas Narcisse P; Konamna Xavier; Goumba Alice I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Outbreaks of hepatitis E frequently occur in tropical developing countries during the rainy season due to overflowing drains, short-circuiting of networks of clean water and use of contaminated water from wells. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are usually accompanied by general symptoms of acute liver disease. This study was conducted to define the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the HEV outbreak that occurred in May 2004 in Bangui. Methods Blood samples were co...

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe: legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment

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    Domeika, M; Hallen, A; Karabanov, L; Chudomirova, K; Gruber, F; Unzeitig, V; Poder, A; Deak, J; Jakobsone, I; Lapinskaite, G; Dajek, Z; Akovbian, V; Gomberg, M; Khryanin, A; Savitcheva, A; Takac, I; Glazkova, L; Vinograd, N; Nedeljkovic, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge concerning genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe is scarce. Data on the legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection have never been collected, summarised, and presented to the international scientific community. The aim of this study was to present the current situation on the main aspects of chlamydial infections in the countries of eastern Europe. Methods: Written questionnaires concerning legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection were distributed among national STI operating administrators as well as researchers who had presented papers at earlier meetings of European chlamydia or STI societies. Results: Most of the countries have not legalised reporting of chlamydial infections and in those who have done so, the quality of the reporting system is poor. Contact tracing is mostly done on a voluntary basis. Reported chlamydia incidence varies from 21 to 276 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most commonly used diagnostic test remains the direct immunofluorescence test; however, some tendencies towards nucleic acid amplification are in evidence. Diagnostic services are paid for by the patient himself, while treatment in many countries is partially or completely covered by public insurance. Conclusions: This is the first report summarising data concerning the situation on C trachomatis infections in eastern Europe. The reporting system and diagnosis of C trachomatis infections remain suboptimal, which allows neither control of the epidemiological situation nor optimal treatment of the patients. The most urgent work currently necessary is the education of professionals and the general population. PMID:12081171

  7. POLYNEOPLASMS IN OPHTHALMIC ONCOLOGY: CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

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    I. Ye. Panova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the clinical and epidemiological aspects of polyneoplasms of the organ of vision, shows the incidence rate of this abnormality in the pattern of neoplasms of the eye, and determines the specific features of the age-sex composition of patients and the clinical course characterized by a predominance of the metachronic type of a tumor process and by the most common concurrence with malignant skin tumors or breast cancer.

  8. Hepatitis A: epidemiology in resource-poor countries.

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    Aggarwal, Rakesh; Goel, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is primarily fecal-oral. Symptomatic hepatitis, severe disease, and death are more likely to occur when infection occurs at an older age. Improvements in socioeconomic and hygienic conditions have led to a change in its epidemiology worldwide. In the last two decades, improved hygiene in several resource-poor countries has led to reduced transmission of HAV, an increase in average age at infection, and, consequently, a paradoxical increase in morbidity and mortality because of hepatitis A. In Argentina, introduction of one dose (instead of the conventional two doses, to reduce costs) of inactivated HAV vaccine at 12-month age in a universal childhood immunization program during such 'epidemiologic transition' has markedly reduced the incidence of symptomatic hepatitis A, and of fulminant hepatitis and liver transplantation caused by HAV infection. The monetary value of medical and nonmedical benefits of this strategy outweighed the expenditure on vaccination. These excellent results were possibly contingent upon a high vaccination coverage. Resource-poor countries should closely monitor the epidemiology of HAV infection and periodically undertake cost-effectiveness analyses of HAV immunization strategies. This should allow timely identification of epidemiologic transition and introduction of preventive strategies before HAV infection becomes a public health problem.

  9. [Testicular Cancer Epidemiology in Developing Countries. Review of the literature.

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    Medina-Rico, Mauricio; López-Ramos, Hugo

    2017-06-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common cancer in men between 15 and 44 years. It has been reported that the incidence of TC is rising. The aim of this article is to determine the epidemiology of TC in Colombia. A literature review on four databases was performed PubMed, Embase, Lilacs and Scielo. Studies of incidence, prevalence, mortality and survival of TC were taken from different countries. Studies included were published in the last 10 years. 2308 references were reviewed by title and abstract. In search of local references in non-indexed journals 5 references were extracted. In total 139 references for review in full text were selected. The global incidence and prevalence of cancer varies. In the Northern Europe region, the highest incidence is evident, mainly in Denmark, Croatia and Norway. Followed by Western Europe and South America with Chile. In Colombia the general age incidence is 2,2/100.000, finding a zero incidence in departments such as Chocó and Guajira. A rise in the incidence of TC has been seen globally, this trend mainly in developing countries. In Colombia most studies are crossectional studies. By seeing the epidemiological data from some departments and the lack of specialists in those regions, it can be deduced the existence of an underreport of the disease that reveals the need to improve both surveillance systems and information registration, such as policies to achieve early diagnosis of TC.

  10. [Epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in middle west of Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotondramarina, D; Razafimalala, F; Andrianaivo, P; Rabeson, D; Andriatsiva, R; Andrianavalomahefa, W

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a 5-year (1989-1993) retrospective analysis on a series of patients screened and treated for tuberculosis in order to determine the epidemiological aspects of the disease in mid-western Madagascar. Pulmonary forms affected 97% of patients, and predominantly men (sex ratio: 1.4); 83% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were coughing up acido-alcoholo-resitant bacilli. Haemoptysis and general deterioration, the most frequently met pathological signs, were observed respectively in 62% and 24% of cases. This explains the high rate of hospitalisation (42%), especially for patients with difficult access to services. Significantly, in terms of socio-professional category, live-stock breeders and farmers represented 32% of notified cases, and cattle-traders 18%. We draw attention to the possible role played by Mycobacterium bovis in human case-findings in a region characterised by cattle-breeding.

  11. Dermatophytosis in animals: epidemiological, clinical and zoonotic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, A; Agnetti, F; Mancianti, F; Nardoni, S; Righi, C; Moretta, I; Morganti, G; Papini, M

    2013-12-01

    Dermatophytosis are the most frequent fungal infections of pets and livestock and play an important role in animal and human health due to their zoonotic potential. Another important aspect of these infections is linked to the economic consequences in farm animal and fur production systems. An overview of dermatophytosis in animals is described in this paper. Epidemiological, clinical and zoonotic aspects are addressed, considering individual species, both pets and farmed animals. In particular, most recent investigations in the field of animal mycology, carried out in Central Italy, are reported, with particular reference to rabbit, ruminants, horse, dog, cat and some wild species. The information in this article show how dermatophytes infect a wide range of animals which may be in contact with human beings either directly or indirectly. Consequently they are frequently a source of infection for human beings who, vice versa, may sometimes become contagious for animals. Fungal pathogens derive their power to spread from contamination of the animal's habitat - whether the animal is a conventional pet or not, a farm animal or living in the wild. Thus if treatment of the animal or human patient is to achieve optimal efficacy, it needs to be associated with adequate environmental measures.

  12. [Scientific, practical and educational aspects of clinical epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briko, N I

    2012-01-01

    This article defines clinical epidemiology and describes its goal and objectives. The author claims that clinical epidemiology is a section of epidemiology which underlies the development of evidence-based standards for diagnostics, treatment and prevention and helps to select the appropriate algorithm for each clinical case. The study provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine. Epidemiological research is shown to be methodological basis of clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine with randomized controlled trials being the "gold standard" for obtaining reliable data. The key stages in the history of clinical epidemiology are discussed and further development of clinical epidemiology and the integration of courses on clinical epidemiology in education is outlined for progress in medical research and health care practice.

  13. Hepatitis A: Epidemiology and prevention in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Elisabetta; Meleleo, Cristina; Serino, Laura; Sorbara, Debora; Zaratti, Laura

    2012-03-27

    Hepatitis A is the most common form of acute viral hepatitis in the world. Major geographical differences in endemicity of hepatitis A are closely related to hygienic and sanitary conditions and other indicators of the level of socioeconomic development. The anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence rate is presently decreasing in many parts of the world, but in less developed regions and in several developing countries, HAV infection is still very common in the first years of life and seroprevalence rates approach 100%. In areas of intermediate endemicity, the delay in the exposure to the virus has generated a huge number of susceptible adolescents and adults and significantly increased the average age at infection. As the severity of disease increases with age, this has led to outbreaks of hepatitis A. Several factors contribute to the decline of the infection rate, including rising socioeconomic levels, increased access to clean water and the availability of a hepatitis A vaccine that was developed in the 1990s. For populations with a high proportion of susceptible adults, implementing vaccination programs may be considered. In this report, we review available epidemiological data and implementation of vaccination strategies, particularly focusing on developing countries.

  14. Epidemiology and 'developing countries': writing pesticides, poverty and political engagement in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Ben W

    2014-08-01

    The growth of the field of global health has prompted renewed interest in discursive aspects of North-South biomedical encounters, but analysis of the role of disciplinary identities and writing conventions remains scarce. In this article, I examine ways of framing pesticide problems in 88 peer-reviewed epidemiology papers produced by Northerners and their collaborators studying pesticide-related health impacts in Latin America. I identify prominent geographic frames in which truncated and selective histories of Latin America are used to justify research projects in specific research sites, which nevertheless function rhetorically as generic 'developing country' settings. These frames legitimize health sector interventions as solutions to pesticide-related health problems, largely avoiding more politically charged possibilities. In contrast, some epidemiologists appear to be actively pushing the bounds of epidemiology's traditional journal article genre by engaging with considerations of political power, especially that of the international pesticide industry. I therefore employ a finer-grained analysis to a subsample of 20 papers to explore how the writing conventions of epidemiology interact with portrayals of poverty and pesticides in Latin America. Through analysis of a minor scientific controversy, authorial presence in epidemiology articles, and variance of framing strategies across genres, I show how the tension between 'objectivity' and 'advocacy' observed in Northern epidemiology and public health is expressed in North-South interaction. I end by discussing implications for postcolonial and socially engaged approaches to science and technology studies, as well as their relevance to the actual practice of global health research. In particular, the complicated interaction of the conflicted traditions of Northern epidemiology with Latin American settings on paper hints at a far more complex interaction in the form of public health programming involving

  15. Feline cowpoxvirus infections in Germany: clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appl, Caroline; von Bomhard, Wolf; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Meyer, Hermann; Bettenay, Sonya; Mueller, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cats with cowpox in Germany from the years 2004 to 2010 are described and discussed. Questionnaires were sent to veterinarians and owners of affected cats identified with the help of a number of pathology laboratories. Of 69 mailed questionnaires, 45 veterinary and 26 owner questionnaires were returned and a total of 46 feline poxcases were evaluated. The cases were distributed all over Germany although there was an accumulation of cases in specific geographic areas. The clinical and epidemiological observations match those of other studies. The majority of cats were outdoor cats, came from a rural environment and developed clinical signs in late summer or autumn. All cats showed skin lesions which were predominantly localized on the anterior part of the body, 61% of the cats showed other clinical signs in addition to the skin lesions. Approximately half of the cats lived in a multi-pet household, but in only one case clinical signs typical for cowpox were observed in another cat of the household. In two cases a cat-to-human transmission was assumed. In addition, to evaluate the prevalence of pox virus infections in outdoor cats in areas with previous reports of such infections, 92 apparently unaffected outdoor cats were tested for orthopoxvirus antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Sixteen (17%) of the tested serum samples were seropositive against orthopoxvirus (titre between 1:20 and 1:40).This is a higher serum prevalence than in previously published studies from Germany. A possible explanation is selection of a population of outdoor cats from regions with previous known clinical cases.

  16. Radiological and epidemiological aspects of central giant cell granuloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noleto, Jose Wilson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: wilsonnoleto@ig.com.br; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Sampaio, Renato Kobler [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Irion, Klaus L. [Liverpool NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom). Cardiothoracic Centre; Collares, Felipe Birchal [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC)

    2007-05-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating main radiological and epidemiological aspects of giant cell lesions (central giant cell granuloma and brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism). Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 26 giant cell lesions diagnosed in 22 patients divided into two groups, one of them including 17 patients who were not affected by hyperparathyroidism (group A) and another including five patients with such a disorder (group B). Results: Prevalence was higher in female patients (72.7%). Most frequently, lesions occurred more in the second decade of life (mean age, 27 years). The mandible arc was most frequently involved (61.5%). Radiographically, 57.7% of lesions were multilocular and 42.3% were unilocular with defined limits. All of the 26 lesions caused expansion of bone, 15.4% radicular resorption, 50% dental displacement, and 11.5% produced pain. In the mandible 18.7% of the lesions crossed the midline. Group A showed 66.7% of lesions in the mandible and group B showed an even distribution of lesions between arches. In group A 66.7% of lesions were multilocular, and 33.3% unilocular; in group B 62.5% were unilocular, and 37.5% multilocular. Conclusion: Giant cells lesions may present themselves with a wide spectrum, from small, slow-growing unilocular lesions to extensive multilocular lesions. They present features of benignity, though some lesions may demonstrate a locally aggressive behavior. (author)

  17. Epidemiological Aspects of Blastocystis Colonization in Children in Ilero, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Casper S; Efunshile, Akinwale M; Nelson, Jenna A; Stensvold, Christen R

    2016-07-06

    This study aimed to elucidate aspects of the epidemiology of Blastocystis in Nigerian school children, including the distribution of subtypes (STs) and ST alleles. A total of 199 genomic DNAs extracted from fecal samples from 199 Nigerian children aged 2-14 years were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for Blastocystis Positive DNAs were submitted to barcoding by PCR and sequencing to obtain information on STs and ST alleles. A total of 167 (84%) samples were positive for Blastocystis, with prevalence increasing by age. No association between Blastocystis colonization and gender (P = 0.51) or type/presence of toilet facilities (P = 0.21) was observed. Blastocystis carriers were more prone to using water collected from wells than from sachets (P = 0.0044). Moreover, Blastocystis positivity was associated with positivity for fecal-orally transmitted protozoa (P = 0.018) and helminths (P Blastocystis colonization and malaria infection was observed (P Blastocystis colonization. ST data were available for 127/167 (76%) samples. Fifty-one children were positive for ST1, while 42 and 33 children were colonized with ST2 and ST3, respectively; a single case of ST7 was observed. By and large, the ST alleles identified for ST1 and ST2 did not differ from those observed in humans in other regions of the world; meanwhile, the distribution of ST3 alleles was remarkably distinct and potentially specific to humans in sub-Saharan Africa. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Herpes zoster: Epidemiología y clínica Clinical and epidemiological aspects of Herpes zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Vujacich

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El herpes zoster (HZ constituye una enfermedad de distribución mundial; sin embargo, existen es casos datos comunicados sobre la misma en países de Latinoamérica. Con el objetivo de evaluar aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de esta enfermedad en nuestra población, realizamos un análisis retrospectivo de historias clínicas de un centro privado de referencia en enfermedades infecciosas en Buenos Aires, Argentina (período: 2000-2005. Se realizó un análisis estadístico univariado para evaluar los factores asociados a neuralgia posherpética en este grupo de pacientes. Sobre un total de 302 casos evaluables, el 62% correspondieron a mujeres. La mediana de edad fue de 57 años. El 16.1% de los pacientes presentó condiciones predisponentes al desarrollo de zoster. Las localizaciones más frecuentes fueron la torácica, oftálmica y lumbosacra. El 7.75% presentó compromiso de más de dos metámeras. El 94% de los pacientes recibió medicación antiviral, siendo el aciclovir la droga más utilizada. El 94% recibió alguna medicación coadyuvante (antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, antineuríticos, corticoides. La complicación más frecuente fue la neuralgia posherpética (12% y se encontró estadísticamente asociada a edad mayor de 50 años.Herpes zoster (HZ is a public health problem worldwide. Although, there is paucity of data of this disease from South American countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and epidemiological aspects of HZ in a population of patients from South America. We underwent a retrospective analysis of clinical charts of an infectious diseases reference center (period: 2000-2005. Univariate analysis was performed to assess variables related to post herpetic neuralgia (PHN. From a total of 302 cases, 62% were in women. The median age was 57 years; 16.1% of the patients had a predisposing condition for the development of HZ. Most frequent dermatomes involved were: thoracic, ophthalmic and

  19. Chikungunya virus in Colombia: Clinical and epidemiological aspects, and literature review

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    Zuluaga Gómez, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the movement of populations and with globalization, some infections and diseases have changed from endemic to epidemic in certain regions. Such is the case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that has triggered global alarm. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, until January 2015, there had been case reports from 42 countries in the Caribbean, and Central, South, and North America, with more than one million suspected cases and about thirty thousand laboratory-confirmed cases. The latest report in Colombia by Instituto Nacional de Salud refers to a total of 231.392 clinically confirmed cases (suggestive symptoms associated with CHIKV, 1.528 cases confirmed by laboratory, and 3.848 suspected cases, for an overall total of 236.768. In this review, the following aspects of CHIKV infection are included: virology, transmission by vector, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, preventive measures and future prospects.

  20. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of feline leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Luiz da Silveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis are severe and unfortunately common parasitic diseases in Brazil. Among domestic animals, dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of the protozoan parasites, however, there is evidence that infected cats can also contribute towards the disease pool. The number of cats diagnosed with leishmaniasis has greatly increased in the last few years, highlighting the importance of thorough investigations on the role of the cat in the epidemiological cycle of the disease and in public health related issues. The main clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis suffered by cats, even when infected with Leishmania chagasi, a viscerotropic species, are skin abnormalities, which can be confounded with multiple other diseases. Indirect ELISA should be used as a screening test in epidemiological investigations for being a sensitive technique, followed by more specific laboratory tests. The standardization and validation of rapid, economical and reproducible diagnostic methods, to be employed in epidemiological surveillance, are still required

  1. Molecular Identification and Epidemiological Aspects of Dermatophytosis in Tehran, Iran

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    Aynaz Ghojoghi

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The survey showed that PCR-RFLP is a rapid and reliable method for discrimination of dermatophytes. We suggest using of PCR-RFLP as a valuable method along with morphological examination for diagnostic dermatophytes particularly in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  2. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in selected countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruggmann, P; Berg, T; Øvrehus, A L H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading indicator for liver disease. New treatment options are becoming available, and there is a need to characterize the epidemiology and disease burden of HCV. Data for prevalence, viremia, genotype, diagnosis and treatment were obtained thro...

  3. Epidemiological aspects of studying work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Tim

    2011-02-01

    There are many challenges to conducting valid epidemiological research of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and interpreting reports describing the results. In particular, these concern the basic study design, selection of subjects, measurement of exposure and outcome, control of confounding and the limitations of workers' compensation data systems. Researchers and people interested in the research results need to be aware of the major potential problems and pay careful attention to them when designing, conducting and using the results of such research.

  4. Gender aspects of epidemiology and laboratory diagnostics of urogenital trichomoniasis

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    Gorchakov D.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital trichomoniasis is still one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Evolutionary vaginal Tricho-monas parazited initially in female genital tract, and later adapted to the conditions of the male genital tract. This contributed to the formation of certain gender biology of the parasite, epidemiology and clinics of trichomoniasis. Existing gender differences should be taken into account in prevention, diagnostics and treatment of urogenital trichomoniasis.

  5. Molecular approaches to epidemiology and clinical aspects of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G V; Beck, H P; Molyneux, M; Marsh, K

    2000-10-01

    Malaria is a problem of global importance, responsible for 1-2 million deaths per year, mainly in African children, as well as considerable morbidity manifested as severe anaemia and encephalopathy in young children. Fundamental to the development of new tools for malaria control in humans is an increased understanding of key features of malaria infection, such as the diversity of outcome in different individuals, the understanding of different manifestations of the disease and of the mechanisms of immunity that allow clinical protection in the face of ongoing low-grade infection (concomitant immunity or premunition). Here, Graham Brown and colleagues review some of the ways in which molecular approaches might be used to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of malaria, as discussed at the Molecular Approaches to Malaria conference (MAM2000), Lorne, Australia, 2-5 February 2000.

  6. [Clinical-epidemiological aspects of gastric and duodenum ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larichev, A B; Maĭorov, M I; Favstov, S V; Shalop'ev, A G

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of reporting and statistical data showed the considerable changes in clinical-epidemiological indices of gastric and duodenum ulcer at the period from 1998 to 2012. The prevalence of the disease and the number of primary patients decreased in 2-3 times. The reduction of the rate of perforations and ulcerous bleeding had been observed. However, the authors noted, that a tendency of frequency of occurrence increased and efficacy indices reduced in the last years. The rate of postoperative lethality raised in the cases of perforated ulcer. On this basis, the authors recommend to reconsider the existing opinion about further extension of out-patient treatment of patients with given pathology.

  7. Tularemia in Arkhangelsk region: clinical and epidemiological aspects

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    L. V. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze epidemiological and clinical features of tularemia cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with complications.Methods: We conducted retrospective cohort study including all patients hospitalized with tularemia between 2010 and 2014.Results: Most of tularemia cases were diagnosed in July (20,8% and August (57,1% among adult females (63,6%. The most common forms were bubonic and ulcer-bubonic (89,6%. Buboes were commonly found in the upper femoral and groin regions (92,2%. Diagnostic errors were revealed in 54,1% of cases. The most frequent misdiagnoses were lymphadenitis and fever of unknown origin. Delay in effective antibiotic therapy was associated with an increased rate of complications.Conclusion: Tularemia has a diversity of clinical presentations. Doctors need to memorize the most common clinical signs of tularemia (fever and lymphadenitis to make timely diagnosis.

  8. Neosporosis. Aspects of epidemiology and host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, E A; Buxton, D; Maley, S; Wright, S; Marks, J; Esteban, I; Rae, A; Schock, A; Wastling, J

    2000-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a recently recognized protozoan parasite which has been described as causing a neuromuscular paralysis in dogs and is emerging as a major cause of bovine infertility and abortion worldwide. The parasite is known to infect a range of warm blooded animals but the disease predominates in dogs and cattle. It is not yet known if N. caninum can infect and cause disease in people. The dog has recently been identified as the definitive host and the parasite may be transmitted through the ingestion of oocysts or congenitally from mother to fetus. N. caninum is known to infect red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) and the role of wildlife species as reservoirs of infection requires further investigation. Little is known about the range of parasite genotypes within the environment or the variation in virulence between different strains. RAPD-PCR analysis of geographically distinct bovine and canine isolates has revealed little genetic variation. Epidemiological studies from different areas of the world have investigated the importance of N. caninum as an abortifacient agent and longitudinal studies have shown the high rate (approximately 80%) of congenital transmission within infected herds. Information on the rates of repeat abortion due to neosporosis are less well defined however current estimates put this at 5% suggesting that cattle may develop some form of protective immunity against N. caninum-induced abortion. Diagnosis of the disease is based upon detection of the parasite in the tissues, most commonly using immunohistochemistry with additional information provided by serology. However, although positive fetal serology is a strong indicator of exposure to the parasite, care should be taken in the interpretation of maternal serology. As we understand more about the epidemiology of neosporosis we are also better able to interpret the results of diagnostic tests. The mere presence of the parasite does not necessarily infer that this

  9. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

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    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  10. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  11. Access to health care in the Scandinavian countries: ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, S; Liss, P E; Norheim, O F

    1999-01-01

    The health care systems are fairly similar in the Scandinavian countries. The exact details vary, but in all three countries the system is almost exclusively publicly funded through taxation, and most (or all) hospitals are also publicly owned and managed. The countries also have a fairly strong primary care sector (even though it varies between the countries), with family physicians to various degrees acting as gatekeepers to specialist services. In Denmark most of the GP services are free. For the patient in Norway and Sweden there are out-of-pocket co-payments for GP consultations, with upper limits, but consultations for children are free. Hospital treatment is free in Denmark while the other countries use a system with out-of-pocket co-payment. There is a very strong public commitment to access to high quality health care for all. Solidarity and equality form the ideological basis for the Scandinavian welfare state. Means testing, for instance, has been widely rejected in the Scandinavian countries on the grounds that public services should not stigmatise any particular group. Solidarity also means devoting special consideration to the needs of those who have less chance than others of making their voices heard or exercising their rights. Issues of limited access are now, however, challenging the thinking about a health care system based on solidarity.

  12. A comprehensive review of the epidemiology and disease burden of Influenza B in 9 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafalla, Monica; Buijssen, Marleen; Geets, Régine; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Marije

    2016-04-02

    This review was undertaken to consolidate information on the epidemiology and burden of influenza B, as well as the circulation patterns of influenza B lineage in 9 European countries. Following a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature sources, we found that published data on influenza B epidemiology and burden are scarce. Surveillance data show frequent co-circulation of both influenza B lineages during influenza seasons, but little is known about its impact, especially in adults and the clinical burden of influenza B remains unknown. Mismatch between the circulating influenza B lineage and vaccine recommendations has been seen in at least one influenza season in every country. Such observations could impact the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination programs using trivalent vaccines, which contain only one influenza B lineage (B/Yamagata or B/Victoria) and highlight the need for local studies to better understand the epidemiology and burden of influenza B in these countries.

  13. Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop

    2012-02-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society

  14. Epidemiology of pediatric surgical needs in low-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Elissa K.; Tran, Tu M.; Nagarajan, Neeraja; Canner, Joseph; Fuller, Anthony T.; Kushner, Adam; Haglund, Michael M.; Smith, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective According to recent estimates, at least 11% of the total global burden of disease is attributable to surgically-treatable diseases. In children, the burden is even more striking with up to 85% of children in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) having a surgically-treatable condition by age 15. Using population data from four countries, we estimated pediatric surgical needs amongst children residing in LMICs. Methods A cluster randomized cross-sectional countrywide household survey (Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need) was done in four countries (Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Nepal and Uganda) and included demographics, a verbal head to toe examination, and questions on access to care. Global estimates regarding surgical need among children were derived from combined data, accounting for country-level clustering. Results A total of 13,806 participants were surveyed and 6,361 (46.1%) were children (0–18 years of age) with median age of 8 (Interquartile range [IQR]: 4–13) years. Overall, 19% (1,181/6,361) of children had a surgical need and 62% (738/1,181) of these children had at least one unmet need. Based on these estimates, the number of children living with a surgical need in these four LMICs is estimated at 3.7 million (95% CI: 3.4, 4.0 million). The highest percentage of unmet surgical conditions included head, face, and neck conditions, followed by conditions in the extremities. Over a third of the untreated conditions were masses while the overwhelming majority of treated conditions in all countries were wounds or burns. Conclusion Surgery has been elevated as an “indivisible, indispensable part of health care” in LMICs and the newly formed 2015 Sustainable Development Goals are noted as unachievable without the provision of surgical care. Given the large burden of pediatric surgical conditions in LMICs, scale-up of services for children is an essential component to improve pediatric health in LMICs. PMID:28257418

  15. Myasthenia gravis in Ceará, Brazil: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Almeida Xavier Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective chart review was performed on patients diagnosed as having myasthenia gravis in Ceará State, Brazil and who were followed from October 1981 to June 2009. Clinical and epidemiologic aspects were evaluated. In this work, 122 patients were studied, of whom 85 (69.7% were females and 37 (30.3% were males. The disease duration ranged from five months to 50 years (8.9±8.1 years. Age at the first symptoms varied from 0 to 74 years (31.9±14.4 years. The first main symptoms and signs were ptosis, diplopia and limb weakness. Generalized myasthenia was the most common clinical presentation, but 5.1% (n=6 persisted as ocular myasthenia. Thymectomy was performed in 42.6% (n=52 of myasthenic patients. A thymoma was present in 10 patients. Serum acetylcholine receptor (AChR antibodies were present in 80% (n=20 of specimens tested. The data presented are similar to those of studies performed in other countries.

  16. [Epidemiologic aspects of bronchial asthma in the Mexican Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cairo Cueto, S; Salas-Ramírez, M; Segura-Méndez, N H

    1995-01-01

    This work was done to determine the mortality and morbidity rates secondary to asthma in Mexico, for age, gender, state of the country and time. Data were obtained from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Geografía e Informática. We calculated morbidity and mortality rates adjusting for age, by a direct method. In the results, there was a reduction in mortality rate in both genders, from 1960 to 1987. Age groups up to 4 years and older than 50 were the mainly affected. From 1960 to the present time, the state with highest mortality is Tlaxcala. The states with highest hospitalization rates were Morelos, Baja California Sur, Nuevo León, Durango and Tamaulipas. In conclusion, mortality rates secondary to asthma in Mexico show a decreasing trend, with a considerable rise in morbidity, especially in the adolescent group.

  17. Global aspects of cardiothoracic surgery with focus on developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzella, A Thomas

    2010-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of cardiothoracic disease continue to increase globally, especially in emerging economies and developing countries. Cardiothoracic surgery is also growing despite limited access, availability of surgical centers, political and cost issues. The increase in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, trauma, and thoracic malignancies is a more urgent problem than realized in these emerging economies and developing countries, or low- and middle-income countries. A determined focus and cooperation between the preventive and curative elements of care is warranted. This represents a paradigm shift to develop a consensus that fosters a multi-integrated disease-specific approach that includes prevention, promotion, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. In addition, the concept or acceptance of surgery as a necessary component of public health policy is critical to improving overall global healthcare.

  18. Epidemiological Aspects and World Distribution of HTLV-1 Infection

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    Antoine eGessain

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1, identified as the first human oncogenic retrovirus 30 years ago, is not an ubiquitous virus. HTLV-1 is present throughout the world, with clusters of high endemicity located often nearby areas where the virus is nearly absent. The main HTLV-1 highly endemic regions are the Southwestern part of Japan, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, the Caribbean area and foci in Middle East and Australo-Melanesia. The origin of this puzzling geographical or rather ethnic repartition is probably linked to a founder effect in some groups with the persistence of a high viral transmission rate. Despite different socio-economic and cultural environments, the HTLV-1 prevalence increases gradually with age, especially among women in all highly endemic areas. The three modes of HTLV-1 transmission are mother to child, sexual transmission and transmission with contaminated blood products. Twenty years ago, de Thé and Bomford estimated the total number of HTLV-1 carriers to be 10-20 millions people. At that time, large regions had not been investigated, few population-based studies were available and the assays used for HTLV-1 serology were not enough specific. Despite the fact that there is still a lot of data lacking in large areas of the world and that most of the HTLV-1 studies concern only blood donors, pregnant women or different selected patients or high-risk groups, we shall try based on the most recent data, to revisit the world distribution and the estimates of the number of HTLV-1 infected persons.Our best estimates range from 5-10 millions HTLV-1 infected individuals. However, these results were based on approximately 1.5 billion of individuals originating from known endemic areas with reliable available epidemiological data. Correct estimates in other highly populated regions such as China, India, the Maghreb and East Africa is currently not possible, thus, the current number of HTLV-1 carriers is very

  19. SOME EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHES IN ISFAHAN

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    E.Ghadirian

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of soil transmitted helminthes were studied in six villages in Isfahan area. The mean overall prevalence of ascariasis and trichostrongyliasis were 91.5% and 70.9% respectively with higher infection rate among females. Mean prevalence of Trichuris and Hymenolepis nana were 73.8% and 5.4% respectively. Prevalences of Ascaris and Trichuris did not fluctuate very much in various ages but for Trichostrongylus, infected was lower in 0-4 age group and H.nana was mostly found in lower age groups. In some villages 100% of both sexes were infected with one or more helminth parasites, and overall prevalence of infection was 97.3%. In all villages, it was found that a small proportion of inhabitants (12.5% excrete a large proportion (43.3% of total eggs of Ascaris. Prevalence and intensity of ascariasis established four years after therapy have shown that the group of population who had the highest prevalence before therapy, had the highest prevalence and intensity. The high proportion of infected cases with Ascaris had less than 25000 eggs/gr of faeces and less than 50 worms. Results of this study indicate once again the importance of intestinal helminthiasis in Isfahan and also the possibility of reducing the transmission force by regular mass-chemotherapy of a small proportion of the inhabitants. More than 100 persons from each village who were infected with Ascaris and some infected with other helminthes simultaneously, were treated a few days after examination, using pyrantel pamoate with a single dose of 10 mg/kg. body weight. Tablets given to adults and suspension for children were taken in the presence of authors. A saline purge has also been administered to the patients treated who had constipation. A plastic pan containing 10% formaline solution and labeled with the name of the patient was also given to each patient after the drug was taken, in which all stools passed, up to 48 hours after treatment, were collected and

  20. Epidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus in European Countries

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    Daniele Lapa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin (IgG anti hepatitis E virus (HEV has been increasing in European countries and shows significant variability among different geographical areas. In this review, we describe the serological data concerning the general population and risk groups in different European countries. Anti-HEV antibody prevalence ranged from 1.3% (blood donors in Italy to 52% (blood donors in France. Various studies performed on risk groups in Denmark, Moldova and Sweden revealed that swine farmers have a high seroprevalence of HEV IgG (range 13%–51.1%, confirming that pigs represent an important risk factor in HEV infection in humans. Subtypes 3e,f are the main genotypes detected in the European population. Sporadic cases of autochthonous genotype 4 have been described in Spain, France, and Italy. Although most HEV infections are subclinical, in immune-suppressed and transplant patients they could provoke chronic infection. Fulminant hepatitis has rarely been observed and it was related to genotype 3. Interferon and ribavirin treatment was seen to represent the most promising therapy.

  1. Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Christopher J. [St James' s University Hospital, Department of Community Paediatrics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bilo, Robert A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Forensic Pathology, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

  2. Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis B and C Markers in Blood Donors in Kazakhstan; 2000-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th.; Turgambayeva, Asiya

    Background: Transfusion-transmissible infections such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C are among the greatest threats to blood safety for transfusion recipients and pose a serious public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological aspects of hepatitis B and C in Kazakhstani

  3. Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis B and C Markers in Blood Donors in Kazakhstan; 2000-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th.; Turgambayeva, Asiya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transfusion-transmissible infections such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C are among the greatest threats to blood safety for transfusion recipients and pose a serious public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological aspects of hepatitis B and C in Kazakhstani

  4. Health Aspects of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Asian Countries

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    B Balali-Mood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous (OP pesticides are used frequently in agriculture, particularly in Asian countries over the pastdecades. Poisoning by these agents, either as acute or chronic in these nations, is a serious health problem. OP pesticidesresidue in fruits and vegetables that may not induce early clinical features, could also affect the human health.Therefore, medical and health professionals should be aware and learn more on the toxicology, prevention and proper management of OP poisoning. The well-known mechanism of OP toxicity is the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase,resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, they arealso called anticholinesterase agents. Determination of blood acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase activities remains a mainstay for the rapid initial screening of OP pesticides. Quantitative analysis of OP and their degradation products in plasma and urine by mass spectrometric methods is a more specific method, but is expensive and limited to specialized laboratories. Therefore, history of OP pesticides exposure and clinical manifestations of a cholinergic syndrome is sufficient for management of the exposed patients. However, electrophysiological tests may be requiredfor the diagnosis of delayed neuropathy of OP poisoning. The standard management of OP poisoning includes decontamination,atropine sulphate with an oxime. Recent advances focus on blood alkalinisation and magnesium sulphate as promising adjunctive therapies. Preventive measures in OP exposure are of great importance in human health in developing countries. Therefore, regulations and controls on safe use of OP particularly in Asian countries are recommended.

  5. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in select countries - volume 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saraswat, V.; Norris, S.; de Knegt, R. J.; Sanchez Avila, J. F.; Sonderup, M.; Zuckerman, E.; Arkkila, P.; Stedman, C.; Acharya, S.; Aho, I.; Anand, A. C.; Andersson, M. I.; Arendt, V.; Baatarkhuu, O.; Barclay, K.; Ben-Ari, Z.; Bergin, C.; Bessone, F.; Blach, S.; Blokhina, N.; Brunton, C. R.; Choudhuri, G.; Chulanov, V.; Cisneros, L.; Croes, E. A.; Dahgwahdorj, Y. A.; Dalgard, O.; Daruich, J. R.; Dashdorj, N. R.; Davaadorj, D.; de Vree, M.; Estes, C.; Flisiak, R.; Gadano, A. C.; Gane, E.; Halota, W.; Hatzakis, A.; Henderson, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Hornell, J.; Houlihan, D.; Hrusovsky, S.; Jarcuska, P.; Kershenobich, D.; Kostrzewska, K.; Kristian, P.; Leshno, M.; Lurie, Y.; Mahomed, A.; Mamonova, N.; Mendez-Sanchez, N.; Mossong, J.; Nurmukhametova, E.; Nymadawa, P.; Oltman, M.; Oyunbileg, J.; Oyunsuren, Ts.; Papatheodoridis, G.; Pimenov, N.; Prabdial-Sing, N.; Prins, M.; Puri, P.; Radke, S.; Rakhmanova, A.; Razavi, H.; Razavi-Shearer, K.; Reesink, H. W.; Ridruejo, E.; Safadi, R.; Sagalova, O.; Sanduijav, R.; Schreter, I.; Seguin-Devaux, C.; Shah, S. R.; Shestakova, I.; Shevaldin, A.; Shibolet, O.; Sokolov, S.; Souliotis, K.; Spearman, C. W.; Staub, T.; Strebkova, E. A.; Struck, D.; Tomasiewicz, K.; Undram, L.; van der Meer, A. J.; van Santen, D.; Veldhuijzen, I.; Villamil, F. G.; Willemse, S.; Zuure, F. R.; Silva, M. O.; Sypsa, V.; Gower, E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver related morbidity and mortality. In many countries, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological data that are crucial in implementing disease control measures as new treatment options become available. Published literature, u

  6. Regulatory aspects of pharmaceuticals' exports in gulf cooperation council countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateriya, S; Janodia, Md; Deshpande, Pb; Ligade, Vs; Talole, Kb; Kulshrestha, T; Kamariya, Y; Musmade, Pb; Udupa, N

    2011-04-01

    The Gulf cooperation council (GCC) region is considered as "Emerging market" for pharmaceutical export and bilateral trade. The understanding of the regulatory requirements of this region can be beneficial for pharmaceutical export. Some incidents of the year 2008-09, like recession or economic slowdown in highly well-off and regulated market of the EU and US, raised the demand for alternate destinations for business. The regulations of Gulf countries are encouraging the import of quality generic products, which can be good news to the Indian drug manufacturers.

  7. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ORGANIC FOOD MARKET IN SEVERAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The global organic market is increasing constantly, organic sales reaching over USD 5 billion per year. Organic Monitor estimates that international sales amounted to about USD 38.6 billion in 2006, more than the double of USD 18 billion in 2000. The organic demand is concentrated in North America and Europe, these two regions comprising 97% of the global revenues. The European organic food and beverage market is the largest and most complex in the world, evaluated at USD 20 billion in 2006. Many European countries offer grants to organic farms to support organic production. This production-oriented strategy will have guaranteed success if the market structures and the marketing channels will be able to face the rapidly increasing demand and if the sellers adapt their products, sales channels and prices to the consumers’ demand.

  8. Cancers in Togo from 1984 to 2008: Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of 5251 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Koffi Amégbor; Tchin Darre; Koffi Didier Ayéna; Essohana Padaro; Kodjo Tengué; Anani Abalo; Gado Napo-Koura

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods. We made a retrospective review of the epidemiological and pathological features of cancers observed from 1984 to 2008 at the laboratory of pathology of CHU-TOKOIN in Lomé, Togo. Results. During our study period, we found 5251 cases of cancers with an annual average frequency of 210 cases. The sex ratio, male/female, was 0.9 and the average age of occurring was 45.3 years. T...

  9. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS REGARDING CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMERS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Cristina LEOVARIDIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are considered, within the European vision, the “life force” of the economy. Although the technological means are increasingly available, both European SMEs and consumers are still suspicious of conducting cross-border trade. Single European market has the potential to become the largest market in the world. Currently, it remains largely fragmented along national borders, forming 27 mini-markets. The European Commission’s aim is to achieve a more integrated internal market such that consumers from each Member State have an equally high level of confidence in products, traders, selling methods, as well as consumer protection – no matter where they decide to make their purchases within the EU. The paper presents a secondary analysis of data regarding the many differences in terms of Europeans’ consumption patterns for different product categories (as a percentage of total expenditures. For example, the share of household budget used to purchase food is highest in our country and lowest in Luxembourg.. Also, the largest proportion of family budget allocated for utilities (water, electricity, gas we find in Bulgaria, and for cultural activities – in Austria.

  10. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, LABORATORY AND IMAGING ASPECTS OF BRUCELLOSIS WITH AND WITHOUT NEUROLOGICAL INVOLVEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffarpour

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in our country. Neurobrucellosis occurs in 5 to 10% of cases, and can present at any stage of of the disease. This study was undertaken to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and paraclinical aspects of brucellosis with and without neurological manifestations. Data of 30 patients, 15 cases with nervous system involvement (neurobrucellosis and 15 cases without neurological complication (brucellosis were collected and analyzed. Constitutional manifestations of the disease were detected with nearly the same frequencies in both groups. Exceptions were headache which was more common in patients with neurobrucellosis (73% vs. 33% and arthralgia which was detected more frequently in cases with brucellosis than neurobrucellosis (53% vs. 13%. Signs and symptoms of meningeal irritation and disturbances of consciousness were the most common manifestations in cases with neurobrullosis, which had been detected in 60% and 46.7% of cases, respectively. Less common neurological presentations, in decreasing order of frequency were ophthalmoplegia, papilledema and seizures, spastic weakness of limbs, hearing loss and spinal epidural abscess. In two patients with negative serum and CSF agglutinin test, diagnosis of neurobrucellosis was made by blood and CSF cultures. In patients with neurobrucellosis, MRI of brain and spinal cord showed abnormalities in 5/15(33.3% of cases, including decreased lateral ventricular volume due to brain swelling (2/15, hydrocephalus with periventricular edema and meningeal enhancement in posterior fossa (1/15, multiple hypodense periventricular lesions, ischemic or demyelinating in nature (1/15 and spinal epidural abscess (1/15. Brucellosis should be kept in mind in patients with neurological presentations.

  11. Iatrogenic retractile quadriceps fibrosis within children in Benin: Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutical aspects

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    A S Gbenou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In tropical countries, iatrogenic retractile quadriceps fibrosis (IRQF, the cause of walking handicap in children, is often the result of intraquadricipital injection of quinine salts. The aim of this review was to analyse the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic aspects and outcome of IRQF in children admitted in three hospitals in Benin Republic. Patients and Methods: It was a 10-year retrospective, descriptive and analytic survey of IRQF, involving 81 children aged from 8 months to 15 years. Iterative mobilization of the knee (IMK or modified distal quadriceps plasty by Thompson-Payr′s technique (MDQTPT, with a POP on the knee in flexion position, was performed with additional functional rehabilitation. The results were evaluated on knee flexion gain and walking quality. Data were processed using Epi Info 3.2 software. Results: Patients′ average age was 7.60 years. Children of 6-10 years were most affected; sex ratio was 1.02. Lesions were unilateral (71.6% and bilateral (28.4%. The knees′ stiffness was in flexion (10.57%, rectitude (64.42% and recurvatum (25%. The amyotrophy of the thigh was found in 79.42 %. The IMK was successful in eight cases (7.69 % and the MDQTPT was done in 98 cases (94.23% associated with femoral osteotomy in 13 cases (12.50%. In post-surgical period, skin necrosis and fractures occurred respectively in 15.31% and 5.10%. Results were good in 92.31% of cases. Conclusions: IRQF in children do exist in our settings. The treatment that is based on MDQTPT associated to rehabilitation leads to acceptable outcome.

  12. Aspects of smoking in developing countries in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femi-Pearse, D

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of smoking in developing countries in Africa focuses on the cultivation of tobacco and the economics of tobacco smoking. The cultivation of tobacco in Africa has been encouraged in recent years by multinational companies, especially British American Tobacco and Rothmans, thus avoiding import duty on raw materials and conservation of scarce foreign exchange. In Nigeria, 60,000 farmers now grow tobacco on 120,000 acres. The 3 major deleterious effects of cultivating tobacco are: competition with cultivation of staple food crops, such as rice, millet, cassava, and guinea corn; displacement of necessary cash crops, such as cotton; and loss of timber through tree felling and bush fires due to ignited cigarette stubs and promotion of erosion and Sahelian migration in areas with already sparse vegetation. In the Sokoto region of Nigeria, tobacco thrives in the flood plains where rice would normally be expected to grow. Because tobacco provides ready cash, rice is a 2nd choice for cultivation. The net result of such displacement of staple food crops is that rice is now imported into Nigeria. Any development economist would rather cultivate rice than tobacco. Forest reserve has been lost from clearing bush to promote cultivation of tobacco and using wood fuel in flue-curing of tobacco. The ecologic consequences in areas bordering on the desert are disastrous. Yet, the spinoffs to the grower of tobacco cannot be dismissed. Most obvious is that cash returns for cultivating tobacco are better than for food crops. Because tobacco growers are relatively prosperous, they tend to stay on during periods of drought whereas food growers tend to migrate to the urban areas. The acquisition of modern skills is associated with growing tobacco. The multinational tobacco companies take pains to teach local farmers modern methods of land preparation. The fight against cultivation of tobacco can be won only by planned action. Recently, tobacco companies introduced programs

  13. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of a hepatitis E outbreak in Bangui, Central African Republic

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    Komas Narcisse P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of hepatitis E frequently occur in tropical developing countries during the rainy season due to overflowing drains, short-circuiting of networks of clean water and use of contaminated water from wells. Hepatitis E virus (HEV infections are usually accompanied by general symptoms of acute liver disease. This study was conducted to define the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the HEV outbreak that occurred in May 2004 in Bangui. Methods Blood samples were collected from 411 patients aged 1-87 years, most of whom presented with jaundice, asthenia or signs of uncomplicated malaria, for a transversal study from June 2004 to September 2005. Patients were recruited at 11 health care centres, including two referral hospitals, after they had given informed consent. The diagnosis of HEV was made with a commercial ELISA test to detect IgM and/or IgG antibodies. HEV RNA was amplified by RT-PCR to confirm the presence of the viral genome. Results The most frequent clinical signs found were jaundice (93.4%, vomiting (50.7%, hepatalgia (47.4%, hepatomegaly (30.9% and asthenia (26.8%, which are the general clinical signs of hepatic disease. Acute hepatitis E was found in 213 patients (51.8% who were positive for HEV IgM antibodies. The IgG anti-HEV seroprevalence during this outbreak was high (79.5%. The age group 18-34 years was more frequently infected (91.2% than those aged 1-17 (78.0% or over 34 (64.9% (p -6. RT-PCR performed on 127 sera from the 213 IgM-HEV-positive patients was amplified, and the presence of the viral genome was found in 65 samples. Conclusion Although no specific clinical signs exist for hepatitis E infection, people presenting with jaundice, vomiting, hepatalgia, asthenia, hepatomegaly or distended abdomen with no signs of uncomplicated malaria in tropical developing countries should be sent to a laboratory for testing for hepatitis E.

  14. Siphonaptera (Pulicidae) in dogs and cats of Colombia: Clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañón-Franco, William Alberto; Pérez-Bedoya, José Leandro

    2010-10-29

    Flea infestation is a common worldwide problem, its effective control results in high costs and difficult implementation. During February to August 2007, an epidemiological study of Siphonaptera order in dogs and cats admitted at the University of Caldas-Colombia - Veterinary Hospital (UCVH), was carried out by corporal examination and recording epidemiological variables. Overall, 3698 fleas were collected from 140 dogs and 30 cats. Two main species were identified: Ctenocephalides felis (94.2%) and Pulex irritans (5.8%) and a single specimen of Xenopsylla cheopis were also collected. Owners also considered some products as improper or of doubtful efficacy and employed schedules defined as inadequate, both because of a poor choice and an erroneous use of the product. Epidemiological factors associated with flea infestation allowed estimating the effect of variables such as locality, sleeping area, preferred place, type of floor, presence of other animals, and type of hair. Performing epidemiological studies on canine and feline populations in other areas of the country is required for an adequate implementation of strategies for flea control in pets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part V: Epidemiological Disaster Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2015-12-01

    Studies of the health aspect of disasters focus either on the epidemiology of disasters to define the causes and the progression from a hazard to a disaster, or the evaluations of interventions provided during any phase of a disaster. Epidemiological disaster research studies are undertaken for the purposes of: (1) understanding the mechanisms by which hazards evolve into a disaster; (2) determining ways to mitigate the risk(s) that a specific hazard will progress into a disaster; (3) predicting the likely damages and needs of the population-at-risk for an event; and (4) identifying potential measures to increase the resilience of a community to future events. Epidemiological disaster research utilizes the Conceptual, Temporal, and Societal Frameworks to define what occurs when a hazard manifests as an event that causes a disaster. The findings from such studies should suggest interventions that could augment the absorbing, buffering, or/and response capacities to lessen the probability of similar damages occurring from the next event. Ultimately, the use of these Frameworks in studying the health aspects of a disaster will help define what to expect in a specific setting and the standards and best practices upon which education, training, competencies, performance, and professionalization will be built.

  16. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  17. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massey Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB incidence state of New South Wales (NSW, Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas’ country of birth profiles. Methods TB notification data for the three year period 2006–2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. Results During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5–19

  18. An Update on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Part I): Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Definition of Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; García-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Pascual, J C; Pereyra-Rodriguez, J; Salgado, L; Vilarrasa, E

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder that has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to underestimations of prevalence and the considerable impact of the condition on interpersonal relationships, physical appearance, self-esteem, and body image. Although hidradenitis suppurative has a significant psychological impact on patients and can even cause physical limitations when thick scarring results in limb mobility limitation, until very recently little evidence was available relating to its epidemiology, etiology, or pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. We will also look at the different classification systems for hidradenitis suppurativa and discuss the emergence of skin ultrasound as a promising technique for monitoring the course of this chronic inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of migration on tuberculosis epidemiology and control in high-income countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Manish; Greenaway, Christina; Noori, Teymur; Munoz, Jose; Zenner, Dominik

    2016-03-23

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality in high-income countries with foreign-born individuals bearing a disproportionate burden of the overall TB case burden in these countries. In this review of tuberculosis and migration we discuss the impact of migration on the epidemiology of TB in low burden countries, describe the various screening strategies to address this issue, review the yield and cost-effectiveness of these programs and describe the gaps in knowledge as well as possible future solutions.The reasons for the TB burden in the migrant population are likely to be the reactivation of remotely-acquired latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) following migration from low/intermediate-income high TB burden settings to high-income, low TB burden countries.TB control in high-income countries has historically focused on the early identification and treatment of active TB with accompanying contact-tracing. In the face of the TB case-load in migrant populations, however, there is ongoing discussion about how best to identify TB in migrant populations. In general, countries have generally focused on two methods: identification of active TB (either at/post-arrival or increasingly pre-arrival in countries of origin) and secondly, conditionally supported by WHO guidance, through identifying LTBI in migrants from high TB burden countries. Although health-economic analyses have shown that TB control in high income settings would benefit from providing targeted LTBI screening and treatment to certain migrants from high TB burden countries, implementation issues and barriers such as sub-optimal treatment completion will need to be addressed to ensure program efficacy.

  20. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of complicated malaria in Colombia, 2007-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo E; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Rengifo, Lina Marcela;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the last decade, Colombia presented a significant decrease in malaria clinical cases and associated mortality. However, there is a lack of reliable information about the prevalence and characteristics of complicated malaria cases as well as its association with different...... Plasmodium species. A description of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of complicated malaria in Colombia is presented here. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted using data collected between 2007 and 2013 by the Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA). Demographic and clinical features were...

  1. Adapting developing country epidemiological assessment techniques to improve the quality of health needs assessments in developed countries

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    Handy Deirdre

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We were commissioned to carry out three health assessments in urban areas of Dublin in Ireland. We required an epidemiologically robust method that could collect data rapidly and inexpensively. We were dealing with inadequate health information systems, weak planning data and a history of inadequate recipient involvement in health service planning. These problems had also been identified by researchers carrying out health assessments in developing countries. This paper reports our experience of adapting a cluster survey model originally developed by international organisations to assess community health needs and service coverage in developing countries and applying our adapted model to three urban areas in Dublin, Ireland Methods We adapted the model to control for socio-economic heterogeneity, to take account of the inadequate population list, to ensure a representative sample and to account for a higher prevalence of degenerative and chronic diseases. We employed formal as well as informal communication methods and adjusted data collection times to maximise participation. Results The model we adapted had the capacity to ascertain both health needs and health care delivery needs. The community participated throughout the process and members were trained and employed as data collectors. The assessments have been used by local health boards and non-governmental agencies to plan and deliver better or additional services. Conclusion We were able to carry out high quality health needs assessments in urban areas by adapting and applying a developing country health assessment method. Issues arose relating to health needs assessment as part of the planning cycle and the role of participants in the process.

  2. Foodborne diseases in developing countries: aetiology, epidemiology and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käferstein, F

    2003-06-01

    Our knowledge of diseases caused by biologically and chemically contaminated food varies considerably between developing countries. While in Latin America and the Caribbean some information regarding foodborne hazards, high-risk foods and the extent of any resulting disease is available, in many other developing countries little is known about the nature and extent of such diseases. Systematic foodborne surveillance activities, including epidemiological studies, are rarely undertaken. Public health authorities and the public frequently learn about the more dramatic disease outbreaks from news media. A good indication of the importance of food contamination for health and well-being is the information available about infant diarrhoea, infant/child and adult malnutrition. Both conditions are closely related to contaminated food and drinking water, and are particularly important public health problems in most developing countries, as is cholera. With regard to chemicals, little information is available in developing countries on the occurrence of food contamination. Without such information, the health of hundreds of millions of people may be threatened. Improving the safety of the food supply and reducing foodborne diseases requires the concept of shared responsibility to be adopted. All of society needs to accept that food is not only an agricultural and trade commodity but a public health issue. Consequently, Ministries of Health in all countries must integrate food safety as an essential public health function into their work.

  3. Epidemiological, Clinical and Treatment Aspects Related to Snakebites in Dogs and Cats

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    Silvia Posada Arias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Annually, around 5,400,000 snakebites occur worldwide, 50% of which produce poisoning, and 2.5% of which result in death. In Latin America, 150,000 snakebites and 5,000 deaths are estimated for this cause. In Colombia, according to the National System for Public Health Surveillance (SIVIGILA, for its initials in Spanish, approximately 5064 accidents occurred in 2013. The snakes that are usually involved are those belonging to the genera Bothrops, Lachesis and Micrurus. This situation extends to veterinary medicine, since both production and companion animals are victims of snakebites in the entire world. While there is data on snakebites in small animals in different countries, there is little information related to this matter in Colombia. In this literature review, epidemiological data on snakebites on pets in Africa, Australia, some countries in Europe, in the United States and in some countries in South America are described. Similarly, the main species of snakes involved in such accidents are described, as well as the general poisoning conditions and some considerations regarding current treatments.

  4. Epidemiological aspects of acute viral hepatitis in São Paulo, Brazil

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    L. C. da Silva

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available As few reports on the prevalence of each type of viral hepatitis have been published in our country, we studied 154 patients with acute viral hepatitis consecutively seen at the Liver Unit from November 1980 to November 1984. The frequency of hepatitis A, B and non-A, non-B was 52.6%, 27.3% and 20.1% respectively. Greater frequency in young people, previous contact with infected patients and ingestion of suspected foods were the predominant epidemiological features in the hepatitis A group. Hepatitis B was characterized by the parenteral, non-transfusional exposure, previous contact and a high occurence in health-care workers. A history of blood transfusion was a significant finding in the hepatitis non-A, non-B group. Finally, the routes of transmission were unknown in 30-40% of the three groups of patients.

  5. Parainfluenza virus infections in a tropical city: clinical and epidemiological aspects

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    Mariana Mota Moura Fé

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV infections, especially in children from tropical countries, has been published. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of HPIV infections in children attended at a large hospital in Fortaleza in Northeast Brazil, and describe seasonal patterns, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of these infections. From January 2001 to December 2006, a total of 3070 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children were screened by indirect immunofluorescence for human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3 (HPIV-1, 2 and 3 and other respiratory viruses. Viral antigens were identified in 933 samples and HPIV in 117. The frequency of HPIV-3, HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 was of 83.76%, 11.96% and 4.27%, respectively. Only HPIV-3 showed a seasonal occurrence, with most cases observed from September to November, and with an inverse relationship to the rainy season. Most HPIV-3 infections seen in outpatients were diagnosed as upper respiratory tract infections.

  6. Cancers in Togo from 1984 to 2008: Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of 5251 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amégbor, Koffi; Darre, Tchin; Ayéna, Koffi Didier; Padaro, Essohana; Tengué, Kodjo; Abalo, Anani; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods. We made a retrospective review of the epidemiological and pathological features of cancers observed from 1984 to 2008 at the laboratory of pathology of CHU-TOKOIN in Lomé, Togo. Results. During our study period, we found 5251 cases of cancers with an annual average frequency of 210 cases. The sex ratio, male/female, was 0.9 and the average age of occurring was 45.3 years. This average age was 46.9 years for men and 43.8 years for women. The most frequent cancers for men were prostate cancer (12.9%), nonmelanoma skin cancer (10.4%), and gastric cancer (10.3%). For women it was breast cancer (27.1%), cervix cancer (11.2%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.3%). Histologically, it was carcinomas in 68.1% of the cases, sarcomas in 11% of the cases and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in 12.6% of the cases. Children cancers were primarily Burkitt lymphoma (27.9% of cases) and retinoblastoma (8.5% of cases). Conclusion. This study shows that cancers are frequent in Togo and emphasizes on the necessity of having a cancer register for the prevention and the control of this disease in Togo. PMID:22007216

  7. Cancers in Togo from 1984 to 2008: Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of 5251 Cases

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    Koffi Amégbor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods. We made a retrospective review of the epidemiological and pathological features of cancers observed from 1984 to 2008 at the laboratory of pathology of CHU-TOKOIN in Lomé, Togo. Results. During our study period, we found 5251 cases of cancers with an annual average frequency of 210 cases. The sex ratio, male/female, was 0.9 and the average age of occurring was 45.3 years. This average age was 46.9 years for men and 43.8 years for women. The most frequent cancers for men were prostate cancer (12.9%, nonmelanoma skin cancer (10.4%, and gastric cancer (10.3%. For women it was breast cancer (27.1%, cervix cancer (11.2% and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.3%. Histologically, it was carcinomas in 68.1% of the cases, sarcomas in 11% of the cases and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in 12.6% of the cases. Children cancers were primarily Burkitt lymphoma (27.9% of cases and retinoblastoma (8.5% of cases. Conclusion. This study shows that cancers are frequent in Togo and emphasizes on the necessity of having a cancer register for the prevention and the control of this disease in Togo.

  8. [Tumors of the bladder in women. Epidemiologic and therapeutic aspects. Apropos of 40 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, R; el Moussaoui, A; Rais, H; Joual, A; Debbagh, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1998-01-01

    Bladder tumours in women. Epidemiological aspects and treatments, based on a series of 48 cases. Bladder tumours are more frequent in men than in women, in whom they present certain epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic characteristics. The authors report a retrospective study of 48 cases of bladder tumour in women, observed in the urology department over a 20-year period. These tumours represented 4.2% of all bladder tumours. The patients had a mean age of 59 years (range: 29 to 77). Only one patient was a smoker (2%). Haematuria was present in 93% of cases, and signs of bladder irritation were present in 60% of cases. All tumours were transitional cell carcinomas. The tumour was classified as stage 0 in 10 cases (20.9%), stage A in 15 patients (31.2%), stage B in 22 patients (45.8%) and stage C in 1 case (2.1%); no patients (0%) were classified as stage D. Our therapeutic protocol was established as a function of the stage of tumour invasion. For example, superficial tumours were treated conservatively by transurethral resection, either alone or combined with intravesical instillation. Radical surgery was performed whenever possible for invasive tumours. External urinary diversion was performed in 11 cases, ureterosigmoidostomy in 3 cases and enterocystoplasty in 5 cases. The clinical course of the 15 superficial tumours was marked by recurrence in 5 cases, while that of the 23 invasive tumours was marked by local recurrence (3 cases), renal failure (1 case) and 3 deaths.

  9. Technological level and epidemiological aspects of sheep husbandry in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

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    Aurora M.G. Gouveia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and health aspects of sheep husbandry were assessed on 213 sheep flocks in 142 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. An updated questionnaire was filled out for each flock, requesting data on the farm, the flock and the farmer by the veterinarians of the State Government Agency for Animal Health (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária. Thirteen important variables were selected and scored to determine the technological level of the 117 farms; 0.9% of them was classified as high technological level, 45.3% as medium technological level and 53.0% as low technological level. Lamb production was the main objective of the farms and the main features were low-frequencies of individual identification of animals (16.9%, technical assistance (31.9%, use of quarantine for newly acquired animals (0.9% the separation of animals by age group (3.7% and requeste the sanitary certificate at purchasing of animals (11.7%. The main health problems reported were abortion (23.9%, keratoconjunctivitis (17.9%, contagious ecthyma (13.6%, pneumonia (10.3%, diarrhea (9.3% and caseous lymphadenitis (6.1%. Information of the epidemiological situation and the mainly health measures used in the sheep farms are important to improve the productivity and quality of the lamb.

  10. Leprosy: review of the epidemiological, clinical, and etiopathogenic aspects - Part 1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae and has been known since biblical times. It is still endemic in many regions of the world and a public health problem in Brazil. The prevalence rate in 2011 reached 1.54 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in Brazil. The mechanism of transmission of leprosy consists of prolonged close contact between susceptible and genetically predisposed individuals and untreated multibacillary patients. Transmission occurs through inhalation of bacilli present in upper airway secretion. The nasal mucosa is the main entry or exit route of M. leprae. The deeper understanding of the structural and biological characteristics of M. leprae, the sequencing of its genome, along with the advances in understanding the mechanisms of host immune response against the bacilli, dependent on genetic susceptibility, have contributed to the understanding of the pathogenesis, variations in the clinical characteristics, and progression of the disease. This article aims to update dermatologist on epidemiological, clinical, and etiopathogenic leprosy aspects. PMID:24770495

  11. Toxigenicity in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: Epidemiological and Molecular Aspects

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    M.L.R.S. Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of the Staphylococcus genus are the most common pathogens found in hospital environments, and they are etiological agents for a large variety of infections. Various virulence factors are responsible for the symptoms and severity of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Among them are staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs, which cause staphylococcal food poisoning, and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1. Some reports indicate that TSST-1 and staphylococcal enterotoxins are also produced by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS. The present review aimed to discuss general aspects of staphylococcal toxins as well as the epidemiology, genetics and detection of toxins in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, since these microorganisms are becoming more and more frequent in nosocomial infections.

  12. Epidemiologic and therapeutic aspects of refractory coeliac disease - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowinski, Sara Anna; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a rare and severe malabsorptive disease. The condition has two subtypes: RCDI and RCDII. Different treatments have been tested: and because RCD has a poor prognosis due to progress to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, the aim was to review...... the epidemiologic aspects and the therapeutic options for RCD. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in 18 databases, and 122 records were identified. Incidence, prevalence, treatment methods and their efficacy were evaluated. RESULTS: Among coeliac disease patients, the cumulative incidence of RCD...... is 1-4% per ten-year period and the prevalence is 0.31-0.38%. In the general population, the prevalence of RCD is 0.002%. Treatment of RCDI is azathioprine (effect 100%), mesalamine (effect 60%) or tioguanine (effect 83%). Treatment for RCDII is the antimetabolite cladribine (effect 81%) and autologous...

  13. Diphtheria outbreak in Maranhão, Brazil: microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, L S; Sant'anna, L O; Ramos, J N; Ladeira, E M; Stavracakis-Peixoto, R; Borges, L L G; Santos, C S; Napoleão, F; Camello, T C F; Pereira, G A; Hirata, R; Vieira, V V; Cosme, L M S S; Sabbadini, P S; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L

    2015-03-01

    We describe microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of a diphtheria outbreak that occurred in Maranhão, Brazil. The majority of the 27 confirmed cases occurred in partially (n = 16) or completely (n = 10) immunized children (n = 26). Clinical signs and characteristic symptoms of diphtheria such as cervical lymphadenopathy and pseudomembrane formation were absent in 48% and 7% of the cases, respectively. Complications such as paralysis of lower limbs were observed. Three cases resulted in death, two of them in completely immunized children. Microbiological analysis identified the isolates as Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar intermedius with a predominant PFGE type. Most of them were toxigenic and some showed a decrease in penicillin G susceptibility. In conclusion, diphtheria remains endemic in Brazil. Health professionals need to be aware of the possibility of atypical cases of C. diphtheriae infection, including pharyngitis without pseudomembrane formation.

  14. [Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of acute hepatitis B in the past decade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Doina; Vâţă, Andrei; Vâţă, Alla; Corcaci, Carmen; Hurmuzache, M; Scurtu, Roxana

    2003-01-01

    To study the clinical and epidemiological aspects of acute B hepatitis during the last 11 years. We retrospectively studied 1712 patient files, admitted in the Department of Infectious Diseases Iaşi, with acute B hepatitis between 1992-2002. The majority of the patients (69%) had an urban origin. Teenagers and young adults were predominantly affected (59% had between 15 and 34 years). A point of entry of the pathogen was identified only in 20% of the patients. The mean incubation period was 4 month. 24% of the patients had a prolonged form of the disease (over 30 days of jaundice). A fulminant evolution was noted in 1.2% of cases. Extrahepatic involvement was described in 25% of the patients. The global mortality was 1.15%. The number of patients with acute B hepatitis decreased by half during the last 11 years.

  15. A social epidemiological aspect of the Greenlandic part of Inuit Health in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine

    part of the cross-sectional population survey Inuit Health in Transition collected from 2005 to 2007. 2246 participants in towns and villages in West Greenland answered a questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis of suicidal behaviour (suicide ideation, suicide attempts and suicide among family......A social epidemiology aspect of Inuit Health in Transition Cecilia Petrine Pedersen, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Greenland has a sad record of high suicide rates - especially among young men, and social neglect in the form of alcohol abuse in the childhood home......, sexual assaults and violence is a part of life for many people in Greenland. The purpose of this study is to draw a picture of social and mental health conditions in Greenland today among adult men and women by looking at suicidal behaviour and social neglect. Methods: Data is based on the Greenlandic...

  16. Impact of immigration on tuberculosis epidemiology in a low-incidence country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, E; Millet, J; Lindqvist, A; Olsson, M; Ridell, M; Rastogi, N

    2011-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from 349 patients were isolated in western Sweden during the years 2001-2005. Only 26% of the tuberculosis (TB) patients were born in Sweden. All the others were born in any of 42 different countries; 17% in other European countries, 28% in Africa, 16% in Asia, 11% in the Middle East, and 2% in South America. The mean age of the Swedish-born patients was 67 years, while the mean age among the foreign-born patients was 37 years. The male/female ratio was 1.6 among the Swedes and 0.9 among those born abroad. Extrapulmonary manifestations of TB were most common among patients born in Africa while lung infections without extrapulmonary manifestations were most common in patients born in Europe, including Sweden. Spoligotyping showed that patients with T or Beijing strains had more pulmonary TB than extrapulmonary TB, while patients with EAI and CAS strains had a high proportion of extrapulmonary TB. The ancestral and/or evolutionary older PGG1 strains were more often isolated from the foreign-born patients than from the Swedish-born patients, who had strains generally being of the evolutionary recent genogroups PGG2/PGG3. We conclude that immigration from countries with a high incidence of TB has a strong impact on the TB epidemiology in western Sweden, a finding that should be taken into account by TB control strategists when developing programmes for eradication of TB in low prevalence settings.

  17. Selected aspects related to epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunity, and control of African swine fever

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    Woźniakowski Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is currently one of the most severe viral infections of domestic pigs, wild boars, and other hosts belonging to Suidae family. ASF is also considered as the most complex and devastating infectious and haemorrhagic disease of swine due to its severe socio-economic impact and transboundary character. ASF it is a notifiable disease and due to the lack of specific treatment and vaccine, the disease can be only limited by the administrative measures comprising wild boar hunting and stamping out of affected pigs. ASF occurred for the first time in Kenya in 1921 while in Europe (Portugal the virus was detected at the end of the 1950s. In spite of successful eradication of this threat in a number of affected regions, the virus remains endemic in both feral and domestic pigs in Africa and Sardinia. The ‘new era’ of ASF started in 2007 after its re-introduction to Georgia. Following its intensive expansion, the virus spread to other Caucasian countries, including the territory of the Russian Federation. In 2014 the virus reached Ukraine, Belarus, and, consequently, European Union countries: Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Poland. The occurrence of ASF in wild boars and pigs had a severe impact on both epidemiology and economy because of the national and international transport and trade consequences. Up to date, starting from the February 2014, eighty ASF cases in wild boar and three outbreaks in domestic pigs have been diagnosed. Taking into account the diverse rate of spread in Poland, this review aims to present and discuss the current state of knowledge on ASF including its epidemiology, pathology, transmission, and perspectives of control.

  18. Sero-epidemiology and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Arab and African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim

    2016-09-01

    The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors. Data on T. gondii infection in pregnancy are scant in many countries, especially where there is lack of political stability. Identified risk factors included eating raw meat, proximity with cats, undercooked food, and increasing maternal age. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Arab and African countries is an underestimated health problem. Further research is needed. This report is a foundation for strategies and policies for intervention needed to combat the consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  19. Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Brucellosis in the Country of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhvlediani, Tamar; Bautista, Christian T.; Garuchava, Natalia; Sanodze, Lia; Kokaia, Nora; Malania, Lile; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Rivard, Robert G.; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.; Imnadze, Paata; Trapaidze, Nino

    2017-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the country of Georgia. According to the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia (NCDC), the average annual number of brucellosis cases was 161 during 2008–2012. However, the true number of cases is thought to be higher due to underreporting. The aim of this study was to provide current epidemiological and clinical information and evaluate diagnostic methods used for brucellosis in Georgia. Methodology Adult patients were eligible for participation if they met the suspected or probable case definition for brucellosis. After consent participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, epidemiology, history of present illness, and clinical manifestation. For the diagnosis of brucellosis, culture and serological tests were used. Results A total of 81 participants were enrolled, of which 70 (86%) were from rural areas. Seventy-four percent of participants reported consuming unpasteurized milk products and 62% consuming undercooked meat products before symptom onset. Forty-one participants were positive by the Wright test and 33 (41%) were positive by blood culture. There was perfect agreement between the Huddelston and Wright tests (k = 1.0). Compared with blood culture (the diagnostic gold standard), ELISA IgG and total ELISA (IgG + IgM), the Wright test had fair (k = 0.12), fair (k = 0.24), and moderate (k = 0.52) agreement, respectively. Conclusions Consumption of unpasteurized milk products and undercooked meat were among the most common risk factors in brucellosis cases. We found poor agreement between ELISA tests and culture results. This report also serves as an initial indication that the suspected case definition for brucellosis surveillance purposes needs revision. Further research is needed to characterize the epidemiology and evaluate the performance of the diagnostic methods for brucellosis in Georgia. PMID

  20. Economic, Social and Political Aspect of Globalization on Health in Developing Countries (with Segregation

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    Batool Rafat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, scholars and human rights activists for more national and international responsibilities in a "right to health for everyone" exchange ideas and also propose some strategies. One of the major international problems of health hazards result from globalization. The Relationship between globalization and health aspects of economic, technological, political, social, scientific and cultural should be studied. This study intends to review the aspects of economic, social and political globalization on the health. In this case ,Kof index is which includes all three aspects of economic, social and political globalization agenda. The results show that economic globalization has a negative effect on health in developing countries and globalization, social and political effects are positive and statistically significant. The result is the same for both women and men, and there are only minor differences in the coefficients.

  1. Mortality profiles in a country facing epidemiological transition: An analysis of registered data

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    Trelles Miguel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-national analyses of causes of death and time-trends help to define public health policy priorities. They are particularly important in countries undergoing epidemiological transition like Peru. There are no studies exploring Peruvian national and regional characteristics of such epidemiological transition. We aimed to describe Peru's national and regional mortality profiles between 1996 and 2000. Methods Registered mortality data for the study period were corrected for under-registration following standardized methods. Main causes of death by age group and by geographical region were determined. Departmental mortality profiles were constructed to evaluate mortality transition, using 1996 data as baseline. Annual cumulative slopes for the period 1996–2000 were estimated for each department and region. Results For the study period non-communicable diseases explained more than half of all causes of death, communicable diseases more than one third, and injuries 10.8% of all deaths. Lima accounted for 32% of total population and 20% of total deaths. The Andean region, with 38% of Peru's population, accounted for half of all country deaths. Departmental mortality predominance shifted from communicable diseases in 1996 towards non-communicable diseases and injuries in 2000. Maternal and perinatal conditions, and nutritional deficiencies and nutritional anaemia declined markedly in all departments and regions. Infectious diseases decreased in all regions except Lima. In all regions acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of death, but their proportion ranged from 9.3% in Lima and Callao to 15.3% in the Andean region. Tuberculosis and injuries ranked high in Lima and the Andean region. Conclusion Peruvian mortality shows a double burden of communicable and non-communicable, with increasing importance of non-communicable diseases and injuries. This challenges national and sub-national health system performance and

  2. Genetic Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes in the 22 Arab Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Hatem

    2016-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex autoimmune disorder that results from the T cell-mediated destruction of the pancreatic β cells and is due to interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Although Arabs have one of the highest global incidence and prevalence rates of T1D, unfortunately, there is a dearth of information regarding the genetic epidemiology of T1D in the Arab world. Arabs share several HLA haplotypes with other ethnic groups, which confer either susceptibility or protection to T1D, but they have specific haplotypes that are distinctive from other ethnicities. Among different Arab countries, several non-HLA genes were reported to be associated with susceptibility to T1D, including CTLA4, CD28, PTPN22, TCRβ, CD3z, IL15, BANK1, and ZAP70. In Arab countries, consanguinity, endogamy, and first-cousin marriage rates are some of the highest reported worldwide and are responsible for the creation of several inbreeding communities within the Arab world that have led to an increase in homozygosity of both the HLA haplotypes and non-HLA genes associated with either protection or susceptibility to T1D among Arabs. Homozygosity reduces the HLA complexity and is expected to facilitate our understanding of the mode of inheritance of HLA haplotypes and provide valuable insight into the intricate genotype-phenotype correlations in T1D patients. In this review, based on literature studies, I will discuss the current epidemiological profile and molecular genetic risks of Arabs with T1D.

  3. Pattern of hospitalized-stroke patients in ASEAN countries an ASNA stroke epidemiological study

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    Jusuf Misbach

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To better understanding the demographic characteristics, admission time, clinical pattern, risk factors, stroke type, length of stay, and discharge outcome of hospitalized acute stroke patients in ASEAN member countries, ASEAN   Neurological Association (ASNA formed a Standing Commiltee for Stroke in 1996 and this is the first ASNA Stroke Epidemiological Study using the same stroke protocol. This prospective hospital based study was conducted in seven ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam by participating neurologists from October 1996 to March 1997. Of the 3723 consecutive hospitalized stroke patients (2030 males and 1660 females from 44 participating hospitals in this study ie Brunei (n=53, Indonesia (n=2065, Malaysia (n=300,Philippines (n=545,Singapore (n=232, Thailand (n=244 and Vietnam (n=284, the mean age was 59.0 ± 13,8 years 16% of patients were younger than 45 years and 37% of patients were older than 65 years. There were no significant differences in age at onset among stroke subjects except in Vietnam (younger and Singapore (older. The sex distribution showed a slight higher prevalence of women in Singapore and in the age group > 64 years. The mean adrnission time was 41.5 ± 87.0 hours, 19% of patients were admitted within 3 hours, 29% within 6 hours and 66% more than 6 hours (delayed admission especially in Malaysia and Singapore (80% and 77% respectively. Motor disability was the most prevalent clinical feature in all countries and carotid bruit was the rarest (1%. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (68% in all countries, followed by TIA (35%, smoking, diabetes mellitus, ischnemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia. CT scan was performed on 76% of subjects. The diagnostic classification was non lacunar anterior circulation (32%, lacunar infarction (14%, hemorrhagic stroke (26%, SAH (4%. Mean length of stay was 11.4 ± 11.8 days. Most of the patients

  4. [Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in five villages of Dogon country, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kone, A K; Delaunay, P; Djimdé, A A; Thera, M A; Giudice, P D; Coulibaly, D; Traoré, K; Goita, S M; Abathina, A; Izri, A; Marty, P; Doumbo, O K

    2012-02-01

    The epidemiology of the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with Leishmania major is poorly documented in Mali. Following reports of CL in the tourist areas of the Dogon country (Bandiagara Escarpment), a joint French and Malian bio-clinical team conducted a field study from 16 to 27 January, 2010. The population of 5 villages has been examined by a dermato-infectiologist and cases were selected by visual inspection of skin lesions. Smears and biopsies (from the lesions) and venous blood were obtained from suspected cases of CL. Diagnosis was performed by light microscopy, in vitro cultures, serology and molecular biology. Fifty patients with skin lesions have been examined. Twenty-one have been suspected as CL. At least one sample was obtained from 18 patients. The lesions were predominantly old, more or less scarring and secondary infected. A skin smear was performed for 15 patients, a skin biopsy for 14 patients: smears and cultures were all negative. The PCR (Leishmania spp.) made on 14 biopsies was positive for 12 patients (86%). The low amount of amplified DNA obtained did not allow the sequencing and identification of the species of Leishmania. Western blot (WB) serology was positive in 11 cases out of 12 (92%). This investigation showed the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bandiagara. A further investigation is required during transmission period (September-October) to confirm the presence of Leishmania major epidemic in Dogon country.

  5. Defining the Epidemiology and Burden of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Among Infants and Children in Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, Louis; Checchia, Paul A; Fauroux, Brigitte; Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Manzoni, Paolo; Paes, Bosco; Simões, Eric A F; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV [respiratory syncytial virus] Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) series provides a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of RSV in Western countries over the last 20 years. This first of seven publications covers the epidemiology and

  6. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in the northeast region of Brazil

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    Rafaella Moreno Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a serious public health issue in tropical and subtropical countries. This is a descriptive and retrospective study of the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of scorpion sting cases registered in the Health System in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, from 2007 to 2012. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Ministry of Health. A total of 2,283 records, provided by the Third Health Sector of Campina Grande, were analyzed. Data revealed that the majority of the victims are female aged between 20 and 29 years, and the highest incidence of stings was in the urban area. Victims were mostly stung on the feet and hand. Serotherapy was not administered in most cases. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after the sting. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and paresthesias. Most cases were classified as mild, though seven deaths were reported. The high incidence rate suggests that this town may be an endemic area of scorpion stings, supporting the need to develop strategies to control and prevent scorpion stings.

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGIC, CLINICO-MYCOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS OF SKIN AND ITS APPENDAGES

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    Sheikh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: The incidence of fungal infections is increasing at an alarming rate, presenting an enormous challenge to healthcare professionals. The prevalence of fungal infections seems to vary across the world because of various socioeconomic and cultural factors. AIM: This study was undertaken to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and mycological features of fungal infections of skin and its appendages. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Over a period of 1 year (Jan 2010 to Jan 2011 Samples were collected from 402 clinically suspected cases of fungal infections attending outpatient dermatology department of a tertiary care hospital & medical college Kashmir. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical samples (Skin, Hair and Nail from 402 clinically suspected cases were included in the study. All specimens were subjected to KOH examination and culture. Germ tube tests were performed on all growths identified as yeasts. RESULTS: 298 (74% samples showed evidence of fungal elements on direct microscopy, out of which 183 (61.40% turned out to be positive on culture. The most common dermatophyte isolated from different clinical samples were Trichophyton rubrum followed by Trichophyton mantagrophyte. CONCLUSION: The traditional methods of diagnosing fungal infections are still the best and important tool of diagnosis for the fungal infections in our setting. More studies are required in this part of the country.

  8. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in the northeast region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Rafaella Moreno; Pasquino, Jackeline Araujo; Peixoto, Laisla Rangel; Targino, Isabely Tamarys Gomes; de Sousa, Jorge Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Scorpion stings are a serious public health issue in tropical and subtropical countries. This is a descriptive and retrospective study of the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of scorpion sting cases registered in the Health System in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, from 2007 to 2012. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Ministry of Health. A total of 2,283 records, provided by the Third Health Sector of Campina Grande, were analyzed. Data revealed that the majority of the victims are female aged between 20 and 29 years, and the highest incidence of stings was in the urban area. Victims were mostly stung on the feet and hand. Serotherapy was not administered in most cases. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after the sting. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and paresthesias. Most cases were classified as mild, though seven deaths were reported. The high incidence rate suggests that this town may be an endemic area of scorpion stings, supporting the need to develop strategies to control and prevent scorpion stings.

  9. Canine parvovirus--a review of epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, with emphasis on type 2c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-02-24

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged in late 1970s causing severe epizootics in kennels and dog shelters worldwide. Soon after its emergence, CPV-2 underwent genetic evolution giving rise consecutively to two antigenic variants, CPV-2a and CPV-2b that replaced progressively the original type. In 2000, a new antigenic variant, CPV-2c, was detected in Italy and rapidly spread to several countries. In comparison to the original type CPV-2, the antigenic variants display increased pathogenicity in dogs and extended host range, being able to infect and cause disease in cats. Epidemiological survey indicate that the newest type CPV-2c is becoming prevalent in different geographic regions and is often associated to severe disease in adult dogs and also in dogs that have completed the vaccination protocols. However, the primary cause of failure of CPV vaccination is interference by maternally derived immunity. Diagnosis of CPV infection by traditional methods has been shown to be poorly sensitive, especially in the late stages of infections. New diagnostic approaches based on molecular methods have been developed for sensitive detection of CPV in clinical samples and rapid characterisation of the viral type. Continuous surveillance will help assess whether there is a real need to update currently available vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  10. Epidemiological aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older Brazilians: a comparative approach

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    Luiz Max Fagundes de Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare epidemiological aspects of young (15 to 49 years old and older (more than 50 years old AIDS patients. METHODS: We analyzed 511,633 AIDS cases notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in the period of 1980-2008 looking at sex, age ranges, educational level and exposure category. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 15, from 15 to 49 and over 50 years old. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed data with regard to category of exposure, education (expressed in years of schooling, and sex ratio among younger (15-49 and older adults (over 50 years old. Time series data were log-transformed and normalized, and the temporal trend was evaluated. RESULTS: AIDS incidence is increasing among people over 50 years old in Brazil, with those older than 50 being responsible for 9.64 % of AIDS cases. There was no significant difference between educational level and gender (p = 0.468, but there was a significant difference in exposure category with a lower proportion of injecting drug users amongst the older group. CONCLUSION: Based on this analysis over the last 10 years, the percentage of AIDS cases has increased almost three times among people over 50 years old when compared with the 15-49 year-old group. Our findings suggest that public campaigns have to be specially targeted to the older segment of the population, aiming at heterosexual transmission.

  11. Epidemiological Aspects of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer in Kerman Province, South Eastern Iran

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    G Chamani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Epidemiologic aspects of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Iran have not been studied adequately. We evaluated age-adjusted incidence rates by sex using pathological confirmed cases between 1991 and 2002 in Kerman Province, south east­ern Iran."nMethods: The information of cases was collected actively from all of the 18 histopathology departments around the prov­ince. The standardize risks were estimated using standard world population and the risk ratio for age and sex were estimated us­ing negative binomial model."nResults: The total number of newly diagnosed malignant oral and pharyngeal cancers was 334, represented 3.1% of all newly diagnosed cancers. The age-adjusted incidence rate for oropharyngeal cancers was 2.21 cases per 100 000 popula­tions per year. The results suggested that those age 40 and over were 18.1 times more likely to develop oral and pharyngeal can­cer than the younger group. The risk of developing oral and pharyngeal cancers was 1.75 times more common in males than females."nConclusion: This study showed that the overall incidence of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Kerman Province was lower than that in most parts of the world. The lower incidence might be due to behavioral differences such as low consumption of alco­hol, chewing tobacco, and spicy foods.

  12. Epidemiologic and therapeutic aspects of refractory coeliac disease - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowinski, Sara Anna; Christensen, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a rare and severe malabsorptive disease. The condition has two subtypes: RCDI and RCDII. Different treatments have been tested: and because RCD has a poor prognosis due to progress to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, the aim was to review the epidemiologic aspects and the therapeutic options for RCD. A systematic literature search was performed in 18 databases, and 122 records were identified. Incidence, prevalence, treatment methods and their efficacy were evaluated. Among coeliac disease patients, the cumulative incidence of RCD is 1-4% per ten-year period and the prevalence is 0.31-0.38%. In the general population, the prevalence of RCD is 0.002%. Treatment of RCDI is azathioprine (effect 100%), mesalamine (effect 60%) or tioguanine (effect 83%). Treatment for RCDII is the antimetabolite cladribine (effect 81%) and autologous haematopoetic stem cell transplantation (effect 85%). RCD is a very rare disease. The current evidence for RCDI treatment includes prednisolone in combination with the immunosuppressants azathioprine, mesalamine or tioguanine. The current evidence for RCDII treatment documents use of the antimetabolite cladribine, and if there is no effect, autologous haematopoetic stem cell transplantation may be attempted. In the future, there is a need for more effective treatments which will also prevent further progression to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma.

  13. Epidemiological aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older Brazilians: a comparative approach

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    Luiz Max Fagundes de Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare epidemiological aspects of young (15 to 49 years old and older (more than 50 years old AIDS patients. METHODS: We analyzed 511,633 AIDS cases notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in the period of 1980-2008 looking at sex, age ranges, educational level and exposure category. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 15, from 15 to 49 and over 50 years old. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed data with regard to category of exposure, education (expressed in years of schooling, and sex ratio among younger (15-49 and older adults (over 50 years old. Time series data were log-transformed and normalized, and the temporal trend was evaluated. RESULTS: AIDS incidence is increasing among people over 50 years old in Brazil, with those older than 50 being responsible for 9.64 % of AIDS cases. There was no significant difference between educational level and gender (p = 0.468, but there was a significant difference in exposure category with a lower proportion of injecting drug users amongst the older group. CONCLUSION: Based on this analysis over the last 10 years, the percentage of AIDS cases has increased almost three times among people over 50 years old when compared with the 15-49 year-old group. Our findings suggest that public campaigns have to be specially targeted to the older segment of the population, aiming at heterosexual transmission.

  14. Epidemiology of stroke in the elderly in the Nordic countries. Incidence, survival, prevalence and risk factors

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    Torgeir Engstad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review what is known at present with respect to incidence, survival, risk factors and prevalence among the elderly stroke patients in the Nordic countries.Method: This article is based mainly on literature identified through search engines (Mc Master Plus, Cochrane Library, Medline and PubMed, restricted to first-ever stroke in Nordic population-based studies and having applied to the standard WHO definition, a prospective study design and no upper age limit.Results: Data from the Nordic countries show an incidence rate of 1250 to 1796/100 000 in the age group 75-84, and 1628 to 2234 in those above 85 years. The incidence rates are higher among men, but women are expected to contribute more to incident cases due to their higher life expectancy. If the age-specific incidence of stroke remains stable, the proportion of stroke patients aged 80 years and older may reach 50% in a few decades. The elderly stroke patients have a higher 30-days case fatality, and a higher risk of dependency. Better treatment of stroke patients has improved the survival over the last two decades. The prevalence is expected to increase due to the decrease in lethality, a slower fall in incidence and a higher proportion of elderly. Cardiovascular risk factors increase with age. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke mortality in the elderly. Cardioembolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation is the most common stroke subtype in the elderly. Lifestyle risk factors are less prevalent in the older stroke patients.Conclusion: The growing proportion of elderly stroke patients is a major challenge for future stroke care. The elderly stroke patients have a different risk factor profile compared to younger stroke patients. Treatment should focus on regaining independency. The age-specific epidemiology of stroke needs to be studied further in large studies in order to plan for future health care.

  15. Euthanasia and assisted suicide: comparison of legal aspects in Switzerland and other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, S; La Harpe, R; Harding, T W; Sobel, J

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the legal aspects associated with assisted suicide in Switzerland and compare them with those in other countries. Like euthanasia, assisted suicide is a subject that induces much discussion in many countries. While the law is very liberal in some countries, such as Belgium and the Netherlands (where both euthanasia and assisted suicide take place), these practices are very controversial in other countries, such as France, where they remain taboo subjects. In the United States of America, the laws concerning assisted suicide can differ greatly from one state to another. For example, in Oregon, assisted suicide is allowed if applied by a medical doctor; in others, this act is illegal. In Canada, it is punishable according to the Criminal Code. In Switzerland euthanasia is punishable by law. However, the penal code does not condemn assisted suicide, whether carried out by a medical doctor or another person, provided it is not carried out through selfish motives. The application of these practices has become simplified in recent years and societies for the right to die with dignity based on this principle have come into being (Exit and Dignitas). In the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland the association Exit assists individuals living in Switzerland with serious progressive and incurable disease in their engagement to end their life. The association Dignitas, in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, also undertakes--in the same circumstances--to assist individuals coming from foreign countries. Dignitas welcomes several such individuals every year, especially from Germany, where a similar approach does not currently exist.

  16. Research on psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Jamal M; Al-Khateeb, Anas J

    2014-02-01

    This study reviewed research conducted on the psychological aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Several databases (Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and PsycInfo) were searched using the following two sets of search words: (1) Arab, Jordan, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Algiers, Palestine, Mauritania, Djibouti, Sudan, Comoros, and Somalia; and (2) epilepsy, seizure disorders, and convulsive disorders. Fifty-one studies were conducted in 12 Arab states. Social/emotional, employment, and other problems; knowledge and attitudes; and quality of life (QOL) were the most commonly measured parameters of psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Results revealed elevated levels of depression and anxiety, a decline in cognitive function, various behavioral problems, sexual dysfunction, and underemployment among persons with epilepsy (PWE). Misconceptions about epilepsy were found to be prevalent. While many studies reported limited knowledge of epilepsy, some studies found an average knowledge. Negative attitudes toward epilepsy were reported in most studies, and moderately positive attitudes were reported in some studies. Finally, PWE showed low overall QOL scores in the majority of studies.

  17. Epidemiology of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii in Mediterranean Countries

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    Nassima Djahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii are of great concern to health services worldwide. These β-lactamases hydrolyse almost all β-lactams, are plasmid-encoded, and are easily transferable among bacterial species. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern. Infections caused by these bacteria have limited treatment options and have been associated with high mortality rates. Carbapenemase producers are mainly identified among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and A. baumannii and still mostly in hospital settings and rarely in the community. The Mediterranean region is of interest due to a great diversity and population mixing. The prevalence of carbapenemases is particularly high, with this area constituting one of the most important reservoirs. The types of carbapenemase vary among countries, partially depending on the population exchange relationship between the regions and the possible reservoirs of each carbapenemase. This review described the epidemiology of carbapenemases produced by enterobacteria and A. baumannii in this part of the world highlighting the worrisome situation and the need to screen and detect these enzymes to prevent and control their dissemination.

  18. Epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii in Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djahmi, Nassima; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Pantel, Alix; Dekhil, Mazouz; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii are of great concern to health services worldwide. These β-lactamases hydrolyse almost all β-lactams, are plasmid-encoded, and are easily transferable among bacterial species. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern. Infections caused by these bacteria have limited treatment options and have been associated with high mortality rates. Carbapenemase producers are mainly identified among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and A. baumannii and still mostly in hospital settings and rarely in the community. The Mediterranean region is of interest due to a great diversity and population mixing. The prevalence of carbapenemases is particularly high, with this area constituting one of the most important reservoirs. The types of carbapenemase vary among countries, partially depending on the population exchange relationship between the regions and the possible reservoirs of each carbapenemase. This review described the epidemiology of carbapenemases produced by enterobacteria and A. baumannii in this part of the world highlighting the worrisome situation and the need to screen and detect these enzymes to prevent and control their dissemination.

  19. Epidemiological Aspects and Differential Diagnosis of the Cutaneous Round Cell Tumors in Dogs

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    Roxana CORA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Round cell neoplasms (RCNs are frequent cutaneous lesions in dogs, with high percentages among skin tumors. In this category are included histiocytoma, mast cell tumor, plasmacytoma, lymphoma and transmissible venereal tumor. The aim of the study was to perform an epidemiological study with reference to the cutaneous round cell tumors in a period of 10 years in the Department of Pathology (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Additionally, in the recorded cases with round cell tumors (mast cell tumor, histiocytoma and lymphoma we described the main histological and cytological features. The epidemiological data were collected from the records of Pathology Department between 2005-2014. The investigation included dogs diagnosed with cutaneous round cell neoplasms, following necropsy analysis or assessment of biopsies or cytological samples. All collected specimens were analyzed by histopathological and/or cytological techniques. The staining used for histological investigation were Hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome and Toluidine blue, whereas Diff Quik and Wright methods were utilized in cytological specimens. The distribution of the cutaneous round cell tumors in relation to age, breed and sex was also assessed. The most frequent round cell tumor type was the mast cell tumor (19.54% followed by histiocytoma (11.33% and lymphoma (1.98%. The round cell tumors recorded were equally distributed in both males and females. Concerning the distribution of cutaneous RCNs by age (average age, histiocytoma occurred in 5 years old subjects, mast cell tumor in 11.9 years old subjects, and lymphoma in 6 years old subjects. Mast cell tumor was more frequent in stray dogs and Boxer breed, while histiocytoma occurred more commonly in stray dogs. Histological and cytological analysis was mandatory to perform the differential diagnosis between RCNs. Microscopic details concerning cytoplasm and nucleus of tumoral cells, together with the

  20. Epidemiological aspect of scorpion sting in Bandar Abbas, Iran, during 2009–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavy, Seyed Hamid; Shahi, Mehran; Rafinejad, Javad; Zare, Shahram; Madani, Abdoulhossain; Navidpour, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People in tropical and semi-tropical areas are in danger of scorpion sting, and this can be a serious problem for them. Mortality due to scorpion sting in the tropical and semi-tropical areas of Iran is about 75%, and this makes scorpion sting in these areas a serious medical problem. Because of this problem, our aim was to assess the epidemiological aspects of scorpion sting in Bandar Abbas, Iran, during 2009–2011. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, epidemiologic data of 698 scorpion sting cases, who were referred to the Shahid Mohamadi Hospital of Bandar Abbas in Hormozgan Province collected from 2009 until 2011. The data included demographic and individual information, such as age, gender, geographic location, bite site, when the incident occurred, and anti-venom consumption. The required data were extracted from the patients’ recorded information in the Hospital, and we recorded data in a special checklist and imported the data into the computer for statistical analysis using of SPSS software, version 21.0. Descriptive statistics, including mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage, were used for data analysis. Results Two hundred and sixty-one (37.4%) of the cases were urban and 437(62.6%) were rural. Males comprised 50.1% of the cases, and women comprised 49.9% (p >0.05). Twenty-five point two percent of scorpion sting cases occurred among people in the 21 to 30 age group, and there were very few cases among people in the 51 to 60 age range (p<0.05). Most of cases were recorded in April and October, and the fewest cases were recorded in July and January (p<0.05); also 32.2% of scorpion sting cases occurred after midnight and in the early morning hours. Conclusion Our survey showed that there was a high incidence of scorpion stings in rural areas, among 21–30 age group, among housekeepers, and among students. These results indicate the need for public education programs and better sanitation services in the rural

  1. Aspects of the Current Fiscal - Budgetary Situation in Some Euro Area Countries. Implications for Romania

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    Adina Criste

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic global crisis has exacerbated some of the imbalances existent in all EU Member States, in particular the fiscal-budgetary imbalances. For some countries whose currency is euro, the fiscal and budgetary challenges seem to threaten even the stability of the euro area. Thus, in the context of financial and economic global crisis, this article aims at identifying a number of negative aspects of the fiscal-budgetary situation of some euro area countries, more seriously affected (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and at revealing a series of possible implications of this phenomenon for Romania, thus giving originality of the conducted analysis. A fulcrum in this approach is the economic literature and the authors’ research work in the field of European integration. Through a comparative approach, the authors have identified some weaknesses of the Romanian economy generated by the current situation of some euro area countries. Given the place of the theme within the frame of present interest researches, the article’s results will be of interest for both academics and practitioners.

  2. Comparative study on the epidemiological aspects of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections between Korea and Japan, 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Chang; Kwon, Young Hwan

    2016-05-01

    To compare the epidemiological aspects of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) between Korea and Japan by analyzing the current state of EHEC infection outbreaks and related risk factors. We investigated the epidemiological aspects of EHEC infection cases between Korea and Japan from 2006 to 2010. The following factors were analyzed: national prevalence rate (PR), regional prevalence rate, epidemic aspects (i.e., Cases related to gender), male to female morbidity ratio, age, and seasonal distribution. In total, there were 254 cases of EHEC with an average PR of 0.11 per 100,000 populations in Korea from 2006 to 2010. During the same period in Japan, there were 20,883 cases of EHEC with an average PR of 3.26 per 100,000 populations. The PR in Japan was significantly higher than that in Korea (p infections, with the highest incidence of infections (> 50%) observed for individuals younger than 9 years. EHEC is an emerging zoonosis and may be caused by consumption of raw or undercooked meat products from ruminants. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the epidemiological aspects and risk factors of EHEC infections in Korea and Japan and will provide insight on effective future strategies to reduce these infections.

  3. Human cystic echinococcosis:epidemiologic, zoonotic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This review represents an updated scenario on the transmission cycle, epidemiology, clinical features and pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention and control measures of a cestode parasiteEchincoccus granulosus (E. granulosus)infection causing cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans. Human CE is a serious life-threatening neglected zoonotic disease that occurs in both developing and developed countries, and is recognized as a major public health problem. The life cycle of E. granulosus involves a definitive host (dogs and other canids) for the adult E. granulosus that resides in the intestine, and an intermediate host (sheep and other herbivores) for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. Humans are only incidentally infected; since the completion of the life cycle ofE. granulosus depends on carnivores feeding on herbivores bearing hydatid cysts with viable protoscoleces, humans represent usually the dead end for the parasite. On ingestion ofE. granulosus eggs, hydatid cysts are formed mostly in liver and lungs, and occasionally in other organs of human body, which are considered as uncommon sites of localization of hydatid cysts. The diagnosis of extrahepatic echinococcal disease is more accurate today because of the availability of new imaging techniques, and the current treatments include surgery and percutaneous drainage, and chemotherapy (albendazole and mebendazole). But, the wild animals that involve in sylvatic cycle may overlap and interact with the domestic sheep-dog cycle, and thus complicating the control efforts. The updated facts and phenomena regarding human and animal CE presented herein are due to the web search of SCI and non-SCI journals.

  4. Epidemiological aspects of penile cancer in Rio de Janeiro: evaluation of 230 cases

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    Leandro Koifman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine epidemiological characteristics of penile cancer in Rio de Janeiro, its associated risk factors and clinical manifestations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2008 we evaluated 230 patients at three public institutions, considering age, ethnicity, birthplace, marital status, educational level, religion, tobacco smoking, presence of phimosis and practice of circumcision. RESULTS: The ages ranged from 25 to 98 years, with an average of 58.35 years. Of the 230 patients, 167 (72.7% were from the southeast region of Brazil (which includes Rio de Janeiro and 45 (19.5% were from the northeast of the country. Most patients were white (67.3%, married (58.6%, smokers (56.5% and had not completed primary school (71.3%. The predominant religion was Catholic (74.8%. Of the 46 (20% circumcised patients, only 1 (2.2% had undergone neonatal circumcision. Grade I tumors were present in 87 (37.8% of the patients, grade II in 131 (56.9% and grade III in 12 (5.3%. Lymphovascular embolization was observed in 63 (27.3% and koilocytosis in 124 (53.9% patients. Of the total, 41.3% had corpora cavernosa or corpus spongiosum infiltration, and 40 (17.4% had urethral invasion. Prophylactic lymphadenectomy was performed on 56 (36.1%, therapeutic lymphadenectomy on 84 (54.2% and hygienic lymphadenectomy for advanced disease on 15 (9.7% patients. The median time between the lesion onset and clinical diagnosis was 13.2 months. The mean follow up was 28.8 months. CONCLUSION: Most of our patients were born in this state and had low socioeconomic status. Most of them were white men, married, smokers, uncircumcised, of the Catholic faith and in their sixties or older. Their disease was in most cases diagnosed only in the advanced stages.

  5. The epidemiological aspects of congenital heart disease in central and southern district of Iran

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    Sara Amel-Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD is a major health problem and its prevalence is different around the world. The aim of study was determination of the epidemiological aspects of CHD in central and southern district of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 3714 medical records were evaluated from March 21, 2001 to December 18, 2011. Medical records of inpatients from angiography and outpatients in the Heart Clinic of Afshar hospital (a referral hospital in center and south of Iran were the source of information. Types of CHD and demographic data including age, sex and residential location are collected. The data were analyzed by SPSS (version 17 software. Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to compare variables between groups. Results: At the study, the mean age of the patients at diagnosis time was 8.8 ± 11.6 year (at the range of one day to 76 years with median of 4 years. The percentage of females and males was 54.2 (n: 2014 and 43.8 (n: 1627, respectively. The chi-square test showed that there was significant difference in frequency of CHDs between females and males (P value < 0.0001. Ventricular septal defect (VSD was found to be the most frequent of CHDs (27%. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (16.8%, atrial septal defect (ASD (15.8%, pulmonary stenosis (PS (11% and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF (8.9% were more prevalent in CHDs after VSD. Conclusions: The frequency of CHDs in female was more than male and VSD, PDA, ASD, PS, and TOF were most common in CHDs, respectively.

  6. Product availability from delivery aspect: Evidence from retailers in selected Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that it represents one of the main preconditions of sales, product availability is the key task of retail companies and their delivery systems. This paper analyses its levels from the aspect of centralized and DSD systems. The research is conducted in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, including 84 stores and more than 70 FMCG products per each store. Thereby, the comparisons in product availability levels between alternative delivery systems are carried out within different trading formats and within different product categories. Unlike the results of similar studies and ongoing changes on retail markets, this research shows that at retailers in these Western Balkan countries, availability levels are higher in the case of DSD system.

  7. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trentina Di Muccio

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs. A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20 of which 36 were visceral (VL (16 HIV-coinfections and 69 cutaneous (CL cases; 85 cases (52 CL were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants 'visiting friends and relatives' and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends

  8. [Prevalence and differentiating aspects related to gender with regard to the bullying phenomenon in poor countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera Félix, Eva M; Del Rey Alamillo, Rosario; Ortega Ruiz, Rosario

    2011-11-01

    There is a large body of scientific knowledge about school violence and bullying in Europe and some other regions of the so-called developed world. However, improvement is scarce in poor and developing regions, as in the case of Latin America and, in particular, Nicaragua. The goal of this work was to determine the prevalence of the bullying phenomenon in Nicaraguan primary schools, to analyze the eventual relationships between the different forms of violence used by the students and to explore, in relation to these aspects, the similarities and differences between boys and girls. For this purpose, we surveyed 3042 pupils of primary school (50.3% girls) using the "Cuestionario sobre Convivencia, Violencia y Experiencias de Riesgo" (COVER, in English, Questionnaire about Living Together, Violence and Risk Experiences). We found that the level of involvement in bullying is significantly higher than in developed countries, that boys are more involved than girls in verbal, physical and psychological bullying, and that there are no differences with regard to social exclusion. The results are discussed, comparing them with studies conducted in different countries but with similar methodologies.

  9. Aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical Epidemiological aspects of cervical cancer

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    Antonio Aleixo Neto

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi efetuada revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical, um dos mais freqüentes em mulheres de países em desenvolvimento. No Brasil a incidência varia de 23,7/100.000, em Porto Alegre, a 83,2/100.000, em Recife. Nos Estados Unidos a incidência em 1978 foi de 6,8/100.000 entre as mulheres brancas e de 14,7/100.000 entre as negras. Várias observações sugerem a hipótese de que o câncer cervical esteja relacionado com algum aspecto da atividade sexual, possivelmente algum agente transmitido por via venérea. As evidências têm implicado o papilomavirus humano (HPV como o principal agente etiológico deste câncer. Vários trabalhos foram analisados quanto à validade desta hipótese etiológica, mostrando que há uma relação entre HPV e o câncer cervical. Foram analisados os fatores de risco mais conhecidos, tais como o comportamento sexual, o tabagismo e a contracepção, diante das várias possibilidades etiológicas existentes.A review concerning the epidemiological issues relating to cervical cancer, one of the most frequent in the women of developing countries, was undertaken in - Brazil, the incidence rate varies from 23.7/100,000 in Porto Alegre to 83.2/100,000 in Recife. In the United States, the 1978 incidence rate was 6.8/100,000 in white women and 14.7/100,000 among black women. Several studies have suggested the hypotheses that cervical cancer could be related to some venereal agent. The evidences have shown the human papillomavirus (HPV to be the main etiological agent. Several studies on the validity of such a hypotheses were realyzed and it became clear that there does infact exist a relationship between the HPV and cervical cancer. Finally, the better known risk factors, such as sexual behaviour, smoking and the contraception were studied in the light of the various etiological hypotheses.

  10. Biological, Epidemiological, and Clinical Aspects of Echinococcosis, a Zoonosis of Increasing Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Johannes; Deplazes, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Echinococcosis in humans is a zoonotic infection caused by larval stages (metacestodes) of cestode species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by E. multilocularis, and polycystic forms are caused by either E. vogeli or E. oligarthrus. In untreated cases, AE has a high mortality rate. Although control is essentially feasible, CE remains a considerable health problem in many regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. AE is restricted to the northern hemisphere regions of North America and Eurasia. Recent studies have shown that E. multilocularis, the causative agent of AE, is more widely distributed than previously thought. There are also some hints of an increasing significance of polycystic forms of the disease, which are restricted to Central and South America. Various aspects of human echinococcosis are discussed in this review, including data on the infectivity of genetic variants of E. granulosus to humans, the increasing invasion of cities in Europe and Japan by red foxes, the main definitive hosts of E. multilocularis, and the first demonstration of urban cycles of the parasite. Examples of emergence or reemergence of CE are presented, and the question of potential spreading of E. multilocularis is critically assessed. Furthermore, information is presented on new and improved tools for diagnosing the infection in final hosts (dogs, foxes, and cats) by coproantigen or DNA detection and the application of molecular techniques to epidemiological studies. In the clinical field, the available methods for diagnosing human CE and AE are described and the treatment options are summarized. The development of new chemotherapeutic options for all forms of human echinococcosis remains an urgent requirement. A new option for the control of E. granulosus in the intermediate host population (mainly sheep and cattle) is vaccination. Attempts are made to reduce the

  11. Comparative effect sizes in randomised trials from less developed and more developed countries: meta-epidemiological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G; Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-02-12

    To compare treatment effects from randomised trials conducted in more developed versus less developed countries. Meta-epidemiological study. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (August 2012). Meta-analyses with mortality outcomes including data from at least one randomised trial conducted in a less developed country and one in a more developed country. Relative risk estimates of more versus less developed countries were compared by calculating the relative relative risks for each topic and the summary relative relative risks across all topics. Similar analyses were performed for the primary binary outcome of each topic. 139 meta-analyses with mortality outcomes were eligible. No nominally significant differences between more developed and less developed countries were found for 128 (92%) meta-analyses. However, differences were beyond chance in 11 (8%) cases, always showing more favourable treatment effects in trials from less developed countries. The summary relative relative risk was 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.18; Pcountries. Results were similar for meta-analyses with nominally significant treatment effects for mortality (1.15), meta-analyses with recent trials (1.14), and when excluding trials from less developed countries that subsequently became more developed (1.12). For the primary binary outcomes (127 meta-analyses), 20 topics had differences in treatment effects beyond chance (more favourable in less developed countries in 15/20 cases). Trials from less developed countries in a few cases show significantly more favourable treatment effects than trials in more developed countries and, on average, treatment effects are more favourable in less developed countries. These discrepancies may reflect biases in reporting or study design as well as genuine differences in baseline risk or treatment implementation and should be considers when generalising evidence across different settings.

  12. Epidemiology and outcome of burns: early experience at the country's first national burns centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Tariq; Saaiq, Muhammad; Ali, Zahid

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to document the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of burn injuries in the country's first national burn centre. This case series study was conducted over a 2-year period at Burns Care Centre (BCC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. The study included all burn injury patients who primarily presented to and were managed at the centre. Those patients who presented more than 24 h after injury or those who were initially managed at some other hospital were excluded from the study. Initial assessment and diagnosis was made by thorough history, physical examination and necessary investigations. Patients with major burns, high voltage electric burns and those needing any surgical interventions were admitted for indoor management. Patients with minor burns were discharged home after necessary emergency management, home medication and follow-up advice. The sociodemographic profile of the patients, site of sustaining burn injury, type and extent (total body surface area (TBSA), skin thickness involved and associated inhalational injury) of burn and outcome in terms of survival or mortality, etc., were all recorded on a proforma. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Out of a total of 13,295 patients, there were 7503 (56.43%) males and 5792 (43.56%) females. The mean age for adults was 33.63±10.76 years and for children it was 6.71±3.47 years. The household environment constituted the commonest site of burns (68%). Among all age groups and both genders, scalds were the commonest burns (42.48%), followed by flame burns (39%) and electrical burns (9.96%). The affected mean TBSA was 10.64±11.45% overall, while for the hospitalised subset of patients the mean TBSA was 38.04±15.18%. Most of the burns were partial thickness (67%). Inhalation injury was found among 149 (1.12%) patients. Most of the burns were non-intentional and only 96 (0.72%) were intentional. A total of 1405 patients (10.58%) were admitted while the remainder

  13. Epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects in the United States: changing concepts and their importance for screening and prenatal diagnostic programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.; Strassburg, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report considers several major epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects (NTDs). After examining briefly the approaches and goals of epidemiology the traditional epidemiologic concepts of NTDs are reviewed and new interpretations of the epidemiology of these defects is suggested. Three major topics are addressed: (1) that much of our knowledge of the epidemiology of the NTDs comes from areas or periods of high rates of occurrence and that generalizations based on these data may not be applicable to low incidence situations; (2) that the etiology of these defects is multifactorial, involving interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors which may differ in their relative importance between populations; and (3) that anencephalus and spina bifida may be more epidemiologically and etiologically distinct than is usually appreciated. A final consideration deals with some recent contributions of epidemiology to screening and prenatal diagnosis programs.

  14. Epidemiological aspects of group B streptococci of bovine and human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1996-01-01

    restriction enzymes, HindIII and HhaI. All isolates could be typed by ribotyping and seven ribotypes were identified among the reference strains. The restriction enzymes used alone or in combination gave typing results that allowed discrimination between and within serotype. Combined use of serotype, Hind......Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding rRNA (ribotyping) was used in combination with conventional epidemiological markers to study phenotypic variations among Streptococcus agalactiae of bovine origin and the possible epidemiological interrelationship between the bovine...

  15. [Actual sanitary, epidemiological and hygienic aspects of a dietitian's activities in stationary medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, B P; Kerimoval, M G; Elizarova, E V; Petrenko, A S

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the relevance of the main areas of dietitians' training to sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic issues of organization of clinical nutrition in stationary medical institutions (MIs) at training and refresher courses on dietetics. The attention is focused on the new legislative, policy and regulatory instruments, sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic requirements, providing high quality, safety and efficacy of nutritional therapy in MIs. The role of dietitian in the organization of clinical nutrition is highlighted. There were set out rights and responsibilities of a dietitian as a representative of MI under inspections by Rospotrebnadzor bodies; the demands, put forward by these bodies to the tested object, and actions, taken by them.

  16. Neurological and epidemiological aspects of a BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Lunardi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 5 is a DNA virus that has been associated with meningoencephalitis in young cattle. While its clinical diagnosis is obscured by other major diseases that also produce similar neurological disease in cattle, the use of conventional virological techniques is hampered by the establishment of a lifelong latent infection in the host and the difficulty in differentiating BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. The aim of the current report is to describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects observed in a natural outbreak of BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis in a dairy cattle herd from Brazil. In the outbreak, the affected animals consisted of nine calves, which presented three possible forms of the neurological disease, subjectively classified as peracute, acute, and subacute/chronic. In contrast to conventional herpetic meningoencephalitis, characterized mainly by progressive multifocal brain dysfunctions, BoHV-5 infection resulted in focal non-progressive caudal brainstem dysfunction (pontomedullary syndrome in an animal presented with subacute/chronic BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis. The evaluation of CNS tissue of affected calves through both histological examination and multiplex-PCR was able to confirm BoHV-5 infection. Additionally, the analysis of CSF samples through PCR allowed ante-mortem BoHV-5 diagnosis during the outbreak, which enabled the implementation of several measures of control for the disease.O herpesvírus bovino 5 é um vírus DNA que tem sido associado a casos de meningoencefalite em bovinos jovens. Enquanto o diagnóstico clínico da doença é dificultado pelo fato de outras enfermidades importantes também determinarem quadro neurológico em bovinos, a utilização de técnicas virológicas convencionais no diagnóstico laboratorial tem sido inviabilizada pela latência viral que ocorre no hospedeiro e pela dificuldade em se diferenciar o BoHV-1 do BoHV-5. O objetivo deste relato é o de descrever alguns aspectos clínicos e

  17. Epidemiologic and Genetic Aspects of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public…

  18. Epidemiologic and Genetic Aspects of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public…

  19. Epidemiological aspects of aquaculture in relation to fish borne trematodiasis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, K C

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have been conducted to determine the association between fish and disease. The fish were obtained from rivers, streams, ponds and lakes but few from aquaculture farms. While no defined studies have been carried out in Malaysia, baseline data show that fish obtained from aquaculture farms (mixed farming) contributed to cases of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis.

  20. Epidemiological comparisons of problems and positive qualities reported by adolescents in 24 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ran...

  1. Cross-cultural aspects of ICT use by older people: preliminary results of a four-country ethnographical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blat, Josep; Sayago, Sergio; Kälviäinen, Mirja

    2011-01-01

    Culture is crucial in understanding how people use technologies and designing better ones. However, very little is known about cross-cultural aspects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use by older people (60+), despite the heterogeneity of this user group. This short paper...... addresses this issue by drawing on an ethnographical study of ICT use conducted with over 120 people, aged 67-71, in four European countries: Finland, Denmark, Italy and Spain, over a 6-month period. The preliminary results show that making a social, independent and worth use of ICT are common aspects...... across the four countries, despite the so-called heterogeneity of older people as ICT users. This short paper also touches on two key aspects which emerged from the study, engaging older people in research and the evolution of some barriers to technology use....

  2. Geographical aspects of geo-arbitrage: work in Canada and live in countries with low cost of living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, J.; Dramowicz, K.

    2016-04-01

    The term geo-arbitrage means taking advantage of the difference in living costs between different geographic locations. This paper focuses on geographical aspects of international geo-arbitrage based on differences in the cost of living from one country to another. More precisely, the paper shows the perspective for a Canadian (student, volunteer, entrepreneur, IT person, or retiree) with some sort of mobile income or savings can take advantage of price differences by traveling to other countries. The paper is based on world development indicators, which cover a wide range of criteria when moving to another country. The data were collected for approximately 200 countries and represent the following categories of criteria: cost of living (economic factors), standard of living (such as safety, health care, environmental issues), and personal preferences (such as distance to home, Internet access or popularity of English language). The user input is required to rank or weight the importance of each of the criteria when moving to another country. One model was developed to emphasize the cost of living by controlling the weights ‘behind-the-scenes’. The results produce a list of the top suitable countries to practice geo-arbitrage. Another model allows the user to input weights for each criteria instead of ranks. The results from both models are mapped based on resulting suitability values. The top selected suitable countries are mapped, and the more specific information on each selected country is presented to the user, including the detailed cost of living, and current travel warning.

  3. The Epidemiological Aspects of Tuberculosis in Hamadan Province during 2005–11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Epidemiological information on tuberculosis (TB is required to plan control and prevention strategies and to inform service delivery systems. The aim of present study was to determine the epidemiological status of TB in Hamadan Province covering a seven-year period. Methods In this cross-sectional study all registered TB patients suffering from any form of smear-positive, smear-negative or extra pulmonary from 2005 to 2011 were assessed. Age-adjusted incidence trend was studied. The Cochran-Armitage (C-A test was used for testing the trends over time. Results The mean age of TB patients was 57.0 (±21.1, 49.9% were males, 52.8% were aged 61 years or older and 39.7% were rural residents. Previous history of jailed was present in 13 (2.2% patients and 12 (2.0% were HIV positive. From all TB patients, 60.8% were smear-positive, 87.6% were new cases, and 87.3% of smear-positive patients were cured cases. Also, 23.6% patients had history of hospitalization for TB. More than half (55.4% of TB patients were reported by public health system. Age-adjusted incidence rates of all TB cases during 2005–11 was 3.4, 3.2, 3.6, 4.7, 3.3, 4.4 and 7.3 in 100,000 respectively (C-A trend test, P< 0.001. Conclusion Although, the incidence rate of TB in Hamadan Province is lower than country’s average, increasing trend of TB incidence is not concordant with its decreasing trend in Iran. An epidemiological study is required to evaluate risk factors associated with TB to identify ways to decrease the prevalence of TB.

  4. Epidemiological Aspect and common Bacterial and Fungal isolates from Suppurative Corneal Ulcer in Mymensingh Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moid, M A; Akhanda, A H; Islam, S; Halder, S K; Islam, R

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study was done to find out the epidemiological factors of suppurative corneal ulcer and the common causative bacterial and fungal isolates from the, patients with suppurative corneal ulcer in secondary and tertiary level hospital at Mymensingh region. A total 100 samples of corneal scrapings were collected purposively from clinically diagnosed suppurative corneal ulcer patients from March 18, 2012 to March 17, 2013. Out of the total 100 samples, bacterial species were 29(29%) cases and the fungal spacies were 71(71%) identified by the culture in blood agar, chocolate agar and sabouraud's agar media and also by microscopic examination. The bacterial species were streptococcus pneumonae 12 cases (12%), Staphylococcus aureus 9 cases (9%), pseudomonas in 6 cases (6%), and Streptococcus pyoganes 2 cases (2%). Fungal species were aspergillus fumigatus 61 cases (61%), aspergillus niger 10 cases (10%). Out of the study populations, most of the populations were from the age group of 41 to 60 years (39 %), followed 21 to 40 years (34%) age group. Considering the sex, male were 67%, female were 33%. The majority of patients came from the rural area of Mymensingh region; occupationally they were farmers (44%). Ocular trauma due to agricultural materials was the most common associated factor (71%). The etiological and epidemiological pattern of suppurative corneal ulcer varies significantly with geographical region, patient population and health of the cornea. The present study was carried out to explore the epidemiological pattern, causative bacterial and fungal specie by laboratory procedure from corneal scraping and to invent a prospective guide line for the management of corneal ulcer in the community.

  5. Congenital toxoplasmosis: Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infection during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rosso; Alejandro Agudelo; Ángela Isaza; José Gilberto Montoya

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre la toxoplasmosis durante el embarazo y de su consecuencia la toxoplasmosis congénita. Se pretende ilustrar a los profesionales de la salud con los diferentes aspectos tanto epidemiológicos como clínicos concernientes a esta enfermedad. Se revisan conceptos actuales de la parasitología y de la epidemiología de la transmisión materno-fetal, así como la presentación clínica de la infección perinatal. Se discuten nuevos adelantos en el diagnóstico y su i...

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CHOLERA IN CÔTE D’IVOIRE FROM 2002 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Lallié Hermane Désiré, Dago Dougba Noel*, Moroh Aboya Jean Luc, S.N. Dagnan, D. Cherif, Kouamé Jean-Pierre and Coulibaly Daouda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our study aimed to identify the main epidemiological characteristics of cholera in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods: It consisted of a descriptive retrospective analysis of all reported suspected and confirmed cases of cholera at the National Institute of Public Hygiene of Côte d'Ivoire from 2002 to 2013. Results: During this period, 8028 suspect case of cholera were recorded and 101 cases had been confirmed out of 462 cases sampled. The most affected regions with 44.1% and 25.3% respective...

  7. Distribution and epidemiologic trends of HBV genotypes and subtypes in 14 countries neighboring china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhao; Jianqiong, Wang; Hongmei, Li; Rong, Zeng; Li, Li; Jinping, Zhang; Tao, Shen

    2015-05-01

    The number of cases of HBV infection reported by the WHO for each district and country is positively correlated with the number of HBV sequences in the database isolated from the corresponding district and country. This study determined distribution characteristics of HBV genotypes and subtypes in 14 countries neighboring China. The progress made in genomic research involving HBV was also reviewed. Nine hundred fifty-one complete genome sequences of HBV from 14 countries neighboring China were selected from NCBI. The sequence-related information was analyzed and recorded. One hundred seventy-two sequences of HBV genotype B were screened for alignment using DNA star and MEGA 5.1. Dominant HBV genotypes in the countries neighboring China were genotypes B, C and D and dominant subtypes were adw2 and adrq+. The association between genotype and serotype of HBV in these countries was shown to differ from previous research results. As shown by sequence alignment, the sequence divergence between five subgenotypes (B3, B5, B7, B8 and B9) was below 4%. The B subgenotypes shared six common specific amino acid sites in the S region. The B3, B5, B7, B8 and B9 subgenotypes can be clustered into quasi-sub-genotype B3 and the open reading frame of HBV has a start codon preference; however, whether a mutation in the start codon in the pre-S2 region has an impact on survival and replication of HBV remains to be determined.

  8. Epidemiological aspects of leprosy in Juazeiro-BA, from 2002 to 2012*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Eduarda Gomes da Cruz; de Souza, Carlos Dornels Freire; Silva, Susanne Pinheiro Costa e; da Costa, Flávia Monteiro; do Carmo, Rodrigo Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, able to infect large numbers of people. This work is relevant to Juazeiro-BA, a hyper-endemic area for leprosy, since unravel the behavior of the disease in the area, may suggest the decision making for sectors of surveillance, establishing strategies, organizing and evaluating programs and services. OBJECTIVES To analyze the epidemiology of leprosy in Juazeiro-BA, from 2002 to 2012. METHODS A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted based in data of the Diseases Notification System, assigned by the service of Epidemiology from Juazeiro-BA, between 2002 and 2012. RESULTS 1,916 new cases of leprosy were detected between 2002 and 2012, of which 921 (48.07%) represented male sex, 995 (51.93%) female, and there was a reduction in the incidence rate of leprosy per 100,000 inhabitants. Most carriers were brown individuals, with low levels of education, living in the urban area, being more prevalent in the economically active age group. Through statistical analysis we found that there are more chances of developing sequelae among men, and multibacillary individuals older than 45 years. CONCLUSIONS The work serves to direct efforts to control this disease, and highlights the importance of active search for new cases to achieve an early diagnosis, reducing the number of sequels and allowing breaking the chain of disease transmission. PMID:26734859

  9. The Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Nasal Polyps that Require Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Meymane Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to obtain epidemiological data from the charts of 297 patients with nasal polyposis who were operated on in a referral hospital in Mashhad and to determine the frequency of the presenting symptoms of nasal polyps.  Materials and Methods: The variables recorded included age, gender, the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis, family history, and previous treatments. We studied the main symptoms of nasal polyposis (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, anosmia, headache, epistaxis, snoring, and so on, as well as ear problems and facial deformity.  Results: Nasal polyposis affects men (60.3% more frequently, at a mean age of 39.5 years. The most frequent symptom was nasal blockage (81.1 % followed by rhinorrhea (37.7%. A total of 11.1% of the patients had a history of epistaxis. Asthma was found in 10.4% of patients with nasal polyposis and the ears were affected in 5.1% of patients. In all, 7.4% of patients had first-degree relatives who suffered from asthma or allergic rhinitis.  Conclusion: This study highlights the need for large-scale epidemiologic research exploring the prevalence and incidence of nasal polyposis in Iran.

  10. [Rehabilitation programme using neuromuscular electrical stimulation in spinal cord: epidemiological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Cíntia Kelly; Cliquet, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    To assess epidemiological profile of spinal cord injury outpatients which have been participating of rehabilitation programme using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, in order to implement campaigns for preventing spinal cord trauma. From January to April 2009, 30 patients at the spinal cord injury ambulatory clinic at Hospital das Clínicas of Unicamp were analysed by some epidemiologic characteristics: age, profession, type and level of their paralysis, origin and time of injury. All patients had complete spinal cord injury (ASIA); 24 patients were men and six were women, the mean age was 34.6 years (range, 10-64 years), two patients were children. Twenty-one patients were paraplegic and nine were tetraplegic; causes included automobile accident (12), run over (three), diving (four), bicycle accident (one), motorcycle accident (three), gunshot wound (six), thoracic tuberculosis (one), and lumbar surgery (one). The mean lesion time was 8.2 years (range, 1-15 years). Two patients were retired. The results suggested that spinal cord injury affects mainly young active men. It is necessary to develop incisive actions to prevent accidents, specially directed to traffic security.

  11. Epidemiological aspects of retrovirus (HTLV infection among Indian populations in the Amazon Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ishak

    Full Text Available HTLV was initially described in association with a form of leukemia in Japan and a neurological disease in the Caribbean. It was soon shown that HTLV-II was endemic among Amerindians and particularly among Brazilian Indians. The Amazon Region of Brazil is presently the largest endemic area for this virus and has allowed several studies concerning virus biology, the search for overt disease, epidemiological data including detailed demographic data on infected individuals, clear-cut geographic distribution, definition of modes of transmission and maintenance within small, epidemiologically-closed groups, and advances in laboratory diagnosis of the infection. A new molecular subtype named HTLV-IIc was further described on the basis of genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This subtype is present in other areas of Brazil, indicating that the virus is additionally both a valuable marker for tracing past human migration routes in the Americas and a probable marker for social habits of the present human population. HIV, the other human retrovirus, is still not prevalent among indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon, but these groups are also easy targets for the virus.

  12. Epidemiological aspects of retrovirus (HTLV infection among Indian populations in the Amazon Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available HTLV was initially described in association with a form of leukemia in Japan and a neurological disease in the Caribbean. It was soon shown that HTLV-II was endemic among Amerindians and particularly among Brazilian Indians. The Amazon Region of Brazil is presently the largest endemic area for this virus and has allowed several studies concerning virus biology, the search for overt disease, epidemiological data including detailed demographic data on infected individuals, clear-cut geographic distribution, definition of modes of transmission and maintenance within small, epidemiologically-closed groups, and advances in laboratory diagnosis of the infection. A new molecular subtype named HTLV-IIc was further described on the basis of genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This subtype is present in other areas of Brazil, indicating that the virus is additionally both a valuable marker for tracing past human migration routes in the Americas and a probable marker for social habits of the present human population. HIV, the other human retrovirus, is still not prevalent among indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon, but these groups are also easy targets for the virus.

  13. Some Aspects of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Azmat

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the incidence of the communicable and non-communicable diseases in Pacific Island countries. Available health statistics confirms that children continue to die annually due to neonatal causes, diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia and measles. The adult population in several countries reveals presence and emergence of…

  14. Some Aspects of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Azmat

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the incidence of the communicable and non-communicable diseases in Pacific Island countries. Available health statistics confirms that children continue to die annually due to neonatal causes, diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia and measles. The adult population in several countries reveals presence and emergence of…

  15. The epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infections in developed countries and among immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kenrad E; Kmush, Brittany; Labrique, Alain B

    2011-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of acute hepatitis in humans worldwide, both as epidemic and sporadic disease. Since the virus was identified in 1983, epidemics have occurred regularly in many countries across South and Southeast Asia when seasonal floods have contaminated drinking water supplies and in Africa during humanitarian crises among refugee populations without access to clean water. In addition, sporadic cases and small clusters of HEV infections have been recognized throughout the world in developed countries over the past couple of decades. This review will focus on emerging evidence of HEV infection as an under-recognized pathogen in Europe, the USA and other industrialized countries. We will discuss some of the issues associated with the recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these sporadic cases. We will also summarize the recent literature on autochthonous HEV infection among populations in developed countries in industrialized Europe, the USA, Japan and other industrialized Asian countries. We will review recent reports of acute and chronic HEV infections among transplant recipients and other immunocompromised individuals including HIV/AIDS patients.

  16. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.

  17. [Occupational aspects of epidemiology of overweight: contemporary tendencies and prospects of prophylaxis (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, S A

    2013-01-01

    The review article covers occupational aspects of overweight as one of the major behavioral risk factors in many diseases. As this topic is undercovered by the national studies, the review considers the foreign works more. The authors present main concepts of work process influence on overweight and of prophylactic leverages on this influence.

  18. Epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical aspects of canine lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa B. Neuwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine lymphomas diagnosed in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Thirty dogs were enrolled in the study; most of them were male (60%, mixed-breed (23% and middle-aged or older. The majority (87% of affected dogs showed the multicentric form. The B-cell phenotype was most frequently detected (62%; 37% of the animals were in clinical stage IV, and 83% were classified as sub-stage "b". Lymphadenopathy was observed in 67% of the cases, and dyspnea, prostration, decreased appetite and vomiting were the most common clinical signs encountered. Anemia was a frequently encountered laboratory alteration (57%, as were leukocytosis (40%, thrombocytopenia (33%, lymphopenia (30%, hyperglobulinemia (20% and hypercalcemia (13%. The results of this study indicate that the clinical features of dogs with lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre are similar to those observed worldwide.

  19. Congenital toxoplasmosis: Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rosso

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre la toxoplasmosis durante el embarazo y de su consecuencia la toxoplasmosis congénita. Se pretende ilustrar a los profesionales de la salud con los diferentes aspectos tanto epidemiológicos como clínicos concernientes a esta enfermedad. Se revisan conceptos actuales de la parasitología y de la epidemiología de la transmisión materno-fetal, así como la presentación clínica de la infección perinatal. Se discuten nuevos adelantos en el diagnóstico y su influencia en el tratamiento de la mujer embarazada, del feto y del recién nacido. También se discuten las controversias recientes sobre las diversas estrategias de prevención primaria y secundaria durante el embarazo.

  20. Non-allergic rhinitis in children: Epidemiological aspects, pathological features, diagnostic methodology and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Gelardi, Matteo; Licari, Amelia; Del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-12-26

    Chronic rhinitis is a very common disease, as the prevalence in the general population resulted to be 40%. Allergic rhinitis has been considered to be the most frequent form of chronic rhinitis, as non-allergic rhinitis has been estimated to account for 25%. However, several evidences suggested that non-allergic rhinitis have been underrated, especially in children. In pediatrics, the diagnostic definition of non-allergic rhinitis has been often limited to the exclusion of an allergic sensitization. Actually, local allergic rhinitis has been often misdiagnosed as well as mixed rhinitis has not been recognized in most cases. Nasal cytology is a diagnostic procedure being suitable for routine clinical practice with children and could be a very useful tool to characterize and diagnose non-allergic rhinitis, providing important clues for epidemiological analysis and clinical management.

  1. Diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus infection: Epidemiological, therapeutic aspects and patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Youssouf; Bensghir, Rajaa; Ihbibane, Fatima; OuladLashen, Ahd; Sodqi, Mustapha; Marih, Latifa; Chakib, Abdelfattah; Marhoum, Kamal El Filali

    2016-06-01

    Nationally, no data on the association between human immunodeficiency virus infection and diabetes have been published. To review the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data and evaluate the experience of people living with HIV and suffering from diabetes. Our study population was composed of 190 outpatients (87 males and 103 females) attending the Infectious Diseases department of the University Hospital Center of Casablanca (Ibn Rochd). Using the computerized medical records, we identified patients with HIV-Diabetes and collected their epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data. At the enrollment date of each patient, we measured anthropometric parameters (weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and arm circumference). We also asked each patient, about the impression on their bodies' appearance and the degree of concern with regard to the diabetes. The population of patients with HIV, the prevalence of diabetes was 10.5%, among the patients taking an antiretroviral therapy, the prevalence was 13.5%. Diabetes has been diagnosed in 113 patients before the discovery of their HIV infection. At time of recruitment, 111 of them were under antiretroviral therapy for a mean period of 3.1years. Zidovudine was the most prescribed drug followed by lamivudine. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed in 144 patients. Eighty-seven patients feel conscious about their body appearance which makes them feel bad about the way they look. Metformin was prescribed in 46 cases. The majority of patients (73.1%) considered diabetes as a second health problem. Only 46 patients were well balanced. The multidisciplinary consultation and patient education should enable an appropriate management of diabetes in HIV infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Resurgence of pertussis at the age of vaccination: clinical, epidemiological, and molecular aspects

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    Rosângela S.L.A. Torres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Report the incidence, epidemiology, clinical features, death, and vaccination status of patients with whooping cough and perform genotypic characterization of isolates of B. pertussis identified in the state of Paraná, during January 2007 to December 2013.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1,209 patients with pertussis. Data were obtained through the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN and molecular epidemiology was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab(r, bioMerieux, France.RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis in the state of Paraná increased sharply from 0.15-0.76 per 100,000 habitants between 2007-2010 to 1.7-4.28 per 100,000 between 2011-2013. Patients with less than 1 year of age were more stricken (67.5%. Fifty-nine children (5% developed pertussis even after receiving three doses and two diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP boosters vaccine. The most common complications were pneumonia (14.5%, otitis (0.9%, and encephalopathy (0.7%. Isolates of B. pertussis were grouped into two groups (G1 and G2 and eight distinct patterns (G1: P1-P5 and G2: P6-P8.CONCLUSION: The resurgence of pertussis should stimulate new research to develop vaccines with greater capacity of protection against current clones and also encourage implementation of new strategies for vaccination in order to reduce the risk of disease in infants.

  3. Some aspects of the epidemiology of external hernias in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene-Yeboah, M; Abantanga, F; Oppong, J; Togbe, B; Nimako, B; Amoah, M; Azorliade, R

    2009-10-01

    In our communities there are large numbers of longstanding external hernias that remain untreated. This paper describes the epidemiological characteristics of these hernias. The data is expected to provide guidelines for sustained national and international efforts to reduce the burden of hernia by performing large-scale elective hernia repairs. Between January 1998 and December 2007, a simple pro-forma was designed and used to record, in a prospective manner, the age, sex of patient and anatomical site of all external hernias seen and operated on both as emergencies and non-emergencies. These were patients who presented to a single general and paediatric surgeon at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 2,506 patients were studied, of which 1,930 were male and 576 female, giving a male:female ratio of 3.4:1. Inguinal hernia was seen in 1,766 patients: 1,613 males and 153 females, a male:female ratio of 10.5:1. Children 4 years old or younger accounted for 20.9% of inguinal hernias. Femoral hernia was seen in 79 patients: 70 females and 9 males. These groin hernias were diagnosed in 1,845 patients, accounting for 73.6% of all patients. Incisional hernia was diagnosed in 380 patients (15.2%): 179 males and 201 females-a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. These two hernia types (groin and incisional) were seen in 2,225 patients, representing 88.8% of all the patients studied. All other hernias studied, including para-umbilical, umbilical and epigastric, were seen in 281 patients, representing 11.2% of the hernias studied. The epidemiology of external hernias seen and treated in our hospital is no different from that of hernias in other communities. Sustained efforts at elective repair will reduce the vast numbers of untreated accumulated hernias in our communities and thus prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality.

  4. Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Hamid Amani; Massoud Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results:Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions:In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary.

  5. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Regional and International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albeshan, Salman M; Mackey, Martin G; Hossain, Syeda Z; Alfuraih, Abdulrahman A; Brennan, Patrick C

    2017-07-13

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed noncutaneous malignancy in women living in Gulf Cooperation Council countries. The present report aimed to highlight the similarities and variations in breast cancer incidence, age at diagnosis, clinicopathologic features, molecular characteristics, and lifestyle factors that contribute to an increasing incidence of breast cancer compared with neighboring Arab and westernized countries. The data presented, although having important implications for policy makers, also highlights the need for further research. Such research would ensure that effective prevention and detection strategies are tailored to the specific needs of the Gulf women such that the management of breast cancer is optimized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and economic aspects of tuberculosis in mubende district, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Muwonge; Sydney Malama; Johansen, Tone B; Clovice Kankya; Demelash Biffa; Willy Ssengooba; Jacques Godfroid; Berit Djønne; Eystein Skjerve

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem whose effects have major impact in developing countries like Uganda. This study aimed at investigating genotypic characteristics and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from suspected TB patients. Furthermore, risk factors and economic burdens that could affect the current control strategies were studied. METHODS: TB suspected patients were examined in a cross-sectional study at the Mubende region...

  7. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of obesity during pregnancy and the puerperium

    OpenAIRE

    Storck Lindholm, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study different aspects of obesity during pregnancy, birth and the puerperium. Paper I is an intervention study of obese pregnant women. Paper II compares fatty acid (FA) patterns in breast milk and neonates ́ plasma phospholipids in normal-weight mothers and an intervention group of obese mothers. Paper III reports the risk of obstetric anal sphincter la - cerations in relation to maternal obesity among primiparas. Paper IV compares health care consumption...

  8. Epidemiological Analysis on 3614 Patients with Temporo-Mandibular Disorders (TMD Basic Statistical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkemik J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to present data from a large sample of patients with Temporo-Mandibular Disorders (TMD in order to clarify some aspects of the development of pathological conditions that affect large parts of the population. In the past years there was a rapid growth of the incidence of the temporomandibular dissorders. The ethiopathogenesis is in most cases unclear. Based on the latest information supposed are the biopsychosocial factors.

  9. Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Fernandes Brilhante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN, and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0% and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3% were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL. Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro’s skin test predominated (66.4%, with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism.

  10. Scorpion poisoning in the Acosta and Caripe Counties of Monagas State, Venezuela. part 1: characterization of some epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa L; Parrilla; Tillero; Valdiviezo; Ledezma; Jorquera; Quiroga

    1997-01-01

    Scorpion poisoning was surveyed in Acosta and Caripe counties, located in the Turimiquire subregion of Monagas State, Venezuela, aiming to expand information on stings by characterizing some epidemiological aspects. From 1987 to 1993, 298 cases of scorpion stings were recorded in Acosta and Caripe counties. Acosta had 212 cases, with an annual incidence rate of 18.3 (cases per 10,000 inhabitants) and a period median incidence rate of 128 . The scorpion poisoning index is 4.18 times greater in Acosta than in Caripe, confirming the former as a hyperendemic zone for this type of injury, with a phenomenon of cyclical temporal fluctuations and an upward trend. This area is infested with scorpions of the genus Tityus. Our results show that the region surveyed in Monagas State is endemic for scorpion stings, posing a major public health problem.

  11. Scorpion poisoning in the Acosta and Caripe Counties of Monagas State, Venezuela. part 1: characterization of some epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa Leonardo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion poisoning was surveyed in Acosta and Caripe counties, located in the Turimiquire subregion of Monagas State, Venezuela, aiming to expand information on stings by characterizing some epidemiological aspects. From 1987 to 1993, 298 cases of scorpion stings were recorded in Acosta and Caripe counties. Acosta had 212 cases, with an annual incidence rate of 18.3‰(cases per 10,000 inhabitants and a period median incidence rate of 128‰. The scorpion poisoning index is 4.18 times greater in Acosta than in Caripe, confirming the former as a hyperendemic zone for this type of injury, with a phenomenon of cyclical temporal fluctuations and an upward trend. This area is infested with scorpions of the genus Tityus. Our results show that the region surveyed in Monagas State is endemic for scorpion stings, posing a major public health problem.

  12. Epidemiologic aspects of exogenous progestagens in relation to their role in pathogenesis of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, F E

    1991-01-01

    This review focuses on epidemiologic studies of the relationship between breast cancer risk and exogenous progestagens, as present in oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. Subsequently, it will be discussed whether the present findings are consistent with one of the hypotheses that have been postulated for the role of hormones in breast cancer pathogenesis. The relationship between oral contraceptives and breast cancer is still controversial. Several studies have found that prolonged oral contraceptives use at young ages is associated with increased risk to develop breast cancer at an early age, i.e. before age 35. None of these studies, however, has been able to attribute the increased risk to specific formulations of oral contraceptives, or to the progestagen content of the preparations. This may be largely due to the fact that there is no good method to calculate progestagen potencies of different formulations. There are no reliable data regarding the effect of progestagen-only oral contraceptives on breast cancer risk. Studies conducted so far included only few women who used these preparations exclusively and for an extended period. Use of injectable contraceptives, mainly depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate, may slightly increase breast cancer, but current findings are inconclusive. There is suggestive evidence that the addition of progestagens to estrogen replacement therapy may increase breast cancer risk over that associated with exposure to estrogens alone. However, the data are not sufficient to warrant any recommendation about changes in clinical practice, and more studies of estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy are needed to settle this issue. It is argued that the "unopposed estrogen" hypothesis for breast cancer is not consistent with the known effects of oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy. The "estrogen plus progestagen" hypothesis seems to be more consistent with current epidemiologic

  13. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of parvovirus B19 infections in Ireland, January 1996-June 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicolay, N

    2009-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection may be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella if laboratory testing is not performed. As Europe is seeking to eliminate measles, an accurate diagnosis of fever\\/rash illnesses is needed. The main purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological pattern of parvovirus B19, a common cause of rash, in Ireland between January 1996 and June 2008, using times series analysis of laboratory diagnostic data from the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Most diagnostic tests for presumptive parvovirus B19 infection were done in children under the age of five years and in women of child-bearing age (between 20-39 years-old). As a consequence, most of the acute diagnoses of B19 infection were made in these populations. The most commonly reported reasons for testing were: clinical presentation with rash, acute arthritis, influenza-like symptoms or pregnancy. The time series analysis identified seasonal trends in parvovirus B19 infection, with annual cycles peaking in late winter\\/spring and a six-year cycle for parvovirus B19 outbreaks in Ireland.

  14. [Clinical and epidemiological aspects of burned patients hospitalized in a teaching hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Samanta Flor; Barbosa, Maria Helena; de Sousa Neto, Adriana Lemos

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize burned patients according to epidemiological and clinical variables and identify the treatments, invasive procedures and complications. This is a retrospective, descriptive and quantitative study. The sample consisted of 138 burned patients hospitalized in a teaching hospital from January 2003 to December 2007, in Uberaba-MG. Of the 138 hospitalized patients, 98 (71.0%) were male, and the average age was 26.1 years. The average length of stay was 16.2 days; 93 (67.4%) of the burns were caused by accidents and the main cause (68; 49.3%) was an open flame. The average burned body surface was 20.8% and most (122; 88.4%) had second degree burns. The most common topic treatment (93; 67.4%) was silver sulfadiazine. Forty-seven (34.0%) patients had indwelling catheters; 30 (21.7%) underwent tissue transplantation, and 28 (20.3%) underwent debridement; the lesions in 14 (10.1%) patients became infected.

  15. Epidemiological aspects of Pediculosis capitis and treatment evaluation in primary-school children in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motovali-Emami, Mohammad; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Fekri, Alireza; Yazdi, Mahbobeh

    2008-01-15

    This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of and epidemiological factors associated with, head lice infections in Iranian primary schools in 2006 and evaluate data on the therapeutic efficacy of lindane shampoo. A total of 40586 children (19774 boys (48.72%) and 20812 girls (51.28%)] from 198 Governmentprimary schools in Kerman, were screened for head lice between March and June 2006. The diagnosis of head lice infestation was confirmed by clinical inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice nymphal stage, or eggs (nit) by line-toothed head lice comb. All children infested with lice were treated with lindane shampoo (1% gamma benzene hexachloride). The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 1.8%. The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in girls (2.9%) than in boys (0.6%) (p = 0.000). The infestation rate was greater among pupils who were living in rural areas (4.6%) than in urban areas (1.5%). Of the 721 children with a positive examination result, 424 pupils (58.8%) were reported as having been infested with head lice in the previous 6 months. Mother's education level was a significant risk factor in this model (p safe, novel insecticides for proved efficacy.

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  17. Epidemiologic aspects in esophageal pathology focusing on gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Săraci

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the main epidemiologic characteristics of esophageal pathology,insisting on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, Barrett’s esophagus (BE and to evaluate therelationship between these conditions and some widely spread risk factors. Material and methods: Datawere collected from clinical file records archive, endoscopy reports and histopatologic reports and slidesfor 8225 patients (01.01.2005-31.07.2007 who presented esophageal changes during upper digestiveendoscopy. We used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess the normality of variables distribution and thenwe used parametric or non-parametric tests along with multivariate analysis. Results: BE is associatedwith male sex (r=0.039; pHelicobacter pylori (Hp infection(r=0.024; p=0.02. Age is not an important factor (OR=0.99; p=0.03. Presence of sliding hiatal hernia(SHH is influenced by body mass index (r=0.533; p<0.001 and female sex (p=0.001. SHH sizeinfluences the severity of esophagitis (r=0.04; p<0.01. The most frequent type of metaplasia is theincomplete intestinal one and the most frequent form of esophageal cancer is adenocarcinoma.Conclusion: BE is associated positively with GERD, esophagitis, male sex and negatively with Hp andesophageal varices. SHH influences severity of esophagitis and is more frequent in female patients.Adenocarcinoma is more frequent that squamous esophageal cancer.

  18. Aspiration pneumonia: With special reference to pathological and epidemiological aspects, a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Kuyama

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Silent aspiration plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial pneumonia in the elderly. Defense of the airway is impaired in the elderly by alteration in respiratory mechanics; decreased mucociliary clearance and immunosenescence. And, the number of microorganisms in the oral cavity of the elderly is usually larger than that of young adults because of gradual reduction in production of saliva. A relationship between poor oral health and respiratory disease has been suggested by a number of recent microbiologic and epidemiologic studies, especially in elder subjects; who requiring help with feeding, wearing denture/edentate, with periodontal disease, and so on. Several researchers have reported that using professional oral health care (POHC can prevent pneumonia. Oral/respiratory mucosal tissues produced cytokine that stimulated by oral microorganisms and were altered expression of various cell adhesion molecules on their surface in response to cytokine stimulation. Then, aspiration pneumonia histopathologically characterized with inflammatory response including macrophage infiltration was caused by aspiration of oral microorganisms, acid and food particle. In conclusion, silent aspiration may be a key risk factor for the pathogenesis of pneumonia in the elderly patients with poor oral hygiene.

  19. [Noma in children in a hospital environment in Bobo-Dioulasso: epidemiologic, clinical and management aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, F; Ki-Zerbo, G; Ouedraogo, I; Guigma, Y

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study covering ten years (1987-1996) was conducted to assess the epidemiology, clinical features and management of cancrum oris (noma) in children from Burkina Faso. Fifty nine (59) children were admitted with cancrum oris at the paediatrics and maxillo-facial surgery units of Bobo-Dioulasso, the second town of Burkina Faso. The hospital prevalence of noma is 1.5/1000. 81% of the cases were in the 1 to 5 years age group and 58% were females. Predisposing factors include poverty, lack of immunization, malnutrition, bad oral hygiene, measles and parasitic diseases. The cheek was involved in 31% of the cases. Cure was obtained in 80% of patients after medical and surgical treatment. However, many sequels were observed. Post operative outcome is complicated by the children's growth and often results in retractions, recurrence of ulcers or constriction. Psychological and social problems are associated. Management is difficult in our setting because of the lack of information, cost of the treatment and the absence of well-equipped plastic surgery units.

  20. [Traffic injuries in the Tessin Canton in 1982 and in 1985. Epidemiology, surgery and socioeconomic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, B; Casabianca, A; Martinoli, S

    1989-06-01

    In the paper we present the results of an epidemiological study we conducted upon injuries due to road accidents in Canton Ticino. We investigated into 1471 injured patients admitted to hospital during 1982 in Canton Ticino, all the in- and out-patients at the Ospedale Civico during 1985 and all the seriously injured patients in road accidents where the scientific police (SIR) were called in. 106 (8%) patients died, 206 (15%) were seriously injured (87 patients with chronic infirmity) and 1062 had slight injuries. The total lesions were 2900 and 839 surgical operations were necessary. These patients needed a total of 7804 days of hospitalization (677 days in the intensive care unit). Motorcycles represented 46.5 of the involved vehicles. The major risk groups by age are: 14-17-year-olds (motorcyclist), 18-29-year-olds (automobilists and motorcyclists), up to 13 and over 60 years of age (pedestrians). The percentage of the total road accidents which occur at the week-end is of 49.4%. At peak hours (17.00 p.m.) the percentage of accident is 8.1% (115 accidents) and in the small hours the percentage is of 5.5% (74 accidents). The annual hospitalization costs amounted to 3,200,000 SFr., whereas the real costs corresponding to production loss, social expenditures (25.737 were the days of disability) and in- and out-patient care are as high as 100 million francs.

  1. [Epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infections in developed countries : the Canadian experience with necrotizing fasciitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovetchkine, Ph; Bidet, Ph; Minodier, Ph; Frère, J; Bingen, E

    2014-11-01

    In industrialized countries, group A streptococcal infections were a source of concern, mainly due to the occurrence of rheumatic fever and its cardiac complications. At present, the incidence of rheumatic fever is decreasing in these countries, giving way to an increasing occurrence of invasive streptococcal group A infections with high level of morbidity and mortality. Streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis, a specific entity, emerged these last decades, often in association with chickenpox. The introduction of the varicella vaccine in the province of Quebec routine immunization program, was followed by a significant decrease in the number of necrotizing fasciitis or other skin and soft-tissues infections in our pediatric population. However, in our experience at the CHU Sainte-Justine, this immunization program has not been helpful to reduce the overall incidence of invasive group A streptococcal infections. Conversely, an increase in the number of pleuro-pulmonary and osteo-articular infections was observed.

  2. The need for kidney transplantation in low- and middle-income countries in 2012: an epidemiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Aditya; White, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiological and demographic transitions are shifting the burden of modifiable risk factors for chronic and end-stage kidney disease to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This shifting burden of disease--combined with economic transitions and health system reforms--has led to the rapid growth of dialysis populations in LMIC including Malaysia, Tunisia, Turkey, Chile, Mexico, and Uruguay. Yet, compared to 1.5 million on dialysis in LMIC, only approximately 33,000 kidney transplants were performed in 2012. Reasons include health system factors (personnel, infrastructure, system coordination, and financing) and cultural factors (public and professional attitudes and the legal environment). The size of the dialysis populations, however, is generally a poor indicator of the potential need for kidney transplantation in LMIC. Population needs for kidney transplantation should instead be assessed based on the epidemiology of the actual underlying burden of disease (both treated and untreated), and the costs and benefits of treatment as well as prevention strategies relative to existing service provision. Here, we review current data on the global burden of end-stage kidney disease and the distribution of major risk factors, and compare this to access to kidney transplantation in 2012.

  3. [Workshop on Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, B; Cabrera, L; Arias, C F

    1997-01-01

    A workshop on viral epidemiology was held on September 29, 1995 at the Medical School of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. The aim of this workshop was to promote interaction among scientists working in viral epidemiology. Eighteen scientists from ten institutions presented their experiences and work. General aspects of the epidemiology of meaningful viral diseases in the country were discussed, and lectures presented on the rota, polio, respiratory syncytial, dengue, papiloma, rabies, VIH and hepatitis viruses.

  4. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in non endemic countries: the role of international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A Schmunis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection with the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi extends through North, Central, and South America, affecting 21 countries. Most human infections in the Western Hemisphere occur through contact with infected bloodsucking insects of the triatomine species. As T. cruzi can be detected in the blood of untreated infected individuals, decades after infection took place; the infection can be also transmitted through blood transfusion and organ transplant, which is considered the second most common mode of transmission for T. cruzi. The third mode of transmission is congenital infection. Economic hardship, political problems, or both, have spurred migration from Chagas endemic countries to developed countries. The main destination of this immigration is Australia, Canada, Spain, and the United States. In fact, human infection through blood or organ transplantation, as well as confirmed or potential cases of congenital infections has been described in Spain and in the United States. Estimates reported here indicates that in Australia in 2005-2006, 1067 of the 65,255 Latin American immigrants (16 per 1000 may be infected with T. cruzi, and in Canada, in 2001, 1218 of the 131,135 immigrants (9 per 1000 whose country of origin was identified may have been also infected. In Spain, a magnet for Latin American immigrants since the 2000, 5125 of 241,866 legal immigrants in 2003 (25 per 1000, could be infected. In the United States, 56,028 to 357,205 of the 7,20 million, legal immigrants (8 to 50 per 1000, depending on the scenario, from the period 1981-2005 may be infected with T. cruzi. On the other hand, 33,193 to 336,097 of the estimated 5,6 million undocumented immigrants in 2000 (6 to 59 per 1000 could be infected. Non endemic countries receiving immigrants from the endemic ones should develop policies to protect organ recipients from T. cruzi infection, prevent tainting the blood supply with T. cruzi, and implement secondary prevention of congenital

  5. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Knysak Irene

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  6. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Knysak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  7. Snakebites in Turkey: epidemiological and clinical aspects between the years 1995 and 2004

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    Y Cesaretli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom of poisonous snakes comprises a complex mixture of several proteins with other less significant constituents, resulting in principles capable of changing viable tissues. The hemotoxic factor is the main responsible for necrosis and tissue sloughing. Envenomations are common in rural areas of Turkey caused by snake species that present hepatotoxic venom, which causes local swelling, ecchymosis and alterations in blood profile. The epidemiological and clinical findings of snake envenomations in Turkey were evaluated based on data recorded by the National Poison Information Center (NPIC between 1995 and 2004, in a total of 550 snakebite cases. The month of peak incidence was June (24.3% while most incidents occurred in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Black Sea regions of Turkey. The victims were mainly adults (54.1%. Hospitalized patients displayed clinical signs of local (75.2% and systemic effects (24.7%. Local clinical symptoms comprised edema, pain, hyperemia, numbness and ecchymosis, while systemic clinical symptoms included nausea, vomiting, hypotension, tachycardia, dyspnea, dry mouth, paresthesia, generalized edema, cyanosis and compartment syndrome. Occasionally, convulsions, confusion, loss of consciousness, hyperthermia, hepatic and circulation failure, hematoma, drowsiness, epistaxis, chest and abdominal pain, venous spasm, thrombocytopenia and bradycardia were recorded. Approximately one third (34.2% of the patients were treated symptomatically, while 10.5% required antivenom therapy along with symptomatic treatments and 26.3% of all patients were exclusively treated with antivenom. Although a significant number of incidents were reported, no deaths occurred. These findings emphasize the presence of multiple medically important snake species in Turkey and that public awareness and therapeutic approaches appear sufficient to manage snakebite incidents.

  8. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of generalized meningococcal infections in children and adolescents of Saint-Petersburg

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    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized meningococcal infection belongs to the group of diseases with a high risk of initiation of life-threatening conditions and death outcomes. There was carried out a retrospective analysis of clinical and epidemiological features of generalized meningococcal infections in children and adolescents of Saint Petersburg in 1995–2014 on the basis of the analysis of 884 medical records of the patients hospitalized at Scientific Research Institute of Children’s Infections. With general prevalence of the children of the first years of life among the patients, there has been revealed the tendency to reduction in the portion of children of the first year of life from 41,4% in 1995 to 22,2% by 2014, and the increase in the number of patients of 1–3 years old from 19,3–30,5% in 1995–1996 to 46,4–46,4% in 2013–2014. Among the number of etiologically identified cases (59,4% the majority of them has been caused by serogroup B meningococcus (58,5%, in 24,2% – by serogroup C meningococcus, in 11,2% – by serogroup A meningococcus, and in 6,1% – by rare (W135/Y and unspecified strains N.meningitidis. Within the recent years there has been identified the tendency of rate growth concerning the diseases caused by serogroup C meningococci, remarkable for a severe course and high rate of death cases. Total death indicator for the investigated period has averaged 4,2%, with the variability from 0 to 12,5% for different years.

  9. [Sports injuries in German club sports, Aspects of epidemiology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, T; Luig, P; Schulz, D

    2014-06-01

    Almost one of four Germans is registered in a sports club. Nowadays, sport is acknowledged as an integral component of a healthy lifestyle. Numerous studies provide evidence of the benefits of sports on health. However, about 2 million sports injuries per year diminish the health benefits of sport. (a) Description of the epidemiology of sports injuries in German sports club between 1987 and 2012 and (b) identification of focal areas for the development and implementation of prevention measures. Continuous questionnaire-based injury monitoring of club sports injuries that have been reported to the respective sports insurance. Full survey among selected federal sports associations. Since 1987, a sample of 200,884 sports injuries has been established. About two thirds of the injuries are reported in soccer, handball, basketball, and volleyball, although only one third of all sports club members are registered in these team sports. The number of women's soccer injuries has risen from 7.5 to 15.6 %. Ankle injuries have decreased from 28.7 to 16.9 %. By contrast, the rate of knee injuries has increased from 18.4 to 20.3 %. Days of disability have dropped steadily since the 1990s. Inpatient hospital days have decreased from 10 to 5 days, whereas the share of injuries that needed surgery increased from 30 to 40 %. Team ball sports are still a clear focal area for injury prevention, as participation and injury risk are highest in this group. While the prevention of ankle injuries seems to be headed in the right direction, knee injuries are increasing. As team ball sports become more popular among women, who are more prone to severe knee injuries, prevention programs should be tailored toward the specific situation and needs of the targeted sports participants.

  10. Hemato-biochemical and clinico-epidemiological aspects of parturient hemoglobinuria in Nili-Ravi buffaloes

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    A. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For this study, 60 buffaloes suffering from parturient hemoglobinuria (PHU were randomly selected from field cases occurring in three districts of Punjab, Pakistan and simultaneously, 60 clinically healthy buffaloes of similar description from the same localities were included for case control study. Clinico-epidemiological data were collected. Blood/serum samples from all buffaloes were collected and analyzed. The most prominent clinical sign was passing of red to coffee colored urine. Milk production was reduced and respiration and pulse rates were significantly accelerated. Ruminal motility was significantly weak and reduced along with characteristic straining while defecating. The case fatality was 15%. A significantly high occurrence of PHU was observed in the winter season (41.8%. Maximum number of affected buffaloes (25.0% was in 4th lactation. Twenty-seven (45.0% buffaloes developed hemoglobinuria in the post calving period and majority (59.3% of these were within 1-23 days of calving. Of the 33 (55.0% PHU affected pregnant buffaloes, 18 (54.6% were in their third trimester. The highest cases of PHU were observed in buffaloes producing 10 or more liters of milk/day (42.5%. Recurrence of PHU was observed in 18.3% buffaloes. Mean values of total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were lower (P<0.001, while erythrocyte sediment rate was higher (P<0.001 in PHU affected buffaloes as compared to the values in healthy buffaloes. Neutrophils were significantly higher, while lymphocytes and erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were lower, in PHU affected buffaloes than in healthy buffaloes. Serum phosphorus, copper and selenium were significantly (P<0.001 lower, whereas potassium, iron and molybdenum (P<0.001 were higher in buffaloes suffering from PHU than healthy buffaloes.

  11. Epidemiological aspects of and risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life

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    Hamilton Rosendo Fogaça

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a sample of infants, the prevalence of and risk factors for occasional wheezing (OW and recurrent wheezing-wheezy baby syndrome (WBS. METHODS: Parents of infants (12-15 months of age completed the International Study of Wheezing in Infants questionnaire. RESULTS: We included 1,269 infants residing in the city of Blumenau, Brazil. Of those, 715 (56.34% had a history of wheezing, which was more common among boys. The prevalences of OW and WBS were 27.03% (n = 343 and 29.31% (n = 372, respectively. On average, the first wheezing episode occurred at 5.55 ± 2.87 months of age. Among the 715 infants with a history of wheezing, the first episode occurred within the first six months of life in 479 (66.99%, and 372 (52.03% had had three or more episodes. Factors associated with wheezing in general were pneumonia; oral corticosteroid use; a cold; attending daycare; having a parent with asthma or allergies; mother working outside the home; male gender; no breastfeeding; and mold. Factors associated with WBS were a cold; physician-diagnosed asthma; ER visits; corticosteroid use; pneumonia; bronchitis; dyspnea; attending daycare; bronchodilator use; having a parent with asthma; no breastfeeding; mother working outside the home; and a dog in the household. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of wheezing in the studied population was high (56.34%. The etiology was multifactorial, and the risk factors were intrinsic and extrinsic (respiratory tract infections, allergies, attending daycare, and early wheezing. The high prevalence and the intrinsic risk factors indicate the need and the opportunity for epidemiological and genetic studies in this population. In addition, mothers should be encouraged to prolong breastfeeding and to keep infants under six months of age out of daycare.

  12. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of urinary tract infection in community-dwelling elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Luiz Paulo José; Flores, Juliana Timóteo; Barros Junior, Onofre de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Giovana Breda; Mourão, Carla de Medeiros; Moreira, Rosa Maria Portella

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in elderly patients can be a complex problem in terms of approach to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, because the patients often present nonspecific symptoms. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of UTI in elderly women were studied, in order to make early diagnosis and prevent serious clinical complications secondary to UTI. This was a prospective population-based study, with elderly women, during their first medical office visit. Medical records were obtained by clinical history and physical examination in order to detect signs and symptoms of UTI and the presence of co-morbidities. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens for urinary dipstick test, sediment, and culture were collected; cervical samples for conventional Pap smears were also collected. UTI was found in 16.55% of elderly women. The most frequent urinary symptom was foul smelling urine, in 60.6%. E. coli was responsible for 98 (76.56%) cases of significant bacteriuria; 34 (34.69%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 21 (21.42%) to fluoroquinolones. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) was not treated. The presence of predisposing factors demonstrated that the history of previous UTI (p < 0.001), vaginitis (p < 0.001), and diabetes (p = 0.042) increased the risk for UTI. This study confirmed the high prevalence of UTI among elderly women and its unusual clinical presentation. Diabetes, history of previous UTI, and vaginitis were shown to be predisposing factors for UTI; it is not necessary to treat AB in elderly women, even among diabetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of urinary tract infection in community-dwelling elderly women

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    Luiz Paulo José Marques

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs in elderly patients can be a complex problem in terms of approach to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, because the patients often present nonspecific symptoms. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of UTI in elderly women were studied, in order to make early diagnosis and prevent serious clinical complications secondary to UTI. METHODS: This was a prospective population-based study, with elderly women, during their first medical office visit. Medical records were obtained by clinical history and physical examination in order to detect signs and symptoms of UTI and the presence of comorbidities. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens for urinary dipstick test, sediment, and culture were collected; cervical samples for conventional Pap smears were also collected. RESULTS: UTI was found in 16.55% of elderly women. The most frequent urinary symptom was foul smelling urine, in 60.6%. E. coli was responsible for 98 (76.56% cases of significant bacteriuria; 34 (34.69% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 21 (21.42% to fluoroquinolones. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB was not treated. The presence of predisposing factors demonstrated that the history of previous UTI (p < 0.001, vaginitis (p < 0.001, and diabetes (p = 0.042 increased the risk for UTI. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the high prevalence of UTI among elderly women and its unusual clinical presentation. Diabetes, history of previous UTI, and vaginitis were shown to be predisposing factors for UTI; it is not necessary to treat AB in elderly women, even among diabetics.

  14. Epidemiological Aspects of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Baft District, Kerman Province, Southeast of Iran

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    H Mahmoudvand

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar is an endemic disease in some areas of Iran. A cross- sectional study was conducted for sero-epidemiological survey of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Baft district from Kerman Province, southeast of Iran.Methods: Blood samples were collected from children up to 12 years old and 10% of adult population from Baft villages with a multi-stage randomized cluster sampling. In addition, blood samples were collected from 30 domestic dogs from the same areas. All the collected blood sam­ples were tested by direct agglutination test (DAT for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibod­ies in both human and dog using the cut-off value of ≥1:3200 and ≥ 1:320, respectively. Parasitologi­cal, molecular, and pathological were performed on infected dogs. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare sero-prevalence values.Results: From 1476 collected human serum samples, 23 (1.55% showed anti-Leishmania antibod­ies at titers of 1:800 and 1:1600 whereas 14 (0.95% showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies at titers of ≤ 1:3200. No statistically significant difference was found between male (1.18 % and female (0.69% sero-prevalence (P=0.330. Children of 5-8 years showed the high­est sero-prevalence rate (3.22%. Seven out of 30 domestic dogs (23% showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ≤1:320. Leishmania infantum was identified in five infected dogs by nested - PCR assay.Conclusion: It seems that visceral leishmaniasis is being endemic in southern villages of Baft district, southeast of Iran.

  15. Economic consequences of epidemiological changes in diabetes in middle-income countries: the Mexican case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Armando; Zúñiga, Alexis

    2004-01-01

    To identify the costs and economic consequences of expected changes in the demand for health care services for type 2 diabetes in the three main public institutions of the Mexican health care system. The cost evaluation method to estimate direct and indirect costs was based on instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the costs and epidemiological changes for 2003-2005, three probabilistic models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique. Comparing the economic impact in 2003 versus 2005 (P Social Security Institute, or Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), and the Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers, or Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), both of which serve the insured population. Our data suggest that changes in the demand for health care services for patients with diabetes will continue with an increasing trend, mainly in the insured population. In economic terms, the results of direct and indirect costs are one of the main challenges to be solved to decrease the economic burden that diabetes represents for the population, the health care institutions, and for society as a whole.

  16. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Ireland: epidemiological aspects 1980-2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Gail

    2012-02-03

    Surveillance for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been carried out in the Republic of Ireland since 1980. Initial surveillance was passive and based on consented autopsy confirmation of CJD in patients in whom there was a high index of clinical suspicion. Since 1999, an active surveillance programme involving formal notification of all suspect CJD cases has been in place. The annual mortality rate has increased from 0.34 cases\\/million in 1980 to 1.27 cases\\/million in 2001. In all, 29 cases have been pathologically confirmed: 1 had variant CJD (vCJD), 1 had iatrogenic human growth hormone-induced CJD and 1 had fatal insomnia. Sporadic CJD (sCJD) accounted for the remainder. This paper details the change in incidence over 22 years as the surveillance programme in Ireland got under way; the increased incidence is attributed to better case ascertainment, as has occurred in other countries where active surveillance programmes have been established.

  17. Legal aspects of the association of overseas countries and territories with the European Union

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    Hruškovic Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with an issue in European law that is historically derived from the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community. The aim is to illuminate the functions and objectives of the European Union that correspond to the provisions of Part Four of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union - Association of the Overseas Countries and Territories. The basic provisions are laid down in the primary law of the European Union but there are also other documents and legislative acts that lay down more detailed provisions on the given issue and reveal a more complex perspective. The article focuses on the existing legislation regulating the association of overseas countries and territories with the Union. The author first draws attention to the key provisions of the Treaty establishing the EEC that define the purpose, objectives and fundamental principles applied between the Union and the overseas countries and territories. The main purpose of the article, however, is to analyse the current legal basis of association and to highlight the need for a new legislative framework of cooperation. New legislation should take into account not only the interests of the Union, but also the desire of the overseas countries and territories for a new quality of mutual cooperation. The author argues that the best way to improve the association mechanism based on the Lisbon Treaty is to modernise the Union’s existing secondary legislation in this area. In this regard the author analyses issues related to Council decision 2001/822/EC on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Community and the proposal for a Council decision (COM/2012/362 of 16 July, 2012.

  18. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects.

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    Patrícia Brasil

    2016-04-01

    emphasis. The emergence of ZIKV as a new pathogen for Brazil in 2015 underscores the need for clinical vigilance and strong epidemiological and laboratory surveillance.

  19. Epidemiological and economic aspects of diabetes in the Campania Region, Italy

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    Simona Cammarota

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to assess the economic and epidemiologic impact of diabetes in Campania, a region of approximately 5.7 million inhabitants in the south of Italy. Method: we collected, from an electronic database, all prescriptions for antidiabetic drugs reimbursed in the first half year of 2005 in 8 local health authorities (60% of the overall population of Campania. The diabetic cohort was defined as the population of subjects receiving at least 2 prescriptions of an antidiabetic agent in 6-month, classified according to their therapeutic role using Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification. Characterization is given of the patients and their antidiabetic medication. Subsequently, the prescription of concomitant treatment, in comparison with a control group, is presented. Drugs cost and drugs consumption were quantified using NHS prospective (expressed in Euro 2005 and Defined Daily Dose system (DDD respectively. Results: the diabetic cohort included 183,614 subjects (5.3% of the observed population, mean age was 65.0 years and female represented 54.8% of the sample. Total cost for diabetic patients represents 16.8% of the total drug expenditure. The average drug/cost/patient was € 355.7; only 19.0% was spent for antidiabetic drugs. The reported use of medication was higher for subjects with diabetes compared with the control population regarding overall use (2,363.5 versus 1259.8 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/die, the use of cardiovascular drugs (1,499.3 versus 663.5 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day, use of haematologic drugs (277.1 versus 120.3 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day, and use of ophthalmological drugs (48.3 versus 21.0 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Discussion: chronic-degenerative pathologies, such as diabetes, implies a relevant social and economic impact. Expenses that are associated to the treatment and the prevention of complications, in particular cardiovascular problems, are registered among the main items listed in the healthcare budget.

  20. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. F. Neamat-Allah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horses naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5% have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8% were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25% followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20% and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%. Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion

  1. [Infections in Senegalese children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia: epidemiological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, I; Soares, G M; Gueye, A; Diagne-Gueye, N R; Fall, L; N'Diaye, O; Camara, B; Diouf, S; Fall, M

    2000-01-01

    Infection is the main factor of morbidity and mortality in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The objective of this study is to determine it's epidemiologic outline in senegalese children and adolescents with SCD. We retrospectively studied infection data in all the charts of a cohort of 323 patients with SCD (307 SS, 13 SC and 3 s beta + thalassemia) followed at Albert Royer children hospital from january 1991 to december 1997. Serum sampling was systematically made for HIV and antigen HBs serology in all patients we received in the last 3 months (october to december 1997). Patients were aged from 5 months to 22 years (medium age = 8 years). 813 infection episodes were diagnosed, concerning 184 patients (56 per cent). SS patients were more affected (59 per cent) than the others (23 per cent, p = 0.04). ENT and broncho-pulmonary onsets were more frequent but had a generally benign course. Menigitidis, septicemia and osteomyelitis were exclusively diagnosed in SS patients. Their prevalences in this group were respectively: 1.0 per cent, 4.9 per cent and 9.8 per cent. HIV serology was determined in 155 patients, including 41 per cent with blood transfusion antecedents. All tests were negative. HBs antigen was determined in 104 patients and seroprevalence was 7.7 per cent in the whole group and 6.0 per cent in patients with transfusion antecedents and 7.7 per cent for the others. Plasmodium falciparum malaria onset was observed in 9.6 per cent of our patients and there was no case of cerebral malaria. Infection was involved in 9 of the 11 cases of death. Then infection constitute the major problem in children and adolescents with SCD in Dakar. However prevalences of severe onsets are comparable to data in Europe despite our poor follow up conditions. Senegal haplotype may lead to a good tolerance of SCD. Negative HIV serology and low HBs antigen seroprevalence in transfused patients are attributed to a relatively low level of HIV prevalence in the general

  2. Influenza vaccination: from epidemiological aspects and advances in research to dissent and vaccination policies.

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    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Panatto, D

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a serious public health problem, since seasonal epidemics affect approximately 5-10% of the population and thus give rise to a heavy social and healthcare burden. The heavy burden of disease is due to several factors, one of which is the biological features of the pathogen. Indeed influenza viruses display high mutation rates and undergo frequent genetic reassortment. Minor variations cause seasonal epidemics and major variations, which result from the hybridization of viruses typical of different animal species, can lead to pandemics. Vaccination remains the most efficacious means of mitigating the harmful healthcare and social effects of influenza. Influenza vaccines have evolved over time in order to offer broader protection against circulating strains. Trivalent vaccines containing two A viruses and one B virus are currently available. However, given the co-circulation of both B virus lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria), quadrivalent vaccines have recently been developed. The new quadrivalent vaccines constitute a great advance, in that they can offer broader strain coverage. Despite the availability of effective and safe influenza vaccines, the Italian public's trust in vaccination has declined and, in the last few years, influenza vaccination coverage rates have decreased both among the elderly and among at-risk adults. It is therefore necessary that users, in their own interests, regain trust in this important means of disease prevention. In order to mitigate the damage wreaked by influenza, it seems important to: (i) improve clinical-epidemiological and virological surveillance of the disease; (ii) promote the development of new efficacious vaccines, as has recently been done through the introduction of the quadrivalent vaccine; (iii) extend free vaccination to the entire population, as in the US and Canada; (iv) ensure that general healthcare professionals are properly informed and always updated with regard to vaccination; (v) promote public

  3. Leishmaniasis in rheumatology, haematology and oncology: epidemiological, immunological and clinical aspects and caveats.

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    Bogdan, Christian

    2012-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is an intracellular protozoan infection that can lead to cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral or systemic manifestations depending on the parasite species and virulence and on the host immune response. It is endemic in countries of Europe (Mediterranean basin), Asia, Africa, Central and South America, but autochthonous cases begin to emerge outside classical disease areas. CD4+ T helper cells, interferon γ, dendritic cells and macrophages are the key components of antileishmanial defence. Leishmaniasis is an important differential diagnosis in patients with chronic lesions of the skin or mucous membranes or with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, histocytosis, haemophagocytic syndrome or glomerulonephritis. Organ transplant recipients and patients with autoimmune syndromes are at particular risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis following immunosuppressive therapy (eg, with steroids, methotrexate, ciclosporin or tumour necrosis factor-neutralising biological agents). Diagnosis and adequate treatment of leishmaniasis requires the combined use of culture, microscopic and nucleic acid amplication methods and species identification by sequencing and other molecular techniques. Standard regimens for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis are intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg body weight for 10 days) or oral miltefosine (150 mg/day for 28 days).

  4. [Clinical and epidemiological aspects of neurocysticercosis in Brazil: a critical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, Svetlana

    2003-09-01

    With the objective to show the characteristics of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in Brazil, was performed a critical analysis of national literature which showed a frequency of 1.5% in autopsies and 3.0% in clinical studies, corresponding to 0.3% of all admissions in general hospitals. In seroepidemiological studies the positivity of specific reactions was 2.3%. Brazilian patient with NCC presents a general clinical-epidemilogical profile (31-50 years old man, rural origin, complex partial epileptic crisis, increased protein levels or normal CSF, CT showing calcifications, constituting the inactive form of NCC), and a profile of severity (21-40 years old woman, urban origin, vascular headache and intracranial hypertension, typical CSF syndrome of NCC or alteration of two or more CSF parameters, CT showing vesicles and/or calcifications, constituting the active form of NCC). Although two localities from the state of S o Paulo have 72:100000 and 96:100000/habitants as prevalence coefficients, regional and national prevalences are very underestimated. Some aspects related to underestimation of NCC prevalence in Brazil are discussed.

  5. Clinical Microbiological Aspects of Epileptic Seizures in the Tropical Countries with Specific Focus on Nigeria

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    Ijeoma Kanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder; however, in Nigeria and other tropical regions, the causes of epileptic seizures differ greatly in etiology. This paper is an attempt to highlight some possible microbiological aspects of epileptic seizures. A literature review was carried out to identify the extent to which microbial infections were involved in the elicitation of epileptic seizures. Data were collected from several clinics in the community and hospitals in Nigeria and correlated with the evidence from the literature review. It was found that different microbial agents including viral, bacterial, protozoa, and fungal agents were involved in several aspects of epileptic seizures. Malaria was found to cause more than 88% of childhood epileptic seizures and 12% of adult seizures. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in more than 40% of adult patients. Partial seizures were uncommon. Cases of epileptic seizures associated with bacteria (e.g., brucellosis, viral, fungal, and protozoa infections were frequently reported. Malaria, tapeworm, and cysticercosis were some of the common infectious causes of epilepsy; however, in some cases, the cause remained unknown. From these findings, it was evident that microbiological aspects of epilepsies are possible research areas that might be developed. It is believed that the unraveling of the various microbiological factors in epileptic seizures would have important implications for understanding the underlying neurobiology, evaluating treatment strategies, and perhaps planning health-care resources for the affected. It will also help to improve the prognostic factors in initial seizure symptomatic etiology and presence of any structural cerebral abnormalities.

  6. Molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and economic aspects of tuberculosis in Mubende district, Uganda.

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    Adrian Muwonge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB remains a global public health problem whose effects have major impact in developing countries like Uganda. This study aimed at investigating genotypic characteristics and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from suspected TB patients. Furthermore, risk factors and economic burdens that could affect the current control strategies were studied. METHODS: TB suspected patients were examined in a cross-sectional study at the Mubende regional referral hospital between February and July 2011. A questionnaire was administered to each patient to obtain information associated with TB prevalence. Isolates of M. tuberculosis recovered during sampling were examined for drug resistance to first line anti-TB drugs using the BACTEC-MGIT960(TM system. All isolates were further characterized using deletion analysis, spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR analysis. Data were analyzed using different software; MIRU-VNTR plus, SITVITWEB, BioNumerics and multivariable regression models. RESULTS: M. tuberculosis was isolated from 74 out of 344 patients, 48 of these were co-infected with HIV. Results from the questionnaire showed that previously treated TB, co-infection with HIV, cigarette smoking, and overcrowding were risk factors associated with TB, while high medical related transport bills were identified as an economic burden. Out of the 67 isolates that gave interpretable results, 23 different spoligopatterns were detected, nine of which were novel patterns. T2 with the sub types Uganda-I and Uganda-II was the most predominant lineage detected. Antibiotic resistance was detected in 19% and multidrug resistance was detected in 3% of the isolates. CONCLUSION: The study detected M. tuberculosis from 21% of examined TB patients, 62% of whom were also HIV positive. There is a heterogeneous pool of genotypes that circulate in this area, with the T2 lineage being the most predominant. High medical related transport bills

  7. Epidemiology of MRSA in southern Sweden: strong relation to foreign country of origin, health care abroad and foreign travel.

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    Larsson, A-K; Gustafsson, E; Johansson, P J H; Odenholt, I; Petersson, A C; Melander, E

    2014-01-01

    All notified MRSA cases in Skåne County have been followed since 2000. We have investigated the MRSA epidemiology over time, method of acquisition, whether some spa types are more prone to spread, and/or cause more infections, and the connection between spa type and country of acquisition/origin. All cases between 2000 and 2010 were included. Infection or colonization and the presence of PVL genes were noted. The spa types of the index cases were correlated with community or healthcare acquisition, proportion of MRSA-positive household contacts, country of origin of families and country of acquisition of MRSA. The number of cases increased from 31 in 2000 to 315 in 2010. Most cases were community-acquired and the median age was 30 years. Thirty-two per cent of the MRSA cases were found because of a clinical infection. Of the household contacts 35 % were MRSA-positive. Only 24 % of the MRSA cases were both of Swedish origin and had contracted MRSA in Sweden. An association between spa type and certain regions of acquisition/origin was noted. Spa types t044, t002 and t008 were the most predominant strains. PVL-positive spa types t008, t019 and t044 caused more skin infections than the other spa types. Our results support screening for MRSA in patients with health care contacts abroad, culturing of patients with skin infections contracted outside Sweden and performing contact tracing among household members. Knowledge of spa type might give guidance in the process of contact tracing. Eradication treatment of MRSA spa types causing more skin infections may be warranted.

  8. Aspects of the pathogenesis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with special reference to tuberculous arthritis : an epidemiological case-analysis and a cohort-follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Postema

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis some aspects of bacterial especially tuberculous arthritis are discussed In connection with an outbreak of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in patients who were visiting an outpatient department for rheumatic diseases. An epidemiological analysis provides many details of the ex

  9. The Changing Epidemiology of Human African Trypanosomiasis among Patients from Nonendemic Countries –1902–2012

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    Neuberger, Ami; Meltzer, Eyal; Leshem, Eyal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Stienlauf, Shmuel; Schwartz, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Background Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC), there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. Results Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001), the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%), and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78%) of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8%) were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania); Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4%) of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. Conclusions In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis “hot spots” in

  10. The changing epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis among patients from nonendemic countries--1902-2012.

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    Ami Neuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC, there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. RESULTS: Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001, the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%, and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78% of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8% were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania; Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4% of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot

  11. The changing epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis among patients from nonendemic countries--1902-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Meltzer, Eyal; Leshem, Eyal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Stienlauf, Shmuel; Schwartz, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC), there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001), the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%), and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78%) of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8%) were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania); Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4%) of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot spots" in Africa.

  12. Psoriatic arthritis: epidemiological and clinical aspects in a cohort of 1.306 italian patients

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    L. Punzi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Because there is the impression that psoriatic arthritis is a composite disorder with mild forms close to more severe and aggressive ones, we conducted a multicenter study with the aim of characterizing disease expression in a large cohort of Italian patients. One-thousand-three-hundred-six patients fulfilled inclusion criteria and were analyzed in this study. Psoriasis antedated the onset of arthritis in the majority of the cases (67.7%. More rare was inverse or simultaneous onset which occurred in 17.3% and 15.0% of the cases, respectively. Peripheral articular involvement (mono-oligo or polyarthritis was recorded in 88.7% of the cases while spondylitis occurred in 11.3%. Peripheral enthesopathies were found in 28.1% of the cases with a marked occurrence in patients with axial involvement (64.5% vs 35.5% in oligo or polyarthritis. Abnormal levels of ESR and CRP respectively occurred in 52.2% and in 52.6% of the cases, while rheumatoid factor was detected in 5.0% of the cases. On the basis of distribution of joint involvement, symmetry and presence of peripheral enthesopathies we recognized three clusters of arthritis. Patients included in Cluster 1 and Cluster 2 showed a severe form of polyarthritis in most of the cases (82.9%, with increased serum levels of inflammatory indices in more than 85% of the cases. Almost all the hospitalized patients (97.1% were included in this two clusters. They markedly assumed steroids and methotrexate or another DMARD. About half of the patients (51.1% included in Cluster 3 showed mono-oligo articular involvement. Serum inflammatory indices were increased in 20.8% of the cases while hospitalization occurred only in 2.9% of the cases and NSAIDs were the treatment of choice. The evidence in our country of a large prevalence of severe forms of arthritis needing specific and aggressive approach outlines the requirement of an intense educational action aimed at increasing the awareness of this condition.

  13. The Ilocos Norte Communities against Rabies Exposure Elimination Project in the Philippines: Epidemiological and Economic Aspects

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    Anna Charinna B. Amparo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As canine rabies control in Africa and Asia transitions from research-led proof-of-concept studies to government-led programs for elimination, experience and evidence of their impact and costs must be shared for the benefit of future programs. The Ilocos Norte Communities against Rabies Exposure project was implemented in April 2012 by the provincial veterinary and health offices and supported by many other partners. It delivered a comprehensive dog vaccination program and increased awareness of the need for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP, aiming to eliminate human and animal rabies cases from Ilocos Norte by 2015. Prior to the intervention, confirmed rabies cases in dogs were between 19 and 50 per year (2008–2011. The primary outcome of the project was a reduction in rabies cases in both dogs and humans to 0 in 2014 and 2015, which has subsequently been maintained. Animal bite consultations increased significantly during the project. Economic data for the dog vaccination and PEP components of the project were collated for two sites: Laoag City (an urban setting and Dingras Municipality (a rural setting between 2012 and 2014. The average programmatic cost of vaccinating each dog was $4.54 in Laoag City and $8.65 in Dingras, and costs fell as the project reached more dogs. The average costs of providing PEP were $69.72 per patient and $49.02 per patient for the two sites, respectively, again falling as the project reached more people. External donor contributions contributed less than 20% of dog vaccination costs and less than 1% of PEP costs. The project demonstrated that rabies elimination can be achieved in a short period of time, with concerted effort across multiple sectors. A lack of clear dog population estimates hampered interpretation of some aspects of the programme. From 2016, the provincial government has assumed complete responsibility for the programme and must now continue the vaccination and surveillance efforts. Although

  14. Epidemiologic profile of surgery for spinomedullary injury at a referral hospital in a country town of Brazil

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    Danilo Magnani Bernardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the epidemiological profile of patients undergoing surgery at a referral hospital in a small, country town. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out between February 2009 and May 2010, in a Regional Referral unit, with a total of 24 patients. The cases study included all patients undergoing surgery for spinal trauma during this period, with or without neurological deficits. The data analyzed were: sex, age, location and degree of the injury, and mechanism of the injury. Results: The medianage of the patients was 35.8 years, and 75% were male. The mechanisms of the injury were motorcycle accidents in 37.5%, falls in 33.3%, automobile accidents in 25%, and diving into shallow water in 4.2%. The vertebral level affected was the cervical spine in 44%, the thoracic spine in 36%, and the thoracolumbar level in 20%. The neurological damage, classified according ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association was complete, or category A in 37.5%, incomplete, or category B in 4.2%, incomplete, or category C in 12.5%, incomplete, or category D in 8.3%, and incomplete, or category E in 37.5%. In terms of access route, 64% of the procedures were performed with posterior access and 36% with anterior access. Conclusion: The epidemiological profile maintains the trend towards a prevalence of injuries among young men, affecting the cervical level, with the presence of spinal cord lesion. However, accidents involving motorcycles and fallings from heights are factors that can be modified by safety measures on the roads and in the workplace, which can reverse the high prevalence of these accidents.

  15. ASPECTS REGARDING WOOD WELDING IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICABILITY IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

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    Ramona-Elena DUMITRAȘCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture, as traditional sector in Romania, is one of the few areas that bring profit. It is a field that contributes to the economical competitiveness through the variety of products for import and export. In this context, joining wood is essential for the production of wood products. Therefore, knowing the environmentally-friendly methods for wood joints could lead to performance and progress. Welding technology of wood as an alternative method to bonding wood elements or wooden structures has not been addressed in Romania until now. The paper presents a review performed with the aim of contribute to the knowledge of this innovative technology, to show the problems and the possibilities, of least developed countries, to contribute at this area of reasearch. The general aim is to present the main methods and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages in the context of development in the least developed countries. The results showed that both methods, at low and hight temperature, has benefits but there are and some economic and knowledge barriers for extended the technology.The overall conclusion of this research is to find efficient solutions for wood welding in order to obtain new better and cleaner wood products

  16. Political Aspects of CEE-Countries Participation in American Anti-Terrorism Campaign (2001–2011

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    Koblan Andrii

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the political moments of CEE countries participation in American anti-terrorist and military efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq. In the course of these events, it accentuates the bilateral relationships between four countries of Visegrad group with the USA, with the focus on the participation of Poland and Czech Republic that presented some different, although controversial patterns of support of American policy. The paper clearly shows the remoteness of international terrorist threat in the region that is irrelevant with active participation of the region in outer campaigns in Asia, with dubious rationale and consequences. As a result this paper is the attempt to consolidate the conclusions of other (predominantly local works on the issue, but also to generalize this issue from the historical perspective; and is the additional contribution to the whole picture of American anti-terrorist campaign in the first decade of XXI century. Thus the background of terrorism in the region is contemplated through the context of American anti-terrorist policy along with the reforms of anti-terrorist system of these states after “September 11”. Indeed, main point of the work is the comparative approach to analyzing the contribution of Poland and Czech Republic to the anti-terrorist campaign.

  17. Food consumption and the actual statistics of cardiovascular diseases: an epidemiological comparison of 42 European countries

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    Pavel Grasgruber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this ecological study was to identify the main nutritional factors related to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in Europe, based on a comparison of international statistics. Design: The mean consumption of 62 food items from the FAOSTAT database (1993–2008 was compared with the actual statistics of five CVD indicators in 42 European countries. Several other exogenous factors (health expenditure, smoking, body mass index and the historical stability of results were also examined. Results: We found exceptionally strong relationships between some of the examined factors, the highest being a correlation between raised cholesterol in men and the combined consumption of animal fat and animal protein (r=0.92, p<0.001. The most significant dietary correlate of low CVD risk was high total fat and animal protein consumption. Additional statistical analyses further highlighted citrus fruits, high-fat dairy (cheese and tree nuts. Among other non-dietary factors, health expenditure showed by far the highest correlation coefficients. The major correlate of high CVD risk was the proportion of energy from carbohydrates and alcohol, or from potato and cereal carbohydrates. Similar patterns were observed between food consumption and CVD statistics from the period 1980–2000, which shows that these relationships are stable over time. However, we found striking discrepancies in men's CVD statistics from 1980 and 1990, which can probably explain the origin of the ‘saturated fat hypothesis’ that influenced public health policies in the following decades. Conclusion: Our results do not support the association between CVDs and saturated fat, which is still contained in official dietary guidelines. Instead, they agree with data accumulated from recent studies that link CVD risk with the high glycaemic index/load of carbohydrate-based diets. In the absence of any scientific evidence connecting saturated fat with CVDs, these

  18. [Epidemiological aspects of cutaneous mycosis of HIV-infected patients in the National Referral Center of Burkina Faso, West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, A; Sawadogo, P M; Diallo, I; Tapsoba, H; Bazie, Z; Drabo, Y J; Guiguemde, T R

    2016-06-01

    Our study aimed to analyze the epidemiological aspects of cutaneous mycosis in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). This is a descriptive study of 382 patients living with HIV. Following an investigation into the risk factors, mycological samples have been performed. Each sample underwent direct examination and cultivation for the identification of fungal species. The Blastese test is used for the identification of Candida albicans. One hundred and six (106) of the 382 people living with human immunodeficiency virus undergo a mycological collection of which 76 gave a positive result. The overall prevalence of cutaneous mycosis was 19.9 %. It was significantly higher in women and in patients who had a CD4 count ≤500/mm3. C. albicans and Trichophyton rubrum were the most isolated species with 22.4 and 19.8 % of all fungal species isolated, respectively. Cutaneous mycoses are common among people living with human immunodeficiency virus and whose CD4 count ≤ 500/mm(3). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Legal aspects regarding the use and integration of electronic medical records for epidemiological purposes with focus on the Italian situation

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    Antonietta Stendardo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The "Observational Studies" working group of the Italian Association of Medical Statistics and Clinical Epidemiology (SISMEC has undertaken to study the impact of recent healthcare sector regulations on the legal and organisational aspects of managing all EMR databases with emphasis on Legislative Decree No. 196/2003 (the Italian Personal Data Protection Law. This paper examines six issues relating to theirs legal implications. The first section, “Confidentiality”, provides definitions and the regulatory context for the terms "confidentiality" and "personal data". In the second, “Nature of data held in electronic medical record archives”, we discuss the problem of sensitive data and procedures to make the identification code anonymous. In “Data ownership” we highlight the difference between the data controller and the database controller. The fourth section, “Conditions for processing”, discusses problems associated with using research data from one study in other investigations. In the fifth, “Patient consent”, we address the problems related to patient consent. Finally in “Penalties” we outline the main civil and criminal liability issues applied in case of non-compliance with the provisions of the Personal Data Protection Code. Where possible, we provide suggestions on how to comply with the legal requirements of managing medical record archives in order to make it easier for researchers to remain in compliance with the relevant provisions. 

  20. Algunos aspectos sociales en la epidemiología de la infección por VIH. Some social aspects in the epidemiology of the infection for HIV

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    Leyda Larrúa Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El SIDA como enfermedad transmisible y letal, para la cual no se conoce todavía ningún medicamento curativo o vacuna profiláctica representa en la actualidad un peligro para la humanidad, ya que, puede afectar a cualquier persona, independientemente de sus características naturales o condiciones socioeconómicas. Con el objetivo de destacar algunos aspectos sociales en la epidemiología de la infección, la vulnerabilidad social y condiciones que la mediatizan en las mujeres y en los hombres que tienen sexo con otros hombres (HSH, y, las variables psicosociales que intervienen en la adopción de conductas protectoras para la salud, se realiza ésta revisión bibliográfica. Una vez culminada, pudimos conocer que los procesos sociales unidos a los procesos biológicos desempeñan un papel determinante en la infección por VIH, que los grupos más vulnerables lo constituyen las mujeres y los HSH y que existen variables psicosociales que influyen en la adopción de conductas saludables.AIDS as transferable and lethal illness, for which any curative or prophylactic vaccine is known, is at the present time a very high risk for humanity since it can affects any person, independently of people's natural characteristics or socio-economic conditions. This bibliographical revision is carried out with the objective to emphasize some social aspects in the epidemiologist of the infection, the social vulnerability and conditions that mediatize this illness in women and men who have sex with other men (MSM and the psychosocial variables that intercede in the adoption of protector behaviours for health. Once culminated, we could know that social processes joint to biological processes take a decisive part in the infection by HIV, that the most vulnerable groups are constituted by women and MSM, and those psychosocial variables that influence in the adoption of healthy behaviours exist

  1. The effects of skiing velocity on mechanical aspects of diagonal cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Pellegrini, Barbara; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Stüggl, Thomas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-09-01

    Cycle and force characteristics were examined in 11 elite male cross-country skiers using the diagonal stride technique while skiing uphill (7.5°) on snow at moderate (3.5 ± 0.3 m/s), high (4.5 ± 0.4 m/s), and maximal (5.6 ± 0.6 m/s) velocities. Video analysis (50 Hz) was combined with plantar (leg) force (100 Hz), pole force (1,500 Hz), and photocell measurements. Both cycle rate and cycle length increased from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal compared to high velocity. The kick time decreased 26% from moderate to maximal velocity, reaching 0.14 s at maximal. The relative kick and gliding times were only altered at maximal velocity, where these were longer and shorter, respectively. The rate of force development increased with higher velocity. At maximal velocity, sprint-specialists were 14% faster than distance-specialists due to greater cycle rate, peak leg force, and rate of leg force development. In conclusion, large peak leg forces were applied rapidly across all velocities and the shorter relative gliding and longer relative kick phases at maximal velocity allow maintenance of kick duration for force generation. These results emphasise the importance of rapid leg force generation in diagonal skiing.

  2. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population.

  3. [Ectopic pregnancy at the Ignace Deen University Hospital in Conakry: epidemiologic, social, demographic, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, I S; Diallo, F B; Conté, I; Diallo, M H; Sylla, I; Diallo, B S; Diallo, T S; Sy, T

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to calculate the frequency of ectopic pregnancy in the department, define its epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects, and determine a clear therapeutic approach appropriate to our setting. In this prospective study, we compiled all cases of ectopic pregnancy seen in 2011 and 2012 in the obstetrics-gynecology department at Ignace Deen University Hospital in Conakry. Ectopic pregnancies represented 1.3% of all deliveries over this period. In the 111 cases in this population, women aged 30-34 years accounted for 31.5%, those pregnant for the first time 40.5%, nulliparous women 35.1%, married women 72.1%, those without schooling 43.2%), and those with a history of sexually transmitted infection 57.6% (these categories are not exclusive, and the same women may be included in several). Secondary amenorrhea with abdominopelvic pain and metrorrhagia was the reason for admission in 56.5% of cases. Ultrasound in early pregnancy is infrequent in Conakry. Almost all of our patients underwent emergency surgery (80.2%) More than half of the ectopic pregnancies were located in the ampulla of the uterine tubes (73.0%). There were three abdominal pregnancies and 2 ovarian. In all cases the treatment was surgical, most often salpingectomy. Postoperative complications occurred in 35.1% of cases, most often anemia (27.9% of all cases) requiring blood transfusion in 11.7% of all cases before, during, or after surgery. The maternal death rate was 1.8%. Ectopic pregnancy remains a major concern at Ignace Deen CHU. Reduction of its frequency requires increased population awareness of sexually transmitted infections and illegal abortions. Management should be prompt and appropriate.

  4. Aspectos epidemiológicos da Febre do Oeste do Nilo Epidemiological aspects of West Nile Fever

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    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde sua introdução na América do Norte em 1999, mais de 27.500 casos humanos da infecção por West Nile virus (WNV foram reportados nos Estados Unidos da América (EUA, resultando em mais de 1000 casos fatais. Recentemente, a disseminação do vírus para o hemisfério sul foi confirmada com a detecção de animais infectados pelo WNV em território sul-americano. A soropositividade para WNV em eqüídeos na Colômbia e Venezuela e o isolamento do vírus nestes animais na Argentina, reiteram a necessidade da manutenção do sistema de vigilância enzoótica para WNV em território brasileiro. Aspectos pertinentes à infecção, patogenia e epidemiologia do WNV são discutidos neste artigo.Since the West Nile virus (WNV was introduced in North America in 1999, more than 27,500 cases were reported among humans in the US, resulting in more than 1,000 casualties. Recently, the dissemination of the WNV to the Southern Hemisphere was confirmed through the detection of seropositive animals. Positively-infected horses for WNV in Colombia, Venezuela and viral isolation in Argentina uphold the need to maintain the enzootic surveillance system in the Brazilian territory. Aspects related to infection, diagnosis and epidemiology of WNV are discussed in this article.

  5. Hepatites virais: aspectos da epidemiologia e da prevenção Viral Hepatitis: epidemiological and preventive aspects

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    Cristina Targa Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    para a prevenção dessas doenças.Viral hepatitis is a disease caused by different etiological agents with universal distribution and that have hepatotropism as a common characteristic. They are similar from a clinical-laboratorial point-of-view, but present significant differences in their epidemiology and outcome. The past few decades have brought remarkable victories in relation to the prevention and control of viral hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is very important among the endemic-epidemic diseases that are major public health problems in Brazil, and its epidemiological behavior has undergone major changes over the past few years, both in our country and worldwide. The expansion of substantial improvement in sanitary conditions, the increase in the coverage of hepatitis B vaccination, and the new molecular diagnostic assays of Hepatitis C virus were all decisive factors that contributed to these changes. Various important conditions in our country (socio-economic heterogeneity, irregular distribution of health services, unequal incorporation of advanced techniques for diagnosis and treatment of diseases must be taken into account when assessing the endemic-epidemic process of viral hepatitis. The number of infected patients is uncertain, especially in some Brazilian states and cities, and the elucidation of the causal agents of hepatitis, whose identification requires complex molecular biology laboratory techniques, is insufficiently performed. On the other hand, "the progressive integration of agencies that manage disease surveillance and control programs and research groups, and between the latter and services," and the availability of more reliable national databases, suggest new and better possibilities. In the present paper, we have briefly reviewed hepatitis A, B and C, the most frequent forms in our country, and the epidemiology and the preferred strategies for preventing this disease.

  6. Invasive mucormycosis in children: an epidemiologic study in European and non-European countries based on two registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pana, Zoi Dorothea; Seidel, Danila; Skiada, Anna; Groll, Andreas H; Petrikkos, Georgios; Cornely, Oliver A; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2016-11-10

    Mucormycosis has emerged as a rare but frequently fatal invasive fungal disease. Current knowledge on paediatric mucormycosis is based on case reports and small series reported over several decades. Contemporary data on a large cohort of patients is lacking. Two large international registries (Zygomyco.net and FungiScope™) were searched for mucormycosis cases in ≤19 year-old patients. Cases enrolled between 2005 and 2014 were extracted, and dual entries in the two databases merged. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management and final outcome were recorded and analysed with SPSS v.12. Sixty-three unique cases (44 proven and 19 probable) were enrolled from 15 countries (54 in European and 9 in non-European countries). Median age was 13 years [Interquartile Range (IQR) 7.7] with a slight predominance (54.1 %) of females. Underlying conditions were haematological malignancies (46 %), other malignancies (6.3 %), haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (15.9 %), solid organ transplantation, trauma/surgery and diabetes mellitus (4.8 % each) and a variety of other diseases (7.9 %); in 9.5%, no underlying medical condition was found. Neutropenia was recorded in 46 % of the patients. The main sites of infection were lungs (19 %), skin and soft tissues (19 %), paranasal sinus/sino-orbital region (15.8 %) and rhino-cerebral region (7.9 %). Disseminated infection was present in 38.1 %. Mucormycosis diagnosis was based on several combinations of methods; culture combined with histology was performed in 31 cases (49.2 %). Fungal isolates included Rhizopus spp. (39.7 %), Lichtheimia spp. (17.5 %), Mucor spp. (12.7 %), Cunninghamella bertholletiae (6.3 %) and unspecified (23.8 %). Treatment comprised amphotericin B (AmB) monotherapy in 31.7 % or AmB in combination with other antifungals in 47.7 % of the cases, while 14.3 % received no antifungals. Surgery alone was performed in 6.3 %, and combined with antifungal therapy in 47

  7. Epidemiological pattern of motorcycle injuries with focus on riding purpose: Experience from a middle-income country

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    leili Abedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death worldwide which usually occurs among people aged between15-29 years. In most LAMICs, half of fatal road traffic injuries occur among motorcyclists, which little is known about purpose of riding among motorcycle riders. Objectives: To map out epidemiological aspects of motorcycle traffic injuries with a focus on purpose of riding among victims admitted to referral centers, Tabriz, Iran. Materials/Patients and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 200 motorcycle traumatic patients admitted to Shohada and Imam Reza trauma centers in Tabriz((because these two hospitals are referral for trauma in East Azarbyjan Province, Iran from April till November 2013. A questionnaire was filled out through face to face interview for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11. Results: All subjects were male with mean age of 29 years old. Among injured riders, 70% and 22% of them used helmet and had a riding license, respectively. About 23% of motorcycle riders stated that their main purpose of motorcycle riding was only for fun. Among motorcycle riders who used the motorcycle for fun purposes, the rate of helmet wearing was 43.5% versus 78% among those riding for other purposes (P 0.05; Odd ratio=1. 56, 95% CI: 0. 67-3.4. Crashes have happened more in the summer and during the afternoon times. Conclusion: Motorcyclists who rode motorcycles for fun and amusement, not having rider licenses and helmets wearing were less than other motorcycle riders. Since motorcyclists are mainly young, the rate of risky behavior in this group is higher. Therefore, it is suggested that young motorcycle riders who ride for fun, needs the priority for safety promotion intervention.

  8. Perceived mother and father acceptance-rejection predict four unique aspects of child adjustment across nine countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background It is generally believed that parental rejection of children leads to child maladaptation. However, the specific effects of perceived parental acceptance-rejection on diverse domains of child adjustment and development have been incompletely documented, and whether these effects hold across diverse populations and for mothers and fathers are still open questions. Methods This study assessed children's perceptions of mother and father acceptance-rejection in 1247 families from China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States as antecedent predictors of later internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, school performance, prosocial behavior, and social competence. Results Higher perceived parental rejection predicted increases in internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and decreases in school performance and prosocial behavior across three years controlling for within-wave relations, stability across waves, and parental age, education, and social desirability bias. Patterns of relations were similar across mothers and fathers and, with a few exceptions, all 9 countries. Conclusions Children's perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection have small but nearly universal effects on multiple aspects of their adjustment and development regardless of the family's country of origin. PMID:25492267

  9. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia in 2010: estimates of incidence, severe morbidity, mortality, underlying risk factors and causative pathogens for 192 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent series of reviews conducted within the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD addressed epidemiology of the two deadly diseases at the global and regional level; it also estimated the effectiveness of interventions, barriers to achieving high coverage and the main implications for health policy. The aim of this paper is to provide the estimates of childhood pneumonia at the country level. This should allow national policy–makers and stakeholders to implement proposed policies in the World Health Organization (WHO and UNICEF member countries.

  10. Cardiovascular diseases in mega-countries: the challenges of the nutrition, physical activity and epidemiologic transitions, and the double burden of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, Simon; Pedroza-Tobias, Andrea; Medina, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review There are today 11 mega-countries with more than 100 million inhabitants. Together these countries represent more than 60% of the world's population. All are facing noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) epidemic where high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases are becoming the main public health concerns. Most of these countries are facing the double burden of malnutrition where undernutrition and obesity coexist, increasing the complexity for policy design and implementation. The purpose of this study is to describe diverse sociodemographic characteristics of these countries and the challenges for prevention and control in the context of the nutrition transition. Recent findings Mega-countries are mostly low or middle-income and are facing important epidemiologic, nutrition, and physical activity transitions because of changes in food systems and unhealthy lifestyles. NCDs are responsible of two-thirds of the 57 million global deaths annually. Approximately, 80% of these are in low and middle-income countries. Only developed countries have been able to reduce mortality rates attributable to recognized risk factors for NCDs, in particular high cholesterol and blood pressure. Summary Mega-countries share common characteristics such as complex bureaucracies, internal ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic heterogeneity, and complexities to implement effective health promotion and education policies across population. Priorities for action must be identified and successful lessons and experiences should be carefully analyzed and replicated. PMID:27389629

  11. Legislative and ethical aspects of introducing new technologies in medical care for senior citizens in developed countries

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    Kacetl J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jaroslav Kacetl,1 Petra Maresova2 1Department of Applied Linguistics, 2Department of Economics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Introduction: The majority of developed countries are currently experiencing demographic aging. The most frequently expressed concerns related to the changing age structure are the increased costs of social and medical care, a lack of labor force in the job market, and financial sustainability of the pension system. These concerns are often based on the pessimistic view of population aging. This view understands aging as a prolonged period of illness and suffering. On the other hand, optimists believe that a longer life span is a result of increased quality of life and better health care. The quality of life may be improved not only by medicaments, but also by rapidly developing area of medical devices, which allow better care for seniors in many areas.Aim: This contribution aims to assess the legislative environment and ethical questions related to the use of medical devices, especially medical devices, in medical care for senior citizens.Methods: The methods used in this study are literature reviews of legislative and ethical environment in the European Union (EU and the US.Results: Main findings of this study result from assessing the state of medical device regulations in Europe and the US. Namely, the US regulation seems to be better arranged, which is probably due to the fact that there is only one responsible body – the US Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible for all medical device regulations. On the other hand, in the EU, talks about new legislation are led by ministers from all the EU member states and it may take a long time before all the EU countries come to an agreement. Keywords: senior citizen, medical devices, legislation, ethical aspects

  12. A national cross-sectional study among drug-users in France: epidemiology of HCV and highlight on practical and statistical aspects of the design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelli Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiology of HCV infection among drug users (DUs has been widely studied. Prevalence and sociobehavioural data among DUs are therefore available in most countries but no study has taken into account in the sampling weights one important aspect of the way of life of DUs, namely that they can use one or more specialized services during the study period. In 2004–2005, we conducted a national seroepidemiologic survey of DUs, based on a random sampling design using the Generalised Weight Share Method (GWSM and on blood testing. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter survey was done among DUs having injected or snorted drugs at least once in their life. We conducted a two stage random survey of DUs selected to represent the diversity of drug use. The fact that DUs can use more than one structure during the study period has an impact on their inclusion probabilities. To calculate a correct sampling weight, we used the GWSM. A sociobehavioral questionnaire was administered by interviewers. Selected DUs were asked to self-collect a fingerprick blood sample on blotting paper. Results Of all DUs selected, 1462 (75% accepted to participate. HCV seroprevalence was 59.8% [95% CI: 50.7–68.3]. Of DUs under 30 years, 28% were HCV seropositive. Of HCV-infected DUs, 27% were unaware of their status. In the month prior to interview, 13% of DUs shared a syringe, 38% other injection parapharnelia and 81% shared a crack pipe. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with HCV seropositivity were age over 30, HIV seropositivity, having ever injected drugs, opiate substitution treatment (OST, crack use, and precarious housing. Conclusion This is the first time that blood testing combined to GWSM is applied to a DUs population, which improve the estimate of HCV prevalence. HCV seroprevalence is high, indeed by the youngest DUs. And a large proportion of DUs are not aware of their status. Our multivariate analysis identifies risk

  13. Epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents: a Sri Lankan perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devanarayana, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are a worldwide pediatric problem with uncertain pathology. Main objectives of this thesis were to assess epidemiology, risk factors and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of AP-FGIDs. A systematic review and

  14. Outbreak Control and Clinical, Pathological, and Epidemiological Aspects and Molecular Characterization of a Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 on a Feedlot Farm in São Paulo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Vicente, Acácia; Appolinario, Camila Michele; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Gasparini Baraldi, Thaís; Cortez, Adriana; Bryan Heinemann, Marcos; Reinaldo Silva Fonseca, Clovis; Cristina Pelícia, Vanessa; Devidé Ribeiro, Bruna Leticia; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the control, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of an outbreak of meningoencephalitis in calves due to bovine herpesvirus 5 at a feedlot with 540 animals in São Paulo State, Brazil. The introduction of new animals and contact between the resident animals and the introduced ones were most likely responsible for virus transmission. Bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine was used, resulting in the efficacy of the outbreak control, although two bovine herpesvirus 1 positive animals, vaccinated and revaccinated, presented meningoencephalitis, thereby characterizing vaccinal failure. PMID:26090469

  15. Perceptions of the Host Country's Food Culture among Female Immigrants from Africa and Asia: Aspects Relevant for Cultural Sensitivity in Nutrition Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdol, Annhild

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: Oslo, Norway. Participants: Twenty one female…

  16. Perceptions of the Host Country's Food Culture among Female Immigrants from Africa and Asia: Aspects Relevant for Cultural Sensitivity in Nutrition Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdol, Annhild

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: Oslo, Norway. Participants: Twenty one female…

  17. Epidemiological aspects of bovine trypanosomosis in an endemic focus of eastern Zambia: The role of trypanosome strain variability in disease pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Masumu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine trypanosomosis displays various epidemiological aspects in various areas. In some instances the disease has a high prevalence in animals with high impact on production whereas in other cases the disease has a low impact on production despite a high level of infection in animals. In addition epidemiological changes are frequently observed in various areas and are related to many factors including the vectors, the host, the parasites, the environment as well as the livestock management. However the implication of these factors in these changes is not fully elucidated. In eastern Zambia, factors predicting the establishment of severe infection in cattle are all present. However trypanosomosis occurring in cattle in this area has a low impact on livestock production. Several studies on the characterisation of trypanosome strains circulating in domestic and wild animals have been conducted in order to clarify the epidemiology of this disease in this area. These studies aimed at evaluating genetic and biological characteristics of these strains including their virulence profiles, their transmissibility by tsetse flies, their resistance to drugs and interference between different strains. In this review these findings are analysed in order to elucidate the implication of trypanosome strain variability in the distribution and the expression of this disease in the study area. The evolutionary trends of the situation occurring in this study area are also explained. Use of these findings is the context of disease control in the study area is further discussed.

  18. Epidemiology and Anthropology: an integrated approach dealing with bio-socio-cultural aspects as strategy for the control of endemic diseases

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    Constança Simões Barbosa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of endemic diseases has not attained the desired level of effectiveness in spite of the use of modern efficient thecnologies. The classic interventionist approach for the control of schistosomiasis is centered on systemic control of the snail hosts combined to large scale medical treatment and is usually carried out without social preocupation due to the assisted communities. It is easy to understand the interest and the ethical compromise of public health research while producing studies in which the biological and social determinants as well as the cultural components should be considered and also encompass the historical dimensions and symbolic representations. In face of the recent political decision in favor of decentralizations of health administration to municipal level, we suggest, in the present paper, an integrated approach for the epidemiological diagnosis of an endemic situation at local level. Theoretical and methodological aspects from both, epidemiology and anthropology are discussed. Epidemiological methods can be used to detect the dependent variables (those related to the human infection and the independent variables (demographic, economic, sanitary and social. Another methodological approach of anthropological /etnographic nature can be conducted in order to make an articulation of the knowledge on the various dimensions or determinant levels of the disease. Mutual comprehension, between researchers and the people under investigation, on the dynamic transmission process would be relevant for a joint construction, at local level, of programmed actions for the control of endemic diseases. This would extend reflections on the health/disease process as a whole.

  19. Epidemiological aspects of lice (Menacanthus species) infections in laying hen flocks from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, L Do Carmo; Martins, N R Da Silva; Teixeira, C M; Oliveira, P R De; Cunha, L M

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of chicken lice species such as Menacanthus stramineus, M. cornutus and M. pallidulus were studied during an observational, analytical and sectional survey, to determine predisposing factors for their occurrence in laying hen farms in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 431 houses on 43 farms were visited in 2012. M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M. pallidulus occurred in 20.9%, 11.6% and 11.6% of farms, respectively. The frequencies of occurrence of M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M.pallidulus in poultry houses were 10.4%, 8.8% and 3.7%, respectively. The epidemiological determinants for the occurrence of these species were investigated using Poisson or logistic regression models. The region of the farm, the recent use of acaricides and the presence of birds, such as saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), feral pigeon (Columba livia) and Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) around the farms were related to the epidemiology of M. cornutus. Infestation by M. stramineus was associated with age of birds, number of birds per cage and the presence of Guira cuckoo and Chopi blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) near the poultry houses. The occurrence of M. pallidulus was influenced by the type of facilities, presence of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and free-range domestic hens around the farm. The use of wire mesh nets in the houses and of forced moulting did not influence lice infestation.

  20. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries: epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; De Girolamo, G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D.R.; Kessler, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part i

  1. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries : epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de, Girolamo G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Oakley Browne, M.A.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D.R.; Kessler, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part i

  2. Changing mobility patterns and road mortality among pre-license teens in a late licensing country : an epidemiological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Bos, N.M. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the safety of teens in early licensing countries has been extensively studied, little is known about the safety of pre-license teens in late licensing countries, where these teens also may be at risk. This risk exists because of the combination of a) increasing use of travel modes with a hig

  3. Epidemiological approach to aquatic animal health management: opportunities and challenges for developing countries to increase aquatic production through aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2005-02-01

    Aquaculture appears to have strongest potential to meet the increasing demands for aquatic products in most regions of the world. The world population is on the increase, as is the demand for aquatic food products. Production from capture fisheries at a global level is levelling off. Potential contributions from aquaculture to local food security, livelihoods and nutrition can be highly significant, especially in many remote and resource-poor rural areas. One of the major constraints to aquaculture production is the losses due to diseases. Over the decades, the sector has faced significant problems with disease outbreaks and epidemics which caused significant economic losses. The use of sound epidemiological principles and logical and science-based approach to identify and manage risks comprise two of the most important components of an effective biosecurity program. The maintenance of effective biosecurity in aquaculture is becoming more and more essential. There will be more demand for aquatic animal epidemiologists as well as epidemiological tools/resources in the region. The use of epidemiology will significantly improve health management, risk analysis and disease control. Although there are clear limitations and complications in the use of epidemiology for controlling aquatic animal pathogens, some positive results have recently emerged from a series of studies and trials to control diseases affecting the small-scale shrimp farming sector in southern India. This paper summarises the results of one such study which emphasizes the significant benefit of close collaboration with farmers, both individually and as groups, and capacity and awareness building among them and the importance of understanding the risk factors and implementing better management practices.

  4. Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia and implications for vaccination of children living in developing and newly industrialized countries: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Yarzabal, Juan-Pablo; Cruz, James Philip; Schmidt, Johannes E.; Kleijnen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This systematic review evaluated the epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children <6 y of age within 90 developing and newly industrialized countries. Literature searches (1990–2011), based on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CAB Global Health, WHO, UNICEF, country-specific websites, conferences, health-technology-assessment agencies, and the reference lists of included studies, yielded 8,734 records; 62 of 340 studies were included in this review. The highest incidence rate among included studies was 0.51 episodes/child-year, for children <5 y of age in Bangladesh. The highest prevalence was in Chinese children <6 months of age (37.88%). The main bacterial pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae and the main viral pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and rhinovirus. Community-acquired pneumonia remains associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Improved and efficient surveillance and documentation of the epidemiology and burden of community-acquired pneumonia across various geographical regions is warranted. PMID:27269963

  5. Social epidemiology of hypertension in middle-income countries: determinants of prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and control in the WHO SAGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Millett, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    Large-scale hypertension screening campaigns have been recommended for middle-income countries. We sought to identify sociodemographic predictors of hypertension prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and control among middle-income countries. We analyzed data from 47 443 adults in all 6 middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa) sampled in nationally representative household assessments from 2007 to 2010 as part of the World Health Organization Study on Global Aging and Adult Health. We estimated regression models accounting for age, sex, urban/rural location, nutrition, and obesity, as well as hypothesized covariates of healthcare access, such as income and insurance. Hypertension prevalence varied from 23% (India) to 52% (Russia), with between 30% (Russia) and 83% (Ghana) of hypertensives undiagnosed before the survey and between 35% (Russia) and 87% (Ghana) untreated. Although the risk of hypertension significantly increased with age (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-7.1; among aged, 60-79 versus income quintile (13% obesity). Insurance status and income also emerged as significant correlates to diagnosis and treatment probability, respectively. More than 90% of hypertension cases were uncontrolled, with men having 3 times the odds as women of being uncontrolled. Overall, the social epidemiology of hypertension in middle-income countries seems to be correlated to increasing obesity prevalence, and hypertension control rates are particularly low for adult men across distinct cultures.

  6. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Transmission, Epidemiology and Control, Impact, and Zoonotic Aspects

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    Marc Desquesnes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the transmission modes of Trypanosoma evansi. Its worldwide distribution is attributed to mechanical transmission. While the role of tabanids is clear, we raise questions on the relative role of Haematobia sp. and the possible role of Stomoxys sp. in delayed transmission. A review of the available trypanocidal drugs and their efficacy in various host species is useful for understanding how they interact in disease epidemiology, which is complex. Although there are similarities with other mechanically transmitted trypanosomes, T. evansi has a more complex epidemiology due to the diversity of its hosts and vectors. The impact of clinical and subclinical disease is difficult to establish. A model was developed for buffaloes in the Philippines, which could be transferred to other places and livestock systems. Since Trypanosoma evansi was reported in humans, further research is required to investigate its zoonotic potential. Surra remains a potentially emerging disease that is a threat to Australia, Spain, and France. A number of questions about the disease have yet to be resolved. This brief review of the basic knowledge of T. evansi suggests that there is renewed interest in the parasite, which is spreading and has a major economic impact.

  7. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Transmission, Epidemiology and Control, Impact, and Zoonotic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desquesnes, Marc; Dargantes, Alan; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Holzmuller, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the transmission modes of Trypanosoma evansi. Its worldwide distribution is attributed to mechanical transmission. While the role of tabanids is clear, we raise questions on the relative role of Haematobia sp. and the possible role of Stomoxys sp. in delayed transmission. A review of the available trypanocidal drugs and their efficacy in various host species is useful for understanding how they interact in disease epidemiology, which is complex. Although there are similarities with other mechanically transmitted trypanosomes, T. evansi has a more complex epidemiology due to the diversity of its hosts and vectors. The impact of clinical and subclinical disease is difficult to establish. A model was developed for buffaloes in the Philippines, which could be transferred to other places and livestock systems. Since Trypanosoma evansi was reported in humans, further research is required to investigate its zoonotic potential. Surra remains a potentially emerging disease that is a threat to Australia, Spain, and France. A number of questions about the disease have yet to be resolved. This brief review of the basic knowledge of T. evansi suggests that there is renewed interest in the parasite, which is spreading and has a major economic impact. PMID:24151595

  8. [Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi : a new epidemiological scenario for Chagas' disease in Colombia and other South American countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Karina; Trujillo, Jorge Eduardo; Carranza, Julio César; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas' disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite's genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies.

  9. Some epidemiological aspects of elderly participants of a relationship group in the city of Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Santos Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographic aging, followed by longevity, provided morbimortality alterations showing a significant part of elderly attacked by noncommunicable chronic-degenerative diseases. In this perspective this study of descriptive exploratory character with transversal delineation aimed to identify the epidemiological profile of 25 elderly and characterize them inside a third age relationship group in the city of Jequié/BA. The majority of the elderly was of the female sex, 68% of the interviewed ones are retired and 32% still carry through professional activities. About the educational level, 20% are illiterate, literate 28%, 44% have the Elementary Degree and 8% the High School Degree. The health problems most cited were disc herniation, cerebrovascular accident, tendinitis, fistulous, arthrosis and others. The pain prevalence was present in 80% of the subjects, and 77% presented pain for more than 6 months. The most frequent localizations were in low back column (44,4%, right shoulder/superior thorax and knee (29.6%.

  10. Clinical and epidemiological aspects related to the detection of adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Ferone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects ofinfants with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI associated with the detection of adenovirus(ADV or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. METHODS: A preliminary respiratory infection surveillance study collected samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA for viral research, linked to the completion of a standard protocol, from children younger than two years admitted to a university hospital with ALRI, between March of 2008 and August of 2011. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for eight viruses: ADV, RSV, metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3, and Influenza A and B. Cases with NPA collectedduring the first 24 hours of admission, negative results of blood culture, and exclusive detection of ADV (Gadv group or RSV (Grsv group were selected for comparisons. RESULTS: The preliminary study included collection of 1,121 samples of NPA, 813 collected in thefirst 24 hours of admission, of which 50.3% were positive for at least one virus; RSV was identifiedin 27.3% of cases surveyed, and ADV was identified in 15.8%. Among the aspects analyzed inthe Gadv (n = 58 and Grsv (n = 134 groups, the following are noteworthy: the higher meanage, more frequent prescription of antibiotics, and the highest median of total white blood cellcount and C-reactive protein values in Gadv. CONCLUSIONS: PCR can detect persistent/latent forms of ADV, an aspect to be considered wheninterpreting results. Additional studies with quantitative diagnostic techniques could elucidatethe importance of the high frequency observed.

  11. Link between immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins and clinical-epidemiological aspects of actinic cheilitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies found in the literature associate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins with histologic aspects, but do not correlate it with clinical and epidemiological data. Objective To evaluate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis, correlating it with clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 40 cases. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The following clinical variables were evaluated: gender, age range, ethnicity, clinical aspect and occupational sunlight exposure. Statistical evaluation included the Student t-test, while the significance level was set at 5%. Results Greater immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was observed in females, individuals aged over 40, and mixed-race/black patients. Furthermore, the immunoexpression of these proteins was greater in actinic cheilitis with a white-colored appearance and in patients without occupational sunlight exposure. No statistical differences were observed for the variables studied. Conclusion This study uncovered variations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression upon evaluation of clinical aspects in actinic cheilitis. PMID:27579741

  12. Cervical cancer epidemiology in foreign women in Northern Italy: role of human papillomavirus prevalence in country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, Enza; Caroli, Stefania; Paterlini, Luisa; Campari, Cinzia; Prandi, Sonia; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    This study compares the incidence and treatments of cervical neoplasia in foreigners from high migration countries and Italians in the Reggio Emilia province (Northern Italy) in 2002-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and cancer were calculated for foreigners versus Italian women; foreigners were also classified according to the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in their country of origin. The proportion of hysterectomies is presented as an indicator of inappropriate surgery in CIN3 and microinvasive cancers. A higher risk was observed in women from high human papillomavirus prevalence countries (HHPVC) both for cancer and for CIN3 (SIR=4.1, 95% CI=2.2-6.9; SIR=2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.5, respectively), whereas in those from low human papillomavirus prevalence countries (LHPVC), no difference for cancer and a lower risk for CIN3 were observed (SIR=1.0, 95% CI 0.2-2.2; SIR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, respectively). A lower CIN3/cancer ratio was found in women from HHPVC (2.6) and in women from LHPVC (3.6) than in Italians (7.4). The percentage of hysterectomies for CIN3 or microinvasive cancers was 3.4 in foreigners and 4.7 in Italians. A higher risk of cervical cancer was found in women from HHPVC compared with Italians and women from LHPVC, suggesting a role of HPV prevalence in the country of origin in the excess risk. The CIN3/cancer ratio was lower for both women from HHPVC and women from LHPVC, also suggesting a role of low screening uptake for cervical cancer incidence in immigrants.

  13. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET

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    Mukanga David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET’s approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. The JICA training course, community-based cancer prevention for the Asian Pacific countries, fiscal years 2004 and 2005 (epidemiological approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Communicable diseases are still major causes of deaths in developing countries. Cancer incidence, however, increased 19% between 1990 and 2000, mainly in this same developing world (Stewart and Kleihaus, 2003), and malignant neoplasms are now the second leading cause of mortality in these countries (WHO, 2003). Limitations of medical facilities and equipment mean that prevention is indispensable for cancer control (Mikheev et al., 1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are limited, and encouragement of their development should be taken as a first priority. To assist in this aim, the present training course was designed by the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has been annually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki, 2001; 2002; 2003; Wakai, 2004). The course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsible for community-based cancer prevention in developing countries to promote the introduction of comprehensive procedures, focusing mainly on primary prevention but also including screening for secondary prevention of cancer.

  15. The JICA training course, community-based cancer prevention for the Asian and Pan-Pacific countries, fiscal year 2006 (epidemiological approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2007-01-01

    Communicable diseases are still major causes of deaths in developing countries. Cancer incidence, however, increased 19% between 1990 and 2000, mainly in this same developing world (Stewart and Kleihaus, 2003), and malignant neoplasms are now the second leading cause of mortality in these countries (WHO, 2003). Limitations of medical facilities and equipment mean that prevention is indispensable for cancer control (Mikheev et al., 1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are also limited, and encouragement of their development should be taken as a first priority. To assist in this aim, the present training course was designed by the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has been annually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki, 2001; 2002; 2003; Wakai, 2004; 2006). The course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsible for community-based cancer prevention in developing countries to promote the introduction of comprehensive procedures, focusing mainly on primary prevention but also including screening for secondary prevention of cancer.

  16. Reference ranges of handgrip strength from 125,462 healthy adults in 21 countries: a prospective urban rural epidemiologic (PURE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Koon K.; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Kutty, V. Raman; Lanas, Fernando; Hui, Chen; Quanyong, Xiang; Zhenzhen, Qian; Jinhua, Tang; Noorhassim, Ismail; AlHabib, Khalid F; Moss, Sarah J.; Rosengren, Annika; Akalin, Ayse Arzu; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Orlandini, Andrés; Kumar, Rajesh; Yeates, Karen; Gupta, Rajeev; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Dans, Antonio; Avezum, Álvaro; Lopez‐Jaramillo, Patricio; Poirier, Paul; Heidari, Hosein; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Iqbal, Romaina; Khatib, Rasha; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The measurement of handgrip strength (HGS) has prognostic value with respect to all‐cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular disease, and is an important part of the evaluation of frailty. Published reference ranges for HGS are mostly derived from Caucasian populations in high‐income countries. There is a paucity of information on normative HGS values in non‐Caucasian populations from low‐ or middle‐income countries. The objective of this study was to develop reference HGS ranges for healthy adults from a broad range of ethnicities and socioeconomically diverse geographic regions. Methods HGS was measured using a Jamar dynamometer in 125,462 healthy adults aged 35‐70 years from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Results HGS values differed among individuals from different geographic regions. HGS values were highest among those from Europe/North America, lowest among those from South Asia, South East Asia and Africa, and intermediate among those from China, South America, and the Middle East. Reference ranges stratified by geographic region, age, and sex are presented. These ranges varied from a median (25th–75th percentile) 50 kg (43–56 kg) in men 60 years from South East Asia. Reference ranges by ethnicity and body‐mass index are also reported. Conclusions Individual HGS measurements should be interpreted using region/ethnic‐specific reference ranges. PMID:27104109

  17. The changing epidemiological and complications profile of chronic suppurative otitis media in a developing country after two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orji, Foster T; Ukaegbe, Onyinyechi; Alex-Okoro, Jideofor; Ofoegbu, Vincent C; Okorafor, Ijeoma J

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the shift in epidemiological and complication profiles of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) over two decades in a resource-limited economy. A retrospective analysis of the prevalence of CSOM and its complications in tertiary health institution a over a period of 2 years were compared between 203 cases seen in 2009 and December 2010 (present era); and 343 cases seen in 1990 and 1991 (previous era). Data were collected on the demographic characteristics of the patients, age of onset of otorrhoea, the disease type, laterality and complications of CSOM. The prevalence of CSOM significantly reduced from 9 % in the previous era to 5.1 % in the present era (P 20 years of age (P ≤ 0.001). More significant cases of cholesteatoma were documented in the recent group (3.4 %) than previous era (0.9 %) (P = 0.02). Although no significant change was noted regarding the rates of complication of CSOM in the two eras (P = 0.18), there was a notable shift toward predominant extracranial pattern of complication in the recent group (P = 0.04). The prevalence of CSOM has shown a significant reduction after two decades and it appears that there has been a shift in the epidemiology of CSOM towards a predominantly adult population in the recent years. Despite an overall reduction in the incidence of intracranial complications of CSOM in our series, its complication rates have not changed remarkably after 20 years.

  18. Dengue em localidade urbana da região sudeste do Brasil: aspectos epidemiológicos Dengue in urban locality of Southeastern, Brazil: epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. S. Pontes

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram revistos alguns aspectos da epidemiologia do dengue, como parte do estudo de epidemia ocorrida no Município de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, no período de novembro de 1990 a março de 1991. Deu-se ênfase aos fatores envolvidos no risco de ocorrência do dengue hemorrágico/síndrome de choque do dengue. Traçou-se um quadro de referência a respeito do comportamento epidemiológico do dengue através do tempo e em diferentes áreas geográficas. A epidemia de Ribeirão Preto foi situada no contexto da progressão do dengue em nível mundial, nas Américas, e particulamente no Brasil e Estado de São Paulo.A dengue fever epidemic which occurred in Ribeirão Preto County, S. Paulo State, Brazil, during the period November, 1990 to March, 1991 has been analysed else where. The general aspects of dengue epidemiology and control have been reviewed in this article. Emphasis is given to the analysis of some factors involved in the risk of dengue haemorrhagic fever and ecological aspects of the vector, as well as to the appropriateness of strategies for dengue eradication or control. Epidemiological characteristics of dengue, mainly those related to its occurrence in different geographical areas and periods of time are described. The Ribeirão Preto epidemic has thus, been set within the context of the spread of the disease at global level, in the Americas, and particularly in Brazil and S. Paulo State.

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF NECK/SHOULDER PAIN IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH: A COMPARISON OF PERSONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS, DISABILITY AND PROGNOSIS AMONG 12,195 WORKERS FROM 18 COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, Leila M M; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath SP; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J. Salazar

    2016-01-01

    To inform case-definition for neck/shoulder pain in epidemiological research, we compared levels of disability, patterns of association and prognosis for pain that was limited to the neck or shoulders (LNSP) and more generalised musculoskeletal pain that involved the neck or shoulder(s) (GPNS). Baseline data on musculoskeletal pain, disability and potential correlates were collected by questionnaire from 12,195 workers in 47 occupational groups (mostly office workers, nurses, and manual workers) in 18 countries (response rate = 70%). Continuing pain after a mean interval of 14 months was ascertained through a follow-up questionnaire in 9,150 workers from 45 occupational groups. Associations with personal and occupational factors were assessed by Poisson regression and summarised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). The one-month prevalence of GPNS at baseline was much greater than that of LNSP (35.1% vs. 5.6%), and it tended to be more troublesome and disabling. Unlike LNSP, the prevalence of GPNS increased with age. Moreover, it showed significantly stronger associations with somatising tendency (PRR 1.6 vs. 1.3) and poor mental health (PRR 1.3 vs. 1.1); greater variation between the occupational groups studied (prevalence ranging from 0% to 67.6%) that correlated poorly with the variation in LNSP; and was more persistent at follow-up (72.1% vs. 61.7%). Our findings highlight important epidemiological distinctions between sub-categories of neck/shoulder pain. In future epidemiological research that bases case definitions on symptoms, it would be useful to distinguish pain which is localised to the neck or shoulder from more generalised pain that happens to involve the neck/shoulder region. PMID:26761390

  20. Classification of neck/shoulder pain in epidemiological research: a comparison of personal and occupational characteristics, disability, and prognosis among 12,195 workers from 18 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, Leila M M; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J

    2016-05-01

    To inform case definition for neck/shoulder pain in epidemiological research, we compared levels of disability, patterns of association, and prognosis for pain that was limited to the neck or shoulders (LNSP) and more generalised musculoskeletal pain that involved the neck or shoulder(s) (GPNS). Baseline data on musculoskeletal pain, disability, and potential correlates were collected by questionnaire from 12,195 workers in 47 occupational groups (mostly office workers, nurses, and manual workers) in 18 countries (response rate = 70%). Continuing pain after a mean interval of 14 months was ascertained through a follow-up questionnaire in 9150 workers from 45 occupational groups. Associations with personal and occupational factors were assessed by Poisson regression and summarised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). The 1-month prevalence of GPNS at baseline was much greater than that of LNSP (35.1% vs 5.6%), and it tended to be more troublesome and disabling. Unlike LNSP, the prevalence of GPNS increased with age. Moreover, it showed significantly stronger associations with somatising tendency (PRR 1.6 vs 1.3) and poor mental health (PRR 1.3 vs 1.1); greater variation between the occupational groups studied (prevalence ranging from 0% to 67.6%) that correlated poorly with the variation in LNSP; and was more persistent at follow-up (72.1% vs 61.7%). Our findings highlight important epidemiological distinctions between subcategories of neck/shoulder pain. In future epidemiological research that bases case definitions on symptoms, it would be useful to distinguish pain that is localised to the neck or shoulder from more generalised pain that happens to involve the neck/shoulder region.

  1. The epidemiology of eating disorders in six European countries: Results of the ESEMeD-WMH project

    OpenAIRE

    Preti, Antonio; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Vilagut, Gemma; Alonso, Jordi; de Graaf, Ron; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Demyttenaere, Koen; Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Haro, Josep Maria; Morosini, Piero

    2009-01-01

    Few data are available to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) and their correlates in the community. This paper reports data on EDs obtained in the framework of the ESEMeD project, aimed at investigating the prevalence of non-psychotic mental disorders in six European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain), using a new version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The ESEMeD study was a general population cross-sectional household s...

  2. [Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Guilherme; Toledo; Ramos; Arraes; Bertolini; Spinoza; Barbosa

    1996-04-01

    An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê) in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%). Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5%) presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3%) of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%). During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions, four of which were positive for Leishmania sp. The strain isolated was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a periurban area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. A. Passos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in a periurban area of the municipality of Sabará in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, an area until then considered free of the disease, a cross sectional survey was undertaken in 1990. The survey of the population consisted of 1119 interviews and 881 clinical examinations using Montenegro's skin test (MST. A low prevalence (3.7% of positive MST was encountered. The disease had been occuring in the area for about 20 years in the form of sporadic cases. The predominant species of sandfly both in domestic areas and nearby areas of secondary vegetation was Lutzomyia whitmani. A canine survey of delayed hypersensitivity to the antigen P10,000 identified only one dog with a positive reaction out of 113 examined. The transmission of ACL in MRBH was confirmed. The occurrence of the disease in women, children and individuals with no contact with forest areas as well as the presence of potential vector species in the domiciliar environment, suggests the transmission of the disease in this environment.

  4. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2003-07-01

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Bras lia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease

  5. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF CREATION OF AN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CENTER AS IMPORTANT CIS AND EVRASES COUNTRIES INTERGATION FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Balabanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of forming in Moscow a regional (to be in future transformed into a global international Single Economic Space (SES financial center should become for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS and Euroasian Economic Community (EvrAsES countries an universal integration instrument to be used to create their common economic and commercial space. The international center along with SES national financial centers will form an internationally competitive polycentric financial network with single institutional (regulatory, law, customs, etc.agreements. A mechanism should be formed to attract countries outside Customs Union to participate in creation of the international financial center.

  6. [Epidemiologic aspects of a new approach to monitoring hygienic food handling using the hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyás, Z

    1992-10-01

    requires reliable epidemiological statistics of alimentary infections and intoxications and in practice the participation of an epidemiologist, hygienist and food technologist.

  7. The economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases in developing countries: new roles, new demands for economics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karl M; Perry, Brian D

    2011-09-01

    Animal disease outbreaks pose significant threats to livestock sectors throughout the world, both from the standpoint of the economic impacts of the disease itself and the measures taken to mitigate the risk of disease introduction. These impacts are multidimensional and not always well understood, complicating effective policy response. In the developing world, livestock diseases have broader, more nuanced effects on markets, poverty, and livelihoods, given the diversity of uses of livestock and complexity of livestock value chains. In both settings, disease control strategies, particularly those informed by ex ante modeling platforms, often fail to recognize the constraints inherent among farmers, veterinary services, and other value chain actors. In short, context matters. Correspondingly, an important gap in the animal health economics literature is the explicit incorporation of behavior and incentives in impact analyses that highlight the interactions of disease with its socio-economic and institutional setting. In this paper, we examine new approaches and frameworks for the analysis of economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases. We propose greater utilization of "bottom-up" analyses, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of value chain and information economics approaches in impact analyses and stressing the importance of improved integration between the epidemiology of disease and its relationships with economic behavior.

  8. Children's dental health in Europe : An epidemiological investigation of 5- and 12-year-old children from eight EU countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, Ann-Kristin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is based on a cross-sectional comparative study of dental health treatment needs and attitudes to dental care in groups of 5- and 12-year-old children from the following eight cities in respective EU countries: Athens-Greece, Berlin-Germany, Cork-lreland, Dundee-Scotland, Gent Belgium, Sassari-Italy, Stockholm-Sweden and Valencia-Spain. A total of 3,200 children, 200 in each age group, were clinically examined by well-calibrated dentists, the parents completing a...

  9. Epidemiological aspects of illicit psychoactive substance dependents the interned in psychiatric institution of Criciúma-SC

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    Zunei Votri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is about a descriptive study of quantitative boarding, developed in October of 2008 in the Psychiatric Hospital of the city of Criciúma-SC, with the objective to identify to the aspects epidemiologists of the illicit psychoactive substance dependents. The specific objectives of the study had been: to identify illicit psychoactive substance dependents interned through handbooks of the institution; to inquire the number of psychiatric readmissions in the studied population; to identify the types of more common illicit psychoactive substances, To identify to aspects epidemiologists of the psychoactive substance dependents from dependent 0 variable: sex, age, age group, level of instruction, race, civil state, number of children, religion, profession and origin; e changeable independent: type of used substance, time of use, number of internments and clinical patology associates. The interest for the research subject appeared from the comment in field of work for presenting great number of patients interned for abuse or dependence of psychoactive substances and its social repercussion. 193 handbooks had been inquired, being that 13 had been identified with illicit psychoactive substance diagnosis in the period of the collection of data, having the prevalence in the masculine sex (9, of the white race (11, the majority single (7, with a young age group, on average 35 years. The majority interned involuntarily (8 and the number of readmissions was equivalent 50% of patients and others 50% having its first internment. How much to the types of used illicit psychoactive substances more, the most cited they had been marijuana (20%, crack (17% and cocaine (17%. The half of the sample almost possess clinical illnesses associates, as cardiopathy, diabetes, hepatitis C, arterial hypertension and HIV (Virus of the Immunodeficiency Human being. From these results one sees it importance of clarification and organization of preventive programs in

  10. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Moncayo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Brasília in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering

  11. Current outlook of childhood cancer epidemiology in a middle-income country under a public health insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Velasco-Hidalgo, Liliana; Zapata-Tarrés, Marta; Cárdenas-Cardos, Rocío; Aguilar-Ortiz, Marco R

    2017-02-01

    In Mexico, childhood cancer (0-18 years) is treated in a multidisciplinary way while providing care for more than half of the affected children through a public medical insurance. This insurance is given to all children who do not have any health care coverage in Mexico. This program is offered to the poorest of all Mexicans. All the children with this disease are submitted to pathology diagnosis and treatment according to national treatment protocols from 57 accredited medical institutions. From 2007 to 2015, a total of 24,039 children with cancer have been registered; the male gender predominates by 55%. The highest incidence was in the group aged between 0 and 4 years. Every year, there has been an increment in registration. In 2015, there were 3,433 new patients with an incidence of 150.1/million. In the same year, the incidence for all types of leukemia increased to 89.5/million. But for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the incidence was found to be 79.8/million, which is extremely high. The mortality rate for all these patients in 2015 was 5.3/100,000. However, with regard to children aged between 15 and 18 years, the mortality rate was 8.5/100,000. Abandonment rate was 10%, and there were nine state institutions that had a mortality rate between 25% and 50% among their patients. Coincidentally, as per the Human Development Index, the parameters for education, health, and income were low for those nine institutions. The purpose of this work is to show the epidemiology and the burden we are facing due to this disease.

  12. Your Country is of Great Subtlety: Aspects of the Brazilian Translation of Patrick White’s Voss

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    Ian Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p107 A number of the dialogues in Patrick White’s Voss (1957, especially those involving Laura Trevelyan, involve an implicit debate about what is meant by country and what it means to live in a country. Is the colony of New South Wales simply a province of the British Empire, a little piece of Britain transplanted on the other side of the world, or is it a place where British settlers will have to adapt their ways and gradually be transformed into something new? In these dialogues, each speaker makes use of words such as country, colony, property and land in order to express their vision of the place where they find themselves, frequently forcing a shift of meaning from one sentence to the next. This study examines how this debate is carried out in the novel and how it functions in Paulo Henriques Britto’s 1985 Brazilian translation.

  13. Epidemiological and ecological aspects related to malaria in the area of influence of the lake at Porto Primavera dam, in western São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Almério de C; Paula, Marcia B de; Duarte, Ana Maria R de C; Lima, Maura A; Malafronte, Rosely dos S; Mucci, Luis F; Gotlieb, Sabina Lea D; Natal, Delsio

    2008-01-01

    A study was carried out in the area of influence of the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Power Station, in western São Paulo State, to investigate ecological and epidemiological aspects of malaria in the area and monitor the profile of the anopheline populations following the environmental changes brought about by the construction of the lake. Mosquitoes captured were analyzed by standardized indicator species analysis (ISA) before and during different flooding phases (253 m and 257 m elevations). The local human population was studied by means of parasitological (thin/thick blood smears), molecular (PCR) and serological tests. Serological tests consisted of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with synthetic peptides of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from classic Plasmodium vivax, P. vivax variants (VK247 and "vivax-like"), P. malariae and P. falciparum and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) with asexual forms of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. The results of the entomological survey indicated that, although the Anopheles darlingi population increased after the flooding, the population density remained very low. No malaria, parasite infection or DNA was detected in the inhabitants of the study area. However, there was a low frequency of antibodies against asexual forms and a significant prevalence of antibodies against P. vivax, P. vivax variants, P. falciparum and P. malariae; the presence of these antibodies may result from recent or less recent contact with human or simian Plasmodium (a parallel study in the same area revealed the existence of a sylvatic cycle). Nevertheless, these results suggest that, as in other places where malaria is present and potential vectors circulate, the local epidemiological conditions observed could potentially support the transmission of malaria in Porto Primavera Lake if infected individuals are introduced in sufficient numbers. Further studies are required to elucidate the phenomena described in this paper.

  14. Rinite alérgica: aspectos epidemiológicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos Allergic Rhinitis: epidemiological aspects, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo revisar a literatura a respeito da rinite alérgica quanto aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos. A revisão da bibliografia foi realizada utilizando-se as bases de dados Medline, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e HighWire, nos últimos trinta anos, utilizando-se os descritores allergic rhinitis, epidemiology, diagnosis, e treatment. Foram selecionados 60 artigos. Este estudo destaca o aumento na prevalência da rinite alérgica, sua associação com a asma, os critérios diagnósticos e seu tratamento. A classificação da rinite alérgica é apresentada, bem como as estratégias de tratamento. As modalidades terapêuticas apresentadas e discutidas são anti-histamínicos, corticóides, imunoterapia, antileucotrienos, cromoglicato dissódico e anticorpos anti-IgE, bem como a redução da exposição aos alérgenos. Finalmente, ressalta-se a importância da abordagem da rinite alérgica em saúde pública.This study was a review of the literature on the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of allergic rhinitis. Bibliographic searches were based on the information contained within the Medline, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature and HighWire databases, covering the last thirty years and using the following search terms: 'allergic rhinitis', 'epidemiology', 'diagnosis' and 'treatment'. Sixty articles were selected. This study describes the increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, its relationship with asthma, the diagnostic criteria and the treatment. The classification of allergic rhinitis and strategies for its treatment are presented. Therapeutic modalities presented and discussed include the administration of antihistamines, corticosteroids, immunotherapy, anti-leukotrienes, sodium cromoglycate and anti-IgE antibodies, as well as minimizing exposure to inhaled allergens. Finally, the importance of

  15. Impact of vaccination and birth rate on the epidemiology of pertussis: a comparative study in 64 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutin, H; Viboud, C; Grenfell, B T; Miller, M A; Rohani, P

    2010-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis infection remains an important public health problem worldwide despite decades of routine vaccination. A key indicator of the impact of vaccination programmes is the inter-epidemic period, which is expected to increase with vaccine uptake if there is significant herd immunity. Based on empirical data from 64 countries across the five continents over the past 30-70 years, we document the observed relationship between the average inter-epidemic period, birth rate and vaccine coverage. We then use a mathematical model to explore the range of scenarios for duration of immunity and transmission resulting from repeat infections that are consistent with empirical evidence. Estimates of pertussis periodicity ranged between 2 and 4.6 years, with a strong association with susceptible recruitment rate, defined as birth rate × (1 - vaccine coverage). Periodicity increased by 1.27 years on average after the introduction of national vaccination programmes (95% CI: 1.13, 1.41 years), indicative of increased herd immunity. Mathematical models suggest that the observed patterns of pertussis periodicity are equally consistent with loss of immunity that is not as rapid as currently thought, or with negligible transmission generated by repeat infections. We conclude that both vaccine coverage and birth rate drive pertussis periodicity globally and that vaccination induces strong herd immunity effects. A better understanding of the role of repeat infections in pertussis transmission is critical to refine existing control strategies.

  16. Epidemiology of Oral Cavity Cancers in a Country Located in the Esophageal Cancer Belt: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Saedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As one of the most common cancers among head and neck malignancies, cancer of the oral cavity probably has some variations in countries with a high prevalence of esophageal cancer.  Materials and Methods: Patients with oral cavity cancer who were treated at two tertiary referral centers from January 1999 to January 2009 were included in this study. In addition to demographic data, information regarding personal and family history of head and neck cancer, use of dentures, presence of immune deficiency, consumption of alcohol, and incidence of cigarette smoking was collected. Additionally, a history of opium usage was obtained from the participants in this study. Moreover, an appropriately matched control group was selected for comparisons between the risk factors.   Results: A total of 557 patients were entered into this study over a 10-year period, of whom 219 (39.3% were female and the remaining 338 (60.7% were male. The tongue was the most common site of cancer and 9% of the patients had a history of opium abuse, but more than half of the patients did not have any recognized risk factors. The incidence and stage of cancer had a significant relationship with cigarette smoking (P= 0.013.   Conclusion: Tongue cancer in non-smokers is the predominant pattern of oral cavity cancer in Iran.

  17. Lente de contato em crianças: aspectos epidemiológicos Contact lens in children: epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Alves Salame

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traçar o perfil epidemiológico de crianças encaminhadas para adaptação de lente de contato. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de pacientes registrados no Setor de lente de contato da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Os pacientes com até 12 anos de idade foram avaliados quanto ao sexo, idade, diagnóstico, indicação e tipo de lente de contato testada na primeira consulta. RESULTADOS: Dos 73 prontuários avaliados, 34 (46,6% pertenciam a crianças do sexo masculino e 39 (53,4% a crianças do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 2 a 12 com média de 10,2 e desvio-padrão de 2,42 anos. O diagnóstico mais encontrado foi afacia em 16 (21,9% crianças, seguido de ceratocone em 14 (19,1%, leucoma em 11 (15%, anisometropia em 10 (13,7%, ametropia em 9 (12,3%, astigmatismo irregular em 7 (9,5% e ectopia lentis em 4 (5,4%. Uma criança era alta míope (1,3% e outra emétrope (1,3% que possuía desejo de usar lente de contato estética. Em relação às indicações, 52 (71,2% pacientes tinham indicação médica, 9 (12,3% indicação óptica e 12 (16,4% indicação cosmética. Foram testadas lentes em 103 olhos sendo as mais testadas a rígida gás permeável esférica em 43 (41,7%, a gelatinosa esférica em 41 (39,8% e a gelatinosa cosmética em 11 (10,6%. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil epidemiológico dos usuários de lente de contato nessa faixa etária tem como diagnóstico mais prevalente a afacia, a indicação mais freqüente a de ordem médica e a lente mais testada a rígida gás permeável esférica.PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology of children submitted to contact lens fit. METHODS: Retrospective study of 73 children that had been submitted to contact lens fit at the "Universidade Federal de São Paulo". This study analyzed sex distribution, age, diagnosis, indications and contact lens fitted at first examination. RESULTS: 34 children (46.6% were male and 39 (53.4% female, aged between 2 and 12 years with mean of 10.2 and

  18. Leishmaniose mucosa: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos Mucosal leishmaniasis: epidemiological and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Miranda Lessa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tem sido documentada em diversos países, sendo estimada uma prevalência mundial de 12 milhões, com 400.000 casos novos de doença por ano. A leishmaniose tegumentar americana encontra-se situada entre as grandes endemias existentes no Brasil e na América Latina. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é complementar o conhecimento sobre leishmaniose mucosa, apresentando a experiência dos Serviços de Imunologia e de Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Universitário Professor Edgar Santos da Universidade Federal da Bahia. COMENTÁRIOS: A leishmaniose cutânea é a forma mais comum de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, contudo, concomitantemente ou após anos de doença cutânea podem ocorrer lesões mucosas. A leishmaniose mucosa é causada principalmente pela L. braziliensis braziliensis e, apesar de a mucosa nasal ser a área principalmente acometida, lesões podem também ser documentadas nos lábios, boca, na faringe e na laringe. Fatores do parasito, bem como da resposta imune do hospedeiro podem estar envolvidos na patogênese da lesão tissular na leishmaniose mucosa.Leishmaniasis has been documented in several countries, with an estimated prevalence of 12 million people and an incidence at around 400,000 new cases per year. Leishmaniasis in the New World is one the major endemic diseases in Brazil and Latin America. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to add to the current knowdlegde on mucosal leishmaniasis, bringing the experience of the Imunology and Otolaryngology Departments in the Professor Edgar Santos University Hospital of the Federal University of Bahia. CONCLUSION: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of New World Leishmaniasis; mucosal legions may occur simultaneously or after years of disease. Mucosal leishmaniasis is caused mainly by L. braziliensis braziliensis; although the nasal mucosa is the most affected area, lesions may be found on the lips, mouth, pharynx and larynx. In addition to parasite

  19. Regulatory aspects of nanotechnology in the agri/feed/food sector in EU and non-EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Valeria; Aschberger, Karin; Arena, Maria; Bouwmeester, Hans; Botelho Moniz, Filipa; Brandhoff, Puck; Gottardo, Stefania; Marvin, Hans J P; Mech, Agnieszka; Quiros Pesudo, Laia; Rauscher, Hubert; Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Weigel, Stefan; Peters, Ruud J

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to innovate the agricultural, feed and food sectors (hereinafter referred to as agri/feed/food). Applications that are marketed already include nano-encapsulated agrochemicals or nutrients, antimicrobial nanoparticles and active and intelligent food packaging. Many nano-enabled products are currently under research and development, and may enter the market in the near future. As for any other regulated product, applicants applying for market approval have to demonstrate the safe use of such new products without posing undue safety risks to the consumer and the environment. Several countries all over the world have been active in examining the appropriateness of their regulatory frameworks for dealing with nanotechnologies. As a consequence of this, different approaches have been taken in regulating nano-based products in agri/feed/food. The EU, along with Switzerland, were identified to be the only world region where nano-specific provisions have been incorporated in existing legislation, while in other regions nanomaterials are regulated more implicitly by mainly building on guidance for industry. This paper presents an overview and discusses the state of the art of different regulatory measures for nanomaterials in agri/feed/food, including legislation and guidance for safety assessment in EU and non-EU countries.

  20. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on Hormo

  1. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  2. Legislative and ethical aspects of introducing new technologies in medical care for senior citizens in developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacetl, Jaroslav; Maresova, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The majority of developed countries are currently experiencing demographic aging. The most frequently expressed concerns related to the changing age structure are the increased costs of social and medical care, a lack of labor force in the job market, and financial sustainability of the pension system. These concerns are often based on the pessimistic view of population aging. This view understands aging as a prolonged period of illness and suffering. On the other hand, optimists believe that a longer life span is a result of increased quality of life and better health care. The quality of life may be improved not only by medicaments, but also by rapidly developing area of medical devices, which allow better care for seniors in many areas. Aim This contribution aims to assess the legislative environment and ethical questions related to the use of medical devices, especially medical devices, in medical care for senior citizens. Methods The methods used in this study are literature reviews of legislative and ethical environment in the European Union (EU) and the US. Results Main findings of this study result from assessing the state of medical device regulations in Europe and the US. Namely, the US regulation seems to be better arranged, which is probably due to the fact that there is only one responsible body – the US Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible for all medical device regulations. On the other hand, in the EU, talks about new legislation are led by ministers from all the EU member states and it may take a long time before all the EU countries come to an agreement. PMID:27499618

  3. Socio-epidemiologic aspects and cutaneous side effects of permanent tattoos in Germany – Tattoos are not restricted to a specific social phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Cornelia Sigrid Lissi; Oertel, Angela; Körner, Rebecca; Pföhler, Claudia; Vogt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: More and more people of all age classes have a tattoo. Intriguingly, there are multiple prejudices in the general population and published data that concern tattooed persons, such as being criminals, having a low education, being alcohol or drug abusers, or more risky in their life style. Objective: To obtain and to evaluate sociodemographic data on tattooed persons, to investigate the incidence of tattoo-related cutaneous complications and to define personal risk factors and course of the persons after being tattooed concerning behavior of personal environment. Patients and Methods: We interviewed 426 participants with already existing tattoos and 20 participants just before getting a new tattoo by using an online questionnaire. The participators were asked about socio-epidemiologic aspects of tattoos in general and special aspects of their own tattoo(s) in particular. There were no exclusion criteria. Results: Tattoos are interesting for people seeking popular body art, esp. university graduates and financially-secure individuals. 446 persons participated in this study. Most of the persons were female with a mean age of 35. Local pruritus around the tattooed area was the most common cutaneous side effect among the participants. 93.5% of the participants did not want a tattoo removal. Intriguingly, most of the participants experienced no career problems related to the tattoo(s). Limitations: The study population is not representative as we included only persons being tattooed prior to or getting newly tattooed. Furthermore, there is a potential selection bias as the participation in this study was voluntary. Only persons that felt involved by the flyer did answer the questionnaire. Conclusion: The present data shows that common tattooed persons are not low educated criminals with any drug or alcohol abuse or with risky life style. Nowadays being tattooed encompasses a kind of body art and displays a certain kind of lifestyle habit. PMID

  4. Socio-epidemiologic aspects and cutaneous side effects of permanent tattoos in Germany - Tattoos are not restricted to a specific social phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Cornelia Sigrid Lissi; Oertel, Angela; Körner, Rebecca; Pföhler, Claudia; Vogt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: More and more people of all age classes have a tattoo. Intriguingly, there are multiple prejudices in the general population and published data that concern tattooed persons, such as being criminals, having a low education, being alcohol or drug abusers, or more risky in their life style. Objective: To obtain and to evaluate sociodemographic data on tattooed persons, to investigate the incidence of tattoo-related cutaneous complications and to define personal risk factors and course of the persons after being tattooed concerning behavior of personal environment. Patients and Methods: We interviewed 426 participants with already existing tattoos and 20 participants just before getting a new tattoo by using an online questionnaire. The participators were asked about socio-epidemiologic aspects of tattoos in general and special aspects of their own tattoo(s) in particular. There were no exclusion criteria. Results: Tattoos are interesting for people seeking popular body art, esp. university graduates and financially-secure individuals. 446 persons participated in this study. Most of the persons were female with a mean age of 35. Local pruritus around the tattooed area was the most common cutaneous side effect among the participants. 93.5% of the participants did not want a tattoo removal. Intriguingly, most of the participants experienced no career problems related to the tattoo(s). Limitations: The study population is not representative as we included only persons being tattooed prior to or getting newly tattooed. Furthermore, there is a potential selection bias as the participation in this study was voluntary. Only persons that felt involved by the flyer did answer the questionnaire. Conclusion: The present data shows that common tattooed persons are not low educated criminals with any drug or alcohol abuse or with risky life style. Nowadays being tattooed encompasses a kind of body art and displays a certain kind of lifestyle habit.

  5. Aspectos epidemiológicos y de análisis del síndrome de aborto bovino Epidemiological and analytical aspects of bovine abortion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gädicke

    2008-01-01

    of the disease and risk factors; the second one presents some methodologies aimed to quantify and analyze BAS frequency and surveillance systems. Many differences can be found between the studies that analyze bovine abortion, the same happens with the way of calculating epidemiological indicators and definitions of important events. Also there are important differences regarding the subject in terms of presentation, methods of calculation of risk factors and especially the definition of events of importance. It is necessary to make a clear distinction between factors at animal and herd level, which could be associated with different production systems. In Chile, further investigation on BAS is needed in order to design more realistic and efficient control programs since risk factors reported in other countries could not necessarily be extrapolated to our local situation.

  6. Hormonal aspects in the causation of human breast cancer: epidemiological hypotheses reviewed, with special reference to nutritional status and first pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, F; Thijssen, J H H

    2005-12-01

    Epidemiology of breast cancer has identified early age at menarche, late first pregnancy, low parity and late menopause as risk factors, but in addition genetic factors, height, weight and living in western countries play a significant role. The international variation in incidence is almost exclusively due to non-genetic factors. Hypotheses in prevention-oriented research are reviewed: 1. obesity-related oestrogen production as a stimulus of the tumour in postmenopausal women; 2. nutritional status and energy expenditure during puberty and adolescence, developed for fertility and fecundity and extended later to breast cancer; 3. reproductive life during early adulthood, age at first pregnancy and its specific effects on breast tissues. The message of preventability of breast cancer is that mammary epithelial differentiation should come early. Our insight concerning events in puberty and early adulthood can be consolidated in one concept on the risk of extended proliferation of breast epithelium during early adulthood in the absence of full differentiation induced by pregnancy. The combined effects of Western-type nutrition, lack of exercise and Western-type women's emancipation sets the stage for breast cancer already at a young age. Since it is unlikely that emancipated women in affluent societies will return to the original life-style of getting pregnant as soon as it is biologically possible, a novel daring way of protection has to be considered. Could a "Breast Differentiation Pill" be developed to offer protection?

  7. Pediatric epidemiological aspects of scorpionism and report on fatal cases from Tityus stigmurus stings (Scorpiones: Buthidae in State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Cleide Maria Ribeiro de Albuquerque

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Envenomation by scorpion stings is a major public health problem in numerous tropical countries because of its frequent incidence and potential severity. Approximately 1,900 species of scorpions are known in the world, and at least 130 of these have been described in Brazil. Methods This work reports on 3 child deaths caused by Tityus stigmurus stings and characterizes epidemiological and clinical surveys on pediatric cases of scorpionism recorded in the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica de Pernambuco (Ceatox-PE. Results Scorpion stings accounted for more than 60% of all cases recorded for venomous animals. The children were from 37 cities of the Pernambuco state and accounted for 28.8% of the victims treated for scorpion stings, with the highest incidence in the metropolitan area of Recife. Stings occurred throughout the year and slightly increased during the rainy season. Independent of the elapsed time for a prognosis, most cases showed mild symptoms. Three moderate cases that resulted in death featured cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological symptoms. For the first time, death attributed to T. stigmurus was confirmed by the presence of the scorpion. Conclusions These results suggest that scorpionism in Pernambuco is a public health problem that needs to be monitored carefully throughout the year by the government.

  8. Pneumonias virais: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, fisiopatológicos e tratamento Viral pneumonia: epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects

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    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As infecções do trato respiratório são as formas de infecção mais comuns que afetam o homem e, dentre essas, predominam as de causa viral. Os vírus também podem acometer o trato respiratório baixo, causando bronquiolite, bronquite e pneumonia. Neste artigo de revisão, objetivamos mostrar aspectos epidemiológicos, fisiopatológicos, clínicos e do tratamento das pneumonias comunitárias por vírus. Essas pneumonias costumam ser causadas por vírus influenza A e B; parainfluenza 1, 2 e 3; vírus respiratório sincicial; e adenovírus. Também são apresentados aqui os hantavírus, metapneumovírus e rinovírus causando pneumonia.In humans, the most common types of infection are respiratory tract infections, among which viral infections predominate. Viruses can also infect the low respiratory tract, causing bronchiolitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. The objective of this review article was to show epidemiological, pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of viral community-acquired pneumonia. These types of pneumonia are commonly caused by influenza A and B; parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3; respiratory syncytial virus; or adenovirus. We also address the types of pneumonia caused by hantaviruses, metapneumoviruses and rhinoviruses.

  9. Epidemiological aspects of an infection by Brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins

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    Taciana Rabelo Ramalho Ramos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study some epidemiological aspects of the infection by Brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins. For antibody research, 645 serum samples were analyzed by the complement fixation test (CF. A 4.0% frequency was found (26/645 in patients' serum and among those 4.1% (23/551 were slaughterhouses employees and 8.1% (3/37 rural workers. Of the total positive samples, three (2.0% were women and 23 (4.7% men; ten (2.9% were between the ages of 18 and 30, six (3.4% between 31 and 40, and nine (8.0% were above 41 years of age. Risk factors for brucellosis in the study groups were age, background (OR = 2.45; CI 95% = 0.98 to 6.10 and previous work conducted with production animals (OR 2.36; CI 95% = 0.95 to 6.02. It was concluded that the infection by Brucella abortus is found in some risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins, and control and prophylactic measures must be implemented emphasizing risk factors identified in the study.

  10. [Tooth decay: epidemiological and therapeutic aspects in dental service of University Teaching Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo and Municipal Centre of Oral Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Y; Kabore, W A D; Konsem, T; Fall, M; Millogo, M; Ouattara, S; Ouedraogo, D

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the prevention and treatment of dental caries in Burkina Faso, we conducted a study on the epidemiological and therapeutic aspects of dental caries in the dental services of University Teaching Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo and in the Municipal Centre of Oral Health of Ouagadougou. A prospective and descriptive study from October, 15th 2012 to January, 15th 2013 was conducted on a sample of 191 patients. The variables recorded were: patient's identity, age, sex, area of residence, food mode, socioeconomic level, reason for consultation, oral hygiene, DMFT index, degree of tissue damage, the topography of the carious lesions and the applied therapy. Caries prevalence was 93.19% more female consultations, with sex ratio at 0.77. The average age was 31 years for a sample often engaged in trade and the informal sector. Carious lesions were usually limited to less than 4 teeth. The main motivation for the consultation was pain at 82.20%. The use of preventive care is quite low in our population. Extractions still occupy an important part of treatment. We need to improve oral hygiene and show to patients the necessity of routine visits to the dentist every year for early treatment.

  11. Epidemiological aspects of an infection by Brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Rabelo Ramalho Ramos

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study some epidemiological aspects of the infection by Brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins. For antibody research, 645 serum samples were analyzed by the complement fixation test (CF. A 4.0% frequency was found (26/645 in patients' serum and among those 4.1% (23/551 were slaughterhouses employees and 8.1% (3/37 rural workers. Of the total positive samples, three (2.0% were women and 23 (4.7% men; ten (2.9% were between the ages of 18 and 30, six (3.4% between 31 and 40, and nine (8.0% were above 41 years of age. Risk factors for brucellosis in the study groups were age, background (OR = 2.45; CI 95% = 0.98 to 6.10 and previous work conducted with production animals (OR 2.36; CI 95% = 0.95 to 6.02. It was concluded that the infection by Brucella abortus is found in some risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins, and control and prophylactic measures must be implemented emphasizing risk factors identified in the study.

  12. [Obstetric emergency and non-emergency transfers to the university teaching hospital Yalgado ouedraogo of Ouagadougou: A 3-year study of their epidemiologic, clinical, and prognostic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, A; Ouedraogo, C M; Ouedraogo, A; Lankoande, J

    2015-01-01

    to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and prognostic aspects of the emergency and non-emergency transfers of obstetric patients to Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital Center (UHC-YO) in Ouagadougou. this retrospective descriptive study looked at the outcomes of women transferred, on an emergency basis or not, to the obstetrics department of the UHC-YO. The study population comprised all women transferred to the department during 2010, 2011, and 2012. during the study period, there were 9,806 admissions for obstetric disorders: 43% were transfers. The patients' mean age was 26.11 years [(13-49]. Women transferred from health care facilities within the city of Ouagadougou accounted for 96% of the sample. The leading reason for these transfers - emergency or not - was preeclampsia and eclampsia (24.57%). We recorded a total of 161 maternal deaths, for a mortality rate of 3.9%. Approximately 26.55% of the newborns received immediate intensive care and were then transferred to the neonatology department. maternal and neonatal prognosis is always poor in cases transferred to UHC-YO, despite increased funding for emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Increased population awareness of the importance of prenatal consultation and adequate funding for health care facilities to provide equipment for emergency transfers and staff training in the management of obstetric and neonatal emergencies would probably improve these mortality and morbidity rates.

  13. Epidemiology of Emerging Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Denmark: a Nationwide Study in a Country with Low Prevalence of MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Nuno A.; Oliveira, Duarte C.; Westh, Henrik; Monnet, Dominique L.; Larsen, Anders R.; Skov, Robert; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2005-01-01

    Strict infection control measures introduced during the 1970s have kept the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections extremely low in Denmark. Nevertheless, similarly to other countries, MRSA infections began to appear in the community in the late 1990s. A nationwide surveillance program has collected and stored all MRSA isolates since 1988 and, since 1999, clinical information has been also recorded. We used this information and isolates in a detailed epidemiological and molecular analysis of the 81 MRSA infections identified in Denmark in 2001. MRSA isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, and SCCmec typing. Comparison of the 45 community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA) infections with the 36 hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections showed several striking contrasts. Most CO-MRSA were recovered from skin and soft tissue infections caused by isolates carrying the Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin genes, and the majority (84%) of isolates belonged to a single clonal type, ST80-IV, which has been found in the community in other European countries. Clone ST80-IV could be traced in Denmark back to 1993. ST80-IV was rarely found in HA-MRSA infections, which belonged to a large number of clonal types, including some pandemic MRSA clones. The low number of HA-MRSA infections and the diversity of MRSA clones in Danish hospitals may be the result of successful infection control measures that prevent spread of clones in hospitals. The mechanism of spread of the ST80-IV clone in the Danish community is not known, and new control measures are needed to control further spread of this and other CA-MRSA clones. PMID:15815005

  14. Emerging infectious diseases in coastal countries:examples from different countries on different situations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss and comment on the previous published work on different emerging infectious diseases epidemiological trend in different countries. Here, the examples on dengue, new influenza and rabies in different coastal countries (Oman, Australia and Taiwan of China) are discussed. Several aspects adding to the reported situations should be considered.

  15. Emergency department mental health presentations by people born in refugee source countries: an epidemiological logistic regression study in a Medicare Local region in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Joanne C; Cheng, I-Hao; Russell, Grant; Szwarc, Josef; Braitberg, George; Peek, Anne; Meadows, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if people born in refugee source countries are disproportionately represented among those receiving a diagnosis of mental illness within emergency departments (EDs). The setting was the Cities of Greater Dandenong and Casey, the resettlement region for one-twelfth of Australia's refugees. An epidemiological, secondary data analysis compared mental illness diagnoses received in EDs by refugee and non-refugee populations. Data was the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset in the 2008-09 financial year. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression created predictive models for mental illness using five variables: age, sex, refugee background, interpreter use and preferred language. Collinearity, model fit and model stability were examined. Multivariate analysis showed age and sex to be the only significant risk factors for mental illness diagnosis in EDs. 'Refugee status', 'interpreter use' and 'preferred language' were not associatedwith a mental health diagnosis following risk adjustment forthe effects ofage and sex. The disappearance ofthe univariate association after adjustment for age and sex is a salutary lesson for Medicare Locals and other health planners regarding the importance of adjusting analyses of health service data for demographic characteristics.

  16. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergl, Roland; Koburger, Nicole; Heinrichs, Katherina; Székely, András; Tóth, Mónika Ditta; Coyne, James; Quintão, Sónia; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Maxwell, Margaret; Värnik, Airi; van Audenhove, Chantal; McDaid, David; Sarchiapone, Marco; Schmidtke, Armin; Genz, Axel; Gusmão, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in lethality can be explained by factors such as choice of more lethal methods or lethality differences within the same suicide method or age. In addition, we explored gender differences in the intentionality of suicide attempts. Methods. Design: Epidemiological study using a combination of self-report and official data. Setting: Mental health care services in four European countries: Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal. Data basis: Completed suicides derived from official statistics for each country (767 acts, 74.4% male) and assessed suicide attempts excluding habitual intentional self-harm (8,175 acts, 43.2% male). Main Outcome Measures and Data Analysis. We collected data on suicidal acts in eight regions of four European countries participating in the EU-funded "OSPI-Europe"-project (www.ospi-europe.com). We calculated method-specific lethality using the number of completed suicides per method * 100 / (number of completed suicides per method + number of attempted suicides per method). We tested gender differences in the distribution of suicidal acts for significance by using the χ2-test for two-by-two tables. We assessed the effect sizes with phi coefficients (φ). We identified predictors of lethality with a binary logistic regression analysis. Poisson regression analysis examined the contribution of choice of methods and method-specific lethality to gender differences in the lethality of suicidal acts. Suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal) were 3.4 times more lethal in men than in women (lethality 13.91% (regarding 4106 suicidal acts) versus 4.05% (regarding 4836 suicidal acts)), the difference being significant for the methods hanging, jumping, moving objects, sharp objects

  17. [Commonwealth Fund Survey 2012: Survey of Primary Care Doctors in 11 Countries: Use of Health Information Technology and Important Aspects of Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertle, D; Stock, S

    2015-09-01

    In 2006 and 2009 the US-American Commonwealth Fund (CMWF) already conducted international surveys with primary care physicians regarding their daily work and important aspects of care. In 2012 a third survey took place in 11 countries, with an emphasis on use of information technology. There was a written survey and a telephone survey of primary care physicians conducted in eleven industrial countries. In Germany, a random sample of 4 500 primary care physicians out of all 16 federal states were contacted by mail between April and July 2012. The data acquisition in Germany was conducted by the BQS Institute for Quality and Patient Safety and funded by the Federal Ministry of Health. The results were weighted by age, sex, region and medical specialty of the participating doctors. 9 776 primary care physicians participated; 909 of them in Germany. The response rate in Germany was 20%. 80% of the primary care physicians in Germany are using electronic patient records. But special IT functions, with the exception of electronic prescriptions and ordering of laboratory tests, are little used compared to other countries. Even in countries with a wide use of special IT functions within the practices, the possibility of communicating with colleagues and patients electronically is often lacking. 35% of the German primary care physicians think the quality of care has declined since the last survey in 2009. Only in France do more primary care physicians share that feeling (37%). In 2012 a lot more German primary care physicians stated to have problems with long waiting times for specialist consults (2009: 10%; 2012: 68%). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Acute viral bronchiolitis and its sequelae in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Teper, Alejandro; Colom, Alejandro J

    2002-12-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) is a common disease found throughout the world. Various aspects of it are being studied: its epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Most of these studies are being conducted in developed countries, with only a few taking place in developing countries. Risk factors such as poor nutrition, an adverse environment and early weaning should be studied where these features are common. Treatment aspects such as cost-effectiveness in low income settings need further study. Use of ribavirin and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-immunoglobulin are good examples. Post-bronchiolitic sequelae also need to be studied in low income countries. There is evidence that bronchiolitis obliterans is unusually frequent in some Latin-American countries such as Argentina and Brazil. It will be helpful to undertake combined studies in countries with the same socio-economics, investigating the preventive and management aspects of AVB and its sequelae to reduce the morbidity and mortality.

  19. Epidemiology and natural history of atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    The atopic diseases - atopic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever - pose a great burden to the individual and society, not least, since these diseases have reached epidemic proportions during the past decades in industrialized and, more recently, in developing countries. Whereas the prevalence...... of the atopic diseases now seems to have reached a plateau in many Western countries, they are still on the increase in the developing world. This emphasizes continuing research aimed at identifying the causes, risk factors, and natural history of these diseases. Herein, the fundamental aspects of the natural...... history and epidemiology of the atopic diseases are reviewed....

  20. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Mergl

    Full Text Available In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in lethality can be explained by factors such as choice of more lethal methods or lethality differences within the same suicide method or age. In addition, we explored gender differences in the intentionality of suicide attempts.Methods. Design: Epidemiological study using a combination of self-report and official data. Setting: Mental health care services in four European countries: Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal. Data basis: Completed suicides derived from official statistics for each country (767 acts, 74.4% male and assessed suicide attempts excluding habitual intentional self-harm (8,175 acts, 43.2% male. Main Outcome Measures and Data Analysis. We collected data on suicidal acts in eight regions of four European countries participating in the EU-funded "OSPI-Europe"-project (www.ospi-europe.com. We calculated method-specific lethality using the number of completed suicides per method * 100 / (number of completed suicides per method + number of attempted suicides per method. We tested gender differences in the distribution of suicidal acts for significance by using the χ2-test for two-by-two tables. We assessed the effect sizes with phi coefficients (φ. We identified predictors of lethality with a binary logistic regression analysis. Poisson regression analysis examined the contribution of choice of methods and method-specific lethality to gender differences in the lethality of suicidal acts.Suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal were 3.4 times more lethal in men than in women (lethality 13.91% (regarding 4106 suicidal acts versus 4.05% (regarding 4836 suicidal acts, the difference being significant for the methods hanging, jumping, moving objects, sharp

  1. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: A rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Basáñez María-Gloria; Bórquez Annick; Williams John R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study ...

  2. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Breurec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic.All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent's written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases.A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%.Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus, highlighting the urgent

  3. [A 50-year history of new drugs in Japan-the development and progress of anti-diabetic drugs and the epidemiological aspects of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hikaru; Murai, Yuriko; Ozawa, Terutaka

    2003-01-01

    The development and progress of antidiabetic drugs (e.g., insulin preparations and hypoglycemic drugs) are retrospectively investigated in Japan. Their influences on the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its epidemiological aspects are also discussed. 1) Insulin preparations: Insulin was introduced for DM therapy in 1925, two or three years after its discovery in Canada. The preparations were raw extracts of bovine or porcine pancreas. These did not prevail widely in Japan because of the low incidence of DM before World Wan II. After the war, a shortage of mammalian materials compelled the use of fish pancreatic tissues such as bonito and/or tuna for insulin production. Insulin infection, so-called regular insulin, was first promoted in the 6th "Pharmacopoeia Japonica" (JP6) in 1951 and has been maintained to the present edition (JP14, 2001). Although depot-type insulin preparations were developed in the USA and Europe during the war, the introduction of those preparations to Japan was delayed until 1951, when Protamine zinc insulin appeared. Globin zinc insulin and Isophane insulin were introduced for clinical use in 1952 and 1955, respectively. These were also adopted for JP7 (1961). Biphasic-type insulin, which has a rapid onset and long duration of activity, appeared in 1965. Purified preparations from bovine or porcine sources have been available since 1980, which might be a strong reason for the decrease in insulin allergy. Insulin from animal origin has been supplied for almost 60 years since its discovery. Amino acid sequences of insulins from various species of animals were determined by the pioneering studies of Sanger and his associates. Human insulin, which differs from porcine insulin by only one amino acid, was produced by Novo researchers in 1982 using a semi-synthetic method. Then the Lilly group soon succeeded in obtaining human insulin by recombinant DNA technology in the same year. Both products were introduced to Japan in 1985, and the

  4. Epidemiology chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, J H; Butaev, M K; Duysheev, A; Gabbasova, A R; Khasanov, O S; Kulakov, Yu K; Mkrtchyan, A R; Myrzabekov, A M; Nurgaziev, R Z; Tsirel'son, L E; Willer, R D; Yaraev, R G; Zheludkov, M M

    2010-10-01

    This chapter outlines the epidemiology of brucellosis in the Russian Federation and in five countries bordering Russia. Since the Soviet Union's dissolution, Russia and the newly formed independent republics have failed to maintain policies to control brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Many of these republics, due to weak animal control and prevention systems and dangerous food preparation practices, are still burdened with the human cost of brucellosis. The final summary of this section provides an example of the successful transboundary cooperative efforts between Arizona and Mexico, which could be applied to the situation between Russia and the bordering independent republics.

  5. Aspectos epidemiológicos da fluorose dentária no Brasil: pesquisas no período 1993-2006 Epidemiologic aspects of dental fluorosis in Brazil: research in the period 1993-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Salles de Almeida Barros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A epidemiologia da fluorose dentária resulta de inquéritos realizados recentemente, em decorrência da melhor compreensão de aspectos metabólicos dos fluoretos no organismo humano e de preocupações no âmbito da saúde coletiva. Objetiva-se apresentar os estudos realizados sobre a fluorose entre 1993 e 2006. O período 1993-2004 demarca o intervalo entre a 2ªe a 3ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde Bucal. Em 2005-2006, a busca de dados primários apresentados em reuniões científicas confirmou os achados existentes na literatura, mostrando que a agenda científica brasileira não foi substancialmente influenciada pelas discussões travadas durante a 3ª Conferência. A maioria dos estudos concentra-se em áreas urbanas e a predominância no Brasil dos graus "muito leve" e "leve" de fluorose mostra não haver comprometimentos de ordem funcional. A baixa percepção da fluorose pela população, aliada à sua baixa prevalência, evoca o necessário debate sobre as questões de saúde coletiva no país. Visto que a produção científica nacional constitui uma importante fonte de conhecimentos para subsidiar a elaboração de políticas públicas para o setor da saúde, os sucessivos e pontuais estudos analisados mostram que, no que diz respeito à fluorose, o diagnóstico epidemiológico reafirma a necessidade, a importância e a segurança da fluoretação das águas de abastecimento público como medida de saúde coletiva.The epidemiology of dental fluorosis derives from surveys carried out in recent years, as a result of a better comprehension of metabolic aspects of fluoride in the human organism and oral health concerns. This reflection aims at presenting studies carried out on fluorosis between 1993 and 2006. The period of 1993-2004 delimits the interval between the 2nd and the 3rd National Conferences on Oral Health, and, in the period of 2005-2006, the search of primary data presented in scientific meetings confirmed the findings in

  6. Aspectos radiológicos e epidemiológicos do granuloma central de células gigantes Radiological and epidemiological aspects of central giant cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilson Noleto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os principais aspectos radiográficos e epidemiológicos das lesões de células gigantes (granulomas centrais de células gigantes e tumores marrons do hiperparatireoidismo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A amostra consistiu de 26 lesões de células gigantes diagnosticadas em 22 pacientes divididos em dois grupos, um deles composto por 17 pacientes que não tinham hiperparatireoidismo (grupo A e o outro formado por cinco pacientes portadores de tal distúrbio (grupo B. RESULTADOS: O sexo feminino (72,7% foi o mais acometido. As lesões ocorreram mais freqüentemente na segunda década de vida, com média de idade de 27 anos. A mandíbula (61,5% foi o arco mais envolvido. Radiograficamente, 57,7% das lesões eram multiloculares e 42,3% eram uniloculares com limites definidos. Todas as 26 lesões provocaram expansão óssea, 15,4% produziram reabsorção radicular, 50% causaram deslocamento dentário e 11,5% produziram dor. Na mandíbula, 18,7% das lesões cruzavam a linha média. O grupo A apresentou 66,7% das lesões na mandíbula e o grupo B mostrou igualdade na distribuição das lesões entre os arcos. O grupo A apresentou 66,7% das lesões multiloculares e 33,3%, uniloculares. O grupo B apresentou 62,5% das lesões uniloculares e 37,5%, multiloculares. CONCLUSÃO: As lesões de células gigantes podem manifestar-se, radiograficamente, com um amplo espectro, desde pequenas lesões uniloculares de crescimento lento até extensas lesões multiloculares. Elas apresentam características de benignidade, embora algumas lesões possam demonstrar um comportamento localmente agressivo.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at evaluating main radiological and epidemiological aspects of giant cell lesions (central giant cell granuloma and brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 26 giant cell lesions diagnosed in 22 patients divided into two groups, one of them

  7. Aspectos de importância para a vigilância epidemiológica da poliomielite na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Important epidemiological aspects of poliomyelitis in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Victório Barbosa

    1980-12-01

    superar o efeito antagônico dos fatores epidemiológicos desfavoráveis no controle de poliomielite em nosso meio.Several epidemiological aspects of poliomyelitis in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil are discussed and related to measures that must be taken to maintain control of this disease. Results show the need of continued vaccination of the whole infant population, because a decrease in vaccination may permit an upraise of the disease. During four years of tight control, 58 new cases were registered per year. After that, in 1971, 195 cases appeared. Only in the second half of 1975, when immunization programs were again improved, was the situation controlled. This study shows that poliomyelitis still acts in the classical mode in that about 75% of the cases occur in children two years old or under. This, plus evidence that type 1 poliovirus is the type prevalent in S. Paulo, strengthens the idea that the epidemiology of this viral illness has not been essentially changed by the vaccination programs. Another finding is that the Sabin vaccine has been less efficient in our environment than in developed countries with temperate climates. This is due to epidemiological factors and operational conditions. In 1970-1977, 8.9% of the cases had received three, four, or more doses of the trivalent oral vaccine, and 43.3% had received at least one dose of the oral vaccine. The recommendation is herewith made that the number of doses of the basic series for immunization against poliomyelitis be increased from three to five in order to counterbalance mishaps in the act of oral vaccination and our environment's difficulties related with the epidemiology of the disease.

  8. [Dengue: epidemiological aspects and the first outbreak in the Middle Solimões Region of Coari in the State of Amazonas from 2008 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães da; Santos, Jefferson Dantas dos; Conceição, Jemmis Karters Tomé da; Alecrim, Priscilla Heckmann; Casseb, Almeida Andrade; Batista, Weber Cheli; Heckmann, Maria Izabel Ovellar

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in Brazil and is a major public health problem worldwide. It is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with 2.5 to 3 billion people at risk of becoming infected. Thus, this study sought to demonstrate the epidemiological characteristics of individuals affected by dengue, its prevalence and its epidemic process in the Middle Solimões region of Coari in the state of Amazonas between 2008 and 2009. Epidemiological data were obtained through epidemiological monitoring by the Municipal Health Facility of the city of Coari, AM. The variables analyzed were the month of notification, the number of confirmed cases, the cases' genders, the cases' ages and their neighborhoods of residence. In total, 1,003 cases were reported (635 in 2008 and 368 in 2009), and 639 cases were diagnosed as positive. Of these, +54% involved female subjects, and +46% were male. The majority of the affected individuals were between 10 and 49 years of age, and the spatial distribution was concentrated in neighborhoods near streams, lakes and areas in which housing had recently been disrupted. We concluded that, during the period studied, there was an outbreak of dengue in the City of Coari, AM. However, it is possible that a dengue epidemic may have occurred earlier in Coari without proper diagnosis or follow-up and that previously infected individuals may have traveled to the capital of Amazonas (Manaus), where the virus has circulated since 1998.

  9. Aspectos epidemiológicos e sociais da doença falciforme Epidemiologic and social aspects of sickle cell disease

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    Andreza Aparecida Felix

    2010-01-01

    with capillary occlusion causing acute and chronic tissue lesions in organs, which is almost always accompanied by pain. With the purpose of improving knowledge related to the epidemiologic aspects of the illness and how patients cope with it, 47 over 18-year-old patients from the city of Uberaba were studied during home visits. Of these predominantly female patients (59.6%, 78.7% were black, 17% dark-skinned and 4.3% white. In respect to the type of hemoglobinopathy, 63.8% had hemoglobin SS; 17% had hemoglobin SC and 10.6% had sickle beta-thalassemia. The majority (74.5% lived in poor regions of the city, 42.5% had concluded high school, 38.2% were either retired or did not have any specific profession, 48.9% earned up to one minimum wage and 19.1% did not receive any wages. In respect to their feelings, 38.3% showed they accepted their illness, 21.3% were resentful, 17% were sad and 46.8% said their lives had changed for the worse in relation to work and 31.9% in relation to leisure. It was possible to show with this study that SCD negatively reflects on activities related to work and on the patient's quality of life. Thus, difficulties in coping with the illness, such as poor housing, unemployment and/or badly paid jobs, may be minimized with social and psychotherapeutic accompaniment, which should be made available to every SCD patient.

  10. "Pandemic Public Health Paradox": Time Series Analysis of the 2009/10 Influenza A / H1N1 Epidemiology, Media Attention, Risk Perception and Public Reactions in 5 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, Ralf; Das, Enny; Klemm, Celine; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Keßler, Verena; Ahmad, Amena

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, influenza A H1N1 caused the first pandemic of the 21st century. Although a vaccine against this influenza subtype was offered before or at the onset of the second epidemic wave that caused most of the fatal cases in Europe, vaccination rates for that season were lower than expected. We propose that the contradiction between high risk of infection and low use of available prevention measures represents a pandemic public health paradox. This research aims for a better understanding of this paradox by exploring the time-dependent interplay among changing influenza epidemiology, media attention, pandemic control measures, risk perception and public health behavior among five European countries (Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Spain and the UK). Findings suggest that asynchronicity between media curves and epidemiological curves may potentially explain the pandemic public health paradox; media attention for influenza A H1N1 in Europe declined long before the epidemic reached its peak, and public risk perceptions and behaviors may have followed media logic, rather than epidemiological logic.

  11. The future of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H

    2009-11-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease).

  12. Epidemiological Aspects of Head Lice in Children Attending Day Care Centres, Urban and Rural Schools in Uberlândia, Central Brazil

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    Borges Raquel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From November 1996 to March 2000, a total of 884 children between 0 and 15 years, from 11 institutions including day care centres, public urban and public rural schools in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, central Brazil, were examined for head louse infestation. Children's sex, race, age and some hairs characteristics were shown to be associated to parasite infestation. A prevalence rate of 35% was found and the highest rates were observed in black, female children, with long, dark, wavy hairs. Hairs density and thickness did not seem to influence significantly the distribution of this pediculosis in Uberlândia's schoolchildren. Differences observed between the prevalence rates of head lice in children from the urban institutions suggest there is a greater epidemiological heterogeneity in this group when compared to the rural schoolchildren.

  13. Considerações sobre o uso da epidemiologia nos estudos em saúde ambiental Notes concerning the epidemiologic aspects of environmental health studies

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    Volney de Magalhães Câmara

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a Saúde Ambiental incorporou como situações de risco questões como saneamento, água para consumo humano, poluição química, pobreza, eqüidade, condições psicossociais e a necessidade de um desenvolvimento sustentável para preservar as gerações futuras. As metodologias para estudos epidemiológicos e ações de vigilância que dizem respeito à relação da saúde com estas questões são necessariamente mais diversas e complexas do que nas outras áreas da Saúde Coletiva. Neste documento são discutidas as informações sobre as características da exposição e dos efeitos à saúde que constituem os principais substratos para a definição do desenho e da factibilidade dos estudos epidemiológicos voltados para o campo da Saúde Ambiental. Também é enfatizado o uso da Epidemiologia no desenvolvimento de ações de vigilância através da definição de indicadores de saúde para um sistema de informação, e do desenvolvimento de atividades de monitoramento dos impactos das ações de mitigação e controle. Finaliza realçando a necessidade de um trabalho integrado interdisciplinar e intersetorial, os preceitos éticos que devem nortear estes estudos, e as principais características que devem influir na definição dos recursos humanos para a formação das equipes científicas e técnicas.This article emphasizes the fact that epidemiologic studies on the relationship between health and the environment necessarily need more diverse and complex methodologies than other areas of Public Health. This thought also applies to the development of preventive actions and interventions. Information on the characteristics of exposure and outcome is the main substratum that defines the design and feasibility of epidemiologic studies and surveillance actions. Epidemiology also contributes for the methodological elements for risk assessment proposed by institutions that deal with Environmental Health. In this manner, given the

  14. [Current status and aspects of solving issues of sanitary and epidemiological well-being at the facilities of railway transport in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas'kov, Iu N; Podkrytov, Iu I

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of modern sanitary-epidemiological status of railway transport is presented. The mean index of occupational morbidity in railway transport workers in recent years is 1.2 cases per 10 thousand railway workers. Workers of locomotive brigades (locomotive drivers and their assistants), in whom occupational sensorineural hearing loss was predominantly revealed (78.3 +/- 3.4%) accounted for 30-40% of cases out of the total number of occupational morbidity in railway transport workers. Water samples from the sources of centralized and noncentralized water supply did not meet health standards for microbiological parameters in the 14-18%, and from the water pipes in 4-6% of cases. Suggestions for improving sanitary-hygiene monitoring in railway transport have been given.

  15. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with cystic fibrosis and parent caregivers: results of The International Depression Epidemiological Study across nine countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quittner, A.L.; Goldbeck, L.; Abbott, J.; Duff, A.; Lambrecht, P.; Sole, A.; Tibosch, M.M.; Bergsten Brucefors, A.; Yuksel, H.; Catastini, P.; Blackwell, L.; Barker, D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with chronic diseases and parent caregivers are at increased risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety. Prevalence of psychological symptoms was evaluated in adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) and parent caregivers across nine countries. METHODS: Patients with

  16. Availability, affordability, and consumption of fruits and vegetables in 18 countries across income levels: findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE study

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    Victoria Miller, BSc

    2016-10-01

    Funding: Population Health Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, AstraZeneca (Canada, Sanofi-Aventis (France and Canada, Boehringer Ingelheim (Germany and Canada, Servier, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, King Pharma, and national or local organisations in participating countries.

  17. CURRENT ASPECTS OF NOSOCOMIAL LEGIONELLOSIS PROFILAXIS

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    I. S. Tartakovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nosocomial or hospital acquired infections is one of the most important medical and social problem. Mo- dern strategy of nosocomial infections prevention include prevention of nosocomial legionellosis. Epidemic outbreaks of nosocomial legionellosis with high mortality rate (20–40% were recognized last years in different countries. The contaminated by Legionella hospital hot water supply system is a source of Legionella infection outbreaks. A risk reduction strategy of waterborne pathogens in hospital water system is important part of mo- dern conception of nosocomial infection prevention, especially among immune compromised patient including transplant patients. In revue discussed different aspects of epidemiology, laboratory diagnostic and prevention of nosocomial legionellosis. 

  18. Pólipos endometriais: aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e pesquisa de polimorfismos Endometrial polyps: clinical and epidemiological aspects and analysis of polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Madeira Nunes Miranda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as variáveis clínicas e epidemiológicas de risco para câncer de endométrio em mulheres com pólipos endometriais na pós-menopausa, bem como a presença do polimorfismo do receptor da progesterona (PROGINS. MÉTODOS: estudo caso-controle desenhado com 160 mulheres na pós-menopausa com pólipos endometriais, comparado a Grupo Controle de 400 mulheres na pós-menopausa. A genotipagem do polimorfismo PROGINS foi determinada pala reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. Aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos foram comparados entre as mulheres com pólipos endometriais benignos e 118 dos controles normais. Estas variáveis foram também comparadas entre mulheres com pólipos benignos e pólipos malignos. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre o grupo de pólipos benignos e o Grupo Controle mostrou diferença significativa (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological risk factors for endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps, as well as the genetic polymorphism of the progesterone receptor (PROGINS. METHODS: a case-control study was designed with 160 postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps, compared to a normal Control Group of 400 postmenopausal women. The genotyping of PROGINS polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction. Clinical and epidemiological data were compared between benign endometrial polyps and 118 of the control subjects. Variables were also compared with regard to benign and malignant endometrial polyps. RESULTS: comparison of the epidemiological variables between groups showed a significant difference for age, ethnicity, time since menopause, parity, tamoxifen use, hypertension and breast cancer, all of them more prevalent in the polyp group. After adjustment for age, statistical significance remained only for parity (OR=1.1, hypertension (OR=2.2 and breast cancer (OR=14.4. There were six cases of malignant polyps (3.7%. The frequency of bleeding was 23.4% for

  19. The psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in very young and pre-school children in the context of selected sociodemographic indicators in the Czech Republic and in some others countries

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    Hana Včelařová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this study present the results of surveys in significant areas of social peda-gogy relating to both the prevention of overweight and obesity in children, and healthy lifestyle edu-cation. The psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in early age and preschool children are monitored in the context of selected socio-demographic indicators in the Czech Republic, Great Brit-ain, the USA, Australia, some European countries, Iran and China. The purpose of such oriented stud-ies is to find appropriate preventive, pedagogical or therapeutic interventions that could contribute to the elimination of risk factors in the particular societies. It turns out that the sociodemographic and psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in chil-dren (in terms of particular countries cannot be always uniformly described and defined. Numerous psychosocial or sociodemographic characteristics were found when comparing different ethnic groups, the different age cohorts of parents or the different developmental stages of children, when comparing countries with various standards of living, or even just, when comparing different socio-economic strata within the same country. It also appears that the relationships identified by the be-low-mentioned researches don´t have a straight forward effect, but are also modified by the influ-ence of other variables. A common feature overweight and obesity in children in the majority of countries seems to be associated with significant social inequalities within a specific country. Accord-ing to some authors, one of the possible ways to fight overweight and obesity in children is to reduce the inequalities of the macroeconomic society

  20. Clinical varieties and epidemiological aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe: A new focus of ALS associated with Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannuzel, Annie; Mecharles, Sylvie; Tressières, Benoit; Demoly, Alice; Alhendi, Rabi; Hédreville-Tablon, Marie-Ange; Alecu, Cosmin

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, using a retrospective study covering 15 years (1996-2011). Sixty-three cases of ALS were reported, with a frequency of 0.93/100,000/year. The incidence was 4.5-fold higher (3.73/100,00/year) on Marie-Galante, a small island in the Guadeloupe archipelago. ALS was associated with Parkinsonism in 23.8% of the cases. Other phenotypes were typical ALS (47.6%), bulbar forms (20.6%), limb-onset variants (6.3%) and ALS associated with frontotemporal dementia (1.6%). Onset of ALS-Parkinsonism was significantly later than in typical forms of ALS (68 vs. 54 years; p = 0.012) and affected males more frequently than did bulbar ALS (80% vs. 23.2%; p = 0.003). After one year of disease duration, the clinical profile of ALS-Parkinsonism included a symmetric akineto-rigid Parkinsonian syndrome unresponsive to levodopa, supranuclear oculomotor palsy (50%), dementia (66.7%) and signs of both lower (100%) and upper (86%) motor neuron involvement, including bulbar signs (100%). In conclusion, a new cluster of ALS-Parkinsonism and a geographical area with a high frequency of ALS were identified in Guadeloupe, suggesting that they result from environmental or genetic factors. Further studies are needed to explore these hypotheses.

  1. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela de Castro Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7% specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74% and A(H1N1pdm09 in 9/34 (26%. Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8% and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467. No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures.

  2. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher J L; Barber, Ryan M; Foreman, Kyle J; Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsène K; Adsuar, José C; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alegretti, Miguel A; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Almazroa, Mohammad A; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina S; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Avila, Marco A; Awuah, Baffour; Bachman, Victoria F; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D; Blosser, Christopher D; Blyth, Fiona M; Bohensky, Megan A; Bolliger, Ian W; Bora Başara, Berrak; Bornstein, Natan M; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R A; Boyers, Lindsay N; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D; Brooks, Peter M; Brown, Jonathan C; Brugha, Traolach S; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey C; Budke, Christine M; Bulchis, Anne; Bulloch, Andrew G; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Carabin, Hélène; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben E; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy P; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M; Coffeng, Luc E; Coggeshall, Megan S; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Cooke, Graham S; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie T; Coppola, Luis M; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H; Crump, John A; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Diaz-Torné, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C; Ebel, Beth E; Edmond, Karen M; Elshrek, Yousef M; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F; Feigin, Valery L; Felson, David T; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G; Ferrari, Alize J; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Thomas D; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C; Fürst, Thomas; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gankpé, Fortuné G; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gething, Peter; Gibney, Katherine B; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; González-Medina, Diego; Gosselin, Richard A; Gotay, Carolyn C; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish C; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara A; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J; Hansen, Gillian M; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hay, Roderick J; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Heuton, Kyle R; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hosgood, H Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa L; Iburg, Kim M; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2015-11-28

    The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3-7·4

  3. Avian influenza: Eco-epidemiological aspects of the virus in its natural hosts, the migratory waterfowls Influenza aviar: Aspectos ecoepidemiológicos del virus en su hospedero natural, las aves acuáticas migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARICELA MONTALVO-CORRAL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses produce mainly respiratory and intestinal diseases. Their relevance in the generation of pandemic strains has led to a large amount of research to understand their distribution in nature, as well as the relations that become established for the effective transmission among different hosts. Waterfowl have been recognized as their natural reservoir and they play an important role in the propagation and generation of the diversity of these viruses. The emergence of new influenza viruses with pandemic potential among the human population (H5N1 of avian origin or recombinant H1N1 with avian segments point our lack of information on many aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of these viruses in their natural hosts to enable the implementation of more effective prevention and control measures. In this review, we attempt to make a critical essay on the current state of knowledge on the biotic and abiotic factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of the influenza A viruses in wild birds.Los virus influenza ocasionan enfermedades respiratorias e intestinales. Su importancia en la generación de cepas pandémicas ha conducido a la realización de intensa investigación científica para entender y conocer su distribución en la naturaleza, así como las relaciones que se establecen para la transmisión efectiva entre diferentes hospederos. Las aves acuáticas principalmente del orden Anseriformes, se han reconocido como el reservorio de estos virus y tienen una participación crucial en la propagación y generación de diversidad de estos virus. La emergencia de nuevos virus influenza con potencial pandémico entre la población humana (H5N1 de origen aviar y el actual virus pandémico H1N1 que presenta segmentos aviares, resalta la falta de información sobre muchos aspectos de la ecología y epidemiología de estos virus en sus hospederos naturales, que permitan la implementación de medidas más efectivas de prevenci

  4. Generalizable Aspects of the Development of Expertise in Ballet across Countries and Cultures: A Perspective from the Expert-Performance Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Carla U.; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie J.; Ericsson, K. Anders

    2013-01-01

    The expert-performance approach guided the collection of survey data on the developmental history of elite professional ballet dancers from three different countries/cultures (USA, Mexico, and Russia). The level of ballet expertise attained by age 18 was found to be uniquely predicted by only two factors, namely the total number of accumulated…

  5. ASPECTOS BÁSICOS, CLÍNICOS Y EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DE LA INFLUENZA Basic, clinical and epidemiological aspects of influenza

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    Orlando Acosta L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En respuesta a la continua expansión del nuevo virus de influenza A H1N1, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS elevó mundialmente el nivel de alerta pandémica a Fase 6 el 11 de junio de 2009 y declaró que el mundo se encontraba en el comienzo de la pandemia de influenza 2009. El presente artículo revisa y actualiza algunas de las características moleculares de los virus de la influenza A, las cuales le permiten a estos virus evadir la respuesta inmune adaptativa de largo plazo. Se destacan especialmente las características antigénicas, genéticas y epidemiológicas del nuevo virus de influenza A H1N1 de origen porcino. Dado que la influenza es una infección viral asociada con morbilidad y mortalidad significativas, este artículo revisa algunos temas clínicos, tales como características clínicas, diagnóstico diferencial y complicaciones relacionadas con la influenza. La preocupante emergencia y expansión de cepas de los virus de la influenza A resistentes a drogas antivirales es presentada en el contexto del tratamiento de la influenza. Se enfatizan los efectos de la vitamina D sobre la inmunidad innata como una probable explicación para algunas de las incongruencias epidemiológicas de la influenza. Se concluye que la vigilancia mundial debe ser intensificada para asegurar la prevención, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la influenzaIn response to the continued expansion of the new influenza A H1N1 virus, on June 11, 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO raised worldwide the pandemic alert level to phase 6 and declared the world to be at the start of the 2009 influenza pandemic. This article reviews and updates some of the molecular characteristics on the influenza A virus, which allow it to evade the long-term adaptive immune response. The antigenic, genetic and epidemiological characteristics of the new influenza A H1N1 of pig origin are particularly highlighted. Since influenza is a viral infection associated with

  6. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of human parvovirus B19 infection in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to analyse the clinical and epidemiological data from human parvovirus B19 cases in a six-year study of rash diseases conduct in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 673 patients with acute rash diseases were seen at two primary health care units and at a general hospital. A clotted blood sample was collected from all subjects at the time of consultation. Forty-nine per cent (330 cases of the patients were negative for dengue, rubella and measles IgM or for low avidity IgG to HHV-6. Of these 330, 105 (31.8% were identified as IgM positive to parvovirus B19 by using an antibody capture EIA. During the study period, three distinct peaks of parvovirus infection were detected, suggesting that the disease appears to cycle in approximately 4-5 years. B19 infection was characterized by variable combinations of fever, flu-like symptoms, arthropathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Frequency of fever and arthropathy was substantially higher in adults, 75% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 11.39, p = 0.0007] and 62.5% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 29.89, p = 0.0000], respectively. "Slapped-cheek" appearance and reticular or lace-like rash were seen in only 30.1% of the children. No adult presented this typical rash. The lack of the typical rash pattern in a large proportion of parvovirus B19 and the similarity of clinical manifestations to other rash diseases, specially to rubella, highlight the difficulty of diagnosing B19 infection on clinical grounds alone.

  7. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos associados ao câncer de pênis Clinico-epidemiological aspects associated with penile cancer

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    Angela Adamski da Silva Reis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão bibliográfica foi descrever a epidemiologia, o comportamento biológico dos tumores e os fatores de risco para o câncer de pênis, como a infecção pelo HPV. A fimose e os processos de irritação crônica relacionados à má higiene estão comumente associados com esse tumor, enquanto a circuncisão neonatal protege contra a aparição da doença. Existe forte evidência da associação dos HPV 16 e 18 com o carcinoma peniano em mais de 50% dos casos. Pacientes com lesões penianas suspeitas devem se submeter ao exame físico, geralmente sendo este suficiente para determinar o diagnóstico e o estadiamento, assim como auxiliar na escolha terapêutica.The general objective of this article is to review the current literature regarding the epidemiology, biological behavior and risk factors for penile cancer development, such as HPV infection. Phimosis and chronic irritation related to poor hygiene are commonly associated with penile cancer, whereas neonatal circumcision reduces the relative risk for the disease. There is strong evidence that HPV types 16 and 18 are associated with penile carcinoma in as many as 50% of cases. Patients with penile lesions should undergo physical examination, which is often sufficient to diagnose and to define tumor stagging, as well as contributes to decision-making regarding therapeutical approaches and case management.

  8. Epidemiological aspects of vector, parasite, and domestic reservoir in areas of recent transmission and no reported human cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Regina-Silva, Shara; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Silva, Maiara Alves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; da Costa, Ailton Junior Antunes; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-08-01

    About 97% of the human cases of the American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur in Brazil. In the last few years, the disease expanded to medium- and large-sized cities, in which surveillance and control actions have been intensified, in an effort to control VL spreading. Our two-year study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, the sixth most populous city in Brazil, which is endemic for VL. We focused in two particular districts of recent transmission of the disease, with no reported human cases and submitted to minor surveillance and control actions. Our aim was to draw an epidemiological profile of the local situation concerning Lutzomyia vector, Leishmania parasites, and the main domestic reservoirs (dogs). Lutzomyia longipalpis comprised 96.5% of the total phlebotomine sand flies captured and displayed an expressive minimal infection rate by Leishmania infantum (16.7%). Positive correlations were found between the population densities of L. longipalpis, rainfall and temperature. L. infantum was also detected in the cortelezzii complex and, for the first time, in Lutzomyia lloydi. Leishmania braziliensis, an etiological agent of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis, was also identified in L. longipalpis. Among the 1408 dogs serologically tested by standard enzyme-linked and fluorescence immune assays (ELISA/IFA) 3.6% were positive for VL. L. infantum DNA and Leishmania parasites were identified in 100% and 72.5% of the seropositive dogs, respectively. The co-positivity of other diagnostic tests for VL-Leishmania-nested PCR, imprint and myeloculture-was compared to the standard serology. Both symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs displayed an equal average number of positive diagnostic tests for VL. The districts studied display favorable conditions for the rapid spreading of human infection, in terms of L. longipalpis population density, and presence of L. infantum in both vector and main reservoir.

  9. Tuberculous meningitis in children: a review of clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and therapeutic aspects and of the usefulness of BCG vaccination Meningitis tuberculosa en niños: una revisión de aspectos clínicos, de laboratorio, epidemiológicos y terapéuticos y de la utilidad de la vacunación con BCG

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    José William Cornejo Ochoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Tuberculous meningitis is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis in underdeveloped countries, among them Colombia. It is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this article a review is presented of the following aspects of the disease: clinical, epidemiological, therapeutic, prophylactic by means of BCG vaccination, laboratory diagnosis, and tomographic findings.

    La tuberculosis meníngea (MTB es la enfermedad tuberculosa extrapulmonar más frecuente en los países del tercer mundo, incluida Colombia, y tiene tasas altas de morbilidad y mortalidad. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre los siguientes aspectos de la enfermedad: clínicos, epidemiológicos, de laboratorio, tomográficos, terapéuticos y de prevención con la vacuna BCG.

  10. Child labour in low- and middle-income countries and its consequences for mental health: a systematic literature review of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Sarah; Hodes, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, large numbers of children are involved in work. Whilst studies have shown that child labour may be harmful to children's physical health, little is known about child labour's effects on mental health. It is important to understand the relationship between work and mental health problems during childhood, and identify possible risk factors for poorer mental health. A systematic literature review was conducted. Published papers in any language that compared the mental health of children (child labour and general psychopathology, internalising and externalising problems were identified. Child labour was found to be strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes in seven studies. More significant associations were found between child labour and internalising problems than externalising problems. The burden of poor mental health as a result of child labour is significant given the numbers of children in work. Risk factors for poorer mental health were involvement in domestic labour, younger age, and greater intensity of work, which could be due to the potential of child labour to cause isolation, low self-esteem, and perception of an external locus of control. The risk factors suggested by this review will have implications for policy makers. Additional research is needed in low-income countries, risk factors and also into the potential psychological benefits of low levels of work.

  11. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro...

  12. Cólera en Apartadó, Antioquia: aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos Cholera in Apartadó, Colombia: clinical and epidemiological aspects

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    Gustavo A. Uribe Miller

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo fue realizado en el Hospital Regional de Apartadó, Antioquia, motivado por la falta de experiencia con cólera en la región y por la similitud clínica y epidemiológica que esta enfermedad presenta con otras enteritis agudas, endémicas en la zona. Los objetivos fueron: analizar algunas variables epidemiológicas y clínicas, verificar la eficacia del tratamiento y comparar el comportamiento del cólera con el de la Enfermedad Diarreica Aguda (EDA sin cólera. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y epidemiológicas de 181 pacientes atendidos entre agosto 11 y octubre 11 de 1991. Se configuró un estudio retrospectivo con las siguientes variables: coprocultivo para Vibrio cholerae, edad, sexo, ocupación, procedencia, estado de hidratación al consultar, duración de la estadía hospitalaria, equilibrio hídrico, asociación epidemio16gica y condiciones sanitarias. Se confirmó cólera por coprocultivo en 87 casos (48%. Al comparar el cólera con la EDA sin cólera, sólo se encontró diferencia significativa en cuanto al grupo de edad afectado (p=O.042 ya la duración de la hospitalización (p=O.O16. El tratamiento recomendado por la OMS fue eficaz según el criterio clínico. No hubo complicaciones ni reingresos; ningún paciente falleció.

    One hundred and eighty one patients with acute diarrhea disease (ADD were analyzed from the clinical and epidemiological points of view; 87 of them (48.1% had confirmed cholera while the remaining 94 (51.9% were classified as non-cholera ADD; the only significant differences between these two groups were observed in age and days of hospital stay: cholera predominated In patients older than 5 years (p=O.O42 and the frequency of a hospital stay longer than 2 days was higher in cholera patients (p=O.O16. WHO recommended treatment was effective according to clinical criteria; neither complications nor deaths were found.

  13. The clinical epidemiology of spontaneous ICH in a sub-Sahara African country in the CT scan era: a neurosurgical in-hospital cross-sectional survey

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    Amos Olufemi Adeleye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background There is paucity of data-driven scientific reports from sub-Saharan Africa on the burden of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH. We have maintained a prospective consecutive in-hospital data base of cases of sICH referred for neurosurgical intervention over a 5-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the clinical epidemiology and brain-CT characterization of sICH from the data base in this region in the current era. Results There were 63 subjects, 38 (60.3% males, aged 28 to 85 years, mean 55.7 (SD, 12.7, the modal age distribution being the sixth decade. Uncontrolled hypertension was the main predisposition in the study: present, premorbid, in 79% but uncontrolled in 88% of these known cases, and exhibited malignant derangements of blood pressure in more than half. The clinical ictus to in-hospital presentation was delayed, median 72 hours; was in severe clinical state in 70%; 57% was comatose, and was complicated with fever in 57% and respiratory morbidity also in 55.6%. The main clinical symptomatology was hemiparesis, headache, vomiting and aphasia. The sICH was supratentorial on brain CT in 85.7%, ganglionic in 50.8% and thalamic in 58.3% of the latter. The bleed had CT evidence of mass effect and intraventricular extension in more than half. Twenty three patients (36.5% underwent operative interventionsConclusions In this patient population, sICH is mainly ganglionic and thalamic in location with significant rate of associated IVH. In-hospital clinical presentation is delayed and in critical state, and, the bleeding is uncontrolled hypertension related in >95%.

  14. Enfrentando el bioterrorismo: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y preventivos de la viruela Confronting bioterrorism: epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive aspects of smallpox

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    Carlos Franco-Paredes

    2003-08-01

    Organization has dramatically switched to the preservation of the remaining virus after the September 2001 terrorist events in the U.S. along with the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the U.S. The risk of intentional release of Variola virus constitutes a minimal, yet possible risk. A smallpox epidemic could have a devastating impact due to its elevated morbidity and mortality that would inflict in non-immune human population, in addition to the ensuing panic and social unrest. Therefore, the development of national preparedness and response plans along with the availability of smallpox vaccine to be used in the post-exposure phase represent a fundamental part of the preventive efforts to cope with bioterrorism. Reestablishing a preventive vaccination program was recently recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP. However, the vaccine currently available has historically been associated with serious adverse reactions, even death. Thus, this recommendation has not been universally accepted. To counter an epidemic of smallpox, medical personnel in the frontline need to be prepared with updated smallpox infor mation to identify, diagnose, isolate, and treat cases if a bioterrorist attack should occur. Herein we present an in-depth review for health care personnel with relevant epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive information on smallpox.

  15. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control Leishmaniose visceral no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: aspectos eco-epidemiológicos e controle

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    Mauro Celio de Almeida Marzochi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available From 1977 (index case to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5% of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%, but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education, reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence.Entre 1977 (caso índice e 2006 foram confirmados 87 casos de leishmaniose visceral no Município do Rio de Janeiro, oriundos de áreas peri-urbanas das vertentes continentais e litorâneas do Maciço da Pedra Branca e das vertentes continentais do Maciço do Gericinó. A maioria (65,5% dos pacientes tinha mais de 5 anos de idade, prevalecendo o sexo masculino (61,5%, sem diferença de freqüência entre os sexos até os 14 anos. A letalidade foi de 10,4%. Houve dois casos de co

  16. Political Aspects of Nuclear Energy Market Development in the Countries of South Asia. NSG Factor in Promoting Nuclear Energy in the Region

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    Boyko Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available South Asian geopolitical face-off of Delhi and Islamabad revealed breaches of the nuclear nonproliferation. This encouraged the greatest nuclear powers to create a mechanism for additional regulation of the nuclear technology and materials export, which is now known as “Nuclear Suppliers’ Group”. This mechanism aims to impose restrictions for the nuclear technology and materials export to the countries that are not members of NPT. These are nuclear programs of India and Pakistan that are pressing challenge on the agenda. India has been a very attractive market for nuclear suppliers, especially the United States, so the restrictions were lifted from Delhi in 2008. However, they remained valid for Pakistan, which wasn’t an appealing market for the American nuclear exporters. As a result, China, which has been a member of NSG since 2004, has initiated building new NPPs in Pakistan getting mixed reaction of the international community. Despite the clearly contradicting Guidelines, the members of NSG haven’t reached common ground on how to restore its supporting role in maintaining the non-proliferation regime. Thus, the Asian nuclear market develops mostly spontaneously, and its future is shaped primarily by the international relations between importers and exporters. Russia isn’t able to influence all the NSG members to change the position, however it can take advantage of the situation for developing nuclear cooperation with the Asian countries to support sustainable development of the South Asian energy market.

  17. Epidemiology and prognostic factors of inpatient mortality of Guillain-Barré syndrome: A nationwide population study over 14years in Asian country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Li-Syue; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Yung-Tsan; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Wu, Yung-Fu; Chien, Wu-Chien; Chang, Chih-Ya

    2016-10-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of inpatient mortality from Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which is a rare and potentially life-threatening polyradiculoneuropathy, in an Asian country, as there are few big-data studies regarding this topic. We obtained data regarding patients with GBS from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database admission records. We identified patients with a discharge diagnosis of GBS during 2000-2013 using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code (357.0), and evaluated their baseline characteristics, clinical complications, and risk factors. We identified 5469 patients with GBS, and the crude incidence of GBS was 1.71 per 100,000 person-years. The inpatient mortality rate was 1.61% (88/5469) and 55 deaths (62.5% of all deaths) occurred before day 19 of the hospitalization (mainly during the progressive phase). The predictors of inpatient mortality included older age, a greater comorbidity burden (especially catastrophic illness), endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, cardiac complications, and systemic infection. In contrast, patients who were admitted to a medical center or Neurology Department exhibited a higher survival rate. This 14-year nationwide study included the largest analysis of Asian patients with GBS to date, and identified various prognostic factors that predicted inpatient mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiological investigation on the hepatitis A outbreak in the country%一起自来水污染引起甲型肝炎暴发调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芬娟; 蒋龙芳; 倪生光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cause and the transmission route of the hepatitis A outbreak,and analyze the epidemic factors,and evaluate the control effect,in order to provide evidence for prevention and control.Methods The epidemic characteristic was analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method,and the risk factors of hepatitis outbreak were explored by case-cuntrol study and retrospective cohort study.Results 36 cases of hepatitis A were reported during August and September in 2009 in Nanyang Sub-District of Xiaoshan District.The cases were mainly around the agricultural market.The incidence peak between August 24th and September 4th.The major patients were local middle aged and old women.The incidence rate of natives was higher than non-native population(2.09‰:0.32‰,x2 =12.72,P < 0.01 ).The results of the case-control study didn't support the hypothesis of food-borne outbreak.The retrospective cohort study and the hygiene investigation showed that drinking well water was the protect factor,and the distribution of the running water in the north gate of the town farm produce market was consistent with the case' s distribution.Conclusions The water pollution caused by the leakage of the water distribution system in the north gate of the Nanyang farm produce market is the primary risk factor for this outbreak of hepatitis A.%目的 查明暴发原因和传播途径,分析流行因素,评价控制效果,为防制工作提供依据.方法 用描述性流行病学方法分析流行特征,用病例对照与回顾性队列研究探索甲型肝炎暴发危险因素.结果 2009年8-9月杭州市萧山区南阳街道共报告甲型肝炎病例36例,病例主要分布在南阳街道农贸市场周边;发病高峰在8月24日至9月4日;发病以本地中老年女性为主;外地民工发病率为0.32‰,低本地村民的2.09‰(x2=12.72,P<0.01).病例对照研究结果不支持食源性暴发假设;回顾性队列研究及卫生学调查显示,饮用井水是

  19. Development and Validation of the 34-Item Disability Screening Questionnaire (DSQ-34 for Use in Low and Middle Income Countries Epidemiological and Development Surveys.

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    Jean-François Trani

    Full Text Available Although 80% of persons with disabilities live in low and middle-income countries, there is still a lack of comprehensive, cross-culturally validated tools to identify persons facing activity limitations and functioning difficulties in these settings. In absence of such a tool, disability estimates vary considerably according to the methodology used, and policies are based on unreliable estimates.The Disability Screening Questionnaire composed of 27 items (DSQ-27 was initially designed by a group of international experts in survey development and disability in Afghanistan for a national survey. Items were selected based on major domains of activity limitations and functioning difficulties linked to an impairment as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Face, content and construct validity, as well as sensitivity and specificity were examined. Based on the results obtained, the tool was subsequently refined and expanded to 34 items, tested and validated in Darfur, Sudan. Internal consistency for the total DSQ-34 using a raw and standardized Cronbach's Alpha and within each domain using a standardized Cronbach's Alpha was examined in the Asian context (India and Nepal. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA using principal axis factoring (PAF evaluated the lowest number of factors to account for the common variance among the questions in the screen. Test-retest reliability was determined by calculating intraclass correlation (ICC and inter-rater reliability by calculating the kappa statistic; results were checked using Bland-Altman plots. The DSQ-34 was further tested for standard error of measurement (SEM and for the minimum detectable change (MDC. Good internal consistency was indicated by Cronbach's Alpha of 0.83/0.82 for India and 0.76/0.78 for Nepal. We confirmed our assumption for EFA using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling well above the accepted cutoff of 0.40 for India (0.82 and Nepal (0

  20. Development and Validation of the 34-Item Disability Screening Questionnaire (DSQ-34) for Use in Low and Middle Income Countries Epidemiological and Development Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-François; Babulal, Ganesh Muneshwar; Bakhshi, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Background Although 80% of persons with disabilities live in low and middle-income countries, there is still a lack of comprehensive, cross-culturally validated tools to identify persons facing activity limitations and functioning difficulties in these settings. In absence of such a tool, disability estimates vary considerably according to the methodology used, and policies are based on unreliable estimates. Methods and Findings The Disability Screening Questionnaire composed of 27 items (DSQ-27) was initially designed by a group of international experts in survey development and disability in Afghanistan for a national survey. Items were selected based on major domains of activity limitations and functioning difficulties linked to an impairment as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Face, content and construct validity, as well as sensitivity and specificity were examined. Based on the results obtained, the tool was subsequently refined and expanded to 34 items, tested and validated in Darfur, Sudan. Internal consistency for the total DSQ-34 using a raw and standardized Cronbach’s Alpha and within each domain using a standardized Cronbach’s Alpha was examined in the Asian context (India and Nepal). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal axis factoring (PAF) evaluated the lowest number of factors to account for the common variance among the questions in the screen. Test-retest reliability was determined by calculating intraclass correlation (ICC) and inter-rater reliability by calculating the kappa statistic; results were checked using Bland-Altman plots. The DSQ-34 was further tested for standard error of measurement (SEM) and for the minimum detectable change (MDC). Good internal consistency was indicated by Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.83/0.82 for India and 0.76/0.78 for Nepal. We confirmed our assumption for EFA using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling well above the accepted cutoff of 0.40 for

  1. Diagnostic aspects of gonorrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Stolz (Ernst)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractIn 1971 an investigation into the epidemiological, clinical, bacteriological and therapeutic aspects of gonorrhoea was started in collaboration with the Bacteriological Laboratory of the University Hospital/Medical Faculty Rotterdam. Jn the framework of this investigation, the data were

  2. Health-seeking behaviour among adults in the context of the epidemiological transition in Southeastern Tanzania : A focus on malaria and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy Onifasi

    2016-01-01

    Health-seeking behaviour among adults in the context of epidemiological transition in Southeastern Tanzania: a focus on malaria and diabetes This study set out to assess cultural aspects shaping health-seeking behaviour for malaria and diabetes among adults in Tanzania, a country undergoing the epid

  3. Health-seeking behaviour among adults in the context of the epidemiological transition in Southeastern Tanzania : A focus on malaria and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy Onifasi

    2016-01-01

    Health-seeking behaviour among adults in the context of epidemiological transition in Southeastern Tanzania: a focus on malaria and diabetes This study set out to assess cultural aspects shaping health-seeking behaviour for malaria and diabetes among adults in Tanzania, a country undergoing the

  4. Epidemiology of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in Iran and Asia; A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Safarpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs is set to stabilize in Western Europe and North America, as opposed to its increasing trend in developing countries in Asia. The epidemiology of IBDs in areas where the incidence and prevalence are relatively low provides an opportunity for researchers to determine the unknown aspects of them. In this review article, the PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched from 1970 to 2012 and the epidemiological aspects assessed in Iranian articles were compared with identical subjects in other Asian countries. During this period, there were 21 documented articles on IBD epidemiology in Iran and 52 in Asia. According to the present review, CTLA-gene polymorphism and male/female ratio in ulcerative colitis (UC, incidence of extra-intestinal manifestations, extent of intestinal involvement, and family history in both UC and Crohn’s disease (CD seemed to be different between Asia and Iran. In contrast, the incidence of primary sclerosing cholangitis in IBD patients and association between NO2/CARD15 mutation and CD as C3435-T allele and UC were nearly the same. The rate of IBD has increased significantly in Iran, as has that of other Asian countries during the last decade. A thorough, well-designed, population-based, multi-regional epidemiologic study seems mandatory due to the substantial demographic and characteristic variability in IBD patients in our region.

  5. Influenza and diabetes ; immunological and epidemiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. Diepersloot (Rob)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza may jeopardize the health of patients with diabetes mellitus in several ways. In the first place influenza infection may inbalance a carefully established metabolic control, and in some cases trigger a process of metabolic deterioration which eventually may lead to ketoacidosis

  6. Leptospirosis: epidemiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.A. Goris (Marga)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLeptospirosis is among the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world. The clinical manifestations of the disease are not specific, can vary widely and therefore are consistent with many other diseases. A diagnosis can only be confirmed with certainty by laboratory tests. Infecti

  7. Aspects of Toxocara epidemiology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are intestinal helminths of, respectively, dogs and cats. Both Toxocara species have, because of their zoonotic significance, important public health consequences. Prevention of infection with Toxocara eggs is based on education (general public, veterinary practit

  8. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a

  9. Influenza and diabetes ; immunological and epidemiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. Diepersloot (Rob)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza may jeopardize the health of patients with diabetes mellitus in several ways. In the first place influenza infection may inbalance a carefully established metabolic control, and in some cases trigger a process of metabolic deterioration which eventually may lead to

  10. Murine Typhus: Clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Peniche Lara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia typhi is an intracellular bacteria who causes murine typhus. His importance is reflected in the high frequency founding specific antibodies against R. typhi in several worldwide seroepidemiological studies, the seroprevalence ranging between 3-36%. Natural reservoirs of Rickettsia typhi are rats (some species belonging the Rattus Genus and fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis are his vector. This infection is associated with overcrowding, pollution and poor hygiene. Typically presents fever, headache, rash on trunk and extremities, in some cases may occur organ-specific complications, affecting liver, kidney, lung or brain. Initially the disease is very similar to other diseases, is very common to confuse the murine typhus with Dengue fever, therefore, ignorance of the disease is a factor related to complications or non-specific treatments for the resolution of this infection. This paper presents the most relevant information to consider about the rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi.

  11. Murine Typhus: Clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Peniche Lara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 14.00 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Rickettsia typhi is an intracellular bacteria who causes murine typhus. His importance is reflected in the high frequency founding specific antibodies against R. typhi in several worldwide seroepidemiological studies, the seroprevalence ranging between 3-36%. Natural reservoirs of Rickettsia typhi are rats (some species belonging the Rattus Genus and fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis are his vector. This infection is associated with overcrowding, pollution and poor hygiene. Typically presents fever, headache, rash on trunk and extremities, in some cases may occur organ-specific complications, affecting liver, kidney, lung or brain. Initially the disease is very similar to other diseases, is very common to confuse the murine typhus with Dengue fever, therefore, ignorance of the disease is a factor related to complications or non-specific treatments for the resolution of this infection. This paper presents the most relevant information to consider about the rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi.

  12. Leptospirosis: epidemiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.A. Goris (Marga)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLeptospirosis is among the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world. The clinical manifestations of the disease are not specific, can vary widely and therefore are consistent with many other diseases. A diagnosis can only be confirmed with certainty by laboratory tests.

  13. Epidemiological aspects of ocular superglue injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the frequency, associated risk factors and characteristics of cases referred to Farabi Eye Hospital with ocular superglue injuries. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between December 2012 and February 2013, patients with ocular superglue injuries were evaluated. Age, sex, educational level, location, time, mechanism, type, site and time of eye injury were gathered through interview using a customized questionnaire. All participants had given consent to undergo thorough eye examination. RESULTS: Over the course of three months, 105 patients with ocular superglue injuries enrolled in the study, including 56(53.3% men and 49(46.7% women with the mean age of 24.7±11.6 (range, 2 to 53y. The right eye, left eye and both eyes were involved in 52%, 42% and 6% of the patients, respectively. Most of injuries had occurred at home (72.4% and at night (55%. More than half of patients (52.4% did not take any primary aids following the ocular injury. Patient carelessness (78.1%, childhood curiosity and lack of parental supervision (11.4%, storing superglue in inappropriate places and inadvertently using superglue as eye drops due to poor vision (2.9%, inadequate awareness of superglue applications [used to stick on artificial nails (3.8%, artificial eyelashes (1.9% and broken tooth (1%] and being assaulted with glue (1% were common risk factors. CONCLUSION: The frequency of ocular superglue injuries in patients referred to Farabi Eye Hospital is relatively high. This finding underlines the importance of public education and awareness about superglue injuries to the eye and taking protective measures and safety strategies in order to prevent these injures.

  14. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a modifi

  15. Epidemiology of absence epilepsy. III. Clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, I; Hagberg, G

    1991-11-01

    Absence epilepsy was studied in a Swedish population, aged 0-15 years, in 1978-1982. Cases were selected by electroencephalographic criteria. In the 134 children with 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges, 97 (72.4%) had absences alone or in combination with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal): 56 had absences alone, 31 absences followed by grand mal, and 10 started with initial grand mal. Two distinct groups could be discerned: 1) childhood absence epilepsy: onset before the age of 12, with a quick response to therapy, little or no risk of grand mal, and a high remission rate; 2) juvenile absence epilepsy: onset at the age of 12 or later, a very high risk of grand mal, and usually a good response to therapy, but a high risk of relapses at withdrawal. This classification of absence epilepsy into subgroups may be useful for prognostic guidelines.

  16. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a modifi

  17. Aspects of Toxocara epidemiology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are intestinal helminths of, respectively, dogs and cats. Both Toxocara species have, because of their zoonotic significance, important public health consequences. Prevention of infection with Toxocara eggs is based on education (general public, veterinary

  18. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e parasitológicos da doença de Chagas em Mato Grosso do Sul Epidemiological, clinical and parasitological aspects of Chagas' disease in Mato Grosso do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Antonio Pompilio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e parasitológicos da doença de Chagas crônica, em pacientes do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, realizamos um estudo seccional envolvendo 120 chagásicos e 120 controles não-chagásicos, de ambos os sexos, com idades de 16 a 82 anos. Os aspectos epidemiológicos foram avaliados por questionário, a cardiopatia por exame clínico, eletrocardiograma convencional, radiologia e ecodopplercardiograma e a presença de Trypanosoma cruzi no sangue por xenodiagnóstico e teste da reação em cadeia da polimerase. Os resultados mostraram predominância de alóctones com baixa escolaridade e referência de contato prévio com triatomíneos entre os chagásicos. Abortamento espontâneo foi mais freqüente nas mulheres chagásicas. A cardiopatia devido ao componente chagásico foi estimada em 20,2%. Apresentou-se com 7,5% de cardiomegalia, 6,2% de aneurisma de ventrículo esquerdo e com predominância de dispnéia, palpitações e hipertensão arterial. O xenodiagnóstico foi positivo em 26,1% dos chagásicos enquanto a PCR foi positiva em 53,7%. A análise dos resultados indicou que a doença de Chagas no grupo estudado apresenta características clínicas e parasitológicas que revelam peculiaridades regionais.With the objective of evaluating epidemiologic, clinical and parasitologic aspects of chronic Chagas' disease in patients from the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, a cross-sectional study was performed with groups of 120 chagasic and non-chagasic patients aged from 16 to 82 years. Epidemiologic aspects were evaluated by means of a questionnaire, cardiopathy by clinical examination, conventional electrocardiogram, radiology and Doppler echocardiograms (only in chagasic patients and the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in the blood stream by way of xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction test. The results

  19. Epidemiological aspects and treatment of parasitic lesions similar to Stephanofilariasis disease in nursing cows / Aspectos epidemiológicos e tratamento de lesões parasitárias semelhantes à Estefanofilariose em vacas lactantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Miranda Ferreira Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe epidemiological, clinical and histological aspects of parasitic lesions caused by Stephanofilariasis on the udder of nursing cows and to evaluate the viability of a therapeutic protocol. Forty lactating cows with characteristic Stephanofilariasis lesions were divided into two groups, GI and GII. The wounds on the udder of the GI cows were cleansed with sodium hydrochloride and treated topically with an ointment consisting of trichlorphone, ivermectine, dexamethasone, calendula, zinc oxide and an adherent ointment of sodium vaseline, associated with the parenteral application of 1% ivermectine. GII served as control group and was left untreated. Twelve cows (60% of GI had recovered on the 45th day of treatment and 8 cows (40% showed clinical cure within 45-60 days. The diagnosis of Stephanofilaria stilesi infection is generally presumptive. Epidemiologically-related aspects, clinical findings and positive response to treatment help to confirm the disease. Histopathological exams also assist in the diagnosis when the presence of nematodes can be revealed, although this finding is not frequent. The therapeutic protocol employed proved to be economically viable and efficient, with recovery of all the lesions.O presente trabalho objetivou descrever aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e histológicos das lesões e avaliar a viabilidade de um protocolo terapêutico para estefanofilariose localizada na pele do úbere de vacas lactantes. Utilizou-se no estudo 40 fêmeas bovinas de aptidão para leite em lactação com lesões características de estefanofilariose. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos (GI e GII, sendo as feridas dos bovinos que constituíram o GI higienizadas com hipoclorito de sódio e tratadas diariamente com aplicação tópica de pomada contendo triclorfon, ivermectina, dexametasona, calêndula, óxido de zinco e pomada aderente de vaselina sódica, associada à aplicação parenteral de ivermectina a

  20. Assessment of caries experience in epidemiological surveys: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Agbaje (Jimoh); E.M.E.H. Lesaffre (Emmanuel); D. Declerck (Dominique)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To review aspects of methods for assessing caries experience (CE) in epidemiological surveys. Method: A search of English language literature published between January 2000 and December 2008 was undertaken using 'epidemiology', 'dental caries' and 'assessment' as search

  1. Analysis of Epidemiological Features of Measles in Juancheng Country from 2009 to 2012 in Juancheng%2009-2012年鄄城县麻疹流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐先起; 沈玉玲; 刘海云; 刘海英

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemic feature of measles in Juancheng country from 2009 to 2012 so as to providing scientific evidence for measles control.Method:Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the epidemiology of measles from 2009 to 2012 based on the data collected from the regular report system of infectious diseases and annual statistics of measles.Result:A total of 80 measles patients were reported in Juancheng country from 2009 to 2012,annual incidence rate was 0.66/100 000,9.31/100 000,0.55/100 000 and 0.There was a difference in the incidence in different years(P<0.01).There were cases in every township,the first district of the cases:Juancheng township,Jiucheng township, Zhengying township.Most of the measles were reported in April to August.Males were more than females,there was significant difference(P<0.01). most of the cases were under three years old,there was a disease peak in 20-45 year group.Conclusion:The annual incidence rate of measles is very low during 2009 to 2012 except for 2010.But the routine immunization work should not alack to prevent the outbreak in 2013.%目的:了解鄄城县麻疹流行特点,为控制麻疹提供科学依据。方法:根据鄄城县传染病报告系统和年度麻疹发病统计表,对2009-2012年麻疹发病资料进行分析。结果:2009-2012年鄄城县共报告麻疹病80例,年报告发病率分别为0.66/10万、9.31/10万、0.55/10万、0。不同年份间麻疹发病率的差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。各乡镇均有病例报告,发病居前三位的是鄄城镇、旧城镇和郑营乡。病例主要集中在4~8月份。男性发病率明显多于女性,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。发病年龄以3岁以下为主,20~45岁有个发病小高峰。结论:鄄城县麻疹发病率除2010年较高外,其余3年发病较少,但常规免疫工作不应松懈,以防止2013年出现爆发。

  2. Trauma na infância e adolescência: epidemiologia, tratamento e aspectos econômicos em um hospital público Epidemiology, treatment and economical aspects of multiple trauma in children and adolescents in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Franciozi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A realização deste trabalho foi motivada pela escassez de artigos encontrados na literatura que estudam o politrauma na infância e na adolescência.. O objetivo é descrever o perfil epidemiológico das lesões traumáticas na infância tratadas num centro de trauma, avaliar os aspectos econômicos relacionados com o gasto hospitalar e o tempo de internação de acordo com o tratamento realizado. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: analisamos todos os prontuários do hospital Geral de Pirajussara no período de dezembro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006. Obtivemos 182 pacientes, sendo 71% do sexo masculino e 29% do feminino; 48% brancos e 52% não brancos. RESULTADOS: houve predominância dos indivíduos do sexo masculino com 71% dos pacientes. O mecanismo de trauma mais freqüente foi a queda (36%. A média de dias de internação foi 4,1 dias, com gasto estimado de R$ 649,50 para cada paciente. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 2,74%, sendo o traumatismo crânio-encefálico responsável por 80% da mortalidade e os maus tratos presentes em 40% dos óbitos. CONCLUSÃO: a população pediátrica tem particularidades que a tornam distinta da população adulta em relação à epidemiologia e manejo das lesões.INTRODUCTION: the motivation to conduct this study was the reduced number of articles in literature correlating multiple trauma in childhood and infancy. The objective here was to describe the epidemiological profile of traumatic injuries treated in a trauma center, evaluating the economic aspects associated with hospitalized patients' costs and the period of hospital stay according to the treatment provided. MATERIAL AND METHODS: we assessed all Pirajussara Hospital patients' files in the period of December of 2005 to December 2006. We selected 182 patients, 129 (71% males and 53 (29% females; 88 (48% Caucasian and 94 (52% non-Caucasian children. RESULTS: male patients were prevalent, with 129 (71% cases. The most frequent trauma mechanism was fall

  3. Aspectos epidemiológicos dos acidentes fatais a veículo a motor na cidade do Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Epidemiologic aspects of fatal motor vehicle traffic accidents in the city of Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pugliese

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo com o objetivo de descrever certos aspectos epidemiológicos dos acidentes de trânsito de veículo a motor, na cidade do Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, o qual envolveu coleta de informações no Departamento de Trânsito (DETRAN e no Instituto de Medicina Legal. Ficou demonstrado que os acidentes de trânsito de veículo a motor são mais freqüentes ao fim da tarde e concentram-se, sobretudo, no fim de semana, isto é, sábado e domingo. Motoristas do sexo masculino foram muito mais freqüentemente envolvidos em acidentes de trânsito do que os do sexo feminino. Foi concluído que os acidentes fatais envolvendo pedestres constituem-se importante problema urbano necessitando cuidadosa atenção por parte de educadores e dos serviços públicos responsáveis pelo setor do trânsito. Foi sugerida a necessidade de melhorar e tornar mais uniforme o sistema de notificação e classificação dos acidentes de veículo a motor pelo DETRAN da cidade do Salvador.A study was made aiming at the description of epidemiologic aspects of fatal motor vehicle accidents in the City of Salvador, Brazil. The study involved the collecting of data in both the Traffic Department (DETRAN and the Legal Medicine Institute. The study showed a time relationship, i.e., the highest percentage of accidents due to motor vehicles was concentrated at noon and during weekends. Young male drivers were more frequently involved in accidents than females of the same age. The authors indicated that pedestrian fatal accidents are essencially an urban problem needing a great deal of concern by educators and providers of public services. They also suggested the necessity of improving and of homogenizing the notification and classification system of motor vehicle accidents by the DETRAN in Salvador.

  4. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and epidemiological aspects in canine otitis: a retrospective study of 616 casesEtiologia, perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e aspectos epidemiológicos na otite canina: estudo retrospectivo de 616 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Baldim de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and multiple drug resistance, and major epidemiological aspects were investigated in 616 cases of canine otitis. Staphylococcus ? hemolitic (26.27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12.35%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8% were the most common microorganisms identified. The isolates were susceptible mainly to norfloxacin (89.62%, gentamicin (83.25%, and ofloxacin (80.16%. High occurrence of resistance of isolates was observed to neomicin (30.84% and cephalexin (27.63%. Multiple drug resistance to three or more and five or more of antimicrobials tested was observed in 34.9% and 15.5% of isolates, respectively. The cases of canine otitis occurred predominantly in first years of age, in mixed breeds animals, at autumn season. The presence of itch, bad smell, and secretion in ear conduct were the major signs observed at clinical examination. Estudo retrospectivo da etiologia, perfil de sensibilidade microbiana, ocorrência de multirresistência dos isolados e os principais aspectos epidemiológicos foram investigados em 616 casos de otite canina. Staphylococcus ? hemolítico (26,27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12,35% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8,8% foram os micro-organismos mais frequentes. Os isolados foram sensíveis “in vitro” principalmente a norfloxacina (89,62%, gentamicina (83,25% e ofloxacina (80,16%. Alta ocorrência de resistência das linhagens foi observada frente à neomicina (30,84% e cefalexina (27,63%. A ocorrência de resistência múltipla a três ou mais e cinco ou mais dos antimicrobianos foi observada em, respectivamente, 34,9% e 15,5% dos isolados. Os casos ocorreram predominantemente nos primeiros anos de idade, em animais sem raça definida, no período do outono. A presença de prurido, mau cheiro e secreção no conduto auditivo foram os principais sinais observados ao exame clínico.

  5. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos da endometriose pélvica: uma série de casos Epidemiological and clinical aspects of pelvic endometriosis: series of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bellelis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos das pacientes portadoras de endometriose pélvica operadas em nosso serviço. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 892 pacientes submetidas a videolaparoscopia com confirmação histológica do diagnóstico de endometriose. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 33,2 ± 6,3 anos, sendo 78,7% brancas. Observamos 76,9% de mulheres com 2º ou 3º graus completos; 56,5% das pacientes eram nulíparas e 62,2% relataram dismenorreia como principal queixa. A dor pélvica crônica foi o sintoma mais prevalente, seguido pela dispareunia de profundidade, sendo referidos por 56,8% e 54,7% das pacientes, respectivamente. A infertilidade foi referida por 39,8% das 892 pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: A endometriose é uma doença geralmente diagnosticada na 4º década da vida das pacientes, as quais apresentam queixas clínicas relacionadas com frequência à dor pélvica e infertilidade, que devem sempre ser questionadas para orientar a hipótese diagnóstica.OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and epidemiological aspects of patients with pelvic endometriosis who were operated in our service. METHODS: A retrospective study was made of 892 patients submitted to laparoscopy with histological confirmation of diagnosis of endometriosis. RESULTS: The mean age was 33.2 ± 6.3 years and 78.7% were Caucasian. We found that 76.9% of women had higher education. 56.5% of patients were nulliparous and 62.2% reported dysmenorrhea as the main complaint. Chronic pelvic pain was the most prevalent symptom, followed by deep dyspareunia, mentioned by 56.8% and 54.7% of patients, respectively. Infertility was reported by 39.8% of the 892 patients. CONCLUSION: Endometriosis is a disease diagnosed in the 4th decade of life, of patients who have multiple complaints . They must always be questioned to properly orient diagnosis and monitor results of treatment.

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos do Rhodococcus equi em eqüinos do Município de Bagé, RS, Brasil Epidemiological aspects of Rhodococcus equi in horses from Bagé county, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lazzari

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o intuito de obter informações epidemiológicas sobre o Rhodococcus equi (R. equi em seis haras do município de Bagé, estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas 36 amostras de solo superficial e 143 de fezes de eqüinos, sendo semeadas em meio seletivo para o R. equi (NANAT e incubadas em aerobiose a 37°C por até 72 horas. Também foi coletada amostra de solo para determinação de pH e matéria orgânica (MO de cada haras. A identificação do R. equi baseou-se na pesquisa do "fator equi" e características morfológicas, tintoriais e bioquímicas. Isolou-se o microrganismo de 75% (27/36 das amostras de solo superficial e 66,43% (95/143 das amostras de fezes de eqüinos. O isolamento do R. equi em 100% dos haras analisados comprova a disseminação desta bactéria na região estudada. Os dados obtidos na análise de pH e MO do solo não demonstraram correlação com a taxa de isolamento do R. equi do solo superficial dos haras.Epidemiological aspects about Rhodococcus equi (R. equi at six horse-breeding farms from Bagé county, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were analysed. Soil samples (36 and equine feces (143 were collected. The objective was to verify the presence of R. equi in those samples. Six soil samples were also used for pH and organic matter (OM determination. R. equi identification was based on equi factor search and morfological, tintorial and biochemistry behavior. All the horse-breeding farms had the R. equi present in soil and feces samples. Soil yielded 75.00% (27/36 positive samples and 66.43% (95/143 of equine feces were positive. The results obtained for pH and OM from the soil had no correlation with the isolation of R. equi from soil samples of the different horse-breeding farms.

  7. Regulatory aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  8. Current status of Clostridium difficile infection epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lessa, Fernanda C; Gould, Carolyn V; McDonald, L Clifford

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) during recent years, with increases in incidence and severity of disease in several countries, have made CDI a global public health challenge...

  9. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  10. Nominal aspect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1991-01-01

    In a general way the notion 'aspect' can be defined as the way in which a property or relation is represented in some dimension. Two kinds of aspect can be distinguished: verbal and nominal aspect. The study of verbal aspect has a long tradition, but nominal aspect has only been introduced recently......, at least in the sense in which it is used here (Rijkhoff 1989b, 1990a, 1990b). After a brief look at the more familiar verbal aspects, each of the nominal aspects is discussed in some detail. Then the relevance of nominal aspect will be considered in connection with (i) certain 'number markers' (which...... will be analysed as nominal aspect markers below), (ii) noun-incorporation, and (iii) predicate nouns....

  11. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  12. Multiple sclerosis in the Arabian Gulf countries: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlega, Saeed; Inshasi, Jihad; Al Tahan, Abdel Rahman; Madani, Abu Bakr; Qahtani, Hussien; Rieckmann, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing in many parts of the world. Based on the Kurtzke classification, the Arabian Gulf Region is located in a low-risk zone for MS; however, recent studies suggest a moderate-to-high prevalence nearby (31-55 MS per 10,0000 individuals), with an increase in incidence in recent years. The relapsing-remitting disease course ratio is 2.5:1 versus the primary progressive type. In a geographic area that was previously associated with low prevalence; the recent high prevalence and fast rising incidence of MS in the gulf countries, encouraged the neurologists of this region to meet in a consensus panel, in order to share our latest findings in terms of MS epidemiology and consent on MS management in the Arabian Gulf. Therefore 20 key opinion leader neurologists and MS experts representing various countries of the Arabian Gulf have met in Dubai on the 2 and 3 February 2012, they shared their latest epidemiological findings, discussed recent MS aspects in the region, and consented on MS management relevantly to this geographic area.

  13. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN MEXICO: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne HERNÁNDEZ-CORTAZAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year. Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico.

  14. Toxoplasmosis in Mexico: epidemiological situation in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cortazar, Ivonne; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia del S; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico.

  15. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.

  16. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  17. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  18. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013 : quantifying the epidemiological transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, Christopher J. L.; Barber, Ryan M.; Foreman, Kyle J.; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Almazroa, Mohammad A.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Avila, Marco A.; Awuah, Baffour; Bachman, Victoria F.; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O.; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D.; Blosser, Christopher D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Bolliger, Ian W.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D.; Brooks, Peter M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Budke, Christine M.; Bulchis, Anne; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Carabin, Helene; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben E.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Cavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coffeng, Luc E.; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cooke, Graham S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie T.; Coppola, Luis M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I.; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh K.; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C.; Ebel, Beth E.; Edmond, Karen M.; Elshrek, Yousef M.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F.; Feigin, Valery L.; Felson, David T.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C.; Fuerst, Thomas; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gankpe, Fortune G.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Peter; Gibney, Katherine B.; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish C.; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hansen, Gillian M.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Maria Haro, Josep; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hay, Roderick J.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B.; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa L.; Iburg, Kim M.; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine K.; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre P.; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S.; Khalifa, Shams Eldin A.; Khan, Ejaz A.; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Lai, Taavi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levitz, Carly E.; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lim, Stephen S.; Lind, Maggie; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lofgren, Katherine T.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Ma, Stefan; Macintyre, Michael F.; Mackay, Mark T.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J.; Margono, Christopher; Marzan, Melvin B.; Masci, Joseph R.; Mashal, Mohammad T.; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; Mcgill, Neil W.; Mcgrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen L. D.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio C.; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Moore, Ami R.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew E.; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Moyer, Madeline L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Msemburi, William T.; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murray, Joseph; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P.; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Nguyen, Grant; Nisar, Muhammad I.; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohno, Summer L.; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Opio, John Nelson; Ortblad, Katrina; Ortiz, Alberto; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Park, Jae-Hyun; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris I.; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Phillips, Bryan K.; Phillips, David E.; Piel, Frederic B.; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Qato, Dima M.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahman, Sajjad U.; Raju, Murugesan; Rana, Saleem M.; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K. Srinath; Refaat, Amany; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Roberts, D. Allen; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H.; Rowley, Jane T.; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Saeedi, Mohammad Y.; Saha, Sukanta; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sampson, Uchechukwu K. A.; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Scarborough, Peter; Schneider, Ione J.; Schoettker, Ben; Schumacher, Austin E.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serina, Peter T.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya A.; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Silberberg, Donald H.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Skirbekk, Vegard; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Soreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stevens, Antony; Stewart, Andrea; Stovner, Lars J.; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taylor, Hugh R.; Te Ao, Braden J.; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Temesgen, Awoke M.; Templin, Tara; Ten Have, Margreet; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Trillini, Matias; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin M.; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uzun, Selen B.; Van Brakel, Wim H.; Van De Vijver, Steven; van Gool, Coen H.; Van Os, Jim; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy V.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wagner, Joseph; Waller, Stephen G.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Linhong; Warouw, Tati S.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Wang Wenzhi, [Unknown; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Thomas N.; Wolfe, Charles D.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wulf, Sarah; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yentur, Goekalp K.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E.; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zonies, David; Zou, Xiaonong; Salomon, Joshua A.; Lopez, Alan D.; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex grou

  19. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013 : quantifying the epidemiological transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, Christopher J. L.; Barber, Ryan M.; Foreman, Kyle J.; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Almazroa, Mohammad A.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Avila, Marco A.; Awuah, Baffour; Bachman, Victoria F.; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O.; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D.; Blosser, Christopher D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Bolliger, Ian W.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D.; Brooks, Peter M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Budke, Christine M.; Bulchis, Anne; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Carabin, Helene; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben E.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Cavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coffeng, Luc E.; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cooke, Graham S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie T.; Coppola, Luis M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I.; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh K.; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C.; Ebel, Beth E.; Edmond, Karen M.; Elshrek, Yousef M.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F.; Feigin, Valery L.; Felson, David T.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C.; Fuerst, Thomas; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gankpe, Fortune G.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Peter; Gibney, Katherine B.; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish C.; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hansen, Gillian M.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Maria Haro, Josep; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hay, Roderick J.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B.; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J.; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex

  20. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, C.J.; Barber, R.M.; Foreman, K.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex grou

  1. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013 : quantifying the epidemiological transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, Christopher J. L.; Barber, Ryan M.; Foreman, Kyle J.; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Almazroa, Mohammad A.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Avila, Marco A.; Awuah, Baffour; Bachman, Victoria F.; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O.; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D.; Blosser, Christopher D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Bolliger, Ian W.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D.; Brooks, Peter M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Budke, Christine M.; Bulchis, Anne; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Carabin, Helene; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben E.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Cavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coffeng, Luc E.; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cooke, Graham S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie T.; Coppola, Luis M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I.; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh K.; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C.; Ebel, Beth E.; Edmond, Karen M.; Elshrek, Yousef M.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F.; Feigin, Valery L.; Felson, David T.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C.; Fuerst, Thomas; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gankpe, Fortune G.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Peter; Gibney, Katherine B.; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish C.; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hansen, Gillian M.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Maria Haro, Josep; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hay, Roderick J.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B.; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa L.; Iburg, Kim M.; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine K.; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre P.; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S.; Khalifa, Shams Eldin A.; Khan, Ejaz A.; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Lai, Taavi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levitz, Carly E.; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lim, Stephen S.; Lind, Maggie; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lofgren, Katherine T.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Ma, Stefan; Macintyre, Michael F.; Mackay, Mark T.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J.; Margono, Christopher; Marzan, Melvin B.; Masci, Joseph R.; Mashal, Mohammad T.; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; Mcgill, Neil W.; Mcgrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen L. D.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio C.; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Moore, Ami R.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew E.; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Moyer, Madeline L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Msemburi, William T.; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murray, Joseph; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P.; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Nguyen, Grant; Nisar, Muhammad I.; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohno, Summer L.; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Opio, John Nelson; Ortblad, Katrina; Ortiz, Alberto; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Park, Jae-Hyun; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris I.; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Phillips, Bryan K.; Phillips, David E.; Piel, Frederic B.; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Qato, Dima M.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahman, Sajjad U.; Raju, Murugesan; Rana, Saleem M.; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K. Srinath; Refaat, Amany; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Roberts, D. Allen; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H.; Rowley, Jane T.; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Saeedi, Mohammad Y.; Saha, Sukanta; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sampson, Uchechukwu K. A.; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Scarborough, Peter; Schneider, Ione J.; Schoettker, Ben; Schumacher, Austin E.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serina, Peter T.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya A.; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Silberberg, Donald H.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Skirbekk, Vegard; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Soreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stevens, Antony; Stewart, Andrea; Stovner, Lars J.; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taylor, Hugh R.; Te Ao, Braden J.; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Temesgen, Awoke M.; Templin, Tara; Ten Have, Margreet; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Trillini, Matias; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin M.; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uzun, Selen B.; Van Brakel, Wim H.; Van De Vijver, Steven; van Gool, Coen H.; Van Os, Jim; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy V.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wagner, Joseph; Waller, Stephen G.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Linhong; Warouw, Tati S.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Wang Wenzhi, [Unknown; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Thomas N.; Wolfe, Charles D.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wulf, Sarah; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yentur, Goekalp K.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E.; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zonies, David; Zou, Xiaonong; Salomon, Joshua A.; Lopez, Alan D.; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex grou

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  3. [Clinical aspects of salmonellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzin-Ferrand, L; Auvergnat, J C

    1992-11-15

    Salmonellosis includes two groups of diseases: typhoid fever and non-typhic infections. Epidemiological and clinical features are different in each group. Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries. It realizes septicemia and endotoxinic symptoms, and has not to be forgotten when the patient is back from travelling. Non-typhic infections in most cases produce acute feverish diarrhea, conforming with collective food toxi-infection. Non digestive localizations are usually the fact of underlying diseases, and are able to kill the patient.

  4. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Gurltia paralysans em gatos Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of Gurltia paralysans infection in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Togni

    2013-03-01

    Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The onset of the disease was characterized by tail paralysis, followed by progressive paraparesis in the pelvic limbs, difficulty in ambulation and proprioceptive ataxia. After long prolonged clinical courses (12-24 months, when then affected cats became severely paraparetic and start to develop pressure sores do to decubitus, they were destroyed by the owners. At necropsy there were variable degrees of skeletal muscle atrophy of the pelvic muscles and some degree of reddening of the meninges at the level of T10-L7, due to the presence of a myriad of small blood vessels, as a typical varicose lesion that resembled a vascular hamartoma. Histologically, such lesions consisted of distension of the subarachnoid space due to a collection of dilated, blood-filled, tortuous blood vessels the lumina of which were occasionally partially or completely occluded by thrombi. Those varices were randomly surrounded by a lymphocytic or granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate with small foci of mature eosinophils. In the lumina of these varicose venules cross and longitudinal sections of nematode parasites could be observed. Based on the morphology of these parasites, in their anatomical localization (meningeal blood vessels and in the species (cat affected the nematode was identified as Gurltia paralysans. This paper describes detailed aspects of the epidemiology, clinical disease and pathology of this intriguing feline myelopathy and the definitive diagnosis of the condition: Feline crural parasitic paraplegia, a disease first described in Chile in the 1930's and now, for the first time, in Brazil.

  5. Aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do hemagiossarcoma em cães: 40 casos (1965-2012 Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 40 cases (1965-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Flores

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de casos de hemangiossarcoma em cães da Região Central do RS foram estudados. Dos casos avaliados (n=40, cães idosos e da raça Pastor Alemão foram nitidamente os mais afetados (72,2% e 20% dos casos, respectivamente, visto que na população total de cães necropsiados nesse mesmo período (n=7.063 essa faixa etária e raça tiveram comparativamente uma prevalência bem mais baixa (14,6% e 10,1% dos casos, respectivamente. Na necropsia (n=40, os tumores ocorreram quase sempre como nódulos (92,5% e, menos frequentemente, como massas (37,5%, e afetaram principalmente: baço (62,5%, pulmão (60%, fígado (52,5%, peritônio (42,5%, rim (37,5%, encéfalo (30%, pleura (25% e coração (22,5%. Hemoperitônio (42,5% e, consequentemente, anemia (22,5% foram vistos com certa frequência. Na histologia (n=25, os hemangiossarcomas eram principalmente bem diferenciados (84%, de baixo grau (64% e com estroma escasso (84%, mas frequentemente (68% havia áreas com células demonstrando algum grau de atipia. Necrose, hemorragia e trombose foram vistos em todos os casos, mas hematopoiese extramedular (28% e proliferação angiomatosa benigna (12% foram achados menos comuns. Na imuno- -histoquímica (n=24, utilizando anticorpo anti-fator de von Willebrand, todos os casos demonstraram marcação de intensidade variável com um padrão citoplasmático finamente granular. Em relação à classificação anatômica, 55% dos hemangiossarcomas foram considerados como multicêntricos, 30% como primários com metástase(s e 15% como solitários. Esse artigo discute esses resultados e propõe, com base em combinações de órgãos afetados, um esquema de separação entre hemangiossarcomas primário com metástase(s e multicêntrico, a fim de tentar homogeneizar a maneira com que patologistas veterinários referem-se a esse neoplasma.Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs from the Central

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF A FOCUS OF Tunga penetrans INFESTATION IN OUTDOOR PIG PRODUCTION ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DE UM FOCO DE TUNGÍASE (Tunga penetrans, SIPHONAPTERA EM UM SISTEMA INTENSIVO DE SUÍNOS CRIADOS AO AR LIVRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice Pedroso de Paiva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The outdoors intensive-type pig production is characterized by maintaining swine during reproductive, pregnancy and nursing periods on pasture limited by wiring and/or electric fences. The aim of the present report was to describe the epidemiological aspects of an outbreak of Tunga penetrans in an outdoor pig production system. A total of six mature boars, 9 lactating sows, 13 pregnant sows, 9 mating sows, 20 suckling pigs and 34 weaned pigs were clinically examined. None of the boars were infested, while 50% of all sows examined had the parasite lesions, most frequently observed in the breast area, thus resulting in agalactia in lactating sows due to obstruction of the galactophorus channel, with subsequent involution of the mammary gland. In 90% of suckling piglets walking difficulty was observed, caused by the presence of the parasite in the hoofs, with 25% of these animals also showing hock lesions (farm number 1, n = 48. Similar lesions were observed in 100% of 40-47 days old weaned pigs (farm number 2, n = 24 and in 80% of 70 days old weaned pigs (farm number 3, n = 10, all of which had been transferred to finishing units in a confinement system. Therefore we conclude that Tunga penetrans can infest pigs reared or kept outdoors, causing agalactia in lactating sows, and walking disorders in suckling and weaned pigs.

    KEY-WORDS: Chiggers, agalactia in sows; outdoors pig production.

    O sistema intensivo de produção de suínos criados ao ar livre (SISCAL é caracterizado por manter os suínos em piquetes com cobertura vegetal, nas fases de reprodução, maternidade e creche, cercados com tela e/ou fios de arame eletrificado. Este trabalho teve por objetivo relatar

  7. Aspectos epidemiológicos da AIDS em Florianópolis/SC, Brasil Aspectos epidemiológicos del sida en Florianópolis/SC, Brasil Epidemiological aspects of AIDS in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil

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    Janelice de Azevedo Neves Bastiani

    2012-09-01

    Salud de la Familia y la supervisión de los sistemas de información en los distritos de salud para evaluar la eficiencia y la eficacia de las estrategias la prevención del SIDA en Florianópolis/SC.The purpose is to describe epidemiological aspects of people living with AIDS for 13 years or over in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil, from 1986 to 2006. It's a descriptive and cross-sectional study, with the following data collected: year of diagnosis, gender, age, exposure category, education level, skin color and the registration of the residence at the Regional Health Program, in the National Notifiable Diseases System and in the Information System about Mortality. It was realized the magnitude of men infected by AIDS, with a basic education, white color, age between 20 and 49 years, and heterosexuals. It was noticed the female vulnerability concerning to the reduction of rational between male and female during the period in question. It shows the social base and the specificity of AIDS patients in Florianopolis, suggesting the investments on the territorial diagnosis in the Health Family Strategy and a follow up at the Regional Health Program, in order to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the strategies in preventing AIDS in Florianopolis.

  8. Aspectos epidemiológicos da mortalidade entre doentes de hanseníase no Estado de São Paulo (1931-1980 Epidemiological aspects of mortality among sufferers from Hansen's disease in S. Paulo State (1931-1980

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    Clovis Lombardi

    1984-04-01

    . The author studies the time factor as related to some epidemiological characteristics connected with personal aspects such as patient's age and sex, final clinical form of the disease, place of death, time lag between the occurrence of disease and diagnosis, and time span between the occurrence of dissease and death. The time factor as related to the specific mortality and lethality coefficients in Hansen's disease is analyzed by comparison with the proportional mortality data in the State of S. Paulo, with regard to the above mentioned period. Time-related trends in the profile of causes of death among the patients under consideration is also presented. Causes of death are classified according to all the Sections of the Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death (Ninth Revision-1975 and also according to some of its Categories and Sub-categories classically known as relevant to the pathology of Hansen's disease. In the sub-group containing patients who died from Hansen's disease, the distribution in time of some important personal characteristics such as age, final clinical form of disease, time span between the occurrence of disease and diagnosis, and time span since the beginning of disease till the patient's death are studied. The results found in this sub-group were compared to the ones found in relation to the universe of this study. The results obtained basically show: a there is a tendency towards the improvement of Public Health patterns in the group studied, parallel to that observed for the State of S. Paulo as a whole, but this tendency is influenced by specific factors, such as sulphonic therapy; b the existence of two clearly distinct phases in the trends, of the specific mortality curves: i. e., before and after 1950; c the low socio-economic status of the group studied and its social stygmatization.

  9. Pitfalls of practicing cancer epidemiology in resource-limited settings: the case of survival and loss to follow-up after a diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma in five countries across sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Esther; Semeere, Aggrey; Wenger, Megan; Bwana, Mwebesa; Asirwa, F Chite; Busakhala, Naftali; Oga, Emmanuel; Jedy-Agba, Elima; Kwaghe, Vivian; Iregbu, Kenneth; Jaquet, Antoine; Dabis, Francois; Yumo, Habakkuk Azinyui; Dusingize, Jean Claude; Bangsberg, David; Anastos, Kathryn; Phiri, Sam; Bohlius, Julia; Egger, Matthias; Yiannoutsos, Constantin; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Martin, Jeffrey

    2016-02-06

    Survival after diagnosis is a fundamental concern in cancer epidemiology. In resource-rich settings, ambient clinical databases, municipal data and cancer registries make survival estimation in real-world populations relatively straightforward. In resource-poor settings, given the deficiencies in a variety of health-related data systems, it is less clear how well we can determine cancer survival from ambient data. We addressed this issue in sub-Saharan Africa for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a cancer for which incidence has exploded with the HIV epidemic but for which survival in the region may be changing with the recent advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). From 33 primary care HIV Clinics in Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Nigeria and Cameroon participating in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortia in 2009-2012, we identified 1328 adults with newly diagnosed KS. Patients were evaluated from KS diagnosis until death, transfer to another facility or database closure. Nominally, 22% of patients were estimated to be dead by 2 years, but this estimate was clouded by 45% cumulative lost to follow-up with unknown vital status by 2 years. After adjustment for site and CD4 count, age cancer epidemiology will be limited.

  10. High heterogeneity in methods used for the laboratory confirmation of pertussis diagnosis among European countries, 2010: integration of epidemiological and laboratory surveillance must include standardisation of methodologies and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Glismann, S; Bacci, S

    2012-08-09

    Despite extensive childhood immunisation, pertussis remains one of the world’s leading causes of vaccine preventable deaths. The current methods used for laboratory diagnosis of pertussis include bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology. We conducted a questionnaire survey to identify variations in the laboratory methods and protocols used among participating countries included in the European surveillance network for vaccine-preventable diseases(EUVAC.NET). In February 2010, we performed the survey using a web-based questionnaire and sent it to the country experts of 25 European Union countries,and two European Economic Area (EEA) countries,Norway and Iceland. The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions which covered both general information on surveillance methods and detailed laboratory methods used. A descriptive analysis was performed.Questionnaires were answered by all 27 contacted countries. Nineteen countries had pertussis reference laboratories at the national level; their functions varied from performing diagnosis to providing technical advice for routine microbiology laboratories. Culture,PCR and serology were used in 17, 18 and 20 countries,respectively. For PCR, nine laboratories used insertion sequence IS481 as the target gene, which is present in multiple copies in the Bordetella pertussis genome and thus has a greater sensitivity over single copy targets, but has been proved not to be specific for B.pertussis. Antibodies directed against pertussis toxin(PT) are specific for B. pertussis infections. For ELISA serology, only 13 countries’ laboratories used purified PT as coating antigen and 10 included World Health Organization (WHO) or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reference sera in their tests. This present survey shows that methods used for laboratory confirmation of pertussis differ widely among European countries and that there is a great heterogeneity of the reference

  11. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGIC ASPECTS OF CATTLE DIGITAL DERMATITIS IN TWO DAIRY FARMS IN THE STATE OF GOIAS STATE, BRAZIL ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA DERMATITE DIGITAL BOVINA EM DUAS PROPRIEDADES PRODUTORAS DE LEITE DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS, BRASIL

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    Maria Auxiliadora Leão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From November of 2000 until October 2003 some epidemiologic aspects related to digital dermatitis were evaluated in 7,752 cattle, from two farms in the cities of Jataí and Orizona, Goiás state, in both the wet and dry seasons of the year. Management, age, sex and reproductive status were considered as intrinsic variables of the farm. On the other hand, the introduction of animals without podal examination, cattle transiting on foot or in trucks, access of strangers to the farm, the presence of digital dermatitis bearers in the surrounding properties, and daily visiting of milk transport trucks were considered extrinsic factors to the property. The chi-square test (?2, at 5% of significance, was used to compare the frequency of the condition between age ranges. The comparison between wet and dry seasons of the year associated to intensive and extensive managements was done by diagnosing the condition in the periods and considering the management, and then calculating the association coefficient (j to quantify the intensity of the variables considered. The odds ratio (OR was calculated for the two variables: season of the year and management system. The Spearman coefficient was used to correlate the many associated factors for the disease. Digital dermatitis was diagnosed on 161 (3.85% animals from farm A (Jataí, and in 95 (2.66% animals from farm B (Orizona. There was a difference (p<0.01 on the occurring of the condition among the ages considered, with lower association in farm A (p<0.001 (j=0.13 and moderate association (j=0.41 in farm B. No matter the age ranges, the greater occurrence was diagnosed in the dry season, when the animals were confined. This points to a relative influence from the season in the development of the condition, mainly in farm B, where there was an association (j=0.07. Rainfall and the introduction of new animals in the farm did not correlate positively with the disease. Intensive management presented a greater

  13. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  14. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Šipetić Sandra B.; Tomić-Kundaković Slađana; Vlajinac Hristina D.; Maksimović Nataša; Knežević Anita; Kisić Darija

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consump...

  15. The development and experience of epidemiological transition theory over four decades: a systematic review

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    Ailiana Santosa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological transition (ET theory, first postulated in 1971, has developed alongside changes in population structures over time. However, understandings of mortality transitions and associated epidemiological changes remain poorly defined for public health practitioners. Here, we review the concept and development of ET theory, contextualising this in empirical evidence, which variously supports and contradicts the original theoretical propositions. Design: A Medline literature search covering publications over four decades, from 1971 to 2013, was conducted. Studies were included if they assessed human populations, were original articles, focused on mortality and health or demographic or ET and were in English. The reference lists of the selected articles were checked for additional sources. Results: We found that there were changes in emphasis in the research field over the four decades. There was an increasing tendency to study wide-ranging aspects of the determinants of mortality, including risk factors, lifestyle changes, socio-economics, and macro factors such as climate change. Research on ET has focused increasingly on low- and middle-income countries rather than industrialised countries, despite its origins in industrialised countries. Countries have experienced different levels of progress in ET in terms of time, pace, and underlying mechanisms. Elements of ET are described for many countries, but observed transitions have not always followed pathways described in the original theory. Conclusions: The classic ET theory largely neglected the critical role of social determinants, being largely a theoretical generalisation of mortality experience in some countries. This review shows increasing interest in ET all over the world but only partial concordance between established theory and empirical evidence. Empirical evidence suggests that some unconsidered aspects of social determinants contributed to deviations from classic

  16. Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings Timothy J. Wade, Elizabeth A. Sams, Rich Haugland, Alfred P. Dufour The National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study was conducted to address aspects...

  17. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015.

  18. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

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    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  19. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

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    Brown J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

  20. Country News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  1. National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3·0 million participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Finucane, Mariel M; Danaei, Goodarz

    2011-01-01

    Data for trends in serum cholesterol are needed to understand the effects of its dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacological determinants; set intervention priorities; and evaluate national programmes. Previous analyses of trends in serum cholesterol were limited to a few countries, with no consisten...

  2. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health.

  3. Suicide in India: Distinct epidemiological patterns and implications

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    Starlin Vijay Mythri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a societal crisis which also deeply impacts the personal and family realms. Indian suicidal data present distinctive epidemiological patterns when we compare it with the global suicide rates and trends. Higher proportions of young individuals are resorting to suicide compared to any other country in the world, and Indian suicide rates, especially South Indian rates, are one of the highest in the world. In this article, we present various historical aspects and theories of Indian suicide and review of available Indian research from various sources such as community, hospitals, schools and forensic settings. We discuss our findings which reveal the distinctiveness of Indian data when we compare these with global data and draw implications for practice and policy.

  4. Acute otitis media guidelines in selected developed and developing countries: uniformity and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovnat Tamir, Sharon; Shemesh, Shay; Oron, Yahav; Marom, Tal

    2017-05-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common childhood disease, with an enormous economic and healthcare-related burden. Guidelines and consensus papers for AOM diagnosis and management were published in many countries. Our objective was to study the differences and similarities between these protocols in developing and developed countries. The keywords: 'acute otitis media' AND 'children' AND ['treatment' or 'management'] AND ['guideline' or 'consensus'] were used in various electronic databases between 1 January 1989 through 31 December 2015. Overall, 99 sources from 62 countries were retrieved: 53 from 22 developed countries, and 46 from 40 developing countries. Representative guidelines from America (the USA, Argentina), Europe (Italy, Moldova), Africa (South Africa, Tanzania, Ethiopia), Asia (Japan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka),and Oceania (South Australia, Fiji) were compared. Paediatric societies publish guidelines in most developed countries; in developing countries, the Ministry of Health usually initiates guideline formulation. Most guidelines use the same diagnostic criteria and offer watchful waiting in mild-moderate scenarios. Amoxicillin is the suggested first-line antibiotic, whereas options for second-line and third-line therapies vary. Duration of therapy varies and is usually age dependent: 5-7 days for children 2 years in developed countries, while duration and age groups vary greatly in developing countries. Reduction of AOM risk factors is encouraged in developed countries, but rarely in developing countries. Guidelines for AOM from developing and developed countries are similar in many aspects, with variation in specific recommendations, due to local epidemiology and healthcare accessibility. Formulation of regional guidelines may help reduce AOM burden. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Aspectos epidemiológicos da tuberculose pleural no estado de São Paulo (1998-2005 Epidemiological aspects of pleural tuberculosis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1998-2005

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    Márcia Seiscento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as características epidemiológicas e tendências quanto à incidência de TB pleural. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, retrospectivo dos casos de TB reportados entre 1998 e 2005 e coletados do banco de dados do Sistema de Notificação de Tuberculose (Epi-TB da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado de São Paulo. RESULTADOS: Foram notificados 144.347 casos novos de TB durante o período estudado. A forma pulmonar foi predominante (118.575 casos; 82,2%. Das formas extrapulmonares (25.773 casos; 17,8%, a pleural foi a mais referida (12.545 casos; 48,7%. A incidência (por 100.000 habitantes de todas as formas diminuiu, (49,7 em 1998 e 44,6 em 2005; R² = 0,898; p OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of and trends regarding the incidence of pleural TB. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of TB cases reported between 1998 and 2005 and compiled from the Epidemiological Surveillance Tuberculosis System (Epi-TB database. RESULTS: A total of 144,347 new cases of TB were reported during the period studied. Pulmonary TB was the predominant form (118,575 cases; 82.2%. Among the extrapulmonary forms (25,773 cases; 17.8%, pleural TB was the form most often reported (12,545 cases; 48.7%. For all forms, the incidence (per 100,000 population decreased (from 49.7 in 1998 to 44.6 in 2005; R² = 0.898; p < 0.001, whereas the incidence of pleural TB remained stable (4.1 in 1998 and 3.8 in 2005; R² = 0.433; p = 0.076. The highest incidence of pleural TB was found among males (2:1 aged from 30 to 59 years. Of the 12,545 patients with pleural TB, 4,018 (32.0% presented comorbidities: alcoholism (9.5%; HIV (8.0%; diabetes (3.3%; and mental illness (1.2%. The diagnosis was based on bacteriological (14.2% and histological (30.2% methods, as well as on unspecified methods (55.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Pleural TB was the predominant extrapulmonary form of TB in the state of São Paulo, with a stable incidence between 1998 and 2005

  6. National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 370 country-years and 2·7 million participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Finucane, Mariel M; Lu, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Data for trends in glycaemia and diabetes prevalence are needed to understand the effects of diet and lifestyle within populations, assess the performance of interventions, and plan health services. No consistent and comparable global analysis of trends has been done. We estimated trends...... and their uncertainties in mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and diabetes prevalence for adults aged 25 years and older in 199 countries and territories....

  7. TUBERCULOSIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL

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    Giorgia Sulis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with some where prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently launched the new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035, based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.

  8. Epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Beiras, Camila; Marks, Michael; Chen, Cheng Y; Roberts, Sally; Mitjà, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The global epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi infections is poorly documented because of difficulties in confirming microbiological diagnoses. We evaluated published data on the proportion of genital and nongenital skin ulcers caused by H. ducreyi before and after introduction of syndromic management for genital ulcer disease (GUD). Before 2000, the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi ranged from 0.0% to 69.0% (35 studies in 25 countries). After 2000, the proportion ranged from 0.0% to 15.0% (14 studies in 13 countries). In contrast, H. ducreyi has been recently identified as a causative agent of skin ulcers in children in the tropical regions; proportions ranged from 9.0% to 60.0% (6 studies in 4 countries). We conclude that, although there has been a sustained reduction in the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi, this bacterium is increasingly recognized as a major cause of nongenital cutaneous ulcers.

  9. Genetic epidemiology, hematological and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with -α(3.7 kb) as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed.

  10. Genetic Epidemiology, Hematological and Clinical Features of Hemoglobinopathies in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with −α 3.7 kb as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed. PMID:23853772

  11. Genetic Epidemiology, Hematological and Clinical Features of Hemoglobinopathies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran and Kermanshah (western Iran provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed.

  12. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  13. Aspectos epidemiológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em Varzelândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil Epidemiological aspects of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Varzelândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Guimarães Nunes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar uma área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar americana susceptível de intervenção com candidato à vacina anti-leishmania, foi iniciado em 1999 estudo longitudinal em área rural do Município de Varzelândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Inicialmente, foram cadastrados 1.253 indivíduos distribuídos em 246 domicílios, dos quais, 1.170 concordaram em participar do trabalho. Desses, 593 (50,6% eram masculinos e 662 (56,5%, menores de 21 anos. A intradermorreação de Montenegro foi realizada em 1.120 indivíduos, lida em 1.020 dos casos, e observada reatividade em 282 (27,6% deles. Anticorpos anti-leishmania foram testados mediante imunofluorescência indireta e teste ELISA em 970 (82,9% indivíduos, obtendo-se positividade, respectivamente, em 127 (13,1% e 170 (17,5% para os dois testes. Na avaliação inicial, foram observados 297 (25,4% indivíduos com cicatrizes cutâneas semelhantes às deixadas pela doença. Desses, 282 realizaram a intradermorreação que foi positiva em168 (59,61%. A prevalência de casos de leishmaniose tegumentar no início do estudo foi de 5,8% e, depois do primeiro ano, observou-se incidência anual de 4,6% de casos. As características epidemiológicas observadas nesse local sugerem tratar-se de uma área endêmica de colonização antiga.To characterize an area of endemic leishmaniasis, aiming to test a candidate leishmania vaccine, a prospective epidemiological survey was implemented in 1999 in a rural area of Varzelândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. From a total of 1,253 persons in 246 households, 1,170 were included, of whom 593 (50.6% were males and 662 (56.5% were under 21 years of age. A Montenegro intradermal test performed in 1,120 individuals and evaluated in 1,020 was reactive in 282 (27.6%. Serological testing through indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA was performed in 970 individuals (82.9%. Antibodies to Leishmania sp. were detected in 117 (13.1% and 170 (17.5%, respectively, by the two

  14. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de las infecciones por Streptococcus pyogenes en el período neonatal Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in the neonatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Alvarez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la infección por Estreptococo del grupo A en los recién nacidos egresados de hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos, quienes tuvieron infecciones por estreptococos del grupo A y que estuvieron ingresados en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre 1992 y el 2005. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad. RESULTADOS. Se registraron 20 recién nacidos con infección por estreptococos del grupo A, lo cual representó una tasa promedio anual de 0,2 cada 100 ingresos. Esta infección muestra una incidencia con tendencia significativa a disminuir en los últimos años. Según la clasificación utilizada, todas las infecciones fueron de inicio tardío y, de acuerdo al origen, predominaron las adquiridas en la comunidad (95,0 %. La infección de tejidos blandos fue la forma clínica más frecuente (10 de 20; 50 % y cursó con bacteriemia. Los aislamientos de estreptococos del grupo A tuvieron un 100 % de sensibilidad ante los betalactámicos. Hubo un solo paciente fallecido, afecto de meningitis, lo cual significó una tasa de letalidad del 5,0 %. CONCLUSIONES. El estreptococo del grupo A es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, fundamentalmente en el ambiente comunitario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central, a pesar del patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los betalactámicos.INTRODUCTION. The objective of the present investigation was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infection caused by group A Streptococcus in the newborn infants discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that

  15. Hypertension in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibazarwa, Kemi B; Damasceno, Albertino A

    2014-05-01

    The past 2 decades have seen a considerable global increase in cardiovascular disease, with hypertension remaining by far the most common. More than one-third of adults in Africa are hypertensive; as in the urban populations of most developing countries. Being a condition that occurs with relatively few symptoms, hypertension remains underdetected in many countries; especially in developing countries where routine screening at any point of health care is grossly underutilized. Because hypertension is directly related to cardiovascular disease, this has led to hypertension being the leading cause of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, as a result of patients living, often unknowingly, with uncontrolled hypertension for prolonged periods of time. In Africa, hypertension is the leading cause of heart failure; whereas at global levels, hypertension is responsible for more than half of deaths from stroke, just less than half of deaths from coronary artery disease, and for more than one-tenth of all global deaths. In this review, we discuss the escalating occurrence of hypertension in developing countries, before exploring the strengths and weaknesses of different measures to control hypertension, and the challenges of adopting these measures in developing countries. On a broad level, these include steps to curb the ripple effect of urbanization on the health and disease profile of developing societies, and suggestions to improve loopholes in various aspects of health care delivery that affect surveillance and management of hypertension. Furthermore, we consider how the industrial sectors' contributions toward the burden of hypertension can also be the source of the solution.

  16. Costs and epidemiological changes of chronic diseases: implications and challenges for health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Armando; Aviles, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The need to integrate economic and epidemiological aspects in the clinical perspective leads to a proposal for the analysis of health disparities and to an evaluation of the health services and of the new challenges which are now being faced by health system reforms in middle income countries. To identify the epidemiological changes, the demand for health services and economic burden from chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension) in a middle income county. We conducted longitudinal analyses of costs and epidemiological changes for diabetes and hypertension in the Mexican health system. The study population included both the insured and uninsured populations. The cost-evaluation method was used, based on the instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and financial consequences for 2014-2016, six models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique, using confidence intervals of 95%, and the Box-Pierce test. Regarding epidemiological changes expected in both diseases for 2014 vs. 2016, an increase is expected, although results predict a greater increase for diabetes, 8-12% in all three studied institutions, (p management per patient in the case of diabetes, and from $485 to $622 in patients with hypertension. Comparing financial consequences of health services required by insured and uninsured populations, the greater increase (23%) will be for the insured population (p financial requirements of both diseases will amount to 19.5% of the total budget for the uninsured and 12.5% for the insured population. If the risk factors and the different health care models remain as they currently are, the economic impact of expected epidemiological changes on the social security system will be particularly strong. Another relevant challenge is the appearance of internal competition in the use and allocation of financial resources with programs for other chronic and infectious diseases.

  17. Cholera Epidemiology in Zambia from 2000 to 2010: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholera Epidemiology in Zambia from 2000 to 2010: Implications for ... we make recommendations for improving cholera prevention and control in country. ... compared to 2003) and 115 deaths (CFR 1.6%) of the disease were reported with ...

  18. The genesis and evolution of the African Field Epidemiology Network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given this human resource situation, the challenge remains for these countries to ... and the development of human resource capacity to implement IDSR in Africa. ... Training Programs (FETPs) and Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training ...

  19. [Sanitary-and-epidemiologic examination of the food-products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V B; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of sanitary and epidemiologic examination of food products are considered. The examination is an important part of sanitary and epidemiologic control and surveillance in the sphere of food safety and quality, consumer rights protection, consumer market and human welfare.

  20. Quality in epidemiological surveillance of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Wilkinson, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    -specific information, including partial non-compliance with the guideline, as indicated. Besides technical aspects, the quality of reporting of scientific results has several other dimensions, including epidemiological and biostatistical aspects discussed in this article. Prospectively, when a study is planned...... of quality should be considered when the weight of evidence that a study publication provides is evaluated. Employing rigid 'quality criteria' may have the detrimental effect of relevant, if slightly imperfect, evidence being deliberately excluded....

  1. Epidemiology of cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E K

    1985-12-01

    Some information on cancer in Malaysia are available, and its epidemiology is described. There is a need for systematic and coordinated collection of cancer statistics which are essential to patient management, cancer control programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. The decision of the Ministry of Health to introduce National Cancer Registry and to encourage epidemiological studies, which will ultimately lead to the utilization of data and introduction of control and preventive activities for cancers are positive steps in the right direction. Meanwhile, curative and palliative treatment is available from the existing hospital facilities, and preventive activities such as actions on smoking and health will be continued until such time when a comprehensive prevention and control programme for cancers in the country is evolved.

  2. Conceptual and methodological aspects of relations between discrimination and health in epidemiological studies Aspectos conceituais e metodológicos das relações entre discriminação e saúde em estudos epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Bastos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses conceptual and methodological aspects of the relations between discrimination and health from an epidemiological perspective. Definitions of discrimination and related constructs are reviewed, and the main theories underlying their association with health are presented. Scales developed to assess discrimination are discussed, in conjunction with a new instrument, devised to operationalize the concept in Brazilian epidemiological surveys. As a relatively unpredictable and uncontrollable source of psychosocial stress, discrimination has been consistently associated with adverse health outcomes and behaviors, particularly mental disorders, smoking, and alcohol use. However, progress in the area depends partly on dealing with aspects related to the assessment of the phenomenon, such as the definition of a construct map and simultaneous measurement of different types of discrimination. Research involving these aspects will enhance our understanding of discrimination and its health consequences, thus increasing our ability to reduce its social occurrence.Abordam-se aspectos conceituais e metodológicos das relações entre discriminação e saúde, sob uma perspectiva epidemiológica. São revisadas definições de discriminação, construtos correlatos e apresentadas as teorias subjacentes à interpretação de suas associações com saúde. Discutem-se os instrumentos desenvolvidos para aferição da discriminação e uma proposta para sua operacionalização em inquéritos epidemiológicos brasileiros. Enquanto fonte de estresse psicossocial relativamente imprevisível e de difícil controle, a discriminação tem sido consistentemente associada com piores condições/comportamentos em saúde, sobretudo transtornos mentais, tabagismo e uso de álcool. Entretanto, avanços na área dependem, em parte, do enfrentamento de questões vinculadas à aferição do fenômeno, como a definição de um mapa do construto e a necessidade

  3. Aspectos epidemiológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar em área endêmica do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se em 1992 e 1993 um inquérito epidemiológico para leishmaniose tegumentar (LT envolvendo 684 indivíduos de uma população de aproximadamente 1400 pessoas de seis localidades agrícolas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos e Fazenda Mururê de uma área endêmica nos Municípios de Jussara e Terra Boa, no Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Do total de 684 indivíduos estudados, 19,9% tinham história de LT. Ressalta-se que na Fazenda Jussara ocorreu o maior percentual de pessoas com história de LT (51/126 ou 40,5%. Das 684 reações de imunofluorescência indireta realizadas, 58 (8,5% tiveram títulos significativos, e destas, 17 (29,3% eram de pessoas sem história de LT. A intradermorreação de Montenegro foi realizada em 97 indivíduos com história de LT, sendo positiva em 80 (82,5% deles. No momento do inquérito, sete indivíduos apresentavam lesão característica de LT, e em quatro deles a pesquisa de Leishmania sp. foi positiva. A cepa de Leishmania isolada de um destes indivíduos foi identificada como Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis.An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%. Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5% presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3% of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%. During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions

  4. Aspectos epidemiológicos del trauma acústico en personal expuesto a ruido intenso Epidemiological aspects of acoustic trauma found in the staff exposed to intensive noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmila Rodríguez Fernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el trauma acústico, ligado a las enfermedades profesionales, comenzó a estudiarse con profundidad a raíz de la segunda guerra mundial, y por los alarmantes resultados se implantaron una serie de medidas de prevención para evitar esta agresión. No obstante, estas no fueron eficaces debido a la falta de educación y de concientización del personal al cual iban dirigidas. Objetivos: determinar las manifestaciones auditivas en pacientes expuestos a ruidos intensos, teniendo en cuenta la edad, el sexo y el tiempo de exposición, y tomando como base los resultados audiométricos. Métodos: se realizó una encuesta epidemiológica a un grupo de 50 casos expuestos a ruidos intensos, en el período comprendido de enero de 2007 a enero de 2008. La muestra estuvo compuesta por pacientes entre los 20 y 55 años, en los cuales la manifestación auditiva más frecuente fue la hipoacusia. Resultados: en los resultados audiométricos se observó que la gran mayoría de los casos presentó una hipoacusia de tipo neurosensorial, con predominio del sexo masculino. Conclusiones: el sexo masculino fue el más afectado y la edad de 41 a 55 años, además, la intensidad de la hipoacusia fue mayor en correspondencia con el tiempo de exposición más prolongado.Introduction: acoustic trauma is linked to professional diseases and began to be studied in depth after the Second World War. Due to the alarming results obtained, a number of preventive measures to avoid this aggression were implemented; however, they were not effective because of the lack of education and awareness of the staff to which they were directed. Objectives: to find out the auditory manifestations in patients exposed to intensive noise, taking age, sex, time of exposure and the audiometric results into consideration. Methods: an epidemiological survey was carried out in a group of 50 cases exposed to intensive noises from January 2007 to January, 2008. The sample was made up of 20

  5. Scorpion stings in Turkey: epidemiological and clinical aspects between the years 1995 and 2004 Picadas de escorpião na Turquia: aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos entre os anos de 1995 e 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Cesaretli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important health-threatening scorpions found in Turkey are; Androctonus crassicauda, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Mesobuthus gibbosus and M. eupeus species, all of which belong to the Buthidae family. The epidemiological and clinical findings of scorpion stings in Turkey were evaluated between the years 1995 and 2004 based on data recorded in the National Poison Information Center (NPIC. A total of 930 cases were recorded. The cases mostly occurred in the month of July. The gender distribution was 50.22% female and 45.48% male. It was shown that the 20-29 age group presented more scorpion stings. Most of the stings occurred in Central Anatolia and Marmara regions of Turkey. Patients at the hospital showed signs of localized (pain, hyperemia, edema and numbness and systemic effects (hyperthermia, nausea and vomiting, tachycardia, shivering and lethargy but no lethality was notified. According to records, 33% of the poisoned patients were treated with antivenin in healthcare facilities.Os mais importantes escorpiões que comprometem a saúde na Turquia são: Androctonus crassicauda, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Mesobuthus gibbosus e M. eupeus, todos eles pertencentes à família Buthidae. Os achados clínicos e epidemiológicos da picada de escorpiões na Turquia foram avaliados no período entre os anos de 1995 a 2004 baseados em dados do Centro Nacional de Informações de Envenenamentos (NPIC. Foram registrados 930 casos que ocorreram principalmente no mês de julho. A distribuição por sexo foi 50,22% femininos e 45,48% masculinos. Demonstrou-se que o grupo etário de 20 a 29 anos apresentou maior número de picadas de escorpião. A maior parte das picadas ocorreu na Anatólia Central e na região de Marmara, na Turquia. Os pacientes hospitalizados mostraram sinais localizados (dor, hiperemia, edema e confusão mental e sistêmicos (hipertermia, náusea e vômitos, taquicardia, arrepios de frio e letargia, mas não houve notificação de

  6. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  7. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries and correlates closely with infant mortality rates.' ARI is an ... aetiology, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features and outcomes of ARI. .... summary of the RSV/ ARI information they contain are shown in Table 1. ..... childhood pneumonia among the urban poor in Fortaleza, Brazil: a case-control study. Bull.

  8. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology and possible risk factors associated with the development of cryptosporidiosis among European patients with AIDS. METHODS: An inception cohort of 6548 patients with AIDS, consecutively diagnosed from 1979 to 1989, from 52 centres in 17 European countries was studi...

  9. Epilepsy in India I: Epidemiology and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Amudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 70 million persons with epilepsy (PWE worldwide, nearly 12 million PWE are expected to reside in India; which contributes to nearly one-sixth of the global burden. This paper (first of the two part series provides an in-depth understanding of the epidemiological aspects of epilepsy in India for developing effective public health prevention and control programs. The overall prevalence (3.0-11.9 per 1,000 population and incidence (0.2-0.6 per 1,000 population per year data from recent studies in India on general population are comparable to the rates of high-income countries (HICs despite marked variations in population characteristics and study methodologies. There is a differential distribution of epilepsy among various sociodemographic and economic groups with higher rates reported for the male gender, rural population, and low socioeconomic status. A changing pattern in the age-specific occurrence of epilepsy with preponderance towards the older age group is noticed due to sociodemographic and epidemiological transition. Neuroinfections, neurocysticercosis (NCC, and neurotrauma along with birth injuries have emerged as major risk factors for secondary epilepsy. Despite its varied etiology (unknown and known, majority of the epilepsy are manageable in nature. This paper emphasizes the need for focused and targeted programs based on a life-course perspective and calls for a stronger public health approach based on equity for prevention, control, and management of epilepsy in India.

  10. Epilepsy in India I: Epidemiology and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amudhan, Senthil; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Of the 70 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide, nearly 12 million PWE are expected to reside in India; which contributes to nearly one-sixth of the global burden. This paper (first of the two part series) provides an in-depth understanding of the epidemiological aspects of epilepsy in India for developing effective public health prevention and control programs. The overall prevalence (3.0-11.9 per 1,000 population) and incidence (0.2-0.6 per 1,000 population per year) data from recent studies in India on general population are comparable to the rates of high-income countries (HICs) despite marked variations in population characteristics and study methodologies. There is a differential distribution of epilepsy among various sociodemographic and economic groups with higher rates reported for the male gender, rural population, and low socioeconomic status. A changing pattern in the age-specific occurrence of epilepsy with preponderance towards the older age group is noticed due to sociodemographic and epidemiological transition. Neuroinfections, neurocysticercosis (NCC), and neurotrauma along with birth injuries have emerged as major risk factors for secondary epilepsy. Despite its varied etiology (unknown and known), majority of the epilepsy are manageable in nature. This paper emphasizes the need for focused and targeted programs based on a life-course perspective and calls for a stronger public health approach based on equity for prevention, control, and management of epilepsy in India. PMID:26425001

  11. [Leishmania epidemiology, diagnosis, chemotherapy and vaccination approaches in the international network of Pasteur Institutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzir, Hechmi; Aoun, Karim; Späth, Gerald F; Laouini, Dhafer; Prina, Eric; Victoir, Kathleen; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2013-12-01

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania generate severe human diseases termed leishmaniases. Due to their frequency and the severity of certain clinical forms, these diseases represent a major public health problem and limit the economic growth in various developing countries. The presence of Pasteur Institutes in countries with endemic leishmaniasis has provided important incentives to develop a strong public health agenda in the Pasteur scientific community with respect to this important disease. A concerted effort is now coordinated through the recently created LeishRIIP platform (www.leishriip.org), which aims to identify synergies and complementary expertise between the eleven members of the international network of Pasteur Institutes working on various aspects of the disease including epidemiology, diagnosis, chemotherapy and vaccination.

  12. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  13. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  14. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  15. On putative periodontal pathogens: an epidemiological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Hujoel, Philippe; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2015-01-01

    The current understanding on the role of microbiology on periodontitis causation is reviewed. An appraisal of the literature reveals several issues that have limited the attempts to investigate candidate periodontal pathogens as causes of periodontitis and confirms that only limited epidemiological evidence is available. Several aspects of the contemporary understanding on causal inference are discussed with examples for periodontitis.

  16. The globalization of epidemiology: introductory remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil

    2004-10-01

    We are all living in the era of globalization, and like it or not, it is going to change the way we practice epidemiology, the kinds of questions we ask, and the methods we use to answer them. Increasingly, pubic health problems are being shifted from rich countries to poor countries and from rich to poor populations within Western countries. There is increasing interest and concern about the situation in non-Western populations on the part of Western epidemiologists, with regards to collaborative research, skills transfer, and 'volunteerism' to enable the 'benefits' of Western approaches to epidemiology to be shared by the non-Western world. However, most existing collaborations benefit Western epidemiologists rather than the countries in which the research is conducted. Even when research in non-Western populations is conducted as a genuine collaboration, it can too often 'export failure' from the West. On the other hand, non-Western epidemiologists are increasingly developing new and innovative approaches to health research that are more appropriate to the global public health issues they are addressing. These include recognition of the importance of context and the importance of diversity and local knowledge, and a problem-based approach to addressing the major public health problems using appropriate technology. These debates formed the background for a plenary session on 'International Epidemiology and International Health' at the recent International Epidemiological Association (IEA) meeting in Montreal, and the papers from this session are presented here. The development of a truly global epidemiology can not only better address the public health problems in non-Western populations, but can shed light on the current limitations of epidemiology in addressing the major public health problems in the West.

  17. [Dermato-epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, C J; Diepgen, T L; Weisshaar, E

    2011-11-01

    Dermato-epidemiology is an important scientific discipline which investigates skin diseases using epidemiological methods. Epidemiology is the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in specified populations. We describe fundamental terms of dermato-epidemiology (measures of disease occurrence, measures of risk), different study types (observational studies, interventional studies), the selection of statistical tests, bias and confounding as well as the principles of evidence-based dermatology, and give illustrative examples.

  18. Aspectos epidemiológicos das lesões no pé e tornozelo do paciente diabético Epidemiological aspects of foot and ankle injury in the diabetic patient

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    Ricardo Cardenuto Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes que procuram tratamento ortopédico das complicações nos pés e tornozelos relacionadas ao diabetes, além de correlacionar à sequência de eventos que culminam na amputação da extremidade. MÉTODO: analisamos os dados de prontuário de 300 pacientes no período compreendido entre março de 1997 a julho de 2006. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 61 anos, destes, duzentos e setenta e três pacientes (91% apresentavam diagnóstico de diabetes do tipo II, onde somente 49 (16,3% faziam controle regular da glicemia. Quatrocentos e cinco extremidades apresentavam problemas afetando a função do pé ou tornozelo, detacando-se: 102 extremidades (34% com lesões osteoarticulares relacionadas a neuroartropatia de Charcot; 181 extremidades (60,4% com ulceração crônica e 97 extremidades (32,4% com infecção. Após tempo médio de seguimento 14 pacientes (4,6% foram a óbito. CONCLUSÃO: A ulceração na planta dos pés foi a complicação mais frequente na nossa série de pacientes que, estavam na sétima década de vida, apresentavam diabetes do tipo II, faziam uso irregular de insulina e não realizavam controle adequado da glicemia. A perda da sensibilidade protetora nos pés, em associação com deformidade pré-existente, foi identificada como a principal causa das infecções secundárias culminando com a amputação da extremidade.OBJECTIVE: To identify the epidemiological profile of patients undergoing orthopedic treatment for complications of the feet and ankles due to diabetes, and to try to establish the sequence of events that led to amputation of the limb. METHOD: The medical records of 300 diabetic patients treated from March, 1997 to July, 2006 were systematically reviewed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 61 years. Of these, two hundred and seventy three (91% were diagnosed with type II diabetes, but only 49 (16.3% had proper medical supervision and control of

  19. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil Aspectos epidemiológicos de acidentes de lacraias (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda em região urbana de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Irene Knysak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.INTRODUÇÃO: A falta de conhecimentos básicos e a

  20. Aspectos epidemiológicos da hanseníase na cidade de Recife, PE em 2002 Epidemiologic aspects of leprosy in the city of Recife, Pernambuco state, 2002

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    Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2004-08-01

    55.4% and 37.5% of the cases, respectively (x²=37.04; p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to demonstrate that Recife is still an endemic region due to a high incidence of the tuberculoid form, i.e. the epidemiological pointer suggestive of increased endemic diseases in the region. Only with the diagnosis and early treatment of the cases can the transmission of the illness chain be broken.

  1. Eco-epidemiological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli and their vector (Rhodnius pallescens in Panama Generalidades do Trypanosoma cruzi, do Trypanosoma rangeli e do seu vetor (Rhodnius pallescens no Panamá

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    Ana Maria de Vasquez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The eco-epidemiology of T. cruzi infection was investigated in the Eastern border of the Panama Canal in Central Panama. Between 1999 and 2000, 1110 triatomines were collected: 1050 triatomines (94.6% from palm trees, 27 (2.4% from periurban habitats and 33 (3.0% inside houses. All specimens were identified as R. pallescens. There was no evidence of vector domiciliation. Salivary glands from 380 R. pallescens revealed a trypanosome natural infection rate of 7.6%, while rectal ampoule content from 373 triatomines was 45%. Isoenzyme profiles on isolated trypanosomes demonstrated that 85.4% (n = 88 were T. cruzi and 14.6% (n = 15 were T. rangeli. Blood meal analysis from 829 R. pallescens demonstrated a zoophilic vector behavior, with opossums as the preferential blood source. Seroprevalence in human samples from both study sites was less than 2%. Our results demonstrate that T. cruzi survives in the area in balanced association with R. pallescens, and with several different species of mammals in their natural niches. However, the area is an imminent risk of infection for its population, consequently it is important to implement a community educational program regarding disease knowledge and control measures.A epidemiologia da infecção do T. cruzi foi investigada na margem oriental do canal do Panamá, na região central da Republica do Panamá. A informação obtida durante o estudo avaliou fatores de risco da doença de Chagas nesta área. Entre 1999 e 2000, 1110 triatomíneos foram coletados: 1050 triatomíneos (94,6% em palmeiras, 27 (2,4% em habitats periurbanos e 33 (3,0% no interior de casas. Todos os espécimens foram identificados como R. pallescens. Não havia nenhuma evidência de domiciliação do vetor. O exame de glândulas salivares de 380 R. pallescens revelaram taxa de infecção natural por Trypanosoma de 7,6%, mas o conteúdo da ampola rectal de 373 triatomíneos mostrou 45% de positividade. Os perfis de isoenzimas em

  2. Seca dos ponteiros da goiabeira causada por Erwinia psidii: níveis de incidência e aspectos epidemiológicos Guava bacterial blight due to Erwinia psidii: incidence levels and epidemiological aspects

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    Abi Soares Anjos Marques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fatores limitantes ao cultivo da goiabeira no Brasil é a 'seca dos ponteiros', causada por Erwinia psidii, presente nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste, onde se concentram grandes áreas produtoras. Considerando a pequena disponibilidade de informações sobre a epidemiologia e níveis de incidência dessa bacteriose, este estudo teve como objetivos: confirmar a distribuição e verificar a dispersão da seca dos ponteiros da goiabeira no Distrito Federal; investigar o efeito da temperatura sobre a multiplicação in vitro de E. psidii; desenvolver um teste de patogenicidade prático e eficiente e avaliar a sobrevivência in vitro da bactéria em diferentes substratos. A doença foi identificada em 56% das propriedades produtoras avaliadas no DF, com 81,9% de correlação entre a presença de sintomas e o diagnóstico laboratorial. A melhor faixa de temperatura para multiplicação de E. psidii foi de 24 a 33 ºC, e a bactéria permaneceu viável por até 120 dias em suspensão em água. A inoculação da bactéria em folhas ou hastes destacadas levou ao aparecimento de sintomas a partir do sétimo dia e mostrou-se eficiente como um teste rápido para se avaliar a patogenicidade de isolados.A major disease that affects guava is 'bacterial blight', caused by Erwinia psidii, which has been reported in Southeastern and Central Regions of Brazil where the major producing areas are located. Considering the lack of information on epidemiology and incidence levels of this disease, the objectives of this study were to confirm the presence and to verify the spread of the disease in Distrito Federal (DF; to determine optimal temperature for in vitro multiplication of E. psidii; to develop a simple and effective method for pathogenicity testing and to evaluate in vitro bacterial survival on different substrates. The disease was detected in 56% of producing orchards evaluated in DF, with a correlation of 81, 9% between presence of symptoms and

  3. Perfil epidemiológico dos atendimentos de emergência por sintomas respiratórios em um hospital terciário Epidemiological aspects of respiratory symptoms treated in the emergency room of a tertiary care hospital

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    Denise Rossato Silva

    2013-04-01

    respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of emergency room visits due to respiratory symptoms was 28.7% and 38.9% among adults and children, respectively. In adults, the rates of hospitalization and mortality were 21.2% and 2.7%, respectively, compared with 11.9% and 0.3%, respectively, in children. Among the adults, the time from symptom onset to emergency room visit correlated positively with the need for hospitalization (p < 0.0001, the length of the hospital stay (p < 0.0001, and the mortality rate (p = 0.028. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms as the motive for emergency room visits by adult and pediatric patients. Our results could inform decisions regarding the planning of prevention measures. Further epidemiological studies are needed in order to clarify the risk factors for severe respiratory symptoms.

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  5. Comparative epidemiology of gastric cancer between Japan and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingsong Lin; Junko Ueda; Shogo Kikuchi; Yukari Totsuka; Wen-Qiang Wei; You-Lin Qiao; Manami Inoue

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the similarities and differences in gastric cancer epidemiology between Japan and China. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed database was performed. The relevant literature published in China was also been cited. Data on incidence and mortality rates in 2008 were obtained from the Cancer Mondial database, published by International Agency for Research on Cancer at http://www-dep.iarc.fr/.RESULTS: Gastric cancer remains a significant public health burden in both Japan and China. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization is high in the adult populations of both countries. Accumulating evidence from intervention studies in both countries has shown the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication in reducing gastric cancer incidence. There are differences, however, in many aspects of gastric cancer, including patterns of incidence and mortality, trends in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, H. pylori strains, the magnitude of risk of gastric cancer related to H. pylori infection, and associations with dietary habits. Compared with China, Japan has seen a more rapid decline in H. pylori infection among adolescents. While Japanese cohort studies have dominated the literature concerning the associations between gastric cancer and dietary habits, numerous case-control studies in China suggest a positive association between a high intake of preserved fish and vegetables and gastric cancer risk. There is a need for a multidisciplinary research approach to understand the interactions between various strains of H. pylori, host factors, and other lifestyle and environmental factors in gastric carcinogenesis in both countries.CONCLUSION: The shared high incidence of gastric cancer and high prevalence of H. pylori, as well as differences in many aspects of gastric cancer, provide an excellent opportunity to establish Sino-Japanese collaborations.

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos da seneciose na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul Epidemiological aspects of seneciosis in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Fernando Sérgio Castilhos Karam

    2004-12-01

    of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This paper presents epidemiological data of 24 outbreaks in cattle and one in horses, diagnosed by the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory at Pelotas University in southern Rio Grande do Sul, from 1998 to 2000. Additionally, data of 54 outbreaks which occurred in 1978-1997 were analyzed. The farms where outbreaks occurred in 1998-2000 were visited to obtain clinical and epidemiological data and to verify the presence of Senecio spp. Eleven outbreaks (45.83% affected cattle up to 3 years of age, and 13 (54.16% cattle over 3 years. Nine (37.5% outbreaks affected females and 15 (62.5% males. Ten (41.66% outbreaks occurred in spring, 4 (16.66% in summer, 5 (20.83% in autumn, and 5 (20.83% in winter. Morbidity rate was estimated with 4.92% and case fatality with 95.59%. The predomionating Senecio species were S. brasiliensis on 12 farms (57.14%, S. selloi on 10 (47.61%, S. oxyphyllus on 6 (28.57%, S. heterotrichius on 3 (14.28%, and S. leptolobus on 1 farm (4.76%. The main clinical signs were progressive emaciation, incoordination, diarrhea, tenesmus, rectal prolapse and aggressiveness. The clinical manifestation periods of affected cattle observed during the farm visits, or of cattle sent for post-mortem examination,were 24-96 hours in 4 outbreaks (16.66%, 4-7 days in 7 (29.16%, 1-2 weeks in 4 (16.66%, 2-3 weeks in 2 (8.33%, 1-2 months in 2 (8.33%, and 2-3 months in 1 outbreak (4.16%. In 4 outbreaks (16.66% the clinical manifestation period was not established. In outbreaks with longer clinical manifestation periods some animals showed photosensitization. The main necropsy findings were a hard and enlarged liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesenterium and abomasum, and increased amount of liquid in the cavities. Histopathological findings were fibroplasia, megalocytosis and biliary ductal proliferation of the liver, and spongy degeneration of the cerebral white matter. Samples of different Senecio species, in different seasons, were

  7. Características epidemiológicas de las nuevas infecciones causadas por el VIH comparadas con los casos de sida: La epidemia de VIH/ sida en el País Vasco Epidemiological characteristics of new HIV infections compared with AIDS cases: The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Basque Country [Spain

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    Daniel Zulaika

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas de los nuevos diagnósticos de infección por el VIH en el período 1997-2001 y comparlas con los casos de sida (1991-2001. Métodos: Se han recogido retrospectivamente los datos de las nuevas infecciones por el VIH ocurridas en el País Vasco (1997-2001 y se han comparado con los casos de sida (1991-2001. Resultados: Se han diagnosticado 912 nuevas infecciones por el VIH. El diagnóstico de VIH coincidió con el de sida en 299 (32,8% de las nuevas infecciones. Las relaciones heterosexuales han sido el mecanismo de transmisión más frecuente, seguido de la transmisión por vía parenteral y las relaciones homosexuales y bisexuales, con diferencias significativas (pObjective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of new cases of HIV infection diagnosed from 1997-2001 and compare them with AIDS cases (1991-2001. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected on new cases of HIV infection detectad in the Basque Country (1997-2001 and were compared with AIDS cases (1991-2001. Results: A total of 912 new cases of HIV infection were diagnosed. In 299 of the new cases (32.8%, HIV and AIDS were diagnosed simultaneously. The most common mechanism of transmission was heterosexual transmission, followed by intravenous and homo/bisexual transmission. Significant epidemiological differences (p<0.001 were found with regard to AIDS cases. Conclusions: Sexual transmission has replaced intravenous drug use as the most common mechanism of HIV transmission. A large percentage of patients were simultaneously diagnosed with HIV and AIDS, indicating the need for new prevention strategies.

  8. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos sobre pediculosis capitis en arenales, Estado Falcón, Venezuela Clinical and epidemiological aspects on pediculosis capitis in, Falcon State, Venezuela

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    D Cazorla PerfettI

    2012-03-01

    ón fueron: jugar en piso de tierra (OR = 2,20; p = 0,012 y lavarse el cabello ≥2 /semana (OR = 1,01; p = 0,002. A la luz de los resultados obtenidos, es recomendable mejorar las condiciones socio-sanitarias del sector y mantener campañas de promoción y educación para la salud.The human pediculosis capitis is a scalp and hair infestation caused by head lice Pediculus humanus capitis, which may result in bacterial secondary infections by intense scratching as well as anemia, anxiety and embarassment which are increased by children' exclusion from school under "no-nit" policy. From March to July 2011, a cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical and epidemiological profiles of head lice infestation among 199 (79 males and 120 females inhabitants of all age groups (0-75 years; ± D.S= 21.28 ± 17 of a rural and small town Arenales, from the semiarid region of Falcon state, north-western Venezuela.The diagnosis of head lice infestation was made by clinical naked eye inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphal stage, or eggs (nit by line-toothed head lice comb. Lice was cleared and mounted in Hoyer’s medium for microscopic observation. All individuals were evaluated by physical examinationand a detailed, structured questionnaire. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 10.10% (20/199. The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in girls (90% than in boys (10% [Odds Ratio (OR = 3.04; p = 0.01] and school-aged children (OR= 1.02;p=0,015; with hair length >3cm (OR = 2,44; p = 0.004 and lissotrichic type (OR = 2.25; p = 0.02, (OR= 2.25; 0.98 - 5.18, however, these were not significantly different among races or hair colours (P > 0.05. 65% of the individuals had only nits with 1 up to 64 per individuals, found between 0.1 and 9 cm from scalp on all anatomical regions of the head, and having school-aged children the higher ectoparasitic loads. Among clinical signs and symptoms, head pruritus (6

  9. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciò, Simone M; Ryan, Una

    2008-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a widespread parasite of mammalian species, including humans. Due to its invariant morphology, investigation on aspects such as host specificity and transmission patterns requires a direct genetic characterization of cysts/trophozoites from host samples. A number of molecular assays have been developed to help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. A coherent picture has emerged from those studies, indicating the existence of seven genetic groups (or assemblages), two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining five (C-G) are host-specific. Sequence-based surveys have identified a number of genotypes within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Recently, however, molecular approaches have been complicated by the recognition of intra-isolate sequence heterogeneity (i.e., "mixed templates", that affects identification of subtypes within each assemblage), and by the unreliable assignment of isolates to G. duodenalis assemblages generated by different genetic markers. This raises concerns about previous interpretation of genotyping data, especially when single genetic markers have been used. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these findings, including allelic sequence heterozygosity and meiotic recombination, are discussed.

  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Bahrami

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly known medical entity with high prevalence, about 1 0 to 24 percent in general population and up to 74% in obese population[1]. The prevalence of the disease is expected to increase worldwide, as we are encountering the global obesity epidemic and the trend in developing countries toward the Western lifestyles. However, it looks that there are some differences between the demographic and epidemiologic features of NAFLD in developing and developed countries.

  12. Epidemiological studies of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindborg, J J

    1977-06-01

    The FDI has shown considerable interest in the oral cancer and has in recent years arranged three symposia on the subject. The incidence of oral cancer shows marked geographic differences mostly depending upon environmental factors. In the present paper the epidemiology of oral cancer is illustrated by the relative frequency to total number of cancers and incidence rates from a number of countries. Canada has the highest rate of cancer of the vermilion border, which is extremely rare among dark-skinned people. Even within one country differences may be found, a fact which is illustrated by findings from Czechoslovakia and India. In most of the studies dealing with the etiology of oral cancer tobacco usage in its various forms is shown to be the outstanding factor.

  13. Historical aspects of rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Few diseases have experienced such a remarkable change in their epidemiology over the past century, without the influence of a vaccine, than rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever has all but disappeared from industrialised countries after being a frequent problem in the 1940s and 1950s. That the disease still occurs at high incidence in resource limited settings and in Indigenous populations in industrialised countries, particularly in Australia and New Zealand, is an indication of the profound effect of socio-economic factors on the disease. Although there have been major changes in the epidemiology of rheumatic fever, diagnosis remains reliant on careful clinical judgement and management is remarkably similar to that 50 years ago. Over the past decade, increasing attention has been given to rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease as public health issues, including in Australia and particularly in New Zealand, as well as in selected low and middle income countries. Perhaps the greatest hope for public health control of rheumatic fever is the development of a vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes, and there are encouraging initiatives in this area. However, an effective vaccine is some time away and in the meantime public health efforts need to focus on effective translation of the known evidence around primary and secondary prophylaxis into policy and practice.

  14. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos da neurocisticercose no Brasil: análise crítica Clinical and epidemiological aspects of neurocysticercosis in Brazil: a critical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Agapejev

    2003-09-01

    or alteration of two or more CSF parameters, CT showing vesicles and/or calcifications, constituting the active form of NCC. Although two localities from the state of São Paulo have 72:100000 and 96:100000/habitants as prevalence coefficients, regional and national prevalences are very underestimated. Some aspects related to underestimation of NCC prevalence in Brazil are discussed.

  15. Síndrome do comer noturno: aspectos conceituais, epidemiológicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos Night eating syndrome: conceptual, epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

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    Ana Beatriz Cauduro Harb

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento e o padrão alimentar são complexos, envolvendo aspectos metabólicos, fisiológicos e ambientais, e apresentando ritmicidade circadiana, herdada e espécie específica, sendo a humana essencialmente diurna. Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever a Síndrome do Comer Noturno, caracterizada por um atraso circadiano do padrão alimentar, mediado por alterações neuroendócrinas ao estresse. Procedeu-se à revisão da bibliografia existente, a partir do exame de artigos publicados pela literatura internacional nas bases de dados dos sites Pubmed, Lilacs, Sirus, referentes ao período de 1955 até as últimas publicações em 2007. Realizou-se um levantamento bibliográfico usando os seguintes descritores: night eating syndrome, sleep, circadian rhythm, appetite, nocturnal eating. Foram localizados 74 artigos e destes foram selecionados 26, cujo tema central era a Síndrome do Comer Noturno. Apesar dos estudos realizados, ainda existe longo percurso a ser percorrido para compreender a gênese da Síndrome do Comer Noturno e as relações intrínsecas desta com outros processos fisiopatogênicos. Tendo em conta que esta síndrome está vinculada ao controle da fome e da saciedade e à dessincronização entre o ritmo alimentar e o ritmo sono/vigília, a compreensão do seu processo gênico poderá demonstrar o impacto da dessincronização dos ritmos circadianos da alimentação no processo saúde-doença, e auxiliar a compreensão de fatores implicados no índice crescente de obesidade da sociedade moderna.Behavior and eating patterns are complex, involve metabolic, physiological and environmental aspects and have inherited and species-specific circadian rhythmicity, with humans being essentially diurnal. The aim of this study is to describe the night eating syndrome, characterized by a delay of the circadian eating patterns and mediated by neuroendocrine stress. A review of the literature found in the Pubmed, Lilacs and Sirus

  16. Epidemiology of yaws: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazadi WM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Walter M Kazadi,1 Kingsley B Asiedu,2 Nsiire Agana,3 Oriol Mitjà4,51Office of the WHO Representative for Papua New Guinea, World Health Organization, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; 2Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 3Public Health Division, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana; 4Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 5Lihir Medical Centre-International SOS, Newcrest Mining, Lihir Island, Papua New GuineaAbstract: Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication.Keywords: eradication, Treponema pertenue, endemic countries, prevalence

  17. Epidemiological pattern of imported malaria in Jordan from 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamain, H M; Abu Shaqra, Q A; Kanani, K A

    2013-12-01

    Imported malaria is of major health concern to countries considered as free from this infection and Jordan is no exception. The aim of this study was to highlight various epidemiological aspects of imported malaria into Jordan over a period of five years. Information pertinent to all malaria cases registered in the Ministry of Health (Jordan) from January 2007 to November 2011 was retrieved from the database of the Department of Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases. Data was grouped according to age, gender, country of acquisition and etiologic agents. During the study period, a total of 304 malaria cases were registered, 192 cases among Jordanians returning home and the remaining were detected among foreign nationals who arrived in the country for work or tourism. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum (199 cases) followed by Plasmodium vivax (93) and then Plasmodium malariae (8). Mixed infection was detected in just 4 cases. The origin of these imported cases was in a descending order; Eritrea, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Sudan, Liberia and Pakistan. These countries contributed to 86.5% of cases while the remaining were acquired from other areas. It is believed that most Jordanians with imported malaria were military personnel who participated in Peace Keeping Forces with the United Nations. It is concluded that with the exception of imported cases reported herein, Jordan remains a malaria free country. Continuous vigilance by health authorities is needed to avoid reintroduction of the disease into the kingdom.

  18. Visions for the 20th International Epidemiological Association's World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsour, B B; Johnston, J M; Hennessy, T W; Schmidt, M I; Krieger, N

    2012-03-01

    epidemiology's theoretical frameworks and emphasizing knowledge translation, from epidemiology to health systems, to policy, and to the broader public. We also plan to offer many hands-on workshops including practical uses of epidemiology to improve health systems and reduce health inequities within and between countries; the manner in which epidemiology can inform public health practice; the understanding and use of the Dictionary of Epidemiology; and many others. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the Netherland

  20. Chikungunya fever: epidemiology, clinical syndrome, pathogenesis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Moyen, Nanikaly; Dupuis-Maguiraga, Laurence; Nougairede, Antoine; Gould, Ernest A; Roques, Pierre; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the aetiological agent of the mosquito-borne disease chikungunya fever, a debilitating arthritic disease that, during the past 7years, has caused immeasurable morbidity and some mortality in humans, including newborn babies, following its emergence and dispersal out of Africa to the Indian Ocean islands and Asia. Since the first reports of its existence in Africa in the 1950s, more than 1500 scientific publications on the different aspects of the disease and its causative agent have been produced. Analysis of these publications shows that, following a number of studies in the 1960s and 1970s, and in the absence of autochthonous cases in developed countries, the interest of the scientific community remained low. However, in 2005 chikungunya fever unexpectedly re-emerged in the form of devastating epidemics in and around the Indian Ocean. These outbreaks were associated with mutations in the viral genome that facilitated the replication of the virus in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since then, nearly 1000 publications on chikungunya fever have been referenced in the PubMed database. This article provides a comprehensive review of chikungunya fever and CHIKV, including clinical data, epidemiological reports, therapeutic aspects and data relating to animal models for in vivo laboratory studies. It includes Supplementary Tables of all WHO outbreak bulletins, ProMED Mail alerts, viral sequences available on GenBank, and PubMed reports of clinical cases and seroprevalence studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Movie Portrayals of Juvenile Delinquency: Part 1-Epidemiology and Criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Reviews aspects of the epidemiology and criminology of delinquency and how they have been reflected in American films. Analyses show that when movies mimic certain aspects of the viewer's environment, an interactive or "resonating" effect may occur, such that young viewers may be more likely to commit delinquent acts. (RJM)

  2. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe : the "European Eye Epidemiology" (E3) consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delcourt, Cecile; Korobelnik, Jean-Francois; Buitendijk, Gabrielle H. S.; Foster, Paul J.; Hammond, Christopher J.; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Peto, Tunde; Jansonius, Nomdo; Mirshahi, Alireza; Hogg, Ruth E.; Bretillon, Lionel; Topouzis, Fotis; Deak, Gabor; Grauslund, Jakob; Broe, Rebecca; Souied, Eric H.; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Sahel, Jose; Daien, Vincent; Lehtimaki, Terho; Hense, Hans-Werner; Prokofyeva, Elena; Oexle, Konrad; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Cumberland, Phillippa M.; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Fauser, Sascha; Bertelsen, Geir; Hoyng, Carel; Bergen, Arthur; Silva, Rufino; Wolf, Sebastian; Lotery, Andrew; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid; Klaver, Caroline C. W.

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000

  3. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe : the "European Eye Epidemiology" (E3) consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delcourt, Cecile; Korobelnik, Jean-Francois; Buitendijk, Gabrielle H. S.; Foster, Paul J.; Hammond, Christopher J.; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Peto, Tunde; Jansonius, Nomdo; Mirshahi, Alireza; Hogg, Ruth E.; Bretillon, Lionel; Topouzis, Fotis; Deak, Gabor; Grauslund, Jakob; Broe, Rebecca; Souied, Eric H.; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Sahel, Jose; Daien, Vincent; Lehtimaki, Terho; Hense, Hans-Werner; Prokofyeva, Elena; Oexle, Konrad; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Cumberland, Phillippa M.; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Fauser, Sascha; Bertelsen, Geir; Hoyng, Carel; Bergen, Arthur; Silva, Rufino; Wolf, Sebastian; Lotery, Andrew; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid; Klaver, Caroline C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Europea

  4. Epidemiology of Intratemporal Complications of Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranhão, André

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the advent of antibiotics and immunizations in the last century, complications of otitis media remain quite frequent, have high morbidity and mortality rates, and pose a challenge to the otorhinolaryngologist. Objective To establish the annual incidence of intratemporal complications of otitis media and prospectively evaluate patients via an analysis of epidemiologic and clinical aspects. Methods Prospective, observational study. Between February 2010 and January 2011, patients admitted to a tertiary care, university-based otology practice with diagnosis of otitis media and an associated intratemporal complication (ITC were included in the study. The following data were evaluated: age, sex, type of ITC, treatment, imaging tests findings, type and degree of hearing loss, and clinical outcome. The overall incidence of all complications and of each complication individually was determined. Results A total of 1,816 patients were diagnosed with otitis media. For 592 (33% individuals, the diagnosis was chronic otitis media; for 1,224 (67%, the diagnosis was acute otitis media. ITCs of otitis media were diagnosed in 15 patients; thus, the annual incidence of intratemporal complications was 0.8%. We identified 19 ITC diagnoses in 15 patients (3 patients had more than one diagnosis. Labyrinthine fistulae were diagnosed in 7 (36.8% individuals, mastoiditis in 5 (26.3%, facial palsy in 4 (21.1%, and labyrinthitis in 3 (15.8%. Conclusion The incidence of intratemporal complications in Brazil remains significant when compared with developed countries. Chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma is the most frequent etiology of intratemporal complications. Labyrinthine fistula is the most common intratemporal complication.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.

  6. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: a rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Bórquez, Annick; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2008-09-30

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources.

  7. Economic development and growth in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinova, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, commonly referred to as "transition countries", have undergone transformations unparalleled in recent economic history. This book concentrates on three aspects of the transition process: the factors driving growth, the effect

  8. Economic development and growth in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinova, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, commonly referred to as "transition countries", have undergone transformations unparalleled in recent economic history. This book concentrates on three aspects of the transition process: the factors driving growth, the effect o

  9. Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of birds and mammals. Cats are the only definitive host and thus the only source of infective oocysts, but other mammals and birds can develop tissue cysts. While feline infections are typically asymptomatic, infection during human pregnancy can cause severe disease i...