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Sample records for countries context determinants

  1. Does Country Context Distance Determine Subsidiary Decision-Making Autonomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Gjalt; Van Vo, Dut; Marek, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    enterprises, highlighting the importance of such intra-firm collaboration. The division of decision-making autonomy is a core issue in the management of headquarters–subsidiary relationships. The main contribution of our paper is that we confront two valid theoretical frameworks – business network theory......We studied an underrepresented area in the international business (IB) literature: the effect of country context distance on the distribution of decision-making autonomy across headquarters and foreign affiliates. Foreign affiliates directly contribute to the competitive advantages of multinational...... approach to the study of subsidiary decision-making autonomy...

  2. Household and context determinants of child labor in 156 districts of 11 developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de

    2008-01-01

    We study household and context determinants of child labor for 150,000 children in 11 developing countries, with child labor rates ranging from 2 to over 20 percent. Multilevel analysis showed socio-economic factors to be still major determinants of child labor, with less child labor in households

  3. Household and Context Determinants of Child Labor in 221 Districts of 18 Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbink, Ellen; Smits, Jeroen; de Jong, Eelke

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new theoretical framework that explains the engagement in child labor of children in developing countries. This framework distinguishes three levels (household, district and nation) and three groups of explanatory variables: Resources, Structure and Culture. Each of the three groups refers to another strand of the literature;…

  4. Determinants of Army Structures Development in the Context of Middle Sized Country Experiences in Contemporary Tactical Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elak Leszek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a military organization is a special form of institution, grouping people and resources for the special purposes of defence and fighting in general, it is influenced by the same rules and conditions that other organizations are. Considering the problems of land forces organizational structures in tactical operations it is important to refer to the theory of organization and management which may constitute a point of reference to properly devise and forming up of land forces structures assuming that such forces make up an organization - since this is a team of soldiers including their resources, shaped into an adequate structure and predestined to perform a definite task. The article is an attempt to reveal multiple mutual relations of tactical, technical and economical inventions inflicting structural transformation of the army in the context of the reality of a middle-sized country today.

  5. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  6. Community socioeconomic context and its influence on intermediary determinants of child health : evidence from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Mejía, Ana María; Bolancé, Catalina; Madise, Nyovani

    2014-01-01

    Intermediary determinants are the most immediate mechanisms through which socioeconomic position shapes health inequities. This study examines the effect of community socioeconomic context on different indicators representing intermediary determinants of child health. In the context of Colombia, a developing country with a clear economic expansion, but one of the most unequal countries in the world, two categories of intermediary determinants, namely behavioural and psychoso...

  7. The Determinants of Country Risk Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Cosset; Jean Roy

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to replicate Euromoney's and Institutional Investor's country risk ratings on the basis of economic and political variables. The evidence reveals that country risk ratings respond to some of the variables suggested by the theory. In particular, both the level of per capita income and propensity to invest affect positively the rating of a country. In addition, high-ranking countries are less indebted than low-ranking countries. It also appears that the ability of t...

  8. Context-dependent cheating: Experimental evidence from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascual-ezama, David; Fosgaard, Toke R.; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Kujal, Praveen; Veszteg, Robert; Gil-gómez De Liaño, Beatriz; Gunia, Brian; Weichselbaumer, Doris; Hilken, Katharina; Antinyan, Armenak; Delnoij, Joyce|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371752213; Proestakis, Antonios; Tira, Michael D.; Pratomo, Yulius; Jaber-lópez, Tarek; Brañas-garza, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers use several international indices that characterize countries according to the quality of their institutions. However, no effort has been made to study how the honesty of citizens varies across countries. This paper explores the honesty among citizens across 16 countries with 1440

  9. Determinants of SME Finance: Evidence from Three Central European Countries

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    Rahman Ashiqur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the determinants of access to finance for small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of three Central European countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, and Hungary. The data set of the research is obtained from the BEEPS survey, which is conducted by the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This paper empirically analyses firms not only from the SMEs point of view, but also shows results for micro, small and medium enterprises separately. Additionally, we have analysed the determinants of access to finance for SMEs at each country level for an in-depth understanding of country-level variations in SME financing. The results indicate that micro firms and firms owned and operated by women are experiencing a shortage of credits from banks. On the other hand, we found a positive relationship between the pledge of collateral and access to finance. With respect to the medium firms, we found evidence that innovative firms have a larger amount of credit from banks. The empirical results also suggest that the loan size increases as the interest rates increase in particular for SMEs on the whole and for micro-firms, although the interest rate is in a negative relationship with the loan size in Czech Republic.

  10. Financing the energy sector in developing countries: context and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkerley, Joy.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional 'business as usual' financing methods will no longer be adequate to meet the unprecedented demands for capital to finance energy sector expansion in the developing countries. In recognition, many countries are opening up their power sectors to private investment, initially through the establishment of independent power projects, but in some cases through sector privatization. Project financing has many advantages, but further sectoral reorganization, including tariff reform, will be needed to attract resources on the scale required, especially from domestic investors. In oil and gas, in contrast to power, private capital from the international oil companies has always played a major role in the developing countries. However, sharply increasing investment requirements require a growing role for external finance. There should, in principle, be no shortage of investible funds to finance energy sector expansion in developing countries so long as host countries establish conditions which are attractive to private investors. The augmented role of private finance requires a continuing, if different, role for the public sector in both host countries and official aid agencies. (author)

  11. National Context, Religiosity, and Volunteering : Results from 53 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Stijn; Graaf, Nan Dirk de

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does the national religious context affect volunteering? Does a religious environment affect the relation between religiosity and volunteering? To answer these questions, this study specifies individual level, contextual level, and cross-level interaction hypotheses. The authors test

  12. Mass Customization and Personalization Prospects in Developing Country: Indonesian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risdiyono; Djati Widodo, Imam; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of information technology (IT) has changed many modes and ways for people in doing their businesses. Mass Customization and Personalization (MCP) is one example of business modes that has been dramatically evolve, mainly due to the currently very fast IT development. MCP has enabled people to involve in adjusting some design parameters of a product to meet their personal requirements before purchased. The advancement of IT has made MCP more successful as it makes the process faster, easier, simpler and more joyful. The success stories of MCP are easily found in many developed countries, where the IT infrastructure has firmly been established. For developing countries, there are very few industries have implemented the MCP concept, including Indonesia. This paper discusses a descriptive study to depict what people think about MCP implementation in Indonesia especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Kano model was used to see the perception of both producers and consumers in relation with MCP implementation. Five dummy MCP prototypes were developed for five creative products including plaques, hats, invitation card, t-shirts and leather bags. Based on the KANO questionnaire analyses, it is clear that there are big opportunities to implement MCP in Indonesia especially for creative products produced by SMEs. Identifying the correct product features is an important key for successful MCP implementation in developing countries.

  13. Religion and health in Europe: cultures, countries, context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2017-10-01

    Much of the research on the relationships between religious participation and health comes from the United States. Studies in other geographic regions or cultural contexts is more sparse. Evidence presented by Ahrenfelt et al., and that from other research studies, is reviewed concerning the associations between religion and health within Europe and world-wide. The evidence within Europe suggests protective associations between various forms of religious participation and lower depression, lower mortality, and better self-rated health. Methodological challenges in such research are reviewed, and discussion is given as to whether a person-culture-fit explanation suffices to account for the existing data and to what other mechanisms might be operative.

  14. Determinants of economic growth in BRIC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rajjev K. Goel

    2011-01-01

    We study economic growth in four emerging economies - Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC). Questions addressed are: (a) How do medium term growth determinants differ from short term determinants? (b) What are differences between growth effects of aggregate versus disaggregated exports? And (c) Does lower institutional quality hinder growth? Results show that while BRIC nations have higher growth, there are significant within-group differences. China and Russia mostly showed higher growth,...

  15. Rebound Effects in the Context of Developing Country Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Energy efficiency-related “rebound effects” usually refer to the tendency of most consumers to increase their use of energy services in response to efficiency measures that have reduced their energy costs. This phenomenon is one reason why energy efficiency policies often result in lower energy savings than engineering-based estimates predict. Rebound effects have been the subject of intense debate in the field of energy efficiency policy for many years.1 In the past, the focus of this debate has been on the perceived loss of the expected energy savings and related benefits resulting from the rebound effects. However, more recently, there has been a growing recognition that policymakers need to consider the health, economic and other non-energy benefits that often result from the increase in energy services represented by user “rebound effects”. This is especially true in developing countries where basic energy service demands—such as lighting, heating, cooling, and refrigeration of food—are often not being met. As economic conditions improve and household incomes increase, demand for increased energy services (such as space conditioning and appliances) tends to rise rapidly. Improving energy efficiency reduces the amount of energy needed to produce one unit of energy service output (for example an hour of cooling at 21°C delivered for X vs Y kWh). Greater efficiency therefore often enables more rapid increased in energy services (and sometimes access), expanding the amount of services that can be provided by a fixed amount (or cost) of energy.

  16. Country-specific determinants of world university rankings

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrucha, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines country-specific factors that affect the three most influential world university rankings (the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Ranking, and the Times Higher Education World University Ranking). We run a cross sectional regression that covers 42–71 countries (depending on the ranking and data availability). We show that the position of universities from a country in the ranking is determined by the following country-specific variables: econom...

  17. Country-specific determinants of world university rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrucha, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines country-specific factors that affect the three most influential world university rankings (the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Ranking, and the Times Higher Education World University Ranking). We run a cross sectional regression that covers 42-71 countries (depending on the ranking and data availability). We show that the position of universities from a country in the ranking is determined by the following country-specific variables: economic potential of the country, research and development expenditure, long-term political stability (freedom from war, occupation, coups and major changes in the political system), and institutional variables, including government effectiveness.

  18. Determinants of Inter-Country Internet Diffusion Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Wunnava, Phanindra V.; Leiter, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper employs cross-sectional data from 100 countries to analyze the main determinants of inter-country Internet diffusion rates. We set up an empirical model based on strong theoretical foundations, in which we regress Internet usage on variables that capture social, economic and political differences between these countries. Our results support past findings that economic strength, infrastructure and knowledge of the English language positively affect Internet connectivity. In addition...

  19. Migration from the CIS Countries to Amur Oblast in the Context of the Synthetic Theory

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    Tatiana Nikolaevna Zhuravskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers international migration from the CIS countries to the Amur region in 2010- 2014 in the context of the synthetic theory of international migration by D. Massey. It is shown that separate economic theories of migration cannot explain the CIS migrants’ choice of the Amur region as a destination. In particular, socio-economic indicators characterize the region as unattractive both for permanent (high mortality, low life expectancy, relatively low standard of living and labor (low GRP, specialization in primary industries, high transport costs and pay for a patent migration. The attractiveness factors of the region fit the theory of a dual labor market: the Amur region has higher wages than the countries of origin and the growing shortage of personnel. However, it is also insufficient to explain increasing migration flows from the CIS countries, which were identified on the basis of statistical data of the Federal Migration Service of the Amur region. Based on the analysis of qualitative data the author reveals the motives (economic, educational, cultural, forced, non-self-moving and channels (social networks, intermediaries, enterprises, government programs of migration. In general, the motivation and channels of migration in the case of the Amur region look quite traditional within the framework of economic theories. However, only a comprehensive consideration of all the issues allows determining regional specificity and answering the question about the destination choice. Sources of empirical data include following: series of keynote expert and biographical interviews carried out in 2014-2015, official statistical data of FSSS and FMS, as well as data from Amurstat, the FMS of the Amur region and the insurance company ‘Kolymskaya’

  20. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

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    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.

  1. Determinants of FDI in BRICS Countries: A panel analysis

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    Vijayakumar, N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors determining FDI inflows of BRICS countries using annual dataset from the period 1975 to 2007 (for Russia required data set is available from 1990 onwards. The study employs Panel data analysis and finds that the selected variables Market size, Labour cost, Infrastructure, Currency value and Gross Capital formation as the potential determinants of FDI inflows of BRICS countries. The Economic Stability and Growth prospects (measured by inflation rate and Industrial production respectively, Trade openness (measured by the ratio of total trade to GDP are seems to be the insignificant determinant of FDI inflows of the BRICS countries. The empirical results are robust in general for alternative variables determining FDI flows.

  2. Determinants of Economic Growth in V4 Countries and Romania

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    Simionescu Mihaela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The middle and long-term slowdown in growth dynamics could bring serious social and political problems for V4 countries (Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania. It would threaten reaching benefits from potential of convergence process with the developed countries of the European Union. As a result, the V4 economies and Romania should find solutions to achieving a sustainable growth that is associated with an improvement of their international competitiveness. This paper provides an empirical analysis of factors that might determine a stable economic growth in the five mentioned countries. The empirical analysis conducted for the period of 2003-2016 employed Bayesian generalized ridge regression. The main results indicated that the FDI promoted economic growth in all countries, except the Slovak Republic. Only in the Czech Republic, the expenditure on education generated economic growth, while the expenditure on R&D had positive effects in Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

  3. Convergence and determinants of health expenditures in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Hong; Connelly, Luke Brian

    2017-08-17

    This study examines the trend and determinants of health expenditures in OECD countries over the 1975-2004 period. Based on recent developments in the economic growth literature we propose and test the hypothesis that health care expenditures in countries of similar economic development level may converge. We hypothesise that the main drivers for growth in health care costs include: aging population, technological progress and health insurance. The results reveal no evidence that health expenditures among OECD countries converge. Nevertheless, there is evidence of convergence among three sub-groups of countries. We found that the main driver of health expenditure is technological progress. Our results also suggest that health care is a (national) necessity, not a luxury good as some other studies in this field have found.

  4. How the macroeconomic context impacts on attitudes to immigration: Evidence from within-country variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruist, Joakim

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of the macroeconomic context on attitudes to immigration. Earlier studies do in some cases not provide significant empirical support for the existence of important such effects. In this article it is argued that this lack of consistent evidence is mainly due to the cross-national setup of these studies being vulnerable to estimation bias caused by country-specific factors. The present study instead analyzes attitude variation within countries over time. The results provide firm empirical support in favor of macroeconomic variation importantly affecting attitudes to immigration. As an illustration, the estimates indicate that the number of individuals in the average European country in 2012 who were against all immigration from poorer countries outside Europe was 40% higher than it would have been if macroeconomic conditions in that year had been as good as they were in 2006. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Country Specific Approach To IFRS Accounting Policy Choice In The European, Australian And Turkish Context

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    Nalan Akdogan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available IAS 8 defines the concept of accounting policy as "the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements". Within the framework of this concept, this research that is derived from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS contributes to the accounting literature by focusing on the alternative accounting policies' debate related to presentation and recognition issues in the European, Australian and Turkish context and concludes that there is an influence of local accounting policies over IFRS practice in Turkey and this influence still exists in Europe and Australia. This shows that as long as diversity in accounting policies of IFRS is present, entities are expected to be inclined to select their local accounting policies by leading to comparability of financial statements within the country rather than between countries in the IFRS context.

  6. Can context justify an ethical double standard for clinical research in developing countries?

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    Landes Megan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of clinical research deserves special caution so as to safeguard the rights of participating individuals. While the international community has agreed on ethical standards for the design of research, these frameworks still remain open to interpretation, revision and debate. Recently a breach in the consensus of how to apply these ethical standards to research in developing countries has occurred, notably beginning with the 1994 placebo-controlled trials to reduce maternal to child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. The design of these trials sparked intense debate with the inclusion of a placebo-control group despite the existence of a 'gold standard' and trial supporters grounded their justifications of the trial design on the context of scarcity in resource-poor settings. Discussion These 'contextual' apologetics are arguably an ethical loophole inherent in current bioethical methodology. However, this convenient appropriation of 'contextual' analysis simply fails to acknowledge the underpinnings of feminist ethical analysis upon which it must stand. A more rigorous analysis of the political, social, and economic structures pertaining to the global context of developing countries reveals that the bioethical principles of beneficence and justice fail to be met in this trial design. Conclusion Within this broader, and theoretically necessary, understanding of context, it becomes impossible to justify an ethical double standard for research in developing countries.

  7. ASSESSING FDI DETERMINANTS IN CEE COUNTRIES DURING AND AFTER TRANSITION

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    POPOVICI OANA CRISTINA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify if the drivers of inward foreign direct investments’ stocks in Central and Eastern European countries changed in the last 20 years, given two substantial economic evolutions encountered in this period: the transition process and the adhesion at the European Union. We are interested if foreign investors are attracted by the quality of institutions, the labour market or by the telecommunications infrastructure, expressed by 10 variables, in the 11 newest EU member states. Therefore, we use a fixed effects panel data approach during 1994-2013 which we apply in two stages. In the first stage, we find the variables that strongly influence FDI in each of the three groups of determinants. In the second stage, the panel data analysis is applied only for the variables previously find as significant for FDI, to which we add traditional FDI determinants, such as trade openness and GDP per capita. Also, the mentioned years are divided into two sub periods, the first representing the transition period (from 1994 until 2003 and the second one the years comprising the EU adhesion process (from 2004 until 2013. The results confirm that there are changes in FDI determinants in these countries. During 1994 to 2003, investors were mostly interested in the quality of institutions, the openness of the economies and the environments capable of growth, where the products can be sold. For the period starting with 2004, the analyzed countries are attractive mainly through their capacity of providing labour force with low costs and created resources, such as the development of the mobile networks. The results obtained are of particular importance for the public policy decision makers, as the changes in FDI determinants require the adaptation of public policies in the CEE countries in order to remain attractive for foreign investors.

  8. Economic growth and its determinants in countries in transitio

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    Kestrim Avdimetaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this scientific research is to analyze the countries in transition; in particular, through this research we will explain the economic growth and its determinants in the countries in transition. Referring to the fact that many ex-communist countries were faced with a transition from a socialist economic system into the economic system of free market, and this phase of transformation is also known as transition, we will analyze this phase in details. The materials contained in this research are based on data taken directly from Financial Institutions, European Central Bank, as well as many other relevant prestigious institutions of countries in transition. The first section of this research begins with the introduction, presenting broadly the economic growth in countries in transition and the manner of their transformation, as well as the identification of hypothesis contained in this research. The second section contains the review of the literature, where we have cited parts from many authors who conducted studies in this broadly and productive field. In the third section are explained the mathematical formulas, that specify the econometric model, as well as the method of assessment, i.e. multiple regression analysis. Then, through the calculations of STATA, we will substitute the values of variables obtained in formula and test them through the selected model. In the last section we will interpret the outcomes derived from calculations in the program, supporting or dismissing hypothesis presented in this scientific research. This scientific research is limited, because many other important variables impacting the economic growth, such as instruments of monetary and fiscal policy, economic freedom, etc., have not been incorporated.

  9. Determinants of Prosocial Behavior in Included Versus Excluded Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior (PSB) is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of PSB. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity) and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation) on PSB under neutral contexts (Study 1), and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2). Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of PSB. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of PSB. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted PSB. We showed that the investigated variables predicted PSB; this suggests that to promote PSB one could (1) foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2) try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on PSB. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  10. Determinants of prosocial behavior in included versus excluded contexts

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    Esther eCuadrado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosocial behavior is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of prosocial behavior. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation on prosocial behavior under neutral contexts (Study 1, and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2. Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of prosocial behavior. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of prosocial behavior. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted prosocial behavior. We showed that the investigated variables predicted prosocial behavior; this suggests that to promote prosocial behavior one could (1 foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2 try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on prosocial behavior. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  11. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

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    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  12. Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop

    2012-02-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society

  13. Factors Influencing Adaptive Marine Governance in a Developing Country Context: a Case Study of Southern Kenya

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    Louisa S. Evans

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance can be conceptualized as distinct phases of: 1 understanding environmental change; 2 using this understanding to inform decision making; and 3 acting on decisions in a manner that sustains resilience of desirable system states. Using this analytical framework, we explore governance in practice in two case studies in Kenya, that reflect the "messiness" of contemporary coastal governance in many developing country contexts. Findings suggest that adaptive marine governance is unlikely to be a smooth process of learning, knowledge sharing, and responding. There are institutional, sociocultural, and political factors, past and present, that influence each phase of both local and state decision making. New local institutions related to fisher associations and Beach Management Units influence learning and knowledge sharing in ways contrary to those expected of institutions that enable collaborative fisheries management. Similarly, state decision making is relatively uninformed by the diverse knowledge systems available in the coastal zone, despite the rhetoric of participation. Historical relations and modes of working continue to play a significant role in mediating the potential for adaptive governance in the future. The case studies are illustrative and point to a number of institutional and political issues that would need to be addressed in processes of governance reform towards more adaptive management in developing country contexts.

  14. ASPECTS REGARDING WOOD WELDING IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICABILITY IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

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    Ramona-Elena DUMITRAȘCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture, as traditional sector in Romania, is one of the few areas that bring profit. It is a field that contributes to the economical competitiveness through the variety of products for import and export. In this context, joining wood is essential for the production of wood products. Therefore, knowing the environmentally-friendly methods for wood joints could lead to performance and progress. Welding technology of wood as an alternative method to bonding wood elements or wooden structures has not been addressed in Romania until now. The paper presents a review performed with the aim of contribute to the knowledge of this innovative technology, to show the problems and the possibilities, of least developed countries, to contribute at this area of reasearch. The general aim is to present the main methods and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages in the context of development in the least developed countries. The results showed that both methods, at low and hight temperature, has benefits but there are and some economic and knowledge barriers for extended the technology.The overall conclusion of this research is to find efficient solutions for wood welding in order to obtain new better and cleaner wood products

  15. Country risk premium: theoretical determinants and empirical evidence for latin american countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmo Aronovich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of the country risk premium for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, from June 1997 to September 1998. It shows that the level of country risk premium is determined by different factors: the US dollar bond market structure; restrictions on the acquisition of emerging market bonds imposed by developed nations regulators; the credit risk measured by the notion of implied risk-neutral probability default; the different ways agents react to country risk due to asymmetric and imperfect information. The empirical investigation shows: the worse the country credit rating, the greater is the impact on international borrowing cost, which implies that negative expectations have greater impact on lower rated Latin American nations' bonds; country risk yield spreads overreacted to changes in the US dollar interest rates in the sample period.Este artigo investiga o comportamento do conceito de prêmio de risco-país para Argentina, Brasil e México, de junho de 1997 até setembro de 1998. Mostra-se que tal prêmio é determinado pelos seguintes fatores: a estrutura do mercado de títulos de dívida em dólares norte-americanos; as restrições à aquisição de títulos de dívida impostas por agentes reguladores de países desenvolvidos; o risco de crédito mensurado pelo conceito de probabilidade de inadimplência risco-nêutra implícita; o modo como os agentes reagem à informação assimétrica ou imperfeita. A evidência empírica revela que: quanto pior a classificação de risco de crédito, maior é o impacto esperado sobre as condições de captação externa, implicando que expectativas desfavoráveis afetam de forma mais acentuada países com baixa classificação de crédito; o valor do spread representativo do risco-país mostrou-se superelástico à variação da taxa de juros de longo prazo do Tesouro norte-americano no período da amostra.

  16. What determines the impact of context on sequential action?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, M.F.L.; Verwey, Willem B.; Abrahamse, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we build on earlier observations that memory-based sequential action is better in the original learning context than in other contexts. We examined whether changes in the perceptual context have differential impact across distinct processing phases (preparation versus execution

  17. Classification of EU Countries in the Context of Corporate Income Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Andrejovská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxes are an integral part of human society, regardless of the economic, cultural and political disparities between the countries. Income taxes of legal entities represent significant part of the budget, what is the reason for their timeliness and public discussion. The aim of the paper is a classification of the EU countries into economic groups and an assessment of the grouping these EU member states based on common characteristics in the area of corporate income taxes. Common features are determined by the structure of selected macroeconomic indicators: public debt, government budget balance, the overall tax burden, economic performance, nominal and effective tax rate. The analysis compares a range of methodological approaches of hierarchical (Ward linkage and median linkage, and non‑hierarchical clustering (k-means clustering and fuzzy cluster analysis. The results of cluster analysis grouped the monitored countries into five clusters based on common characteristics as the corporate income tax rate, economics performance and the level of public debt. The result of the analysis shows that despite of ongoing there are still differences present, which are present in the ratios of countries’ development as well as in the economic policies of the particular countries.

  18. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1988-01-01

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continuous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determining the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commissioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization. (author)

  19. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in South East European Countries and New Member States of European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment flows to 5-SEEC and the 10-New Member States of the EU countries by using an augmented Gravity Model. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 14 core European Union countries to invest into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors and institutional related determinants like control of corruption, political stability, bilateral FDI agreement, WTO membership and transition progress appear to significantly determine inward FDI flows from core EU countries to host economies of South East European region and new European Union member states.

  20. Tax Revenues in the Context of Economic Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Andrejovská

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the general recognition that taxes are generally a strong policy tool for assessing the macroeconomic impact of the country's alternative tax policies, taxes are often weakened by restrictions on tax revenue measurement. The aim of the contribution is to quantify the impact of selected macroeconomic indicators (gross domestic product, level of employment, public debt, foreign direct investments, effective tax rate, statutory tax rate on the total amount of tax revenues, taking into account the tax competitiveness of the 28 EU member states. There was used methods of three models of regression analysis: the pooling model, the fixed effects model and the random effects model. The hypothesis that the gross domestic product has the greatest impact on tax revenue has been tested. In conclusion, the analysis confirmed that the strongest correlation is between tax revenues and employment rate. Followed by foreign direct investment and gross domestic product. Increasing these determinants by 1 mil. € (increase in employment by 1% would increase tax revenues by 10 072 mil. € at the employment rate, by 383.1 thousand € for gross domestic product and by 434.2 thousand € for foreign direct investment.

  1. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a

  2. Guyana - How Do You Know Where to Get the Information You Need? Determining Ethics Approval Requirements in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Song

    2018-01-01

    Determining the process for obtaining local research ethics approval, or whether such a requirement even exists, may not always be straightforward in the context of some developing countries where such information may not be easily accessible to overseas researchers. How far do a researcher's ethical obligations extend in determining whether there is a requirement for local research ethics approval, and what form this would take (e.g., institutional or centralised ethics review)? In other wor...

  3. Identifying urban infrastructure multi-hazard risk in developing country contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith; Malamud, Bruce; Millington, James

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a method to coarsely zone urban areas into different infrastructure typologies, from which physical vulnerability to a range of natural hazards and multi-hazard interactions can be estimated, particularly for developing country contexts where access to data can be a challenge. This work builds upon techniques developed for urban micrometeorology for classifying 12 urban typologies (Stewart and Oke, 2011) using Landsat 8 30 m × 30 m remote sensing imagery (Betchel et al., 2015). For each of these 12 urban typologies, we develop general rules about the presence, type and level of service of 10 broad categories of infrastructure (including buildings, roads, electricity and water), which we refer to as 'urban textures'. We have developed and applied this technique to five urban areas varying in size and structure across Africa: Nairobi (Kenya); Karonga (Malawi); Mzuzu (Malawi); Ibadan (Nigeria) and Cape Town (South Africa). For each urban area, a training dataset of 10 samples of each of the 12 urban texture classes is digitised using Google Earth imagery. A random forest classification is performed using SAGA GIS, resulting in a map of different urban typologies for each city. Based on >1200 georeferenced field photographs and expert interviews for Karonga (Malawi) and Nairobi (Kenya), generally applicable rules about the presence, type and level of service of 12 infrastructure types (the 'urban texture') are developed for each urban typology. For each urban texture, we are broadly reviewing how each infrastructure might be physically impacted by 21 different natural hazards and hazard interactions. This can aid local stakeholders such as emergency responders and urban planners to systematically identify how the infrastructure in different parts of an urban area might be affected differently during a natural disaster event.

  4. Early determinants of chronic disease in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Nigel J

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in developing countries. The extent to which this is due to a nutritional mismatch in foetal and adult life is unknown however, studies in such countries show that the risk of chronic diseases is increased in low birthweight subjects who become obese adults. Immune dysfunction is also linked to low birthweight. Therefore, in countries where communicable diseases are prevalent, infection may be exacerbated by factors acting in utero. It is also possible that the foetal growth-retarding effects of maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and malaria infection may contribute to an increased risk of NCDs later in life. Low birthweight and postnatal growth faltering followed by rapid weight gain define subjects who develop NCDs. Dietary interventions at specific time points in the life course may therefore be important for reducing disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parents Helping Their Children Learn to Read: The Effectiveness of Paired Reading and Hearing Reading in a Developing Country Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Wundenberg, Mihika; Wyse, Dominic; Chaplain, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports research that investigated parental support for children's reading of English in an inner-city school in the developing country context of an Indian city, Ahmedabad. Children had oral proficiency in the regional language but were beginning to acquire conventional forms of literacy in English. Sociocultural mediation theory…

  6. Does country context matter? Investigating the predictors of teen sexting across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne E. Baumgartner; Sindy R. Sumter; Jochen Peter; Patti M. Valkenburg; Sonia Livingstone

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing research interest in sexting, not much is known about individual and country differences in engaging in sexting. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate (a) which individual and country characteristics explain sexting and (b) whether individual predictors vary across countries. On the individual level, we investigated age, gender, sensation seeking, and internet use. On the country level, we investigated traditionalism, gross domestic product, and broadband inter...

  7. Determinants of debt rescheduling in Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laušev Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes Panel Logit Models applied to a set of macroeconomic, financial, and political variables to estimate the debt rescheduling probabilities of 15 Eastern European countries during the transition period from 1990-2005. These transition economies became a very attractive region for foreign investment. Specifically, the region became the largest recipient of net non-FDI flows among all emerging market regions in 2005. Therefore, it is relevant for policy makers and institutional and private foreign investors to investigate factors that influence debt rescheduling probabilities, as these may directly affect the size of and return on investments in these countries. Our findings suggest that policy efforts focused on reducing government expenditure, attracting foreign direct investment, increasing export revenues, and keeping a good repayment record result in low debt rescheduling probabilities and, in turn, decrease the cost of debt for these countries. This is a common finding for all countries in the sample, including those that have become EU members.

  8. Determinants of public capital spending in less-developed countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In a great majority of countries throughout the world productive government services have declined as percentage of GDP since the 1970s. In the macroeconomic literature this is often associated with the general productivity growth decline, suggesting an important role for infrastructure

  9. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION DETERMINANTS AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Florentina GAVRILUŢĂ (VATAMANU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the impact of fiscal decentralization on local (regional development in the EU Member States while controlling for macroeconomic and local autonomy specific factors. Using a panel data approach with dynamic effects, we examined the implications of fiscal decentralization on local development across European Union countries over the 1990-2004 period. The novelty of the study is emphasized by including in the analysis a variable which tests local fiscal discipline, more exactly, Fiscal Rule Strength Index for local level of government. Our findings suggest that prosperity of regions, measured in GDP growth depends on variables such as characteristics of decentralization undertaken by each country or local fiscal discipline, confirming our primary hypothesis. This supports the view that recently implemented reforms aiming to enforce fiscal discipline following-up the Fiscal Compact strengthened the local budgetary framework and restrained, therefore, the local discretionary power to act towards development.

  10. Firm and Country Determinants of the Quality of Financial Information

    OpenAIRE

    Bonetti, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is made of three chapters which contribute to the international accounting literature. The first chapter investigates the effect of the legal enforcement on the use of income increasing earnings management (EAR) and downward expectation management (EXP) to meet or beat analyst earnings forecasts. Using a sample of 4,934 firms from fourteen European countries, we document that the strength of the legal enforcement is negatively associated with EAR and positively associated wit...

  11. The DALY, context and the determinants of the severity of disease: an exploratory comparison of paraplegia in Australia and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel; Kouamé, Aka; Cummins, Robert

    2003-09-01

    This paper summarises the findings of an empirical investigation of some of the technical and social assumptions on which the disability adjusted life year (DALY) is based. The objectives of the study were to examine the notion that the burden of disease is broadly similar without regard to country, environment, gender or socio-economic status and to develop detailed descriptions of the experiences of the burden of disease as they related to these contextual factors. The study was a multi-factorial exploratory study employing qualitative and quantitative techniques to obtain data on the effects of country (development), environment (urban versus rural), gender and socio-economic status on people with paraplegia. The data provided an extensive and detailed compilation of context rich descriptions of living with paraplegia. Striking features of the data were the differences between countries with respect to the impact of the health conditions on functioning and highlight a context in which paraplegia of like clinical severity can be fatal in one environment and not in another. While there has been some focus on the control of social determinants of disease, there has been little work on the social determinants of the severity of disease. The underlying assumptions of the DALY, which ignore context in the assessment of the burden of disease, risk exacerbating inequalities by undervaluing the burden of disease in less-developed countries. There is a need to continue to subject the development of indicators to rigorous debate to determine a balance between the assumption of a global "average social milieu" and the treatment of each individual as belonging to their own context in the assessment of population health in order for indicators to be meaningful cross-culturally.

  12. Does country context matter? Investigating the predictors of teen sexting across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.; Sumter, S.; Peter, J.; Livingstone, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was (a) to investigate which individual and country characteristics explain why adolescents engage in sexting and (b) whether individual predictors vary across countries. On the individual level, we investigated age, gender, sensation seeking, and frequency of internet use. On

  13. Does country context matter? Investigating the predictors of teen sexting across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Sumter, S.R.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Livingstone, S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing research interest in sexting, not much is known about individual and country differences in engaging in sexting. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate (a) which individual and country characteristics explain sexting and (b) whether individual predictors vary across

  14. Mobile government implementation for government service delivery in developing countries: a South Africa context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ogunleye, OS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available an opportunity to use of this platform to provide better service delivery to the citizens of the developing countries. This paper identifies major service delivery issues in South Africa. Various m-government systems that have been implemented in other countries...

  15. Factors in Organisational Environmental Management System Implementation – Developed vs. Developing Country Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Kola-Lawal, Constance; Wood, Mike; Alo, Babajide; Clark, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Country specificities and national cultures influence Environmental Management Systems (EMS) implementation and pro-environmental behaviour in organisations. Previous studies have focused on organisations in developed or emerging economies, creating a need to establish the extent to which findings are applicable to developing counterparts. This paper presents EMS implementation from a developing country perspective, reporting on EMS implementation factors (drivers, benefits, barriers) affecti...

  16. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

  17. Capital structure around the world: The roles of firm- and country-specific determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Nguyen, Thuy Thu

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the importance of firm-specific and country-specific factors in the leverage choice of firms from 42 countries around the world. Our analysis yields two new results. First, we find that firm-specific determinants of leverage differ across countries, while prior studies implicitly assume

  18. Capital Structure around the World: The Roles of Firm- and Country-Specific Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); R. Kabir (Rezaul); T.T. Nguyen (Thuy Thu)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the importance of firm-specific and country-specific factors in the leverage choice of firms from 42 countries around the world. Our analysis yields two new results. First, we find that firm-specific determinants of leverage differ across countries, while prior studies

  19. Successful Employee Empowerment: Major Determinants in the Jordanian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadra DAHOU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Being the most important asset, the human resource represents today the source of the organizations’ sustainable competitive advantage. This focus on the employee as the organizations’ core of human capital management drives the current interest in empowerment. This paper explores the concept of employee empowerment and the main influential factors in implementing an empowerment initiative: job design, transformational leadership, decision-making authority, continuous training and development, sharing information, and self-managed teams. Using a hypotheses testing approach, this correlational cross-sectional field study investigates the influence of the six factors on the adoption of employee empowerment. Using a questionnaire method, data was collected from Jordanian commercial banks. The results of a multiple linear regression analysis revealed that sharing information, job design, transformational leadership and decision making authority have a positive effect on employee empowerment. Sharing information and adopting the appropriate job design inside the organization have the strongest influence in that fostering these initiatives would certainly make banks’ employees’ empowerment successful. The research provides insights into the perception of employee empowerment in the Jordanian context, specifically in the banking industry, a high service- oriented sector where empowering employees become a must for a better customer service

  20. Does Context Matter? Literacy Disparities in Self-rated Health Using Evidence from 17 Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonjin

    2017-05-01

    The study examines whether adult literacy skills predict self-rated health status beyond educational credentials in 17 developed countries using a cross-national survey, the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The study uses linear regression models with country-level fixed effects to predict self-rated health to account the unobserved country-level heterogeneity. A total of 73,806 respondents aged 25 to 65 were included in the analysis. Although adult literacy is positively associated with better self-rated health in general, the strength of the relationship varies across nations. The literacy-related health inequalities are less severe in countries with the higher public share of health expenditures that may better address the needs of individuals with limited cognitive abilities. Curriculum standardization also contributes to reducing the literacy gradients in health by decreasing variations in skills obtained in school across individuals with different social origins. Overall, this study reveals that promoting equity in adult literacy skills is an important way to improve a population's health. Country-level differences in the strength of the relationship between literacy and self-rated health are systematically related to between-country differences in health financing and educational systems.

  1. Sources of Free and Open Source Spatial Data for Natural Disasters and Principles for Use in Developing Country Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Millington, James D. A.

    2016-04-01

    Access to reliable spatial and quantitative datasets (e.g., infrastructure maps, historical observations, environmental variables) at regional and site specific scales can be a limiting factor for understanding hazards and risks in developing country settings. Here we present a 'living database' of >75 freely available data sources relevant to hazard and risk in Africa (and more globally). Data sources include national scientific foundations, non-governmental bodies, crowd-sourced efforts, academic projects, special interest groups and others. The database is available at http://tinyurl.com/africa-datasets and is continually being updated, particularly in the context of broader natural hazards research we are doing in the context of Malawi and Kenya. For each data source, we review the spatiotemporal resolution and extent and make our own assessments of reliability and usability of datasets. Although such freely available datasets are sometimes presented as a panacea to improving our understanding of hazards and risk in developing countries, there are both pitfalls and opportunities unique to using this type of freely available data. These include factors such as resolution, homogeneity, uncertainty, access to metadata and training for usage. Based on our experience, use in the field and grey/peer-review literature, we present a suggested set of guidelines for using these free and open source data in developing country contexts.

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF E.U. ADHERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian\tLiviu\tSCUTARIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a negative phenomenon that manifests itself in any economy with varying degrees of intensity. In this paper we propose to analyze the evolution of unemployment in the EU. There are countries where economic recession was felt more intense and harder recovered from it, such as Greece or Spain. Within the European Union one notes some differences in unemployment between Member States but also in terms of age groups. In the EU youth unemployment rate is approximately double that the general unemployment rate, but the situation is worse in some countries where youth unemployment rate is even higher. Our analysis also focuses on trends recorded at regional level in Central and Eastern Europe countries in the context of their accession to the EU, highlighting positive developments, which were maintained in the coming years. The unemployment rate decrease is one of the objectives followed by the EU through its policies.

  3. Psychosocial Determinants of Nutritional Neglect in a Developing Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisha Mehnaz, A.; Mala, A.; Rai, K.; Arif, F.; Raj, R.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. Results: A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Conclusion: Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues. (author)

  4. 15 CFR 806.10 - Determining place of residence and country of jurisdiction of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.10 Determining place of residence and country of jurisdiction of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining place of residence and country of jurisdiction of individuals. 806.10 Section 806.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...

  5. Determinants of private fixed investment in emerging country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goitsemodimo Abel Molocwa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The neoclassical and Keynesian theories regard private investment not only as a source of economic growth but also as a determinant of the potential extent of the national income. The aim of this research was to examine the determinants of private fixed investment in South Africa by employing the Johansen cointegration technique and the vector error correction model (VECM analysis. Based on the literature survey it appears that the previous studies mainly focused on private investment in manufacturing and infrastructure sectors therefore this is envisaged to add knowledge to a body of economics literature in this area by focusing more on private fixed investment and its determinants in South Africa. The study concludes that for the period under investigation GDP has the positive sign as expected. This suggests that in the long run it impact positively on private fixed investment. The findings of the study also confirmed that tax rate is a complementary to private fixed investment. Similarly, the real exchange rate coefficient was negative as expected which suggests that the depreciation of the currency stimulates the growth of South Africa private fixed investment. It is obvious that even the best economic model cannot achieve the expected outcomes immediately but these results encourage the study to believe that the South African monetary policy on exchange rate complements private fixed investment. Therefore, the study proposes that both even though both growth and general tax rate are difficult to accomplish simultaneously, they should be used to promote the flow of private fixed investment in South Africa.

  6. Children's Weekend Activities in Four Countries: Context for Personal and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogru, Asil Ali

    2010-01-01

    Out-of-school time constitutes a major context of social and emotional development for children across cultures. Because it is not constrained by school attendance, weekend time allows cultural and gender differences in time usage to emerge. In this study, children's weekend activities, choice, and some of the related emotional outcomes were…

  7. Working Women in Europe : How the Country, Workplace, and Family Context Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abendroth, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Gender inequalities on the labor market differ between European countries. This study investigates possible explanations for the variation in Europe in women’s working hours, income, their likelihood of holding an authority position, and their occupational status. Applying a macro-micro design

  8. Authentic e-Learning in a Multicultural Context: Virtual Benchmarking Cases from Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppisaari, Irja; Herrington, Jan; Vainio, Leena; Im, Yeonwook

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of authentic learning elements at education institutions in five countries, eight online courses in total, is examined in this paper. The International Virtual Benchmarking Project (2009-2010) applied the elements of authentic learning developed by Herrington and Oliver (2000) as criteria to evaluate authenticity. Twelve…

  9. Using country of origin in strategy : the importance of context and strategic action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverland, M.; Lindgreen, A.

    2002-01-01

    Although the idea has long been accepted that a nation's image is a factor in buying decisions, research on the effect of country of origin (COO) on consumers' evaluation of brands and on firms' strategic positioning is contradictory. The strategic use of COO would appear to be highly dependent on

  10. Which Love of Country? Tensions, Questions and Contexts for Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers Martha Nussbaum's motivation for departing from her earlier cosmopolitan position in favour of now promoting a globally sensitive patriotism. Her reasons for endorsing patriotism will be shown as exemplary for related argumentations by other authors, especially insofar as love of country as a motivating force for civic duty is…

  11. Country's Competitiveness and Sustainability in the Context of the Higher Education System Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermolajeva, Elita; Aleksejeva, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of knowledge and its use have become important factors that promote economic development as they contribute to a country's competitiveness in the global economy. The basic significance of research is obtained by defining new approaches in the organisation, function and efficiency of the higher education system (HES) by emphasising…

  12. Crime and Context : The Impact of Individual, Neighborhood, City and Country Characteristics on Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsem, Johan Arend van

    2003-01-01

    This book deals with the distribution of criminal victimization across social groups and spatial areas. Why do certain kinds of people run higher risk of victimization than others? Why do spatial units, such as neighborhoods, cities and countries, differ in their rates of victimization? The present

  13. National Degree of Computerization: A Context for Evaluating Computer Education Policies in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Barry W.

    Developing countries should take immediate steps to avoid some of the serious problems that are now facing the United States in regard to the pool of trained computer professionals. Problem areas which should be reconciled involve a diverse range of topics from general national policy to salary structures and conversions efforts. By using the…

  14. Geriatric dentistry education and context in a selection of countries in 5 continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Leonardo; Ettinger, Ronald; Chen, Xi; Kossioni, Anastassia; Tan, Haiping; Tada, Sayaka; Ikebe, Kazunori; Dosumu, Elizabeth Bosede; Oginni, Fadekemi O; Akeredolu, Patricia Adetokunbo; Butali, Azeez; Donnelly, Leeann; Brondani, Mario; Fritzsch, Bernd; Adeola, Henry A

    2018-05-01

    To summarize and discuss how geriatric dentistry has been addressed in dental schools of different countries regarding to (1) teaching students at the predoctoral level; (2) advanced training, and (3) research. A convenience sample of faculty members from a selection of high, upper-middle and lower-middle income countries were recruited to complete the survey. The survey had 5 open-ended main topics, and asked about (1) the size of their elderly population, (2) general information about dental education; (3) the number of dental schools teaching geriatric dentistry, and their teaching methods; (4) advanced training in geriatric dentistry; (5) scholarship/research in geriatric dentistry. (1) There is great variation in the size of elderly population; (2) duration of training and content of dental education curriculum varies; (3) geriatric dentistry has not been established as a standalone course in dental schools in the majority of the countries, (4) most countries, with the exception of Japan, lack adequate number of dentists trained in geriatric dentistry as well as training programs, and (5) geriatric dentistry-related research has increased in recent years in scope and content, although the majority of these papers are not in English. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Context and culture associated with alcohol use amongst youth in major urban cities: A cross-country population based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne W Taylor

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption patterns are dependent upon culture and context. The aim of this study was to interview people aged 18-34 year old living in four cities in different regions of the world to explore differences in a range of alcohol measures to assist in determining culturally appropriate alcohol initiatives for this age group.Multistage random sampling was consistent across the four cities (Ilorin (Nigeria, Wuhan (China, Montevideo (Uruguay and Moscow (Russia. The questionnaire was forward and back translated into relevant languages and face-to-face interviewing undertaken. The data were weighted to the population of each city. Uni-variable analysis (ever consumed, first time consumed, age when drunk for first time, number of days consumed, type consumed and logistic regression modeling were undertaken. The final model for each city was adjusted for age, sex, marital status, highest education and employment status. In total 6235 interviews were undertaken (1391 in Ilorin, 1600 in Montevideo, 1604 in Moscow and 1640 in Wuhan.Alcohol was consumed by 96.4% in Montevideo, 86.1% in Moscow, 53.4% in Wuhan and 33.3% in Ilorin. There was very little difference by gender except Ilorin males were more likely to consume alcohol than females. Alcohol was consumed on more days for Ilorin males; Wuhan females consumed alcohol on the least number of days; Ilorin had the most abstainers; Montevideo and Moscow the highest proportion of light drinkers; Ilorin and Montevideo the highest proportion of heavy drinkers. Differences by type of alcohol were also apparent. The final logistic regression model provided different models including higher alcohol consumption rates for males, 25-34 years of age, divorced/separated marital status and employed part time for Ilorin respondents; males and higher educated for Montevideo; males, 25 to 29 years of age and higher educated for Moscow; and 25-29 years of age, non-married and vocationally trained for those in Wuhan

  16. Fiscal Consolidation Start and its Determinants Analysis Within European Member Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mihóková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the research from the theoretical point of view is to define the "start of fiscal consolidation" and to clarify the effects of selected determinants on its initiation. The purpose of the paper, in an empirical context, is to empirically assess the impact of selected determinants on the start of consolidation in the EU member states in 1995-2015 using quantitative economics. The paper was developed within the project VEGA 1/0967/15. Methodology: The empirical assessment of the research objective is divided into four phases: (1 creation of research review using EBHC methodology, (2 identification of “start” of fiscal consolidation within selected period, (3 panel econometric analysis: model specification, quantification of model’s parameters and model verification and (4 research assessment and discussion. Within the analysis, the traditional, specific and general methods were used (systemic review according to EBHC methodology, content analysis, panel regression analysis, synthesis. Approach: Approach identifies “start” of consolidation episodes using selected identification rules. Using the panel regression analysis (OLS, FEM and REM models approach the statistically significant macroeconomic, fiscal, political and other determinants and quantification of the polarity of their impact on the fiscal consolidation start were analysed. Findings: Based on the performed econometric analysis can be stated that the start of consolidation is significantly determined by initial macroeconomic and fiscal situation in the country which are captured by the size of output gap and GDP growth as well as the size of CAPB, budget expenditure and the revenue side. Political and other determinants (such as crisis can also influence the start of consolidation episodes..

  17. Applying the food technology neophobia scale in a developing country context. A case-study on processed matooke (cooking banana) flour in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Odongo, Walter; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The success of new food technologies largely depends on consumers' behavioral responses to the innovation. In Eastern Africa, and Uganda in particular, a technology to process matooke into flour has been introduced with limited success. We measure and apply the Food technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS) to this specific case. This technique has been increasingly used in consumer research to determine consumers' fear for foods produced by novel technologies. Although it has been successful in developed countries, the low number and limited scope of past studies underlines the need for testing its applicability in a developing country context. Data was collected from 209 matooke consumers from Central Uganda. In general, respondents are relatively neophobic towards the new technology, with an average FTNS score of 58.7%, which hampers the success of processed matooke flour. Besides socio-demographic indicators, 'risk perception', 'healthiness' and the 'necessity of technologies' were key factors that influenced consumer's preference of processed matooke flour. Benchmarking the findings against previous FTNS surveys allows to evaluate factor solutions, compare standardized FTNS scores and further lends support for the multidimensionality of the FTNS. Being the first application in a developing country context, this study provides a case for examining food technology neophobia for processed staple crops in various regions and cultures. Nevertheless, research is needed to replicate this method and evaluate the external validity of our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The residential context of health in Australia: No longer the lucky country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Elizabeth; Baum, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the special issue focused on the relationship between residence and health in Australia. We present six papers conducted in different Australian states that demonstrate different elements of the complex impact of residential context on health. Through this series of papers, we demonstrate the impact of housing quality and safety on vulnerable populations, but also the way in which processes around housing (e.g., data collection, renewal, allocation) can have either negative or positive outcomes. The broader residential context (i.e., neighborhood, community, geographic location) also must be considered in housing decisions, along with variables that closely track housing (e.g., stigma, poverty). Australia is in the middle of a housing crisis that can still be resolved in positive ways if adequate attention is given to the nuances and complexities of housing decisions.

  19. Modelling a critical infrastructure-driven spatial database for proactive disaster management: A developing country context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Baloye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding and institutionalisation of the seamless link between urban critical infrastructure and disaster management has greatly helped the developed world to establish effective disaster management processes. However, this link is conspicuously missing in developing countries, where disaster management has been more reactive than proactive. The consequence of this is typified in poor response time and uncoordinated ways in which disasters and emergency situations are handled. As is the case with many Nigerian cities, the challenges of urban development in the city of Abeokuta have limited the effectiveness of disaster and emergency first responders and managers. Using geospatial techniques, the study attempted to design and deploy a spatial database running a web-based information system to track the characteristics and distribution of critical infrastructure for effective use during disaster and emergencies, with the purpose of proactively improving disaster and emergency management processes in Abeokuta. Keywords: Disaster Management; Emergency; Critical Infrastructure; Geospatial Database; Developing Countries; Nigeria

  20. Human resource training and development importance in post communist countries in cross-cultural context

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpikaitė, Vilmantė

    2009-01-01

    The manufacturing-dominated economies of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, formed during the Soviet occupation, collapsed with the USSR. However, they are now well into the process of evolving to market economies. Among other aspects, this evolutionary process includes adapting to new social institutions and economic relationships, reacting to the impact of new technologies, and meeting the increasing social needs and developing employees in these countries. This review addresses the importance ...

  1. Resilience of Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Country Contexts: A Framework and Assessment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Vroegindewey; Jennifer Hodbod

    2018-01-01

    Although agricultural value chain resilience is a crucial component to food security and sustainable food systems in developing countries, it has received little attention. This paper synthesizes knowledge from the social-ecological systems (SES), supply chain management, and value chain development literature to make three contributions to this research gap. First, we conceptualize agricultural value chain resilience and relate it to overall food system resilience. Second, we identify seven ...

  2. Multiple perspectives approach as a framework to analyse social systems in a developing country context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turpin, M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available synthesis. Keywords: multiple perspectives, unbounded systems thinking, information systems theory, group support systems, decision support, developing countries. Acknowledgements: The authors wish to acknowledge the CSIR Strategic Research Programme..., in which chaos and disorder do not reign or take a foot hold” (Mc Alister 2008:10) and contrast these beautiful ideals with the “horrible situation” (Kriek 2008:13) of the xenophobic violence and “non-aesthetic elements like the informal settlements...

  3. SAFETY ASSESSMENT AND LIABILITY REGULATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD IN THE BRICS COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. K. Balashanmugam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International trade of food products is expected to increase rapidly with the widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM food. There will be greater participation of developing countries based on investment as well as research and development. Investment in research and development and commercial production of GM crops is high in Asia, particularly in India and China, but also in Latin American countries, such as Brazil, and on the African continent, especially in South Africa. Despite the merits, the introduction of GM foods in the world market has continued to raise public concerns touching upon health, legal, social, ethical and environmental issues. Especially, the issue of contamination is considered asignificant threat at many stages of development of GM food. Transboundary aspects and certain aspects of the components of the food safety system such as safety assessment, liability and redress are still not completely addressed. The present study is the systematic review of the extent of the development of legislation and institutional mechanisms in relation to safety assessment and liability mechanisms for regulating the emerging GM foods in the developing countries of BRICS. Additionally, the comparison of the components of national food safety systems of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa reveals differences in policy and regulation in relation to GM food.

  4. Prevalence and Determinants of Repeat Mammography Among Women from a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Gaspar-Rivera, Jimena Estefanía; Juárez-Pérez, Oscar; Montañez-Sauceda, José Roberto; Núñez-Rocha, Georgina Mayela; Guzmán-de-la-Garza, Francisco Javier; Mathiew-Quirós, Álvaro

    2017-04-01

    Failures in repeat mammography decrease the potential benefits of screening; however, it is notable that the recent use of mammography is more frequently studied than repeat use. We estimated the prevalence and analyzed determinants for repeat mammography among women from Mexico, a developing country of Latin America. It was a two-stage study with an initial cross-sectional design (n = 1045) and a final case-control design that involved women of at least 45 years of age with no history of breast, ovarian, or uterine cancer. Case subjects were those with three or more mammograms in the last 5 years, with the last one carried out within the last two years (n = 444); control subjects included those who underwent ≥3 mammograms throughout their life with the most recent carried out >2 years ago (n = 444). Through interviews, we evaluated context-dependency, fulfillment of expected outcomes, self-efficacy, and risk perception, among other factors. We estimated the prevalence with 95 % confidence intervals (CI), and odds ratios (OR) using multivariate binary logistic regression. The prevalence of repeat mammography was 40.4 % (95 % CI 37.4-43.4). Self-efficacy demonstrated the highest effect on repeat use (OR 7.7, 95 % CI 4.7-12.6), followed by awareness context-dependency (OR 4.9, 95 % CI 3.3-7.2), the use of Papanicolaou testing (OR 3.5, 95 % CI 2.3-5.2), the fulfillment of expected waiting time outcome (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.2-4.7), and context-dependency related to self-referral/health provider referral (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.7-3.4), independent of risk perception, age, education, and positive emotional state of mind. The study showed a need for increasing the prevalence of promoting awareness of the determining factors of repeat mammography, which is a necessary component in the early detection of breast cancer.

  5. Health in China and India: a cross-country comparison in a context of rapid globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, Trevor J B; Cook, Ian G

    2008-08-01

    China and India are similarly huge nations currently experiencing rapid economic growth, urbanisation and widening inequalities between rich and poor. They are dissimilar in terms of their political regimes, policies for population growth and ethnic composition and heterogeneity. This review compares health and health care in China and India within the framework of the epidemiological transition model and against the backdrop of globalisation. We identify similarities and differences in health situation. In general, for both countries, infectious diseases of the past sit alongside emerging infectious diseases and chronic illnesses associated with ageing societies, although the burden of infectious diseases is much higher in India. Whilst globalisation contributes to widening inequalities in health and health care in both countries--particularly with respect to increasing disparities between urban and rural areas and between rich and poor--there is evidence that local circumstances are important, especially with respect to the structure and financing of health care and the implementation of health policy. For example, India has huge problems providing even rudimentary health care to its large population of urban slum dwellers whilst China is struggling to re-establish universal rural health insurance. In terms of funding access to health care, the Chinese state has traditionally supported most costs, whereas private insurance has always played a major role in India, although recent changes in China have seen the burgeoning of private health care payments. China has, arguably, had more success than India in improving population health, although recent reforms have severely impacted upon the ability of the Chinese health care system to operate effectively. Both countries are experiencing a decline in the amount of government funding for health care and this is a major issue that must be addressed.

  6. Financial Reforms and Determinants of FDI: Evidence from Landlocked Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Rjoub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as a source of funding to foster economic development in both developed and developing countries has been in ascendancy. The prime purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the determinants of FDI for the “landlocked countries” in Sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1995–2013. By employing panel data analysis, the result of the study revealed that domestic investment, trade (openness, human capital, political constraint, natural resource endowment and the market size (with the GDP growth as proxy as having positive impact on determining FDI flow into the sample countries with only the countries’ tax policies seen otherwise. Our study not only contributes to existing literature on FDI determinants by investigating landlocked countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA for the first time but also includes natural resources that the landlocked countries are endowed with, tax policies and political constraints in such countries for the stipulated period.

  7. Resilience of Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Country Contexts: A Framework and Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Vroegindewey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although agricultural value chain resilience is a crucial component to food security and sustainable food systems in developing countries, it has received little attention. This paper synthesizes knowledge from the social-ecological systems (SES, supply chain management, and value chain development literature to make three contributions to this research gap. First, we conceptualize agricultural value chain resilience and relate it to overall food system resilience. Second, we identify seven principles that are hypothesized to contribute to SES resilience, relate them to supply chain management theory, and discuss their application in agricultural value chains. A key insight is that the appropriateness of these principles are important to assess on a case-by-case basis, and depend in part on trade-offs between resilience and other dimensions of value chain performance. Third, we integrate two common tools, the Resilience Alliance’s assessment framework and value chain analysis techniques, to outline an adaptable participatory approach for assessing the resilience of agricultural value chains in developing countries. The objectives of the approach are to cultivate a chain-wide awareness for past and potential disturbances that could affect food security and other essential services provided by the value chain, and to identify upgrades that can build resilience against these key disturbances.

  8. Factors in Organisational Environmental Management System Implementation – Developed vs. Developing Country Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Kola-Lawal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Country specificities and national cultures influence Environmental Management Systems (EMS implementation and pro-environmental behaviour in organisations. Previous studies have focused on organisations in developed or emerging economies, creating a need to establish the extent to which findings are applicable to developing counterparts. This paper presents EMS implementation from a developing country perspective, reporting on EMS implementation factors (drivers, benefits, barriers affecting Nigerian organisations’ pro-environmental behaviour, by analysing questionnaire responses from 136 Nigerian organisational respondents. Most commonly cited drivers were ‘environmental concern’ and ‘desire for improved organisational efficiency’. Key barriers were ‘cost of implementation/budget barriers’ and ‘regulatory agency bureaucracy’. Key benefits were ‘reduced environmental accidents and improved site safety’, ‘enhanced corporate image’ and ‘more efficient resource use’. To situate findings within a global construct, results were compared with previous studies in more developed economies. EMS implementation factors differed from those in more developed economies. Plausible explanations for differences are discussed.

  9. Determinants of educational participation and gender differences in education in six Arab countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.J.M.; Huisman, A.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    We study the determinants of educational participation and gender differences in education for young children in six Arab countries: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen. Although these countries have made much progress in getting young children into school, school dropout after age 11

  10. Associations between meal complexity and social context in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahma, Nina; Mäkelä, Johanna; Niva, Mari

    2014-01-01

    main meals, lunch and dinner. The analysis builds on the concept of eating system, examining the effect sociability has on meal complexity. In the end we ask whether complexity can better be explained by social context, or if it, rather, results from social differentiation. The data (N=8248) are drawn......Contemporary eating is often portrayed by images of snacking, solitary grazing, disintegration of sociability, demise of family meals, and increasingly irregular eating patterns –what Claude Fischler has famously described as gastroanomy. Inspired by the concept of eating system, this article...... from the Food in Nordic Everyday Life survey conducted in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden in 2012. The Finns and Swedes typically had two hot meals a day, whereas the Danes and Norwegians only had one. Moreover, the differences in the complexity were the greatest in hot dinners, the Danes...

  11. Determinants of fixed investment by manufacturing firms in a developing country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilsborrow, R E

    1977-10-01

    The validity of classical explanations of business investment decisions are examined and evidence is found that a less-pure approach is appropriate in the context of a developing country. A new data base is developed, using an electric model of manufacturing corporations in Colombia. The main empirical findings are: (1) An accelerator was accepted and institutionalized as a long-run investment. (2) Cash flow effects were a slightly more-important determinant of annual-investment variations than the accelerator in accordance with business uncertainties and undeveloped capital and loan markets. (3) Although the balance-sheet risk variable was the best variable in individual firm time-risk regression studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn without further investigation. (4) The single most-important influence on annual variations in investment by aggregates of firms was the availability of foreign exchange, which suggests the impact that changes in government policies can have on investment and economic activity. (5) Investment theory ''explained'' the behavior of foreign-controlled investment in Colombia better than that of Colombian corporations, whose executives may have been less willing to take risks. 56 references.

  12. Speaker-Oriented Classroom Acoustics Design Guidelines in the Context of Current Regulations in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Most European countries have regulatory requirements or guidelines for reverberation time in classrooms which have the goal of enhancing speech intelligibility and reducing noise levels in schools. At the same time, school teachers suffer frequently from voice problems due to high vocal load...... experienced at work. With the aim of improving working conditions for teachers, this article presents guidelines for classroom acoustics design that meet simultaneously criteria of vocal comfort and speech intelligibility, which may be of use in future discussions for updating regulatory requirements...... in classroom acoustics. Two room acoustic parameters are shown relevant for a speaker: the voice support, linked to vocal effort, and the decay time derived from an oral-binaural impulse response, linked to vocal comfort. Theoretical prediction models for room-averaged values of these parameters are combined...

  13. Improving access to medicines in low and middle income countries: corporate responsibilities in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisinger, Klaus Michael; Garabedian, Laura Faden; Wagner, Anita Katharina

    2012-12-01

    More than two billion people in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) lack adequate access to essential medicines. In this paper, we make strong public health, human rights and economic arguments for improving access to medicines in LMIC and discuss the different roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders, including national governments, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We then establish a framework of pharmaceutical firms' corporate responsibilities - the "must," the "ought to," and the "can" dimensions - and make recommendations for actionable business strategies for improving access to medicines. We discuss controversial topics, such as pharmaceutical profits and patents, with the goal of building consensus around facts and working towards a solution. We conclude that partnerships and collaboration among multiple stakeholders are urgently needed to improve equitable access to medicines in LMIC.

  14. Business Takeover or New Venture? Individual and Environmental Determinants from a Cross-Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Block, J.H.; Thurik, A.R.; van der Zwan, P.W.; Walter, S.

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWhereas the determinants of entrepreneurial choice have been thoroughly analyzed in the literature, little is known about the preferred mode of entry into entrepreneurship, such as taking over an existing business or starting a new venture. Using a large international dataset, this study reports considerable differences in takeover preferences across 33 countries. Hierarchical (multi-level) regressions are performed to explore individual-level and country-level determinants of the...

  15. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  16. Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment: Evaluating Residential Development Sustainability in a Developing Country Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yigitcanlar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, improved quality of life, and diversified lifestyle options have collectively led to an escalation in housing demand in our cities, where residential areas, as the largest portion of urban land use type, play a critical role in the formation of sustainable cities. To date there has been limited research to ascertain residential development layouts that provide a more sustainable urban outcome. This paper aims to evaluate and compare sustainability levels of residential types by focusing on their layouts. The paper scrutinizes three different development types in a developing country context—i.e., subdivision, piecemeal, and master-planned developments. This study develops a “Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment” tool and applies it to compare their sustainability levels in Ipoh, Malaysia. The analysis finds that the master-planned development, amongst the investigated case studies, possesses the potential to produce higher levels of sustainability outcomes. The results reveal insights and evidence for policymakers, planners, development agencies and researchers; advocate further studies on neighborhood-level sustainability analysis, and; emphasize the need for collective efforts and an effective process in achieving neighborhood sustainability and sustainable city formation.

  17. New perspectives on the pedagogy of programming in a developing country context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2012-09-01

    Programming education is a widely researched and intensely discussed topic. The literature proposes a broad variety of pedagogical viewpoints, practical approaches, learning theories, motivational vehicles, and other elements of the learning situation. However, little effort has been put on understanding cultural and contextual differences in pedagogy of programming. Pedagogical literature shows that educational design should account for differences in the ways of learning and teaching between industrialized and developing countries. However, the nature and implications of those differences are hitherto unclear. Using group interviews and quantitative surveys, we identified several crucial elements for contextualizing programming education. Our results reveal that students are facing many similar challenges to students in the west: they often lack deep level learning skills and problem-solving skills, which are required for learning computer programming, and, secondly, that from the students' viewpoint the standard learning environment does not offer enough support for gaining the requisite development. With inadequate support students may resort to surface learning and may adopt extrinsic sources of motivation. Learning is also hindered by many contextually unique factors, such as unfamiliar pedagogical approaches, language problems, and cultural differences. Our analysis suggests that challenges can be minimized by increasing the number of practical exercises, by carefully selecting between guided and minimally guided environments, by rigorously monitoring student progress, and by providing students timely help, repetitive exercises, clear guidelines, and emotional support.

  18. Comparative estimates of Kamchatka territory development in the context of northern territories of foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Shelomentsev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article promotes an approach to assess the prospects of regional development on the basis of the synthesis of comparative and historical methods of research. According to the authors, the comparative analysis of the similar functioning of the socio-economic systems forms deeper understanding what part factors and methods of state regulation play in regional development, and also their place in socio-economic and geopolitical space. The object of the research is Kamchatka territory as the region playing strategically important role in socio-economic development of Russia and also northern territories of the other countries comparable with Kamchatka on the bass if environmental conditions such as Iceland, Greenland, USA (Alaska, Canada (Yukon, and Japan (Hokkaido. On the basis of allocation of the general signs of regional socio-economic systems and creation of the regional development models forming the basis for comparative estimates, the article analyses the territories, which are comparable on the base of climatic, geographic, economic, geopolitical conditions, but thus significantly different due to the level of economic familiarity. The generalization of the extensive statistical material characterizing various spheres of activity at these territories, including branch structure of the economy, its infrastructure security, demographic situation, the budgetary and financial sphere are given. It allows defining the crucial features of the regional economy development models. In the conclusion, the authors emphasize that ignoring of the essential relations among the regional system elements and internal and external factors deprives a research of historical and socio-economic basis.

  19. Emergency preparedness for those who care for infants in developed country contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribble Karleen D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emergency management organisations recognise the vulnerability of infants in emergencies, even in developed countries. However, thus far, those who care for infants have not been provided with detailed information on what emergency preparedness entails. Emergency management authorities should provide those who care for infants with accurate and detailed information on the supplies necessary to care for them in an emergency, distinguishing between the needs of breastfed infants and the needs of formula fed infants. Those who care for formula fed infants should be provided with detailed information on the supplies necessary for an emergency preparedness kit and with information on how to prepare formula feeds in an emergency. An emergency preparedness kit for exclusively breastfed infants should include 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. The contents of an emergency preparedness for formula fed infants will vary depending upon whether ready-to-use liquid infant formula or powdered infant formula is used. If ready-to-use liquid infant formula is used, an emergency kit should include: 56 serves of ready-to-use liquid infant formula, 84 L water, storage container, metal knife, small bowl, 56 feeding bottles and teats/cups, 56 zip-lock plastic bags, 220 paper towels, detergent, 120 antiseptic wipes, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. If powdered infant formula is used, an emergency preparedness kit should include: two 900 g tins powdered infant formula, 170 L drinking water, storage container, large cooking pot with lid, kettle, gas stove, box of matches/lighter, 14 kg liquid petroleum gas, measuring container, metal knife, metal tongs, feeding cup, 300 large sheets paper towel, detergent, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. Great care with regards hygiene should be taken in the preparation of formula feeds. Child protection organisations should ensure that foster carers responsible for infants have the resources necessary to formula feed in the

  20. Gender and Autonomy-Supportive Contexts: Theoretical Perspectives of Self-Determination and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shinyi; Chen, Yu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    In integrating theoretical perspectives of self-determination and goal-setting, this study proposes a conceptual model with moderating and mediating effects exploring gender issue in autonomy-supportive learning in higher education as research context. In the proposed model, goal-setting attributes, i.e., individual determinants, social…

  1. Assessment of goals and priorities in patients with a chronic condition: a secondary quantitative analysis of determinants across 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, Neeltje P C A; Westert, Gert P; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Faber, Marjan J

    2018-03-01

    To assess the impact of patient characteristics, patient-professional engagement, communication and context on the probability that healthcare professionals will discuss goals or priorities with older patients. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2014 Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey of Older Adults. 11 western countries. Community-dwelling adults, aged 55 or older. Assessment of goals and priorities. The final sample size consisted of 17,222 respondents, 54% of whom reported an assessment of their goals and priorities (AGP) by healthcare professionals. In logistic regression model 1, which was used to analyse the entire population, the determinants found to have moderate to large effects on the likelihood of AGP were information exchange on stress, diet or exercise, or both. Country (living in Sweden) and continuity of care (no regular professional or organisation) had moderate to large negative effects on the likelihood of AGP. In model 2, which focussed on respondents who experienced continuity of care, country and information exchange on stress and lifestyle were the main determinants of AGP, with comparable odds ratios to model 1. Furthermore, a professional asking questions also increased the likelihood of AGP. Continuity of care and information exchange is associated with a higher probability of AGP, while people living in Sweden are less likely to experience these assessments. Further study is required to determine whether increasing information exchange and professionals asking more questions may improve goal setting with older patients. Key points   A patient goal-oriented approach can be beneficial for older patients with chronic conditions or multimorbidity; however, discussing goals with these patients is not a common practice. The likelihood of discussing goals varies by country, occurring most commonly in the USA, and least often in Sweden. Country-level differences in continuity of care and questions asked by a

  2. Determinants of the Strength of Auditing and Reporting Standards: a Cross-Country Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Krishansing Boolaky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study addresses the research gap regarding the absence of an empirical cross-country study on the determinants of the strength of auditing and reporting standards (SARS. Using data on 133 countries at various stages of development, we examine the role of environmental factors that influence a country’s strength of auditing and reporting standards. Our empirical results confirm that institutional infrastructure, financial market development and higher education and training jointly influence a country’s strength of auditing and reporting standards. We obtain qualitatively similar subsample results when we partition countries on the basis of economic development.

  3. The determinants of the composition of public debt in developing and emerging market countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Forslund

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a new dataset on the composition of public debt in developing and emerging market countries to look at the correlation between country characteristics and domestic debt share. While the paper finds that most variables have the expected sign, it also finds that country characteristics cannot explain regional differences in the composition of public debt. Moreover, the paper finds a weak correlation between inflationary history and the composition of public debt. The paper explores the determinants of this finding and shows that the results are driven by the presence of capital controls.

  4. The socioeconomic inequalities in and determinants of obesity in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dinsa, Girmaye

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, a widely known risk factor for many chronic diseases, is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Unlike in the developed world, where obesity is largely associated with low socioeconomic status, there is an ongoing debate on whether obesity is a problem of the rich or that of the poor in developing countries. This thesis comprises four studies that seek to improve our understanding of the socioeconomic associations, inequalities in and determinants of obesity in developing countr...

  5. Access to Strong Opioid Analgesics in the Context of Legal and Regulatory Barriers in Eleven Central and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B; Scholten, Willem K; Jünger, Saskia; Medic, Dr Rer; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2018-04-06

    In 2011-2013, >95% of the global opioid analgesics consumption occurred in three regions, accounting for 15% of the world population. Despite abundant literature on barriers to access, little is known on the correlation between actual access to opioid analgesics and barriers to access, including legal and regulatory barriers. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and barriers to access in national legislation and regulations in 11 central and eastern European countries that participated in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. Two variables were contrasted to assess their correlation: the country level of access to strong opioid analgesics indicated by the Adequacy of Consumption Measure (ACM) and the number of potential legal and regulatory barriers identified by an external review of legislation and regulations. A linear correlation was evaluated using a squared linear correlation coefficient. Evaluation of the correlation between the ACM and the number of potential barriers produces an R 2 value of 0.023 and a correlation plot trend line gradient of -0.075, indicating no correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and the number of potential barriers in national legislation and regulations in the countries studied. No correlation was found, which indicates that other factors besides potential legal and regulatory barriers play a critical role in withholding prescribers and patients essential pain medication in the studied countries. More research is needed toward better understanding of the complex interplay of factors that determine access to strong opioid analgesics.

  6. How does context influence performance of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries? Evidence from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maryse C; Kane, Sumit S; Tulloch, Olivia; Ormel, Hermen; Theobald, Sally; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; de Koning, Korrie A M

    2015-03-07

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as an integral component of the health workforce needed to achieve public health goals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many factors intersect to influence CHW performance. A systematic review with a narrative analysis was conducted to identify contextual factors influencing performance of CHWs. We searched six databases for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies that included CHWs working in promotional, preventive or curative primary health care services in LMICs. We differentiated CHW performance outcome measures at two levels: CHW level and end-user level. Ninety-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were double read to extract data relevant to the context of CHW programmes. Thematic coding was conducted and evidence on five main categories of contextual factors influencing CHW performance was synthesized. Few studies had the influence of contextual factors on CHW performance as their primary research focus. Contextual factors related to community (most prominently), economy, environment, and health system policy and practice were found to influence CHW performance. Socio-cultural factors (including gender norms and values and disease related stigma), safety and security and education and knowledge level of the target group were community factors that influenced CHW performance. Existence of a CHW policy, human resource policy legislation related to CHWs and political commitment were found to be influencing factors within the health system policy context. Health system practice factors included health service functionality, human resources provisions, level of decision-making, costs of health services, and the governance and coordination structure. All contextual factors can interact to shape CHW performance and affect the performance of CHW interventions or programmes. Research on CHW programmes often does not capture or explicitly discuss the context in which CHW

  7. Radioactive waste: institutional determinants of management and disposal policy in three European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, Frans.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this thesis has been to write a detailed historical account of the policy and practice of radioactive waste management in Britain, Sweden and West Germany, and to draw out implications for theory and public policy. By comparing the evolution of the policy process in three countries it has been possible to develop a better understanding of the particular operational, regulatory and political factors determining policy in each case. The main conclusions are three-fold. First, the presence or absence of commitments to the reprocessing of spent fuel for a wide range of strategic, industrial and legal reasons have been critical to the success in finding an acceptable radwaste management and disposal policy (or strategy). Politically it is not possible to make a clear distinction between radwaste management and policy for the rest of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Second, because of this complex but intimate relationship to reprocessing policy, the dynamism and consistency of radwaste policies are highly dependent on the industrial and political contexts of the drive to reprocessing. Traditionally a view on reprocessing has been virtually synonymous with a faith or scepticism in the future of nuclear power. Third, the policy process, and indeed its goals was rather unique to national circumstances (the legal and institutional framework, industrial and political structures). This demonstrates one of the principle arguments of the thesis which is that the innovation process for radwaste management and disposal technologies cannot be seen merely as a technical process, but has to be seen as a process of political and institutional negotiations. (author)

  8. Working with interpreters in cross-cultural qualitative research in the context of a developing country: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpuku, Yoko; Norr, Kathleen F

    2012-08-01

    This article is a report of a systematic literature review describing how cross-cultural researchers conducted qualitative studies with interpreters in Tanzania. The purpose was to draw methodological implications for working with interpreters within the context of developing countries. In a growing number of cross-cultural nursing studies in developing countries, interpreters play a crucial role for imparting verbal and cultural understanding. In many studies, however, the interpreters' role and their influences on the findings are not adequately described, and therefore the study credibility is weakened. Cross-cultural qualitative studies conducted with interpreters in Tanzania were searched in four databases. Meeting our inclusion criteria were 20 studies published from 1994-2009. We used Garrard's Matrix Method following Wallin and Ahlström's framework to analyse how cross-cultural researchers described the role of interpreters. We identified three major patterns of how researchers worked with interpreters: (i) invisible assistance, (ii) independent fieldwork and (iii) integrated collaboration. In many studies, interpreters' information was limited. They were often asked to collect data in the field without the presence of the researcher. They were integrated into the research process beyond data collection, such as subject recruitment, review of interviews, transcription and translation and analysis. From planning of research to dissemination of the findings, nurse researchers should carefully consider interpreters' influences on the findings. They may use a set of questions we developed for working with interpreters in developing countries to systematically describe the interpreter's role and maximize their research credibility. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. 19 CFR 356.6 - Receipt of notice of a scope determination by the Government of a FTA country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Government of a FTA country. 356.6 Section 356.6 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... determination by the Government of a FTA country. (a) Where the Department has made a scope determination, notice of such determination shall be deemed received by the Government of a FTA country when a certified...

  10. Teachers' Conceptions About the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed teachers' conceptions. This illustrates that innatism is present in two distinct ways: in relation to individuals (e.g. genetic determinism to justify intellectual likeness between individuals such as twins) or in relation to groups of humans (e.g. genetic determinism to justify gender differences or the superiority of some human ethnic groups). A between-factor analysis discriminates between countries, showing very significant differences. There is more innatism among teachers' conceptions in African countries and Lebanon than in European countries, Brazil and Australia. Among the other controlled parameters, only two are significantly independent of the country: the level of training and the level of knowledge of biology. A co-inertia analysis shows a strong correlation between non-citizen attitudes towards and innatist conceptions of genetic determinism regarding human groups. We discuss these findings and their implications for education.

  11. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of the remitting behaviour of Romanian emigrants in an economic crisis context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The remittances of international migrants are particularly important for Romania as one of the top European emigration countries and an important remittance recipient country as well. Responding to the need to better understand the determinants of remittances, our paper examines the significance of selected economic, social and demographic factors that impact on the remittance behaviour of Romanian international migrants, as characterized by the propensity to remit and the amount remitted. The present work builds on a new database of 1514 Romanian migrants from 52 destination countries, resulting from our 2010 online survey. One of the main findings is the fact that the remittances are strongly affected by migrant’s income, return intention and presence of the spouse in the destination country.

  13. Macroeconomic Determinants of Migrants’ Remittances: Evidence from a Panel of Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Tabit

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the various macroeconomic determinants of migrants’ remittances for a panel of 22 developing countries highly dependent observed over the period 1990 to 2014. The results underline the importance of the origin country’s GDP, the host country’s GDP, inflation, financial development and institutional quality as major determinants of personal remittances. However, the migrant stock, the official exchange rate and the real interest rate in the country of origin do not have a significant influence on remittances received by the panel considered.

  14. Determinants of non-performing loans in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Škarica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of the changes in the non-performing loan (NPL ratio in selected European emerging markets. The model was estimated on a panel dataset using a fixed effects estimator for seven Central and Eastern European (CEE countries between Q3:2007 and Q3:2012. The countries analyzed are Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia. Although the literature on NPLs is quite extensive, this is the first empirical research on the countries of CEE region using aggregate, country-level data on problem loans. The results suggest that the primary cause of high levels of NPLs is the economic slowdown, which is evident from statistically significant and economically large coefficients on GDP, unemployment and the inflation rate.

  15. The core determinants of health expenditure in the African context: some econometric evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vasudeva N R; Okunade, Albert A

    2009-06-01

    This paper, using cross-sectional data from 44 (83% of all) African countries for year 2001, presents econometric model estimates linking real per-capita health expenditure (HEXP) to a host of economic and non-economic factors. The empirical results of OLS and robust LAE estimators indicate that real per-capita GDP (PRGDP) and real per-capita foreign aid (FAID) resources are both core and statistically significant correlates of HEXP. Our empirical results suggest that health care in the African context is technically, a necessity rather than a luxury good (for the OECD countries). This suggests that the goal of health system in Africa is primarily 'physiological' or 'curative' rather than 'caring' or 'pampering'. The positive association of HEXP with FAID hints that external resource inflows targeting health could be instrumental for spurring economic progress in good policy environments. Most African countries until the late 1990s experienced economic and political instability, and faced stringent structural adjustment mandates of the major international financial institution lenders for economic development. Therefore, our finding a positive effect of FAID on HEXP could suggest that external resource inflows softened some of the macroeconomic fiscal deficit impacts on HEXP in the 2000s. Policy implications of country-specific elasticity estimates are given.

  16. Methodology and key determinants of building an efficient national innovation system of a country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Gurova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a research of theoretical principles for determining national innovation systems, as well as analyzes performance results displayed by national innovation systems of the leading countries in the global innovation space, while also describing characteristic features thereof and formulating recommendations for NIS build-up based on the same, implementation of which should serve as the basis of the national innovation system effective performance. It has been determined that at the current stage of global economy development such factors as science, technology and innovation play an important role in formation of a competitive economy. It has been established that the overall funding level with respect to science proves one of the key characteristics of an innovative country, and therefore NIS performance analysis was carried out based on the national expenditure indicator regarding research and development as well as on the country's position in the Global Innovation Index. The analysis carried out showed that the NISs of certain countries were more efficient than those of the others due to peculiarities of the innovative system elements that can be further referred to as determinants of building an effective national innovation system of a country

  17. Socio-economic determinants of suicide: an ecological analysis of 35 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; McClure, Rod; De Leo, Diego

    2012-01-01

    A long tradition of research has shown a relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors. However, most investigations have neglected to account for country-specific influences. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between socio-economic variables and gender-specific suicide rates in 35 countries, using analytic techniques able to control for effects embedded within different country contexts. Data relating to male and female age-standardised suicide rates (obtained from the WHO Statistical Information System) were analysed using fixed-effect regression. The possible associations between suicide rates and social variables were tested using data for 35 countries over the period 1980-2006. Findings indicated that higher male and female suicide rates were associated with increased female labour force participation, unemployment, and the proportion of persons over 65 years. Reductions in male and female suicide rates were associated with increased health spending per capita. The study also revealed that higher fertility was associated with a reduction in male suicide. Female labour force participation had a stronger effect on male suicide rates. The results of this study suggest that variables related to the labour market and the economy were better explanatory factors of suicide rates than population-level indicators of interpersonal relationships. Although results were generally similar for males and females, males appeared to be more sensitive to changes in the social environment than women.

  18. On the Relative Importance of Corporate Working Capital Determinants: Findings from the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Koralun-Bereźnicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The corporate finance literature traditionally abounds in both theoretical discussion and empirical research concerning financing and long-term investment decisions. Managing short-term resources appears to be a much less remarkable issue, despite this resource’s significant share of a firm’s balance sheet and the time and effort required to manage the current assets and liabilities. This article provides insights into the relative importance of the selected working capital determinants from the European Union perspective. The determinants considered in the study include both external and internal factors, specifically the country in which a company operates, its industrial classification and the firm size. Using more than 10,000 aggregated observations from a sample of firms from 13 industries, 9 countries and 3 group sizes, covering the period 2000-2009, the findings provide evidence that corporate working capital is most affected by country-specific factors, followed by industrial factors and firm size.

  19. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Rowe, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health “first-person” (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer) movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The “take home message” of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the ‘adoptee’s’ practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken. PMID:28680412

  20. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Rowe, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health "first-person" (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer) movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The "take home message" of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the 'adoptee's' practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken.

  1. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Eiroa-Orosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health “first-person” (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The “take home message” of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the ‘adoptee’s’ practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken.

  2. Micro and macrolevel determinants of women's employment in six Arab countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Verloo, M.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed determinants of women's employment with data for 40,792 women living in 103 districts of 6 Arab countries. We tested a new theoretical framework that addresses the roles of needs, opportunities, and values at multiple levels. At the microlevel (individual, family), socioeconomic factors,

  3. Micro- and Macrolevel Determinants of Women's Employment in Six Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Niels; Smits, Jeroen; Verloo, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed determinants of women's employment with data for 40,792 women living in 103 districts of 6 Arab countries. We tested a new theoretical framework that addresses the roles of needs, opportunities, and values at multiple levels. At the microlevel (individual, family), socioeconomic factors, care duties, and traditionalism were important;…

  4. Teachers' Conceptions about the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed…

  5. Trends and determinants of weight gains among OECD countries: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S; Vu, X-B; Barnett, A

    2018-06-01

    Obesity has become a global issue with abundant evidence to indicate that the prevalence of obesity in many nations has increased over time. The literature also reports a strong association between obesity and economic development, but the trend that obesity growth rates may converge over time has not been examined. We propose a conceptual framework and conduct an ecological analysis on the relationship between economic development and weight gain. We also test the hypothesis that weight gain converges among countries over time and examine determinants of weight gains. This is a longitudinal study of 34 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in the years 1980-2008 using publicly available data. We apply a dynamic economic growth model to test the hypothesis that the rate of weight gains across countries may converge over time. We also investigate the determinants of weight gains using a longitudinal regression tree analysis. We do not find evidence that the growth rates of body weight across countries converged for all countries. However, there were groups of countries in which the growth rates of body weight converge, with five groups for males and seven groups for females. The predicted growth rates of body weight peak when gross domestic product (GDP) per capita reaches US$47,000 for males and US$37,000 for females in OECD countries. National levels of consumption of sugar, fat and alcohol were the most important contributors to national weight gains. National weight gains follow an inverse U-shape curve with economic development. Excessive calorie intake is the main contributor to weight gains. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in countries with high tuberculosis burdens: individual risks and social determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Jeon, Christie Y; Cohen, Ted; Murray, Megan B

    2011-04-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the role of type 2 diabetes as an individual-level risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), though evidence from developing countries with the highest TB burdens is lacking. In developing countries, TB is most common among the poor, in whom diabetes may be less common. We assessed the relationship between individual-level risk, social determinants and population health in these settings. We performed individual-level analyses using the World Health Survey (n = 124,607; 46 countries). We estimated the relationship between TB and diabetes, adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, education, housing quality, crowding and health insurance. We also performed a longitudinal country-level analysis using data on per-capita gross domestic product and TB prevalence and incidence and diabetes prevalence for 1990-95 and 2003-04 (163 countries) to estimate the relationship between increasing diabetes prevalence and TB, identifying countries at risk for disease interactions. In lower income countries, individuals with diabetes are more likely than non-diabetics to have TB [univariable odds ratio (OR): 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-3.10; multivariable OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.37-2.39]. Increases in TB prevalence and incidence over time were more likely to occur when diabetes prevalence also increased (OR: 4.7; 95% CI: 1.0-22.5; OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 1.9-40.4). Large populations, prevalent TB and projected increases in diabetes make countries like India, Peru and the Russia Federation areas of particular concern. Given the association between diabetes and TB and projected increases in diabetes worldwide, multi-disease health policies should be considered.

  7. Universal health coverage in the context of population ageing: What determines health insurance enrolment in rural Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Nele; Channon, Andrew Amos; Falkingham, Jane

    2018-05-24

    Population ageing presents considerable challenges for the attainment of universal health coverage (UHC), especially in countries where such coverage is still in its infancy. Ghana presents an important case study on the effectiveness of policies aimed at achieving UHC in the context of population ageing in low and middle-income countries. It has witnessed a profound recent demographic transition, including a large increase in the number of older adults, which coincided with the development and implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), designed to help achieve UHC. The objective of this paper is to examine the community, household and individual level determinants of NHIS enrolment among older adults aged 50-69 and 70 plus. The latter are exempt from NHIS premium payments. Using the Ghanaian Living Standards Survey from 2012 to 2013, determinants of NHIS enrolment for individuals aged 50-69 and 70 plus living in rural Ghana are examined through the application of multilevel regression analysis. Previous studies have mainly focused on the enrolment of young and middle aged adults and considered mainly demographic and socio-economic factors. The novel inclusion of spatial barriers within this analysis demonstrates that levels of NHIS enrolment are determined in part by the community provision of healthcare facilities. In addition, the findings imply that insurance enrolment increases with household expenditure even for those aged 70 plus who are exempt from the NHIS premium payment. Adequate and appropriate infrastructure as well as health insurance is vital to ensure movement to UHC in low and middle income countries. Overall, the results confirm that there remain significant inequalities in enrolment by expenditure quintile that future policy reform will need to address.

  8. Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products Between Poland and EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapinska Justyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the country-specific determinants of intra-industry trade between Poland and its European Union trading partners in agricultural and food products during the time period 2002-2011. An econometric model for panel data is applied for the analysis of the factors determining Polish bilateral intra-industry trade with European Union countries. The research leads to the formulation of a statement that the intensity of intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products is positively influenced by the intensity of trade with EU countries and the level of economic development of the member countries (as measured by the size of their GDP per capita. Increase in intra-trade turnover is also facilitated by EU membership and by the fact that Poland’s trade partners use similar Slavic-based languages. Relative differences in the size of the economies and relative differences in Poland’s and its trading partners’ levels of economic development have a negative impact. The degree of the imbalance of trade turnover between trading partners also negatively influences the intensity of intra-trade exchange. The research confirms that the impact of all of the identified factors determining intra-industry trade is consistent with the predictions of the theory.

  9. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in Transition Economies: Case of Commonwealth of Independent Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobir Shukurov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been voluminous research on the determinants of FDI for developed and developing countries, little has been done on this issue for transition economies, especially, for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS countries. the present paper examines the determinants of inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI flows in the CIS during 1995–2010. the results of empirical analysis using panel data models, conducted with the purpose of identifying the factors that determine the motivation and decision of multinational companies (MNC to invest in CIS economies, show that regardless of the presence of high investment risk in transition economies, the choice of FDI location always depends on a preliminary analysis of countries’ advantages (FDI stock, market size, abundance in natural resources and disadvantages at macro level (fiscal imbalance and inflation. These pre‑existing conditions can always roughly predict the type of FDI (resource-seeking, market‑seeking, efficiency-seeking.

  10. Cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation: An electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kenta; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether or not a cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on the evaluation of two action outcomes: a monetary outcome and a conflict of opinion with other group members. In the present study, three-person groups were randomly assigned to be either a cooperative or individual group and asked to perform a gambling task. The monetary outcomes in the cooperative group were interrelated among group members, whereas those in the individual group did not influence each other. The present results showed that monetary outcomes elicited feedback-related negativity (FRN) and a conflict of opinion with other group members elicited FRN-like negativity, which reflect an evaluation of the motivational significance of action outcomes. The FRN elicited by monetary outcomes was reduced when participants shared decisions with other group members only in the cooperative group, indicating that the cooperative context reduced the motivational significance of monetary outcomes through the diffusion of responsibility. The FRN-like negativity elicited by a conflict of opinion showed a different pattern between the cooperative and individual groups, indicating that the cooperative context can influence the evaluation of a conflict of opinion, possibly via the modulation of group cohesiveness or conflict processing. The present results suggest that a cooperative context, rather than the social setting, is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. What does the closure of context-sensitive constraints mean for determinism, autonomy, self-determination, and agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarrero, Alicia

    2015-12-01

    The role of context-sensitive constraints - first as enablers of complexification and subsequently as regulators that maintain the integrity of self-organized, coherent wholes - has only recently begun to be examined. Conceptualizing such organizational constraints in terms of the operations of far from equilibrium, nonlinear dynamic processes rekindles old metaphysical discussions concerning primary and secondary relations, emergence, causality, and the logic of explanation. In particular, far-from-equilibrium processes allow us to rethink how parts-to-whole and whole-to-parts - so-called "mereological"- relationships are constituted. A renewed understanding of recursive feedback and the role context-dependence plays in generating the boundary conditions and the internal organization of complex adaptive systems in turn allows us to redescribe formal and final cause in such a way as to provide a meaningful sense of heretofore seemingly intractable philosophical problems such as autonomy, self-determination, and agency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. An Investigation of Determinants Global Entrepreneurship: Multi-Country Panel Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riznaldi Akbar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the validity of governmental supports and policies; and financing for entrepreneurs in the context of global entrepreneurial activities. Our studies are based on the rich datasets of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM database covering 108 countries from 2001 to 2014. In this study, we examine whether countries with more favorable policies and supports towards entrepreneurship and availability of financing for entrepreneurs would result in the higher country’s entrepreneurial activities. We use total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA, a percentage of 18 - 64 year old population who are either a nascent entrepreneur or an owner manager of a new business, as our dependent variable to represent country’s entrepreneurial activities. There are two main explanatory variables used in the study: governmental supports and financing for entrepreneurs. The governmental supports represents the extent to which public policies support entrepreneurship as a relevant economic issue, while financing for entrepreneurs indicates the availability of financial resources for small and medium enterprises (SMEs including grants and subsidies. We also include three control variables of basic school entrepreneurial education and training; physical and services infrastructure; and cultural and social norms to test the significance of these factors to the country’s entrepreneurial activities. This study adopts panel regression model augmented with control variables. We favor Random Effect model as opposed to Fixed Effect or Pooled OLS model as Hausman and Breusch–Pagan test suggest. Our results suggest that there is no evident that government supports have significant contribution to country’s entrepreneurial activities.  In other words, entrepreneurial activities are more flourished in a country that has not set entrepreneurship as relevant economic issues as it might be the case for many emerging countries. The availability of

  13. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klain, Ingi Petitemberte; de Matos, Dihogo Gama; Leitão, José Carlos; Cid, Luís; Moutão, João

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training) completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire −2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks’ λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000) = 4.03, p amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies. PMID:26240667

  14. Global digital divide: determinants of cross-country ICT development with special reference to Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbra Toria Nipo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT tools are regarded as imperative not only for enabling the economy to grow at a healthy rate, but also for elevating the socioeconomic conditions and standards of the society. In concurrence with the widespread diffusion of ICT, lies the phenomenon called digital divide – a complex issue pertaining to unequal access, use and applications of ICT among countries and peoples. This paper attempts to measure the contribution of conventional factors such as affordability, infrastructure, trade openness and urbanization, with added emphasis on the role of financial development in explaining cross-country development of ICT among Southeast Asian countries. Using panel data for 4 countries for the period 1994 – 2011, findings of this study revealed that GDP is the most significant determinant in explaining digital divide – consistent with findings from previous research efforts. Financial development also appear significant in most models adopted in all three ICT tools, implying the need for these countries to improve their financial markets to avoid falling further behind in promoting a digitally inclusive society.

  15. Multi-fragment visibility determination in the context of order-independent transparency rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Marilena Maule

    2015-01-01

    Multi-fragment effects, in the computer-generated imagery context, are effects that determine pixel color based on information computed from more than one fragment. In such effects, the contribution of each fragment is extracted from its visibility with respect to a point of view. Seen through a pixel’s point of view, the visibility of one fragment depends on its spatial relationship with other fragments. This relationship can be reduced to the problem of sorting multiple fragments. Therefore...

  16. Determinants of tuberculosis in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bergonzoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To explore the relationships among social, economic, environmental, and health services determinants of tuberculosis (TB morbidity and mortality, and to identify the mechanisms that mediate such associations in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. Methods This was an ecological study of 26 LAC countries that had accurate data available on 38 selected variables for the year 2010. The countries represented 99% of the TB burden in LAC. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify associations among determinants of health and TB morbidity and mortality. Results TB-HIV coinfection and multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB in previously treated cases were found to be positively associated to TB morbidity and negatively associated to improved basic sanitation and water coverage—pointing to an increase of TB morbidity in the first two variables and a decrease of TB morbidity in the last two. Regarding TB mortality, indigenous people and MDR-TB in previously treated cases were positively associated. In contrast, literacy among women, basic sanitation, water coverage, and nutritional status were negatively associated to mortality, denoting that improvements in these areas could reduce TB mortality. Conclusions The study findings support intersectoral actions that address social, economic, environmental, and health services determinants within the Stop TB strategy. The mechanisms by which social determinants of health affect current trend outcomes extend beyond medical interventions to control TB, but more research is needed to understand how and to develop actionable recommendations.

  17. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klain Ingi Petitemberte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire −2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks’ λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000 = 4.03, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.01]. The hypothesized structural equation model, which considered the self-determination theory, showed a good fit to the data (S-B χ2 = 234.703; p= .001; df = 52; χ2/df = 4.514; SRMS = .049; NNFI = .906; CFI = .926; RMSEA = .077; RMSEA 90% CI = .067 − .088. However, in the comparative analysis, the perception of autonomy support, relatedness and competence were significantly higher in the context of personal training, while the amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies.

  18. Economic Performance of SME Agricultural Producers in the Context of Risk Management: Focus on Visegrad 4 Member Countries

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    Jan Vavřina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term regulation of the EU agrarian sector via the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP and its respective instruments focuses on the sustainable development both of the agriculture and rural area as a whole. It is needed above all to stress out the equalization instruments of CAP within the context of negative impacts’ diminish of outer sectorial environment in relation with the economic status of agricultural businesses, specifically the small and medium ones. The EU programming period of years 2014-2020 is focused from the view point of the agrarian sector on more efficient CAP to encourage the competitiveness of European farmers. The aforementioned programming period is for agricultural producers from V4 countries the first one when CAP guarantees the maximum amount of operational subsidies for them, of course regarding the respective agreed EU accession treaties. Nevertheless, CAP subsidies cannot be considered to be the key factor of competitiveness within EU single market. The relation between long term increasing of production’s inputs on one hand and the decreasing of agricultural producers’ prices on the other one can be marked as very important negative aspect within the need of farmers’ sustainable competitiveness. So, the direct consequence of a negative influence of aforementioned factor is the subsequent negative direct influence on profitability of agricultural producers. The need for increasing the efficiency of production, marketing and other related processing activities appears to be relevant and inevitable. The business processes are repeated cyclically, that is why there is emerged the need for its systematic and continuous management, measurement, assessment and subsequent changes and optimization. The management of risks has to be involved in the business activities of agricultural businesses regardless their economic size and branch, taking into account possible negative influences. The article aims at

  19. Importance of the Country of Origin from the Consumers’ Perspective in the Research Context of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Marija Čutura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to establish the level of importance of the country of origin (COO in the purchasing process of different categories of consumer goods in the research context of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. Design/Methodology/Approach – The study is based on primary data collected through a survey questionnaire on a consumer sample in B&H. The analysis consists of several levels: establishing a level of COO importance for consumers; establishing a level of consumer familiarity with a COO; identifying the influence of consumer ethnocentrism on the level of COO importance. Findings and implications – ANOVA and T-paired tests highlighted the importance of COO to vary across product categories. The results of regression analysis showed that consumer ethnocentrism significantly influences the level of COO importance in the purchasing process. The results contribute to the thesis that COO has a diagnostic value for the consumers in the purchasing process and can therefore be used as a marketing tool in providing better market acceptance and positioning of products. Limitations – This research has a limited scope considering that it is a single-market study, but also because of the small range of researched product categories. Further research studies should consider a wider range of product categories, as well as a cross-cultural research approach to explore the importance of COO on the overall purchasing process. Originality – This study represents an integrative approach to the phenomenon of COO, consisting of consumer ethnocentrism, product characteristics, and consumer perspective regarding COO importance and familiarity.

  20. Determinants of cash holdings in the accommodation industry: evidence from Southerm European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Flávio

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the determinants of cash holdings for the accommodation industry in Southern European countries (Spain, Greece, Italy and Portugal) using a sample of 5964 firms during the period 2003-2011. A fixed-effects panel data model revealed that larger companies, higher leveraged, where most debt is short-term and that maintain better relationships with financial institutions exhibit lower cash to assets ratios. Liquid assets substitutes, capital expenditures and asset tangibility ...

  1. Financial reforms and determinants of FDI: Evidence from landlocked countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rjoub, Husam; Aga, Mehmet; Alrub, Ahmad Abu; Bein, Murad

    2017-01-01

    The recognition of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as a source of funding to foster economic development in both developed and developing countries has been in ascendancy. The prime purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the determinants of FDI for the “landlocked countries” in Sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1995–2013. By employing panel data analysis, the result of the study revealed that domestic investment, trade (openness), human capital, political constraint, natural res...

  2. Which Membership Matters? External vs. Internal Determinants of Institutional Change in Transition Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Drautzburg; Inna Melnykovska; Rainer Schweickert

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses potential internal and external determinants of institutional change as measured by the World Bank Governance Indicators (WBGI) based on a panel of 25 transition countries for the period from 1996 to 2005. We show that natural resources and capital inflows exert an insignificant or negative influence and that economic policy allows to break path-dependency. Most importantly, however, we are able to show that incentives provided by NATO membership are important for institut...

  3. Monetary determinants of deposit euroization in European post-transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tkalec Marina

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run and short-run relationship between deposit euroization in twelve European post-transition economies and two determinants of deposit euroization that are under the influence of monetary policy: the exchange rate and the interest rate differential. The link between deposit euroization, exchange rates and interest rate differentials is investigated using Johansen cointegration and error correction models for each country separately. The results suggest ...

  4. An Empirical Study on Capital Structure Determinants of Selected ASEAN Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Hoang Anh

    2013-01-01

    Capital structure has been a controversial topic for decades. Conflicting arguments in theories and mixed findings in empirical work require further studies on this subject. More importantly, most previous studies have focused on developed countries and little attention is paid to emerging economies, especially ASEAN. Therefore, this study attempts to fill the gap by examining effects of capital structure's determinants on different measures of leverage of listed manufacturing companies in se...

  5. The application of Intervention Mapping in developing and implementing school-based sexuality and HIV/AIDS education in a developing country context: the case of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkumbo, K.; Schaalma, H.P.; Kaaya, S.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Mbwambo, J.; Kilonzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Effective sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programmes are needed to protect young people against HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a theory- and evidence-based approach and adapting the programmes to local contexts, increases the

  6. 19 CFR 356.7 - Request to determine when the Government of a FTA country received notice of a scope determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request to determine when the Government of a FTA... determine when the Government of a FTA country received notice of a scope determination. (a) Pursuant to... writing from the Department the date on which the Government of a FTA country received notice of a scope...

  7. Econometric Study to Foreign Investments and its Determinants in Arabic Countries (1980-2014

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    Ismail BENGANA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We aim from this study to determine the factors that have an impact on the direct foreign investment in different Arabic countries. The possibility of existence a long-term equilibrium relationship between them was checked. We concluded that there are a lot of affecting variables on direct foreign investment, but we chose only the important ones by using Cluster Analysis technique than we tested whether is there a relationship between them after we checked the stationary of their time series data which seem to be Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL type. Its degrees and border interval have been determined.

  8. Determinants of loans and deposits strategies of foreign bank subsidiaries in emerging countries

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    Mehdi Mili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper focuses on the transmission of bank liquidity shocks in Loan and deposit in emerging markets. First, we attempt to identify factors affecting the credit strategy of foreign banks in emerging countries. Second, we test whether depositors exert market discipline on foreign subsidiaries. By combining financial variables of subsidiaries and their parent banks and macroeconomic variables of host and home countries, we investigate the factors that may affect the behavior of depositors. Our empirical approach is based on a Partial Least Squares-Path model that allows us to indentify the causal relationships between the various groups of variables. Our results show that foreign bank lending is determined by the specific financial variables of the parent bank and macroeconomic variables of the country of origin. This support that the strategy's credit of foreign subsidiary is centrally managed at the parent bank and credit supply of subsidiaries depends primary on the financial situation of its parent bank. Finally we find evidence of market discipline exercised over foreign subsidiaries in emerging countries. We show that market discipline is strongly affected by the specific characteristics of the subsidiary.

  9. Comparing primary energy attributed to renewable energy with primary energy equivalent to determine carbon abatement in a national context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J

    2006-01-01

    The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential

  10. Determinants of FDI into Central and Eastern European Countries: Pull or Push Effect?

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    Burcak Polat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.

  11. FDI DETERMINANTS IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION COUNTRIES AND EURASIAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION EFFECT ON FDI INFLOWS

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    Yerkezhan Zhumakankyzy Akhmetzaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the potential determinants of foreign direct investment inflows into the region of Eurasian Economic Union, as well as incentives for investment into other neighboring countries. In the first model, the authors test a hypothesis on country specific foreign direct investment determinants for the Eurasian Economic Union region. The results of fixed effects estimation show that gross domestic product, infrastructure development and secondary education enrollment have a positive statistically significant effect on the foreign direct investment inflows into the region. Conversely, the impact of Customs Union on foreign direct investment appeared to be negative. Furthermore, in the second model of the natural experiment, the authors empirically test the hypothesis on Customs Union’s effect on foreign direct investment while controlling for both country and time effects. The model includes evaluating the impact of the policy change on foreign investment inflows. The natural experiment outcome also points to the negative effect of Eurasian economic integration on foreign direct investment inflows. Although the countries of Eurasian Economic Union have relatively business friendly regulations, such procedures as enforcing contracts, resolving insolvencies and dealing with construction permits are time-consuming. For attracting foreign investment, it is advisable to facilitate such procedures and make the process of setting up a new business less onerous. The research can be used as an outline for further examining of Eurasian economic integration and apart from that, the study results can be applied for practical purposes of policy elaboration aimed at stimulating foreign direct investment into the Eurasian Economic Union.

  12. Monetary determinants of deposit euroization in European post-transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkalec Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-run and short-run relationship between deposit euroization in twelve European post-transition economies and two determinants of deposit euroization that are under the influence of monetary policy: the exchange rate and the interest rate differential. The link between deposit euroization, exchange rates and interest rate differentials is investigated using Johansen cointegration and error correction models for each country separately. The results suggest that changes in both monetary drivers have significant effects on deposit euroization and are therefore important for explaining and fighting deposit euroization. Differences between exchange rate regimes, fixed and managed vs. floating, seem to matter for deposit euroization.

  13. Guyana - How Do You Know Where to Get the Information You Need? Determining Ethics Approval Requirements in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Determining the process for obtaining local research ethics approval, or whether such a requirement even exists, may not always be straightforward in the context of some developing countries where such information may not be easily accessible to overseas researchers. How far do a researcher's ethical obligations extend in determining whether there is a requirement for local research ethics approval, and what form this would take (e.g., institutional or centralised ethics review? In other words, how far should a researcher be expected to go in seeking out local ethics approval, especially where such information is not readily available? As part of this discussion, this case study describes the steps that I took as the principal researcher, before I was able to reasonably conclude that no national ethics approval requirement existed in Guyana for my particular research, which involved interviewing justice service providers about the implementation of Guyana's Domestic Violence Act. Drawing on this experience, I discuss various considerations that an international development researcher should bear in mind when planning and conducting research that seeks to meet leading international norms of research ethics.

  14. Social capital, pathway to care and duration of untreated psychosis: Findings from a low- and middle-income country context

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    J K Burns

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socio-environmental factors are associated with an increased incidence of psychosis and may affect the pathway to care in first-episode psychosis (FEP. Objective. To determine the relationship between individual- and neighbourhood-level socio-environmental factors (household income and rated measures of neighbourhood social capital and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP in South Africa. Methods. We obtained data regarding sociodemographics, evolution of symptoms and pathway to care from interviews with 54 consecutively admitted FEP patients at Town Hill Hospital. Caregivers and clinical notes were also consulted. A population-based survey of social capital was conducted in the residential neighbourhood of each patient at onset. Cox regression analyses were used to test whether socioeconomic factors and overall neighbourhood social capital scores and sub-scores were associated with DUP. Results. After controlling for age at onset, gender and income, a shorter DUP was independently associated with police involvement in pathways to care, while non-black ethnicity and greater levels of total social capital were associated with a longer DUP. Community participation, neighbourhood connectedness, and trust and safety were specifically associated with a longer DUP. Conclusions. Individual factors including greater age at onset and police involvement in the care pathway were significantly associated with shorter DUP in this middle-income setting. Paradoxically, aspects of social capital pertaining to greater community involvement were associated with delays in pathways to appropriate care. It is possible that community members opted to care for individuals with early psychosis longer before sending them to formal health services. This is especially likely in contexts where mental health services are scarce and inaccessible, which has important implications for mental health education campaigns.

  15. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in Bulgaria and Romania in the Context of Recent Economic Crisis

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    Mirel-Daniel Simionescu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to select some relevant macroeconomic determinants for foreign direct investment (FDI in Bulgaria and Romania since the start of the recent economic crisis (2008-2015. Even if the economic recession installed in 2009 in Romania, the foreign investors’ decisions were influenced by the moment of global recession from 2008. A Bayesian approach was proposed, because of the small sample for the variables in analyzed period: FDI as percent of GDP, real GDP rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, real interest rate, real effective exchange rate index (2010=100 and money demand (M2 as percent of GDP. The estimation results reflected that foreign investors in both countries were attracted by the increase in GDP from a year to another. On the other hand, for Bulgaria the inflation rate was the strongest determinant, indicating the economic stability of the country that made huge efforts in getting one digit inflation rate. In Romania, as expected, the foreign investors were searching for cheap labour force and the increase in unemployment rate attracted more FDI during the crisis period.

  16. Psychological Determinants of Consumer Acceptance of Personalised Nutrition in 9 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poínhos, Rui; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Rankin, Audrey; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Bunting, Brendan; Kuznesof, Sharron; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a model of the psychological factors which predict people’s intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Potential determinants of adoption included perceived risk and benefit, perceived self-efficacy, internal locus of control and health commitment. Methods A questionnaire, developed from exploratory study data and the existing theoretical literature, and including validated psychological scales was administered to N = 9381 participants from 9 European countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the UK, and Norway). Results Structural equation modelling indicated that the greater participants’ perceived benefits to be associated with personalised nutrition, the more positive their attitudes were towards personalised nutrition, and the greater their intention to adopt it. Higher levels of nutrition self-efficacy were related to more positive attitudes towards, and a greater expressed intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. Other constructs positively impacting attitudes towards personalised nutrition included more positive perceptions of the efficacy of regulatory control to protect consumers (e.g. in relation to personal data protection), higher self-reported internal health locus of control, and health commitment. Although higher perceived risk had a negative relationship with attitude and an inverse relationship with perceived benefit, its effects on attitude and intention to adopt personalised nutrition was less influential than perceived benefit. The model was stable across the different European countries, suggesting that psychological factors determining adoption of personalised nutrition have generic applicability across different European countries. Conclusion The results suggest that transparent provision of information about potential benefits, and protection of consumers’ personal data is important for adoption, delivery of public health benefits, and commercialisation of personalised

  17. The Determinants Factors of the Capital Cost � Evidence from 5 EU Countries

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    Georgiana Sterea

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the importance and complexity of the company�s capital and its components and the extent to which its cost is influenced by several factors. In order to achieve this goal we have made a study on a sample of 15 companies from Romania and other 4 EU countries: Italy, Spain, France and Finland. All are SME�s and micro-enterprises that acting in the sector of "Growing of spices, aromatic, drug and pharmaceutical crops". For the study of capital cost determinants were selected five variables: return on equity, return on assets, general indebtedness, taxation and firm�s size in order to determine their influence on the cost of capital.

  18. Determinants and Consequences of Non-Interest Income Diversification of Commercial Banks in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Hahm

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies determinants and consequences of theThis paper studies determinants and consequences of the changing income structure of commercial banks in the era of financial conglomeration. Utilizing a dataset of 662 relatively large commercial banks in 29 OECD countries from 1992 to 2006, we find that banks with relatively large asset sizes, low net interest margins, high impaired loan ratios, and high cost-income ratios tend to exhibit higher non-interest income shares. As for macroeconomic factors, banks in countries with slow economic growth, a stable inflation environment, and well- developed stock markets tend to show higher non-interest income shares. Second, we investigate the consequences of non-interest income expansion on bank profitability and risks. While the positive effects on profit and capital adequacy seem to become weaker under the consideration of macroeconomic factors and endogeneity problems, the adverse impact on profit variability remains robust. Overall, these findings suggest that expanding toward non-interest income may not produce desired income diversification effects, and it does not necessarily imply a shift toward superior return-risk frontiers.

  19. Determining the Best Arch/Garch Model and Comparing JKSE with Stock Index in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharisya Ayu Effendi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The slow movement of Indonesia economic growth in 2014 due to several factors, in internal factors; due to the high interest rates in Indonesia and external factors from the US which will raise the fed rate this year. However, JKSE shows a sharp increase trend from the beginning of 2014 until the second quarter of 2015 although it remains fluctuate but insignificant. The purpose of this research is to determine the best ARCH/ GARCH model in JKSE and stock index in developed countries (FTSE, Nasdaq and STI and then compare the JKSE with the stock index in developed countries (FTSE, Nasdaq and STI. The results obtained in this study is to determine the best model of ARCH / GARCH, it is obtained that JKSE is GARCH (1,2, while the FTSE obtains GARCH (2,2, NASDAQ produces the best model which is GARCH (1,1 and STI with GARCH (2,1, and the results of the comparison of JKSE with FTSE, NASDAQ and STI are that even though JKSE fluctuates with moderate levels but the trend shown upward trend. This is different with other stock indexes fluctuated highly and tends to have a downward trend.

  20. A desk review of health services system of different countries as a guide to action in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Bajpai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health policy in the country seems to be in a limbo. The fate of the Draft National Health Policy, 2015 continues to be uncertain as it continues exist in draft stage as yet. Resultantly, there remains much confusion as to the path that the country shall adopt to achieve ‘Universal Health Care’ (UHC. Viewing this as an opportunity to inform policy making by drawing on the experience of countries that have already made noticeable progress towards achieving UHC, the author has conducted a desk review of the health services system of four such developing countries – Sri Lanka, Thailand, Brazil and Cuba, along with their socioeconomic coordinates and compared it with that of India. Appropriate lessons for India have been drawn from this comparison.

  1. Determinants of prices increase of agricultural commodities in a global context1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borychowski Michał

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to present the determinants of increase in agricultural commodity prices after 2006. The other specific aim is to show the factors affecting agricultural raw materials and food prices in the global context. This article is a review paper of the determinants of recent commodity and food prices spikes. However, it provides an outlook on these determinants that were the most important for the increases in the last decade. The last part of the article (conclusions to some extent is a synthesis of considerations and includes the authors’ opinions concerning determinants and an attempt to identify which ones were the most important in the growth of agricultural commodity prices. These increases in agricultural commodity prices resulted from many factors and it is very difficult to separate the individual impact of each of them, because they occurred in parallel. However, it is possible to indicate several main reasons for these price increases, which are: adverse changes in supply-demand relations in agricultural markets, increases in oil prices (and increases of the volatility of those prices, development of biofuel production from agricultural commodities (the first generation biofuels, dollar depreciation, an increase in operations of a speculative nature on commodity markets and improper economic policy that created an environment for the growth of prices of agricultural products.

  2. Students’ Professional Self-Determination in the Context of the Socially Conditioned Conflicting Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Zeyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the peculiarities of students’ professional identity in the context of socially conditioned conflicting realities. The individual social position is of a particular importance for the professional identity formation, so the authors carried out the research into the students professional self-determination with the reference to their socio-metric status in the academic group; the interpersonal relations were considered as conflict- generating – provoking the conflicting realities of students’ professional self- determination. The theoretical basis of the study involves the concept of personal professional growth with the emphasis on the students’ self-determination in the conflict situations. The research methodology combines the diagnostics of professional self-determination and socio-metric methods. The analysis and synthesis of the acquired empirical data reveal the differences in the expressed levels of components of the students’ professional identity according to their socio-metric status in the group. The research findings include the conformity of conflicting realities arising in interpersonal relationships in the academic process and reflected in the professional identity transformation. The above results can be used for psychological facilitation of students’ successful professional growth. 

  3. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look

  4. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to

  5. International application of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation in obesity reduction: factors that may influence policy effectiveness in country-specific contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Techakehakij, Win

    2012-09-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation is becoming of increasing interest as a policy aimed at addressing the rising prevalence of obesity in many countries. Preliminary evidence indicates its potential to not only reduce obesity prevalence, but also generate public revenue. However, differences in country-specific contexts create uncertainties in its possible outcomes. This paper urges careful consideration of country-specific characteristics by suggesting three points in particular that may influence the effectiveness of a volume-based soft drink excise tax: population obesity prevalence, soft drink consumption levels, and existing baseline tax rates. Data from 19 countries are compared with regard to each point. The authors suggest that SSB or soft drink taxation policy may be more effective in reducing obesity prevalence where existing obesity prevalence and soft drink consumption levels are high. Conversely, in countries where the baseline tax rate is already considered high, SSB taxation may not have a noticeable impact on consumption patterns or obesity prevalence, and may incur negative feedback from the beverage industry or the general public. Thorough evaluation of these points is recommended prior to adopting SSB or soft drink taxation as an obesity reduction measure in any given country. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. When Do States Respond to Low Fertility? Contexts of State Concern in Wealthier Countries, 1976–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, expressions of state concern over low fertility have greatly increased among wealthier countries. This study asks to what extent this increase is explained by demographic factors, national-level economic and political factors, and processes of international diffusion and changing international norms. Analyses integrate the world polity literature on global policy diffusion with a social problems approach to examine international diffusion of state concern among more powerful members of the world polity, a process that can produce changes in international policy consensus. Comparisons of the characteristics of states that do and do not express concern over low fertility find that among wealthier “first-world” countries, state concern has become more responsive to fertility rates: fertility rates are not significantly associated with concern early in the study period, but are strongly associated with concern later in the study period. There is no evidence that integration into the world polity is associated with concern in these countries, and some evidence that less integrated countries are more likely to express concern, suggesting that processes shaping the diffusion of state concern may differ from those identified as shaping policy diffusion in the existing literature. Among “second-world” former Eastern bloc countries, different patterns of associations reflect different political histories: concern is associated only with demographic factors, with no significant change in this association over time. PMID:26213421

  7. When Do States Respond to Low Fertility? Contexts of State Concern in Wealthier Countries, 1976-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Emily A

    2015-06-01

    Since the 1970s, expressions of state concern over low fertility have greatly increased among wealthier countries. This study asks to what extent this increase is explained by demographic factors, national-level economic and political factors, and processes of international diffusion and changing international norms. Analyses integrate the world polity literature on global policy diffusion with a social problems approach to examine international diffusion of state concern among more powerful members of the world polity, a process that can produce changes in international policy consensus. Comparisons of the characteristics of states that do and do not express concern over low fertility find that among wealthier "first-world" countries, state concern has become more responsive to fertility rates: fertility rates are not significantly associated with concern early in the study period, but are strongly associated with concern later in the study period. There is no evidence that integration into the world polity is associated with concern in these countries, and some evidence that less integrated countries are more likely to express concern, suggesting that processes shaping the diffusion of state concern may differ from those identified as shaping policy diffusion in the existing literature. Among "second-world" former Eastern bloc countries, different patterns of associations reflect different political histories: concern is associated only with demographic factors, with no significant change in this association over time.

  8. Firm, Country and Macroeconomic Determinants of Capital Structure: Evidence from Turkish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Baltacı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the significance of firm-specific, country, and macroeconomic factors in explaining variation in leverage using a sample of banks from Turkish banking sector. The analysis is based on quarterly firm-level data from Turkish banking sector in 2002–2012. We aims to contribute to the empirical capital structure literature in the following ways. Our first contribution comes from assessing the importance of firm-specific factors, country-level factors and industrial factors for capital structure decisions in Turkish banking sector. Second, we employ appropriate and advanced dynamic panel data estimators, Blundell and Bond’s (1998 generalized methods of moment’s estimators (GMM System. We find that leverage is significantly and positively associated with average industry leverage, firm size and GDP growth. We find also that leverage is significantly and negatively associated with tangibility, profitability, inflation and financial risk. The regression results for leverage are both theoretically and empirically plausible for banks in Turkey. Moreover, tangibility, profitability and GDP growth are consistent with the predictions of the pecking order theory, while firm size is consistent with the predictions of the trade-off theory. Our findings suggest that the capital structures of financial and non-financial firms are ultimately determined by the same drivers.

  9. Cultural context, obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, and cognitions: a preliminary study of three Turkish samples living in different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Orçun; Işık, Bilgen

    2011-04-01

    Previous research findings have suggested that recent cognitive accounts of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are valid across different cultural contexts for both clinical and nonclinical samples; however, there is evidence that cultural differences may have an impact on a number of cognitive variables. For this reason, immigration provides an exceptional opportunity for an examination of the role of cultural context in cognitions and possible changes in cultural characteristics. To this end, the present study examined the interrelationships between thought-action fusion, thought control strategies and OCD symptoms in three nonclinical samples, taking the immigration factor into consideration. Thus, the current study included three Turkish sample groups: those who remigrated to Turkey from Bulgaria, those still living in Bulgaria, and those that have always resided in Turkey. The findings of the study supported the role of thought and action fusion and control strategies in OCD symptoms in a cross-cultural context. To illustrate, worry, as a thought control strategy for OCD symptoms, was a common factor in all three sample groups. However, differences were also noted between the groups, despite having the same ethnic origin. Although they immigrated back to Turkey and have been living there for a considerable period of time, the Turkish remigrants retained similar characteristics to the respondents in Bulgaria on cognitions in general. Consequently, it may be suggested that cultural context might have a relative impact on certain correlates. A replication of these findings using different immigration groups and examining various cultural factors is strongly encouraged.

  10. The Significance of Context for Curriculum Development in Engineering Education: A Case Study across Three African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.; Kumar, Anil; Itika, Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Curriculum reform is a key topic in the engineering education literature, but much of this discussion proceeds with little engagement with the impact of the local context in which the programme resides. This article thus seeks to understand the influence of local contextual dynamics on curriculum reform in engineering education. The empirical…

  11. Corporate governance determinants: the firm-level evidence from transitional country, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Zheka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to empirically investigate the determinants of choices of corporate governance practices by corporations in a transition market. The study offers firm-level evidence benefiting from unique financial and governance data on Ukraine. In particular, we analyze the factors that affect overall level as well as individual elements of corporate governance. We consider such governance elements as shareholder rights, transparency, board independence, chairman independence and ownership. Overall we found that regulatory, industry and firm level factors are important, which is consistent with previous literature for other countries. Combining our results with the results of Zheka (20063 we conclude that it is possible for the government to implement and enforce better corporate governance practices in the economy that would make Ukrainian enterprises more attractive for foreign investment.

  12. Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C

    2017-01-01

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance...... during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy......-skiing has demonstrated an anaerobic energy contribution of 18%, with GE being the strongest predictor of performance....

  13. The Determinants of Capital Structure: Evidence from Listed Companies in Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Ngjeliu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As most of the empirical literature regarding the determinants of capital structure relies on developed economies, this study contributes to the existing literature by looking at listed companies in the Balkan region. It investigates 760 companies over a 6-year period from 2007 to 2013 using a random effect model. The leverage is specified as a function of firm-specific characteristics, and the results are in line with previous empirical studies. Respectively, it is seen that a positive correlation is significant for size, while a negative one is found for profitability. Observing the decomposition of leverage, it can be assessed that the Balkan companies rely mostly on short-term debt. Furthermore, this study aims and finds significant differences between the determinants of capital structure of the companies established in EU and those in non-EU countries. The z-score indicated that when looking at the total debt ratio there is only one determinant which is statically significant.

  14. How does context influence performance of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries? : Evidence from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maryse C; Kane, Sumit; Tulloch, Olivia; Ormel, Hermen; Theobald, Sally; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; de Koning, Korrie A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as an integral component of the health workforce needed to achieve public health goals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many factors intersect to influence CHW performance. A systematic review with a narrative

  15. Using theories of behaviour to understand transfusion prescribing in three clinical contexts in two countries: Development work for an implementation trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood transfusion is an essential part of healthcare and can improve patient outcomes. However, like most therapies, it is also associated with significant clinical risks. In addition, there is some evidence of overuse. Understanding the potential barriers and enablers to reduced prescribing of blood products will facilitate the selection of intervention components likely to be effective, thereby reducing the number of costly trials evaluating different implementation strategies. Using a theoretical basis to understand behaviours targeted for change will contribute to a 'basic science' relating to determinants of professional behaviour and how these inform the selection of techniques for changing behaviour. However, it is not clear which theories of behaviour are relevant to clinicians' transfusing behaviour. The aim of this study is to use a theoretical domains framework to identify relevant theories, and to use these theories to identify factors that predict the decision to transfuse. Methods The study involves two steps: interview study and questionnaire study. Using a previously identified framework, we will conduct semi-structured interviews with clinicians to elicit their views about which factors are associated with waiting and further monitoring the patient rather than transfusing red blood cells. Interviews will cover the following theoretical domains: knowledge; skills; social/professional role and identity; beliefs about capabilities; beliefs about consequences; motivation and goals; memory, attention, and decision processes; environmental context and resources; social influences; emotion; behavioural regulation; nature of the behaviour. The interviews will take place independently in Canada and the UK and involve two groups of physicians in each country (UK: adult and neonatal intensive care physicians; Canada: intensive care physicians and orthopaedic surgeons. We will: analyse interview transcript content to

  16. Using theories of behaviour to understand transfusion prescribing in three clinical contexts in two countries: development work for an implementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jill J; Tinmouth, Alan; Stanworth, Simon J; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Johnston, Marie; Hyde, Chris; Stockton, Charlotte; Brehaut, Jamie C; Fergusson, Dean; Eccles, Martin P

    2009-10-24

    Blood transfusion is an essential part of healthcare and can improve patient outcomes. However, like most therapies, it is also associated with significant clinical risks. In addition, there is some evidence of overuse. Understanding the potential barriers and enablers to reduced prescribing of blood products will facilitate the selection of intervention components likely to be effective, thereby reducing the number of costly trials evaluating different implementation strategies. Using a theoretical basis to understand behaviours targeted for change will contribute to a 'basic science' relating to determinants of professional behaviour and how these inform the selection of techniques for changing behaviour. However, it is not clear which theories of behaviour are relevant to clinicians' transfusing behaviour. The aim of this study is to use a theoretical domains framework to identify relevant theories, and to use these theories to identify factors that predict the decision to transfuse. The study involves two steps: interview study and questionnaire study. Using a previously identified framework, we will conduct semi-structured interviews with clinicians to elicit their views about which factors are associated with waiting and further monitoring the patient rather than transfusing red blood cells. Interviews will cover the following theoretical domains: knowledge; skills; social/professional role and identity; beliefs about capabilities; beliefs about consequences; motivation and goals; memory, attention, and decision processes; environmental context and resources; social influences; emotion; behavioural regulation; nature of the behaviour. The interviews will take place independently in Canada and the UK and involve two groups of physicians in each country (UK: adult and neonatal intensive care physicians; Canada: intensive care physicians and orthopaedic surgeons). We will: analyse interview transcript content to select relevant theoretical domains; use consensus

  17. Determining the psychometric properties of the Enhancing Decision-making Assessment in Midwifery (EDAM) measure in a cross cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefford, Elaine; Jomeen, Julie; Martin, Colin R

    2016-04-28

    The ability to act on and justify clinical decisions as autonomous accountable midwifery practitioners, is encompassed within many international regulatory frameworks, yet decision-making within midwifery is poorly defined. Decision-making theories from medicine and nursing may have something to offer, but fail to take into consideration midwifery context and philosophy and the decisional autonomy of women. Using an underpinning qualitative methodology, a decision-making framework was developed, which identified Good Clinical Reasoning and Good Midwifery Practice as two conditions necessary to facilitate optimal midwifery decision-making during 2nd stage labour. This study aims to confirm the robustness of the framework and describe the development of Enhancing Decision-making Assessment in Midwifery (EDAM) as a measurement tool through testing of its factor structure, validity and reliability. A cross-sectional design for instrument development and a 2 (country; Australia/UK) x 2 (Decision-making; optimal/sub-optimal) between-subjects design for instrument evaluation using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency and known-groups validity. Two 'expert' maternity panels, based in Australia and the UK, comprising of 42 participants assessed 16 midwifery real care episode vignettes using the empirically derived 26 item framework. Each item was answered on a 5 point likert scale based on the level of agreement to which the participant felt each item was present in each of the vignettes. Participants were then asked to rate the overall decision-making (optimal/sub-optimal). Post factor analysis the framework was reduced to a 19 item EDAM measure, and confirmed as two distinct scales of 'Clinical Reasoning' (CR) and 'Midwifery Practice' (MP). The CR scale comprised of two subscales; 'the clinical reasoning process' and 'integration and intervention'. The MP scale also comprised two subscales; women's relationship with the midwife' and 'general

  18. The Social Determinants of Refugee Mental Health in the Post-Migration Context: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynie, Michaela

    2018-05-01

    With the global increase in the number of refugees and asylum seekers, mental health professionals have become more aware of the need to understand and respond to the mental health needs of forced migrants. This critical review summarizes the findings of recent systematic reviews and primary research on the impact of post-migration conditions on mental disorders and PTSD among refugees and asylum seekers. Historically, the focus of mental health research and interventions with these populations has been on the impact of pre-migration trauma. Pre-migration trauma does predict mental disorders and PTSD, but the post-migration context can be an equally powerful determinant of mental health. Moreover, post-migration factors may moderate the ability of refugees to recover from pre-migration trauma. The importance of post-migration stressors to refugee mental health suggests the need for therapeutic interventions with psychosocial elements that address the broader conditions of refugee and asylum seekers' lives. However, there are few studies of multimodal interventions with refugees, and even fewer with control conditions that allow for conclusions about their effectiveness. These findings are interpreted using a social determinants of health framework that connects the risk and protective factors in the material and social conditions of refugees' post-migration lives to broader social, economic and political factors.

  19. SME Financing in Europe: Cross-Country Determinant of Bank Loan Maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, J.; Hernandez-Canovas, G.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the influence of cross-country differences on bank loan maturity for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), using a sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. It analyses a country's legal and institutional environment while controlling for banking structure, economic

  20. SME Financing in Europe: Cross-Country Determinants of Debt Maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, Johanna; Hernandez-Canovas, Gines

    2006-01-01

    We examine the influence of cross country differences on debt maturity for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) using a sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. We analyze a country's legal environment, institutional environment, banking structure and economic situation while controlling

  1. Determinants of Multilateral Official Development Assistance: Evidence from a Panel Study of Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hlavac, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are some of the poorest and least developed in the world, with deplorable health and education levels. One way intended to promote better living standards in this region has been through development aid. This study examines the determinants of multilateral aid inflows to sub-Saharan Africa to determine whether it is directed to the least developed countries. I use panel data about 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from the 1995-2004 period to estimate a regres...

  2. Health financing changes in the context of health care decentralization: the case of three Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arredondo Armando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The results of an evaluative longitudinal study, which identified the effects of health care decentralization on health financing in Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru are presented in this article. METHODS: The methodology had two main phases. In the first, secondary sources of data and documents were analyzed with the following variables: type of decentralization implemented, source of financing, funds for financing, providers, final use of resources, mechanisms for resource allocation. In the second phase, primary data were collected by a survey of key personnel in the health sector. RESULTS: Results of the comparative analysis are presented, showing the changes implemented in the three countries, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each country in matters of financing and decentralization. CONCLUSIONS: The main financing changes implemented and quantitative trends with respect to the five financing indicators are presented as a methodological tool to implement corrections and adjustments in health financing.

  3. The new context for industrializing around natural resources: an opportunity for Latin America (and other resource rich countries)?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlota Perez

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that development is a moving target, and that windows of opportunity to both ‘catch up’ and ‘leap ahead’ present themselves at certain times and in specific regions due to technological revolutions and paradigm shifts. Having examined the historical precedents, it observes that the exploitation and processing of natural resources (NR), once seen as a ‘curse’ for developing nations, present such an opportunity for Latin America and other resource-rich countries at this stag...

  4. Methods for the quantification of GHG emissions at the landscape level for developing countries in smallholder contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Eleanor; Easter, Mark; Ogle, Stephen; Denef, Karolien; Paustian, Keith; Neufeldt, Henry; Rosenstock, Todd; Smalligan, Mike; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Malin, Daniella; Bernoux, Martial; Casarim, Felipe; Pearson, Timothy; Bird, David Neil; Steglich, Evelyn; Ostwald, Madelene

    2013-01-01

    Landscape scale quantification enables farmers to pool resources and expertise. However, the problem remains of how to quantify these gains. This article considers current greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods that can be used in a landscape scale analysis in terms of relevance to areas dominated by smallholders in developing countries. In landscape scale carbon accounting frameworks, measurements are an essential element. Sampling strategies need careful design to account for all pools/fluxes and to ensure judicious use of resources. Models can be used to scale-up measurements and fill data gaps. In recent years a number of accessible models and calculators have been developed which can be used at the landscape scale in developing country areas. Some are based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method and others on dynamic ecosystem models. They have been developed for a range of different purposes and therefore vary in terms of accuracy and usability. Landscape scale assessments of GHGs require a combination of ground sampling, use of data from census, remote sensing (RS) or other sources and modelling. Fitting of all of these aspects together needs to be performed carefully to minimize uncertainties and maximize the use of scarce resources. This is especially true in heterogeneous landscapes dominated by smallholders in developing countries. (letter)

  5. Determinants of Urban Expansion and Agricultural Land Conversion in 25 EU Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaoglu, Eda; Williams, Brendan

    2017-10-01

    Agricultural land conversion is resulting from ongoing complex interaction between the physical environment, policy settings and socio-economic factors. Case studies of the determinants of agricultural land conversion potentially contribute to the analysis of the main causes of land-use change. This can assist authorities and policy makers in understanding the relative importance of a wide range of factors on urban expansion and associated agricultural land-use change. This paper explores the determinants of agricultural land conversion to urban uses in the studied 25 European Union countries between 2000 and 2006. European-level as well as region-specific land-use changes are studied. The research is using the spatial data adapted from European Corine Land Cover maps of 2000 and 2006 and utilised other European sources regarding socio-economic, natural, geological, climate, and policy-related data. The differences in urbanisation processes observed in different regions in Europe emphasise the regional variations of urban conversion process of agricultural land use. This study identifies a combination of socio-economic drivers, policy-related factors, nature and location-based factors as key influences on agricultural land conversion processes in Europe. Specifically we found that the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies were influential in curbing urbanisation and reducing agricultural land consumption.

  6. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  7. Determinants of Urban Expansion and Agricultural Land Conversion in 25 EU Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaoglu, Eda; Williams, Brendan

    2017-10-01

    Agricultural land conversion is resulting from ongoing complex interaction between the physical environment, policy settings and socio-economic factors. Case studies of the determinants of agricultural land conversion potentially contribute to the analysis of the main causes of land-use change. This can assist authorities and policy makers in understanding the relative importance of a wide range of factors on urban expansion and associated agricultural land-use change. This paper explores the determinants of agricultural land conversion to urban uses in the studied 25 European Union countries between 2000 and 2006. European-level as well as region-specific land-use changes are studied. The research is using the spatial data adapted from European Corine Land Cover maps of 2000 and 2006 and utilised other European sources regarding socio-economic, natural, geological, climate, and policy-related data. The differences in urbanisation processes observed in different regions in Europe emphasise the regional variations of urban conversion process of agricultural land use. This study identifies a combination of socio-economic drivers, policy-related factors, nature and location-based factors as key influences on agricultural land conversion processes in Europe. Specifically we found that the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies were influential in curbing urbanisation and reducing agricultural land consumption.

  8. Changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic countries between 1997 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Lauridsen, Drude Skov; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2016-01-01

    of conduct. We based the analysis on data from two surveys conducted in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1997 and 2012. The surveys reported in detail one day of eating in representative samples of adult populations in the four countries (N = 4823 and N = 8242). We compared data regarding where...... of using tablets, computers, and smartphones while eating was strongly associated with young age. Further, each of the practices appeared to be related to different types of meal. We conclude that while the changes in the social organization of eating were not dramatic, signs of individualization...

  9. Self-Determination Theory Applied to Health Contexts: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Johan Y Y; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M; Duda, Joan L; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2012-07-01

    Behavior change is more effective and lasting when patients are autonomously motivated. To examine this idea, we identified 184 independent data sets from studies that utilized self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) in health care and health promotion contexts. A meta-analysis evaluated relations between the SDT-based constructs of practitioner support for patient autonomy and patients' experience of psychological need satisfaction, as well as relations between these SDT constructs and indices of mental and physical health. Results showed the expected relations among the SDT variables, as well as positive relations of psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation to beneficial health outcomes. Several variables (e.g., participants' age, study design) were tested as potential moderators when effect sizes were heterogeneous. Finally, we used path analyses of the meta-analyzed correlations to test the interrelations among the SDT variables. Results suggested that SDT is a viable conceptual framework to study antecedents and outcomes of motivation for health-related behaviors. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Foucault’s Statement in Context: opacity of discourse versus conceptual determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The significance of negativity as a way for conceptual determination in Hegelian dialectics is well-known. Authors such as Gilles Deleuze have underlined, on the other hand, how this notion of (dialectical negativity is incompatible with a Nietzschean perspective of interplay of forces and affirmation of difference. There is here a real distension (rather than a distinction — a fissure enabling one to think what connects and inevitably dissociates rationalistic and deconstructive philosophical perspectives on language. In this fissure it is constituted, for instance, the space of dispersion of the so-called Foucaultian statements (énoncés, the focus of his archeology. This essay addresses the context in which the Foucaultian notion of énoncé emerges. It does so by criticizing first the dialectical notion of negativity. It then considers some semiological notions used by post-structuralist authors, such as plethora of signs and floating signifier. In a third moment, examples are taken from a literary work, Vitor Ramil’s Pequod, in order to illustrate more concretely our discussion.

  11. Environmental context determines community sensitivity of freshwater zooplankton to a pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stampfli, Nathalie C.; Knillmann, Saskia; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A.

    2011-01-01

    The environment is currently changing worldwide, and ecosystems are being exposed to multiple anthropogenic pressures. Understanding and consideration of such environmental conditions is required in ecological risk assessment of toxicants, but it remains basically limited. In the present study, we aimed to determine how and to what extent alterations in the abiotic and biotic environmental conditions can alter the sensitivity of a community to an insecticide, as well as its recovery after contamination. We conducted an outdoor microcosm experiment in which zooplankton communities were exposed to the insecticide esfenvalerate (0.03, 0.3, and 3 μg/L) under different regimes of solar radiation and community density, which represented different levels of food availability and competition. We focused on the sensitivity of the entire community and analysed it using multivariate statistical methods, such as principal response curves and redundancy analysis. The results showed that community sensitivity varied markedly between the treatments. In the experimental series with the lowest availability of food and strongest competition significant effects of the insecticide were found at the concentration of 0.03 μg/L. In contrast, in the series with relatively higher food availability and weak competition such effects were detected at 3 μg/L only. However, we did not find significant differences in the community recovery rates between the experimental treatments. These findings indicate that environmental context is more important for ecotoxicological evaluation than assumed previously.

  12. The social context of motorcycle riding and the key determinants influencing rider behavior: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliff, Deborah; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M; Lewis, Ioni; Wishart, Darren

    2011-08-01

    Given the increasing popularity of motorcycle riding and heightened risk of injury or death associated with being a rider, this study explored rider behavior as a determinant of rider safety and, in particular, key beliefs and motivations that influence such behavior. To enhance the effectiveness of future education and training interventions, it is important to understand riders' own views about what influences how they ride. Specifically, this study sought to identify key determinants of riders' behaviors in relation to the social context of riding, including social and identity-related influences relating to the group (group norms and group identity) as well as the self (moral/personal norm and self-identity). Qualitative research was undertaken via group discussions with motorcycle riders (n = 41). The findings revealed that those in the group with which one rides represent an important source of social influence. Also, the motorcyclist (group) identity was associated with a range of beliefs, expectations, and behaviors considered to be normative. Exploration of the construct of personal norm revealed that riders were most cognizant of the "wrong things to do" when riding; among those issues raised was the importance of protective clothing (albeit for the protection of others and, in particular, pillion passengers). Finally, self-identity as a motorcyclist appeared to be important to a rider's self-concept and was likely to influence on-road behavior. Overall, the insight provided by the current study may facilitate the development of interventions including rider training as well as public education and mass media messages. The findings suggest that these interventions should incorporate factors associated with the social nature of riding in order to best align it with some of the key beliefs and motivations underpinning riders' on-road behaviors.

  13. Dietary supplement use in the context of health disparities: cultural, ethnic and demographic determinants of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Sunitha; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Bentley, Margaret E

    2003-06-01

    Women of African American, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American and Alaskan descent constitute 29% of the female population in the United States but they experience health problems disproportionately. Compared with white women as a group, they are in poorer health and use fewer health services. We know from recent studies that the daily use of multivitamins has been associated with lower risk of coronary disease, colon cancer and breast cancer, particularly for alcohol drinkers. In addition, daily multivitamin and multimineral usage by the elderly can reduce the number of days of illness due to infections by 50%. However, supplement use among women tends to be more prevalent among the middle and older age categories; white, well-educated and higher income women; and those residing in the western part of the United States. This examination of the current health disparities and usage patterns indicates that the women who could benefit most from supplements are not typical users. Qualitative data collected on iron and folic acid supplementation programs in developing countries indicate that diverse cultural practices, attitudes and beliefs among vulnerable populations may influence supplement use. However, data in the U.S literature that describe these factors by culture or ethnicity are sparse. If we are to promote dietary supplements to women who are most vulnerable, more research is warranted in the area of health beliefs, attitudes and sociodemographic determinants of supplement use by culture and or ethnicity, particularly among underprivileged groups.

  14. The Determinants of Reported Personal and Household Hygiene Behaviour: A Multi-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Greenland, Katie; Ploubidis, George; Schmidt, Wolf; Oxford, John; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the total infectious disease burden world-wide is due to person-to-person spread of pathogens within households. A questionnaire-based survey on the determinants of hand-washing with soap and cleaning of household surfaces was conducted in at least 1000 households in each of twelve countries across the world (N = 12,239). A structural equation model of hygiene behaviour and its consequences derived from theory was then estimated on this dataset for both behaviours, using a maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis showed that the frequency of handwashing with soap is significantly related to how automatically it is performed, and whether or not someone is busy, or tired. Surface cleaning was strongly linked to possessing a cleaning routine, the perception that one is living in a dirty environment and that others are doing the behaviour, whether one has a strong sense of contamination, as well as a felt need to keep one's surroundings tidy. Being concerned with good manners is also linked to the performance of both behaviours. This study is the first to identify the role of manners, orderliness and routine on hygiene behaviours globally. Such findings should prove helpful in designing programs to improve domestic hygiene practices.

  15. The Determinants of Reported Personal and Household Hygiene Behaviour: A Multi-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Greenland, Katie; Ploubidis, George; Schmidt, Wolf; Oxford, John; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the total infectious disease burden world-wide is due to person-to-person spread of pathogens within households. A questionnaire-based survey on the determinants of hand-washing with soap and cleaning of household surfaces was conducted in at least 1000 households in each of twelve countries across the world (N = 12,239). A structural equation model of hygiene behaviour and its consequences derived from theory was then estimated on this dataset for both behaviours, using a maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis showed that the frequency of handwashing with soap is significantly related to how automatically it is performed, and whether or not someone is busy, or tired. Surface cleaning was strongly linked to possessing a cleaning routine, the perception that one is living in a dirty environment and that others are doing the behaviour, whether one has a strong sense of contamination, as well as a felt need to keep one’s surroundings tidy. Being concerned with good manners is also linked to the performance of both behaviours. This study is the first to identify the role of manners, orderliness and routine on hygiene behaviours globally. Such findings should prove helpful in designing programs to improve domestic hygiene practices. PMID:27541259

  16. The physical economy of the European Union. Cross-country comparison and determinants of material consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisz, Helga; Krausmann, Fridolin; Amann, Christof; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Fischer-Kowalski, Marina; Hubacek, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate what determines observed differences in economy-wide material use among the EU-15 member states. The empirical basis for our analysis is an extended and revised material flow data set for each of the EU-15 countries in time series from 1970 to 2001. This data set comprises consistent data for domestic extraction, imports and exports as well as for derived material flow indicators, broken down by 12 types of materials. We compare the level and composition of domestic material consumption (DMC) in the EU-15 member states and identify determinants of the observed differences. Across the European Union member states overall DMC per capita varies by a factor of three ranging between 12 tonnes per capita in Italy and the United Kingdom and 37 tonnes per capita in Finland. This variability of DMC in the EU-15 is in a similar order of magnitude as the variability of GDP per capita or total primary energy supply per capita. Linear correlation analysis reveals that national income and final energy consumption relate to material use but cannot fully account for the observed differences in material consumption. By breaking down overall material flow indicators into 12 categories of materials and analysing their use patterns in detail, we identified a number of factors, socio-economic and natural, that influence the level and composition of economy-wide material use. Many of these factors are specific for certain types of materials, others are more general, and quite some driving factors counteract each other regarding the direction of their influence. Concluding we summarize the most important driving factors for domestic material consumption stressing population density as largely neglected but important explanatory variable for material use patterns, discuss issues of environmental significance, aggregation and the use of different denominators in material flow accounting and suggest a re-interpretation of DMC. (author)

  17. Determinants of late and/or inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in high-income countries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; van der Schans, C.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal healthcare is likely to prevent adverse outcomes, but an adequate review of utilization and its determinants is lacking. Objective: To review systematically the evidence for the determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries. Method: Search of

  18. SATISFACTION OF RETAIL INVESTORS ON THE STRUCTURAL EFFICIENCY OF THE MARKET: EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamunur Rashid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfied investors are a necessary element of the stock market. They help to finance rapid expansion in developing countries. This study explores the components of market structure that contribute to the satisfaction level of retail investors. Around 300 retail investors from 25 randomly selected brokerage houses registered with the Dhaka Stock Exchange, Bangladesh were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Analyses reveal that most investors were young and inexperienced but educated, with shortages of skills and income. The investors put the strongest emphasis on effective investment analysis, followed by ease of the transaction process, effective information management and timely risk management. The trading experience of these investors was used as a moderating variable to investigate the impact of demographic variables and found to be insignificant. The study suggests the importance of effective regulation, disclosure requirements to ensure a supply of quality information, investor education and technology driven trading in brokerage houses for overall investor satisfaction.

  19. The impact of socio-cultural context on young people's condom use: evidence from two Pacific Island countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather

    2011-03-01

    Young people are a key group for HIV prevention in the Pacific region where levels of STIs are high and condom use is low. During 2008, 62 in-depth interviews were conducted with people aged between 18 and 25 years in Tonga and Vanuatu. The research was aimed at understanding factors impacting on young peoples' condom use in two Pacific Island nations. The data show a marked disjuncture between attitudes and practice with regard to condoms. This paper discusses factors underpinning that inconsistency and directs attention to the effect of social and cultural influences on young people's condom use. The authors conclude that individual-level approaches to improving rates of condom use will be inadequate unless they are informed by an understanding of the role of identity, culture and tradition in young peoples' decisions around condom use. The findings also underline the need for country-specific approaches to condom promotion efforts in the Pacific.

  20. Towards an integrative framework of brand country of origin recognition determinants : a cross-classified hierarchical model

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio

    2011-01-01

    To propose a framework integrating the types and levels of the determinants of brand CO recognition and to provide evidence on Internet users’ brand CO recognition rates using a sample of multi-regional and global brands from a variety of product categories and countries. We integrate 'level-1' consumer and brand characteristics and 'level-2' product category and country effects in a single framework. Data obtained through an original on-line survey hosted by Yahoo provide the basis ...

  1. Credit risk determinants in Sub-Saharan banking systems: Evidence from five countries and lessons learnt from Central East and South East European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychia Nikolaidou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have grown notably over the past decades due to benign macroeconomic, regulatory and financial trends. Nonetheless, downside risks remain elevated by structural issues, commodity price fluctuations, reversal of capital flows and spill-over effects from external shocks in a manner similar to the Central East and South East European (CESEE countries. In the light of the 2008–2009 Global Financial Crisis, great attention has been given to understanding the causes of banking instability with most of the research focusing on advanced economies and, to a lesser extent, large emerging markets while little attention has been paid to the bank-based financial sectors of Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, there is scarcity of studies aiming at knowledge-sharing among different emerging economies. This paper aims to identify the determinants of bank credit risk by focusing on five SSA countries: Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Uganda. Using the ARDL approach to cointegration, findings indicate that increased money supply conditions have a decreasing effect on NPLs in all counties, banking industry-specific variables play a significant role in the case of South Africa and Uganda while NPLs are driven by country-specific variables in the case of Kenya, South Africa and Zambia. The effect of the Global Financial Crisis is evidenced indirectly. Drawing on evidence from CESEE countries with long experience in banking crises, reforms and financial deepening process, the paper provides lessons for SSA countries and offers policy recommendations in the direction of strengthening banks’ balance sheets to ensure financial stability.

  2. THE DETERMINANTS OF DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES ACCESS TO THE INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL-MARKET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LENSINK, R; VANBERGEIJK, PAG

    1991-01-01

    The traditional analysis of Western credit relations with Developing Countries mainly focuses on the possibilities of debtor countries' meeting their debt obligations and tries to find factors behind possible default. The present study explicitly considers flows of funds between creditors and

  3. Context-dependent utility overrides absolute memory as a determinant of choice

    OpenAIRE

    Pompilio, Lorena; Kacelnik, Alex

    2009-01-01

    A core problem of decision theories is that although decisionmakers’ preferences depend on learning, their choices could be driven either by learned representations of the physical properties of each alternative (for instance reward sizes) or of the benefit (utility and fitness) experienced from them. Physical properties are independent of the subject’s state and context, but utility depends on both. We show that starlings’ choices are better explained by memory for context-dependent utility ...

  4. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ro-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated.

  5. FDI AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AS DETERMINANTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH FOR V4 COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Gural

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze the influence of foreign direct investment (FDI and financial development (qualitative and quantitative changes in the financial system and its components on the dynamics of economic growth in V4 countries. In modern conditions, the financial system is a transfer mechanism of the business cycle and therefore affects the structure and dynamics of foreign direct investment, and especially the efficiency of their assimilation. The subject of the survey is the financial development and the FDI flows impact on economic growth. Methodology. The survey is based on the evaluation of the equation, which is the Barro regression specification. This model helps to find out the impact of the volume and depth of financial system on the dynamics of economic growth. GDP growth per capita is used as an indicator of economic growth. The paper proposes modeling results for the group countries (Hungary, Poland, Slovak and Czech Republic. Static data have been used for the period from 1992 to 2016. Results. FDI has an important role in reforming and developing the national economies of the countries in Visegrad Group. However, today, there is a problem with the stability of FDI inflows and with the efficiency of their development, which negatively affects the dynamics of economic growth. An important factor is the insufficient level of national financial system development of the Visegrad countries. All countries of the group have bank-oriented financial systems that are heavily dependent on foreign capital. At the same time, governments pay particular attention to the stability of banking sectors and set high standards for their sustainability. This holds back the financial development of the national economies of the Visegrad Group. At the same time, regression models for all countries confirm the importance of financial development in economic growth. The most important for V4 countries is to increase the size of the

  6. Theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks determining in different countries of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashina Nadezhda, I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the problems of the theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks in different countries with relative indicators of the socio-economic development level, as well as the size and condition of the public debt. Developed by the authors the methodology of determining the risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world revealed close relationship between socio-economic situation of the countries and their public debt. Within the framework of this methodology two groups of factors characterizing the socio-political and economic processes in the country are being developed. After that each exponent and indicator are being processed, using expert procedures. Maximum statutory values for tentatively referenced countries with effective and ineffective government policies are identified. Then standardization (specification and definition of integral (generalized indexes of socio-political and economic processes in the country are taking place. After that the ranking of countries by aggregated standardized ratio is arranged, taking into account the significance of the developed indicators. The final phase of implementation methodology is identifying risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world. This is the ranking of countries by ratio of stability in public policy (stability of economic and socio-political processes in the country. As the result of implementation methodology the following output was received: what really makes a difference is not the amount of the country's debt, but how effectively it manages this debt, whether it has a goal to improve social and economic indicators. Practical testing methodology has proven that studied indicators fully characterize the development of the countries, their political, social and economic situation on the world stage.

  7. Determinants of Small Enterprises’ Performance in Developing Countries: A Bangladesh Case

    OpenAIRE

    Khondoker, Abdul Mottaleb; Sonobe, Tetsushi

    2011-01-01

    Family-based traditional microenterprises are abundant in developing countries, and in many cases they are a major source of income and employment for both urban and rural poor. With a few exceptions, however, most these family-based traditional microenterprises in the rural areas of developing countries seldom grow in terms of enterprises’ size and product quality. Thus, they tend to perform poorly relative to their growth potentials. The development of these family-based microenterprises wo...

  8. Trends in health complaints from 2002 to 2010 in 34 countries and their association with health behaviours and social context factors at individual and macro-level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottová-Jordan, Veronika; Smith, Otto R F; Augustine, Lilly; Gobina, Inese; Rathmann, Katharina; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Mazur, Joanna; Välimaa, Raili; Cavallo, Franco; Jericek Klanscek, Helena; Vollebergh, Wilma; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Richter, Matthias; Moor, Irene; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    This article describes trends and stability over time in health complaints in adolescents from 2002 to 2010 and investigates associations between health complaints, behavioural and social contextual factors at individual level and economic factors at macro-level. Comprising N = 510 876 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children and adolescents in Europe, North America and Israel, data came from three survey cycles of the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Age- and gender-adjusted trends in health complaints were examined in each country by means of linear regression. By using the country as the random effects variable, we tested to what extent individual and contextual variables were associated with health complaints. Significant associations are stronger for individual level determinants (e.g. being bullied, smoking) than for determinants at macro-level (e.g. GDP, Gini), as can be seen by the small effect sizes (less than 5% for different trends). Health complaints are fairly stable over time in most countries, and no clear international trend in health complaints can be observed between 2002 and 2010. The most prominent stable determinants were being female, being bullied, school pressure and smoking. Factors associated with health complaints are more related to the proximal environment than to distal macro-level factors. This points towards intensifying targeted interventions, (e.g. for bullying) and also targeting specific risk groups. The comparably small effect size at country-level indicates that country-level factors have an impact on health and should not be ignored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. How mechanical context and feedback jointly determine the use of mechanical variables in length perception by dynamic touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, Rudmer; Withagen, Rob

    Earlier studies have revealed that both mechanical context and feedback determine what mechanical invariant is used to perceive length by dynamic touch. In the present article, the authors examined how these two factors jointly constrain the informational variable that is relied upon. Participants

  10. How mechanical context and feedback jointly determine the use of mechanical variables in length perception by dynamic touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, Rudmer; Withagen, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed that both mechanical context and feedback determine what mechanical invariant is used to perceive length by dynamic touch. In the present article, the authors examined how these two factors jointly constrain the informational variable that is relied upon. Participants

  11. A Latent Class Growth Analysis of School Bullying and Its Social Context: The Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Chan, Chi-Keung; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%),…

  12. Context-dependent utility overrides absolute memory as a determinant of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, Lorena; Kacelnik, Alex

    2010-01-05

    A core problem of decision theories is that although decisionmakers' preferences depend on learning, their choices could be driven either by learned representations of the physical properties of each alternative (for instance reward sizes) or of the benefit (utility and fitness) experienced from them. Physical properties are independent of the subject's state and context, but utility depends on both. We show that starlings' choices are better explained by memory for context-dependent utility than by representations of the alternatives' physical properties, even when the decisionmakers' state is controlled and they have accurate knowledge about the options' physical properties. Our results support the potential universality of utility-driven preference control.

  13. Determinants of neonatal and under-three mortality in Central Asian countries: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies dealt with factors associated with childhood mortality, especially in developing countries, but less is known about former communistic countries. We therefore analyzed the factors affecting mortality rates among children in the Central Asian countries Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. We focused on the impact of living place (rural versus urban and age dependency (neonatal versus under-three mortality on the mortality risk. Methods: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys data (DHS for the three Central Asian countries. The combined data set included information about 2867 children under the age of three, 135 of whom died. We studied three multiple logistic regression models: for the mortality under the age of three, for neonatal mortality (1st month of life and for mortality in 2nd-36th month of life. Results: Under-three mortality was independently associated with living in a rural versus urban area (OR 1.69 (CI 1.11-2.56, birth order and mother not being currently married vs. married (OR 0.52 (CI 0.25-1.08. There was a lower risk of mortality for children living in larger families (six or more household members vs. less than six, OR 0.45 (CI 0.30-0.65. Living in a rural area was more strongly associated with mortality in 2-36 month of life than with neonatal mortality. Differences between countries were greater in neonatal mortality than in mortality between 2nd-36th month of life. Conclusions: This study suggests that urban-rural differences with respect to childhood mortality in these countries persist after adjusting for several socioeconomic factors.

  14. Socioeconomic determinants of dietary patterns in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal; Stringhini, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    In high-income countries, high socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with a healthier diet, but whether social differences in dietary intake are also present in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains to be established. We performed a systematic review of studies that assessed the relation between SES and dietary intake in LMICs. We carried out a systematic review of cohort and cross-sectional studies in adults in LMICs and published between 1996 and 2013. We assessed associations between markers of SES or urban and rural settings and dietary intake. A total of 33 studies from 17 LMICs were included (5 low-income countries and 12 middle-income countries; 31 cross-sectional and 2 longitudinal studies). A majority of studies were conducted in Brazil (8), China (6), and Iran (4). High SES or living in urban areas was associated with higher intakes of calories; protein; total fat; cholesterol; polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids; iron; and vitamins A and C and with lower intakes of carbohydrates and fiber. High SES was also associated with higher fruit and/or vegetable consumption, diet quality, and diversity. Although very few studies were performed in low-income countries, similar patterns were generally observed in both LMICs except for fruit intake, which was lower in urban than in rural areas in low-income countries. In LMICs, high SES or living in urban areas is associated with overall healthier dietary patterns. However, it is also related to higher energy, cholesterol, and saturated fat intakes. Social inequalities in dietary intake should be considered in the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases in LMICs. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (Ptool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries.

  16. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intentions in ICT Industry: Gender and country of origin perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Bach Mirjana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although many researchers agree that environmental and personal characteristics are important for becoming an entrepreneur, it is still not clear if their influence is equally significant. Numerous authors have pointed out unresolved matters regarding the relationship among innovativeness, gender, and entrepreneurial intensions. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of gender and country of origin in relation to entrepreneurial intentions and innovative cognitive style. Research was conducted using a sample of students majoring in information and communication technologies from Croatia and Slovenia. The results revealed the influence of gender, country, attitudes toward entrepreneurship, and innovative cognitive style on entrepreneurial intentions.

  17. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hidden child labour: Determinants of housework and family business work of children in 16 developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de

    2010-01-01

    We study two ‘hidden’ forms of child labour -- housework and family business work -- on the basis of representative data on 178,000 children living in 214 districts in 16 African and Asian countries. The incidence of these child labour forms varies substantially among and within the countries, with national averages ranging from a few to over 15 hours a week and many children work much more. As expected, girls are more involved in housework and boys more in family business work, but this divi...

  19. Sectorial and regional determinants of firm dynamics in developing countries: evidence for low, medium and high tech manufacturing in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Calá, Carla Daniela

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of firm dynamics in developing countries using Argentina as an illustrative case. We explain firm entry and exit at the regional level, distinguishing three groups of manufacturing activities: low, medium and high tech. We find that both region -and sector- specific determinants explain firm dynamics, but the impact is not homogeneous across sectors. In particular, for low tech industries, there is a need for explanatory variables that proxy for the specificities o...

  20. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY: NEW GENERATION PANEL DATA ANALYSIS ON OECD COUNTRIES (1996-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖMER YALÇINKAYA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the factors which are effective on total factor productivity (TFP increments include the productivity of all factors in the production process and making improvements for these factors via policies have importance concerning speed the potential growth rate up in the long term and making this sustainable. The mediumlong term determinants of TFP are examined in this research for the 1994-2015 period as econometric within the scope of new generation panel data analysis on the OECD countries who are classified as OECD-1 and OECD-2 by their income levels. From this aspect, purposed in this research that to reveal the primary determinants which cause the differentiations between OECD-1 and OECD-2 countries in terms of their long-term economic growth performances and/or income levels. Determined as a result of the research that the effect of the variables which are used to determine the medium-long term determinants of the TFP on OECD-1 and OECD-2 groups parallelly increased and decreased as long as enhancing the representation degree of the knowledge, innovation and technological development level of the variables. These results show that the differentiation of countries in OECD-1 and OECD-2 groups in terms of long-term economic growth and/or income levels is majorly rooted in indicators which are used on behalf of knowledge, innovation, and technological development.

  1. Analytic study of determining factors in negotiation policy of developed countries regarding UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S.W. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    As the awareness on the global warming diffuses worldwide, the UNFCCC was officially adopted during the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio. Even though Korea is not included in the direct control target countries on emission amount because it is now classified as a developing country, pressures from developed countries to include Korea in the control target countries are mounting as its international standing improves as evidenced in its admission into OECD. The purpose of this study is to review the negotiation policies of developed countries and to analyze the determining factors. The major result of analysis shows that the lower population increase ratio with high population density, lower economic growth ratio, lower growth ratios of metal, machine, and plant industries, and lower relative importance and the growth ratios of coal and petroleum which emit lot of green house gases among energy sources, the more these countries are active in the reinforcement of responsibility and duties of UNFCCC. This proves that these factors are to determine the costs associated with reducing green house gases. In Korea, population growth is high, economic growth ratio is very high, and it has an industrial structure that emits lot of green house gases. The consumption of coal and petroleum is high among energy sources. Therefore, in the process of future negotiation, special features of ultra- dynamic Korean economy which is in contrast to the stable economies of major advanced countries and the tremendous costs associated with reducing green house gases should be stressed. It should be also emphasized that the rules of duty sharing that can be established together with fair, cost-effective, and enduring economic development be devised. 22 refs., 5 figs., 64 tabs.

  2. Factors determining a successful socioeconomic introduction of horticulture in foreign countries - Academic Consultancy Training Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, N.; Dobma, B.J.; Gonbour, M.; González Ximénez de Embún, M.; Heddes, M.; Visser, de J.; Lans, van der C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Course: Academic Consultancy Training (YMC 60809) Project: Sustainable development of greenhouse horticulture in developing countries (756) Commissioner: Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture Contact person: Ir. C.J.M. van der Lans Coach: Dr. Ir. J.W. Hofstee Expert: Prof. Dr. O. van Kooten A lot of

  3. Hidden Child Labor: Determinants of Housework and Family Business Work of Children in 16 Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de

    2012-01-01

    Two forms of “hidden” child labor – housework and family business work – are studied for 178,000 children in 16 African and Asian countries. About 30% of African children and 11% of Asian children work over 15 h a week in hidden child labor. Girls are more involved in housework and boys more in

  4. Introductory lecture the epidemiology and determinants of obesity in developed and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, P; Schmidhuber, J

    2006-07-01

    Obesity is recognized as a serious problem in the industrialized and developed countries of the world. However, little attention is paid to the fact that obesity is becoming an increasing problem in developing countries too, with some countries showing increasing rates of obesity in the midst of the persisting occurrence of childhood malnutrition and stunting. As developing countries embrace the dominant western economic ways of development, industrialization and urbanization they contribute to improvements in living standards, with consequent dramatic changes in diets and lifestyles leading to weight gain and obesity which in turn poses a growing threat to the health. Overweight and obesity is associated with an increased likelihood of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyper-lipidaemia, and cardiovascular disease. It is also associated with increased rates of breast, colo-rectal and uterine cancer. Obesity is thus an important factor in the increasing morbidity and mortality due to chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and thereby contributes to premature mortality in the population. Thus, while the problem of undernutrition persists in much of the developing world, overweight and obesity and its related co-morbidities are posing an increasingly important public health problem both in the developed and developing world.

  5. THE MAGNITUDE AND DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL FLIGHT - THE CASE FOR 6 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMES, N; LENSINK, R

    1992-01-01

    Most studies treat capital flight as an exclusively Latin American problem. This paper estimates capital flight for six African countries and shows that the emphasis on Latin American capital flight is not correct. It appears that the burden of capital flight is also important for many African

  6. 78 FR 58855 - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ..., commercial, and economic factors that allow drugs to transit or be produced, even if a government has carried... occurs in the southern and western parts of the country, especially Helmand Province. Instability in... Afghan security and regional stability. Afghanistan has continued to take greater responsibility to...

  7. Determinants for the development of dry ports in China in the context of the functioning of the global supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Miklińska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry ports are nowadays becoming important elements of global supply chains. In the case of China, for more than a decade, the intensive development of dry ports may be observed. The main subject of this article are determinants and framework of the development of dry ports in China. Also the development of the seaborne trade of China and the economic development of central and western regions of the country are discussed. There are presented examples of dry ports located in various parts of the country and selected conditions associated with their formation.

  8. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Social determinants of health and tobacco use in thirteen low and middle income countries: evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna M Palipudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted during 2008-2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate a

  10. Social determinants of health and tobacco use in thirteen low and middle income countries: evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna M; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Andes, Linda J; Asma, Samira; McAfee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted during 2008-2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. These findings demonstrate a significant but varied role of social determinants on current tobacco use within and

  11. Determinants of CO2 emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO 2 in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO 2 level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO 2 emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO 2 emissions

  12. Determinants of CO2 emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO2 level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO2 emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO2 emissions.

  13. Distributional impacts of car road pricing. Settlement structures determine divergence across countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowska, Dominika; Steininger, Karl W.

    2009-01-01

    Social questions of distribution and equity are of major importance for the political acceptance of car road pricing. The argument that kilometre-based private vehicle charging disadvantages the poor is often the core reason for opposing its introduction. An article in this journal [Steininger, K.W., Friedl, B., Gebetsroither, B., 2007. Sustainability impacts of car road pricing: a computable general equilibrium analysis for Austria. Ecological Economics 63, pp. 59-69] proved the opposite for one European country, i.e. that the rich bear most of the burden. In the present paper we use the very same model structure and apply it in a simulation to the data of another country. While macroeconomic and environmental conclusions are similar, we find a different distributional impact of car road pricing in our case. This issue is also of relevance in the analysis of the distributional implications concerning (recently significant) gasoline price increases. (author)

  14. DETERMINANT FACTORS OF FDI IN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana D. COCONOIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Influencing factors of FDI are economic, social and political. The contextual factors can have a substantial influence on FDI inflows and outflows. The proposed analysis will identify whether there is a direct relationship between economic growth and FDI flows. In this paper, I will analyse the situation of four countries, namely Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, the United Kingdom and the European Union to see the influence of GDP growth per capita on increasing the share of FDI in GDP and to what extent. Another potential factor influencing FDI inflows is represented by the exports and imports of a country, most of the studies concluding on a significant positive relationship of the trade flows over the FDI inflows. This will prove that FDI is not a substitute of the trade flows but an additional element, together contributing to increase the role of the state in the global economic system.Abstract will be written in English.

  15. CROSS-COUNTRY STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF BANK FINANCIAL DISTRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Jia-Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bank failures affect owners, employees, and customers, possibly causing large-scale economic distress. Thus, banks must evaluate operational risks and develop early warning systems. This study investigates bank failures in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the North America Free Trade Area (NAFTA, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the European Union, newly industrialized countries, the G20, and the G8. We use financial ratios to analyze and explore the appropriateness of prediction models. Results show that capital ratios, interest income compared to interest expenses, non-interest income compared to non-interest expenses, return on equity, and provisions for loan losses have significantly negative correlations with bank failure. However, loan ratios, non-performing loans, and fixed assets all have significantly positive correlations with bank failure. In addition, the accuracy of the logistic model for banks from NAFTA countries provides the best prediction accuracy regarding bank failure

  16. The Evolution of Renewable Energy Policy in OECD Countries: aggregate indicators and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes different methods to aggregate heterogeneous policies for renewable energy. We compare time-varying indicators built using principal component analysis with average-based indicators. The main goal of the paper is to account for the evolution of both types of policy indicators with a set of common variables. Our empirical results are consistent with predictions of political-economy models of environmental policies as lobbying, income and, to a less extent, inequality have expected effects on policy. The brown lobbying power, proxied by entry barriers in the energy sector, has negative influence on the policy indicators even when taking into account endogeneity in its effect. The results are also robust to dynamic panel specifications and to the exclusion of groups of countries. Interestingly, too, corruption has only an indirect effect on policy mediated by entry barriers, while the negative effect of inequality is much stronger for the richer countries. (authors)

  17. Self-determination in New Contexts: The Self-determination of Refugees and Forced Migrants in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen McVay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The international movement of people as a result of conflict, natural disaster, and famine is increasingly challenging for States. The Refugee Convention and its additional protocols have proven to be inadequate for protecting many people from human rights abuses. Accordingly this paper seeks to ascertain whether self-determination may operate to protect permanent refugee and forced migrant communities. Self-determination is a human right that has attracted considerable controversy. However, its universal applicability and the strength of the right make it an attractive means of limiting the power of a State in respect of refugee and forced migrant communities. Drawing from historical analogy this article concludes that in limited circumstances self-determination may be available for permanent refugee or forced migrant communities.

  18. The determinants of the outward foreign direct investment of China and India: whither the home country?

    OpenAIRE

    Tolentino, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines the relationships between several home country-specific \\ud macroeconomic factors and the level of the outward FDI of China and India using multiple \\ud time-series data from 1982 to 2006 and from 1980 to 2006, respectively. With the use of a \\ud vector autoregressive model assessing the causal relationships of the endogenous variables, \\ud the empirical research proves that Chinese national characteristics associated with income per \\ud capita, openness of the econ...

  19. Explaining the role of proximate determinants on fertility decline among poor and non-poor in Asian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Majumder

    Full Text Available We examined the overall contributions of the poor and non-poor in fertility decline across the Asian countries. Further, we analyzed the direct and indirect factors that determine the reproductive behaviour of two distinct population sub-groups.Data from several new rounds of DHS surveys are available over the past few years. The DHS provides cross-nationally comparable and useful data on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health along with the other information. Six selected Asian countries namely: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, and Vietnam are considered for the purpose of the study. Three rounds of DHS surveys for each country (except Vietnam are considered in the present study.Economic status is measured by computing a "wealth index", i.e. a composite indicator constructed by aggregating data on asset ownership and housing characteristics using principal components analysis (PCA. Computed household wealth index has been broken into three equal parts (33.3 percent each and the lowest and the highest 33.3 percent is considered as poor and non-poor respectively. The Bongaarts model was employed to quantify the contribution of each of the proximate determinants of fertility among poor and non-poor women.Fertility reduction across all population subgroups is now an established fact despite the diversity in the level of socio-economic development in Asian countries. It is clear from the analysis that fertility has declined irrespective of economic status at varying degrees within and across the countries which can be attributed to the increasing level of contraceptive use especially among poor women. Over the period of time changing marriage pattern and induced abortion are playing an important role in reducing fertility among poor women.Fertility decline among majority of the poor women across the Asian countries is accompanied by high prevalence of contraceptive use followed by changing marriage pattern and induced

  20. The development of determiners in the context of French-English bilingualism: a study of cross-linguistic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Coralie; Serratrice, Ludovica

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of a study examining the role of structural overlap, language exposure, and language use on cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in bilingual first language acquisition. We focus on the longitudinal development of determiners in a corpus of two French-English children between the ages of 2;4 and 3;7. The results display bi-directional CLI in the rate of development, i.e., accelerated development in English and a minor delay in French. Unidirectional CLI from English to French was instead observed in the significantly higher rate of ungrammatical determiner omissions in plural and generic contexts than in singular specific contexts in French. These findings suggest that other language-internal mechanisms may be at play. They also lend support to the role of expressive abilities on the magnitude of this phenomenon.

  1. Why do some countries spend more for health? An assessment of sociopolitical determinants and international aid for government health expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-Lin; Mirelman, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    A consensus exists that rising income levels and technological development are among key drivers of total health spending. Determinants of public sector health expenditure, by contrast, are less well understood. This study examines a complex relationship across government health expenditure (GHE), sociopolitical risks, and international aid, while taking into account the impacts of national income, debt and tax financing and aging populations on health spending. We apply a fixed-effects two-stage least squares regression method to a panel dataset comprising 120 countries for the years 1995 through 2010. Our results show that democratic accountability has a diminishing positive correlation with GHE, and that levels of GHE are higher when government is more stable. Corruption is associated with less GHE in developing countries, but with higher GHE in developed countries. We also find that development assistance for health (DAH) is fungible with domestically financed government health expenditure (DGHE). For an average country, a 1% increase in DAH to government is associated with a 0.03-0.04% decrease in DGHE. Furthermore, the degree of fungibility of DAH to government is higher in countries where corruption or ethnic tensions are widespread. However, DAH to non-governmental organizations is not fungible with DGHE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictability and context determine differences in conflict monitoring between adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2015-10-01

    The ability to link contextual information to actions is an important aspect of conflict monitoring and response selection. These mechanisms depend on medial prefrontal networks. Although these areas undergo a protracted development from adolescence to adulthood, it has remained elusive how the influence of contextual information on conflict monitoring is modulated between adolescence and adulthood. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization techniques we show that the ability to link contextual information to actions is altered and that the predictability of upcoming events is an important factor to consider in this context. In adolescents, conflict monitoring functions are not as much modulated by predictability factors as in adults. It seems that adults exhibit a stronger anticipation of upcoming events than adolescents. This results in disadvantages for adults when the upcoming context is not predictable. In adolescents, problems to predict upcoming events therefore turn out to be beneficial. Two cognitive-neurophysiological factors are important for this: The first factor is related to altered conflict monitoring functions associated with modulations of neural activity in the medial frontal cortex. The second factor is related to altered perceptual processing of target stimuli associated with modulations of neural activity in parieto-occipital areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Determinants of FDI Flows from the EU‐15 to the Visegrad Group Countries – A Panel Gravity Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwiusz Wojciechowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate determinants of the general FDI flow to Visegrad countries and the effect of participation in EMU and EU. It was decided to investigate how augmented Gravity Model of trade allows identifying and evaluating the significance of pull and push factors of FDI. In an empirical analysis of panel data Hausman‐Taylor estimator was used because of the time‐invariant variables presence. While investment decisions regarding the choice of country are determined by the size of the target market, the distance is still a negative factor in creation of FDI volume. Additionally, it was proven that membership in EMU, differences in taxation, historical background, access to the sea and prices stability have significant impact of FDI stock formation in each country belonging to V4. Is was also noted that Poland became a leader of the V4 as well as EU‐12 FDI market sourcing from the old EU Member States. It is necessary to develop an “FDI attracting mechanism” using existing resources. Business regulations and taxation policy as well as main macroeconomic variables which are responsible for the economy standing are also examined as attracting the FDI flow. The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of FDI inflow into the group of both similar and different countries in economic measures terms.

  4. Determining factors affecting tourism demand for Malaysia using ARDL modeling: A case of Europe countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Nurbaizura; Arsad, Zainudin

    2016-10-01

    Tourism industry is the second largest foreign exchange earner after manufacturing in Malaysia. With regards to the importance of tourism industry in Malaysia, any factors that influence tourism demand should be considered cautiously by the government and tourism authorities in order to attract more international tourists in the near future. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic long-run and short-run relationship between the number of international tourist arrivals from six European countries and four selected economic variables. The economic variables used in this study are exchange rate, gross domestic product, relative price and substitute relative price. This study also examines the impact of the European Sovereign crisis on the number of arrivals from the selected European countries to Malaysia. The data covers the period from quarter 1 (Q1) of 1999 to quarter 3 (Q3) of 2014 and employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001). The results of unit root test show a mixture of integrated at level and order one, I(0) and I(1). The results show that there exist long-run cointegration between the number of international tourist arrivals and exchange rate, level of income, tourism price and substitute tourism price for all countries. Generally, the results show that level of income is in line with the economic theory and Thailand is a competing destination for the tourism industry in Malaysia. Surprisingly, relative price is found to have positive impact on the number of arrivals to Malaysia and this suggests that an increase in the price level in Malaysia is unexpectedly increase the number of international tourist arrivals to Malaysia. Therefore the Malaysian government and tourism authorities should continue the efforts to withstand the growth of the tourism industry.

  5. Determinants of CO{sub 2} emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Ismail, Siti Fatimah [Faculty of Entrepeneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Bandar, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Hamzah, Khairum [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Hang Tuah Jaya,76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Halim, Bushra Abdul [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Perak), Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak (Malaysia); Kun, Sek Siok [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO{sub 2} emissions.

  6. Development and preliminary validation of the 'Caring for Country' questionnaire: measurement of an Indigenous Australian health determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Caring for Country' is defined as Indigenous participation in interrelated activities with the objective of promoting ecological and human health. Ecological services on Indigenous-owned lands are belatedly attracting some institutional investment. However, the health outcomes associated with Indigenous participation in 'caring for country' activities have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to pilot and validate a questionnaire measuring caring for country as an Indigenous health determinant and to relate it to an external reference, obesity. Methods Purposively sampled participants were 301 Indigenous adults aged 15 to 54 years, recruited during a cross-sectional program of preventive health checks in a remote Australian community. Questionnaire validation was undertaken with psychometric tests of internal consistency, reliability, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory one-factor congeneric modelling. Accurate item weightings were derived from the model and used to create a single weighted composite score for caring for country. Multiple linear regression modelling was used to test associations between the caring for country score and body mass index adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours. Results The questionnaire demonstrated adequate internal consistency, test-retest validity and proxy-respondent validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the 'caring for country' items produced a single factor solution that was confirmed via one-factor congeneric modelling. A significant and substantial association between greater participation in caring for country activities and lower body mass index was demonstrated. Adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours, an inter-quartile range rise in caring for country scores was associated with 6.1 Kg and 5.3 Kg less body weight for non-pregnant women and men respectively. Conclusion This study indicates preliminary support for

  7. Determinants of between-country differences in ambulatory antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in Europe: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blommaert, A; Marais, C; Hens, N; Coenen, S; Muller, A; Goossens, H; Beutels, P

    2014-02-01

    To identify key determinants explaining country-year variations in antibiotic use and resistance. Ambulatory antibiotic use data [in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DIDs)] for 19 European countries from 1999 to 2007 were collected, along with 181 variables describing countries in terms of their agriculture, culture, demography, disease burden, education, healthcare organization and socioeconomics. After assessing data availability, overlap and relevance, multiple imputation generalized estimating equations were applied with a stepwise selection procedure to select significant determinants of global antibiotic use (expressed in DIDs), relative use of subgroups (amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav) and resistance of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Relative humidity, healthcare expenditure proportional to gross domestic product, feelings of distrust, proportion of population aged >65 years and availability of treatment guidelines were associated with higher total antibiotic use expressed in DIDs. Restrictions on marketing activities towards prescribers, population density, number of antibiotics, educational attainment and degree of atheism were associated with a lower number of total DIDs used. Relative prescribing of amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav was mainly determined by healthcare system choices [e.g. general practitioner (GP) registration and restricted marketing]. Specific antibiotic use was found to be a significant determinant of resistance for some but not all drug/organism combinations. Incentives to stimulate GP gatekeeping were associated with lower levels of resistance, and life expectancy at age 65+ and atheism were associated with more resistance. Myriad factors influence antibiotic use and resistance at the country level and an important part of these can be modified by policy choices.

  8. District-level hospital trauma care audit filters: Delphi technique for defining context-appropriate indicators for quality improvement initiative evaluation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Barclay T; Gyedu, Adam; Quansah, Robert; Addo, Wilfred Larbi; Afoko, Akis; Agbenorku, Pius; Amponsah-Manu, Forster; Ankomah, James; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer; Baffoe, Peter; Debrah, Sam; Donkor, Peter; Dorvlo, Theodor; Japiong, Kennedy; Kushner, Adam L; Morna, Martin; Ofosu, Anthony; Oppong-Nketia, Victor; Tabiri, Stephen; Mock, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Prospective clinical audit of trauma care improves outcomes for the injured in high-income countries (HICs). However, equivalent, context-appropriate audit filters for use in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) district-level hospitals have not been well established. We aimed to develop context-appropriate trauma care audit filters for district-level hospitals in Ghana, was well as other LMICs more broadly. Consensus on trauma care audit filters was built between twenty panellists using a Delphi technique with four anonymous, iterative surveys designed to elicit: (i) trauma care processes to be measured; (ii) important features of audit filters for the district-level hospital setting; and (iii) potentially useful filters. Filters were ranked on a scale from 0 to 10 (10 being very useful). Consensus was measured with average percent majority opinion (APMO) cut-off rate. Target consensus was defined a priori as: a median rank of ≥9 for each filter and an APMO cut-off rate of ≥0.8. Panellists agreed on trauma care processes to target (e.g. triage, phases of trauma assessment, early referral if needed) and specific features of filters for district-level hospital use (e.g. simplicity, unassuming of resource capacity). APMO cut-off rate increased successively: Round 1--0.58; Round 2--0.66; Round 3--0.76; and Round 4--0.82. After Round 4, target consensus on 22 trauma care and referral-specific filters was reached. Example filters include: triage--vital signs are recorded within 15 min of arrival (must include breathing assessment, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation if available); circulation--a large bore IV was placed within 15 min of patient arrival; referral--if referral is activated, the referring clinician and receiving facility communicate by phone or radio prior to transfer. This study proposes trauma care audit filters appropriate for LMIC district-level hospitals. Given the successes of similar filters in HICs and obstetric care filters in LMICs

  9. Considerations on the activity concentration determination method for low-level waste packages and nuclide data comparison between different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, M.; Mueller, W.

    2000-01-01

    In low-level waste disposal, acceptable activity concentration limits are regulated for individual nuclides and groups of nuclides according to the conditions of each disposal site. Such regulated limits principally concern total alpha and beta /gamma activity as well as nuclides such as C-14, Ni-63, and Pu-238 which are long-lived and difficult to measure (hereinafter referred to as difficult-to-measure nuclides). Before waste packages are transported to the disposal site, the activities or activity concentrations of the regulated nuclides and groups of nuclides in the waste packages must be assessed and declared. A generally applicable theoretical method to determine these activities is lacking at present. Therefore, to meet this requirement, for NPP waste each country independently samples actual waste and carries out radiochemical analyses on these samples. The activity concentrations of difficult-to-measure nuclides are then determined by statistical correlation of the measured data between difficult-to-measure nuclides and Co-60 and Cs-137 which are measurable from outside the waste packages (hereinafter referred to as key nuclides). This method is called 'Scaling Factor Method'. It is widely adopted as a method for determining the activity concentrations of the limited nuclides in low-level waste packages from NPP, and it is also approved by responsible authorities in the respective country. In the past, each country independently determined scaling factors based on measurements on samples from the local NPPs. In the first part of this study, the possibility of an international scaling factor assessment using a database integrating data from different countries was studied by comparing radiochemical analysis data between Germany, Japan, and the United States. These countries have accumulated a large number of those nuclide data required to determine scaling factors. Statistical values such as correlation coefficients change with an accumulation of data. In

  10. Cultural and economic macro-environmental determinants of obesity: an analysis of 70 countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity is essentially caused by an energy imbalance whereby energy intake exceeds the amount of energy expenditure. Due to multifactorial nature of obesity, its determinants span from cell to society. Much of the research on obesity determinants has focused on individual level risk factors including genetic endowment, behavioural factors, socio-demographic and socio-economic status. Recent research has acknowledged the role of environmental factors that create obesity-promoting s...

  11. Molecular mechanisms of temperature-dependent sex determination in the context of ecological developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuiko; Crews, David

    2012-05-06

    Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is a prime example of phenotypic plasticity in that gonadal sex is determined by the temperature of the incubating egg. In the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), the effect of temperature can be overridden by exogenous ligands, i.e., sex steroid hormones and steroid metabolism enzyme inhibitors, during the temperature-sensitive period (TSP) of development. Precisely how the physical signal of temperature is transduced into a biological signal that ultimately results in sex determination remains unknown. In this review, we discuss the sex determining pathway underlying TSD by focusing on two candidate sex determining genes, Forkhead box protein L2 (FoxL2) and Doublesex mab3- related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1). They appear to be involved in transducing the environmental temperature signal into a biological signal that subsequently determines gonadal sex. FoxL2 and Dmrt1 exhibit gonad-typical patterns of expression in response to temperature during the TSP in the red-eared slider turtle. Further, the biologically active ligands regulate the expression of FoxL2 and Dmrt1 during development to modify gonad trajectory. The precise regulatory mechanisms of expression of these genes by temperature or exogenous ligands are not clear. However, the environment often influences developmental gene expression by altering the epigenetic status in regulatory regions. Here, we will discuss if the regulation of FoxL2 and Dmrt1 expression by environment is mediated through epigenetic mechanisms during development in species with TSD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Cognitive context determines dorsal premotor cortical activity during hand movement in patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Andrea; Bosnell, Rose; Dawes, Helen; Howells, Ken; Cockburn, Janet; Kischka, Udo; Matthews, Paul; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2011-04-01

    Stroke patients often have difficulties in simultaneously performing a motor and cognitive task. Functional imaging studies have shown that movement of an affected hand after stroke is associated with increased activity in multiple cortical areas, particularly in the contralesional hemisphere. We hypothesized patients for whom executing simple movements demands greater selective attention will show greater brain activity during movement. Eight chronic stroke patients performed a behavioral interference test using a visuo-motor tracking with and without a simultaneous cognitive task. The magnitude of behavioral task decrement under cognitive motor interference (CMI) conditions was calculated for each subject. Functional MRI was used to assess brain activity in the same patients during performance of a visuo-motor tracking task alone; correlations between CMI score and movement-related brain activation were then explored. Movement-related activation in the dorsal precentral gyrus of the contralesional hemisphere correlated strongly and positively with CMI score (r(2) at peak voxel=0.92; Pstroke. The results emphasize the importance of considering cognitive context when interpreting brain activity patterns and provide a rationale for further evaluation of integrated cognitive and movement interventions for rehabilitation in stroke.

  13. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  14. Policy-Relevant Context of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among University Students in Six Countries Across the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Hamadeh, Randah; Thomas, Justin; Mostafa, Aya; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Macauda, Mark M; Theis, Ryan P; Kadi, Lama El; Johnson, Evan J; Darawad, Muhammad W; Nakkash, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean region are some of the highest worldwide, especially among young people. This study aimed to improve our knowledge of the policy-relevant context of waterpipe smoking among six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted in Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Participants were young adult university students (18-29 years) from both genders who had ever smoked the waterpipe, recruited from universities participating in this study. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: A total of 53 in-depth interviews were conducted in Arabic in 2016. Findings were organized around 5 themes: waterpipe product characteristics; patterns of waterpipe smoking; the waterpipe café setting; perceived health consequences; and health warning labels. Waterpipe smoking was commonly perceived as a safe alternative to cigarettes. Waterpipe tobacco was reported to be widely accessible and affordable to young participants. There is a lack of knowledge among waterpipe smokers about the associated health effects. Warning labels are effective at communicating health risks associated with waterpipe smoking. Conclusions: Regulatory frameworks for waterpipe tobacco smoking should be developed and enforced, including waterpipe-specific health warning labels that elucidate the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. PMID:28952296

  15. Programming maternal and child overweight and obesity in the context of undernutrition: current evidence and key considerations for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Kavle, Justine; Perry, Abigail; Nyaku, Albertha

    2017-05-01

    The goals of the present targeted review on maternal and child overweight and obesity were to: (i) understand the current situation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with regard to recent trends and context-specific risk factors; and (ii) building off this, identify entry points for leveraging existing undernutrition programmes to address overweight and obesity in LMIC. Trends reveal that overweight and obesity are a growing problem among women and children in LMIC; as in Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, where the prevalence among urban women is approaching 50 %. Four promising entry points were identified: (i) the integration of overweight and obesity into national nutrition plans; (ii) food systems (integration of food and beverage marketing regulations into existing polices on the marketing of breast-milk substitutes and adoption of policies to promote healthy diets); (iii) education systems (integration of nutrition into school curricula with provision of high-quality foods through school feeding programmes); and (iv) health systems (counselling and social and behaviour change communication to improve maternal diet, appropriate gestational weight gain, and optimal infant and young child feeding practices). We conclude by presenting a step-by-step guide for programme officers and policy makers in LMIC with actionable objectives to address overweight and obesity.

  16. Determinants of successful public-private partnerships in the context of overweight prevention in Dutch youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, K.; Jacobs-van der bruggen, M.; Renders, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A public-private partnership (PPP) is an essential component of the Dutch community-based approach toward overweight prevention, Youth on Healthy Weight (JOGG). Beginning in 2010, 25 Dutch municipalities have implemented JOGG, but little is known about determinants of successful

  17. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay and managerial narratives, and

  18. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH, many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective: To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH, gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution. Design: In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results: For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data

  19. Methylmercury determination in sediments and fish tissues from the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal estuary (Basque Country, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Landaluze, Jon; Diego, Alberto de; Raposo, Juan Carlos; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2004-04-15

    The analysis of methylmercury in extracts from environmental solid samples by gas chromatography coupled to microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (GC-MIP/AES) after the ethylation of the extract and the preconcentration of the volatile products in hexane has been critically investigated. In order to correct potential sources of random error along the analytical procedure affecting the overall repeatability of the analysis, the use of the inorganic mercury naturally occurring in the sample as internal standard in the analysis of methylmercury is proposed. A study to establish the best conditions to achieve a quantitative recovery of methylmercury without damaging its chemical structure has also been carried out. Magnetic stirring (without heating) of the sediment or fish tissue with 2 mol dm{sup -3} HNO{sub 3} or 10% methanolic KOH, respectively, during 90 min has been considered as the most effective procedure to release methylmercury preserving its structure. The proposed method has been validated using certified reference materials (CRM-580, CRM-463 and DOLT-2), assessing its quality in terms of accuracy, repeatability and detection limit. Finally, several sediment and fish samples collected in the estuary of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal (Bilbao, Basque Country) have been analyzed following the procedures proposed. The results obtained show the validity of the proposed method to analyze real samples.

  20. Determinants of E-Learning Adoption in Universities: Evidence from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Eric; Lovia Boateng, Sheena; Boateng, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to explore the technological, organizational, and environmental determinants of e-learning adoption in University of Ghana using a multistakeholder approach. Another construct (nature of the course) was added to the traditional constructs of the technology-organization-environment framework. Using survey research, e-learning…

  1. Psychological Determinants of Consumer Acceptance of Personalised Nutrition in 9 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poinhos, R.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rankin, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Bunting, B.; Kuznesof, S.; Stewart-Knox, B.; Frewer, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a model of the psychological factors which predict people’s intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Potential determinants of adoption included perceived risk and benefit, perceived self-efficacy, internal locus of control and health commitment. Methods A questionnaire,

  2. Quality Differences of Higher Education and Its Determinants in a Less-Developed Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Espinel, Jaime Andrés; Silva Arias, Adriana Carolina; Van Gameren, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Two key measures to determine the quality of higher education are the performance of students and the accreditation of a programme's quality. We analyse the difference in the distributions of the student's scores in a standardised test of economics knowledge between accredited and non-accredited undergraduate economics programmes in a…

  3. Business Takeover or New Venture? Individual and Environmental Determinants from a Cross-Country Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Block (Jörn); A.R. Thurik (Roy); P.W. van der Zwan (Peter); S. Walter (Sascha)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWhereas the determinants of entrepreneurial choice have been thoroughly analyzed in the literature, little is known about the preferred mode of entry into entrepreneurship, such as taking over an existing business or starting a new venture. Using a large international dataset, this study

  4. The determinants of export performance in developing countries : the case of Indonesian manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyse export behaviour of Indonesian companies using a unique database covering all manufacturing firms active in 1995. We test a range of determinants, pointed out by the literature, separately for 28 industries at the three-digit level. Furthermore, the Pavitt taxonomy is

  5. Attractiveness of Central and Eastern European Countries for Foreign Direct Investment in the Context of European Integration: The Case of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Andresson, Kairi; Reiljan, Janno; Reiljan, Ele

    2001-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in the world have increased rapidly during the last decade. Most of the FDI inflows are targeted to developed countries (78% in 1999, about fifth of the flows are going to developing countries and Central and Eastern European transition countries are the host countries for only 2% of the world FDI. The necessity of foreign investments in the transition countries is the result of industrial restructuring in post-socialist Eastern Europe and the Baltic coun...

  6. The subjective determinants of job performance and job involvement in organizational context.

    OpenAIRE

    Koblicová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    The job performance is conditioned by range of objective factors and subjective determinants as well. This thesis dedicates to mapping of job involvement meaning engagement, enthusiasm, commitment and work motivation. Considering to that, oganization can influence future job performance of its employee through employee development, when it tries to grow up the job interest, develops requiered skills and so potencially supports one's performance. The text tries to sum up knowledge background o...

  7. The adoption of sustainable remediation behaviour in the US and UK: a cross country comparison and determinant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Deyi; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Guthrie, Peter

    2014-08-15

    The sustainable remediation concept, aimed at maximizing the net environmental, social, and economic benefits in contaminated site remediation, is being increasingly recognized by industry, governments, and academia. However, there is limited understanding of actual sustainable behaviour being adopted and the determinants of such sustainable behaviour. The present study identified 27 sustainable practices in remediation. An online questionnaire survey was used to rank and compare them in the US (n=112) and the UK (n=54). The study also rated ten promoting factors, nine barriers, and 17 types of stakeholders' influences. Subsequently, factor analysis and general linear models were used to determine the effects of internal characteristics (i.e. country, organizational characteristics, professional role, personal experience and belief) and external forces (i.e. promoting factors, barriers, and stakeholder influences). It was found that US and UK practitioners adopted many sustainable practices to similar extents. Both US and UK practitioners perceived the most effectively adopted sustainable practices to be reducing the risk to site workers, protecting groundwater and surface water, and reducing the risk to the local community. Comparing the two countries, we found that the US adopted innovative in-situ remediation more effectively; while the UK adopted reuse, recycling, and minimizing material usage more effectively. As for the overall determinants of sustainable remediation, the country of origin was found not to be a significant determinant. Instead, organizational policy was found to be the most important internal characteristic. It had a significant positive effect on reducing distant environmental impact, sustainable resource usage, and reducing remediation cost and time (psustainability as one would expect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic context determines susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation in a mouse pigmentary glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Ioan M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DBA/2J (D2 mice develop an age-related form of glaucoma. Their eyes progressively develop iris pigment dispersion and iris atrophy followed by increased intraocular pressure (IOP and glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Mutant alleles of the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 genes are necessary for the iris disease, but it is unknown whether alleles of other D2 gene(s are necessary for the distinct later stages of disease. We initiated a study of congenic strains to further define the genetic requirements and disease mechanisms of the D2 glaucoma. Results To further understand D2 glaucoma, we created congenic strains of mice on the C57BL/6J (B6 genetic background. B6 double-congenic mice carrying D2-derived Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop a D2-like iris disease. B6 single-congenics with only the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop milder forms of iris disease. Genetic epistasis experiments introducing a B6 tyrosinase mutation into the congenic strains demonstrated that both the single and double-congenic iris diseases are rescued by interruption of melanin synthesis. Importantly, our experiments analyzing mice at ages up to 27 months indicate that the B6 double-congenic mice are much less prone to IOP elevation and glaucoma than are D2 mice. Conclusion As demonstrated here, the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 iris phenotypes are both individually dependent on tyrosinase function. These results support involvement of abnormal melanosomal events in the diseases caused by each gene. In the context of the inbred D2 mouse strain, the glaucoma phenotype is clearly influenced by more genes than just Gpnmb and Tyrp1. Despite the outward similarity of pigment-dispersing iris disease between D2 and the B6 double-congenic mice, the congenic mice are much less susceptible to developing high IOP and glaucoma. These new congenic strains provide a valuable new resource for further studying the genetic and mechanistic complexity of this form of glaucoma.

  9. Nitrate attenuation in the Salburua wetland (Basque Country). Hydrogeological context; Atenuacion de nitratos en el Humedal de Salburua (Pais Vasco). Contexto hidrogeologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antiguedad, I.; Martinez-Santos, M.; Martinez, M.; Munoz, B.; Zabaleta, A.; Uriarte, J.; Morales, T.; Iribar, V.; Sanchez, J. M.; Ruiz, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Salburua wetland is located within a vulnerable zone (quaternary aquifer) related to the farming origin nitrate pollution. The restoration of the wetland, which was drained some decades ago, has evidenced the attenuation of nitrates in groundwater entering from farmlands, which exceed 50 mg/l NO{sub 3}. The recently installation of piezo metric network has allowed to characterize the groundwater flow pattern and determine the hydrogeological context of nitrate loss processes. Despite the dilution is happening the most important process seems to be the denitrification, either heterotrophic or auto trophic, probably depending on marly substratum position. The potential of denitrification has been measured in the soils and the values are really highs. This paper focuses on the right conditions for denitrification in the wetland. (Author) 23 refs.

  10. Simplified Model of Safety Determination Process for a Country with its First Operating Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saud, Bin Khadim; Chung, Dae Wook

    2013-01-01

    The two inputs are evaluated and given a color designation based on their safety significance. The performance indicators (PIs) in ROP program were developed from a very large statistical basis given operating experience from 100 reactors over a long period of time. The inspection findings are evaluated in terms of changes in core damage frequency using simplified PRA models and in some cases more complex models. The aim of this paper is to develop a simplified risk assessment approach for inspection findings which does not use PRA directly, but may use direct calculation approach. Thus, it would be helpful for inspectors to determine the safety significance of inspection findings. The objective of this study was to develop a simplified risk assessment approach for inspection findings using direct risk calculation model to determine the safety significance. Risk and categorization scheme are developed to put inspection finding into corresponding ΔCDF category

  11. Simplified Model of Safety Determination Process for a Country with its First Operating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saud, Bin Khadim [Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dae Wook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The two inputs are evaluated and given a color designation based on their safety significance. The performance indicators (PIs) in ROP program were developed from a very large statistical basis given operating experience from 100 reactors over a long period of time. The inspection findings are evaluated in terms of changes in core damage frequency using simplified PRA models and in some cases more complex models. The aim of this paper is to develop a simplified risk assessment approach for inspection findings which does not use PRA directly, but may use direct calculation approach. Thus, it would be helpful for inspectors to determine the safety significance of inspection findings. The objective of this study was to develop a simplified risk assessment approach for inspection findings using direct risk calculation model to determine the safety significance. Risk and categorization scheme are developed to put inspection finding into corresponding ΔCDF category.

  12. On the Relative Importance of Corporate Working Capital Determinants: Findings from the EU Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Koralun-Bereźnicka

    2014-01-01

    The corporate finance literature traditionally abounds in both theoretical discussion and empirical research concerning financing and long-term investment decisions. Managing short-term resources appears to be a much less remarkable issue, despite this resource's significant share of a firm's balance sheet and the time and effort required to manage the current assets and liabilities. This article provides insights into the relative importance of the selected working capital determinants from ...

  13. Guidance for NAMA Design in the Context of Nationally Determined Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lütken, Søren; Soezer, Alexandra; Forner, Claudio; Bonduki, Yamil; Vener, James; Hinostroza, Miriam L.; Röser, Frauke; van Tilburg, Xander

    2016-01-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, the Parties agreed, among other things, to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2ºC above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit this increase to 1.5ºC. Article 3 further specifies that, as Nationally Determined Contributions to the global response to climate change, the Parties will undertake and communicate ambitious efforts under different areas. Under Article 4 of the Paris Agreement, the temperature goal is translated ...

  14. Trends in health complaints from 2002 to 2010 in 34 countries and their association with health behaviours and social context factors at individual and macro-level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottová-Jordan, Veronika; Smith, Otto R F; Augustine, Lilly

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article describes trends and stability over time in health complaints in adolescents from 2002 to 2010 and investigates associations between health complaints, behavioural and social contextual factors at individual level and economic factors at macro-level. METHODS: Comprising N...... at macro-level (e.g. GDP, Gini), as can be seen by the small effect sizes (less than 5% for different trends). Health complaints are fairly stable over time in most countries, and no clear international trend in health complaints can be observed between 2002 and 2010. The most prominent stable determinants...... were being female, being bullied, school pressure and smoking. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with health complaints are more related to the proximal environment than to distal macro-level factors. This points towards intensifying targeted interventions, (e.g. for bullying) and also targeting specific...

  15. HOME COUNTRY MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF OUTWARD FDI: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

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    Mariana Sehleanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 90s marked the remarcable increase of foreign direct investment (FDI flows globally. Thus, global FDI outflows increased from 244 billion dollars in 1990 to 1,35 trillion dollars in 2014, with a peak record of 2,13 trillion dollars in 2007, according to UNCTAD statistics. In Romania, the value of outward FDI stock increased from 66,1 million dollars in 1990 and reached a peak in 2010, when total outward FDI stock cumulated 1510,7 million dollars. As the global economic and financial crisis has led to the unfavorable evolution of the Romanian economy, the business opportunities and the investment resources of Romanian companies have decreased significantly. Since 2011 the value of outward FDI stock entered a downtrend that was maintained until 2014, when outward FDI stock cumulated 695,7 million dollars. As a percentage of GDP, Romania’s outward FDI stock recorded only sub-unit values from 1990 to present. The aim of this empirical research is to analyze the influence of several macroeconomic factors on outward FDI from Romania, during 1991-2014. Using simple regression models, the empirical study reveals that factors such as interest rate, inflation rate, money supply, exchange rate and gross domestic product (GDP have an important role in explaining outward FDI from Romania, while the influence of trade openness is weak. Between the outward FDI stock and money supply, exchange rate, gross domestic product, respectively trade openness, there is a direct and linear correlation and between the outward foreign direct investment stock and the interest rate, respectively the inflation rate, there is an inverse linear correlation. The results obtained from our empirical study emphasize that the evolution of macroeconomic factors in Romania, as a home country, represents an important stimulus for Romanian companies to invest abroad. The presence of Romanian companies on the international market was very limited and that is why an increase of the

  16. Patterns and determinants of antenatal care utilization: analysis of national survey data in seven countdown countries

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    Ghada Saad–Haddad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal care (ANC is critical for improving maternal and newborn health. WHO recommends that pregnant women complete at least four ANC visits. Countdown and other global monitoring efforts track the proportions of women who receive one or more visits by a skilled provider (ANC1+ and four or more visits by any provider (ANC4+. This study investigates patterns of drop–off in use between ANC1+ and ANC4+, and explores inequalities in women’s use of ANC services. It also identifies determinants of utilization and describes countries’ ANC–related policies, and programs.

  17. ORGANISATIONAL DETERMINANTS INFLUENCING INFORMATION SYSTEMS REIMPLEMENTATION: SOME IMPLICATIONS TO THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

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    Sayyen Teoh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an in-depth study of global Web-based Marketing Decision Support System reimplementation, in a British-based Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG manufacturer. The paper shows that the success of a system implementation can still be marginal even if the organisation understands the key organisational determinants of success and has influence over them. The paper concludes with a discussion of how implementation planning, user need analysis and communication problems could be overcomed and also some implications to the companies in the developing nations.

  18. Guidance for NAMA Design in the Context of Nationally Determined Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Søren; Soezer, Alexandra; Forner, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    . This is also true for the measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) system. Quantifying the benefits of a NAMA, commonly compared to its baseline both in terms of GHG emissions and sustainable development benefits, is the gauge that all those involved – governmental bodies, international donors...... in support of lower emissions alternatives. Hence, regardless whether the NAMA is likely to need international financial support, NAMA financing should begin by identifying the relevant domestic funds, public and/or private. Public funding may be used to build a foundation for investment from the private...... and financiers, non-government organizations (NGOs), civil society, scientists, and the private sector and supervisory bodies such as those within the UNFCCC itself – use to determine whether or not a NAMA is successful. The NDC may provide general baseline information, while the NAMA development process would...

  19. Socio-demographic and attitudinal determinants of nutrition knowledge of food shoppers in six European countries

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    Grunert, Klaus G; Wills, Josephine; Fernandez-Celemin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition knowledge is a prerequisite for processing nutrition-related information when making food choices. Insight into determinants of nutrition knowledge is important both for designing measures aimed at increasing levels of nutrition knowledge and for food industry attempting to position food...... products based on their nutritional properties. Shoppers recruited in the UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Poland and Hungary (total n = 5967) filled out a questionnaire measuring their nutrition knowledge with regard to dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, and calorie content of food and drink......, suggesting that the history of health policies and nutrition-related initiatives taken by retailers and manufacturers, together with cultural differences, are a major factor affecting how people acquire knowledge about food and health....

  20. The Quantification of the Significance of EATR Determinants: Evidence for EU Countries

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    Jan Široký

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, corporate tax is applied in all EU Member States with the exception of Estonia. Nevertheless, the nominal corporate tax rate does not reflect the real tax burden. For determination of the effective tax burden for corporations, there are used effective corporate tax rates. The aim of the paper is to quantify the relation between the effective average corporate tax rate and nominal corporate tax rates, depreciations, loss compensation and selected investment incentives and to identify the significance of these factors based on the panel analysis. Based on the panel analysis it was found that effective average tax rate is only statistically dependant on nominal corporate tax rate, on tax loss compensation and on the depreciation tax rate of movable property, while in case of other factors, such as depreciation of immovable property, tax holidays and R&D incentives, the dependence is not statistically significant.

  1. Student autonomy in classroom context: A critical perspective of the self-determination theory

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    Tadić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses that in the field of pedagogic theory it is necessary to develop an interpretational framework for analysing basic pedagogic processes based on the assumptions of critical pedagogy and the theory of self-determination. Analyzed were the definitions of the idea of autonomy and control in the works of Michael Apple, John Dewey, Richard Ryan, Edward Deci, and Alfie Kohn. The starting standpoints that control, limitations and requirements are constitutive elements of education and that autonomy is the result of internalized control are argued. The student's autonomy is not linked exclusively with their engagement in the activities accompanied with pleasant feelings. Even an extrinsically motivated student feels that he is behaving autonomously in the cases of internalization and integration of the value of such behaviour when he internalizes classroom rules and teaching requirements as his own values and regulators of his own behaviour. Among the conclusions it is stated that the teacher expecting a certain behaviour and participation in the activities which his students do not perceive as helpful or important, will tend to support the feeling of autonomous acting in the students by making an effort to explain to them the value of such behaviour or potentional personal benefit it can bring them.

  2. Psycho-Socio-Cultural Determinants of Food Choice: A Qualitative Study on Adults in Social and Cultural Context of Iran.

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    Haghighian Roudsari, Arezoo; Vedadhir, Abouali; Amiri, Parisa; Kalantari, Naser; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Hani Sadati, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Objective: Food choice is a process through which people think, feel, and eat food. It does not only influence individuals' health and well-being, families and communities, but also it has an effect on regional, national, and global levels. This qualitative study was conducted to explore perceptions and lived experiences of Tehran adult residents on psychological, social and cultural determinants of food choice. Method: In this qualitative design, we recruited 33 adults aged 30 to 64 years from various districts of Tehran, capital of Iran, and we explored how people make decisions about food choice in practice and shape their perception, attitude, and eating practices. An individual in-depth semi-structured interview guide included major questions with follow-up probes was used to explore participants' current and past eating habits from childhood to adulthood, dietary change at different life courses, and effective psychological state on food selection in different seasons. Results: This study revealed that food choice in the studied adults (30-64 years old) was widely influenced by psychological, social, and cultural determinants, which can be categorized into 5 main themes: cultural context and patterns; social Structure and norms; information resources and media; household and family structure; and nutrition transition. Conclusion: The findings clarified the importance of social and cultural contexts, which influence the food choice of adults in a metropolis like Tehran. Many of these concepts are contextualized from childhood. These findings could serve as guideline to design socio-culturally appropriate strategies and improve dietary behaviors of Iranians.

  3. Can we determine whether physical limitations are more prevalent in the US than in countries with comparable life expectancy?

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    Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Ryff, Carol D; Weinstein, Maxine

    2017-12-01

    We evaluate the variability in estimates of self-reported physical limitations by age across four nationally representative surveys in the US. We consider its implications for determining whether, as previous literature suggests, the US estimates reveal limitations at an earlier age than in three countries with similar life expectancy: England, Taiwan, and Costa Rica. Based on cross-sectional data from seven population-based surveys, we use local mean smoothing to plot self-reported limitations by age for each of four physical tasks for each survey, stratified by sex. We find substantial variation in the estimates in the US across four nationally-representative surveys. For example, one US survey suggests that American women experience a walking limitation 15 years earlier than their Costa Rican counterparts, while another US survey implies that Americans have a 4-year advantage. Differences in mode of survey may account for higher prevalence of limitations in the one survey that used a self-administered mail-in questionnaire than in the other surveys that used in-person or telephone interviews. Yet, even among US surveys that used the same mode, there is still so much variability in estimates that we cannot conclude whether Americans have better or worse function than their counterparts in the other countries. Seemingly minor differences in question wording and response categories may account for the remaining inconsistency. If minor differences in question wording can result in such extensive variation in the estimates within a given population, then lack of comparability is likely to be an even greater problem when examining results across countries that do not share the same language or culture. Despite the potential utility of self-reported physical function within a survey sample, our findings imply that absolute estimates of population-level prevalence of self-reported physical limitations are unlikely to be strictly comparable across countries-or even

  4. Analysis of classical time-trial performance and technique-specific physiological determinants in elite female cross-country skiers

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    Øyvind Sandbakk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP and diagonal (DIA techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r=0.98 and flat (r=0.91 sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p<0.05. Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p<0.001. Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r=0.66-0.78, with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p<0.05. Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power.

  5. Nutritional determinants of worldwide diabetes: an econometric study of food markets and diabetes prevalence in 173 countries.

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    Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden

    2013-01-01

    Ageing and urbanization leading to sedentary lifestyles have been the major explanations proposed for a dramatic rise in diabetes worldwide and have been the variables used to predict future diabetes rates. However, a transition to Western diets has been suggested as an alternative driver. We sought to determine what socio-economic and dietary factors are the most significant population-level contributors to diabetes prevalence rates internationally. Multivariate regression models were used to study how market sizes of major food products (sugars, cereals, vegetable oils, meats, total joules) corresponded to diabetes prevalence, incorporating lagged and cumulative effects. The underlying social determinants of food market sizes and diabetes prevalence rates were also studied, including ageing, income, urbanization, overweight prevalence and imports of foodstuffs. Data were obtained from 173 countries. Population-based survey recipients were the basis for diabetes prevalence and food market data. We found that increased income tends to increase overall food market size among low- and middle-income countries, but the level of food importation significantly shifts the content of markets such that a greater proportion of available joules is composed of sugar and related sweeteners. Sugar exposure statistically explained why urbanization and income have been correlated with diabetes rates. Current diabetes projection methods may estimate future diabetes rates poorly if they fail to incorporate the impact of nutritional factors. Imported sugars deserve further investigation as a potential population-level driver of global diabetes.

  6. Dietary Determinants of and Possible Solutions to Iron Deficiency for Young Women Living in Industrialized Countries: A Review

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    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is a concern in both developing and developed (industrialized countries; and young women are particularly vulnerable. This review investigates dietary determinants of and possible solutions to iron deficiency in young women living in industrialized countries. Dietary factors including ascorbic acid and an elusive factor in animal protein foods (meat; fish and poultry enhance iron absorption; while phytic acid; soy protein; calcium and polyphenols inhibit iron absorption. However; the effects of these dietary factors on iron absorption do not necessarily translate into an association with iron status and iron stores (serum ferritin concentration. In cross-sectional studies; only meat intake has consistently (positively been associated with higher serum ferritin concentrations. The enhancing effects of ascorbic acid and meat on iron absorption may be negated by the simultaneous consumption of foods and nutrients which are inhibitory. Recent cross-sectional studies have considered the combination and timing of foods consumed; with mixed results. Dietary interventions using a range of focused dietary measures to improve iron status appear to be more effective than dietary approaches that focus on single nutrients or foods. Further research is needed to determine optimal dietary recommendations for both the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency.

  7. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

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    Gatwiri Doris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and

  8. Access to HIV/AIDS care: a systematic review of socio-cultural determinants in low and high income countries.

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    Gari, Sara; Doig-Acuña, Camilo; Smail, Tino; Malungo, Jacob R S; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Merten, Sonja

    2013-05-28

    The role of socio-cultural factors in influencing access to HIV/AIDS treatment, care and support is increasingly recognized by researchers, international donors and policy makers. Although many of them have been identified through qualitative studies, the evidence gathered by quantitative studies has not been systematically analysed. To fill this knowledge gap, we did a systematic review of quantitative studies comparing surveys done in high and low income countries to assess the extent to which socio-cultural determinants of access, identified through qualitative studies, have been addressed in epidemiological survey studies. Ten electronic databases were searched (Cinahl, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, IBSS, JSTOR, MedLine, Psyinfo, Psyindex and Cochrane). Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize data comparing studies between low and high income countries. Thirty-four studies were included in the final review, 21 (62%) done in high income countries and 13 (38%) in low income countries. In low income settings, epidemiological research on access to HIV/AIDS services focused on socio-economic and health system factors while in high income countries the focus was on medical and psychosocial factors. These differences depict the perceived different barriers in the two regions. Common factors between the two regions were also found to affect HIV testing, including stigma, high risk sexual behaviours such as multiple sexual partners and not using condoms, and alcohol abuse. On the other hand, having experienced previous illness or other health conditions and good family communication was associated with adherence to ART uptake. Due to insufficient consistent data, a meta-analysis was only possible on adherence to treatment. This review offers evidence of the current challenges for interdisciplinary work in epidemiology and public health. Quantitative studies did not

  9. Factors Determining the Development of Physical Education in the Higher University Schools of Lithuania in the Context of the Challenges of the 21st Century

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    Povilas Tamošauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 19 th century the humankind will have to carry out a great job - to give sense to life and learn to behave humanely in a technocratic society. Students of higher schools live in the world where changes dominate and the tempo of the changes increases. Our life in such a world gives rise to stresses of global and local character. The mission of physical education and sport at Universities is to help to humanize the life of the academic youth in the context of physical and psychical harmony. A personality becomes the ideal of modern society only when he or she realizes the potential at a maximum and is physically and psychologically sound. It means that our universities should foresee the strategy of the development of physical education if they want to respond adequately to the challenges of the global world. Research aim is to analyze trends of physical education in the Lithuanian university higher schools and state the factors determining its development. Research object is physical education of students. The article presents university systems of American, European as well as of Asian and African countries. Not enough care or attention is given to the physical education and sport training of students in all educational systems. The Lithuanian higher schools decrease obligatory hours for physical education leaving two hours per week. Sometimes this subject becomes an optional one, completely ignoring the law of physical education and sport. Economic, social, technological and humane factors in the context of physical education are being discussed as well. The strategy of students’ physical education and sport is presented.

  10. The Determinants of International Capital Movements and an Analysis in the Context of Foreign Direct Investments: A Case of Turkey

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    Oğuzhan AYDEMİR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments being an important part of the international capital movements are evaluated as the investments making in the form of reestablishing a factory in a foreign country, becoming a partner with an existing company or purchasing an established company. Foreign direct investments make a major contribution to economic development in connection with employment, technology, business information, integration with international markets and generating a sound competition environment. In view of the results which foreign direct investments give to national economy; determining the economic factors as to which national economy foreign direct investments would prefer is of great importance in terms of providing foreign capital inflows with continuity. In this regard; the factors determining foreign direct investments are estimated and the relationship between these factors and direct foreign capital inflows is analyzed in this study. As a result of the study; it is seen that gross domestic product (GDP, trade openness, unit labor cost and inflation are the economic determinants of foreign direct investments. Separately it is concluded that GDP, trade openness and unit labor cost have a positive effect on foreign direct investments and that there is negative relationship between inflation and foreign direct investments.

  11. The Double Edged Sword: A Brief Comparison of IT and Internet Development in Malaysia and Some Few Neighboring Countries in the Context of Digital Divide.

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    Samad, Ramli Abdul

    This paper shows that, although a digital divide exists between developed and developing countries, the development of information technology (IT) and the Internet has had a profound political, social, and economic impact on developing countries. IT and the Internet revolution are shaping the world into new polarized entities due to the uneven…

  12. Tuberculosis stigma as a social determinant of health: a systematic mapping review of research in low incidence countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, G M; Daftary, A; Engel, N; O'Driscoll, S; Ioannaki, A

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB)-related stigma is an important social determinant of health. Research generally highlights how stigma can have a considerable impact on individuals and communities, including delays in seeking health care and adherence to treatment. There is scant research into the assessment of TB-related stigma in low incidence countries. This study aimed to systematically map out the research into stigma. A particular emphasis was placed on the methods employed to measure stigma, the conceptual frameworks used to understand stigma, and whether structural factors were theorized. Twenty-two studies were identified; the majority adopted a qualitative approach and aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about TB. Few studies included stigma as a substantive topic. Only one study aimed to reduce stigma. A number of studies suggested that TB control measures and representations of migrants in the media reporting of TB were implicated in the production of stigma. The paucity of conceptual models and theories about how the social and structural determinants intersect with stigma was apparent. Future interventions to reduce stigma, and measurements of effectiveness, would benefit from a stronger theoretical underpinning in relation to TB stigma and the intersection between the social and structural determinants of health. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of the geographic origin of onions between three main production areas in Japan and other countries by mineral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Aoyama, Yoshinori; Mochizuki, Akashi; Homura, Yuji; Kadokura, Masashi; Yasui, Akemi

    2007-01-24

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are produced in many countries and are one of the most popular vegetables in the world, thus leading to an enormous amount of international trade. It is currently important that a scientific technique be developed for determining geographic origin as a means to detect fraudulent labeling. We have therefore developed a technique based on mineral analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The onion samples used in this study were from Hokkaido, Hyogo, and Saga, which are the primary onion-growing areas in Japan, and those from countries that export onions to Japan (China, the United States, New Zealand, Thailand, Australia, and Chile). Of 309 samples, 108 were from Hokkaido, 52 were from Saga, 77 were from Hyogo, and 72 were from abroad. Fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, and Ba) in the samples were determined by frame atomic adsorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The models established by LDA were used to discriminate the geographic origin between Hokkaido and abroad, Hyogo and abroad, and Saga and abroad. Ten-fold cross-validations were conducted using these models. The discrimination accuracies obtained by cross-validation between Hokkaido and abroad were 100 and 86%, respectively. Those between Hyogo and abroad were 100 and 90%, respectively. Those between Saga and abroad were 98 and 90%, respectively. In addition, it was demonstrated that the fingerprint of an element pattern from a specific production area, which a crop receives, did not easily change by the variations of fertilization, crop year, variety, soil type, and production year if appropriate elements were chosen.

  14. Determinants of mortality transition in developing countries before and after the Second World War: Some evidence from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Briquets, S

    1981-11-01

    Few studies provide an insight into what factors contributed to declines in the mortality rates of developing countries before the Second World War. In this paper, statistics on causes of death from Cuba, particularly Havana, are used to investigate what may have been some of the principal determinants of mortality decline in the developing world before the arrival of modern drugs and insecticides. Trends in cause-specific mortality are examined in the light of Cuba's social, economic, medical and public health history. The Cuban experience strongly suggests that in this country public health and sanitary reforms and nutritional improvements were largely responsible for initial declines in mortality throughout the first half of the twentieth century. One important finding is that the impact of these reforms and improved nutrition was greatly influenced by prevailing economic conditions. Periods of economic prosperity facilitated declines in mortality; but in times of adversity, the reverse occurred. It appears that during prosperous periods the maintenance and expansion of public health and sanitary facilities were made possible by increased public and private revenues, and that individuals had access to a more abundant diet. The severe economic crisis of the Great Depression had the opposite effect. With the appearance of sulphonamides in the late 1930s, antibiotics, and residual insecticides and other specific measures at the end of the Second World War, the relevance of economic conditions as a determinant of mortality decline diminished. Although this analysis points to the aforementioned trends, the Cuban experience also suggests that other factors enter into the process of declining mortality and that this phenomenon can only be explained as the result of the complex interplay of many forces.

  15. Quantifying the Ebbinghaus figure effect: Target size, context size, and target-context distance determine the presence and direction of the illusion.

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    Hester eKnol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, visual illusions, like the Ebbinghaus figure, have become widespread to investigate functional segregation of the visual system. This segregation reveals itself, so it is claimed, in the insensitivity of movement to optical illusions. This claim, however, faces contradictory results (and interpretations in the literature. These contradictions may be due to methodological weaknesses in, and differences across studies, some of which may hide a lack of perceptual illusion effects. Indeed, despite the long history of research with the Ebbinghaus figure, standardized configurations to predict the illusion effect are missing. Here, we present a complete geometrical description of the Ebbinghaus figure with three target sizes compatible with Fitts’ task. Each trial consisted of a stimulus and an isolated probe. The probe was controlled by the participant’s response through a staircase procedure. The participant was asked whether the probe or target appeared bigger. The factors target size, context size, target-context distance, and a control condition resulted in a 3×3×3+3 factorial design. The results indicate that the illusion magnitude, the perceptual distinctiveness, and the response time depend on the context size, distance, and especially, target size. In 33% of the factor combinations there was no illusion effect. The illusion magnitude ranged from zero to (exceptionally ten percent of the target size. The small (or absent illusion effects on perception and its possible influence on motor tasks might have been overlooked or misinterpreted in previous studies. Our results provide a basis for the application of the Ebbinghaus figure in psychophysical and motor control studies.

  16. Research Ethics in the Context of Transition: Gaps in Policies and Programs on the Protection of Research Participants in the Selected Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenka, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the ability of countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) to ensure appropriate protection of research participants in the field of increasingly globalizing biomedical research. By applying an analytical framework for identifying gaps in policies and programs for human subjects protection to four countries of CEE-Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, substantial gaps in the scope and content of relevant policies and major impediments to program performance have been revealed. In these countries, public policies on the protection of research participants lack consistency and reliable mechanisms for their implementation. Impediments to program performance most often relate to inadequacies in the national research ethics systems with regard to organizational structure, budgetary support, supervision, and training. The level of research ethics capacity varies from country to country and depends on socio-economic and political factors of post-communist transition. The breadth and depth of the problems identified suggest that the current level of protection for research participants in CEE might be inadequate to the challenges posed by the globalization of biomedical research. In CEE countries, there is a need for strengthening research ethics capacity through modification of relevant policies and improvement of program management. The differences among the countries call for further research on identifying the best approaches for filling the gaps in the policies and programs aimed at ensuring effective protection of research participants.

  17. Structure determination of feline calicivirus virus-like particles in the context of a pseudo-octahedral arrangement.

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    Wim P Burmeister

    Full Text Available The vesivirus feline calicivirus (FCV is a positive strand RNA virus encapsidated by an icosahedral T=3 shell formed by the viral VP1 protein. Upon its expression in the insect cell - baculovirus system in the context of vaccine development, two types of virus-like particles (VLPs were formed, a majority built of 60 subunits (T=1 and a minority probably built of 180 subunits (T=3. The structure of the small particles was determined by x-ray crystallography at 0.8 nm resolution helped by cryo-electron microscopy in order to understand their formation. Cubic crystals belonged to space group P213. Their self-rotation function showed the presence of an octahedral pseudo-symmetry similar to the one described previously by Agerbandje and co-workers for human parvovirus VLPs. The crystal structure could be solved starting from the published VP1 structure in the context of the T=3 viral capsid. In contrast to viral capsids, where the capsomers are interlocked by the exchange of the N-terminal arm (NTA domain, this domain is disordered in the T=1 capsid of the VLPs. Furthermore it is prone to proteolytic cleavage. The relative orientation of P (protrusion and S (shell domains is alerted so as to fit VP1 to the smaller T=1 particle whereas the intermolecular contacts around 2-fold, 3-fold and 5-fold axes are conserved. By consequence the surface of the VLP is very similar compared to the viral capsid and suggests a similar antigenicity. The knowledge of the structure of the VLPs will help to improve their stability, in respect to a use for vaccination.

  18. Determinants of cognitive development of low SES children in Chile: a post-transitional country with rising childhood obesity rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

    2013-09-01

    Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ≥ 6 points greater than their counterparts (p birth weight >4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ≥5 IQ points greater than their peers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role.

  19. Time perspective as a determinant of smoking cessation in four countries: Direct and mediated effects from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) 4-Country Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Meng, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Future oriented time perspective predicts a number of important health behaviors and outcomes, including smoking cessation. However, it is not known how future orientation exerts its effects on such outcomes, and no large scale cross-national studies have examined the question prospectively. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between time perspective and success in smoking cessation, and social cognitive mediators of the association. The ITC-4 is a multi-wave, four country survey (Australia, Canada, United States, United Kingdom) of current smokers (N=9772); the survey includes baseline measurements of time perspective, intentions, quit attempts, and self-reported quit status at follow-up over 8 years. We examined the predictive power of time perspective for smoking cessation, as mediated through strength of quit intentions and prior history of quit attempts. Findings indicated that those smokers with a stronger future orientation at baseline were more likely to have successfully quit at follow-up. This effect was partially explained by intention-mediated effects of future orientation on quit attempts. Future orientation predicts smoking cessation across four English-speaking countries; the cessation-facilitating effects of future orientation may be primarily due to future oriented individuals' motivated and sustained involvement in the quit cycle over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A latent class growth analysis of school bullying and its social context: the self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Chan, Chi-Keung; Wong, Bernard P H; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%), victims (3.0%), bully-victims (9.4%), and typical students (77.8%). There was a significant association between academic tracking and group membership. Students from the school with the lowest academic performance had a greater chance of being victims and bully-victims. Longitudinal data showed that all 4 groups tended to report less victimization over the years. The victims and the typical students also had a tendency to report less bullying over the years, but this tendency was reversed for bullies and bully-victims. Perceived support from teachers for relatedness significantly predicted membership of the groups of bullies and victims. Students with higher perceived support for relatedness from their teachers had a significantly lower likelihood of being bullies or victims. The findings have implications for the theory and practice of preventive interventions in school bullying.

  1. The determinations of remote sensing satellite data delivery service quality: A positivistic case study in Chinese context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiahua; Yan, Xiangbin; Tan, Qiaoqiao; Li, Yijun

    2014-03-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, remote-sensing satellite has been widely used in many aspects of national construction. Big data with different standards and massive users with different needs, make the satellite data delivery service to be a complex giant system. How to deliver remote-sensing satellite data efficiently and effectively is a big challenge. Based on customer service theory, this paper proposes a hierarchy conceptual model for examining the determinations of remote-sensing satellite data delivery service quality in the Chinese context. Three main dimensions: service expectation, service perception and service environment, and 8 sub-dimensions are included in the model. Large amount of first-hand data on the remote-sensing satellite data delivery service have been obtained through field research, semi-structured questionnaire and focused interview. A positivist case study is conducted to validate and develop the proposed model, as well as to investigate the service status and related influence mechanisms. Findings from the analysis demonstrate the explanatory validity of the model, and provide potentially helpful insights for future practice.

  2. The determinations of remote sensing satellite data delivery service quality: A positivistic case study in Chinese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jiahua; Yan, Xiangbin; Tan, Qiaoqiao; Li, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, remote-sensing satellite has been widely used in many aspects of national construction. Big data with different standards and massive users with different needs, make the satellite data delivery service to be a complex giant system. How to deliver remote-sensing satellite data efficiently and effectively is a big challenge. Based on customer service theory, this paper proposes a hierarchy conceptual model for examining the determinations of remote-sensing satellite data delivery service quality in the Chinese context. Three main dimensions: service expectation, service perception and service environment, and 8 sub-dimensions are included in the model. Large amount of first-hand data on the remote-sensing satellite data delivery service have been obtained through field research, semi-structured questionnaire and focused interview. A positivist case study is conducted to validate and develop the proposed model, as well as to investigate the service status and related influence mechanisms. Findings from the analysis demonstrate the explanatory validity of the model, and provide potentially helpful insights for future practice

  3. Determinants of Capital Integration among Strategic Alliance Members in the Retail Sector: Evidence from Central and Southeast European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Butigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of firms requires continuous search for new and a restructuring of the existing competitive advantages. These can come either from firms’ internal factors or from cooperation with the environment. Cooperation among firms commonly takes place through the formation of strategic alliances. However, such form of cooperation presents only one stage in the integration of business entities. In the long run, strategic alliances can cease to exist or transform into a higher form of association based on capital integration. The objective of this paper is to explore the determinants of capital integration among strategic alliance member firms in retail sectors of several Central and Southeast European countries. Overall, the obtained findings suggest that business entities engage in integration with the aim of reaching hidden knowledge and skills, accessing distribution and supply channels, and developing new products and services. Integration is also driven with the aim of risk diversification and possible better market positioning, achieving the economies of scale, and improving organization and marketing. The opportunistic behavior of partners and limited managerial control represent its strongest barriers.

  4. Gender differences in suicidal expressions and their determinants among young people in Cambodia, a post-conflict country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2011-03-21

    Suicide among young people is a global public health problem, but adequate information on determinants of suicidal expression is lacking in middle and low income countries. Young people in transitional economies are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors and suicidal expressions. This study explores the suicidal expressions and their determinants among high school students in Cambodia, with specific focus on gender differences. A sample of 320 young people, consisting of 153 boys and 167 girls between 15-18 years of age, was randomly selected from two high schools in Cambodia. Their self-reported suicidal expressions, mental health problems, life-skills dimensions, and exposure to suicidal behavior in others were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR), Life-Skills Development Scale (LSDS)-Adolescent Form, and Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS) questionnaires. Suicidal plans were reported more often by teenage boys than teenage girls (M=17.3%, F=5.6%, p=0.001), whereas girls reported more attempts (M=0.6%, F=7.8%, p=0.012). Young men scored significantly higher on rule-breaking behavior than young women (p=0.001), whereas young women scored higher on anxious/depression (p=0.000), withdrawn/depression (p=0.002), somatic complaints (p=0.034), social problems (p=0.006), and internalizing syndrome (p=0.000). Young men exposed to suicide had significantly higher scores for internalizing syndrome compared to those unexposed (p=0.001), while young women exposed to suicide scored significantly higher on both internalizing (p=0.001) and externalizing syndromes (p=0.012). Any type of exposure to suicidal expressions increased the risk for own suicidal expressions in both genders (OR=2.04, 95% CI=1.06-3.91); among young women, however, those exposed to suicide among friends and partners were at greater risk for the serious suicidal expressions (OR=2.79, 95% CI=1.00-7.74). Life skills dimension scores inversely correlated with externalizing syndrome in young men (p=0.026) and

  5. Gender differences in suicidal expressions and their determinants among young people in Cambodia, a post-conflict country*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullgren Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide among young people is a global public health problem, but adequate information on determinants of suicidal expression is lacking in middle and low income countries. Young people in transitional economies are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors and suicidal expressions. This study explores the suicidal expressions and their determinants among high school students in Cambodia, with specific focus on gender differences. Methods A sample of 320 young people, consisting of 153 boys and 167 girls between 15-18 years of age, was randomly selected from two high schools in Cambodia. Their self-reported suicidal expressions, mental health problems, life-skills dimensions, and exposure to suicidal behavior in others were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR, Life-Skills Development Scale (LSDS-Adolescent Form, and Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS questionnaires. Results Suicidal plans were reported more often by teenage boys than teenage girls (M = 17.3%, F = 5.6%, p = 0.001, whereas girls reported more attempts (M = 0.6%, F = 7.8%, p = 0.012. Young men scored significantly higher on rule-breaking behavior than young women (p = 0.001, whereas young women scored higher on anxious/depression (p = 0.000, withdrawn/depression (p = 0.002, somatic complaints (p = 0.034, social problems (p = 0.006, and internalizing syndrome (p = 0.000. Young men exposed to suicide had significantly higher scores for internalizing syndrome compared to those unexposed (p = 0.001, while young women exposed to suicide scored significantly higher on both internalizing (p = 0.001 and externalizing syndromes (p = 0.012. Any type of exposure to suicidal expressions increased the risk for own suicidal expressions in both genders (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.06-3.91; among young women, however, those exposed to suicide among friends and partners were at greater risk for the serious suicidal expressions (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.00-7.74. Life skills dimension scores

  6. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  7. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  8. Social dominance in context and in individuals: contextual moderation of robust effects of social dominance orientation in 15 languages and 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratto, F.; Cidam, A.; Stewart, E.L.; Bou Zeinedinne, F.; Aranda, M.; Aiello, M.; Chryssochoou, X.; Cichocka, A.; Cohrs, C.; Durrheim, K.; Eicher, V.; Foels, R.; Górska, P.; Lee, I-C; Licata, L.; Liu, L.; Liu, J.H.; Meyer, I.; Morselli, D.; Muldoon, O.; Muluk, H.; Petrovic, I.; Petrovic, N.; Prati, F.; Papastamou, S.; Prodromitis, G.; Rubini, M.; Saab, R.; van Stekelenburg, J.; Sweetman, J.; Zheng, W.; Henkel, K.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the internal reliability and predictive validity of a new 4-item Short Social Dominance Orientation (SSDO) scale among adults in 20 countries, using 15 languages (N = 2,130). Low scores indicate preferring group inclusion and equality to dominance. As expected, cross-nationally, the lower

  9. Possible role of cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination within the decision context on inclusion of HPV in the country-specific national immunization programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, Mark; Grahlmann, Carolin; Postma, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vaccination against HPV presents a new primary prevention strategy against cervical cancer and is now being introduced in countries all over Europe. Health-economic modelling plays an increasingly important role in the decision making process when introducing new health-care technologies

  10. Determinants of a simulated cross-country skiing sprint competition using V2 skating technique on roller skis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Laaksonen, Marko; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance-predicting factors of a simulated cross-country (XC) skiing sprint competition on roller skis, on a slow surface. Sixteen elite male XC skiers performed a simulated sprint competition (4 x 850 m heat with a 20-minute recovery) using V2 skating technique on an indoor tartan track. Heat velocities, oxygen consumption, and peak lactate were measured during or after the heats. Maximal skiing velocity was measured by performing a 30-m speed test. Explosive and maximal force production in the upper body was determined by bench press (BP). Subjects also performed maximal anaerobic skiing test (MAST) and the 2 x 2-km double poling (DP) test. The maximal velocity of MAST (VMAST) and velocities at 3 (V3), 5 (V5), 7 (V7) mmol.L lactate levels in MAST were determined. In the 2 x 2-km test, DP economy (VO2SUBDP) and maximal 2-km DP velocity (VDP2KM) were determined. The best single performance-predicting factors for the sprint performance were VDP2KM (r = 0.73, p < 0.01), V7 (r = 0.70, p < 0.01), and VO2SUBDP (r = -0.70, p < 0.01). Faster skiers in sprint simulation had a higher absolute VO2 (L.min) (p < 0.05-0.01) during sprint heats, and higher anaerobic skiing power (VMAST, p < 0.05) and better anaerobic skiing economy (V3, V5, V7, p < 0.05-0.001) than slower skiers. Faster skiers were also stronger in BP, with regard to both absolute (p < 0.01) and relative (p < 0.05) values. In addition, anaerobic characteristics seem to be of importance at the beginning of the XC skiing sprint competition, whereas the aerobic characteristics become more important as the XC skiing sprint competition progressed. This study indicates that sprint skiers should emphasize sport-specific upper body training, and training skiing economy at high speeds.

  11. Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs, Self-Determined Exercise Motivation, and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers Exercising in Group-Based Versus Individual-Based Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Gordon, James A R; Mueller, Marcus B; Mulgrew, Kate; Sharman, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    We compared mothers who exercised predominantly in group settings, those who exercised predominantly in individual settings, and those who exercised equally in group and individual contexts among the following: (a) satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness); (b) self-determined exercise motivation; and (c) psychological well-being. With clear implications for mothers' exercise interventions we found that exercising either predominantly in group contexts or in mixed group and individual settings was associated with mothers having significantly higher satisfaction of basic psychological needs and self-determined exercise motivation than those exercising predominantly alone.

  12. Strengthening Preparedness for Arbovirus Infections in Mediterranean and Black Sea Countries: A Conceptual Framework to Assess Integrated Surveillance in the Context of the One Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, Maria Grazia; Riccardo, Flavia; Nacca, Gloria; Ranghiasci, Alessia; Escadafal, Camille; Gaayeb, Lobna; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Picard, Marie; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Robert, Vincent; Victoir, Kathleen; Declich, Silvia

    2018-03-10

    In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya virus (CHKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. We analyzed findings using a conceptual framework we developed for this purpose. The review highlights that the criteria proposed in the conceptual framework to describe integrated surveillance are consistently reported in the context of studies and programs related to integrated surveillance of the selected arboviral diseases. These criteria can facilitate the identification and description of operationalized One Health surveillance.

  13. Learning from doing the EquitAble project: Content, context, process, and impact of a multi-country research project on vulnerable populations in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac MacLachlan

    2014-10-01

    Objectives: This article reports on the content, context, process and impact of project EquitAble, funded by the European Commission Seventh Research Framework Programme, which brought together researchers from Ireland, Norway, South Africa, Namibia, Sudan and Malawi. Method: After the 4-year project ended in February 2013, all members of the consortium were asked to anonymously complete a bespoke questionnaire designed by the coordinating team. The purpose of the questionnaire was to capture the views of those who collaborated on the research project in relation to issues of content, context, process and impact of the EquitAble project. Results: Our results indicated some of the successes and challenges encountered by our consortium. Conclusion: We identified contextual and process learning points, factors often not discussed in papers, which typically focus on the reporting of the ‘content’ of results.

  14. Assessing Sustainability in Developing Country Contexts: The Applicability of Green Building Rating Systems to Building Design and Construction in Madagascar and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Ozolins, Peter Charles

    2010-01-01

    Buildings have significant and complex impacts both in their construction and in their use. Green building rating systems have been developed and promoted in more economically-advanced countries to offer guidelines to reduce negative impacts and to promote sustainable practices of building construction and operations. The green building rating system called Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), established in 1995 by the U.S. Green Building Council, is increasingly accepted as...

  15. Determinants of Healthcare Utilisation and Out-of-Pocket Payments in the Context of Free Public Primary Healthcare in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Masiye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Access to appropriate and affordable healthcare is needed to achieve better health outcomes in Africa. However, access to healthcare remains low, especially among the poor. In Zambia, poor access exists despite the policy by the government to remove user fees in all primary healthcare facilities in the public sector. The paper has two main objectives: (i to examine the factors associated with healthcare choices among sick people, and (ii to assess the determinants of the magnitude of out-of-pocket (OOP payments related to a visit to a health provider. Methods This paper employs a multilevel multinomial logistic regression to model the determinants of an individual’s choice of healthcare options following an illness. Further, the study analyses the drivers of the magnitude of OOP expenditure related to a visit to a health provider using a two-part generalised linear model. The analysis is based on a nationally representative healthcare utilisation and expenditure survey that was conducted in 2014. Results Household per capita consumption expenditure is significantly associated with increased odds of seeking formal care (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, P = .000. Living in a household in which the head has a higher level of education is associated with increased odds of seeking formal healthcare (OR = 1.54, P = .000 and (OR = 1.55, P = .01, for secondary and tertiary education, respectively. Rural residence is associated with reduced odds of seeking formal care (OR = 0.706, P = .002. The magnitude of OOP expenditure during a visit is significantly dependent on household economic wellbeing, distance from a health facility, among other factors. A 10% increase in per capita consumption expenditure was associated with a 0.2% increase in OOP health expenditure while every kilometre travelled was associated with a K0.51 increase in OOP health expenditure. Conclusion Despite the removal of user fees on public primary healthcare in Zambia, access to

  16. Reliability of accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior in school-aged children: a 12-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Tudor-Locke, C; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-12-01

    Focused on the accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary time metrics in 9-11-year-old children, we sought to determine the following: (i) number of days that are necessary to achieve reliable estimates (G⩾0.8); (ii) proportion of variance attributed to different facets (participants and days) of reliability estimates; and (iii) actual reliability of data as collected in The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment (ISCOLE). The analytical sample consisted of 6025 children (55% girls) from sites in 12 countries. Physical activity and sedentary time metrics measures were assessed for up to 7 consecutive days for 24 h per day with a waist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+. Generalizability theory using R software was used to investigate the objectives i and ii. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using SAS PROC GLM to inform objective iii. The estimated minimum number of days required to achieve a reliability estimate of G⩾0.8 ranged from 5 to 9 for boys and 3 to 11 for girls for light physical activity (LPA); 5 to 9 and 3 to 10, for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); 5 to 10 and 4 to 10 for total activity counts; and 7 to 11 and 6 to 11 for sedentary time, respectively. For all variables investigated, the 'participant' facet accounted for 30-50% of the variability, whereas the 'days' facet accounted for ⩽5%, and the interaction (P × D) accounted for 50-70% of the variability. The actual reliability for boys in ISCOLE ranged from ICCs of 0.78 to 0.86, 0.73 to 0.85 and 0.72 to 0.86 for LPA, MVPA and total activity counts, respectively, and 0.67 to 0.79 for sedentary time. The corresponding values for girls were 0.80-0.88, 0.70-0.89, 0.74-0.86 and 0.64-0.80. It was rare that only 4 days from all participants would be enough to achieve desirable reliability estimates. However, asking participants to wear the device for 7 days and requiring ⩾4 days of data to include the participant in the analysis

  17. Determinants of efficiency in reducing child mortality in developing countries. The role of inequality and government effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Bienvenido; Sanjuán, Jesús; Casquero, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this article was to analyze the relationship of income inequality and government effectiveness with differences in efficiency in the use of health inputs to improve the under-five survival rate (U5SR) in developing countries. Robust Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and regression analysis were conducted using data for 47 developing countries for the periods 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2012. The estimations show that countries with a more equal income distribution and better government effectiveness (i.e. a more competent bureaucracy and good quality public service delivery) may need fewer health inputs to achieve a specific level of the U5SR than other countries with higher inequality and worse government effectiveness.

  18. Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoni, Ana Clara; Catalá, Laura; Ault, Steven K

    2016-03-01

    In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and territories (LAC), at the second administrative level or lower. A systematic review of schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection was conducted by searching at PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE. Experts on the topic were informally consulted and institutional web pages were reviewed (PAHO/WHO, Ministries of Health). Only SCH infection among children was registered because it can be a 'proxi-indicator' of recent transmission by the time the study is conducted. One hundred thirty two full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and provided 1,242 prevalence and 199 intensity of infection data points. Most of them were from Brazil (69.7%). Only Brazil published studies after 2001, showing several 'hot spots' with high prevalence. Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname and Saint Lucia need to update the epidemiological status of schistosomiasis to re-design their national programs and target the elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by 2020. In Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat and Puerto Rico schistosomiasis transmission may be interrupted. However the compilation of an elimination dossier and follow-up surveys, per WHO recommendations, are needed to verify that status. Hence, the burden of subtle SCH chronic infection may be still present and even high in countries that may have eliminated transmission. Heterogeneity in the methodologies used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the schistosomiasis programs was found, making cross-national and chronological comparisons difficult. There is a need for updating the schistosomiasis status in the historically

  19. Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Zoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and territories (LAC, at the second administrative level or lower.A systematic review of schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection was conducted by searching at PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE. Experts on the topic were informally consulted and institutional web pages were reviewed (PAHO/WHO, Ministries of Health. Only SCH infection among children was registered because it can be a 'proxi-indicator' of recent transmission by the time the study is conducted.One hundred thirty two full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and provided 1,242 prevalence and 199 intensity of infection data points. Most of them were from Brazil (69.7%. Only Brazil published studies after 2001, showing several 'hot spots' with high prevalence. Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname and Saint Lucia need to update the epidemiological status of schistosomiasis to re-design their national programs and target the elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by 2020. In Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat and Puerto Rico schistosomiasis transmission may be interrupted. However the compilation of an elimination dossier and follow-up surveys, per WHO recommendations, are needed to verify that status. Hence, the burden of subtle SCH chronic infection may be still present and even high in countries that may have eliminated transmission. Heterogeneity in the methodologies used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the schistosomiasis programs was found, making cross-national and chronological comparisons difficult.There is a need for updating the schistosomiasis status in the

  20. The psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in very young and pre-school children in the context of selected sociodemographic indicators in the Czech Republic and in some others countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Včelařová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this study present the results of surveys in significant areas of social peda-gogy relating to both the prevention of overweight and obesity in children, and healthy lifestyle edu-cation. The psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in early age and preschool children are monitored in the context of selected socio-demographic indicators in the Czech Republic, Great Brit-ain, the USA, Australia, some European countries, Iran and China. The purpose of such oriented stud-ies is to find appropriate preventive, pedagogical or therapeutic interventions that could contribute to the elimination of risk factors in the particular societies. It turns out that the sociodemographic and psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in chil-dren (in terms of particular countries cannot be always uniformly described and defined. Numerous psychosocial or sociodemographic characteristics were found when comparing different ethnic groups, the different age cohorts of parents or the different developmental stages of children, when comparing countries with various standards of living, or even just, when comparing different socio-economic strata within the same country. It also appears that the relationships identified by the be-low-mentioned researches don´t have a straight forward effect, but are also modified by the influ-ence of other variables. A common feature overweight and obesity in children in the majority of countries seems to be associated with significant social inequalities within a specific country. Accord-ing to some authors, one of the possible ways to fight overweight and obesity in children is to reduce the inequalities of the macroeconomic society

  1. Strengthening Preparedness for Arbovirus Infections in Mediterranean and Black Sea Countries: A Conceptual Framework to Assess Integrated Surveillance in the Context of the One Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Dente

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV, chikungunya virus (CHKV, dengue virus (DENV, and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. We analyzed findings using a conceptual framework we developed for this purpose. The review highlights that the criteria proposed in the conceptual framework to describe integrated surveillance are consistently reported in the context of studies and programs related to integrated surveillance of the selected arboviral diseases. These criteria can facilitate the identification and description of operationalized One Health surveillance.

  2. 'Not our war, not our country': contents and contexts of Scottish political rhetoric and popular understandings during the invasion of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcheroth, Guy; Reicher, Steve

    2014-03-01

    Recent research has questioned the traditional assumption that populations inevitably rally round their national leaders in times of war and suggested instead that whether this occurs depends upon political communication and mass media coverage. In this study, we provide systematic analysis of the debate in Scotland over the invasion of Iraq in 2003. We examine how the conflict was construed as either for or against the national interest, and how the way this is done is linked to different dimensions of context. First, we provide a mixed-methods analysis of debates in the Scottish Parliament. We show that anti-war speakers from Scottish separatist parties map opposition to the war onto a series of collectively consistent and temporarily flexible categorical oppositions, starting with a familiar antinomy between Scottish people and British rulers (before the invasion), and then shifting to broader oppositions between subjugated people and imperial powers (after the invasion). By contrast, speakers from other parties appear less consistent and less flexible in the nature of their arguments. Second, we examine the opinions of a population sample on the war, how these opinions relate to understandings of Scottish identity and how the media context is pivotal in the translation of anti-war opinions into votes for separatist/anti-war political parties. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Health workforce planning in Europe: creating learning country clusters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the different dimensions and determinants of health workforce planning (HWF) are investigated to improve context-sensitivity and mutual learning among groups of countries with similar HWF characteristics. A novel approach to scoring countries according to their HFW characteristics

  4. The Social Context of Depression Symptomology in Sexual Minority Male Youth: Determinants of Depression in a Sample of Grindr Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jeremy J; Rice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand which social context factors most influence depression symptomology among sexual minority male youth (SMMY). In 2011, 195 SMMY who use Grindr were recruited to complete an online survey in Los Angeles, California. Items focused on social context variables and depression symptomology. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted using an ecological framework. The best fitting model accounted for 29.5% of the variance in depression. Experiences of homophobia, gay community connection, presence of an objecting network member, and emotional support were found to be significant predictors. Past experiences of homophobia continuing to affect youth indicates the need for intervention to reduction of homophobia in youths' social contexts. Interventions that teach youth skills to manage objecting viewpoints or help youth to reorganize their social networks may help to reduce the impact of an objecting network alter.

  5. Competitiveness analysis of Czech agrarian foreign trade in the context of world agrarian market and agrarian trade of EU-27 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Svatoš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the commodity structure of Czech (CR agrarian trade in relation to the EU countries. An emphasis is put on comparative advantages of particular aggregations from the view-point of their application on the EU internal market. This analysis is based on an evaluation of comparative advantages by means of a modified Balassa index. It is studied in two stages, for the internal EU market and the world market. The analysis results are then shown in a graph. Subsequently, the authors implement an idea arising from a BCG matrix on the results of the graphic presentation. The aim is to identify those aggregations (SITC, rev. 3 which are or have a potential to be a pillar of agri-business (ie, the “cash cows” and “stars”, and vice versa to show the aggregation which are non-prospective in the long term or problematic (ie, the “dogs” and “problem children”. As start are identified as those aggregations which are characterised by the highest growth rate of comparative advantage value. From the analysis results, changes are apparent if we compare the CR trade commodity structure in relation to the EU countries. Findings also concern the development of comparative advantages and following CR specialisation on trade with certain aggregations.

  6. The cost determinants of routine infant immunization services: a meta-regression analysis of six country studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Nicolas A; Suharlim, Christian; Geng, Fangli; Ward, Zachary J; Brenzel, Logan; Resch, Stephen C

    2017-10-06

    Evidence on immunization costs is a critical input for cost-effectiveness analysis and budgeting, and can describe variation in site-level efficiency. The Expanded Program on Immunization Costing and Financing (EPIC) Project represents the largest investigation of immunization delivery costs, collecting empirical data on routine infant immunization in Benin, Ghana, Honduras, Moldova, Uganda, and Zambia. We developed a pooled dataset from individual EPIC country studies (316 sites). We regressed log total costs against explanatory variables describing service volume, quality, access, other site characteristics, and income level. We used Bayesian hierarchical regression models to combine data from different countries and account for the multi-stage sample design. We calculated output elasticity as the percentage increase in outputs (service volume) for a 1% increase in inputs (total costs), averaged across the sample in each country, and reported first differences to describe the impact of other predictors. We estimated average and total cost curves for each country as a function of service volume. Across countries, average costs per dose ranged from $2.75 to $13.63. Average costs per child receiving diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis ranged from $27 to $139. Within countries costs per dose varied widely-on average, sites in the highest quintile were 440% more expensive than those in the lowest quintile. In each country, higher service volume was strongly associated with lower average costs. A doubling of service volume was associated with a 19% (95% interval, 4.0-32) reduction in costs per dose delivered, (range 13% to 32% across countries), and the largest 20% of sites in each country realized costs per dose that were on average 61% lower than those for the smallest 20% of sites, controlling for other factors. Other factors associated with higher costs included hospital status, provision of outreach services, share of effort to management, level of staff training

  7. Non-communicable diseases and the social determinants of health in the Nordic countries: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaj, Mirza; Huijts, Tim; McNamara, Courtney L; Stornes, Per; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-03-01

    Comparative studies examining non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and determinants of health in the Nordic countries are scarce, outdated and focus only on a limited range of NCDs and health determinants. This study is the first to present a comprehensive overview of the distribution of social and behavioural determinants of health and of physical and mental NCDs in the Nordic population. We examined regional, country and gender differences for 17 health outcomes and 20 determinants of health. We use data from the 7th wave of the European Social Survey. All results were age-standardised by weighting up or down the unstandardized (crude) prevalence rates for five year age groups in each country to a common standard. We present pooled estimates for the combined regional samples as well as country-specific results for the Nordic region. Overall, the population of the Nordic region reported among the highest prevalence for one or both genders in 10 out of 17 health outcomes. Despite being the region with the highest prevalence for most health outcomes, overall self-rated health levels tend to be better in the Nordic region. Similarly, we found that the Nordic countries adhere to a healthier lifestyle and have better access to health care. Future studies should consider investigating further the association between health outcomes and determinants of health and how they are distributed in the Nordic societies.

  8. Determinants of government HIV/AIDS financing: a 10-year trend analysis from 125 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Carlos; Loncar, Dejan; Amico, Peter; De Lay, Paul

    2013-07-19

    Trends and predictors of domestic spending from public sources provide national authorities and international donors with a better understanding of the HIV financing architecture, the fulfillment of governments' commitments and potential for long-term sustainability. We analyzed government financing of HIV using evidence from country reports on domestic spending. Panel data from 2000 to 2010 included information from 647 country-years amongst 125 countries. A random-effects model was used to analyze ten year trends and identify independent predictors of public HIV spending. Low- and middle-income countries spent US$ 2.1 billion from government sources in 2000, growing to US$ 6.6 billion in 2010, a three-fold increase. Per capita spending in 2010 ranged from 5 cents in low-level HIV epidemics in the Middle East to US$ 32 in upper-middle income countries with generalized HIV epidemics in Southern Africa. The average domestic public spending per capita was US$ 2.55. The analysis found that GDP per capita and HIV prevalence are positively associated with increasing levels of HIV-spending from public sources; a 10 percent increase in HIV prevalence is associated with a 2.5 percent increase in domestic funding for HIV. Additionally, a 10 percent increase in GDP per capita is associated with an 11.49 percent increase in public spending for HIV and these associations were highly significant. Domestic resources in low- and middle-income countries showed a threefold increase between 2000 and 2010 and currently support 50 percent of the global response with 41 percent coming from sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic spending in LMICs was associated with increased economic growth and an increased burden of HIV. Sustained increases in funding for HIV from public sources were observed in all regions and emphasize the increasing importance of government financing.

  9. How do psychosocial determinants in migrant women in the Netherlands differ from these among their counterparts in their country of origin? A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierkens, V.; van der Ploeg, M.V.; van Eer, M.Y.; Stronks, K.

    2011-01-01

    Migration of non-Western women into Western countries often results in an increase in smoking prevalence among migrant women. To gain more insight into how to prevent this increase, we compared psychosocial determinants of smoking between Surinamese women in Suriname and those in the Netherlands.

  10. The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzbach, Sara; De, Susna; Wang, Wenjuan

    2011-07-01

    Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in financing HIV/AIDS services. As the nature of the response evolves from emergency relief to long-term sustainability, understanding current and potential contributions from the private sector is critical. This paper examines trends in private sector financing, management and resource consumption related to HIV/AIDS in five sub-Saharan African countries, with a particular emphasis on the effects of recently scaled-up donor funding on private sector contributions. We analysed National Health Accounts HIV/AIDS subaccount data for Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia between 2002 and 2006. HIV subaccounts provide comparable data on the flow of HIV/AIDS funding from source to use. Findings indicate that private sector contributions decreased in all countries except Tanzania. With regards to managing HIV/AIDS funds, non-governmental organizations are increasingly controlling the largest share of resources relative to other stakeholders, whereas private for-profit entities are managing fewer HIV/AIDS resources since the donor influx. The majority of HIV/AIDS funds were spent in the public sector, although a considerable amount was spent at private facilities, largely fuelled by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. On the whole, OOP spending by PLHIV decreased over the 4-year period, with the exception of Malawi, demonstrating that PLHIV have increased access to free or subsidized HIV/AIDS services. Our findings suggest that the influx of donor funding has led to decreased private contributions for HIV/AIDS. The reduction in private sector investment and engagement raises concerns about the sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes over the long term, particularly in

  11. Disapproval of Homosexuality : Comparative Research on Individual and National Determinants of Disapproval of Homosexuality in 20 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Hanneke; van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Scheepers, Peer

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we elaborate on disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. We mainly focus on the explanation of differences in the disapproval of homosexuality at the individual and the national level. Data from four waves of the European Social Survey are used, using multilevel

  12. Disapproval of Homosexuality: Comparative Research on Individual and National Determinants of Disapproval of Homosexuality in 20 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, H.M. van den; Ploeg, R. van der; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we elaborate on disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. We mainly focus on the explanation of differences in the disapproval of homosexuality at the individual and the national level. Data from four waves of the European Social Survey are used, using multilevel

  13. An Analysis of Determinants of Under-5 Mortality across Countries: Defining Priorities to Achieve Targets in Sustainable Developmental Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Michael; Ejiofor, Chukwudi; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The end of the era of millennium development goals (MDGs) ushered in the sustainable development goals (SDGs) with a new target for the reduction of under-five mortality rates (U5MR). Although U5MR decreased globally, the reduction was insufficient to meet MDGs targets because significant socioeconomic inequities remain unaddressed across and within countries. Thus, further progress in achieving the new SDGs target will be hindered if there is no adequate prioritization of important socioeconomic, healthcare, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to assess factors that account most for the differences in U5MR between countries around the globe. Methods We conducted an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression-based prioritization analysis of socioeconomic, healthcare, and environmental variables from 109 countries to understand which factors explain the differences in U5MR best. Results All indicators examined individually affected differences in U5MR between countries. However, the results of multivariate OLS regression showed that the most important factors that accounted for the differences were, in order: fertility rate, total health expenditure per capita, access to improved water and sanitation, and female employment rate. Conclusions To achieve the new global target for U5MR, policymakers must focus on certain priority areas, such as interventions that address access to affordable maternal healthcare services, educational programs for mothers, especially those who are adolescents, and safe drinking water and sanitation.

  14. 76 FR 61386 - Report on the Criteria and Methodology for Determining the Eligibility of Candidate Countries for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... The indicators were selected based on their (i) relationship to economic growth and poverty reduction... achieving lasting economic growth and poverty reduction. The Act requires the Millennium Challenge... opportunity to reduce poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission...

  15. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, Onyebuchi A; Westert, Gert P; Delnoij, Diana M; Klazinga, Niek S

    2005-01-01

    Background Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations

  16. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, O.A.; Westert, G.; Delnoij, D.M.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations

  17. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Westert, Gert P.; Delnoij, Diana M.; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations

  18. Monitoring Results in Routine Immunization: Development of Routine Immunization Dashboard in Selected African Countries in the Context of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Alain; van den Ent, Maya M V X; Sosler, Stephen; Hinman, Alan R; Brown, Sidney; Sodha, Samir; Ehlman, Daniel C; Wallace, Aaron S; Mihigo, Richard

    2017-07-01

    To monitor immunization-system strengthening in the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified 1 indicator: 10% annual improvement in third dose of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) coverage in polio high-risk districts of 10 polio focus countries. A multiagency team, including staff from the African Region, developed a comprehensive list of outcome and process indicators measuring various aspects of the performance of an immunization system. The development and implementation of the dashboard to assess immunization system performance allowed national program managers to monitor the key immunization indicators and stratify by high-risk and non-high-risk districts. Although only a single outcome indicator goal (at least 10% annual increase in DTP3 coverage achieved in 80% of high-risk districts) initially existed in the endgame strategy, we successfully added additional outcome indicators (eg, decreasing the number of DTP3-unvaccinated children) as well as program process indicators focusing on cold chain, stock availability, and vaccination sessions to better describe progress on the pathway to raising immunization coverage. When measuring progress toward improving immunization systems, it is helpful to use a comprehensive approach that allows for measuring multiple dimensions of the system. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Localization of determinants of fertility through measurement adaptations in developing-country settings: The case of Iran: Comment on "Analysis of economic determinants of fertility in Iran: a multilevel approach".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Studies investigating fertility decline in developing countries often adopt measures of determinants of fertility behavior developed based on observations from developed countries, without adapting them to the realities of the study setting. As a result, their findings are usually invalid, anomalous or statistically non-significant. This commentary draws on the research article by Moeeni and colleagues, as an exemplary work which has not adapted measures of two key economic determinants of fertility behavior, namely gender inequality and opportunity costs of childbearing, to the realities of Iran's economy. Measurement adaptations that can improve the study are discussed.

  20. Localization of Determinants of Fertility through Measurement Adaptations in Developing-Country Settings: The Case of Iran Comment on “Analysis of Economic Determinants of Fertility in Iran: A Multilevel Approach”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Erfani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies investigating fertility decline in developing countries often adopt measures of determinants of fertility behavior developed based on observations from developed countries, without adapting them to the realities of the study setting. As a result, their findings are usually invalid, anomalous or statistically non-significant. This commentary draws on the research article by Moeeni and colleagues, as an exemplary work which has not adapted measures of two key economic determinants of fertility behavior, namely gender inequality and opportunity costs of childbearing, to the realities of Iran’s economy. Measurement adaptations that can improve the study are discussed.

  1. Radiation safety practice at nuclear power stations and estimation of dose burdens to the USSR general public in the context of the country's nuclear power development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Il'in, L.A.; Turovskij, V.D.; Buldakov, L.A.; Lusev, N.G.; Pavlovskij, O.A.; Parkhomenko, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper sets forth the main features of the State system of health protection for staff and the general public, and likewise the essentials of environmental protection. The principles of standardizing radiation factors are given for power station personnel and for the general public, together with the main provisions of the health Standards and Rules for radiation protection at present valid in the USSR. Data are quoted on the radiation situation at nuclear power stations and on the size of releases of radioactive aerosols and liquid effluents to the environment. The paper pays particular attention to analyses of the radiation situation in districts where nuclear power stations are situated and also to the type and scope of monitoring of radioactive environmental contamination. An analysis of the coefficients achieved with Soviet pressurized water (WWER), high-power channel-type (RBMK) and fast (BN) reactors currently in large-scale use shows that in terms both of release levels of radioactive substances and of the dose burdens to staff and general public these reactors are comparable with the best foreign nuclear power installations. Values actually measured and values calculated for the basic parameters of the radiation situation in areas of the USSR where nuclear power stations are situated confirm the safety of these facilities as regards the health of the general public and the extremely low levels of their effects on the environment. In conclusion, the paper quotes estimates of the collective effective dose equivalent to the USSR population expected to result from implementation of the country's nuclear power programme up to the year 2000. Radiation safety problems associated with nuclear power production which still require solution are enumerated. (author)

  2. Eating at restaurants, at work or at home. Is there a difference? A study among adults of 11 European countries in the context of the HECTOR* project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, P; Naska, A; Rodrigues, S; Lopes, C; Freisling, H; Rohrmann, S; Sieri, S; Elmadfa, I; Lachat, C; Gedrich, K; Boeing, H; Katzke, V; Turrini, A; Tumino, R; Ricceri, F; Mattiello, A; Palli, D; Ocké, M; Engeset, D; Oltarzewski, M; Nilsson, L M; Key, T; Trichopoulou, A

    2017-03-01

    To compare macronutrient intakes out of home-by location-to those at home and to investigate differences in total daily intakes between individuals consuming more than half of their daily energy out of home and those eating only at home. Data collected through 24-h recalls or diaries among 23 766 European adults. Participants were grouped as 'non-substantial', 'intermediate' and 'very substantial out-of-home' eaters based on energy intake out of home. Mean macronutrient intakes were estimated at home and out of home (overall, at restaurants, at work). Study/cohort-specific mean differences in total intakes between the 'very substantial out-of-home' and the 'at-home' eaters were estimated through linear regression and pooled estimates were derived. At restaurants, men consumed 29% of their energy as fat, 15% as protein, 45% as carbohydrates and 11% as alcohol. Among women, fat contributed 33% of energy intake at restaurants, protein 16%, carbohydrates 45% and alcohol 6%. When eating at work, both sexes reported 30% of energy from fat and 55% from carbohydrates. Intakes at home were higher in fat and lower in carbohydrates and alcohol. Total daily intakes of the 'very substantial out-of-home' eaters were generally similar to those of individuals eating only at home, apart from lower carbohydrate and higher alcohol intakes among individuals eating at restaurants. In a large population of adults from 11 European countries, eating at work was generally similar to eating at home. Alcoholic drinks were the primary contributors of higher daily energy intakes among individuals eating substantially at restaurants.

  3. Growth recovery and faltering through early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: Determinants and implications for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew

    2017-04-01

    Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali; Sin, Shwe

    2014-01-01

    In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response "yes" to one or more of three questions, such as "Do you currently smoke cigarettes?" Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by 'svy' command. Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts.

  5. Passive Suicide Ideation Among Older Adults in Europe: A Multilevel Regression Analysis of Individual and Societal Determinants in 12 Countries (SHARE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Erwin; Fux, Beat; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Passive suicide ideation (PSI) is common among older adults, but prevalences have been reported to vary considerably across European countries. The goal of this study was to assess the role of individual-level risk factors and societal contextual factors associated with PSI in old age. We analyzed longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) on 6,791 community-dwelling respondents (75+) from 12 countries. Bayesian logistic multilevel regression models were used to assess variance components, individual-level and country-level risk factors. About 4% of the total variance of PSI was located at the country level, a third of which was attributable to compositional effects of individual-level predictors. Predictors for the development of PSI at the individual level were female gender, depression, older age, poor health, smaller social network size, loneliness, nonreligiosity, and low perceived control (R (2) = 25.8%). At the country level, cultural acceptance of suicide, religiosity, and intergenerational cohabitation were associated with the rates of PSI. Cross-national variation in old-age PSI is mostly attributable to individual-level determinants and compositional differences, but there is also evidence for contextual effects of country-level characteristics. Suicide prevention programs should be intensified in high-risk countries and attitudes toward suicide should be addressed in information campaigns. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008, Liberia (LDHS, 2007, Nigeria (NDHS, 2013 and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  7. The socioeconomic determinants of health: economic growth and health in the OECD countries during the last three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

    2014-01-08

    In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries' economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980-2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis.

  8. Tobacco use and its determinants in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in West African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Antoine; Ekouevi, Didier-Koumavi; Aboubakrine, Maiga; Bashi, Jules; Messou, Eugène; Maiga, Moussa; Traore, Hamar-Alassane; Zannou, Marcel; Guehi, Calixte; Ba-Gomis, Franck-Olivier; Minga, Albert; Allou, Gérard; Eholie, Serge-Paul; Dabis, Francois; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Sasco, Annie-Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Tobacco smoking is common in HIV-infected patients from industrialized countries. In West Africa, few data exist concerning tobacco consumption. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) network in West Africa. Health workers administered to patients receiving antiretroviral treatment a questionnaire assessing tobacco and cannabis consumption. Regular smokers were defined as present smokers who smoked >1 cigarette per day for ≥1 year. RESULTS Overall, 2920 patients were enrolled in three countries. The prevalence of ever smokers and present smokers were 46.2% (95% CI 42.8–49.5) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.2–18.0) in men and 3.7% (95% CI 2.9–4.5) and 0.6% (95% CI 0.3–0.9) in women, respectively. Regular smoking was associated being from Côte d’Ivoire or Mali compared to Benin (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.9–7.3 and 7.7; 95% CI 4.4–13.6), a severely impaired immunological status at HAART initiation (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1–2.2) and a history of tuberculosis (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–3.0). CONCLUSION Marked differences of smoking prevalence exist between these West African countries. This survey approach also provides evidences concerning the association between cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients, a major public health issue in this part of the world. PMID:19861019

  9. L'evasione in Italia e nei paesi OCSE: evidenze empiriche, determinanti ed effetti economici (Evasion in Italy and in OECD countries: empirical evidence, determinants and economic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARÈ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses evasion in terms of size and its main determinants, and discusses some of the measures to reduce its extension. Instead of attempting a new estimate of evasion, the author uses the many existing estimates and compares them, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. The available data on the underground economy and fiscal evasion in Italy and in major OECD countries is shown. Then, after recalling its effects on public budgets, the other economic effects of evasion are discussed. Some determinants of tax evasion, in particular those that appear most significant for our country, are then analysed. Finally, major issues of economic policy and measures to reduce tax evasion are discussed.JEL: H26

  10. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

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    Westert Gert P

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations between mortality and factors amenable to public health. These amenable factors included addictive and nutritional lifestyle, air quality, public health spending, healthcare coverage, and immunizations. Methods We used a pooled cross-sectional, time series analysis with corrected fixed effects regression models in an ecological design involving eighteen member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development during the period 1970 to 1999. Results Alcohol, tobacco, and fat consumption, and sometimes, air pollution were significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality and premature death. Immunizations, health care coverage, fruit/vegetable and protein consumption, and collective health expenditure had negative effects on mortality and premature death, even after controlling for the elderly, density of practicing physicians, doctor visits and per capita GDP. However, tobacco, air pollution, and fruit/vegetable intake were sometimes sensitive to adjustments. Conclusion Mortality and premature deaths could be improved by focusing on factors that are amenable to public health policies. Tackling these issues should be reflected in the ongoing assessments of health system performance.

  11. The Influence of After-Sales Service Determinants on Brand Loyalty Within the Premium Automotive Industry: An Empirical Comparison of Three Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hünecke; Marjaana Gunkel

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence of after-sales service determinants on brand loyalty in the premium automotive sector. Reflective and formative variables were measured using partial least-squares path modeling. The model was tested by telephone interviews among 1,500 automobile after-sales customers in three countries: France, Italy, and Spain. The results show that after-sales service satisfaction does not have a direct influence on brand loyalty; however, an indirect effect mediated by se...

  12. Who Cares for the Poor in Europe? Micro and Macro Determinants for Alleviating Poverty in 15 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Peer; Grotenhuis, Manfred te

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to answer research questions on people’s willingness to donate money to help alleviate poverty. First, what are the individual (or micro) determinants and state-level (macro) determinants of welfare states that influence people’s willingness to donate money to the poor?

  13. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  14. Social Determinants of Health and Tobacco Use in Five Low and Middle-Income Countries - Results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), 2011 - 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Guat Hiong; Aris, Tahir; Rarick, James; Irimie, Sorina

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco consumption continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths globally. The objective of this study was to examine the associaton of selected socio-demographic variables with current tobacco use in five countries that participated in the Phase II Global Adult Tobacco Survey in 2011 - 2012. We analysed internationally comparable representative household survey data from 33,482 respondents aged ≥ 15 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Argentina and Nigeria for determinants of tobacco use within each country. Socio-demographic variables analysed included gender, age, residency, education, wealth index and awareness of smoking health consequences. Current tobacco use was defined as smoking or use of smokeless tobacco daily or occasionally. The overall prevalence of tobacco use varied from 5.5% in Nigeria to 35.7% in Indonesia and was significantly higher among males than females in all five countries. Odds ratios for current tobacco use were significantly higher among males for all countries [with the greatest odds among Indonesian men (OR=67.4, 95% CI: 51.2-88.7)] and among urban dwellers in Romania. The odds of current tobacco use decreased as age increased for all countries except Nigeria where. The reverse was true for Argentina and Nigeria. Significant trends for decreasing tobacco use with increasing educational levels and wealth index were seen in Indonesia, Malaysia and Romania. Significant negative associations between current tobacco use and awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking were found in all countries except Argentina. Males and the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are at the greatest risk of tobacco use. Tobacco control interventions maybe tailored to this segment of population and incorporate educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse health consequences of smoking.

  15. The Socioeconomic Determinants of Health: Economic Growth and Health in the OECD Countries during the Last Three Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem López-Casasnovas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI, against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries’ economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality, and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980–2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis.

  16. The Socioeconomic Determinants of Health: Economic Growth and Health in the OECD Countries during the Last Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries’ economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980–2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis. PMID:24406664

  17. Monitoring fever treatment behaviour and equitable access to effective medicines in the context of initiatives to improve ACT access: baseline results and implications for programming in six African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT remains limited in high malaria-burden countries, and there are concerns that the poorest people are particularly disadvantaged. This paper presents new evidence on household treatment-seeking behaviour in six African countries. These data provide a baseline for monitoring interventions to increase ACT coverage, such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm. Methods Nationally representative household surveys were conducted in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia between 2008 and 2010. Caregivers responded to questions about management of recent fevers in children under five. Treatment indicators were tabulated across countries, and differences in case management provided by the public versus private sector were examined using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to test for association between socioeconomic status and 1 malaria blood testing, and 2 ACT treatment. Results Fever treatment with an ACT is low in Benin (10%, the DRC (5%, Madagascar (3% and Nigeria (5%, but higher in Uganda (21% and Zambia (21%. The wealthiest children are significantly more likely to receive ACT compared to the poorest children in Benin (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.12-6.42; the DRC (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.12-4.24; Madagascar (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.58-18.24; and Nigeria (OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 2.73-15.89. Most caregivers seek treatment outside of the home, and private sector outlets are commonly the sole external source of treatment (except in Zambia. However, children treated in the public sector are significantly more likely to receive ACT treatment than those treated in the private sector (except in Madagascar. Nonetheless, levels of testing and ACT treatment in the public sector are low. Few caregivers name the national first-line drug as most effective for treating malaria in Madagascar (2%, the DRC (2%, Nigeria (4% and Benin (10

  18. The financial determinants of corporate cash holdings in an oil rich country: Evidence from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muncef Guizani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of the cash holdings for a sample of Saudi firms over the period 2006–2014, using static and dynamic panel models. Our results show that leverage, firm size, capital expenditure, net working capital and cash flow volatility are important in determining cash holdings. When we divide our sample into two sub-samples: petrochemical and non-petrochemical firms, our results show a significant difference between the determinants of cash holdings of the two groups of firms. We also investigate the characteristics of high liquid firms (conservative firms. The results indicate that conservative firms are less leveraged, have large size, have low investment expenditures and have low cash flow fluctuation. Furthermore, dynamic panel estimation indicates that Saudi firms adjust their liquidity holdings quickly towards an endogenous target cash ratio.

  19. Autonomy and self-determination theory in different contexts: A comparison of middle school science teachers' motivation and instruction in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura Elizabeth

    This study examined factors that contribute to Chinese and United States middle school science teachers' perceptions of autonomy support. Autonomy is one component of self-determination theory and has been associated with intrinsic motivation. The study used a mixed methods design including quantitative data collected through an online survey and qualitative data collected through open-ended interview questions. The online survey consisted of four assessments related to teachers' self-determination, perceptions of constraints at work, perceptions of students' self-determination, and level of autonomy support for students and allowed for the testing of the structural model developed by Pelletier, Seguin-Levesque, and Legault (2002). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of responses for the combined teacher sample (n=201) was carried out for each of the survey assessments. Significance testing for Chinese (n=107) and U.S. (n=94) teachers, based on the factors resulting from EFA, revealed significant differences in teachers' self-determination and perceptions of constraints at work. No significant differences were found for teachers' perceptions of students' self-determination or level of autonomy support for students. Multiple regression was used to predict teachers' autonomy support for students. For the Chinese teachers, perceptions of constraints at work, teachers' self-determination, and teachers' perceptions of student motivation were found to significantly predict teachers' autonomy support. For the U.S. teachers, teacher motivation was the only significant predictor of teachers' autonomy support. A sub-sample of the Chinese and U.S. science teachers (n=19) were interviewed about their perceived levels of autonomy support, constraints at work, and their students' self determination. The analyses of the interviews showed that teachers in both countries reported that autonomy was important to their motivation and the quality of instruction they provided to students

  20. Effects of an intervention with teachers in the physical education context: A Self-Determination Theory approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sánchez-Oliva

    Full Text Available Framed within Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of the present study was to test the effects of a training program with physical education (PE teachers. Participants were 21 high school PE teachers (experimental group, n = 10; control group, n = 11, and their 836 students, aged 12 to 16 years. Teachers in the experimental group received a training program consisting of strategies to support autonomy, competence, and relatedness need satisfaction. A repeated measures ANCOVA was carried out for each dependent variable. After the intervention, students in the experimental group significantly increased their scores on autonomy support, relatedness support, autonomy satisfaction, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and intention to be physically active, as compared to the control group. These findings emphasize the utility of a training program with PE teachers to promote the students' psychological need satisfaction, and hence, self-determined motivation toward PE classes.

  1. Robust analysis of the determinants of healthcare expenditure growth: evidence from panel data for low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younsi, Moheddine; Chakroun, Mohamed; Nafla, Amine

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the determinants of healthcare expenditure for low-, middle- and high-income countries, and it quantifies their influences in order to assess policies for achieving universal health coverage. We elaborate two models, a fixed-effect model and the dynamic panel model, to estimate the factors associated with the total health expenditure growth as well as its major components for 167 countries over the period of 1993-2013. The panel data on total health expenditure per capita and its components were taken from the World Development Indicators. Overall, our results showed that total health expenditure per capita is rising in all countries over time as a result of rising incomes. However, our estimates showed that the income elasticity of health expenditure ranged from 0.75 to 0.96 in the fixed-effect static panel model, while in the dynamic panel model, it was smaller and ranged from 0.16 to 0.47. Our empirical findings indicate that development assistance for health reduced government domestic spending on health but increased total government health spending. Our results also indicate that the trend in health expenditure growth is significantly depending with the country's economic development. In addition, out-of-pocket expenditure is powerfully influenced by a country's capacity to increase general government revenues and social insurance contributions. Knowledge of factors associated to health expenditure might help policy makers to make wise judgments, plan health reforms and allocate resources efficiently. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Detection of Campylobacter in Stool and Determination of Significance by Culture, Enzyme Immunoassay, and PCR in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H.; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T.; Fox, James G.; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P < 0.001) but not in Tanzania (OR = 1.56, P = 0.24) or Bangladesh (OR = 1.13, P = 0.75). According to PCR, Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level. PMID:24452175

  3. Determinants of information behaviour and information literacy related to healthy eating among Internet users in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedźwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were gr...... literacy of the information-poor, men, the uneducated, and the economically disadvantaged.......Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were...... grouped by age and sex (n=3003, age +16) in Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, and the UK. Analysis. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyse the influence of social, demographic, psychological and economic characteristics on the information seeking of the respondents. Results...

  4. COUNTRY IMAGE VS. COUNTRY BRAND: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Adriana COTÎRLEA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in order to provide an overview regarding the differences and similarities regarding two congruent, yet different concepts: country brand and country image. The geopolitical context and, implicitly, the current global context require a redefinition – or a more complex circumscription – of the “country image” and “country branding” concepts. In this paper, the author aimed to highlight the characteristics and particularities of the approached concepts in order to shape a framework of the context within these two operate; a brief analysis of the literature is presented, trying to emphasize the slight difference between the approached concepts

  5. Father’s and their children`s life goals in the context of Self-Determination Theory

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    Ewa Wojtowicz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the similarities and differences in goals valuation in father’s and children’s life. According to the motivative Self-Determination Theory (Deci, Ryan, 2000 the aspirations were divided into two groups: external goals (i.e. finance, power, fame and internal goals (i.e. affiliation and prosocial goals. The results suggest that teens, unlike their fathers, estimate higher affiliation goals. The report also shows (in both groups relations between three categories of goals: prosocial, close relationships and self- acceptance.

  6. Determination Of Uranium Concentration In Teeth Female Samples Using Fission Tracks In CR-39 From Different Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummadi, S.S

    2010-01-01

    The present study was under taken to measure the uranium concentration in female teeth samples collected from different nationalities.The determination of uranium concentration in these samples has been done by using CR-39 track detector.The nuclear reaction is used as a source of nuclear fission fragments is (n, f) obtained by the bombardment of U-235 with thermal neutrons with flux (5*10 3 n/cm 2 .s) was used from (Am-Be) neutron source.The obtained results show the concentration is ranging from (0.58±0.7ppm) in Oman and Uae to (0.35±0.03ppm)in Iraqi for male, the uranium concentration was the highest in Oman and Uae for female

  7. 'I am treated well if I adhere to my HIV medication': putting patient-provider interactions in context through insights from qualitative research in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondenge, Ken; Renju, Jenny; Bonnington, Oliver; Moshabela, Mosa; Wamoyi, Joyce; Nyamukapa, Constance; Seeley, Janet; Wringe, Alison; Skovdal, Morten

    2017-07-01

    The nature of patient-provider interactions and communication is widely documented to significantly impact on patient experiences, treatment adherence and health outcomes. Yet little is known about the broader contextual factors and dynamics that shape patient-provider interactions in high HIV prevalence and limited-resource settings. Drawing on qualitative research from five sub-Saharan African countries, we seek to unpack local dynamics that serve to hinder or facilitate productive patient-provider interactions. This qualitative study, conducted in Kisumu (Kenya), Kisesa (Tanzania), Manicaland (Zimbabwe), Karonga (Malawi) and uMkhanyakude (South Africa), draws upon 278 in-depth interviews with purposively sampled people living with HIV with different diagnosis and treatment histories, 29 family members of people who died due to HIV and 38 HIV healthcare workers. Data were collected using topic guides that explored patient testing and antiretroviral therapy treatment journeys. Thematic analysis was conducted, aided by NVivo V.8.0 software. Our analysis revealed an array of inter-related contextual factors and power dynamics shaping patient-provider interactions. These included (1) participants' perceptions of roles and identities of 'self' and 'other'; (2) conformity or resistance to the 'rules of HIV service engagement' and a 'patient-persona'; (3) the influence of significant others' views on service provision; and (4) resources in health services. We observed that these four factors/dynamics were located in the wider context of conceptualisations of power, autonomy and structure. Patient-provider interaction is complex, multidimensional and deeply embedded in wider social dynamics. Multiple contextual domains shape patient-provider interactions in the context of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions to improve patient experiences and treatment adherence through enhanced interactions need to go beyond the existing focus on patient-provider communication

  8. Coverage and Influencing Determinants of Influenza Vaccination in Elderly Patients in a Country with a Poor Vaccination Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ganczak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal influenza vaccination uptake of the elderly in Poland is one of the lowest in Europe. Objective: to assess the vaccination coverage and influencing determinants in patients ≥65 years of age. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted (November 2015–April 2016 among consecutive patients admitted to a municipal hospital located in the city of Szczecin, North-west Poland. Patients completed researcher-administered, anonymous questionnaires on socio- demographic data/factors related to the vaccination. Results: The response rate: 92.0%. Among 230 patients (79.6% women, median of age 69 years, range 65–89 who agreed to participate, 34.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 28.6–41.0% were vaccinated. About 15.7% of respondents had not previously heard about the vaccination; 41.3% of those who stated they were vaccinated or planned on being vaccinated the following year, compared to 19.3% of respondents who stated they were not currently vaccinated (p < 0.001. A multivariable regression analysis revealed that patient factors, such as younger age (Odds Ratio, OR = 7.69, living in the urban area (OR = 7.69, having comorbidities (OR = 2.70, having a vaccinated family member (OR = 3.57, and being informed about vaccination (OR = 5.00 were each associated with greater odds of being immunized. Willingness for vaccination the next year was strongly associated (OR = 8.59 with vaccination status. Conclusions: The influenza vaccination uptake in the elderly population in Poland is disturbingly low. Improved education strategies are needed to increase the uptake. Vaccinated respondents are more likely to plan on being vaccinated the following year. Future interventions related to maximizing vaccination coverage should be more tailored, focusing especially on older patients living in rural areas.

  9. Determinants of prenatal care use: evidence from 32 low-income countries across Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliani, Harminder; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Serieux, John

    2014-08-01

    While much has been written on the determinants of prenatal care attendance in low-income countries, comparatively little is known about the determinants of the frequency of prenatal visits in general and whether there are separate processes generating the decisions to use prenatal care and the frequency of use. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys data for 32 low-income countries (across Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America) and appropriate two-part and multilevel models, this article empirically assesses the influence of a wide array of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics on a woman's decision to use prenatal care and the frequency of that use, while controlling for unobserved community level factors. The results suggest that, though both the decision to use care and the number of prenatal visits are influenced by a range of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics, the influence of these determinants vary in magnitude for prenatal care attendance and the frequency of prenatal visits. Despite remarkable consistency among regions in the association of individual, household and community indicators with prenatal care utilization, the estimated coefficients of the risk factors vary greatly across the three world regions. The strong influence of household wealth, education and regional poverty on the use of prenatal care suggests that safe motherhood programmes should be linked with the objectives of social development programmes such as poverty reduction, enhancing the status of women and increasing primary and secondary school enrolment rate among girls. Finally, the finding that teenage mothers and unmarried women and those with unintended pregnancies are less likely to use prenatal care and have fewer visits suggests that safe mother programmes need to pay particular attention to the disadvantaged and vulnerable subgroups of population whose reproductive health issues are often fraught with

  10. How do psychosocial determinants in migrant women in the Netherlands differ from these among their counterparts in their country of origin? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierkens, Vera; van der Ploeg, Maya V; van Eer, Marja Y; Stronks, Karien

    2011-05-26

    Migration of non-Western women into Western countries often results in an increase in smoking prevalence among migrant women. To gain more insight into how to prevent this increase, we compared psychosocial determinants of smoking between Surinamese women in Suriname and those in the Netherlands. Data were obtained between 2000 and 2004 from two cross-sectional studies, the CVRFO study in Suriname (n = 702) and the SUNSET study in the Netherlands (n = 674). For analyses of determinants, we collected additional data in CVRFO study population (n = 85). Differences between the two groups were analysed by chi-square analyses and logistic regression analyses. As was found in other studies among migrant women, more Surinamese migrant women in the Netherlands smoked (31%) than women in Suriname (16%). More Surinamese women in the Netherlands than in Suriname had a positive affective and cognitive attitude towards smoking (OR = 2.6 (95%CI 1.05;6.39) and OR = 3.3 (95%CI 1.31;8.41)). They perceived a positive norm within their partners and friends regarding smoking more frequently (OR = 6.5 (95%CI 2.7;15.6) and OR = 3.3 (95%CI 1.50;7.25)). Migrant women are more positive towards smoking and perceived a more positive norm towards smoking when compared with women in the country of origin. Interventions targeted at the psychosocial determinants regarding smoking for newly migrated women, in particular the consequences of smoking and the norm towards smoking might help to prevent an increase in smoking in those populations.

  11. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beníšek, Martin; Kukučka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Luděk

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22μg (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    between the national priorities and the structural challenges, highlighting the latest developments, their dynamics and impact in the overall national context. They further analyse and assess the ability of the policy mix in place to consistently and efficiently tackle these challenges. These reports were......This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess...... the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...

  13. Cognitive-Motivational Determinants of Residents’ Civic Engagement and Health (Inequities in the Context of Noise Action Planning: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Riedel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Noise Directive expects residents to be actively involved in localising and selecting noise abatement interventions during the noise action planning process. Its intervention impact is meant to be homogeneous across population groups. Against the background of social heterogeneity and environmental disparities, however, the impact of noise action planning on exposure to traffic-related noise and its health effects is unlikely to follow homogenous distributions. Until now, there has been no study evaluating the impact of noise action measures on the social distribution of traffic-related noise exposure and health outcomes. We develop a conceptual (logic model on cognitive-motivational determinants of residents’ civic engagement and health (inequities by integrating arguments from the Model on household’s Vulnerability to the local Environment, the learned helplessness model in environmental psychology, the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress, and the reserve capacity model. Specifically, we derive four hypothetical patterns of cognitive-motivational determinants yielding different levels of sustained physiological activation and expectancies of civic engagement. These patterns may help us understand why health inequities arise in the context of noise action planning and learn how to transform noise action planning into an instrument conducive to health equity. While building on existing frameworks, our conceptual model will be tested empirically in the next stage of our research process.

  14. Cognitive-Motivational Determinants of Residents' Civic Engagement and Health (Inequities) in the Context of Noise Action Planning: A Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Natalie; van Kamp, Irene; Köckler, Heike; Scheiner, Joachim; Loerbroks, Adrian; Claßen, Thomas; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-05-30

    The Environmental Noise Directive expects residents to be actively involved in localising and selecting noise abatement interventions during the noise action planning process. Its intervention impact is meant to be homogeneous across population groups. Against the background of social heterogeneity and environmental disparities, however, the impact of noise action planning on exposure to traffic-related noise and its health effects is unlikely to follow homogenous distributions. Until now, there has been no study evaluating the impact of noise action measures on the social distribution of traffic-related noise exposure and health outcomes. We develop a conceptual (logic) model on cognitive-motivational determinants of residents' civic engagement and health (inequities) by integrating arguments from the Model on household's Vulnerability to the local Environment, the learned helplessness model in environmental psychology, the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress, and the reserve capacity model. Specifically, we derive four hypothetical patterns of cognitive-motivational determinants yielding different levels of sustained physiological activation and expectancies of civic engagement. These patterns may help us understand why health inequities arise in the context of noise action planning and learn how to transform noise action planning into an instrument conducive to health equity. While building on existing frameworks, our conceptual model will be tested empirically in the next stage of our research process.

  15. Moving forward monitoring of the social determinants of health in a country: lessons from England 5 years after the Marmot Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    England has a long history of government-commissioned reviews of national inequalities. The latest review, the Marmot Review, was commissioned by a government headed by the same party (the Labour Party) that had introduced the National Health Service in 1948, but the review was implemented by a coalition of different parties (Conservatives and Liberal Democrats). At the same time, a government reform of health services took place, and the monitoring of the existing inequality strategy was changed. This paper examines the lessons that can be learned about indicators for monitoring social determinants of health inequalities from the Marmot Review and recent health inequality strategies in England. The paper provides a narrative review of key findings on the collection, presentation, and analysis of routine data in England in the past 5 years, comparing what has been learned from the Marmot Review and other evaluations of the first health inequality strategy in England. The emphasis on monitoring has progressively shifted from monitoring a small number of targets and supporting information to frameworks that monitor across a wide range of determinants of both the causes of ill-health and of health service performance. As these frameworks become ever larger, some consideration is being given to the key indicators. Although the frameworks used in England for monitoring health inequality strategies have developed considerably since the first strategy began, lessons continue to be learned about how monitoring could be improved. Many of these are applicable to countries initiating or reviewing their strategies.

  16. Strengthening capacity to research the social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries: lessons from the INTREC programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Nicholas; Mirny, Anna; Haafkens, Joke A; Ramroth, Heribert; Padmawati, Siwi; Bangha, Martin; Berkman, Lisa; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Blomstedt, Yulia; Becher, Heiko; Sankoh, Osman; Byass, Peter; Kinsman, John

    2017-05-25

    The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC) collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH) research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1) an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2) a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3) a 1-week data analysis workshop. This report aims to summarise the student evaluations of the pilot and to suggest key lessons for future approaches to strengthen SDH research capacity in LMICs. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 24 students from 9 countries in Africa and Asia were used to evaluate each teaching block. Information was collected about the students' motivation and interest in studying SDH, any challenges they faced during the consecutive teaching blocks, and suggestions they had for future courses on SDH. Of the 24 students who began the programme, 13 (54%) completed all training activities. The students recognised the need for such a course and its potential to improve their skills as health researchers. The main challenges with the online course were time management, prior knowledge and skills required to participate in the course, and the need to get feedback from teaching staff throughout the learning process. All students found the face-to-face workshops to be of high quality and value for their work, because they offered an opportunity to clarify SDH concepts taught during the online course and to gain practical research skills. After the final teaching block, students felt they had improved their data analysis skills and were better able to develop research proposals, scientific manuscripts, and policy briefs. The INTREC programme has trained a

  17. Strengthening capacity to research the social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries: lessons from the INTREC programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Henschke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1 an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2 a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3 a 1-week data analysis workshop. This report aims to summarise the student evaluations of the pilot and to suggest key lessons for future approaches to strengthen SDH research capacity in LMICs. Methods Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 24 students from 9 countries in Africa and Asia were used to evaluate each teaching block. Information was collected about the students’ motivation and interest in studying SDH, any challenges they faced during the consecutive teaching blocks, and suggestions they had for future courses on SDH. Results Of the 24 students who began the programme, 13 (54% completed all training activities. The students recognised the need for such a course and its potential to improve their skills as health researchers. The main challenges with the online course were time management, prior knowledge and skills required to participate in the course, and the need to get feedback from teaching staff throughout the learning process. All students found the face-to-face workshops to be of high quality and value for their work, because they offered an opportunity to clarify SDH concepts taught during the online course and to gain practical research skills. After the final teaching block, students felt they had improved their data analysis skills and were better able to develop research proposals, scientific manuscripts, and policy

  18. Social determinants of sex differences in disability among older adults: a multi-country decomposition analysis using the World Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpoor Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Women represent a growing proportion of older people and experience increasing disability in their longer lives. Using a universally agreed definition of disability based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, this paper examines how, apart from age, social and economic factors contribute to disability differences between older men and women. Methods World Health Survey data were analyzed from 57 countries drawn from all income groups defined by the World Bank. The final sample comprises 63638 respondents aged 50 and older (28568 males and 35070 females. Item Response Theory was applied to derive a measure of disability which ensured cross country comparability. Individuals with scores at or above a threshold score were those who experienced significant difficulty in their everyday lives, irrespective of the underlying etiology. The population was then divided into “disabled” vs. “not disabled”. We firstly computed disability prevalence for males and females by socio-demographic factors, secondly used multiple logistic regression to estimate the adjusted effects of each social determinant on disability for males and females, and thirdly used a variant of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique to partition the measured inequality in disability between males and females into the “explained” part that arises because of differences between males and females in terms of age and social and economic characteristics, and an “unexplained” part attributed to the differential effects of these characteristics. Results Prevalence of disability among women compared with men aged 50+ years was 40.1% vs. 23.8%. Lower levels of education and economic status are associated with disability in women and men. Approximately 45% of the sex inequality in disability can be attributed to differences in the distribution of socio-demographic factors. Approximately 55% of the inequality results

  19. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  20. IMMIGRATION GROWTH TENDENCIES IN OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran SARIHASAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigration became one of the relevant economic topics in recent years. Over the centuries millions of people have migrated, despite the physical, cultural etc. obstacles, to other lands in search of better lives for themselves and their children. In the context of development, globalization and labor market mobility, it is necessary to further analyze the determinants and consequences of migration not only on the host country, but also on the sending country. The increased interest and availability of data keeps this subject in the attention of economists all over the world. In this case an increase in immigration became very significant ıssue for policymakers. The aims of this study are to describe immigration growth tendencies and to answer how much is the average growth rate of foreıgn born population. Thus, in order to measure the native and foreign-born unemployed migrants, twenty-seven OECD countries were used in this research paper.

  1. Going beyond the surface: gendered intra-household bargaining as a social determinant of child health and nutrition in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Esther; Theobald, Sally; George, Asha; Kim, Julia C; Rudert, Christiane; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    A growing body of research highlights the importance of gendered social determinants of child health, such as maternal education and women's status, for mediating child survival. This narrative review of evidence from diverse low and middle-income contexts (covering the period 1970-May 2012) examines the significance of intra-household bargaining power and process as gendered dimensions of child health and nutrition. The findings focus on two main elements of bargaining: the role of women's decision-making power and access to and control over resources; and the importance of household headship, structure and composition. The paper discusses the implications of these findings in the light of lifecycle and intersectional approaches to gender and health. The relative lack of published intervention studies that explicitly consider gendered intra-household bargaining is highlighted. Given the complex mechanisms through which intra-household bargaining shapes child health and nutrition it is critical that efforts to address gender in health and nutrition programming are thoroughly documented and widely shared to promote further learning and action. There is scope to develop links between gender equity initiatives in areas of adult and adolescent health, and child health and nutrition programming. Child health and nutrition interventions will be more effective, equitable and sustainable if they are designed based on gender-sensitive information and continually evaluated from a gender perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health Inequalities in Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckfield, Jason; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2017-01-01

    The existence of social inequalities in health is well established. One strand of research focuses on inequalities in health within a single country. A separate and newer strand of research focuses on the relationship between inequality and average population health across countries. Despite the theorization of (presumably variable) social conditions as “fundamental causes” of disease and health, the cross-national literature has focused on average, aggregate population health as the central outcome. Controversies currently surround macro-structural determinants of overall population health such as income inequality. We advance and redirect these debates by conceptualizing inequalities in health as cross-national variables that are sensitive to social conditions. Using data from 48 World Values Survey countries, representing 74% of the world’s population, we examine cross-national variation in inequalities in health. The results reveal substantial variation in health inequalities according to income, education, sex, and migrant status. While higher socioeconomic position is associated with better self-rated health around the globe, the size of the association varies across institutional context, and across dimensions of stratification. There is some evidence that education and income are more strongly associated with self-rated health than sex or migrant status. PMID:29104292

  3. Variations and Determinants of Mortality and Length of Stay of Very Low Birth Weight and Very Low for Gestational Age Infants in Seven European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatttore, Giovanni; Numerato, Dino; Peltola, Mikko; Banks, Helen; Graziani, Rebecca; Heijink, Richard; Over, Eelco; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Fletcher, Eilidh; Mihalicza, Péter; Sveréus, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    The EuroHOPE very low birth weight and very low for gestational age infants study aimed to measure and explain variation in mortality and length of stay (LoS) in the populations of seven European nations (Finland, Hungary, Italy (only the province of Rome), the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland and Sweden). Data were linked from birth, hospital discharge and mortality registries. For each infant basic clinical and demographic information, infant mortality and LoS at 1 year were retrieved. In addition, socio-economic variables at the regional level were used. Results based on 16,087 infants confirm that gestational age and Apgar score at 5 min are important determinants of both mortality and LoS. In most countries, infants admitted or transferred to third-level hospitals showed lower probability of death and longer LoS. In the meta-analyses, the combined estimates show that being male, multiple births, presence of malformations, per capita income and low population density are significant risk factors for death. It is essential that national policies improve the quality of administrative datasets and address systemic problems in assigning identification numbers at birth. European policy should aim at improving the comparability of data across jurisdictions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Moving forward monitoring of the social determinants of health in a country: lessons from England 5 years after the Marmot Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O. Goldblatt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: England has a long history of government-commissioned reviews of national inequalities. The latest review, the Marmot Review, was commissioned by a government headed by the same party (the Labour Party that had introduced the National Health Service in 1948, but the review was implemented by a coalition of different parties (Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. At the same time, a government reform of health services took place, and the monitoring of the existing inequality strategy was changed. Objectives: This paper examines the lessons that can be learned about indicators for monitoring social determinants of health inequalities from the Marmot Review and recent health inequality strategies in England. Design: The paper provides a narrative review of key findings on the collection, presentation, and analysis of routine data in England in the past 5 years, comparing what has been learned from the Marmot Review and other evaluations of the first health inequality strategy in England. Results: The emphasis on monitoring has progressively shifted from monitoring a small number of targets and supporting information to frameworks that monitor across a wide range of determinants of both the causes of ill-health and of health service performance. As these frameworks become ever larger, some consideration is being given to the key indicators. Conclusions: Although the frameworks used in England for monitoring health inequality strategies have developed considerably since the first strategy began, lessons continue to be learned about how monitoring could be improved. Many of these are applicable to countries initiating or reviewing their strategies.

  5. Context in a wider context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Traxler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to review and reconsider the role of context in mobile learning and starts by outlining definitions of context-aware mobile learning as the technologies have become more mature, more robust and more widely available and as the notion of context has become progressively richer. The future role of context-aware mobile learning is considered within the context of the future of mobile learning as it moves from the challenges and opportunities of pedagogy and technology to the challenges and opportunities of policy, scale, sustainability, equity and engagement with augmented reality, «blended learning», «learner devices», «user-generated contexts» and the «internet of things». This is essentially a perspective on mobile learning, and other forms of technology-enhanced learning (TEL, where educators and their institutions set the agenda and manage change. There are, however, other perspectives on context. The increasing availability and use of smart-phones and other personal mobile devices with similar powerful functionality means that the experience of context for many people, in the form of personalized or location-based services, is an increasingly social and informal experience, rather than a specialist or educational experience. This is part of the transformative impact of mobility and connectedness on our societies brought about by these universal, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies. This paper contributes a revised understanding of context in the wider context (sic of the transformations taking place in our societies. These are subtle but pervasive transformations of jobs, work and the economy, of our sense of time, space and place, of knowing and learning, and of community and identity. This leads to a radical reconsideration of context as the notions of ‹self› and ‹other› are transformed.

  6. The Effect of Context-Based Chemical Equilibrium on Grade 11 Students' Learning, Motivation and Constructivist Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ilhan, Nail; Yildirim, Ali; Yilmaz, Sibel Sadi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many countries have adopted a context-based approach for designing science curricula for education at all levels. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Context-Based Chemistry Course (CBCC) as compared with traditional/existing instruction, on 11th grade students' learning about chemical equilibrium,…

  7. Tales From Two Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Place branding has become popular. Places brand themselves to attract tourists, talented foreign workers, investments and businesses. The brand accentuates the positive characteristics of the place; it frames the society and sells its cultures. In the context of tourism, this paper examines...... to present a prevailing reality. To the Danes, the brand is descriptive and should portray the country in a positive and accurate manner. To the Singaporeans, the brand is normative and a vision of what Singaporean society ought to become. These countries share common goals when branding themselves...

  8. A Review of the Relationships among the Key Determinants Affecting the Mental Health Disorders of the People in Greater Mekong Subregion Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nget, Manndy; Muijeen, Kasorn

    2017-12-01

    ASEAN integration aims to transform the GMS into a single market with free flows of products, services, and skilled labor, as well as investment openness, which will ultimately force regional economic growth. Therefore, this integration is likely to bring about a big change to this area in the new era; it can subsequently cause many problems as well, including mental health issues of the people in this region. The characteristic differences among the GMS member countries in terms of trade and investment, so-cial and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major problems affecting mental health disorders, which are usually identified as depression, stress, and substance abuse. This review paper is a literature review of the relationship of the determinants affecting GMS mental disorders conducted using the following strategies: 1) collecting data from previous qualitative and quantitative research studies, com-paratively analyzing the literature, articles, published papers, and reports relevant to the existing policies on economic, environmental, and healthcare issues obtained from the GMS; and 2) exchanging information from the institutions involved, including reports and papers regarding the determinants affecting mental health disorders of the people in the GMS, which were used to generate the synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and to provide recommenda-tion programs for the GMS people. Based on the reviewed literature there are four key factors affecting mental health, especially mental health in GMS populations: 1) the living and work environments; 2) trade and investment; 3) technology and medical information; and 4) social and cultural values. The study found that the increasing number of mental health dis-orders is a big burden for national healthcare spending. Financial issues have become a major key to the wide prevalence of mental disorders in the GMS. Health issues

  9. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  10. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  11. Affordability of adult HIV/AIDS treatment in developing countries: modelling price determinants for a better insight of the market functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Singh, Sauman; Dongmo-Nguimfack, Boniface; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide a landscape of the global antiretroviral (ARV) market by analyzing the transactional data on donor-funded ARV procurement between 2003 and 2015, and the ARV price determinants. The data were obtained from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism (GPRM) managed by the AIDS Medicines and Diagnostics Service of the WHO, and it consists of information that covers approximately 80% of the total donor-funded adult ARV transactions procurement. ExWorks prices and procured quantities were standardized according to the guidelines in terms of yearly doses. Descriptive statistics on quantities and prices show the main trends of the ARV market. Ordinary least squares estimation was carried out for the whole sample, then stratified according to the type of supplier (originator and generic) and controlled for time and geographical fixed-effects. Given that analyses were carried out on a public dataset on ARV transactional prices from the GPRM, ethics are respected and consent was not necessary. Originator medicines are on average the least expensive in the sub-Saharan Africa region, where at the same time, generic medicines are on average the most expensive. By contrast, originator medicines are the most expensive in Europe and Central Asia, and generic medicines are the least expensive. In fact, the data suggest mixed strategies by ARV suppliers to exploit opportunities for profit maximization and to adapt to the specific conditions of market competition in each region. Our results also suggest that the expiration of patents is not sufficient to boost additional developments in generic competition (at least in the ARV market) and that formal or informal agreements between generic firms may de facto slow down or even reverse long-term trends towards price decreases. Our findings provide an improved understanding of the ARV market that can help countries strengthen policy measures to increase their bargaining power in price negotiations and the use of TRIPS

  12. Determinants and prevalence of e-cigarette use throughout the European Union: a secondary analysis of 26 566 youth and adults from 27 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of e-cigarette use among persons aged ≥15 years in 27 European Union (EU) member countries during 2012. The 2012 Eurobarometer 385 (77.1) survey was analysed for n=26 566 respondents. Knowledge, perception of harm, and determinants of e-cigarettes use were assessed, while separate regression analyses among current (n=7352) and former cigarette smokers (n=5782) were performed. National estimates of the number of e-cigarette users were also extrapolated. 20.3% of current smokers, 4.7% of ex-smokers, and 1.2% of never cigarette smokers in the EU reported having ever used an e-cigarette (overall approximately 29.3 million adults). Among smokers, ever e-cigarette use was more likely among 15-24-year-olds (aOR 3.13, 95% CI 2.22 to 4.54) and 25-39-year-olds (aOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.78) in comparison to older smokers, and among those who smoked 6-10 cigarettes/day (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.13) or 11-20 cigarettes/day (aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.81) in comparison to very light smokers (≤5 cigarettes/day). Moreover, e-cigarette use was more likely among smokers who had made a past year quit attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.58). E-cigarette use among ex-smokers was associated only with the respondents' age, with younger ex-smokers being more likely to have ever used an e-cigarette. A substantial number of EU adults have ever used e-cigarettes. Ever users were more likely to be younger, current smokers, or past-year quit attempters. These findings underscore the need to evaluate the potential long term impact of e-cigarette use on consumer health, cessation and nicotine addiction and formulate a European framework for e-cigarette regulation within the revised EU Tobacco Product Directive. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana; Bucher, Sherri; Pusdekar, Yamini; Esamai, Fabian; Krebs, Nancy F; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Chomba, Elwyn; Garces, Ana; Pasha, Omrana; Saleem, Sarah; Kodkany, Bhalachandra S; Liechty, Edward A; Kodkany, Bhala; Derman, Richard J; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hambidge, K; Goldenberg, Robert L; Althabe, Fernando; Berrueta, Mabel; Moore, Janet L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Hibberd, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age confers many health benefits for infants; both are crucial high impact, low-cost interventions. However, determining accurate global rates of these crucial activities has been challenging. We use population-based data to describe: (1) rates of early initiation of breastfeeding (defined as within 1 hour of birth) and of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum; and (2) factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Prospectively collected data from women and their live-born infants enrolled in the Global Network's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013 included women-infant dyads in 106 geographic areas (clusters) at 7 research sites in 6 countries (Kenya, Zambia, India [2 sites], Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala). Rates and risk factors for failure to initiate early breastfeeding were investigated for the entire cohort and rates and risk factors for failure to maintain exclusive breastfeeding was assessed in a sub-sample studied at 42 days post-partum. A total of 255,495 live-born women-infant dyads were included in the study. Rates and determinants for the exclusive breastfeeding sub-study at 42 days post-partum were assessed from among a sub-sample of 105,563 subjects. Although there was heterogeneity by site, and early initiation of breastfeeding after delivery was high, the Pakistan site had the lowest rates of early initiation of breastfeeding. The Pakistan site also had the highest rate of lack of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Across all regions, factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding included nulliparity, caesarean section, low birth weight, resuscitation with bag and mask, and failure to place baby on the mother's chest after delivery. Factors associated with failure to achieve exclusive breastfeeding

  14. Some Peculiarities of the Economic Growth in ECOWAS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babacar NDIAYE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to determine some of the peculiarities of the economic growth in the countries from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Thus, the study is based on the country approach and uses econometric regression tests. In fact, in the context of the determination of the real GDP per capita growth rate of the countries in this region during the period 1987-2014, the results obtained show that it is still weak and unstable. Moreover, the weak convergence that has only been observed beginning with 2008 feeds the hope that ECOWAS can truly improve its level of development despite the heterogeneous nature of the countries. In order to overcome these difficulties, improving the socio-economic performance through the growth rate of real GDP per capita represents, among others, a necessity in relation to economic policy decisions.

  15. Economic and other determinants of infant and child mortality in small developing countries: the case of Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, D E

    1996-03-01

    This analysis involves empirically testing a theoretical model among 22 Central American and Caribbean countries during the 1990s that explains differences in infant and child mortality. Explanatory measures capture demographic, economic, health care, and educational characteristics. The model is expected to allow for an assessment of the potential impact of structural adjustment and external debt. It is pointed out that birth rates and child mortality rates followed similar patterns over time and between countries. In this study's regression analyses all variables in the three models that explain infant mortality are exogenous: low birth weight, immunization, gross domestic product per capita, years of schooling for women, population/nurse, and debt as a proportion of gross national product. As nations became richer, infant mortality declined. Infant mortality was lower in countries with high external debt. In models for explaining the birth rate and the child mortality rate, the best fit included variables for debt, real public expenditure on health care, water supply, and malnutrition. Analysis in a simultaneous model for 10 countries revealed that the birth rate and the child mortality rate were more responsive to shocks in exogenous variables in Barbados than in the Dominican Republic, and more responsive in the Dominican Republic than in Guatemala. The impact of each exogenous variable varied by country. In Barbados education was four times more effective in explaining the birth rate than water. In Guatemala, the most effective exogenous variable was malnutrition. Child mortality rates were affected more by multiplier effects. In richer countries, the most important impact on child survival was improved access to safe water, and the most important impact on the birth rate was increased real public expenditure on education per capita. For the poorest countries, findings suggest first improvement in malnutrition and then improvement in safe water supplies

  16. Country-level predictors of vaccination coverage and inequalities in Gavi-supported countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Catherine; Johri, Mira; Nandi, Arijit; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Hansen, Peter M; Harper, Sam

    2017-04-25

    Important inequalities in childhood vaccination coverage persist between countries and population groups. Understanding why some countries achieve higher and more equitable levels of coverage is crucial to redress these inequalities. In this study, we explored the country-level determinants of (1) coverage of the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis- (DTP3) containing vaccine and (2) within-country inequalities in DTP3 coverage in 45 countries supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. We used data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2005 and 2014. We measured national DTP3 coverage and the slope index of inequality in DTP3 coverage with respect to household wealth, maternal education, and multidimensional poverty. We collated data on country health systems, health financing, governance and geographic and sociocultural contexts from published sources. We used meta-regressions to assess the relationship between these country-level factors and variations in DTP3 coverage and inequalities. To validate our findings, we repeated these analyses for coverage with measles-containing vaccine (MCV). We found considerable heterogeneity in DTP3 coverage and in the magnitude of inequalities across countries. Results for MCV were consistent with those from DTP3. Political stability, gender equality and smaller land surface were important predictors of higher and more equitable levels of DTP3 coverage. Inequalities in DTP3 coverage were also lower in countries receiving more external resources for health, with lower rates of out-of-pocket spending and with higher national coverage. Greater government spending on heath and lower linguistic fractionalization were also consistent with better vaccination outcomes. Improving vaccination coverage and reducing inequalities requires that policies and programs address critical social determinants of health including geographic and social exclusion, gender inequality and the availability of

  17. Determinants for Bullying Victimization among 11–16-Year-Olds in 15 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Multi-Level Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Wilson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is an issue of public health importance among adolescents worldwide. The present study aimed at explaining differences in bullying rates among adolescents in 15 low- and middle-income countries using globally comparable indicators of social and economic well-being. Using data derived from the Global School-based Health Survey, we performed bivariate analyses to examine differences in bullying rates by country and by bullying type. We then constructed a multi-level model using four fixed variables (age, gender, hunger and truancy at the individual level, random effects at the classroom and school levels and four fixed variables at the country level (Gini coefficient, per capita Gross Domestic Project, homicide rate and pupil to teacher ratio. Bullying rates differed significantly by classroom, school and by country, with Egypt (34.2% and Macedonia (3.6% having the highest and lowest rates, respectively. Eleven-year-olds were the most likely of the studied age groups to report being bullied, as was being a male. Hunger and truancy were found to significantly predict higher rates of bullying. None of the explanatory variables at the country level remained in the final model. While self-reported bullying varied significantly between countries, the variance between classrooms better explained these differences. Our findings suggest that classroom settings should be considered when designing approaches aimed at bullying prevention.

  18. Social and clinical determinants of preferences and their achievement at the end of life: prospective cohort study of older adults receiving palliative care in three countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene J. Higginson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving choice is proposed as a quality marker. But little is known about what influences preferences especially among older adults. We aimed to determine and compare, across three countries, factors associated with preferences for place of death and treatment, and actual site of death. Methods We recruited adults aged ≥65-years from hospital-based multiprofessional palliative care services in London, Dublin, New York, and followed them for >17 months. All services offered consultation on hospital wards, support for existing clinical teams, outpatient services and received funding from their National Health Service and/or relevant Insurance reimbursements. The New York service additionally had 10 inpatient beds. All worked with and referred patients to local hospices. Face-to-face interviews recorded most and least preferred place of death, treatment goal priorities, demographic and clinical information using validated questionnaires. Multivariable and multilevel analyses assessed associated factors. Results One hundred and thirty eight older adults (64 London, 59 Dublin, 15 New York were recruited, 110 died during follow-up. Home was the most preferred place of death (77/138, 56% followed by inpatient palliative care/hospice units (22%. Hospital was least preferred (35/138, 25%, followed by nursing home (20% and home (16%; hospice/palliative care unit was rarely least preferred (4%. Most respondents prioritised improving quality of life, either alone (54%, or equal with life extension (39%; few (3% chose only life extension. There were no significant differences between countries. Main associates with home preference were: cancer diagnosis (OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.40–9.90 and living with someone (OR 2.19, 1.33–3.62. Adults with non-cancer diagnoses were more likely to prefer palliative care units (OR 2.39, 1.14–5.03. Conversely, functional independence (OR 1.05, 1.04–1.06 and valuing quality of life (OR 3.11, 2.89–3

  19. Context matters!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...

  20. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SDH-NET: a South-North-South collaboration to build sustainable research capacities on social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Guerra, German; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly

    2015-10-22

    It is desirable that health researchers have the ability to conduct research on health equity and contribute to the development of their national health system and policymaking processes. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a limited capacity to conduct this type of research due to reasons mostly associated with the status of national (health) research systems. Building sustainable research capacity in LMICs through the triangulation of South-North-South (S-N-S) collaborative networks seems to be an effective way to maximize limited national resources to strengthen these capacities. This article describes how a collaborative project (SDH-Net), funded by the European Commission, has successfully designed a study protocol and a S-N-S collaborative network to effectively support research capacity building in LMICs, specifically in the area of social determinants of health (SDH); this project seeks to elaborate on the vital role of global collaborative networks in strengthening this practice. The implementation of SDH-Net comprised diverse activities developed in three phases. Phase 1: national level mapping exercises were conducted to assess the needs for SDH capacity building or strengthening in local research systems. Four strategic areas were defined, namely research implementation and system performance, social appropriation of knowledge, institutional and national research infrastructure, and research skills and training/networks. Phase 2: development of tools to address the identified capacity building needs, as well as knowledge management and network strengthening activities. Phase 3: identifying lessons learned in terms of research ethics, and how policies can support the capacity building process in SDH research. The implementation of the protocol has led the network to design innovative tools for strengthening SDH research capacities, under a successful S-N-S collaboration that included national mapping reports, a global open

  2. The cognitive, emotional, and social impacts of the September 11 attacks : Group differences in memory for the reception context and the determinants of flashbulb memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luminet, O; Curci, A; Marsh, EJ; Wessel, Ineke; Constantin, T; Gencoz, F; Yogo, M; Wessel, Ineke

    The authors examined group differences in memories for hearing the news of and reactions to the September 11 attacks in 2001. They measured memory for reception context (immediate memory for the circumstances in which people first heard the news) and 11 predictors of the consistency of memory for

  3. "So You Can't Blame Us Then?": Gendered Discourses of Masculine Irresponsibility as Biologically Determined and Peer-Pressured in Upper-Primary School Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardman, Natasha Penelope

    2017-01-01

    In a global climate increasingly shaped by neoliberal agendas that privilege meritocratic individualism, it is apparent that society as a whole and educational policy-makers and practitioners in particular expect students to take more "responsibility" for their own learning and behaviour at school. In the Australian context, as…

  4. Determinants of Children's Risk-Taking in Different Social-Situational Contexts: The Role of Cognitions and Emotions in Predicting Children's Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Matheis, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive and emotion-based factors in predicting school-age children's risk-taking decisions when the social-situational context did, and did not, pressure for risk-taking. Using drawings of play situations that depicted three possible paths of travel that varied in injury risk and pitted convenience…

  5. Mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age, and gender on the cognitive and social determinants of adolescent smoking in Spain and the UK: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markham Wolfgang A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European trans-national adolescent smoking prevention interventions based on social influences approaches have had limited success. The attitudes-social influences-efficacy (ASE model is a social cognition model that states smoking behaviour is determined by smoking intention which, in turn, is predicted by seven ASE determinants; disadvantages, advantages, social acceptance, social norms, modelling, perceived pressure, self-efficacy. Distal factors such as country of residence, age and gender are external to the model. The ASE model is, thus, closely related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This study assessed the utility of the ASE model using cross-sectional data from Spanish and UK adolescents. Methods In 1997, questionnaires were simultaneously administered to Spanish (n = 3716 and UK adolescents (n = 3715 who were considered at high risk of smoking. Participants' age, gender, smoking intentions and ASE determinant scores were identified and linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age and gender on participants' smoking intentions. Results All UK participants were aged 12 or 13 and most Spanish participants were aged between 12 and 14 (range 12–16 years. Amongst 12 and 13 year olds, regular smoking was more common in Spain. Almost half the participants were female (47.2% in Spain; 49.9% in the UK. Gender did not vary significantly according to age. The distribution of ASE determinant scores varied by country and predicted intention. The influence of each ASE determinant on intention was moderated by country. Country had a large direct influence on intention (1.72 points on a 7 point scale but the effects of age and gender were mediated by the ASE determinants. The findings suggest resisting peer pressure interventions could potentially influence smoking amongst UK adolescents but not Spanish adolescents. Interventions that promote self

  6. Mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age, and gender on the cognitive and social determinants of adolescent smoking in Spain and the UK: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Wolfgang A; Lopez, Maria Luisa; Aveyard, Paul; Herrero, Pablo; Bridle, Christopher; Comas, Angel; Charlton, Anne; Thomas, Hywel

    2009-06-04

    European trans-national adolescent smoking prevention interventions based on social influences approaches have had limited success. The attitudes-social influences-efficacy (ASE) model is a social cognition model that states smoking behaviour is determined by smoking intention which, in turn, is predicted by seven ASE determinants; disadvantages, advantages, social acceptance, social norms, modelling, perceived pressure, self-efficacy. Distal factors such as country of residence, age and gender are external to the model. The ASE model is, thus, closely related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This study assessed the utility of the ASE model using cross-sectional data from Spanish and UK adolescents. In 1997, questionnaires were simultaneously administered to Spanish (n = 3716) and UK adolescents (n = 3715) who were considered at high risk of smoking. Participants' age, gender, smoking intentions and ASE determinant scores were identified and linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age and gender on participants' smoking intentions. All UK participants were aged 12 or 13 and most Spanish participants were aged between 12 and 14 (range 12-16 years). Amongst 12 and 13 year olds, regular smoking was more common in Spain. Almost half the participants were female (47.2% in Spain; 49.9% in the UK). Gender did not vary significantly according to age. The distribution of ASE determinant scores varied by country and predicted intention. The influence of each ASE determinant on intention was moderated by country. Country had a large direct influence on intention (1.72 points on a 7 point scale) but the effects of age and gender were mediated by the ASE determinants. The findings suggest resisting peer pressure interventions could potentially influence smoking amongst UK adolescents but not Spanish adolescents. Interventions that promote self-efficacy, on the other hand, would possibly have a greater

  7. The Determinants of European Union (EU Foreign Direct Investments in the EU Countries from Central and Eastern Europe During 1994–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Donny

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the CEECs’ financial market development can explain the EU FDI in the CEECs during 1994–2012. The higher bank credit flows had a positive effect on the FDI in 2005–2012. This can be attributed to the major banking sector reforms undertaken before the CEECs’ EU accession. Second, the stock market size had a positive effect in 1997–2004. This is due to the fact that the EU membership announcement facilitated deeper stock market integration. Third, the higher country income, in interaction with a higher bank credit flow, had only a small positive effect in 2005–2012. The higher income CEECs have pursued much deeper bank liberalization through large-scale privatization of state-owned banks. Finally, the higher country income, in interaction with a larger stock market size, had a negative effect in 2005–2012. A possible reason for this is that the EU countries have started to divert their new FDI to the non-EU countries.

  8. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  9. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  10. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in February 1986 a Senior Expert Group (SEG) on Mechanisms to Assist Developing Countries in the Promotion and Financing of Nuclear Power Programmes, which was asked: (a) To identify and analyse the problems of and constraints on nuclear power introduction/expansion in developing countries, with particular attention being paid to the problems of financing nuclear power projects; (b) To study mechanisms for dealing with the identified problems and constraints in order to assist developing countries with the promotion and financing of their nuclear power programmes, and to determine the role of the IAEA in this context. This report summarizes the Senior Expert Group's study. It also presents a number of recommendations on mechanisms to assist developing countries in promoting and financing their nuclear power programmes. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Development performances of agriculture in the Danube region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Milivoj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the Danube Region countries profile their policies towards a more efficient way of exploiting the natural resources of the Danube basin. The Danube can contribute to a better integration of the countries, enhancing economic opportunities through diversification and promotion of rural development. The trend analysis in the agricultural sector of the Danube Region countries refers to the first decade of this century, and it begins with the determination of the agricultural importance in the overall economy. The development performances of agriculture in the Danube Region countries are considered according to the production and export performances of this economic sector, using a comparative approach. The agricultural production growth, level and growth of the partial agricultural productivities - labour and land, as well as the value of exports in relation to engaged labour and agricultural land, are analysed in such a context.

  12. Determinants of geographic variations in implantation of cardiac defibrillators in the European Society of Cardiology member countries--data from the European Heart Rhythm Association White Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, Andrzej; Bissinger, Andrzej; Boersma, Lucas; Leenhardt, Antoine; Merkely, Bela; Oto, Ali; Proclemer, Alessandro; Brugada, Josep; Vardas, Panos E; Wolpert, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major health concern in developed countries. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in the prevention of SCD and total mortality reduction. However, the high individual costs and the reimbursement policy may limit widespread ICD utilization. This study analyzed the temporal and the geographical trends of the ICD implantation rate. Data were gathered from two editions of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) White Books published in 2008 and 2009. The analysis revealed significant differences in the rates of ICD implantation per million capita between the countries, but the median implantations was constantly increasing. The number of ICD implantations correlated with gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, expenditure on health, life expectancy, and the number of implanting centres. There are great number of differences in the ICD-implanting rates between EHRA member countries, consequent to the increase in the number of ICD implantations. The ICD implantation rates are related to national economic status and healthcare expenses.

  13. Video context-dependent recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven M; Manzano, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    In two experiments, we used an effective new method for experimentally manipulating local and global contexts to examine context-dependent recall. The method included video-recorded scenes of real environments, with target words superimposed over the scenes. In Experiment 1, we used a within-subjects manipulation of video contexts and compared the effects of reinstatement of a global context (15 words per context) with effects of less overloaded context cues (1 and 3 words per context) on recall. The size of the reinstatement effects in Experiment 1 show how potently video contexts can cue recall. A strong effect of cue overload was also found; reinstatement effects were smaller, but still quite robust, in the 15 words per context condition. The powerful reinstatement effect was replicated for local contexts in Experiment 2, which included a no-contexts-reinstated group, a control condition used to determine whether reinstatement of half of the cues caused biased output interference for uncued targets. The video context method is a potent way to investigate context-dependent memory.

  14. Fatores determinantes do risco país brasileiro: uma análise empírica do risco país específico Determinant Factors of Brazilian Country Risk: An Empirical Analysis of Specific Country Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Felix Teixeira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Muitos estudos em finanças internacionais tentam investigar até que ponto fatores econômicos externos e internos constituem fatores determinantes significativos do risco-país. O presente artigo tem como finalidade estudar o Risco Brasil no período 1992-2003, com base em três modelos: i o primeiro modelo analisa os determinantes econômicos internos do risco-país; ii o segundo modelo tem o mesmo propósito do primeiro, sendo que a variável grau de aversão ao risco global, que serve de proxy para o componente externo do risco, é incluída no grupo de variáveis explicativas; iii no último modelo, o enfoque é sobre a relação entre o risco-país específico (risco-país menos o componente externo e os fundamentos econômicos. Many studies in international finance try to investigate to what extent domestic and external economic factors constitute significant determinant factors of international country risk. This article tries to analyze, for the period 1992-2003, Brazilian country risk from the point of view of three empirical models: i First, the internal economic determinants of the country risk; ii the second has the same purpose as the first, with the difference that the variable “intensity of global risk aversion”, that serves as proxy for the external component of the risk, is included in the group of explanatory variables; iii in the last model the emphasis is on the relation between specific country risk (country risk minus the external component and the internal and external economic determinants.

  15. Interchangeability of electrocardiography and blood pressure measurement for determining heart rate and heart rate variability in free-moving domestic pigs in various behavioral contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eKrause

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the interchangeability between heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV measures derived from a series of interbeat intervals (IBIs recorded via electrocardiogram (ECG and intra-arterial blood pressure (BP in various behavioral contexts. Five minutes of simultaneously recorded IBIs from ECG and BP signals in 11 female domestic pigs during resting, feeding and active behavior were analyzed. Comparisons were made for measures of HR, SDNN (the standard deviation of IBIs and RMSSD (the root mean of the squared distances of subsequent IBIs derived from ECG and BP signals for each behavior category using statistical procedures with different explanatory power (linear regression, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland and Altman plots and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Linear regression showed a strong relationship for HR during all behaviors and for HRV during resting. Excellent ICCs (lower 95% CI > 0.75 and narrow limits of agreement (LoA in all behavior categories were found for HR. ICCs for HRV reached the critical lower 95% CI value of 0.75 only during resting. Using Bland and Altman plots, HRV agreement was unacceptable for all of the behavior categories. ANOVA showed significant differences between the methods in terms of HRV. BP systematically overestimated HRV compared with ECG. Our findings reveal that HR data recorded via BP agree well those recorded using ECG independently of the activity of the subject, whereas ECG and BP cannot be used interchangeably in the context of HRV in free-moving domestic pigs.

  16. Education in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - tertiary education, mobility of students in Europe, science and technology graduates, doctorate students in science and technology fields. Analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis.

  17. The botanical macroremains from the prehistoric settlement Kalnik-Igrišče (NW Croatia in the context of current knowledge about cultivation and plant consumption in Croatia and neighboring countries during the Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mareković

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the first extensive archaeobotanical research into a Bronze Age site in Croatia. The aim of the study was to reveal what plants were consumed (grown at Kalnik-Igrišče (NW Croatia in the Bronze Age and to realize if the plant diet of the local population differed from that of the inhabitants in neighboring countries. The results show that all plant macrofossils found at Kalnik-Igrišče can be classified into one of four functional groups: cereals, cultivated legumes, useful trees and weeds. As much as 98% of the findings are of cereals and legumes. The most abundant species found are Panicum miliaceum (millet, Hordeum vulgare (barley, Vicia faba (faba bean, Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum (bread wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccon (emmer wheat and Lens culinaris (lentils. The findings from Kalnik-Igrišče do not differ from the findings of neighboring countries, indicating that there were similar diets and agricultural/plant-collecting activities throughout the whole of the studied area (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, Italy, Austria and Hungary.

  18. THE ANALYTICAL INSIGHT INTO CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF QUALITY DETERMINANTS OF THE E-COMMERCE MODEL BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER SUBJECTS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Bačík; Zsuzsanna Katalin Szabo; Richard Fedorko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to describe the specific aspects of the e-commerce model business-to-consumer as a constantly developing field of an economic life in the Central European countries according to their customers. The current state of e-business and business-to-consumer e-commerce issue was identified by the research in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.Methodology/Approach: For the purposes of collecting primary data the crucial factor for the selection of e-shop...

  19. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use in four countries of the World Health Organization: South-East Asia region: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, K; Rizwan, S A; Sinha, D N; Andes, L J; Amarchand, R; Krishnan, A; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and Disability Adjusted Life Years lost worldwide, particularly in South-East Asia. Health risks associated with exclusive use of one form of tobacco alone has a different health risk profile when compared to dual use. In order to tease out specific profiles of mutually exclusive categories of tobacco use, we carried out this analysis. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data was used to describe the profiles of three mutually exclusive tobacco use categories ("Current smoking only," "Current smokeless tobacco [SLT] use only," and "Dual use") in four World Health Organization South-East Asia Region countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Thailand. GATS was a nationally representative household-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design proportional to population size. Prevalence of different forms of usage were described as proportions. Logistics regression analyses was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were weighted, accounted for the complex sampling design and conducted using SPSS version 18. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varied across countries. Current tobacco use ranged from 27.2% in Thailand to 43.3% in Bangladesh. Exclusively smoking was more common in Indonesia (34.0%) and Thailand (23.4%) and less common in Bangladesh (16.1%) and India (8.7%). Exclusively using SLT was more common in Bangladesh (20.3%) and India (20.6%) and less common on Indonesia (0.9%) and Thailand (3.5%). Dual use of smoking and SLT was found in Bangladesh (6.8%) and India (5.3%), but was negligible in Indonesia (0.8) and Thailand (0.4%). Gender, age, education and wealth had significant effects on the OR for most forms of tobacco use across all four countries with the exceptions of SLT use in Indonesia and dual use in both Indonesia and Thailand. In general, the different forms of tobacco use increased among males and with increasing

  20. An investigation on the determinants of carbon emissions for OECD countries: empirical evidence from panel models robust to heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Seker, Fahri

    2016-07-01

    This empirical study analyzes the impacts of real income, energy consumption, financial development and trade openness on CO2 emissions for the OECD countries in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model by using panel econometric approaches that consider issues of heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. Results from the Pesaran CD test, the Pesaran-Yamagata's homogeneity test, the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, the DSUR estimator, and the Emirmahmutoglu-Kose Granger causality test indicate that (i) the panel time-series data are heterogeneous and cross-sectionally dependent; (ii) CO2 emissions, real income, the quadratic income, energy consumption, financial development and openness are integrated of order one; (iii) the analyzed data are cointegrated; (iv) the EKC hypothesis is validated for the OECD countries; (v) increases in openness and financial development mitigate the level of emissions whereas energy consumption contributes to carbon emissions; (vi) a variety of Granger causal relationship is detected among the analyzed variables; and (vii) empirical results and policy recommendations are accurate and efficient since panel econometric models used in this study account for heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence in their estimation procedures.

  1. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  2. One Mathematics for All: Can It Be Realized in a Multicultural, Multilingual Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Jayasree

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, situated in the context of elementary and secondary school mathematics curriculum in India, I argue that centrally determined uniform curriculum would have very little to offer a large majority of students in a country that is diverse in many ways.

  3. International students' experience of a western medical school: a mixed methods study exploring the early years in the context of cultural and social adjustment compared to students from the host country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, A; Brugha, R; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Byrne, E

    2015-07-02

    Few studies have addressed the challenges associated with international students as they adapt to studying medicine in a new host country. Higher level institutions have increasing numbers of international students commencing programmes. This paper explores the experiences of a cohort of students in the early years of medical school in Ireland, where a considerable cohort are from an international background. A mixed exploratory sequential study design was carried out with medical students in the preclinical component of a five year undergraduate programme. Data for the qualitative phase was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews using the peer interview method. Thematic analysis from this phase was incorporated to develop an online questionnaire combined with components of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire and Student Integration Questionnaire. First year students were anonymously surveyed online. The Mokken Scaling procedure was used to investigate the students' experiences, both positive and negative. Three main themes are identified; social adjustment, social alienation and cultural alienation. The response rate for the survey was 49% (467 Respondents). The Mokken Scaling method identified the following scales (i) Positive experience of student life; (ii) Social alienation, which comprised of negative items about feeling lonely, not fitting in, being homesick and (iii) Cultural alienation, which included the items of being uncomfortable around cultural norms of dress and contact between the sexes. With the threshold set to H = 0.4. Subscales of the positive experiences of student life scale are explored further. Overall student adjustment to a western third level college was good. Students from regions where cultural distance is greatest reported more difficulties in adjusting. Students from these regions also demonstrate very good adaptation. Some students from the host country and more similar cultural backgrounds were also

  4. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the

  5. Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banini, G.K; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Kassapu, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  6. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P GDP (coefficient = 0.31; P = 0.04). When we modeled cause-specific injury mortality rates with unemployment, injuries due to firearm missiles (coefficient = 0.53; P GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on causation with more predictors is needed.

  7. THE ANALYTICAL INSIGHT INTO CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF QUALITY DETERMINANTS OF THE E-COMMERCE MODEL BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER SUBJECTS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Bačík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to describe the specific aspects of the e-commerce model business-to-consumer as a constantly developing field of an economic life in the Central European countries according to their customers. The current state of e-business and business-to-consumer e-commerce issue was identified by the research in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.Methodology/Approach: For the purposes of collecting primary data the crucial factor for the selection of e-shops was identification of the suitable  online portals focused on post-purchase evaluation of e-shops in Visegrad group countries. Automatic data collection method was used for the observed variables (evaluations within selected online portals of the identified e-shops. The total of 5,228,127 evaluations of 9,260 e-shops were analysed. The main focus was given to customer overall satisfaction with an e-shop in relation to communication with a customer or overall satisfaction with an e-shop and delivery quality.Findings: The results of the research showed that there exists a direct relation between overall satisfaction with an e-shop and communication with customers or overall satisfaction with an e-shop and delivery quality.Originality/Value of paper: The ambition of this paper through the findings is to help subjects of e-commerce in their marketing decisions in order to even better understand the factors that influence customers’ satisfaction. 

  8. Emotion Ontology for Context Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Berthelon , Franck; Sander , Peter

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We present an emotion ontology for describing and reasoning on emotion context in order to improve emotion detection based on bodily expression. We incorporate context into the two-factor theory of emotion (bodily reaction plus cognitive input) and demonstrate the importance of context in the emotion experience. In attempting to determine emotion felt by another person, the bodily expresson of their emotion is the only evidence directly available, eg, ''John looks angr...

  9. The context of ethical problems in medical volunteer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Anji

    2011-06-01

    Ethical problems are common in clinical medicine, so medical volunteers who practice clinical medicine in developing countries should expect to encounter them just as they would in their practice in the developed world. However, as this article argues, medical volunteers in developing countries should not expect to encounter the same ethical problems as those that dominate Western biomedicine or to address ethical problems in the same way as they do in their practice in developed countries. For example, poor health and advanced disease increase the risks and decrease the potential benefits of some interventions. Consequently, when medical volunteers intervene too readily, without considering the nutritional and general health status of patients, the results can be devastating. Medical volunteers cannot assume that the outcomes of interventions in developing countries will be comparable to the outcomes of the same interventions in developed countries. Rather, they must realistically consider the complex medical conditions of patients when determining whether or not to intervene. Similarly, medical volunteers may face the question of whether to provide a pharmaceutical or perform an intervention that is below the acceptable standard of care versus the alternative of doing nothing. This article critically explores the contextual features of medical volunteer work in developing countries that differentiate it from medical practice in developed countries, arguing that this context contributes to the creation of unique ethical problems and affects the way in which these problems should be analyzed and resolved.

  10. Determinants of fertility in Rwanda in the context of a fertility transition: a secondary analysis of the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Kamanzi, Collins; Semakula, Muhammed; Abalikumwe, François; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Thomson, Dana R

    2014-12-13

    Major improvements to Rwanda's health system, infrastructure, and social programs over the last decade have led to a rapid fertility transition unique from other African countries. The total fertility rate fell from 6.1 in 2005 to 4.6 in 2010, with a 3-fold increase in contraceptive usage. Despite this rapid national decline, many women still have large numbers of children. This study investigates predictors of fertility during this fertility transition to inform policies that improve individuals' reproductive health and guide national development. We used Poisson regression to separately model number of children born to ever married/cohabitated women (n = 8,309) and never married women (n = 1,220) age 15 to 49 based on 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data. We used backward stepwise regression with a time offset to identify individual and household factors associated with woman's fertility level, accounting for sampling weights, clustering, and stratification. In ever married/cohabitating women, high fertility was significantly associated (p Rwanda's national fertility rate and support families to achieve their desired fertility. Strategies include policies and programs that promote delayed sexual debut via educational and economic opportunities for women, improved access to reproductive health information and services at schools and via health campaigns, and involvement of men in family planning decision making.

  11. Why have the majority of recent polio cases occurred in countries affected by Islamist militancy? A historical comparative analysis of the political determinants of polio in Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries. The second section analyses official documents, newspaper articles, interviews and historical and ethnographic accounts to understand the relationship between Islamist militant groups and polio in five countries - Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria - that account for 95% of the world's polio cases since 2012. I demonstrate that specific political grievances related to the postcolonial state and/or foreign military intervention help to explain variations in militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination programmes. The paper concludes by considering the policy implications of the analysis. Improved access for polio vaccinators is not predicated on military victory against the militants but securing support of de facto political leaders. This can be achieved by developing a better understanding of the specific sociopolitical contexts in which immunization programmes operate.

  12. Determining the Reach of a Home-Based Physical Activity Program for Older Adults within the Context of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the reach of physical activity (PA) programs is challenging due to inconsistent reporting across studies. The purpose of this study was to document multiple indicators of program reach for a 6-month, Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)-delivered home-based PA program. Radio, newspaper and direct mailing advertisements were tracked to…

  13. Variables of the Family, School, and Social Environment Context That Determine Bullying in Adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuita-Gutiérrez, Luis Felipe; Cardona-Arias, Jaiberth Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the prevalence of bullying and the variables that explain the phenomenon in adolescents from educational institutions in Medellín. A survey involving school climate, family functionality, and bullying was applied in a representative sample of 3,460 adolescents. The information was analyzed with descriptive measures, Z-test,…

  14. Present regulatory situation in South East European and Black Sea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenow, K.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, after the energy reforms beginning, various regulatory models are either actually used or contemplated in the countries of Southeastern Europe and the Black Sea region. The 'models' are country-specific and five of them are described in this report. Certain common issues emerge specific to these countries can be grouped in three categories. The first category, called 'framework issues', includes the policy issues that determine the context in which the regulator will have to evolve. The second category, called 'regulatory issues proper', includes licensing, setting of prices, tariffs, transmission fees, establishment of codes for markets, grids and metering. The third category, called 'international issues', includes these issues requiring the international cooperation among regulators. The countries in Southeastern Europe and around the Black Sea have a long experience with regulation of grid-based energies and this experience should be adapted to the market-oriented context bearing in mind the benefits of competition and of regional integration and markets

  15. Gene flow for Echinococcus granulosus metapopulations determined by mitochondrial sequences: A reliable approach for reflecting epidemiological drift of parasite among neighboring countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Kaseb-Yazdanparast, Azam; Spotin, Adel; Shahbazi, Abbas; Adibpour, Mohammad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Ghabouli-Mehrabani, Nader

    2016-12-01

    In genetic diversity and population structure of Echinococcus granulosus, the gene flow can illustrate how the Echinococcus isolates have epidemiologically drifted among endemic neighboring countries. 51 isolates of hydatid cysts were collected from human, dog, cattle and sheep in northwest Iran, where placed co-border with Turkey. DNA samples were extracted, amplified and subjected to sequence analysis of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. As well, sequences of Echinococcus at east to the southeast regions of Turkey were retrieved from GenBank database for the cox1 gene. The confirmed isolates were grouped as G1 (n = 74) and G3 (n = 6) genotypes. 31 unique haplotypes were identified inferred by the analyzed sequences of cox1 among two distinct populations. A parsimonious network of the sequence haplotypes displayed star-like features in the overall population containing TUR1, IR15 and IR22 as the most common haplotypes. According to AMOVA test, the high value of haplotype diversity (0.94758-0.98901) of E. granulosus was reflected the total genetic variability within populations while nucleotide diversity was low (0.00727-0.01046) in Iranian and Turkish metapopulations. Neutrality indices of the cox1 were shown negative values (-15.078 to -10.057) in Echinococcus populations which indicating a significant divergence from neutrality. A pairwise fixation index (Fst) as a degree of gene flow was partially high value for all populations (0.151). The statistically Fst value indicates that E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) are genetically moderate differentiated among Iranian and Turkish isolates. The occurrence of TUR1 and IR15 elucidate that there is possibly the dawn of domestication due to transfer of alleles between populations through the diffusion of stock raising or anthropogenic movements. To evaluate the hypothetical evolutionary scenario, further exploration is necessitated to analyze isolates from

  16. Role of Geographic Information System in Assessing Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease: An Experience From a Low- and Middle-Income Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamparampil, Mathew Joseph; Mohan, Ananth; Jose, Chinu; Sadheesan, Deepthi Kottassery; Aby, Jemin Jose; Vasudevakaimal, Prasannakumar; Varghese, Sara; Surendrannair, Anish Tekkumkara; Ashokan, Achu Laila; Madhusoodhanan, Resmi Santhakumari; Ilyas, Insija Selene; Rajeevan, Amjith; Karthikeyan, Sreekanth Balakrishnan; Devadhas, Krishna Sulochana; Raghunath, Rajesh; Surendran, Sethulekshmi; Muraleedharanpillai, Harikrishnan; Nujum, Zinia Thajudeen

    2018-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The determinants of CVD in an urban population using conventional and geographic information system techniques were attempted as a community-based census-type cross-sectional study in Kerala, India, among 1649 individuals residing in 452 households. Sociodemographic details, risk factor exposures, and self-reported disease prevalence were determined. Location of houses, wells from which subjects drew drinking water, and distances of the house from the outer road (proxy for air pollution) were mapped using differential global positioning system and pH of water samples determined. Prevalence of CVD was 5.8%. Significant predictors of CVD were male gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. Statistically significant spatial association was found between CVD and groundwater pH. Geographic information system technology is useful in identification of spatial clustering and disease hotspots for designing preventive strategies targeting CVD.

  17. A theory of planned behaviour-based analysis of TIMSS 2011 to determine factors influencing inquiry teaching practices in high-performing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Herman, Benjamin C.

    2017-07-01

    Given the abundance of literature describing the strong relationship between inquiry-based teaching and student achievement, more should be known about the factors impacting science teachers' classroom inquiry implementation. This study utilises the theory of planned behaviour to propose and validate a causal model of inquiry-based teaching through analysing data relating to high-performing countries retrieved from the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study assessments. Data analysis was completed through structural equation modelling using a polychoric correlation matrix for data input and diagonally weighted least squares estimation. Adequate fit of the full model to the empirical data was realised. The model demonstrates that the extent the teachers participated in academic collaborations was positively related to their occupational satisfaction, confidence in teaching inquiry, and classroom inquiry practices. Furthermore, the teachers' confidence with implementing inquiry was positively related to their classroom inquiry implementation and occupational satisfaction. However, perceived student-generated constraints demonstrated a negative relationship with the teachers' confidence with implementing inquiry and occupational satisfaction. Implications from this study include supporting teachers through promoting collaborative opportunities that facilitate inquiry-based practices and occupational satisfaction.

  18. Patient-Related Determinants of Glycaemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alramadan, Mohammed J; Afroz, Afsana; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Batais, Mohammed Ali; Almigbal, Turky H; Al-Humrani, Hassan Ahmad; Albaloshi, Ahmed; Romero, Lorena; Magliano, Dianna J; Billah, Baki

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to assess patient-related factors affecting glycaemic control among people with type 2 diabetes in the Arabian Gulf Council countries. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched from their date of inception to May 2016. Two researchers independently identified eligible studies and assessed the risk of bias. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. One study was population based, six recruited participants from multiple centres, and the remaining were single centred. The majority of the studies were of low to moderate quality. Factors associated with poor glycaemic control include longer duration of diabetes, low level of education, poor compliance to diet and medication, poor attitude towards the disease, poor self-management behaviour, anxiety, depression, renal impairment, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. Healthcare providers should be aware of these factors and provide appropriate education and care especially for those who have poor glycaemic control. Innovative educational programs should be implemented in the healthcare systems to improve patient compliance and practices. A variation in the results of the included studies was observed, and some potentially important risk factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, family support, and cognitive function were not adequately addressed. Further research is needed in this area.

  19. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. La educación emocional en el contexto escolar con alumnado de distintos países The emotional educational in the context school with subjects of different countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Peña

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se aportan datos descriptivos de los resultados de un estudio sobre necesidades educativas emocionales en sujetos escolarizados en Centros Públicos de la Autonomía de Asturias. La muestra está constituida por 104 sujetos de 6º Curso de Educación Primaria de los cuales 78 son españoles y 26 inmigrantes de distintas nacionalidades y diferentes culturas. Las aportaciones del estudio se dirigen hacia: a La identificación de sujetos con carencias emocionales; b La valoración global del grupo-clase; c Comprobar si se dan diferencias significativas entre grupos de sujetos de una misma edad y en un mismo contexto educativo. Los resultados que se desprenden de las dimensiones que mide el cuestionario “Educación Emocional”, facilitan la identificación de los sujetos con necesidades emocionales, proporcionan una visión global de grupo-clase y permiten conocer si existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos (españoles e inmigrantes y el género (varones y mujeres.


    Palabras clave: Educación emocional, dimensiones emocionales, valoración de necesidades emocionales, culturas diferentes.

    In this article it is proposed some of the results of a study on the educational emotional needs of subjects enrolled in school in Public Centers of the Autonomous Community of Asturias. The sample is constituted by 104 subjects of 6th Course of Primary Education, of which 78 are Spanish and 26 emigrants of different nationalities and different cultures. The contribution of the research go towards: a The identification of subjects with emotional lacks; b The assessment of the group class; c To verify if they exist significant differences, in emotional needs, between Spanish subjects and emigrants of the same age and in the same educational context. The results following from the dimensions measuring the questionnaire "Emotional Education", they provide the identification of the

  1. Chromosomal and cytoplasmic context determines predisposition to maternal age-related aneuploidy: brief overview and update on MCAK in mammalian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Staubach, Nora; Trapphoff, Tom

    2010-12-01

    , overexpression of a MCAK-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) fusion protein, knockdown of MCAK by RNAi (RNA interference) and inhibition of AURKB. The observations suggest that MCAK is involved in spindle regulation, chromosome congression and cell-cycle control, and that reductions in mRNA and protein in a context of permissive SAC (spindle assembly checkpoint) predispose to aneuploidy. Failure to recruit MCAK to centromeres and low expression patterns, as well as disturbances in regulation of enzyme localization and activity, e.g. due to alterations in activity of AURKB, may therefore contribute to maternal age-related rises in aneuploidy in mammalian oocytes.

  2. Evaluation of occupational disease surveillance in six EU countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, D.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Registries of occupational diseases in various European countries differ considerably in criteria for notification and recognition, statistical data provided and the legal and social security context. Therefore, figures on occupational diseases are not comparable between countries and are often

  3. Decision-making of older patients in context of the doctor-patient relationship: a typology ranging from "self-determined" to "doctor-trusting" patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede-Sach, Jennifer; Voigt, Isabel; Diederichs-Egidi, Heike; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Junius-Walker, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Background. This qualitative study aims to gain insight into the perceptions and experiences of older patients with regard to sharing health care decisions with their general practitioners. Patients and Methods. Thirty-four general practice patients (≥70 years) were asked about their preferences and experiences concerning shared decision making with their doctors using qualitative semistructured interviews. All interviews were analysed according to principles of content analysis. The resulting categories were then arranged into a classification grid to develop a typology of preferences for participating in decision-making processes. Results. Older patients generally preferred to make decisions concerning everyday life rather than medical decisions, which they preferred to leave to their doctors. We characterised eight different patient types based on four interdependent positions (self-determination, adherence, information seeking, and trust). Experiences of a good doctor-patient relationship were associated with trust, reliance on the doctor for information and decision making, and adherence. Conclusion. Owing to the varied patient decision-making types, it is not easy for doctors to anticipate the desired level of patient involvement. However, the decision matter and the self-determination of patients provide good starting points in preparing the ground for shared decision making. A good relationship with the doctor facilitates satisfying decision-making experiences.

  4. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries: Promotion and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986 the Agency's Director General established a Senior Expert Group on Mechanisms to Assist Developing Countries in the Promotion and Planning of Nuclear Power Programmes. This group, which was comprised of 20 experts with extensive experience in the topics to be studied, coming from 15 Member States plus the World Bank, was asked to: identify and analyse the problems of and constraints on nuclear power introduction/expansion in developing countries, with particular attention being paid to the problems of financing nuclear power projects; study mechanisms for dealing with the identified problems and constraints in order to assist developing countries with the promotion and financing of their nuclear power programmes and to determine the role of the IAEA in this context. This paper summarizes the Senior Expert Group's study

  5. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A few of the essential issues which arise when we consider nuclear power and development together in the context of energy policy are discussed. Ethical concerns must ultimately be expressed through policies and their impact on people. There are ethical issues associated with nuclear power in the developing countries which deserve our attention. Four aspects of the question of nuclear power in developing countries are considered: their energy situation; the characteristics of nuclear power which are relevant to them; whether developing countries will undertake nuclear power programmes; and finally the ethical implications of such programmes. It is concluded that what happens in developing countries will depend more on the ethical nature of major political decisions and actions than on the particular technology they use to generate their electricity. (LL)

  6. Seeing Context through Metaphor: Using Communications Research to Bring a Social Determinants Perspective to Public Thinking about Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Kendall-Taylor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human beings think in metaphor and reason through analogy. The metaphors through which we think influence how we understand and feel about social issues as well as the actions that we see as appropriate and important. Metaphors can be used to increase understanding of how issues work and increase the salience of a given issue, build support for programs and policies necessary to address the issue, and instigate demand for change and civic action. In this paper, we use a mixed methods research design, including brief qualitative interviews, experimental surveys, and focus groups, to test the ability of different metaphors to influence public understanding of the social determinants of child abuse and neglect in the UK. We find one metaphor in particular that improves people’s understanding of the social causes of child maltreatment and increases support for structural solutions. This metaphor can be used to build support for preventative public health solutions.

  7. Seeing Context through Metaphor: Using Communications Research to Bring a Social Determinants Perspective to Public Thinking about Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Taylor, Nathaniel; Stanley, Kate

    2018-01-19

    Human beings think in metaphor and reason through analogy. The metaphors through which we think influence how we understand and feel about social issues as well as the actions that we see as appropriate and important. Metaphors can be used to increase understanding of how issues work and increase the salience of a given issue, build support for programs and policies necessary to address the issue, and instigate demand for change and civic action. In this paper, we use a mixed methods research design, including brief qualitative interviews, experimental surveys, and focus groups, to test the ability of different metaphors to influence public understanding of the social determinants of child abuse and neglect in the UK. We find one metaphor in particular that improves people's understanding of the social causes of child maltreatment and increases support for structural solutions. This metaphor can be used to build support for preventative public health solutions.

  8. Determinants of customer satisfaction with the health care system, with the possibility to choose a personal physician and with a family doctor in a transition country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersnik, J

    2001-08-01

    Many Eastern and Central European counties are reforming their health care systems. The aim of this study was to determine customer satisfaction with a reformed health care system, with the possibility of free choice of a family physician and patient satisfaction with the family physician in Slovenia and their major determinants. We used a postal survey of the patients who attended their family physician's offices during the study period. We obtained an 84% response rate. Some 72.9% of the respondents were satisfied with the current organisation of health care services, 95.5% of the respondents were satisfied with the possibility of choosing their own family physician and 58% of participants were very satisfied with the level of care received from their personal family practitioners. It was shown that higher patient satisfaction with the family physician was the most powerful predictor of patients' satisfaction with the health care system. The results show that health care reform in Slovenia has a positive impact on the consumers' perceptions of health care quality, measured in terms of consumer satisfaction with the health care system, the possibility to choose a family physician and the overall satisfaction with the family physician.

  9. Financial burden of survivors of medically-managed myocardial infarction and its association with selected social determinants and quality of life in a lower middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P K B; Gunathunga, M W; Jayasinghe, S; Arnold, S M; Mallawarachchi, D S V; Perera, S K; Wijesinghe, U A D

    2017-09-19

    Burden from ischemic heart disease is rising in Sri Lanka due to the demographic and epidemiological transitions. Documented literature is scarce on quality of life, financial burden and its determinants in relation to myocardial infarction (MI). This study was done to describe the financial burden among the survivors of MI managed only with drugs (i.e. those who did not undergo Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft) and its association with selected social determinants (SDHs) and quality of life (QOL). A cross sectional study was done among MI survivors in 13 hospitals in the premier province of Sri Lanka. Out of 336 participants recruited at hospital stay, 270 responded through a self-administered questionnaire at 1 month post discharge. Questionnaire included sections on financial burden, selected SDHs and on QOL measured by the EQ-5D-3 L QOL tool. Presence of financial burden was determined using an operational definition. Associations were tested with Mann-Whitney-U test, Chi square test and Spearman-correlation-coefficient at 5% significant level. Around 40% (n = 116) had to seek financial support for out-of-pocket expenditure. Nearly 5% (n = 6) of previously employed participants had lost their job. Of the employed respondents (n = 139, 51.5%), 29% (n = 85) had limited physical activity and 40% (n = 115) had limitations of employment time. Of the respondents, 15.4% had to apply for a loan, 7.8% had to sell a property, 19.1% had an income loss and 33.8% had to restrict usual expenses. Financial burden was not significantly associated with gender (p = 0.146), ethnicity (p = 0.068), highest education (p = 0.184) and area of residence (p = 0.369). Influence of income (p = 0.001), social support (p = 0.002) and the health infrastructure (p financial burden. In the group with a financial burden, the index score (p = 0.002) and VAS score (p Financial burden is common among survivors

  10. Timor-Leste : Country Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) for Timor-Leste identifies environmental priorities through a systematic review of environmental issues in natural resources management and environmental health in the context of the country's economic development and environmental institutions. Lack of data has been the main limitation in presenting a more rigorous analysis. Nevertheless, the repor...

  11. Uwarunkowania zdrowia psychicznego nauczycieli w kontekście stresu zawodowego = Determinants of teachers' mental health in the context of occupational stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Olejniczak

    2015-11-01

      Słowa kluczowe: uwarunkowania zdrowia, nauczyciel, stres. Key words: health determinants, teacher, occupational stress.   Streszczenie   Wykonywanie zawodu nauczyciela niesie ze sobą wiele satysfakcji, ale wiąże się również z narażeniem na wiele zagrożeń zdrowia, specyficznych dla tego zawodu. Identyfikacja zagrożeń pozwoli na zmniejszenie ryzyka wystąpienia ich i poprawi tym samym stan zdrowia tej grupy zawodowej. Celem niniejszej pracy jest określenie uwarunkowań stresu wśród nauczycieli, jego objawów, sposobów radzenia sobie z nim, a także poszukiwanie związków stresu z płcią, wiekiem, stażem i miejscem pracy.  W badaniu wzięło udział 440 nauczycieli pracujących w szkołach podstawowych, gimnazjalnych, ponadgimnazjalnych oraz szkołach muzycznych. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników wywnioskowano, iż istnieje konieczność intensyfikacji działań profilaktycznych w grupie nauczycieli, którzy w swojej pracy doświadczają czynników przyczyniających się do występowania stresu zawodowego. Działania powinny być skierowane zarówno na redukcję (lub pomniejszenie oddziaływania samego czynnika oraz na rozwijanie umiejętności radzenia sobie ze stresem nim spowodowanym.   Abstract   Teaching profession carries with it a lot of satisfaction, but also is associated with exposure to many health hazards specific to the profession. Their identification will help to reduce the risk of threats, thereby improve the health of this professional group. The aim of this study is to determine the conditions of stress among teachers, its symptoms, how to deal with it, as well as seeking relationships stress to gender, age, seniority and place of work. The study involved 440 teachers working in schools, primary schools, middle schools, secondary schools and music schools. Based on these results it was concluded that The existence need to intensify prevention in a group of teachers who in their work experience factors that contribute to the

  12. Analytic Hierarchy Process-Based Analysis to Determine the Barriers to Implementing a Material Efficiency Strategy: Electrical and Electronics’ Companies in the Malaysian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Haw Ho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Material efficiency is one of the most important strategies for helping manufacturing companies achieve sustainability in their production activities. However, there are many barriers to the implementation of material efficiency strategies in the manufacturing processes and overall business operations. The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the barriers faced by Electrical and Electronics (E&E manufacturing companies in Malaysia in implementing material efficiency strategies. A mixed-mode research method was employed to collect data from these companies. Semi-structured interviews were used to identify the barriers faced by the Malaysian Electrical and Electronics (E&E industry, while an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP survey was utilized to determine the importance of each barrier. Seven companies participated in the semi-structured interviews, and 18 companies took part in the AHP survey. Nine barriers were generated from analysis of the interviews, and were then ranked by priority using the AHP method. These important findings could be used as a guide for E&E companies in managing or overcoming barriers during the implementation of material efficiency strategies and other sustainable manufacturing activities.

  13. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  14. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  15. Geodetic methods to determine the relativistic redshift at the level of 10^{-18} in the context of international timescales: a review and practical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Heiner; Timmen, Ludger; Voigt, Christian; Weyers, Stefan; Peik, Ekkehard; Margolis, Helen S.; Delva, Pacôme; Wolf, Peter; Petit, Gérard

    2017-12-01

    The frequency stability and uncertainty of the latest generation of optical atomic clocks is now approaching the one part in 10^{18} level. Comparisons between earthbound clocks at rest must account for the relativistic redshift of the clock frequencies, which is proportional to the corresponding gravity (gravitational plus centrifugal) potential difference. For contributions to international timescales, the relativistic redshift correction must be computed with respect to a conventional zero potential value in order to be consistent with the definition of Terrestrial Time. To benefit fully from the uncertainty of the optical clocks, the gravity potential must be determined with an accuracy of about 0.1 m2 s^{-2} , equivalent to about 0.01 m in height. This contribution focuses on the static part of the gravity field, assuming that temporal variations are accounted for separately by appropriate reductions. Two geodetic approaches are investigated for the derivation of gravity potential values: geometric levelling and the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)/geoid approach. Geometric levelling gives potential differences with millimetre uncertainty over shorter distances (several kilometres), but is susceptible to systematic errors at the decimetre level over large distances. The GNSS/geoid approach gives absolute gravity potential values, but with an uncertainty corresponding to about 2 cm in height. For large distances, the GNSS/geoid approach should therefore be better than geometric levelling. This is demonstrated by the results from practical investigations related to three clock sites in Germany and one in France. The estimated uncertainty for the relativistic redshift correction at each site is about 2 × 10^{-18}.

  16. Archival Education in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Hanefi Kutluoğlu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Every country has responsibilities to provide the necessary personnel needed for their archival inheritance by education. Education can be shaped through tradition, historical inheritance and scientifi c necessities by defi ning the right educational method. Scandinavian countries have determined different education models based on their tradition, historical inheritance and requirements. In this article we focused on the formation of archival tradition, application of archival education in Scandinavian countries and the infl uence of the developments taking place in Europe on these countries. The relation between the archival education in European and Scandinavian countries is evaluated through a comparative method, and similarities to other countries are also evaluated. Finally, the present situation of archival education and the measures needed in this fi eld are taken into consideration.

  17. A metagenetic approach to determine the diversity and distribution of cyst nematodes at the level of the country, the field and the individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J; Reid, Alex; Pickup, Jon; Anderson, Eric; Cock, Peter J A; Blaxter, Mark; Urwin, Peter E; Jones, John T; Blok, Vivian C

    2015-12-01

    Distinct populations of the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera pallida exist in the UK that differ in their ability to overcome various sources of resistance. An efficient method for distinguishing between populations would enable pathogen-informed cultivar choice in the field. Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA) annually undertake national DNA diagnostic tests to determine the presence of PCN in potato seed and ware land by extracting DNA from soil floats. These DNA samples provide a unique resource for monitoring the distribution of PCN and further interrogation of the diversity within species. We identify a region of mitochondrial DNA descriptive of three main groups of G. pallida present in the UK and adopt a metagenetic approach to the sequencing and analysis of all SASA samples simultaneously. Using this approach, we describe the distribution of G. pallida mitotypes across Scotland with field-scale resolution. Most fields contain a single mitotype, one-fifth contain a mix of mitotypes, and less than 3% contain all three mitotypes. Within mixed fields, we were able to quantify the relative abundance of each mitotype across an order of magnitude. Local areas within mixed fields are dominated by certain mitotypes and indicate towards a complex underlying 'pathoscape'. Finally, we assess mitotype distribution at the level of the individual cyst and provide evidence of 'hybrids'. This study provides a method for accurate, quantitative and high-throughput typing of up to one thousand fields simultaneously, while revealing novel insights into the national genetic variability of an economically important plant parasite. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. EFFECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS: REVIEWS IN RELATION WITH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HILAL YILDIRIR KESER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the effects of higher education on global competitiveness One of the most widely accepted definition of global competitiveness is in the form of " efficiency level encompassing all of the institutions that will ensure sustainable growth in a country, policies and factors of production". Therefore the competitiveness of a country depends on the factors such as; The level of development of R & D activities and productivity, performance of various sectors, the country's trade surplus, producing goods hosting high-tech in their nature, availability of expert and skilled labor force. But one of the main points in the realization of these factors is the quality of the higher education. Higher education has an important role in the formation of qualified labour. And the qualified labour carries the competitiveness firstly of the sector and then of the country up to higher ranks by increasing the performance and productivity of the companies. The study will be discussed in the following way: firstly the context of the global competitiveness will be mentioned, secondly, the role and importance of higher education will be put forth by explaining the basic determinants of competitivenes particularly within the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index. Finally, assessments will be made in relation with the situation of higher education in global competitiveness in European countries and Middle Eastern countries.

  19. Scaling Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Neilsen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of scaling health information system in the context of developing countries by taking a case study from Ethiopia. Concepts of information infrastructure have been used as an analytical lens to better understand scaling of Health Information systems. More...... specifically, we question the fruitfulness of focusing on not being installed base hostile and suggest focusing on how to be installed base “friendly” by underscoring how the installed base can also be draw upon and shaped by human agents. The paper conceptualizes health information infrastructure (HII......) building as an intertwined process of the evolution of the installed base and the construction activities of human agents. Overall, we argue that it is not only the adverse situation that determines how things develop, but HII builders need to navigate and take into account a wide range of issues related...

  20. A Comparison of Physical Activity Levels in Childcare Contexts among Finnish and Dutch Three-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Anne; Gubbels, Jessica; Sääkslahti, Arja; Villberg, Jari; Kremers, Stef; Van Kann, Dave; Mehtälä, Anette; De Vries, Nanne; Poskiparta, Marita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine Finnish and Dutch three-year-old preschool children's physical activity (PA) levels and how levels vary across gender, location, time of day and social contexts in both countries. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used to…

  1. "Bridgers" in the Third Space: An In-Country Investigation of the Leadership Practices of US-Educated Chinese Nationals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    This in-country grounded theory study examined the lived experiences of 24 Chinese returnees who completed advanced degrees in the United States. The study found that the four types of organizations in mainland China determine the social context of the application of Western education of the Chinese returnees. Returnees working in multinational…

  2. Physical inactivity, gender and culture in Arab countries: a systematic assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Eman; Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla

    2018-05-18

    Physical inactivity is associated with excess weight and adverse health outcomes. We synthesize the evidence on physical inactivity and its social determinants in Arab countries, with special attention to gender and cultural context. We searched MEDLINE, Popline, and SSCI for articles published between 2000 and 2016, assessing the prevalence of physical inactivity and its social determinants. We also included national survey reports on physical activity, and searched for analyses of the social context of physical activity. We found 172 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Standardized data are available from surveys by the World Health Organization for almost all countries, but journal articles show great variability in definitions, measurements and methodology. Prevalence of inactivity among adults and children/adolescents is high across countries, and is higher among women. Some determinants of physical inactivity in the region (age, gender, low education) are shared with other regions, but specific aspects of the cultural context of the region seem particularly discouraging of physical activity. We draw on social science studies to gain insights into why this is so. Physical inactivity among Arab adults and children/adolescents is high. Studies using harmonized approaches, rigorous analytic techniques and a deeper examination of context are needed to design appropriate interventions.

  3. Play and recreation in a developing country context: Assessing utility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Play and recreation programming are increasingly becoming part of the modern city. This study explored the level of access to, satisfaction with, and perceptions of quality of Jardin Public Gardens, the only public open green space in Bujumbura, Burundi's capital. The study evaluated distance, age, perceived quality, and ...

  4. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marara, Madeleine; Okello, Nick; Kuhanwa, Zainab; Douven, Wim; Beevers, Lindsay; Leentvaar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  5. Cancer epidemiology in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that there were over 10 million new cancer cases in 2000, 5.4 million of them occurring in the developing countries (Parkin et al, 2001). The marked geographical variation in cancer occurrence results in differing therapeutic priorities: North America has more new cancer cases than South-Central Asia, but there are more deaths from cancer in South-Central Asia, reflecting a different pattern of cancer rather than differences in prognosis. Prediction of future trends is difficult, but the impact of population increase and ageing will be significant, with an expected 63% increase in the population of the less developed countries in 50 years. Four sites of cancer namely breast, cervix, colorectal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are reviewed, looking at their present and possible future importance in the context of developing countries and their aetiology

  6. Determinants of leasing business in emerging country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariang Siagian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to examine leasing business in Indonesia, if there is any effect of leasing literacy to the access into leasing company, motivation to buy and ability to pay liabilities. The research’s object is customers of leasing companies who have been buying leasing products and live around Jakarta. While the methodology used will be the qualitative method by using survey and questionnaire. The outcomes revealed that 68.5% of respondents have the average income of less than 5 million per month, and the type of product leased is dominated by motorcycles and cars. Furthermore, the result of regression analysis is the literacy to the access into leasing company has no effect. But on the other hand, the result shows that there is an effect of literacy on motivation and ability to pay liabilities. From this study, it can be concluded that generally, customers do not care about the insight into leasing business. Most of the customers used the literacy for to get the products and to be able to pay the installments obligations. Hence, they need sufficient information about leasing company and its services.

  7. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  8. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context , no.1, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cosciug

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  9. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.1, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cosciug

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  10. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.1, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Cosciug Angela

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  11. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.1-2, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Cosciug Angela

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  12. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.1, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cosciug

    2009-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  13. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context. no. 2, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Cosciug Angela

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  14. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.2, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cosciug

    2009-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  15. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.2, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Cosciug Angela

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  16. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.2, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cosciug

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  17. And young child feeding practices in different country settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Jimerson, Ann; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Zewale, Medhanit; Nguyen, Giang Huong

    2013-09-01

    Alive & Thrive aims to increase exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Vietnam. To develop and execute comprehensive communication strategies adapted to each context. We documented how three countries followed an established iterative planning process, with research steps followed by key decisions, to develop a communication strategy in each country. Secondary analysis and formative research identified the priority practices to focus on, and locally specific constraints to proper infant and young child feeding (IYCF). Communication strategies were then developed based on the social, cultural, economic, epidemiological, media use, and programmatic contexts of each country. There were widespread gaps between recommended and actual feeding practices, and these varied by country. Gaps were identified in household, community, and institutional levels of awareness and skills. Strategies were designed that would enable mothers in each specific setting to adopt practices. To improve priority behaviors, messaging and media strategies addressed the most salient behavioral determinants through face-to-face communication, social mobilization, and mass media. Trials of improved practices (TIPs), concept testing, and pretesting of materials proved useful to verify the relevance and likely effectiveness of communication messages and materials tailored for different audiences in each setting. Coordination and collaboration with multiple stakeholders from the start was important to harmonize messages and approaches, expand geographic coverage to national scale, and sustain the interventions. Our experience with designing large-scale communication strategies for behavior change confirms that systematic analysis and local planning cannot be omitted from the critical process of strategic design tailored to each context. Multiple communication channels matched to media habits in each setting can reach a substantial proportion of mothers

  18. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  19. The institutional context of tobacco production in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Lencucha, Raphael; Drope, Jeffrey; Packer, Corinne; Goma, Fastone M; Zulu, Richard

    2018-01-16

    Tobacco production is said to be an important contributor to Zambia's economy in terms of labour and revenue generation. In light of Zambia's obligations under the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) we examined the institutional actors in Zambia's tobacco sector to better understand their roles and determine the institutional context that supports tobacco production in Zambia. Findings from 26 qualitative, semi-structured individual or small-group interviews with key informants from governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations were analysed, along with data and information from published literature. Although Zambia is obligated under the FCTC to take steps to reduce tobacco production, the country's weak economy and strong tobacco interests make it difficult to achieve this goal. Respondents uniformly acknowledged that growing the country's economy and ensuring employment for its citizens are the government's top priorities. Lacklustre coordination and collaboration between the institutional actors, both within and outside government, contributes to an environment that helps sustain tobacco production in the country. A Tobacco Products Control Bill has been under review for a number of years, but with no supply measures included, and with no indication of when or whether it will be passed. As with other low-income countries involved in tobacco production, there is inconsistency between Zambia's economic policy to strengthen the country's economy and its FCTC commitment to regulate and control tobacco production. The absence of a whole-of-government approach towards tobacco control has created an institutional context of duelling objectives, with some government ministries working at cross-purposes and tobacco interests left unchecked. With no ultimate coordinating authority, this industry risks being run according to the desire and demands of multinational tobacco companies, with few, if any, checks against them.

  20. Compulsory Schooling Laws and Migration Across European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio Fenoll, Ainhoa; Kuehn, Zoë

    2017-12-01

    Educational attainment is a key factor for understanding why some individuals migrate and others do not. Compulsory schooling laws, which determine an individual's minimum level of education, can potentially affect migration. We test whether and how increasing the length of compulsory schooling influences migration of affected cohorts across European countries, a context where labor mobility is essentially free. We construct a novel database that includes information for 31 European countries on compulsory education reforms passed between 1950 and 1990. Combining this data with information on recent migration flows by cohorts, we find that an additional year of compulsory education reduces the number of individuals from affected cohorts who migrate in a given year by 9 %. Our results rely on the exogeneity of compulsory schooling laws. A variety of empirical tests indicate that European legislators did not pass compulsory education reforms as a reaction to changes in emigration rates or educational attainment.

  1. Context-dependent cheating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pascual‐Ezama, David; Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Cardenas, Juan-Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers use several international indices that characterize countries according to the quality of their institutions. However, no effort has been made to study how the honesty of citizens varies across countries. This paper explores the honesty among citizens across 16 countries with 1440...... that are indicative of institutional honesty are completely uncorrelated with citizens’ honesty for our sample countries....

  2. TENDENCIES OF IMPROVING STAFF MOTIVATION IN THE CONTEXT OF MOLDOVA – EUROPEAN UNION ASSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina ILCIUC

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and internationalization of labour market have determined the high mobility of the workforce between countries. Moldovan managers are more and more influenced by the European managerial practices, in the context of intense employees’ fluctuation, but the necessity of qualified specialists is more obvious. As a result, adaptation of some strategies and motivational policies that would maintain and attract qualified employees is an imperative requirement for the local managers.

  3. Continuum de Auto-Determinação: validade para a sua aplicação no contexto desportivo Self-Determination Continuum: validity for its application in the sport's context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Miguel Fernandes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A motivação intrínseca e os seus benefícios têm sido uma das principais áreas de investigação da Psicologia do Desporto. Contudo, o mesmo não se verifica quanto ao conhecimento do modo como os comportamentos são regulados e internalizados intrinsecamente pelos indivíduos. O propósito do presente estudo foi definir a validade de aplicação do continuum de auto-determinação (Deci & Ryan, 1985 no contexto da Educação Física. Uma amostra de 1099 alunos (544 moças e 555 rapazes com uma média de 14,66±0,75 anos de idade, respondeu a uma adaptação e tradução do questionário de Goudas, Biddle e Fox (1994 que visa medir as formas motivacionais definidas no continuum. Os procedimentos de modelação por equações estruturais evidenciaram suporte empírico para a utilização do continuum de auto-determinação na compreensão do modo como os alunos regulam intrinsecamente o seu comportamento neste contexto. São sugeridas algumas linhas de intervenção considerando os resultados obtidos.Intrinsic motivation and associated benefits has been one of the main investigation areas in Sport Psychology. However, the same is not denoted for the knowledge as behaviors are intrinsically regulated and internalized by individuals. The purpose of the present study is to define the validity of the self-determination's continuum application (Deci & Ryan, 1985 in the Physical Education context. A sample of 1099 students (544 girls and 555 boys with an average age of 14.66±0.75 years old answered an adaptation and translation of the Goudas, Biddle and Fox (1994 questionnaire that measures the motivational types delimited in the continuum. Structural equation modeling procedures evidenced empiric support for the self-determination's continuum use in the understanding of the way students intrinsically regulate their behavior in this context. Some lines of intervention are suggested considering the obtained results.

  4. State Debt of the Republic of Moldova as Essential Factor of the Country Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica HINCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available State Debt of the Republic of Moldova as Essential Factor of the Country Risk Abstract: This paper discusses issues concerning of the state debt risk related to the Republic of Moldova and the determinants of the state debt in the context of the country risk. Special attention is devoted to analyzing the dynamics and structure of Moldova's foreign debt by currency and sector, in terms of the components parts of the foreign debt risk of Moldova - refinancing risk, currency risk and interest rate risk. It is analyzed the external state debt, publicly guaranteed, and non-guaranteed private external debt.

  5. Public opinion change after the Fukushima nuclear accident: The role of national context revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latré, Edwin; Perko, Tanja; Thijssen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how national context moderated change in support for nuclear energy after the Fukushima accident. The following national contextual variables are tested: geographical distance, nuclear energy production status, freedom of the press, and the building of new nuclear reactors. The results illustrate that previous research has misunderstood the moderating role of national context on opinion change after the Fukushima accident. A survey conducted shortly after the accident with more than 23,000 respondents from 41 countries has shown that geographical distance from the accident mattered: Contradicting a previous study, the decrease in support for nuclear energy was stronger in countries closer to Fukushima. In addition, support for nuclear energy decreased more in countries where new nuclear reactors were under construction. The country's nuclear energy production status and press freedom did not determine opinion change after the Fukushima accident. The non-effect of freedom of the press on opinion change contradicts the role of media after a focusing event as described in the literature. Overall results demonstrate a limited effect of national context on opinion change following a focusing event. Hence, national context provides only limited information to policy makers on how to respond to a nuclear accident. - Highlights: • National context had limited effect on opinion change after Fukushima. • Support for nuclear energy decreased more in counties closer to the accident. • Support for nuclear energy decreased more where the nuclear energy debate was salient. • Freedom of the press did not determine opinion change after Fukushima. • Not all contextual factors are relevant when designing appropriate policy response.

  6. Croatia in a Regional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Caratan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author examines the regional context of Croatian politics, highlighting the main reasons for its significance: involvement of the region in war in recent history, the rootedness, aside from that, of extremely strong economic, political and cultural bonds between the countries in the region, and the importance of cooperation in the region for EU accession and further economic development. On these grounds, the author seeks to examine the possibility for stabilisation of the region, and to establish what interests the neighbouring countries such as Italy, Austria, Hungary and others have in strenghtening the bonds with the new democracies in Central and Southeast Europe. All of this eventually provides the answer to the question what is the interest of the EU in this region’s stability and in its admission to the European Union

  7. The Global Context of Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Rourke - Lang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Global Education Review examines the global context of disability and how in different geographic locations, socioeconomic factors, domestic policy, and disability perspectives impact access to special education services, and the types of resources and interventions available to individuals with diverse learning needs. Practices in countries including India, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kenya were studied and implications for meeting the special education needs for children and adults with disabilities and their families are discussed

  8. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  9. Construction industry in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moavenzadeh, F

    1978-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the construction capability available in the developing countries to meet the demand for shelter. It discusses the role of construction in the process of development and its importance to economic growth. It considers the issue facing the growth of a viable indigenous construction industry in the developing world within the context of the activities involved in the creation of constructed facilities--planning, design, contruction and maintenance; it also examines the environment within which the industry has developed. For each construction activity the paper reviews available capabilities, the various resources needed for the development of an indigenous industry, and some possible means of accommodating these needs.

  10. A New Method for Local Energy Planning in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beeck, N.

    2001-01-01

    Energy planning is an essential tool in the economic development of industrialized as well as developing countries. Energy planning in this paper is restricted to the selection of new energy systems for the production of proper energy forms in order to meet increased energy demand. This demand is actually the desire for certain energy services, which are the starting point of the new decision support method for local energy planning presented in this paper. In the decision making process concerning energy planning at the local level it is important to include context-related issues because the context determines for a large part the viability of the technologies or systems used. The context, in turn, is represented by the aims of the relevant actors, which are translated into measurable indicators to compare the different options. The impact assessment must allow for inclusion of all the indicators, either quantitative or qualitative in order to find the most appropriate technology for a region rather than the technically best or economically most optimal one. Appropriateness is defined by the context and is thus case specific, but the framework described in this paper is generally applicable within the given limitations. Note that the new method described in this paper is a decision support tool, implying that it does not decide for the energy planner which actions to take. The ultimate decision must be made by the planners themselves

  11. Tools for Export Promotion in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugachevska Kateryna S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the rate of growth in exports of goods and GDP is carried out, and goods exports to GDP ratio in the context of the developed countries, developing countries, and countries with the transition economy is calculated. This allows to make a conclusion about a decrease in importance of exports as a key engine of the world economic growth during the past years. The legal basis of the WTO’s activities in terms of state support for exports is described. The main reasons for the emergence of a conflict of interests between countries with different levels of economic development concerning the use of individual protectionist barriers are revealed. Potential long-term consequences of the growth of export orientation under conditions of openness of national economies are identified. The measures and tools of the country’s export promotion in foreign markets are studied. It is grounded that under conditions of destabilization of global trade regulators, effective export promotion is a mechanism for increasing the competitiveness of the national economy of Ukraine. Prospects for further research in this area are the determination of instruments to stimulate exports, which have the greatest impact on the export orientation of certain economic activities.

  12. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  13. Building country image process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The same branding principles are used for countries as they are used for the products, only the methods are different. Countries are competing among themselves in tourism, foreign investments and exports. Country turnover is at the level that the country's reputation is. The countries that begin as unknown or with a bad image will have limits in operations or they will be marginalized. As a result they will be at the bottom of the international influence scale. On the other hand, countries with a good image, like Germany (despite two world wars will have their products covered with a special "aura".

  14. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  15. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries.......To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries....

  16. Country logistics performance and disaster impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Alain; Haavisto, Ira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact. The relationship is analysed through correlation analysis and regression models for 117 countries for the years 2007 to 2012 with disaster impact variables from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) and logistics performance indicators from the World Bank. The results show a significant relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact overall and for five out of six specific logistic performance indicators. These specific indicators were further used to explore the relationship between country logistic performance and disaster impact for three specific disaster types (epidemic, flood and storm). The findings enhance the understanding of the role of logistics in a humanitarian context with empirical evidence of the importance of country logistics performance in disaster response operations. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  17. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  18. The motivations of proliferating countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, Jean-Claude; Daguzan, Jean-Francois; Pasco, Xavier; Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This report is based on previous works made by the GSPP group (GSPP stands for geographic-social-psychological-political) which defined conceptual backgrounds for a new approach to nuclear proliferation, notably by introducing an associated method, the GSPP method, which is used in this study. Thus, this report first presents the GSPP method through its application to the analysis of the decision dynamics in the case of a proliferating State, a discussion of the seven determining factors (national resources, history and strategic context, type of political regime, leader's history and personal typology, international dependencies and alliances, elites and mediators, public opinions), a discussion of the interactions between these factors, an application of the first determining factor, and an application of the GSPP method to the case of biological and chemical proliferation. In the next part, the authors propose sheets which report the application of the method to different countries (Iran, Israel, Iraq, Algeria, Libya, China, India, Pakistan, North and South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Australia, Indonesia, South Africa). The content and the exploitation of these sheets is then discussed, and the authors address the perspective of development of a GSPP model, notably by using the Maslowe pyramid. They propose an application of this model to the case of Iran

  19. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS IN THE EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Verhun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of national and regional development strategies for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are studied for a long time, as small and medium businesses are the foundation of the economy and the basis for effective country functioning. The business development program of the European Union countries is particularly interesting because there are several levels that correspond to each other and give full effect on the SMEs development. The EU standards are higher than in non-EU countries; therefore, it is worth considering legislative documents, as well as statistics showing the indicators of openness and access to the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. The complexity and comparative novelty of studying such a problem in Ukraine led to the need to explore sources of information in the original language due to the lack of information in Ukrainian or Russian. All these suggest that the problem of creating strategies at the national and regional level is more relevant and important to study in the West that demonstrates the current state. The subject of the study is to analyse the effectiveness of implementing strategies for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as the impact of national and regional policies on their functioning and development in the European Union countries. Methodology. The authors highlighted the peculiarities and main features of the development strategies implementation for small and medium-sized enterprises in the EU countries through a comparative analysis of the legislative framework, statistical and other data that help assess the performance and effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The content analysis helps to identify peculiarities of the implemented strategies in quantitative and qualitative forms. The thorough analysis using the above-mentioned methods allowed doing a qualitative study of national and regional strategies in the context of the

  20. Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2017-01-01

    - and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A case study of the Sialkot football-manufacturing cluster in Pakistan indicates that donor-funded support of CSR initiatives in industrial clusters in developing countries may be short-lived, due to the political economy of aid, the national context of CSR implementation...