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Sample records for counting qspr protocol

  1. An Atom Counting QSPR Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, S; Chattaraj, P K; Roy, D R; Subramanian, V

    2006-01-01

    A deceptively simple descriptor, viz. the number of carbon / non-hydrogenic atoms present in a molecule, is proposed for the development of useful quantitative-structure-property-relationship (QSPR) models. It is tested in models pertaining to the estimation of boiling point of alcohols, enthalpy of vaporization of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), n-octanol / water partition coefficient of PCBs and chloroanisoles, pKa values of carboxylic acids, phenols and alcohols etc. Very high values of various regression coefficients (R2, R2CV, R2Ad) suggest the significance of this descriptor which further improves in the resulting two-parameter QSPR models with electrophilicity or its local variant as an additional descriptor.

  2. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  3. Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge Bird Point Count Protocol : April, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol from April of 2007 details the specifics behind the 5-minute, 100-m radius point counts for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge's bird count. This...

  4. Effects of lek count protocols on greater sage-grouse population trend estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian; Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2016-01-01

    Annual counts of males displaying at lek sites are an important tool for monitoring greater sage-grouse populations (Centrocercus urophasianus), but seasonal and diurnal variation in lek attendance may increase variance and bias of trend analyses. Recommendations for protocols to reduce observation error have called for restricting lek counts to within 30 minutes of sunrise, but this may limit the number of lek counts available for analysis, particularly from years before monitoring was widely standardized. Reducing the temporal window for conducting lek counts also may constrain the ability of agencies to monitor leks efficiently. We used lek count data collected across Wyoming during 1995−2014 to investigate the effect of lek counts conducted between 30 minutes before and 30, 60, or 90 minutes after sunrise on population trend estimates. We also evaluated trends across scales relevant to management, including statewide, within Working Group Areas and Core Areas, and for individual leks. To further evaluate accuracy and precision of trend estimates from lek count protocols, we used simulations based on a lek attendance model and compared simulated and estimated values of annual rate of change in population size (λ) from scenarios of varying numbers of leks, lek count timing, and count frequency (counts/lek/year). We found that restricting analyses to counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise generally did not improve precision of population trend estimates, although differences among timings increased as the number of leks and count frequency decreased. Lek attendance declined >30 minutes after sunrise, but simulations indicated that including lek counts conducted up to 90 minutes after sunrise can increase the number of leks monitored compared to trend estimates based on counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise. This increase in leks monitored resulted in greater precision of estimates without reducing accuracy. Increasing count

  5. Optimization of a filter-lysis protocol to purify rat testicular homogenates for automated spermatid counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sara E; Anderson, Linnea M; Boekelheide, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying testicular homogenization-resistant spermatid heads (HRSH) is a powerful indicator of spermatogenesis. These counts have traditionally been performed manually using a hemocytometer, but this method can be time consuming and biased. We aimed to develop a protocol to reduce debris for the application of automated counting, which would allow for efficient and unbiased quantification of rat HRSH. We developed a filter-lysis protocol that effectively removes debris from rat testicular homogenates. After filtering and lysing the homogenates, we found no statistical differences between manual (classic and filter-lysis) and automated (filter-lysis) counts using 1-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. In addition, Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the counting methods, and there was a strong correlation between the classic manual counts and the filter-lysis manual (r = 0.85, P = .002) and the filter-lysis automated (r = 0.89, P = .0005) counts. We also tested the utility of the automated method in a low-dose exposure model known to decrease HRSH. Adult Fischer 344 rats exposed to 0.33% 2,5-hexanedione in the drinking water for 12 weeks demonstrated decreased body (P = .02) and testes (P = .002) weights. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the number of HRSH per testis (P = .002) when compared to controls. A filterlysis protocol was optimized to purify rat testicular homogenates for automated HRSH counts. Automated counting systems yield unbiased data and can be applied to detect changes in the testis after low-dose toxicant exposure.

  6. Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许有国

    2005-01-01

    Most people began to count in tens because they had ten fingers on their hands. But in some countries, people counted on one hand and used the three parts of their four fingers. So they counted in twelves, not in tens.

  7. Flow cytometry reticulocyte counting using acridine orange: validation of a new protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Augusta Viana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, the reticulocyte counting is a challenge for clinical laboratories in Brazil, mainly for the ordinary ones, which still use the manual method. This method has some limitations, since it consists of a laborious method, time consuming, with low accuracy. Objectives: This study has developed and evaluated the performance of a New Laboratory Protocol for flow cytometry (FC reticulocytes counting using acridine orange (AO as dye, aiming to standardize a more precise, easy, fast implementation, and low cost protocol. After standardization of the New Protocol (FC/AO, it was compared with the manual method. The results were analyzed according to the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, now known as Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, to evaluate the interchangeability of methods in linear regression analysis and paired t test, besides other quality control tests. Conclusion: Based on these results concerning to the correlation between the methods and the tests related to quality control, we can admit that FC/AO for reticulocyte counting shows undeniable advantages when compared to the preexisting manual method.

  8. A Hop Count Based Heuristic Routing Protocol for Mobile Delay Tolerant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Changjiang; Dai, Chenqu; Xu, Jixing; Hu, Lejuan

    2014-01-01

    Routing in delay tolerant networks (DTNs) is a challenge since it must handle network partitioning, long delays, and dynamic topology. Meanwhile, routing protocols of the traditional mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) cannot work well due to the failure of its assumption that most network connections are available. In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. A heuristic function is defined to help in making the routing decision. We formally define a custom operation for square matrices so as to transform the heuristic value calculation into matrix manipulation. Finally, the performance of our proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulation results, which show the advantage of such self-adaptive routing protocol in the diverse circumstance of DTNs. PMID:25110736

  9. A Hop Count Based Heuristic Routing Protocol for Mobile Delay Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in delay tolerant networks (DTNs is a challenge since it must handle network partitioning, long delays, and dynamic topology. Meanwhile, routing protocols of the traditional mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs cannot work well due to the failure of its assumption that most network connections are available. In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. A heuristic function is defined to help in making the routing decision. We formally define a custom operation for square matrices so as to transform the heuristic value calculation into matrix manipulation. Finally, the performance of our proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulation results, which show the advantage of such self-adaptive routing protocol in the diverse circumstance of DTNs.

  10. Evaluation of methodological protocols using point counts and mist nets: a case study in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite their wide use in ornithological surveys, point counts and mist nets follow protocols developed in temperate regions, with little attention to possible modifications for tropical systems. Using these methods on a 3-month basis from December 2009-January 2011 in two forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, we wished to evaluate how long these locations needed to be surveyed with point counts for a relatively complete avifaunal inventory (at least 90% of all species and contacts, and if mist net hourly captures can equally detect numbers of species and individuals. Daily counting with four 20-min points during five consecutive days in a rain forest (MC detected 90% of the estimated species richness after 20 h (60 20-min point counts, while 17 h (51 20-min point counts did not detect 90% of the estimated species richness in a semideciduous forest (IT. The first 5 min of point counting in MC (63% of all species and in IT (65% detected significantly more species than the remaining minutes, but it took 15 min to accumulate 86% of all contacts in both forests. Consecutive 5-day mist netting (~ 9 h/day resulted in 70.5 net-h/m² (MC and 74.8 net-h/m² (IT of sample effort, but 80-85% of the estimated number of species was obtained. Although accumulation curves showed no tendency towards stabilization of the number of observed species, the estimated number of species began to stabilize after the first 20 h in both forests. There was no significant difference in capture rates for both species richness and abundance among hourly net checks, but a trend in which these parameters were highest between the second and fourth checks of the day was observed. A 3-day (43.8 and 63.3 net-h/m² mist netting section was enough to record 90% of the species captured during five days in MC and IT, respectively, while precise enough not to jeopardize species richness estimation. The number of individuals, however, decreased order 34% in MC and 38% in IT under the

  11. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengwu Wang; Xiaoyi Zhang; Jiwei Hu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension (γ) of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies o...

  12. Current Mathematical Methods Used in QSAR/QSPR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the mathematical methods currently used in quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QASR/QSPR studies. Recently, the mathematical methods applied to the regression of QASR/QSPR models are developing very fast, and new methods, such as Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Project Pursuit Regression (PPR and Local Lazy Regression (LLR have appeared on the QASR/QSPR stage. At the same time, the earlier methods, including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Squares (PLS, Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and so on, are being upgraded to improve their performance in QASR/QSPR studies. These new and upgraded methods and algorithms are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and discussed, to show their application potential in QASR/QSPR studies in the future.

  13. Costs of HIV+/AIDS at CD4+ counts disease stages based on treatment protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, C B; Tierce, J C; Simison, D; Ward, D; Motte, K

    1996-08-01

    We report treatment protocols for HIV+/AIDS patients by CD4+ counts (T-lymphocyte cells/mm3: > or = 500, 499-200, 199-50, and or = 500), $6,015 (200-499), and $9,031 (50-199), to $25,239 ( < 50). The annual costs of opportunistic diseases are esophageal candidiasis (EC) ($2,194), tuberculosis (TB) ($2,924), cryptococcal meningitis (CM) ($17,264), toxoplasmosis ($17,631), Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (+20,153), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) ($22,329), wasting syndrome ($26,676), central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma ($27,333), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) [mild ($3,545), moderate ($4,889), and severe ($32,609)], Kaposi' sarcoma (KS) [mild/moderate ($5,902), and severe ($10,744)], and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis ($100,337). The projected lifetime costs of HIV+/AIDS are $94,726 (annual costs $7,645). Our lower lifetime costs as compared with recent estimates may be due to including resources only for HIV+/AIDS-related treatment and not for non-HIV+/AIDS conditions, as well as reduced resource use resulting from more efficient diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and earlier prophylaxis provided by experienced HIV+/AIDS physicians. Nonetheless, our estimates are consistent with decreasing costs of HIV+/AIDS due to a reduction in the average length of stay and frequency of hospitalizations as well as to replacement of inpatient care by outpatient services.

  14. A study of cellular counting to determine minimum thresholds for adequacy for liquid-based cervical cytology using a survey and counting protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Henry C; Gittins, Matthew; Desai, Mina; Smith, John H F; Cook, Gary; Roberts, Chris; Turnbull, Lesley

    2015-03-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) for cervical screening would benefit from laboratory practice guidelines that define specimen adequacy for reporting of slides. The evidence base required to define cell adequacy should incorporate both ThinPrep™ (TP; Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) and SurePath™ (SP; BD Diagnostics, Burlington, NC, USA), the two LBC systems used in the UK cervical screening programmes. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) current practice for reporting LBC in England, Wales and Scotland, (2) a reproducible method for cell counting, (3) the cellularity of slides classified as inadequate, negative or abnormal and (4) the impact of varying cellularity on the likelihood of detecting cytological abnormalities. The study involved four separate arms to pursue each of the four objectives. (1) A questionnaire survey of laboratories was conducted. (2) A standard counting protocol was developed and used by three experienced cytopathologists to determine a reliable and reproducible cell counting method. (3) Slide sets which included a range of cytological abnormalities were each sent to three laboratories for cell counting to study the correlation between cell counts and reported cytological outcomes. (4) Dilution of LBC samples by fluid only (unmixed) or by dilution with a sample containing normal cells (mixed) was performed to study the impact on reporting of reducing either the total cell count or the relative proportion of abnormal to normal cells. The study was conducted within the cervical screening programmes in England, Wales and Scotland, using routinely obtained cervical screening samples, and in 56 participating NHS cervical cytology laboratories. The study involved only routinely obtained cervical screening samples. There was no clinical intervention. The main outcome measures were (1) reliability of counting method, (2) correlation of reported cytology grades with cellularity and (3) levels of detection of abnormal cells in

  15. Nano-QSPR Modelling of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahinejad, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of chemical and physical properties of nanomaterials is of critical importance in a broad variety of nanotechnology researches. There is an increasing interest in computational methods capable of predicting properties of new and modified nanomaterials in the absence of time-consuming and costly experimental studies. Quantitative Structure- Property Relationship (QSPR) approaches are progressive tools in modelling and prediction of many physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, which are also known as nano-QSPR. This review provides insight into the concepts, challenges and applications of QSPR modelling of carbon-based nanomaterials. First, we try to provide a general overview of QSPR implications, by focusing on the difficulties and limitations on each step of the QSPR modelling of nanomaterials. Then follows with the most significant achievements of QSPR methods in modelling of carbon-based nanomaterials properties and their recent applications to generate predictive models. This review specifically addresses the QSPR modelling of physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterials including fullerenes, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) and graphene.

  16. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc and surface tension (γ of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies on cloud point (for nonionic surfactants, biodegradation potential and some other properties of surfactants are evaluated .

  17. QSPR Models for Octane Number Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabir H. Al-Fahemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR is performed as a means to predict octane number of hydrocarbons via correlating properties to parameters calculated from molecular structure; such parameters are molecular mass M, hydration energy EH, boiling point BP, octanol/water distribution coefficient logP, molar refractivity MR, critical pressure CP, critical volume CV, and critical temperature CT. Principal component analysis (PCA and multiple linear regression technique (MLR were performed to examine the relationship between multiple variables of the above parameters and the octane number of hydrocarbons. The results of PCA explain the interrelationships between octane number and different variables. Correlation coefficients were calculated using M.S. Excel to examine the relationship between multiple variables of the above parameters and the octane number of hydrocarbons. The data set was split into training of 40 hydrocarbons and validation set of 25 hydrocarbons. The linear relationship between the selected descriptors and the octane number has coefficient of determination (R2=0.932, statistical significance (F=53.21, and standard errors (s =7.7. The obtained QSPR model was applied on the validation set of octane number for hydrocarbons giving RCV2=0.942 and s=6.328.

  18. Technical note: enumeration of mesophilic aerobes in milk: evaluation of standard official protocols and Petrifilm aerobic count plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R; Nero, L A; Carvalho, A F

    2009-07-01

    Enumeration of mesophilic aerobes (MA) is the main quality and hygiene parameter for raw and pasteurized milk. High levels of these microorganisms indicate poor conditions in production, storage, and processing of milk, and also the presence of pathogens. Fifteen raw and 15 pasteurized milk samples were submitted for MA enumeration by a conventional plating method (using plate count agar) and Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), followed by incubation according to 3 official protocols: IDF/ISO (incubation at 30 degrees C for 72 h), American Public Health Association (32 degrees C for 48 h), and Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (36 degrees C for 48 h). The results were compared by linear regression and ANOVA. Considering the results from conventional methodology, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences between mean counts were observed, independent of type of milk sample (raw or pasteurized) and incubation conditions (IDF/ISO, American Public Health Association, or Ministry of Agriculture). Considering the results from Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences were only observed for raw milk samples. The microbiota of pasteurized milk interfered negatively with the performance of Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, probably because of the presence of microorganisms that poorly reduce the dye indicator of this system.

  19. An Improvement over AODV Routing Protocol by Limiting Visited Hop Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fotohi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The AODV protocol is based on the minimum delay path as its route selection criteria, regardless of the paths load. This issue leads to unbalanced load dissemination in the network and the energy of the nodes on the shortest path deplete earlier than others. We proposed an improved AODV protocol with limited TTL (Time to Live of RREP packet in which the route reply (RREP packet of AODV is modified to limite TTL information of nodes. Experiments have been carried out using network simulator software (NS2. Simulation results show that our proposed routing protocol outperforms regular AODV in terms of packet delivery rate, good put, throughput, and jitter.

  20. National Protocol Framework for the Inventory and Monitoring of Breeding Landbirds Using Point Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides a tool for deleoping site-specific guidance on how to inventory or monitor breeding landbirds in North America by use of point...

  1. The Influence of Pumping on Observed Bacterial Counts in Groundwater Samples: Implications for Sampling Protocol and Water Quality Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuskanich, J.; Novakowski, K.; Anderson, B.

    2008-12-01

    volumes are more likely to show stabilized bacterial counts, however, this sort of pumping event is not common during daily household water use or when a sample is being collected for a bacterial test by the homeowner. The stabilization of bacterial counts was delayed compared to the field parameters. Bacterial counts were influenced on the short-term by changes in pumping rate, however, similar long-term stability of the counts was observed. The trends of tests conducted in multi-level piezometers (sand pack between the screen and the wellbore wall) were similar to tests conducted in open boreholes. The results imply that bacterial counts and the subsequent water quality interpretations are influenced by the pumping rate and when the sample was taken during the pumping event. Early time results are more likely to reflect the bacterial response to the perturbations caused by the pump itself, while later samples reflect the adjustment of the bacterial colonies, in and adjacent to the well, to the new conditions. Further consideration needs to be given to these parameters when designing a bacterial sampling protocol in groundwater and when assessing the quality of drinking water using bacteria as indicators.

  2. Highlighting and trying to overcome a serious drawback with QSPR studies; data collection in different experimental conditions (mixed-QSPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Abolghasem; Riahi, Siavash; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz

    2012-03-15

    The experimental conditions in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies need to be the same for each dataset in case one wishes to relate the property, only to the structure. This major drawback limits QSPR studies due to two reasons: (1) Gathering of physicochemical data obtained under the same experimental condition is difficult. (2) The obtained model is just useful to predict the physicochemical properties under the specific experimental condition. In this article, we report an attempt to highlight the shortcoming of QSPR studies for a property that was measured under different experimental conditions. In addition, we reveal inadequacies that correlating the fluorescence properties and the descriptor of the solvent has. These defects are eventually removed by taking into account the solvent-solute interactions in descriptor calculations. Quantum chemical calculations (HF/6-31G*) were carried out to optimize geometry and calculate the structural descriptors. The genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression method was utilized to construct the linear QSPR models. Because of the better nonlinear relationship between the quantum yield of fluorescence and structural descriptors in comparison with those of a linear relationship, support vector machine was used to construct the nonlinear QSPR model. Result analyses demonstrated that the proposed models meet our goal.

  3. QSPR for predicting chloroform formation in drinking water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luilo, G B; Cabaniss, S E

    2011-01-01

    Chlorination is the most widely used technique for water disinfection, but may lead to the formation of chloroform (trichloromethane; TCM) and other by-products. This article reports the first quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) for predicting the formation of TCM in chlorinated drinking water. Model compounds (n = 117) drawn from 10 literature sources were divided into training data (n = 90, analysed by five-way leave-many-out internal cross-validation) and external validation data (n = 27). QSPR internal cross-validation had Q² = 0.94 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.09 moles TCM per mole compound, consistent with external validation Q2 of 0.94 and RMSE of 0.08 moles TCM per mole compound, and met criteria for high predictive power and robustness. In contrast, log TCM QSPR performed poorly and did not meet the criteria for predictive power. The QSPR predictions were consistent with experimental values for TCM formation from tannic acid and for model fulvic acid structures. The descriptors used are consistent with a relatively small number of important TCM precursor structures based upon 1,3-dicarbonyls or 1,3-diphenols.

  4. Studies on the Cloud Points of Nonionic Surfactants with QSPR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mei-ling; WANG Zheng-wu; ZHANG Ge-xin; GU Jin; CUN Zhe; TAO Fu-ming

    2007-01-01

    With quantum chemical parameters, topological indexes, and physical ehemistry parameters as descriptors, a quantitative structure-property relationship(QSPR) has been found for the cloud points of four series of nonionic surfactants(a total of 65 surfactants). The best-regressed model includes six descriptors, and the correlation coefficient of multiple determination is as high as 0. 962.

  5. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  6. QSPR prediction of physico-chemical properties for REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, J C; Rotureau, P; Fayet, G

    2013-01-01

    For registration of a chemical, European Union REACH legislation requires information on the relevant physico-chemical properties of the chemical. Predicted property values can be used when the predictions can be shown to be valid and adequate. The relevant physico-chemical properties that are amenable to prediction are: melting/freezing point, boiling point, relative density, vapour pressure, surface tension, water solubility, n-octanol-water partition coefficient, flash point, flammability, explosive properties, self-ignition temperature, adsorption/desorption, dissociation constant, viscosity, and air-water partition coefficient (Henry's law constant). Published quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) methods for all of these properties are discussed, together with relevant property prediction software, as an aid for those wishing to use predicted property values in submissions to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA).

  7. The QSPR-THESAURUS: the online platform of the CADASTER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Stefan; Peijnenburg, Willie; Durjava, Mojca K; Kolar, Boris; Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester; Bhhatarai, Barun; Kovarich, Simona; Cassani, Stefano; Roy, Partha Pratim; Rahmberg, Magnus; Öberg, Tomas; Jeliazkova, Nina; Golsteijn, Laura; Comber, Mike; Charochkina, Larisa; Novotarskyi, Sergii; Sushko, Iurii; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; D'Onofrio, Elisa; Kunwar, Prakash; Ruggiu, Fiorella; Tetko, Igor V

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the CADASTER project (CAse Studies on the Development and Application of in Silico Techniques for Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment) was to exemplify REACH-related hazard assessments for four classes of chemical compound, namely, polybrominated diphenylethers, per and polyfluorinated compounds, (benzo)triazoles, and musks and fragrances. The QSPR-THESAURUS website (http: / /qspr-thesaurus.eu) was established as the project's online platform to upload, store, apply, and also create, models within the project. We overview the main features of the website, such as model upload, experimental design and hazard assessment to support risk assessment, and integration with other web tools, all of which are essential parts of the QSPR-THESAURUS. 2014 FRAME.

  8. Radial Basis Function Neural Networks Based QSPR for the Prediction of log P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚小军; 范波涛; 等

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative structure-property relationship(QSPR) method is used to study the correlation models between the structures of a set of diverse organic compounds and their log P.Molecular descriptors calculated from strucure alone are used to describe the molecular structures.A subset of the calcualted descriptors,selected using forward stepwise regression,is used in the QSPR models development.Multiple linear regression (MLR) and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) are utilied to construct the linear and non-linear correlation model,respectively,The optimal QSPR model developed is based on a 7-17-1 RBFNNs architecture using sever calculated molecular descriptors .The root mean square errors in predictions for the training,predicting and overall data sets are 0.284,0.327 and 0.291 log P units respectively.

  9. Prediction of boiling points of organic compounds by QSPR tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi-min; Zhu, Zhi-ping; Cao, Zhong; Zhang, Yue-fei; Zeng, Ju-lan; Li, Xun

    2013-07-01

    The novel electro-negativity topological descriptors of YC, WC were derived from molecular structure by equilibrium electro-negativity of atom and relative bond length of molecule. The quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) between descriptors of YC, WC as well as path number parameter P3 and the normal boiling points of 80 alkanes, 65 unsaturated hydrocarbons and 70 alcohols were obtained separately. The high-quality prediction models were evidenced by coefficient of determination (R(2)), the standard error (S), average absolute errors (AAE) and predictive parameters (Qext(2),RCV(2),Rm(2)). According to the regression equations, the influences of the length of carbon backbone, the size, the degree of branching of a molecule and the role of functional groups on the normal boiling point were analyzed. Comparison results with reference models demonstrated that novel topological descriptors based on the equilibrium electro-negativity of atom and the relative bond length were useful molecular descriptors for predicting the normal boiling points of organic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. QSPR modeling of detonation parameters and sensitivity of some energetic materials: DFT vs. PM3 calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Chen, Gangling; Gong, Xuedong

    2017-06-01

    The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) methodology was applied to describe and seek the relationship between the structures and energetic properties (and sensitivity) for some common energy compounds. An extended series of structural and energetic descriptors was obtained with density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP and semi-empirical PM3 approaches. Results indicate that QSPR model constructed using quantum descriptors can be applied to verify the confidence of calculation results compared with experimental data. It can be extended to predict the properties of similar compounds.

  11. Structure Modification Toward Applicability Domain of a QSAR/QSPR Model Considering Activity/Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Shoki; Miyao, Tomoyuki; Funatsu, Kimito

    2017-08-16

    In drug and material design, the activity and property values of the designed chemical structures can be predicted by quantitative structure-activity and structure-property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) models. When a QSAR/QSPR model is applied to chemical structures, its applicability domain (AD) must be considered. The predicted activity/property values are only reliable for chemical structures inside the AD. Chemical structures outside the AD are usually neglected, as the predicted values are unreliable. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for obtaining novel chemical structures with the desired activity or property based on a QSAR/QSPR model by making use of the neglected structures. We propose a structure modification strategy for the AD that considers the activity and property simultaneously. The AD is defined by a one-class support vector machine and the structure modification is guided by a partial derivative of the AD model and matched molecular pairs analysis. Three proof-of-concept case studies generate novel chemical structures inside the AD that exhibit preferable activity/property values according to the QSAR/QSPR model. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Beware of R2: simple, unambiguous assessment of the prediction accuracy of QSAR and QSPR models

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, D. L. J.; Tropsha, A; Winkler, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical metrics used to characterize the external predictivity of a model, i.e., how well it predicts the properties of an independent test set, have proliferated over the past decade. This paper clarifies some apparent confusion over the use of the coefficient of determination, R2, as a measure of model fit and predictive power in QSAR and QSPR modelling.

  13. AutoWeka: toward an automated data mining software for QSAR and QSPR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantasenamat, Chanin; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Jamsak, Saksiri; Preeyanon, Likit; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Simeon, Saw; Mandi, Prasit; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-01-01

    In biology and chemistry, a key goal is to discover novel compounds affording potent biological activity or chemical properties. This could be achieved through a chemical intuition-driven trial-and-error process or via data-driven predictive modeling. The latter is based on the concept of quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) when applied in modeling the biological activity and chemical properties, respectively, of compounds. Data mining is a powerful technology underlying QSAR/QSPR as it harnesses knowledge from large volumes of high-dimensional data via multivariate analysis. Although extremely useful, the technicalities of data mining may overwhelm potential users, especially those in the life sciences. Herein, we aim to lower the barriers to access and utilization of data mining software for QSAR/QSPR studies. AutoWeka is an automated data mining software tool that is powered by the widely used machine learning package Weka. The software provides a user-friendly graphical interface along with an automated parameter search capability. It employs two robust and popular machine learning methods: artificial neural networks and support vector machines. This chapter describes the practical usage of AutoWeka and relevant tools in the development of predictive QSAR/QSPR models. The software is freely available at http://www.mt.mahidol.ac.th/autoweka.

  14. Heterogeneous fenton degradation of azo dyes catalyzed by modified polyacrylonitrile fiber fe complexes: QSPR (quantitative structure peorperty relationship) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Dong, Yongchun; Ding, Zhizhong

    2013-07-01

    The amidoximated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber Fe complexes were prepared and used as the heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the degradation of 28 anionic water soluble azo dyes in water under visible irradiation. The multiple linear regression (MLR) method was employed to develop the quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) model equations for the decoloration and mineralization of azo dyes. Moreover, the predictive ability of the QSPR model equations was assessed using Leave-one-out (LOO) and cross-validation (CV) methods. Additionally, the effect of Fe content of catalyst and the sodium chloride in water on QSPR model equations were also investigated. The results indicated that the heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of the azo dyes with different structures was conducted in the presence of the amidoximated PAN fiber Fe complex. The QSPR model equations for the dye decoloration and mineralization were successfully developed using MLR technique. MW/S (molecular weight divided by the number of sulphonate groups) and NN=N (the number of azo linkage) are considered as the most important determining factor for the dye degradation and mineralization, and there is a significant negative correlation between MW/S or NN=N and degradation percentage or total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Moreover, LOO and CV analysis suggested that the obtained QSPR model equations have the better prediction ability. The variation in Fe content of catalyst and the addition of sodium chloride did not alter the nature of the QSPR model equations.

  15. Calculations of Hyperpolarizabilities for Para-disubstituted Benzenes with the QSPR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Dong ZENG; Xuan XU; Bing Feng WANG; Bing Can WANG

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) was made for the prediction of the hyperpolarizabilities(β) of para-disubstituted benzenes with the nonlinear optical properties, and the βcal2 calculated by this model accorded better with the experimental values (βexpt) compared with theβcal1 calculated at the CPHF/6-31G*//HF/STO-3G level of theory, especially whenβ was big.

  16. Development of validated QSPR models for impact sensitivity of nitroaliphatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prana, Vinca [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modelisation pour l' Energie, CNRS UMR-7575, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Fayet, Guillaume [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Rotureau, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.rotureau@ineris.fr [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Adamo, Carlo [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modelisation pour l' Energie, CNRS UMR-7575, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed QSPR models to predict impact sensitivity of nitroaliphatic compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two efficient models were rigorously validated according to the OECD principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One model is based only on simple constitutional descriptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The other model also includes more complex quantum descriptors. - Abstract: The European regulation of chemicals named REACH implies the assessment of a large number of substances based on their hazardous properties. However, the complete characterization of physico-chemical, toxicological and eco-toxicological properties by experimental means is incompatible with the imposed calendar of REACH. Hence, there is a real need in evaluating the capabilities of alternative methods such as quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models, notably for physico-chemical properties. In the present work, the molecular structures of 50 itroaliphatic compounds were correlated with their impact sensitivities (h{sub 50%}) using such predictive models. More than 400 olecular descriptors (constitutional, topological, geometrical, quantum chemical) were calculated and linear and multi-linear regressions were performed to find accurate quantitative relationships with experimental impact sensitivities. Considering different sets of descriptors, four predictive models were obtained and two of them were selected for their predictive reliability. To our knowledge, these QSPR models for the impact sensitivity of nitroaliphatic compounds are the first ones being rigorously validated (both internally and externally) with defined applicability domains. They hence follow all OECD principles for regulatory acceptability of QSPRs, allowing possible application in REACH.

  17. Prediction of the thermal decomposition of organic peroxides by validated QSPR models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prana, Vinca [Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, Chimie ParisTech CNRS, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, Paris 75005 (France); Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, Verneuil-en-Halatte 60550 (France); Rotureau, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.rotureau@ineris.fr [Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, Verneuil-en-Halatte 60550 (France); Fayet, Guillaume [Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, Verneuil-en-Halatte 60550 (France); André, David; Hub, Serge [ARKEMA, rue Henri Moissan, BP63, Pierre Benite 69493 (France); Vicot, Patricia [Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, Verneuil-en-Halatte 60550 (France); Rao, Li [Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, Chimie ParisTech CNRS, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, Paris 75005 (France); Adamo, Carlo [Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, Chimie ParisTech CNRS, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, Paris 75005 (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 103 Boulevard Saint Michel, Paris F-75005 (France)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • QSPR models were developed for thermal stability of organic peroxides. • Two accurate MLR models were exhibited based on quantum chemical descriptors. • Performances were evaluated by a series of internal and external validations. • The new QSPR models satisfied all OCDE principles of validation for regulatory use. - Abstract: Organic peroxides are unstable chemicals which can easily decompose and may lead to explosion. Such a process can be characterized by physico-chemical parameters such as heat and temperature of decomposition, whose determination is crucial to manage related hazards. These thermal stability properties are also required within many regulatory frameworks related to chemicals in order to assess their hazardous properties. In this work, new quantitative structure–property relationships (QSPR) models were developed to predict accurately the thermal stability of organic peroxides from their molecular structure respecting the OECD guidelines for regulatory acceptability of QSPRs. Based on the acquisition of 38 reference experimental data using DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) apparatus in homogenous experimental conditions, multi-linear models were derived for the prediction of the decomposition heat and the onset temperature using different types of molecular descriptors. Models were tested by internal and external validation tests and their applicability domains were defined and analyzed. Being rigorously validated, they presented the best performances in terms of fitting, robustness and predictive power and the descriptors used in these models were linked to the peroxide bond whose breaking represents the main decomposition mechanism of organic peroxides.

  18. DFT-based QSAR and QSPR models of several cis-platinum complexes: solvent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Pubalee; Deka, Ramesh C

    2009-06-01

    Cytotoxic activities of cis-platinum complexes against parental and resistant ovarian cancer cell lines were investigated by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis using density functional theory (DFT) based descriptors. The calculated parameters were found to increase the predictability of each QSAR model with incorporation of solvent effects indicating its importance in studying biological activity. Given the importance of logarithmic n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P(o/w)) in drug metabolism and cellular uptake, we modeled the log P(o/w) of 24 platinum complexes with different leaving and carrier ligands by the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) analysis against five different concentrations of MeOH using DFT and molecular mechanics derived descriptors. The log P(o/w) values of an additional set of 20 platinum complexes were also modeled with the same descriptors. We investigated the predictability of the model by calculating log P(o/w) of four compounds in the test set and found their predicted values to be in good agreement with the experimental values. The QSPR analyses performed on 24 complexes, combining the training and test sets, also provided significant values for the statistical parameters. The solvent medium played an important role in QSPR analysis by increasing the internal predictive ability of the models.

  19. Notes on quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR), part 3: density functions origin shift as a source of quantum QSPR algorithms in molecular spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó-Dorca, Ramon

    2013-04-05

    A general algorithm implementing a useful variant of quantum quantitative structure-property relationships (QQSPR) theory is described. Based on quantum similarity framework and previous theoretical developments on the subject, the present QQSPR procedure relies on the possibility to perform geometrical origin shifts over molecular density function sets. In this way, molecular collections attached to known properties can be easily used over other quantum mechanically well-described molecular structures for the estimation of their unknown property values. The proposed procedure takes quantum mechanical expectation value as provider of causal relation background and overcomes the dimensionality paradox, which haunts classical descriptor space QSPR. Also, contrarily to classical procedures, which are also attached to heavy statistical gear, the present QQSPR approach might use a geometrical assessment only or just some simple statistical outline or both. From an applied point of view, several easily reachable computational levels can be set up. A Fortran 95 program: QQSPR-n is described with two versions, which might be downloaded from a dedicated web site. Various practical examples are provided, yielding excellent results. Finally, it is also shown that an equivalent molecular space classical QSPR formalism can be easily developed.

  20. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  1. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  2. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their spleen removed surgically Use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives) Some conditions may cause a temporary (transitory) increased ... increased platelet counts include estrogen and birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Mildly decreased platelet counts may be seen in ...

  3. Ant colony optimization as a descriptor selection in QSPR modeling for prediction of λmax of azo dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Atabati; Farzaneh Khandani

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was suggested for the prediction of λmax of azo dyes.After optimization of 3D geometry of structures,different descriptors were calculated by the HyperChem and Dragon softwares.A major problem of QSPR is the high dimensionality of the descriptor space; therefore,descriptor selection is the most important step for these studies.In this paper,an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm was proposed to select the best descriptors.

  4. A QSPR STUDY OF NORMAL BOILING POINT OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC ALKANES USING MOLECULAR DESCRIPTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Souyei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR study is carried out to develop correlations that relate the molecular structures of organic compounds (Aliphatic Alkanes to their normal boiling point (NBP and two correlations were proposed for constitutionals and connectivity indices Models. The correlations are simple in application with good accuracy, which provide an easy, direct and relatively accurate way to calculate NBP. Such calculation gives us a model that gives results in remarkable correlations with the descriptors of blokes constitutionals (CON, and connectivity indices (CI (R2 = 0.950, δ = 0.766 (R2 = 0.969, δ = 0.782 respectively.

  5. A protocol describing pharynx counts and a review of other assays of apoptotic cell death in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Hillel T

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans have provided important insights into the genetics of programmed cell death (PCD), and revealed molecular mechanisms conserved from nematodes to humans. The organism continues to offer opportunities to investigate the processes of apoptosis under very well-defined conditions and at single-cell resolution in living animals. Here, a survey of the common methods used to study the process of PCD in C. elegans is described. Detailed instructions are provided for one standard method--the counting of extra cells of the anterior pharynx--a quantitative technique that can be used to detect even very subtle alterations in the progression of apoptotic cell death.

  6. QSPR models based on molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. 2. Thermodynamic properties of alkanes, alcohols, polyols, and ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyekjær, Jane Dannow; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2003-01-01

    for alkanes, alcohols, diols, ethers, and oxyalcohols, including cyclic alkanes and alcohols. Several good models, having good predictability, have been developed. To enhance the applicability of the QSPR models, simpler expressions for each descriptor have also been developed. This allows for the prediction...

  7. QSPR models based on molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. 2. Thermodynamic properties of alkanes, alcohols, polyols, and ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyekjær, Jane Dannow; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) models for prediction of various thermodynamic properties of simple organic compounds have been developed. A number of new descriptors are proposed and used alongside with descriptors available within the Codessa program. An important feature in...

  8. The Interplay between QSAR/QSPR Studiesand Partial Order Ranking and Formal Concept Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Carlsen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The often observed scarcity of physical-chemical and well as toxicological data hampers the assessment of potentially hazardous chemicals released to the environment. In such cases Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships/Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSAR/QSPR constitute an obvious alternative for rapidly, effectively and inexpensively generatng missing experimental values. However, typically further treatment of the data appears necessary, e.g., to elucidate the possible relations between the single compounds as well as implications and associations between the various parameters used for the combined characterization of the compounds under investigation. In the present paper the application of QSAR/QSPR in combination with Partial Order Ranking (POR methodologies will be reviewed and new aspects using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA will be introduced. Where POR constitutes an attractive method for, e.g., prioritizing a series of chemical substances based on a simultaneous inclusion of a range of parameters, FCA gives important information on the implications associations between the parameters. The combined approach thus constitutes an attractive method to a preliminary assessment of the impact on environmental and human health by primary pollutants or possibly by a primary pollutant well as a possible suite of transformation subsequent products that may be both persistent in and bioaccumulating and toxic.The present review focus on the environmental – and human health impact by residuals of the rocket fuel 1,1-dimethyl- hydrazine (heptyl and its transformation products as an illustrative example.

  9. Externally validated QSPR modelling of VOC tropospheric oxidation by NO3 radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, E; Gramatica, P

    2008-01-01

    The troposphere is the principal recipient of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) of both anthropogenic and biogenic origin. The persistence of these compounds in the troposphere is an important factor for the evaluation of their fate, and the possible negative effects to the environment and human health. In this study, the tropospheric lifetime of 166 VOCs, in terms of night-time degradation rates with nitrate radical (NO(3)), was modelled by the quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) approach. The multiple linear regression method was applied, in combination with the genetic algorithm-variable subset selection procedure, to a variety of theoretical molecular descriptors, calculated by the DRAGON software. The models were developed according to the OECD principles for regulatory acceptance of QSARs, with particular attention to external validation and applicability domain (AD). The external validation was performed on an unbiased external test set or by splitting the available data using self-organized maps or the random by response approach. The best QSPR models presented in this study showed good internal (range of Q(loo)(2): 89-92%) as well as external predictivity (range of Q(ext)(2): 75-89%). The AD of the models was analysed by the leverage approach, and was represented graphically in the Williams graph.

  10. A drug release study from hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) matrices using QSPR modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafourian, Taravat; Gafourian, Taravat; Safari, Arezoo; Adibkia, Khosro; Parviz, Fatemeh; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2007-12-01

    This investigation is aimed at characterization of the mode of release from two different substitution types of HPMC and the effect of chemical structure of drugs using the QSPR (Quantitative - Structure-Property Relationship) technique. To this end, release profiles of HPMC matrices of several drugs containing the same formulation and compressed at a constant pressure were studied. QSPR method was used to establish statistically significant relationships between release parameters and the structural descriptors. Structural descriptors consisted of molecular mechanical, quantum mechanical and graph-theoretical parameters, as well as the partition coefficient and the aqueous solubility of the drugs. The results showed that the most important factors determining the release profile from both HPMC K4M and HPMC E4M matrices were the aqueous solubility of drugs (which could be substituted efficiently by dipole moment) and the size of the drug molecules. Comparison of drug release from matrices prepared using the two grades of HPMC showed very distinct differences for some drugs, as evaluated by the similarity factor. The results indicated that the source of the difference could be sought in the drug properties (as exemplified by the aqueous solubility and surface area) as well as the rate of erosion (that depends mainly on the polymer type).

  11. CADASTER QSPR Models for Predictions of Melting and Boiling Points of Perfluorinated Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Teetz, Wolfram; Liu, Tao; Öberg, Tomas; Jeliazkova, Nina; Kochev, Nikolay; Pukalov, Ognyan; Tetko, Igor V; Kovarich, Simona; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-03-14

    Quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) studies on per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) on melting point (MP) and boiling point (BP) are presented. The training and prediction chemicals used for developing and validating the models were selected from Syracuse PhysProp database and literatures. The available experimental data sets were split in two different ways: a) random selection on response value, and b) structural similarity verified by self-organizing-map (SOM), in order to propose reliable predictive models, developed only on the training sets and externally verified on the prediction sets. Individual linear and non-linear approaches based models developed by different CADASTER partners on 0D-2D Dragon descriptors, E-state descriptors and fragment based descriptors as well as consensus model and their predictions are presented. In addition, the predictive performance of the developed models was verified on a blind external validation set (EV-set) prepared using PERFORCE database on 15 MP and 25 BP data respectively. This database contains only long chain perfluoro-alkylated chemicals, particularly monitored by regulatory agencies like US-EPA and EU-REACH. QSPR models with internal and external validation on two different external prediction/validation sets and study of applicability-domain highlighting the robustness and high accuracy of the models are discussed. Finally, MPs for additional 303 PFCs and BPs for 271 PFCs were predicted for which experimental measurements are unknown. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Screening of persistent organic pollutants by QSPR classification models: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2008-08-01

    A Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPRs) study for the prediction of the environmental persistence of a set of 250 heterogeneous organic compounds is here presented. Three a priori defined classes of environmental persistence were generated, by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, from the combination of half-life data in air, water, soil and sediment available for all the studied compounds. QSPR classification models were successfully developed using different techniques (k-NN, CART and CP-ANN) and three interpretable theoretical molecular descriptors. Robust external validation was provided by statistical splitting and also on completely new data. The good performances of all these models were compared and their structural domains were analyzed. The analysis of the errors highlights a slight tendency of persistence overestimation, misclassifying chemicals from a lower to a higher class of persistence, in line with the precautionary principle. Finally, the reliability of the proposed QSPR models was verified further with new data from the literature. The structure-based classification models, applicable for the prediction of potential persistence of heterogeneous organic compounds, could be useful as preliminary support tools for the identification and prioritization of new potential POPs among already existing chemicals as well as "screening prior to synthesis" procedures to avoid the production, and consequent release into the environment, of new POPs.

  13. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...

  14. A quantum chemical study of molecular properties and QSPR modeling of oximes, amidoximes and hydroxamic acids with nucleophilic activity against toxic organophosphorus agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar Filho, Edilson B.; Santos, Aline A.; Oliveira, Boaz G.

    2017-04-01

    The proposal of this work includes the use of quantum chemical methods and cheminformatics strategies in order to understand the structural profile and reactivity of α-nucleophiles compounds such as oximes, amidoximes and hydroxamic acids, related to hydrolysis rate of organophosphates. Theoretical conformational study of 41 compounds were carried out through the PM3 semiempirical Hamiltonian, followed by the geometry optimization at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, complemented by Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) to simulate the aqueous environment. In line with the experimental hypothesis about hydrolytic power, the strength of the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds (IHBs) at light of the Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) is related to the preferential conformations of α-nucleophiles. A set of E-Dragon descriptors (1,666) were submitted to a variable selection through Ordered Predictor Selection (OPS) algorithm. Five descriptors, including atomic charges obtained from the Natural Bond Orbitals (NBO) protocol jointly with a fragment index associated to the presence/absence of IHBs, provided a Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) model via Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). This model showed good validation parameters (R2 = 0.80, Qloo2 = 0.67 and Qext2 = 0.81) and allowed the identification of significant physicochemical features on the molecular scaffold in order to design compounds potentially more active against organophosphorus poisoning.

  15. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  16. Reticulocyte count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels, or low levels of vitamin B12 or folate Chronic kidney disease Reticulocyte count may be higher during pregnancy.

  17. Filling environmental data gaps with QSPR for ionic liquids: Modeling n-octanol/water coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybinska, Anna; Sosnowska, Anita; Grzonkowska, Monika; Barycki, Maciej; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-02-13

    Ionic liquids (ILs) form a wide group of compounds characterized by specific properties that allow using ILs in different fields of science and industry. Regarding that the growing production and use of ionic liquids increase probability of their emission to the environment, it is important to estimate the ability of these compounds to spread in the environment. One of the most important parameters that allow evaluating environmental mobility of compound is n-octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW). Experimental measuring of the KOW values for a large number of compounds could be time consuming and costly. Instead, computational predictions are nowadays being used more often. The paper presents new Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) model that allows predicting the logarithmic values of KOW for 335 ILs, for which the experimentally measured values had been unavailable. We also estimated bioaccumulation potential and point out which group of ILs could have negative impact on environment.

  18. Estimation of melting points of large set of persistent organic pollutants utilizing QSPR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marquita; Sizochenko, Natalia; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The presence of polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as Cl/Br-substituted benzenes, biphenyls, diphenyl ethers, and naphthalenes has been identified in all environmental compartments. The exposure to these compounds can pose potential risk not only for ecological systems, but also for human health. Therefore, efficient tools for comprehensive environmental risk assessment for POPs are required. Among the factors vital for environmental transport and fate processes is melting point of a compound. In this study, we estimated the melting points of a large group (1419 compounds) of chloro- and bromo- derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes, diphenylethers, and benzenes by utilizing quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) techniques. The compounds were classified by applying structure-based clustering methods followed by GA-PLS modeling. In addition, random forest method has been applied to develop more general models. Factors responsible for melting point behavior and predictive ability of each method were discussed.

  19. Quantum-Mechanical QSPR Models for Polymerization Volume Change of Epoxides and Methacrylates Based on Mercury Dilatometry Results

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Matthew D.; Holder, Andrew J.; Kilway, Kathleen V.; Giese, Gregory J.; Finley, Jason E.; Travis, DeAnna M.; Iwai, Benjamin T.; Eick, J. David

    2006-01-01

    Polymerization volume change (PVC) was measured systematically using mercury dilatometry for 41 epoxide and methacrylate monomers with quartz filler. Quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) models were developed based on this previously unreported data to gain insight in the data collection method for future models. Successful models included only data from those samples which polymerized to hardness. The most significant descriptors in these models related to monomer reactivity. ...

  20. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  1. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  2. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  3. Counting Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  4. Development of a novel in silico model of zeta potential for metal oxide nanoparticles: a nano-QSPR approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrzykowska, Ewelina; Mikolajczyk, Alicja; Sikorska, Celina; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    Once released into the aquatic environment, nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to interact (e.g. dissolve, agglomerate/aggregate, settle), with important consequences for NP fate and toxicity. A clear understanding of how internal and environmental factors influence the NP toxicity and fate in the environment is still in its infancy. In this study, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was employed to systematically explore factors that affect surface charge (zeta potential) under environmentally realistic conditions. The nano-QSPR model developed with multiple linear regression (MLR) was characterized by high robustness ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{CV}}=0.90) and external predictivity ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{EXT}}=0.93). The results clearly showed that zeta potential values varied markedly as functions of the ionic radius of the metal atom in the metal oxides, confirming that agglomeration and the extent of release of free MexOy largely depend on their intrinsic properties. A developed nano-QSPR model was successfully applied to predict zeta potential in an ionized solution of NPs for which experimentally determined values of response have been unavailable. Hence, the application of our model is possible when the values of zeta potential in the ionized solution for metal oxide nanoparticles are undetermined, without the necessity of performing more time consuming and expensive experiments. We believe that our studies will be helpful in predicting the conditions under which MexOy is likely to become problematic for the environment and human health.

  5. The average numbers of outliers over groups of various splits into training and test sets: A criterion of the reliability of a QSPR? A case of water solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, Alla P.; Toropov, Andrey A.; Benfenati, Emilio; Gini, Giuseppina; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2012-07-01

    The validation of quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPR/QSAR) is an important challenge of modern theoretical chemistry. Analysis of QSPRs which are obtained with various distribution into sub-systems of training and of testing can be a useful approach to estimate reliability of QSPR predictions. The balance of correlation is an approach for the building up of QSPR with using three components of available data: (a) sub-training set (developer), (b) calibration set (critic), and (c) test set (estimator). Computational experiments have shown that the probabilistic interdependence between the distribution of available data into sub-training set, calibration set, and test set and the average numbers of outliers in the test set exists.

  6. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  7. Solvent Extraction and QSPR of Catecholamines with a Bis(2-ethlhexyl) Hydrogen Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, Kazuharu.; Fujimoto, Yuko.; Ota, Keisuke.; Inoue, Katsutoshi. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-02-01

    In order to develop an effective separation recess for catecholamine (CA), a basic investigation on solvent extraction of dopamine (DA), adrenaline (Ad) and noradrenaline (NA) from hydrochloric acid solution and their stripping is conducted at 30 degree C employing bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (D2EHPA) in chloroform, n-hexane and toluene as the organic diluents. From the dependencies of the distribution ratios on the concentrations of reactant species, i.e. CA, hydrogen ion and D2EHPA, it is elucidated that CA (RNH{sub 2}) is extracted with D2EHPA (HR`) according to the ion exchange mechanism, as the complex type, RNH{sub 3}R` (HR`){sub 3}, and the equilibrium constants (K{sub ex,CA}) for the extraction reactions are also evaluated. The quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) of K{sub ex,CA} values for each organic diluent is discussed using molecular modeling with semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations considering the solvent effect. (author)

  8. Prediction of the thermal decomposition of organic peroxides by validated QSPR models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prana, Vinca; Rotureau, Patricia; Fayet, Guillaume; André, David; Hub, Serge; Vicot, Patricia; Rao, Li; Adamo, Carlo

    2014-07-15

    Organic peroxides are unstable chemicals which can easily decompose and may lead to explosion. Such a process can be characterized by physico-chemical parameters such as heat and temperature of decomposition, whose determination is crucial to manage related hazards. These thermal stability properties are also required within many regulatory frameworks related to chemicals in order to assess their hazardous properties. In this work, new quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) models were developed to predict accurately the thermal stability of organic peroxides from their molecular structure respecting the OECD guidelines for regulatory acceptability of QSPRs. Based on the acquisition of 38 reference experimental data using DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) apparatus in homogenous experimental conditions, multi-linear models were derived for the prediction of the decomposition heat and the onset temperature using different types of molecular descriptors. Models were tested by internal and external validation tests and their applicability domains were defined and analyzed. Being rigorously validated, they presented the best performances in terms of fitting, robustness and predictive power and the descriptors used in these models were linked to the peroxide bond whose breaking represents the main decomposition mechanism of organic peroxides.

  9. Thermodynamics of organic chemical hydration: QSPR models using physicochemical HYBOT descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevsky, O A; Liplavskiy, Y V; Raevskaya, O E; Mannhold, R

    2009-07-01

    Stable and predictive quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models of thermodynamics of chemical hydration (changes in Gibbs energy, DeltaG(air/water), enthalpy, DeltaH(air/water) and entropy DeltaS(air/water)) were obtained on the basis of physicochemical descriptors calculated by the HYBOT program. The structurally diverse training set (n = 151) and test set (n = 37) included 13 mono-functional chemical classes. The applied HYBOT descriptors comprise molecular polarizability alpha (as a volume-related term), the sum of partial negative charges on all atoms in a molecule SigmaQ(-) (as an electrostatic term) and the sum of H-bond acceptor and donor factors SigmaC(a) and SigmaC(d) (as H-bond terms). Final equations for changes in Gibbs energy and enthalpy provided good statistical criteria and standard deviations on the level of errors of experimental determinations. All four above-mentioned terms essentially contribute to hydration enthalpy and each of them increases negative values of enthalpy. Hydration Gibbs energy predominantly depends on hydrogen bonding between solute and water molecules. Steric and electrostatic terms act in opposite directions and partly compensate each other. Changes in entropy correlate with increasing H-bond acceptor ability, whereas the other three descriptors exhibit inverse correlations.

  10. Greedy and Linear Ensembles of Machine Learning Methods Outperform Single Approaches for QSPR Regression Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, William; Mitchell, John B O

    2015-09-01

    The application of Machine Learning to cheminformatics is a large and active field of research, but there exist few papers which discuss whether ensembles of different Machine Learning methods can improve upon the performance of their component methodologies. Here we investigated a variety of methods, including kernel-based, tree, linear, neural networks, and both greedy and linear ensemble methods. These were all tested against a standardised methodology for regression with data relevant to the pharmaceutical development process. This investigation focused on QSPR problems within drug-like chemical space. We aimed to investigate which methods perform best, and how the 'wisdom of crowds' principle can be applied to ensemble predictors. It was found that no single method performs best for all problems, but that a dynamic, well-structured ensemble predictor would perform very well across the board, usually providing an improvement in performance over the best single method. Its use of weighting factors allows the greedy ensemble to acquire a bigger contribution from the better performing models, and this helps the greedy ensemble generally to outperform the simpler linear ensemble. Choice of data preprocessing methodology was found to be crucial to performance of each method too. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Maximum Topological Distances Based Indices as Molecular Descriptors for QSPR. 4. Modeling the Enthalpy of Formation of Hydrocarbons from Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Toropov

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The enthalpy of formation of a set of 60 hydroarbons is calculated on the basis of topological descriptors defined from the distance and detour matrices within the realm of the QSAR/QSPR theory. Linear and non-linear polynomials fittings are made and results show the need to resort to higher-order regression equations in order to get better concordances between theoretical results and experimental available data. Besides, topological indices computed from maximum order distances seems to yield rather satisfactory predictions of heats of formation for hydrocarbons.

  12. Quantitative Structure Property Relations (QSPR) for Predicting Molar Diamagnetic Susceptibilities, χm, of Inorganic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU,Lai-Long; HE,Hong-Mei; FENG,Chang-Jun

    2007-01-01

    For predicting the molar diamagnetic susceptibilities of inorganic compounds, a novel connectivity index mG based on adjacency matrix of molecular graphs and ionic parameter gi was proposed. The gi is defined as gi= (ni0.5-0.91)4·xi0.5/Zi0.5, where Zi, ni, xi are the valence, the outer electronic shell primary quantum number, and the electronegativity of atom I respectively. The good QSPR models for the molar diamagnetic susceptibilities can be constructed from 0G and 1G by using multivariate linear regression (MLR) method and artificial neural network (NN) method. The correlation coefficient r, standard error, and average absolute deviation of the MLR model and NN model are 0.9868, 5.47 cgs, 4.33 cgs, 0.9885, 5.09 cgs and 4.06 cgs, respectively, for the 144 inorganic compounds. The cross-validation by using the leave-one-out method demonstrates that the MLR model is highly reliable from the point of view of statistics. The average absolute deviations of predicted values of the molar diamagnetic susceptibility of other 62 inorganic compounds (test set) are 4.72 cgs and 4.06 cgs for the MLR model and NN model. The results show that the current method is more effective than literature methods for estimating the molar diamagnetic susceptibility of an inorganic compound. Both MLR and NN methods can provide acceptable models for the prediction of the molar diamagnetic susceptibilities. The NN model for the molar diamagnetic susceptibilities appears more reliable than the MLR model.

  13. A comparative QSPR study on aqueous solubility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by GA-SVM, GA-RBFNN and GA-PLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun QI; Jia WEI; Changhong SUN; Tao PAN

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to develop quantitative structure-property relationship(QSPR)models of organic contaminants was proposed based on genetic algorithm (GA)and support vector machine(SVM).GA was used to perform the variable selection and SVM was used to construct QSPR models.In this study,GA-SVM was applied to develop the QSPR model for aqueous solubility (Sw,mol·L-1)of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).The R2(0.98)of the model developed by GASVM indicated a good predictive precision for 1g Sw values of PAHs.According to leave-one-out(LOO)cross validation,the results of GA-SVM were compared with those of genetic algorithm-radial based function neural network(GA-RBFNN)and genetic algorithm-partial leastsquares(GA-PLS)regression.The comparisons showed that the cross validation correlation coefficient(Q2LOO =0.92)and root mean square error of LOO cross validation (RMSELoo =0.49)of GA-SVM were the highest and lowest,respectively,which illustrated that GA-SVM was more suitable to develop QSPR model for the lg Sw values of PAHs than GA-RBFNN and GA-PLS.

  14. Data Quality in the Human and Environmental Health Sciences: Using Statistical Confidence Scoring to Improve QSAR/QSPR Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Fabian P; Madden, Judith C; Cronin, Mark T D

    2015-08-24

    A greater number of toxicity data are becoming publicly available allowing for in silico modeling. However, questions often arise as to how to incorporate data quality and how to deal with contradicting data if more than a single datum point is available for the same compound. In this study, two well-known and studied QSAR/QSPR models for skin permeability and aquatic toxicology have been investigated in the context of statistical data quality. In particular, the potential benefits of the incorporation of the statistical Confidence Scoring (CS) approach within modeling and validation. As a result, robust QSAR/QSPR models for the skin permeability coefficient and the toxicity of nonpolar narcotics to Aliivibrio fischeri assay were created. CS-weighted linear regression for training and CS-weighted root-mean-square error (RMSE) for validation were statistically superior compared to standard linear regression and standard RMSE. Strategies are proposed as to how to interpret data with high and low CS, as well as how to deal with large data sets containing multiple entries.

  15. A Survey on Distance Vector Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Linpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give a brief introduction to five different distance vector routing protocols (RIP, AODV, EIGRP, RIP-MTI and Babel) and give some of our thoughts on how to solve the count to infinity problem. Our focus is how distance vector routing protocols, based on limited information, can prevent routing loops and the count to infinity problem.

  16. QSPR modeling for enthalpies of formation of organometallic compounds by means of SMILES-based optimal descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, A. A.; Toropova, A. P.; Benfenati, E.

    2008-08-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model for a predicting gas-phase enthalpy of formation have been developed, using as chemical information descriptors based on the simplified molecular input line entry system (SMILES). The model is one-variable equation. The SMILES-based descriptors calculated with correlation weights of SMILES attributes which are obtained by the Monte Carlo method. The model addressed organometallic compounds. Statistical characteristics of the model are the following: n = 104, R2 = 0.9943, Q2 = 0.9940, s = 19.9 (kJ/mol), F = 17701 (training set); n = 28, R2 = 0.9908, Q2 = 0.9892, s = 29.4 (kJ/mol), F = 2788 (test set).

  17. Prediction and application in QSPR of aqueous solubility of sulfur-containing aromatic esters using GA-based MLR with quantum descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chunsheng; Liu, Xinhui; Guo, Weimin; Lin, Teng; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Liansheng

    2002-07-01

    Quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) were developed using a genetic algorithm (GA)-based variable-selection approach with quantum chemical descriptors derived from AM1-based calculations (MOPAC7.0). With the QSPR models, the aqueous solubility of 71 aromatic sulfur-containing carboxylates, including phenylthio, and phenylsulfonyl carboxylates were efficiently estimated and predicted. Using GA-based multivariate linear regression (MLR) with cross-validation procedure, the most important descriptors were selected from a pool of 28 quantum chemical semi-empirical descriptors, including steric and electronic types, to build QSPR models. The molecular descriptors included molecular surface (SA), charges on carboxyl group (Q(oc)), the magnitude of the difference between E(HOMO) of the solute and ELUMO of water, divided by 100 (E(B)), which were main factors affecting the aqueous solubility of the compounds of interest. The resulted coefficients R and R2 of 0.9571 and 0.9161 and the prediction residual error sum of squares (PRESS) of 13.1768, revealed that it was accurate and reliable for the model to predict the aqueous solubility of the investigated organic compounds. If two outliers were omitted from the dataset, the resulted coefficients R = 0.9619, R2 = 0.9253, and PRESS = 10.3875 were significantly improved. Compared with stepwise regression analysis, the results obtained in this work were better and more reasonable. The best QSPR model were obtained by GA-based MLR. Reasonable mechanisms for aqueous solubility of the sulfur-containing carboxylates were investigated and interpreted.

  18. 离子液体的定量结构-性质/活性研究%Research of QSPR/QSAR for Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永升; 张香平; 赵继红; 张宏忠; 康雪晶; 董峰

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids, which are considered as the sustainable "green product", are gaining increasing interest due to their physical and chemical characteristics. Although a lot of efforts have been focused on the investigation of their syntheses and applications, structure-property/activity relationships of ionic liquids are poorly known to us. The quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPR/QSAR) research methods and steps are described systematically in this article. The latest researches of quantitative structure-property/activity relationships on the melting points of ionic liquids, the infinite dilution activity coefficients of organic compounds, surface tensions of ionic liquids, conductivities of ionic liquids, solubility of organic solutes in ionic liquids, viscosities of ionic liquids and biological toxicity and degradation of ionic liquids are reviewed. Both advantages and disadvantages of the QSPR/QSAR used in the ionic liquid property prediction are discussed, and the prospective of this research area is proposed.%本文系统介绍了离子液体定量结构-性质/活性相关(QSPR/QSAR)的研究方法和步骤,综述了QSPR/QSAR在离子液体的熔点、有机物在离子液体中的无限稀释活度系数、离子液体的表面张力、离子液体的电导率、有机物在离子液体中的溶解度、离子液体的黏度以及离子液体的生物毒性和降解性等方面的最新研究进展,总结了该方法的优缺点,并对未来的研究趋势进行了展望。

  19. QSPR models based on molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. 1. Construction of Boltzmann averaged descriptors for alkanes, alcohols, diols, ethers and cyclic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyekjær, Jane Dannow; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2002-01-01

    Values for nine descriptors for QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationships) modeling of physical properties of 96 alkanes, alcohols, ethers, diols, triols and cyclic alkanes and alcohols in conjunction with the program Codessa are presented. The descriptors are Boltzmann-averaged by sele...... der Waals energies and the molecular polarizabilities, which correlate very well with boiling points. Five more simple descriptors that only depend on the molecular constitutional formula are also discussed briefly....

  20. Rationalizing fragment based drug discovery for BACE1: insights from FB-QSAR, FB-QSSR, multi objective (MO-QSPR) and MIF studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Prabu; Vijayan, R. S. K.; Ghoshal, Nanda

    2010-10-01

    The ability to identify fragments that interact with a biological target is a key step in FBDD. To date, the concept of fragment based drug design (FBDD) is increasingly driven by bio-physical methods. To expand the boundaries of QSAR paradigm, and to rationalize FBDD using In silico approach, we propose a fragment based QSAR methodology referred here in as FB-QSAR. The FB-QSAR methodology was validated on a dataset consisting of 52 Hydroxy ethylamine (HEA) inhibitors, disclosed by GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals as potential anti-Alzheimer agents. To address the issue of target selectivity, a major confounding factor in the development of selective BACE1 inhibitors, FB-QSSR models were developed using the reported off target activity values. A heat map constructed, based on the activity and selectivity profile of the individual R-group fragments, and was in turn used to identify superior R-group fragments. Further, simultaneous optimization of multiple properties, an issue encountered in real-world drug discovery scenario, and often overlooked in QSAR approaches, was addressed using a Multi Objective (MO-QSPR) method that balances properties, based on the defined objectives. MO-QSPR was implemented using Derringer and Suich desirability algorithm to identify the optimal level of independent variables ( X) that could confer a trade-off between selectivity and activity. The results obtained from FB-QSAR were further substantiated using MIF (Molecular Interaction Fields) studies. To exemplify the potentials of FB-QSAR and MO-QSPR in a pragmatic fashion, the insights gleaned from the MO-QSPR study was reverse engineered using Inverse-QSAR in a combinatorial fashion to enumerate some prospective novel, potent and selective BACE1 inhibitors.

  1. A Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR Study of Aliphatic Alcohols by the Method of Dividing the Molecular Structure into Substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cheng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR analysis of aliphatic alcohols is presented. Four physicochemical properties were studied: boiling point (BP, n-octanol–water partition coefficient (lg POW, water solubility (lg W and the chromatographic retention indices (RI on different polar stationary phases. In order to investigate the quantitative structure–property relationship of aliphatic alcohols, the molecular structure ROH is divided into two parts, R and OH to generate structural parameter. It was proposed that the property is affected by three main factors for aliphatic alcohols, alkyl group R, substituted group OH, and interaction between R and OH. On the basis of the polarizability effect index (PEI, previously developed by Cao, the novel molecular polarizability effect index (MPEI combined with odd-even index (OEI, the sum eigenvalues of bond-connecting matrix (SX1CH previously developed in our team, were used to predict the property of aliphatic alcohols. The sets of molecular descriptors were derived directly from the structure of the compounds based on graph theory. QSPR models were generated using only calculated descriptors and multiple linear regression techniques. These QSPR models showed high values of multiple correlation coefficient (R > 0.99 and Fisher-ratio statistics. The leave-one-out cross-validation demonstrated the final models to be statistically significant and reliable.

  2. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  3. St. Catherine Creek NWR Bird Point Count Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data collected during bird point counts at St. Catherine Creek NWR using the Lower Mississippi Valley Joint Venture protocol for forest dwelling birds.

  4. Whole body counting at nuclear facilities in North America (Supplement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, C.L.; Coleman, R.L.; Haskins, A.W.

    1985-10-01

    A survey was conducted on whole body counting at nuclear facilities. The survey was a supplement to an initial study done by the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1980. Data obtained from this study were used to compare current trends in whole body counting to those observed in the 1980 survey. The current status of this method of personnel monitoring is described, including a description of whole body counting systems in use, spectral analysis software, quality assurance programs, protocol for performing whole body counts, and the technical bases for whole body counting programs. 1 ref., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Event-based criteria in GT-STAF information indices: theory, exploratory diversity analysis and QSPR applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigye, S J; Marrero-Ponce, Y; Martínez López, Y; Martínez Santiago, O; Torrens, F; García Domenech, R; Galvez, J

    2013-01-01

    Versatile event-based approaches for the definition of novel information theory-based indices (IFIs) are presented. An event in this context is the criterion followed in the "discovery" of molecular substructures, which in turn serve as basis for the construction of the generalized incidence and relations frequency matrices, Q and F, respectively. From the resultant F, Shannon's, mutual, conditional and joint entropy-based IFIs are computed. In previous reports, an event named connected subgraphs was presented. The present study is an extension of this notion, in which we introduce other events, namely: terminal paths, vertex path incidence, quantum subgraphs, walks of length k, Sach's subgraphs, MACCs, E-state and substructure fingerprints and, finally, Ghose and Crippen atom-types for hydrophobicity and refractivity. Moreover, we define magnitude-based IFIs, introducing the use of the magnitude criterion in the definition of mutual, conditional and joint entropy-based IFIs. We also discuss the use of information-theoretic parameters as a measure of the dissimilarity of codified structural information of molecules. Finally, a comparison of the statistics for QSPR models obtained with the proposed IFIs and DRAGON's molecular descriptors for two physicochemical properties log P and log K of 34 derivatives of 2-furylethylenes demonstrates similar to better predictive ability than the latter.

  6. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Uzma; Rashid, Sitara; Ali, S. Ishrat; Parveen, Rasheeda; Zaheer-ul-Haq; Ambreen, Nida; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR) technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps) help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber. PMID:22272108

  7. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Perveen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber.

  8. QSPR models for predicting generator-column-derived octanol/water and octanol/air partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jintao; Yu, Shuling; Zhang, Ting; Yuan, Xuejie; Cao, Yunyuan; Yu, Xingchen; Yang, Xuan; Yao, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Octanol/water (K(OW)) and octanol/air (K(OA)) partition coefficients are two important physicochemical properties of organic substances. In current practice, K(OW) and K(OA) values of some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are measured using generator column method. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models can serve as a valuable alternative method of replacing or reducing experimental steps in the determination of K(OW) and K(OA). In this paper, two different methods, i.e., multiple linear regression based on dragon descriptors and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship, were used to predict generator-column-derived log K(OW) and log K(OA) values of PCBs. The predictive ability of the developed models was validated using a test set, and the performances of all generated models were compared with those of three previously reported models. All results indicated that the proposed models were robust and satisfactory and can thus be used as alternative models for the rapid assessment of the K(OW) and K(OA) of PCBs.

  9. Measurement of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for hydrocarbons in imidazolium-based ionic liquids and QSPR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jiqin; YU Yanmei; CHEN Jian; FEI Weiyang

    2007-01-01

    The separations of olefin/paraffin,aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbons or olefin isomers using ionic liquids instead of volatile solvents have interested many researchers.Activity coefficients γ∞ at infinite dilution of a solute in ionic liquid are generally used in the selection of solvents for extraction or extractive distillation.In fact,the measurement of γ∞ by gas-liquid chromatography is a speedy and costsaving method.Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of hydrocarbon solutes,such as alkanes,hexenes,alkylbenzenes,styrene,in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([AMIM][BF4]) and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), 1-isobutenyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([MPMIM][BF4]) and [MPMIM][BF4]-AgBF4 have been determined by gas-liquid chromatography using ionic liquids as stationary phase.The measurements were carried out at different temperatures from 298 to 318 K.The separating effects of these ionic liquids for alkanes/hexane,aliphatic hydrocarbons/benzene and hexene isomers have been discussed.The hydrophobic parameter,dipole element,frontier molecular orbital energy gap and hydration energy of these hydrocarbons were calculated with the PM3 semi-empirical quantum chemistry method.The quantitative relations among the computed structure parameters and activity coefficients at infinite dilution were also developed.The experimental activity coefficient data are consistent with the correlated and predicted results using QSPR models.

  10. Field determination and QSPR prediction of equilibrium-status soil/vegetation partition coefficient of PCDD/Fs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Qiang; Qiu, Xinghua; Dong, Yian; Jia, Shenglan; Hu, Jianxin

    2014-07-15

    Characterizing pseudo equilibrium-status soil/vegetation partition coefficient KSV, the quotient of respective concentrations in soil and vegetation of a certain substance at remote background areas, is essential in ecological risk assessment, however few previous attempts have been made for field determination and developing validated and reproducible structure-based estimates. In this study, KSV was calculated based on measurements of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners in soil and moss (Dicranum angustum), and rouzi grass (Thylacospermum caespitosum) of two background sites, Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic and Zhangmu-Nyalam region of the Tibet Plateau, respectively. By both fugacity modeling and stepwise regression of field data, the air-water partition coefficient (KAW) and aqueous solubility (SW) were identified as the influential physicochemical properties. Furthermore, validated quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model was developed to extrapolate the KSV prediction to all 210 PCDD/F congeners. Molecular polarizability, molecular size and molecular energy demonstrated leading effects on KSV.

  11. QSPR study of supercooled liquid vapour pressures of PBDEs by using molecular distance-edge vector index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR for supercooled liquid vapour pressures (PL of PBDEs was investigated. Molecular distance-edge vector (MDEV index was used as the structural descriptor. The quantitative relationship between the MDEV index and lgPL was modeled by using multivariate linear regression (MLR and artificial neural network (ANN respectively. Leave-one-out cross validation and k-fold cross validation were carried out to assess the prediction ability of the developed models. For the MLR method, the prediction root mean square relative error (RMSRE of leave-one-out cross validation and k-fold cross validation is 9.95 and 9.05 respectively. For the ANN method, the prediction RMSRE of leave-one-out cross validation and k-fold cross validation is 8.75 and 8.31 respectively. It is demonstrated the established models are practicable for predicting the lgPL of PBDEs. The MDEV index is quantitatively related to the lgPL of PBDEs. MLR and L-ANN are practicable for modeling this relationship. Compared with MLR, ANN shows slightly higher prediction accuracy. Subsequently, an MLR model, which regression equation is lgPL = 0.2868 M11 - 0.8449 M12 - 0.0605, and an ANN model, which is a two inputs linear network, were developed. The two models can be used to predict the lgPL of each PBDE.

  12. QSPR Models for Predicting Log Pliver Values for Volatile Organic Compounds Combining Statistical Methods and Domain Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica F. Díaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are contained in a variety of chemicals that can be found in household products and may have undesirable effects on health. Thereby, it is important to model blood-to-liver partition coefficients (log Pliver for VOCs in a fast and inexpensive way. In this paper, we present two new quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR models for the prediction of log Pliver, where we also propose a hybrid approach for the selection of the descriptors. This hybrid methodology combines a machine learning method with a manual selection based on expert knowledge. This allows obtaining a set of descriptors that is interpretable in physicochemical terms. Our regression models were trained using decision trees and neural networks and validated using an external test set. Results show high prediction accuracy compared to previous log Pliver models, and the descriptor selection approach provides a means to get a small set of descriptors that is in agreement with theoretical understanding of the target property.

  13. Experimental and QSPR Studies on n-Octanol/water Partition Coefficient(lgKow) of Substituted Aniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The n-octanol/water partition coefficients (lgKow) of 18 substituted anilines were determined at 25 ℃ by shake-flask method. The geometrical optimization of substituted anilines has been performed at B3LYP/6-311G** level with Gaussian98 program, and the molecular surface areas of substituted anilines were calculated using ChemOffice 2004 program. The calculated structural parameters of substituted anilines were used as theoretical descriptors and the two-parameter (molecular surface area (MA) and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO)) quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model of lgKow for substituted aniline with molecular structural parameters was developed by multi-linear regression method. The regression coefficient square (r2) is 0.990 and the standard deviation SE 0.109. The model was validated by variance inflation factors (VIF) and t-test, and the results show that there exists small self-correlation between variables of the model with perfect stability. The model gives results in good qualitative agreement with experimental data. At last, the model was applied to predict lgKow values of five substituted anilines whose lgKow values have not been determined experimentally.

  14. A quasi-QSPR modelling for the photocatalytic decolourization rate constants and cellular viability (CV%) of nanoparticles by CORAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, A P; Toropov, A A; Benfenati, E

    2015-01-01

    Most quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs) predict various endpoints related to organic compounds. Gradually, the variety of organic compounds has been extended to inorganic, organometallic compounds and polymers. However, the so-called molecular descriptors cannot be defined for super-complex substances such as different nanomaterials and peptides, since there is no simple and clear representation of their molecular structure. Some possible ways to define approaches for a predictive model in the case of super-complex substances are discussed. The basic idea of the approach is to change the traditionally used paradigm 'the endpoint is a mathematical function of the molecular structure' with another paradigm 'the endpoint is a mathematical function of available eclectic information'. The eclectic data can be (i) conditions of a synthesis, (ii) technological attributes, (iii) size of nanoparticles, (iv) concentration, (v) attributes related to cell membranes, and so on. Two examples of quasi-QSPR/QSAR analyses are presented and discussed. These are (i) photocatalytic decolourization rate constants (DRC) (10(-5)/s) of different nanopowders; and (ii) the cellular viability under the effect of nano-SiO(2).

  15. Evaluation of hierarchical structured representations for QSPR studies of small molecules and polymers by recursive neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinetto, Carlo; Duce, Celia; Micheli, Alessio; Solaro, Roberto; Starita, Antonina; Tiné, Maria Rosaria

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports some recent results from the empirical evaluation of different types of structured molecular representations used in QSPR analysis through a recursive neural network (RNN) model, which allows for their direct use without the need for measuring or computing molecular descriptors. This RNN methodology has been applied to the prediction of the properties of small molecules and polymers. In particular, three different descriptions of cyclic moieties, namely group, template and cyclebreak have been proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed method in dealing with different representations of chemical structures, either specifically designed or of more general use, has been demonstrated by its application to data sets encompassing various types of cyclic structures. For each class of experiments a test set with data that were not used for the development of the model was used for validation, and the comparisons have been based on the test results. The reported results highlight the flexibility of the RNN in directly treating different classes of structured input data without using input descriptors.

  16. QSPR Analysis of Copolymers by Recursive Neural Networks: Prediction of the Glass Transition Temperature of (Meth)acrylic Random Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinetto, Carlo Giuseppe; Duce, Celia; Micheli, Alessio; Solaro, Roberto; Tiné, Maria Rosaria

    2010-09-17

    The glass transition temperature (Tg ) of acrylic and methacrylic random copolymers was investigated by means of Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) methodology based on Recursive Neural Networks (RNN). This method can directly take molecular structures as input, in the form of labelled trees, without needing predefined descriptors. It was applied to three data sets containing up to 615 polymers (340 homopolymers and 275 copolymers). The adopted representation was able to account for the structure of the repeating unit as well as average macromolecular characteristics, such as stereoregularity and molar composition. The best result, obtained on a data set focused on copolymers, showed a Mean Average Residual (MAR) of 4.9 K, a standard error of prediction (S) of 6.1 K and a squared correlation coefficient (R(2) ) of 0.98 for the test set, with an optimal rate with respect to the training error. Through the treatment of homopolymers and copolymers both as separated and merged data sets, we also showed that the proposed approach is particularly suited for generalizing prediction of polymer properties to various types of chemical structures in a uniform setting.

  17. General theory for multiple input-output perturbations in complex molecular systems. 1. Linear QSPR electronegativity models in physical, organic, and medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Gómez-SanJuan, Asier; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    In general perturbation methods starts with a known exact solution of a problem and add "small" variation terms in order to approach to a solution for a related problem without known exact solution. Perturbation theory has been widely used in almost all areas of science. Bhor's quantum model, Heisenberg's matrix mechanincs, Feyman diagrams, and Poincare's chaos model or "butterfly effect" in complex systems are examples of perturbation theories. On the other hand, the study of Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) in molecular complex systems is an ideal area for the application of perturbation theory. There are several problems with exact experimental solutions (new chemical reactions, physicochemical properties, drug activity and distribution, metabolic networks, etc.) in public databases like CHEMBL. However, in all these cases, we have an even larger list of related problems without known solutions. We need to know the change in all these properties after a perturbation of initial boundary conditions. It means, when we test large sets of similar, but different, compounds and/or chemical reactions under the slightly different conditions (temperature, time, solvents, enzymes, assays, protein targets, tissues, partition systems, organisms, etc.). However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no QSPR general-purpose perturbation theory to solve this problem. In this work, firstly we review general aspects and applications of both perturbation theory and QSPR models. Secondly, we formulate a general-purpose perturbation theory for multiple-boundary QSPR problems. Last, we develop three new QSPR-Perturbation theory models. The first model classify correctly >100,000 pairs of intra-molecular carbolithiations with 75-95% of Accuracy (Ac), Sensitivity (Sn), and Specificity (Sp). The model predicts probabilities of variations in the yield and enantiomeric excess of reactions due to at least one perturbation in boundary conditions (solvent, temperature

  18. A 2D-QSPR approach to predict blood-brain barrier penetration of drugs acting on the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Malta de Sá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS have to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB in order to perform their pharmacological actions. Passive BBB diffusion can be partially expressed by the blood/brain partition coefficient (logBB. As the experimental evaluation of logBB is time and cost consuming, theoretical methods such as quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR can be useful to predict logBB values. In this study, a 2D-QSPR approach was applied to a set of 28 drugs acting on the CNS, using the logBB property as biological data. The best QSPR model [n = 21, r = 0.94 (r² = 0.88, s = 0.28, and Q² = 0.82] presented three molecular descriptors: calculated n-octanol/water partition coefficient (ClogP, polar surface area (PSA, and polarizability (α. Six out of the seven compounds from the test set were well predicted, which corresponds to good external predictability (85.7%. These findings can be helpful to guide future approaches regarding those molecular descriptors which must be considered for estimating the logBB property, and also for predicting the BBB crossing ability for molecules structurally related to the investigated set.Fármacos que atuam no sistema nervoso central (SNC devem atravessar a barreira hematoencefálica (BHE para exercerem suas ações farmacológicas. A difusão passiva através da BHE pode ser parcialmente expressa pelo coeficiente de partição entre os compartimentos encefálico e sanguíneo (logBB, brain/blood partition coefficient. Considerando-se que a avaliação experimental de logBB é dispendiosa e demorada, métodos teóricos como estudos das relações entre estrutura química e propriedade (QSPR, Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships podem ser utilizados na previsão dos valores de logBB. Neste estudo, uma abordagem de QSPR-2D foi aplicada a um conjunto de 28 moléculas com ação central, usando logBB como propriedade biológica. O melhor modelo de QSPR [n = 21, r = 0,94 (r

  19. Evaluation of leukocyte count in dogs with lymphoma submitted to the Madison-Wisconsin protocol by conventional technique and flow cytometryAvaliação leucocitária de cães com linfoma submetidos ao protocolo de Madison-Wisconsin pela técnica convencional e citometria de fluxo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Abrahão Anai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic tumor in dogs and one of the malignant tumors with higher occurrence in this species. It is a great experimental model due to its resemblance with the non- Hodgkin lymphoma in humans. Considering the importance of the overall changes that result from to this kind of neoplastic tumor and those due to polichemotherapy this study aimed to evaluate the absolute leukon count and the total count of CD45+ cells in the blood of 25 dogs with lymphoma. Findings were crosschecked since diagnose and then once weekly during the first eight sessions of the Madison-Wisconsin chemotherapic protocol. Total granulocyte, lymphocyte and monocyte counts obtained from a conventional automatic counter and by flow cytometry were compared. Results did not reveal statistically significant changes between the two techniques. O linfoma é o tumor de tecido hematopoético mais comum nos cães e um dos tumores malignos de maior ocorrência nesta espécie. É um ótimo modelo experimental para estudo devido a sua semelhança com o linfoma não-Hodgkin em humanos. Considerando a importância das alterações decorrentes da evolução desta neoplasia e aquelas ocorridas com o emprego da poliquimioterapia, avaliou-se o leucograma absoluto e a contagem de células CD45+ pela citometria de fluxo, no sangue de 25 cães com linfoma. Foram avaliados no momento do diagnóstico, uma vez por semana, durante as primeiras oito sessões quimioterápicas do protocolo de Madison-Wisconsin, e cujas contagens obtidas em contador automático convencional e por intermédio da citometria de fluxo, foram comparadas. Os resultados obtidos não revelaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as duas técnicas utilizadas.

  20. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  1. Structure/response correlations and similarity/diversity analysis by GETAWAY descriptors. 2. Application of the novel 3D molecular descriptors to QSAR/QSPR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto; Pavan, Manuela; Gramatica, Paola

    2002-01-01

    In a previous paper the theory of the new molecular descriptors called GETAWAY (GEometry, Topology, and Atom-Weights AssemblY) was explained. These descriptors have been proposed with the aim of matching 3D-molecular geometry, atom relatedness, and chemical information. In this paper prediction ability in structure-property correlations of GETAWAY descriptors has been tested extensively by analyzing the regressions of these descriptors for selected properties of some reference compound classes. Moreover, the general performance of the new descriptors in QSAR/QSPR has been evaluated with respect to other well-known sets of molecular descriptors.

  2. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  3. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  4. Modeling adsorption of brominated, chlorinated and mixed bromo/chloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins on C60 fullerene using Nano-QSPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Urbaszek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many technological implementations in the field of nanotechnology have involved carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes such as the buckminsterfullerene, C60. The unprecedented properties of such organic nanomaterials (in particular their large surface area gained extensive attention for their potential use as organic pollutant sorbents. Sorption interactions can be very hazardous and useful at the same time. This work investigates the influence of halogenation by bromine and/or chlorine in dibenzo-p-dioxins on their sorption ability on the C60 fullerene surface. Halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PXDDs, where X = Br or Cl are ever-present in the environment and accidently produced in many technological processes in only approximately known quantities. If all combinatorial Br and/or Cl dioxin substitution possibilities are present in the environment, the experimental characterization and investigation of sorbent effectiveness is more than difficult. In this work, we have developed a quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR model (R2 = 0.998, predicting the adsorption energy [kcal/mol] for 1,701 PXDDs adsorbed on C60 (PXDD@C60. Based on the QSPR model reported herein, we concluded that the lowest energy PXDD@C60 complexes are those that the World Health Organization (WHO considers to be less dangerous with respect to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR toxicity mechanism. Therefore, the effectiveness of fullerenes as sorbent agents may be underestimated as sorption could be less effective for toxic congeners than previously believed.

  5. Advanced in silico approaches for drug discovery: Mining information from multiple biological and chemical data through mtk-QSBER and pt-QSPR strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, Maria Natália Dias Soeiro

    2017-01-24

    The last decade has been seeing an increase of public-private partnerships in drug discovery, mostly driven by factors such as the decline in productivity, the high costs, time, and resources needed, along with the requirements of regulatory agencies. In this context, traditional computer-aided drug discovery techniques have been playing an important role, enabling the identification of new molecular entities at early stages. However, recent advances in chemoinformatics and systems pharmacology, alongside with a growing body of high quality, publicly accessible medicinal chemistry data, have led to the emergence of novel in silico approaches. These novel approaches are able to integrate a vast amount of multiple chemical and biological data into a single modeling equation. The present review analyzes two main kinds of such cutting-edge in silico approaches. In a first subsection, we discuss the updates on multitasking models for quantitative structure-biological effect relationships (mtk-QSBER), whose applications have been significantly increasing in the past years. In a second subsection, we provide detailed information regarding a novel approach that combines perturbation theory with quantitative structure-property relationships modeling tools (pt-QSPR). Finally, and most importantly, we show that the joint use of mtk-QSBER and pt-QSPR modeling tools are apt to guide drug discovery through its multiple stages: from in vitro assays to preclinical studies and clinical trials.

  6. Six global and local QSPR models of aqueous solubility at pH = 7.4 based on structural similarity and physicochemical descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevsky, O A; Grigorev, V Y; Polianczyk, D E; Raevskaja, O E; Dearden, J C

    2017-08-01

    Aqueous solubility at pH = 7.4 is a very important property for medicinal chemists because this is the pH value of physiological media. The present work describes the application of three different methods (support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF) and multiple linear regression (MLR)) and three local quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (regression corrected by nearest neighbours (RCNN), arithmetic mean property (AMP) and local regression property (LoReP)) to construct stable QSPRs with clear mechanistic interpretation. Our data set contained experimental values of aqueous solubility at pH = 7.4 of 387 chemicals (349 in the training set and 38 in the test set including 16 own measurements). The initial descriptor pool contained 210 physicochemical descriptors, calculated from the HYBOT, DRAGON, SYBYL and VolSurf+ programs. Six QSPRs with good statistics based on fundamentals of aqueous solubility and optimization of descriptor space were obtained. Those models have an RMSE close to experimental error (0.70), and are amenable to physical interpretation. The QSPR models developed in this study may be useful for medicinal chemists. Global MLR, RF and SVM models may be valuable for consideration of common factors that influence solubility. The RCNN, AMP and LoReP local models may be helpful for the optimization of aqueous solubility in small sets of related chemicals.

  7. Use of biopartitioning micellar chromatography and RP-HPLC for the determination of blood-brain barrier penetration of α-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor ligands, and QSPR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucicevic, J; Popovic, M; Nikolic, K; Filipic, S; Obradovic, D; Agbaba, D

    2017-03-01

    For this study, 31 compounds, including 16 imidazoline/α-adrenergic receptor (IRs/α-ARs) ligands and 15 central nervous system (CNS) drugs, were characterized in terms of the retention factors (k) obtained using biopartitioning micellar and classical reversed phase chromatography (log kBMC and log kwRP, respectively). Based on the retention factor (log kwRP) and slope of the linear curve (S) the isocratic parameter (φ0) was calculated. Obtained retention factors were correlated with experimental log BB values for the group of examined compounds. High correlations were obtained between logarithm of biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) retention factor and effective permeability (r(log kBMC/log BB): 0.77), while for RP-HPLC system the correlations were lower (r(log kwRP/log BB): 0.58; r(S/log BB): -0.50; r(φ0/Pe): 0.61). Based on the log kBMC retention data and calculated molecular parameters of the examined compounds, quantitative structure-permeability relationship (QSPR) models were developed using partial least squares, stepwise multiple linear regression, support vector machine and artificial neural network methodologies. A high degree of structural diversity of the analysed IRs/α-ARs ligands and CNS drugs provides wide applicability domain of the QSPR models for estimation of blood-brain barrier penetration of the related compounds.

  8. Ant colony optimization as a descriptor selection in QSPR modeling: Estimation of the λmax of anthraquinones-based dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Atabati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR studies based on ant colony optimization (ACO were carried out for the prediction of λmax of 9,10-anthraquinone derivatives. ACO is a meta-heuristic algorithm, which is derived from the observation of real ants and proposed to feature selection. After optimization of 3D geometry of structures by the semi-empirical quantum-chemical calculation at AM1 level, different descriptors were calculated by the HyperChem and Dragon softwares (1514 descriptors. A major problem of QSPR is the high dimensionality of the descriptor space; therefore, descriptor selection is the most important step. In this paper, an ACO algorithm was used to select the best descriptors. Then selected descriptors were applied for model development using multiple linear regression. The average absolute relative deviation and correlation coefficient for the calibration set were obtained as 3.3% and 0.9591, respectively, while the average absolute relative deviation and correlation coefficient for the prediction set were obtained as 5.0% and 0.9526, respectively. The results showed that the applied procedure is suitable for prediction of λmax of 9,10-anthraquinone derivatives.

  9. Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

  10. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  11. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

    2012-01-01

    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  12. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  13. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  14. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  15. Liquid Scintillation Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Sten

    1993-01-01

    In liquid scintillation counting (LSC) we use the process of luminescense to detect ionising radiation emit$ed from a radionuclide. Luminescense is emission of visible light of nonthermal origin. 1t was early found that certain organic molecules have luminescent properties and such molecules are used in LSC. Today LSC is the mostwidespread method to detect pure beta-ernitters like tritium and carbon-14. 1t has unique properties in its efficient counting geometry, deteetability and the lack of...

  16. Counting curves on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider an elementary, and largely unexplored, combinatorial problem in low-dimensional topology. Consider a real 2-dimensional compact surface $S$, and fix a number of points $F$ on its boundary. We ask: how many configurations of disjoint arcs are there on $S$ whose boundary is $F$? We find that this enumerative problem, counting curves on surfaces, has a rich structure. For instance, we show that the curve counts obey an effective recursion, in the general framework of to...

  17. Counting RG flows

    OpenAIRE

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/C...

  18. Neutron counting with cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  19. (dtltt) protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Keywords: multi-access, multiservice, network, synchronous, asynchronous, traffic, timed-token. 1. ... 12, 13 ] SAFENET [14], Manufacturing Automation. Protocol (MAP) ...... ken circulation on mobile Ad Hoc Networks. 21th In-.

  20. Prediction of subcooled vapor pressures (log PL) of 399 polychlorinated trans-azoxybenzenes by using the QSPR and ANN approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliszek, Sławomir; Wilczyńska-Piliszek, Agata J; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally relevant partitioning properties such as the sub-cooled vapor pressures (log PL) have been predicted for 399 congeners of chloro-trans-azoxybenzene (C-t-AOBs) by two computational methods. The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR), an approach which is based on geometry optimalization and quantum-chemical structural descriptors in RM1 and DFT methods and artificial neural networks (ANNs), an approach that predicts abilities that give similar results of estimated log P(L) and the accuracy of the methods was also similar. The RM1 method was less time consuming and less costly compared to calculations by the DFT method. Estimated from the RM1 and DFT methods of log P(L) values of 399 Ct-AOBs varied between -1.98 to -0.93 and -1.83 to -0.79 for Mono-, 3.12 to -1.46 and -3.00 to -1.46 for Di-, -4.03 to -1.39 and -3.53 to -1.67 for Tri-, -4.75 to -2.33 and -4.59 to -1.91 for Tetra-, -5.37 to -2.59 and -5.42 to -2.09 for Penta-, -5.82 to -2.88 and -5.66 to -2.58 for Hexa-, -5.88 to -3.24 and -5.60 to -2.93 for Hepta-, -6.28 to -4.33 and -5.60 to -4.29 for Octa-, -6.54 to -5.28 and -5.66 to -4.93 for NonaCt-AOBs, and -6.59 and -5.61 for DecaCt-AOB. According to a common classification of environmental contaminants and by sub-cooled vapor pressure values, MonoCt-AOBs and a few of the Di- and TriCt-AOBs (log P(L)from -2 to 0) fall into the group of compounds that are relatively well mobile in the ambient environment, while most of the Di- to HeptaCt-AOBs (log P(L) log P(L) < -4) are also weak mobile contaminants.

  1. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  2. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  3. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  4. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  5. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be ordered when: CBC results show a decreased RBC count and/or a decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit A healthcare practitioner wants to ... and hematocrit, to help determine the degree and rate of overproduction of RBCs ... during pregnancy . Newborns have a higher percentage of reticulocytes, but ...

  6. What Counts as Prostitution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  7. QSPR models for prediction of the soil sorption coefficient (log KOC) values of 209 polychlorinated trans-azobenzenes (PCt-ABs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyńska-Piliszek, Agata J; Piliszek, Sławomir; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The values of the soil sorption coefficient (K(OC)) have been computed for 209 environmentally relevant trans polychlorinated azobenzenes (PCABs) lacking experimental partitioning data. The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach and artificial neural networks (ANN) predictive ability used in models based on geometry optimalization and quantum-chemical structural descriptors, which were computed on the level of density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional and 6-311++G** basis set and of the semi-empirical quantum chemistry method for property parameterization (PM6) of the molecular orbital package (MOPAC). An experimentally available data on physical and chemical properties of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were used as reference data for the QSPR models and ANNs predictions in this study. Both calculation methods gave similar results in term of absolute log K(OC) values, while the PM6 model generated in the MOPAC was a much more efficient compared to the DFT model in GAUSSIAN. The estimated values of log K(OC) varied between 4.93 and 5.62 for mono-, 5.27 and 7.46 for di-, 6.46 and 8.09 for tri-, 6.65 and 9.11 for tetra-, 6.75 and 9.68 for penta-, 6.44 and 10.24 for hexa-, 7.00 and 10.36 for hepta-, 7.09 and 9.82 octa-, 8.94 and 9.71 for nona-Ct-ABs, and 9.26 and 9.34 for deca-Ct-AB. Because of high log K(OC) values PCt-ABs could be classified as compounds with high affinity to the particles of soil, sediments and organic matter.

  8. Molecular modelling studies on 2-amino 6-aryl-sulphonylbenzonitriles as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of HIV-1: A QSPR approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin S Sapre; Nilanjana Pancholi; Swagata Gupta; Arun Sikrwar; Neelima Sapre

    2007-11-01

    Lipophilicity or hydrophobicity is a crucial physico-chemical property of an oral drug compound. In the present study, we have analysed the structural parameters responsible for enhancing the lipophilicity expressed in terms of Octanol-Water partition coefficient, log , of 2-amino-6-arylsulfonylbenzonitrile (AASBN) derivatives used as NNRTIs in AIDS therapy. Connectivity based Randic () and Balaban () and atomistic Kier-Hall electrotopological state (-state) indices have been used to develop Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) and to predict the effect of substitution on the log . Model has been developed using multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) for the training set (67 compounds) and the model was tested on a test set (7 compounds). Significant results were obtained for the training set (2 = 0.948, $R^2_{\\text{adj}} = 0.939$, = 0.177, -ratio = 101.22). The results of the test set too implicated a good fit (2 = 0.941, $R^2_{\\text{adj}} = 0.929$, = 0.157, -ratio = 80.05). Among the two connectivity based topological indices; Randic () index showed better predictive ability than the Balaban () index. Kier-Hall -state indices indicated that among the functional groups, methyl, bromo, chloro groups on ring A, with their positive coefficients enhanced the lipophilicity. Amino, cyano group on ring B and the bridging S, SO, SO2 with their negative coefficients showed an adverse effect on the lipophilicity parameter. Thus, Kier-Hall -state indices along with topological indices could be well applied for deriving QSPR models and analysing substitution effects of various functional groups. The training set, correlation matrix and observed and experimental log values are available as supplementary material for this article.

  9. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  10. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens.

  11. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  12. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  13. Counting and Topological Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳军

    1997-01-01

    The counting method is a simple and efficient method for processing linear recursive datalog queries.Its time complexity is bounded by O(n,e)where n and e denote the numbers the numbers of nodes and edges,respectively,in the graph representing the input.relations.In this paper,the concepts of heritage appearance function and heritage selection function are introduced,and an evaluation algorithm based on the computation of such functions in topological order is developed .This new algorithm requires only linear time in the case of non-cyclic data.

  14. Photon Counting and Super Homodyne Detection of Weak QPSK Signals for Quantum Key Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    XU, Q; Agnolini, S; Gallion, P; Mendieta, F J

    2006-01-01

    We compare the principles and experimental results of two different QPSK signal detection configurations, photon counting and super homodyning, for applications in fiber-optic Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) systems operating at telecom wavelength, using the BB84 protocol.

  15. Histology protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tim D. Hewitson & Ian A. Darby (Eds Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 611, 2010 Pages: 230; € 83.15 ISBN: 978-1-60327-344-2 Impressive as it can sounds in the era that Biology see a clear dominance of reductionism with the idea that complexity can be disentagled more and more thanks to the use of molecular tools, the reader will remain fascinated by this slim and agile volume devoted to bring together what apparently are two separeted words: molecular biology and histology. Simply remembering to the youngest scientists.....

  16. Counting coalescent histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-04-01

    Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula.

  17. Oscillations in counting statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The very large transverse momenta and large multiplicities available in present LHC experiments on pp collisions allow a much closer look at the corresponding distributions. Some time ago we discussed a possible physical meaning of apparent log-periodic oscillations showing up in p_T distributions (suggesting that the exponent of the observed power-like behavior is complex). In this talk we concentrate on another example of oscillations, this time connected with multiplicity distributions P(N). We argue that some combinations of the experimentally measured values of P(N) (satisfying the recurrence relations used in the description of cascade-stochastic processes in quantum optics) exhibit distinct oscillatory behavior, not observed in the usual Negative Binomial Distributions used to fit data. These oscillations provide yet another example of oscillations seen in counting statistics in many different, apparently very disparate branches of physics further demonstrating the universality of this phenomenon.

  18. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srividya Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators.

  19. Resolved SZE Cluster Count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yu Tang; Zu-Hui Fan

    2003-01-01

    We study the counts of resolved SZE (Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect) clus-ters expected from an interferometric survey in different cosmological models underdifferent conditions. The self-similar universal gas model and Press-Schechter massfunction are used. We take the observing frequency to be 90 GHz, and consider twodish diameters, 1.2 m and 2.5 m. We calculate the number density of the galaxyclusters dN/(dΩdz) at a high flux limit Slimv = 100mJy and at a relative lowSlimv = 10 mJy. The total numbers of SZE clusters N in two low-Ω0 models arecompared. The results show that the influence of the resolved effect depends notonly on D, but also on Slimv: at a given D, the effect is more significant for a highthan for a low Slim Also, the resolved effect for a flat universe is more impressivethan that for an open universe. For D = 1.2m and Slimv= 10mJy, the resolvedeffect is very weak. Considering the designed interferometers which will be used tosurvey SZE clusters, we find that the resolved effect is insignificant when estimatingthe expected yield of the SZE cluster surveys.

  20. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  1. Making environmental DNA count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?'

  2. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  3. Counting Frequencies from Zotero Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.

  4. Quantitative Structure–Property Relationship (QSPR Models for a Local Quantum Descriptor: Investigation of the 4- and 3-Substituted-Cinnamic Acid Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. Rodrigues-Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the theoretical description of the 4- and 3-substituted-cinnamic acid esterification with different electron donating and electron withdrawing groups was performed at the B3LYP and M06-2X levels, as a two-step process: the O-protonation and the nucleophile attack by ethanol. In parallel, an experimental work devoted to the synthesis and characterization of the substituted-cinnamate esters has also been performed. In order to quantify the substituents effects, quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR models based on the atomic charges, Fukui functions and the Frontier Effective-for-Reaction Molecular Orbitals (FERMO energies were investigated. In fact, the Fukui functions, ƒ+C and ƒ−O, indicated poor correlations for each individual step, and in contrast with the general literature, the O-protonation step is affected both by the FERMO energies and the O-charges of the carbonyl group. Since the process was shown to not be totally described by either charge- or frontier-orbitals, it is proposed to be frontier-charge-miscere controlled. Moreover, the observed trend for the experimental reaction yields suggests that the electron withdrawing groups favor the reaction and the same was observed for Step 2, which can thus be pointed out as the determining step.

  5. PREDICTING THE BOILING POINT OF PCDD/Fs BY THE QSPR METHOD BASED ON THE MOLECULAR DISTANCE-EDGE VECTOR INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Jiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR for the boiling point (Tb of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs was investigated. The molecular distance-edge vector (MDEV index was used as the structural descriptor. The quantitative relationship between the MDEV index and Tb was modeled by using multivariate linear regression (MLR and artificial neural network (ANN, respectively. Leave-one-out cross validation and external validation were carried out to assess the prediction performance of the models developed. For the MLR method, the prediction root mean square relative error (RMSRE of leave-one-out cross validation and external validation was 1.77 and 1.23, respectively. For the ANN method, the prediction RMSRE of leave-one-out cross validation and external validation was 1.65 and 1.16, respectively. A quantitative relationship between the MDEV index and Tb of PCDD/Fs was demonstrated. Both MLR and ANN are practicable for modeling this relationship. The MLR model and ANN model developed can be used to predict the Tb of PCDD/Fs. Thus, the Tb of each PCDD/F was predicted by the developed models.

  6. Free variable selection QSPR study to predict (19)F chemical shifts of some fluorinated organic compounds using Random Forest and RBF-PLS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Nasser

    2016-04-05

    In this work, two new and powerful chemometrics methods are applied for the modeling and prediction of the (19)F chemical shift values of some fluorinated organic compounds. The radial basis function-partial least square (RBF-PLS) and random forest (RF) are employed to construct the models to predict the (19)F chemical shifts. In this study, we didn't used from any variable selection method and RF method can be used as variable selection and modeling technique. Effects of the important parameters affecting the ability of the RF prediction power such as the number of trees (nt) and the number of randomly selected variables to split each node (m) were investigated. The root-mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) for the training set and the prediction set for the RBF-PLS and RF models were 44.70, 23.86, 29.77, and 23.69, respectively. Also, the correlation coefficients of the prediction set for the RBF-PLS and RF models were 0.8684 and 0.9313, respectively. The results obtained reveal that the RF model can be used as a powerful chemometrics tool for the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies.

  7. Power Conversion Efficiency of Arylamine Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs Explicit to Cobalt Electrolyte: Understanding the Structural Attributes Using a Direct QSPR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratik Kar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post silicon solar cell era involves light-absorbing dyes for dye-sensitized solar systems (DSSCs. Therefore, there is great interest in the design of competent organic dyes for DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency (PCE to bypass some of the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cell technologies, such as high cost, heavy weight, limited silicon resources, and production methods that lead to high environmental pollution. The DSSC has the unique feature of a distance-dependent electron transfer step. This depends on the relative position of the sensitized organic dye in the metal oxide composite system. In the present work, we developed quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR models to set up the quantitative relationship between the overall PCE and quantum chemical molecular descriptors. They were calculated from density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT methods as well as from DRAGON software. This allows for understanding the basic electron transfer mechanism along with the structural attributes of arylamine-organic dye sensitizers for the DSSCs explicit to cobalt electrolyte. The identified properties and structural fragments are particularly valuable for guiding time-saving synthetic efforts for development of efficient arylamine organic dyes with improved power conversion efficiency.

  8. Ant Colony Optimization as a Powerful Tool for Descriptor Selection in QSPR Study of Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients of Halogenated Hydrocarbons in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Atabati

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was suggested for the prediction of infinite dilution activity coefficients of halogenated hydrocarbons, γ∞ , in water at 298.15 K. After optimization of 3D geometry of the halogenated hydrocarbons with semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations at the AM1 level, different descriptors (1514 descriptors) were calculated by the HyperChem and Dragon softwares. A major problem of QSPR is the high dimensionality of the descriptor space; therefore, descriptor selection is the most important step. In this paper, an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm was proposed to select the best descriptors. Then the selected descriptors were applied for model development using multiple linear regression. The average absolute relative deviation and correlation coefficient for the training set were obtained as 4.36% and 0.951, respectively, while the corresponding values for the test set were 5.96% and 0.929, respectively. The results showed that the applied procedure is suitable for the prediction of γ∞ of halogenated hydrocarbons in water.

  9. Towards predicting the solubility of CO2 and N2 in different polymers using a quasi-SMILES based QSPR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, A A; Toropova, A P; Begum, S; Achary, P G R

    2016-04-01

    The solubility of gases in various polymers plays an important role for the design of new polymeric materials. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were designed to predict the solubility of gases such as CO2 and N2 in polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) at different temperatures and pressures by using quasi-SMILES codes. The dataset of 315 systems was split randomly into training, calibration and validation sets; random split 1 led to 214 training (r(2) = 0.870 and RMSE = 0.019), 51 calibration (r(2) = 0.858 and RMSE = 0.020) and 50 validation (r(2) = 0.869 and RMSE = 0.017) sets. The suggested approach based on the quasi-SMILES, which are analogues of the traditional SMILES gives reasonable good predictions for solubility of CO2 and N2 in different polymers. The described methodology is universal for situations where the aim is to predict the response of an eclectic system upon a variety of physicochemical and/or biochemical conditions.

  10. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  11. Whole body counting at nuclear facilities in North America-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, C.L.; Coleman, R.L.; Haskins, A.W. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (US))

    1984-04-01

    In 1984, the Tennessee Valley Authority conducted a survey of whole body counting (WBC) programs at 75 nuclear facilities in North America. The survey was a supplement to an initial survey performed in 1980. Data obtained from the study were used to compare current trends in whole body counting to those observed in the 1980 survey. This article presents the results of the 1984 survey in five areas: types of WBC systems, WBC spectral analysis software, protocol for performing WBCs, quality assurance programs, and technical bases for WBC programs.

  12. Suppression of dark-count effects in practical quantum key-distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Khalique, A; Alber, G; Khalique, Aeysha; Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Alber, Gernot

    2006-01-01

    The influence of imperfections on achievable secret-key generation rates of quantum key distribution protocols is investigated. As examples of relevant imperfections, we consider tagging of Alice's qubits and dark counts at Bob's detectors. It is demonstrated that error correction and privacy amplification based on a combination of a two-way classical communication protocol and asymmetric Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes may significantly suppress the disastrous influence of dark counts. As a result, the distances are increased considerably over which a secret key can be distributed in optical fibres reliably. Results are presented for the four-state, the six-state, and the decoy-state protocols.

  13. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    deallocation. This requires the language to be linear: A pointer can not be copied and it can only be eliminated by deallocating the node to which it points. We overcome this limitation by adding reference counts to nodes: Copying a pointer to a node increases the reference count of the node and eliminating...

  14. Coinductive counting with weighted automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, J.J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A general methodology is developed to compute the solution of a wide variety of basic counting problems in a uniform way: (1) the objects to be counted are enumerated by means of an infinite weighted automaton; (2) the automaton is reduced by means of the quantitative notion of stream bisimulation;

  15. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  16. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  17. QSPR Calculation of Normal Boiling Points of Organic Molecules Based on the Use of Correlation Weighting of Atomic Orbitals with Extended Connectivity of Zero- and First-Order Graphs of Atomic Orbitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Castro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a calculation of the normal boiling points of a representative set of 200 organic molecules through the application of QSPR theory. For this purpose we have used a particular set of flexible molecular descriptors, the so called Correlation Weighting of Atomic Orbitals with Extended Connectivity of Zero- and First-Order Graphs of Atomic Orbitals. Although in general the results show suitable behavior to predict this physical chemistry property, the existence of some deviant behaviors points to a need to complement this index with some other sort of molecular descriptors. Some possible extensions of this study are discussed.

  18. Optimized tomography of continuous variable systems using excitation counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Heeres, Reinier W.; Reinhold, Philip; Jiang, Luyao; Liu, Yi-Kai; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Jiang, Liang

    2016-11-01

    We propose a systematic procedure to optimize quantum state tomography protocols for continuous variable systems based on excitation counting preceded by a displacement operation. Compared with conventional tomography based on Husimi or Wigner function measurement, the excitation counting approach can significantly reduce the number of measurement settings. We investigate both informational completeness and robustness, and provide a bound of reconstruction error involving the condition number of the sensing map. We also identify the measurement settings that optimize this error bound, and demonstrate that the improved reconstruction robustness can lead to an order-of-magnitude reduction of estimation error with given resources. This optimization procedure is general and can incorporate prior information of the unknown state to further simplify the protocol.

  19. The origins of counting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  1. Conditionally Teleported States Using Optical Squeezers and Photon Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; FAN Yue; CHENG Hai-Ling

    2002-01-01

    By virtue of the neat expression of the two-mode squeezing operator in the Einstein,Podolsky and Rosen entangled state representation,we provide a new approach for discussing the teleportation scheme using optical squeezers and photon counting devices.We derive the explicit form of the teleported states,so that the conditional property of teleportation and teleportation fidelity of this protocol can be scen more clcarly.The derivation is concise.

  2. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  3. 2D-QSPR/DFT studies of aryl-substituted PNP-Cr-based catalyst systems for highly selective ethylene oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Siyang; Liu, Zhen; Zhan, Xingwen; Cheng, Ruihua; He, Xuelian; Liu, Boping

    2014-03-01

    1-Hexene and 1-octene are important comonomers for the synthesis of high performance polyolefins. Recently, various N-substituted Cr-bis(diphenylphosphino)amine (PNP-Cr) catalysts show the potential as excellent candidates for highly selective ethylene trimerization/tetramerization. In this work, a series of aryl-substituted PNP-Cr catalysts were studied by two-dimensional quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) method based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The heuristic method (HM) and best multi-linear regression (BMLR) were used to establish the best linear regression models to describe the relationship between selectivities and catalyst structures. Both Cr(I) and Cr(II) active site models for ethylene trimerization/tetramerization were considered. It was found that 1) the relativity and stability of the models were increased by using self-defined descriptors based on DFT calculations; 2) Cr(I)/Cr(III) centers were the most plausible active sites for ethylene trimerization, while Cr(II)/Cr(IV) active sites were most possibly responsible for ethylene tetramerization; and 3) the skeleton structures of the PNP-Cr system with good complanation and symmetry were crucial for achieving excellent catalytic selectivity of 1-octene, while the PNP-Cr backbone with a large steric effect on N atom would benefit ethylene trimerization. Six new PNP ligands with high selectivity toward ethylene trimerization/tetramerization were predicted based on descriptor analysis and the best linear regression models providing a good basis for further development of novel catalyst systems with better performance.

  4. Generalized estimators of avian abundance from count survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royle, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture-recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.

  5. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  6. Validação de ½C=O como descritor estrutural de caráter eletrônico para aplicação em estudos de QSAR/QSPR The validation of ½C=O as electronic descriptor for application in QSAR/QSPR studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Furlanetto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de validar o uso da freqüência de absorção do grupo carbonila, ½C=O , na região do infravermelho como descritor estrutural de caráter eletrônico para aplicação em estudos de QSAR/QSPR, este trabalho teve como objetivo correlacionar quantitativamente a estrutura química de compostos benzidrazídicos para-substituídos com o efeito eletrônico de grupos substituintes do anel benzênico. A validação foi obtida através da aplicação da equação de Hammett adaptada para freqüência de absorção no IV utilizando-se o Billin Program, versão 98. Aplicaram-se as constantes de substituintes de Hammett, Ãp, ÃI e ÃR, e as constantes N e O de Swain e Lupton, observando-se excelente correlação entre a constante Ãp e ½C=O possibilitando, inclusive, quantificar separadamente a influência dos efeitos indutivo e de ressonância sobre a polaridade do grupo carbonila de grupos substituintes na série de compostos estudados.With the aim of validanting the use of carbonyl group absorption frequency, ½C=O, at the IR as electronic descriptor for application in QSAR/QSPR studies, this paper correlates quantitatively the chemical structure of the benzhydrazides para-substituted with the electronic effect of its substituents. The validation has been achieved with application of the Hammett equation adapted to the IR absorption frequency using the Billin Program, 98 version. It has been used the Hammett substituents constants, ÃP, ÃI, ÃR and the Swain and Lupton constants, N, O, observing an excellent correlation with ½C=O and ÃP, also allowing, on the set of compounds analysed, quantify individually the inductive and resonance effects influence on the polarity of carbonyl group.

  7. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  8. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  9. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...... of communication protocols. With it, partners can suggest a new protocol by sending its specification. After formally verifying the specification, each partner generates an implementation, which can then be used for establishing communication. We also present a practical realisation of the Protocol Implementation...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....

  10. Assessing Rotation-Invariant Feature Classification for Automated Wildebeest Population Counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Torney

    Full Text Available Accurate and on-demand animal population counts are the holy grail for wildlife conservation organizations throughout the world because they enable fast and responsive adaptive management policies. While the collection of image data from camera traps, satellites, and manned or unmanned aircraft has advanced significantly, the detection and identification of animals within images remains a major bottleneck since counting is primarily conducted by dedicated enumerators or citizen scientists. Recent developments in the field of computer vision suggest a potential resolution to this issue through the use of rotation-invariant object descriptors combined with machine learning algorithms. Here we implement an algorithm to detect and count wildebeest from aerial images collected in the Serengeti National Park in 2009 as part of the biennial wildebeest count. We find that the per image error rates are greater than, but comparable to, two separate human counts. For the total count, the algorithm is more accurate than both manual counts, suggesting that human counters have a tendency to systematically over or under count images. While the accuracy of the algorithm is not yet at an acceptable level for fully automatic counts, our results show this method is a promising avenue for further research and we highlight specific areas where future research should focus in order to develop fast and accurate enumeration of aerial count data. If combined with a bespoke image collection protocol, this approach may yield a fully automated wildebeest count in the near future.

  11. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. Results We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally counter. Full customizability allows operation on any computer with minimal hardware requirements. The efficiency of counting large numbers of samples and/or large sample sizes is improved through the use of a "multi-count" register that allows single keystrokes to correspond to multiple events. Automatically updated multi-parameter values are implemented as user-specified equations, reducing errors and time required for manual calculations. The user interface was optimized for use with a touch screen and numeric keypad, eliminating the need for a full keyboard and mouse. Conclusions Our software provides an inexpensive, flexible, and productivity-enhancing alternative to manual hand tally counters.

  13. The Origins of Counting Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D.; Allison M Barnard

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ ability to ‘count’ by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that non-human primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. Monkeys saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a...

  14. Tree modules and counting polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kinser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We give a formula for counting tree modules for the quiver S_g with g loops and one vertex in terms of tree modules on its universal cover. This formula, along with work of Helleloid and Rodriguez-Villegas, is used to show that the number of d-dimensional tree modules for S_g is polynomial in g with the same degree and leading coefficient as the counting polynomial A_{S_g}(d, q) for absolutely indecomposables over F_q, evaluated at q=1.

  15. Remote system for counting of nuclear pulses; Sistema remoto de conteo de pulsos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves V, J.A.; Garcia H, J.M.; Aguilar B, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ingenieria Electronica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this work, it is describe technically the remote system for counting of nuclear pulses, an integral system of the project radiological monitoring in a petroleum distillation tower. The system acquires the counting of incident nuclear particles in a nuclear detector which process this information and send it in serial form, using the RS-485 toward a remote receiver, which can be a Personal computer or any other device capable to interpret the communication protocol. (Author)

  16. Combining radial basis function neural network with genetic algorithm to QSPR modeling of adsorption on multi-walled carbon nanotubes surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Zeinabe; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Ghavami, Raouf; Gholami, Somayeh; Malek-Khatabi, Atefe

    2015-10-01

    The configuring of a radial basis function neural network (RBFN) consists of optimizing the architecture and the network parameters (centers, widths, and weights). Methods such as genetic algorithm (GA), K-means and cluster analysis (CA) are among center selection methods. In the most of reports on RBFN modeling optimum centers are selected among rows of descriptors matrix. A combination of RBFN and GA is introduced for better description of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) models. In this method, centers are not exactly rows of the independent matrix and can be located in any point of the samples space. In the proposed approach, initial centers are randomly selected from the calibration set. Then GA changes the locations of the initially selected centers to find the optimum positions of centers from the whole space of scores matrix, in order to obtain highest prediction ability. This approach is called whole space GA-RBFN (wsGA-RBFN) and applied to predict the adsorption coefficients (logk), of 40 small molecules on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The data consists of five solute descriptors [R, π, α, β, V] of the molecules and known as data set1. Prediction ability of wsGA-RBFN is compared to GA-RBFN and MLR models. The obtained Q2 values for wsGA-RBFN, GA-RBFN and MLR are 0.95, 0.85, and 0.78, respectively, which shows the merit of wsGA-RBFN. The method is also applied on the logarithm of surface area normalized adsorption coefficients (logKSA), of organic compounds (OCs) on MWCNTs surface. The data set2 includes 69 aromatic molecules with 13 physicochemical properties of the OCs. Thirty-nine of these molecules were similar to those of data set1 and the others were aromatic compounds included of small and big molecules. Prediction ability of wsGA-RBFN for second data set was compared to GA-RBF. The Q2 values for wsGA-RBFN and GA-RBF are obtained as 0.89 and 0.80, respectively.

  17. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  18. Research on Protocol Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  19. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  20. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  1. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  2. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  3. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  4. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree discriminant. T

  5. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  6. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  7. Topological Design of Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur; Wozniakowski, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We give a topological simulation for tensor networks that we call the two-string model. In this approach we give a new way to design protocols, and we discover a new multipartite quantum communication protocol. We introduce the notion of topologically compressed transformations. Our new protocol can implement multiple, non-local compressed transformations among multi-parties using one multipartite resource state.

  8. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol com...

  9. Predictive Model Assessment for Count Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-05

    critique count regression models for patent data, and assess the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts...the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts in Germany. We consider a recent suggestion by Baker and...Figure 5. Boxplots for various scores for patent data count regressions. 11 Table 1 Four predictive models for larynx cancer counts in Germany, 1998–2002

  10. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  11. 烃类及其衍生物闪点、沸点的定量构效关系%QSPR study for predicting flash points and boiling points of hydrocarbon and their derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨惠; 陈利平; 谢传欣; 石宁; 陈网桦

    2011-01-01

    The quantitative relationships existed between flash points, boiling points and molecular structures of hydrocarbon and their derivatives were investigated based on the quantitative structure-property relationship ( QSPR) study. 384 molecular descriptors of hydrocarbon and their derivatives were calculated by CODESSA, and these descriptors were pre-selected by best multilinear regression method. Then QSPR models about flash points and boiling points were built. As a result, the five-descriptor linear models were developed to describe the relationship between the molecular structures and the flash points or the boiling points. The non-linear regression models were built based on support vector machine using the five descriptors selected by best multilinear regression method. The compounds were divided into a training set and a test set. The squared correlation coefficient, cross-validation coefficient and mean squared error of each model were calculated. The test set was used to validate the prediction performance of the resulting models. The predicted results indicated that, the prediction results were in good agreement with the experimental values. The models of flash points had robustness, strong generative ability and small prediction error. The predicted results were satisfactory. But the predicted results of boiling points remained to be improved. Compared to the models of hydrocarbons, the performance of the models which added derivatives was decreased. It can be very helpful to expand the applied scope of QSPR study.%基于定量结构-性质相关性( QSPR)原理,研究了烃类及其衍生物闪点、沸点与其分子结构间的内在定量关系.应用CODESSA软件计算384种烃类及其衍生物的分子结构描述符,建立了闪点和沸点的QSPR模型.用最佳多元线性回归(B-MLR)方法筛选得到的分子描述符建立了线性回归模型.用B-MLR方法所选择的5个描述符作为支持向量机(SVM)的输入建立了非线性模型.

  12. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Chanier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Maya had a very elaborate and accurate calendar. First, the Mayan Long Count Calendar (LCC) was used to point historical events from a selected "beginning of time". It is also characterized by the existence of a religious month Tzolk'in of 260 days and a civic year Haab' of 365 days. The LCC is supposed to begin on 11 August -3114 BC known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 corresponding to a period of approximately 5125 years or 13 Baktun. We propose here to explain the origin the 13 Baktun cycle, the Long Count Periods and the religious month Tzolk'in.

  13. Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.

  14. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  15. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter L Erdős

    Full Text Available In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007, for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011 and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013. Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes, and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS for counting of all realizations.

  16. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  17. Manual and automated reticulocyte counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionatto, Mackelly; de Paula, Josiane Padilha; Chaves, Michele Ana Flores; Bortoloso, Márcia; Cicchetti, Domenic; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José

    2010-12-01

    Manual reticulocyte counts were examined under light microscopy, using the property whereby supravital stain precipitates residual ribosomal RNA versus the automated flow methods, with the suggestion that in the latter there is greater precision and an ability to determine both mature and immature reticulocyte fractions. Three hundred and forty-one venous blood samples of patients were analyzed of whom 224 newborn and the rest adults; 51 males and 66 females, with ages between 0 and 89 years, as part of the laboratory routine for hematological examinations at the Clinical Laboratory of the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná. This work aimed to compare manual and automated methodologies for reticulocyte countings and evaluate random and systematic errors. The results obtained showed that the difference between the two methods was very small, with an estimated 0·4% systematic error and 3·9% random error. Thus, it has been confirmed that both methods, when well conducted, can reflect precisely the reticulocyte counts for adequate clinical use.

  18. Reviving common standards in point-count surveys for broad inference across studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Steven M.; Mahon, C. Lisa; Handel, Colleen M.; Solymos, Peter; Bayne, Erin M.; Fontaine, Patricia C.; Ralph, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the common standards recommended by Ralph et al. (1993, 1995a) for conducting point-count surveys to assess the relative abundance of landbirds breeding in North America. The standards originated from discussions among ornithologists in 1991 and were developed so that point-count survey data could be broadly compared and jointly analyzed by national data centers with the goals of monitoring populations and managing habitat. Twenty years later, we revisit these standards because (1) they have not been universally followed and (2) new methods allow estimation of absolute abundance from point counts, but these methods generally require data beyond the original standards to account for imperfect detection. Lack of standardization and the complications it introduces for analysis become apparent from aggregated data. For example, only 3% of 196,000 point counts conducted during the period 1992-2011 across Alaska and Canada followed the standards recommended for the count period and count radius. Ten-minute, unlimited-count-radius surveys increased the number of birds detected by >300% over 3-minute, 50-m-radius surveys. This effect size, which could be eliminated by standardized sampling, was ≥10 times the published effect sizes of observers, time of day, and date of the surveys. We suggest that the recommendations by Ralph et al. (1995a) continue to form the common standards when conducting point counts. This protocol is inexpensive and easy to follow but still allows the surveys to be adjusted for detection probabilities. Investigators might optionally collect additional information so that they can analyze their data with more flexible forms of removal and time-of-detection models, distance sampling, multiple-observer methods, repeated counts, or combinations of these methods. Maintaining the common standards as a base protocol, even as these study-specific modifications are added, will maximize the value of point-count data, allowing compilation and

  19. DDN (Defense Data Network) Protocol Handbook. Volume 2. DARPA Internet Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    document is. of course , a general« ourpeso pre toot I. However, we anticipate (hat spoc *n*-purpese protocols wet be ebeefcitety necessary lor certain...destination host. Of course , fragmentation and reassembly of datagrams within a network or by private agreement between the gateways of a network is...65,536 octets. Note that this is consistent with the the datagram total length field (of course , the header is counted in the total length and not

  20. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  1. Encryption Switching Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Couteau, Geoffroy; Peters, Thomas; Pointcheval, David

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We formally define the primitive of encryption switching protocol (ESP), allowing to switch between two encryption schemes. Intuitively, this two-party protocol converts given ciphertexts from one scheme into ciphertexts of the same messages under the other scheme, for any polynomial number of switches, in any direction. Although ESP is a special kind of two-party computation protocol, it turns out that ESP implies general two-party computation (2-PC) under natural con...

  2. Multiparty Quantum Cryptographic Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ramzan; M. K. Khan

    2008-01-01

    We propose a multiparty quantum cryptographic protocol. Unitary operators applied by Bob and Charlie, on their respective qubits of a tripartite entangled state encoding a classical symbol that can be decoded at Alice's end with the help of a decoding matrix. Eve's presence can be detected by the disturbance of the decoding matrix. Our protocol is secure against intercept-resend attacks. Furthermore, it is efficient and deterministic in the sense that two classical bits can be transferred per entangled pair of qubits. It is worth mentioning that in this protocol, the same symbol can be used for key distribution and Eve's detection that enhances the effciency of the protocol.

  3. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  4. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation of Counting Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Philip M.

    A computer program to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of counting experiments was written. The program was based on a mathematical derivation which started with counts in a time interval. The time interval was subdivided to form a binomial distribution with no two counts in the same subinterval. Then the number of subintervals was extended to…

  8. Mitosis Counting in Breast Cancer: Object-Level Interobserver Agreement and Comparison to an Automatic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veta, Mitko; van Diest, Paul J; Jiwa, Mehdi; Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; Pluim, Josien P W

    2016-01-01

    Tumor proliferation speed, most commonly assessed by counting of mitotic figures in histological slide preparations, is an important biomarker for breast cancer. Although mitosis counting is routinely performed by pathologists, it is a tedious and subjective task with poor reproducibility, particularly among non-experts. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of mitosis counting can be improved when a strict protocol is defined and followed. Previous studies have examined only the agreement in terms of the mitotic count or the mitotic activity score. Studies of the observer agreement at the level of individual objects, which can provide more insight into the procedure, have not been performed thus far. The development of automatic mitosis detection methods has received large interest in recent years. Automatic image analysis is viewed as a solution for the problem of subjectivity of mitosis counting by pathologists. In this paper we describe the results from an interobserver agreement study between three human observers and an automatic method, and make two unique contributions. For the first time, we present an analysis of the object-level interobserver agreement on mitosis counting. Furthermore, we train an automatic mitosis detection method that is robust with respect to staining appearance variability and compare it with the performance of expert observers on an "external" dataset, i.e. on histopathology images that originate from pathology labs other than the pathology lab that provided the training data for the automatic method. The object-level interobserver study revealed that pathologists often do not agree on individual objects, even if this is not reflected in the mitotic count. The disagreement is larger for objects from smaller size, which suggests that adding a size constraint in the mitosis counting protocol can improve reproducibility. The automatic mitosis detection method can perform mitosis counting in an unbiased way, with substantial

  9. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  10. Neurostereology Protocol for Unbiased Quantification of Neuronal Injury and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Golub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal injury and neurodegeneration are the hallmark pathologies in a variety of neurological conditions such as epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Quantification of absolute neuron and interneuron counts in various brain regions is essential to understand the impact of neurological insults or neurodegenerative disease progression in animal models. However, conventional qualitative scoring-based protocols are superficial and less reliable for use in studies of neuroprotection evaluations. Here we describe an optimized stereology protocol for quantification of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration by unbiased counting of neurons and interneurons. Every 20th section in each series of 20 sections was processed for NeuN(+ total neuron and parvalbumin(+ interneuron immunostaining. The sections that contain the hippocampus were then delineated into five reliably predefined subregions. Each region was separately analyzed with a microscope driven by the stereology software. Regional tissue volume was determined by using the Cavalieri estimator, and cell density and cell number were determined by using the optical disector and optical fractionator. This protocol yielded an estimate of 1.5 million total neurons and 0.05 million PV(+ interneurons within the rat hippocampus. The protocol has greater predictive power for absolute counts as it is based on 3D features rather than 2D images. The total neuron counts were consistent with literature values from sophisticated systems, which are more expensive than our stereology system. This unbiased stereology protocol allows for sensitive, medium-throughput counting of total neurons in any brain region, and thus provides a quantitative tool for studies of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration in a variety of acute brain injury and chronic neurological models.

  11. Can reliable sage-grouse lek counts be obtained using aerial infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Gifford L.; Coates, Peter S.; Petersen, Steven; Romero, John P.

    2013-01-01

    More effective methods for counting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are needed to better assess population trends through enumeration or location of new leks. We describe an aerial infrared technique for conducting sage-grouse lek counts and compare this method with conventional ground-based lek count methods. During the breeding period in 2010 and 2011, we surveyed leks from fixed-winged aircraft using cryogenically cooled mid-wave infrared cameras and surveyed the same leks on the same day from the ground following a standard lek count protocol. We did not detect significant differences in lek counts between surveying techniques. These findings suggest that using a cryogenically cooled mid-wave infrared camera from an aerial platform to conduct lek surveys is an effective alternative technique to conventional ground-based methods, but further research is needed. We discuss multiple advantages to aerial infrared surveys, including counting in remote areas, representing greater spatial variation, and increasing the number of counted leks per season. Aerial infrared lek counts may be a valuable wildlife management tool that releases time and resources for other conservation efforts. Opportunities exist for wildlife professionals to refine and apply aerial infrared techniques to wildlife monitoring programs because of the increasing reliability and affordability of this technology.

  12. How much do women count if they not counted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Taddia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all

  13. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Fähndrich and K. R. M. Leino. Heap monotonic typestate. In IWACO 2003. [11] X. Feng. Local rely-guarantee reasoning . In POPL ’09. [12] T. Freeman...While protocol-based techniques to reason about interference abound, they do not address two practical concerns: the decidability of protocol...46 C Examples using Informal Extensions 48 C.1 Monotonic Counter

  14. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  15. A Black Hole Attack Model for Reactive Ad-Hoc Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    similar to AODV ; however, the major differences between the protocols are the manner of packet routing and how the routes are stored. Unlike 12...and route reply exchange when establishing a new route . While DSR and AODV certainly do this, protocols such as Admission Control enabled On-demand...The particular 16 routing metric used in a protocol can be design and implementation specific. DSR and AODV both use the shortest hop-count

  16. Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishagin, Ivan V

    2015-03-15

    Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting.

  17. QSPR modeling with electrotopological state index for atom type for predicting octane number of paraffins%基于原子类型电拓扑状态指数的 QSPR 模型预测链烷烃辛烷值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇爱波; 周如金; 邱松山; 曾兴业

    2014-01-01

    为了研究化合物结构与其辛烷值之间的相关性,以原子类型电拓扑状态指数作为描述符表征分子的结构特征,从40个样本中选取30种链烷烃作为训练集,对研究法辛烷值选取8个作为测试集,对马达法辛烷值选取7个作为预测集,利用SPSS 软件进行多元线性回归,建立了辛烷值的定量结构-性质关系。得到的研究法辛烷值和马达法辛烷值预测模型复相关系数分别为0.965、0.955和均方根误差分别为5.4338、4.9404,并对模型进行内部和外部验证。结果表明,该模型具有较好的稳定性及预测能力。%In order to study the structure-octane number relationship of compounds, atom-type electrotopological state indices were used as molecular structure descriptors. The dataset of 40 paraffins was randomly divided into a training set containing 30 paraffins, a testing set consisting of 8 paraffins for research octane number and a testing set with 7 paraffins for motor octane number. SPSS software was employed to process multiple linear regression. A prediction model based on quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies was proposed, and the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of the model were 0.965 and 5.4338 for RON, 0.955 and 4.9404 for MON, respectively. Both internal and external validations were performed to validate the performances of the resulting model. The results showed that the model has good stability and prediction ability.

  18. Discrete calculus methods for counting

    CERN Document Server

    Mariconda, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...

  19. Photon counting compressive depth mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  20. Generalized Entropy Concentration for Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, Kostas N

    2016-01-01

    We consider the phenomenon of entropy concentration under linear constraints in a discrete setting, using the "balls and bins" paradigm, but without the assumption that the number of balls allocated to the bins is known. Therefore instead of \\ frequency vectors and ordinary entropy, we have count vectors with unknown sum, and a certain generalized entropy. We show that if the constraints bound the allowable sums, this suffices for concentration to occur even in this setting. The concentration can be either in terms of deviation from the maximum generalized entropy value, or in terms of the norm of the difference from the maximum generalized entropy vector. Without any asymptotic considerations, we quantify the concentration in terms of various parameters, notably a tolerance on the constraints which ensures that they are always satisfied by an integral vector. Generalized entropy maximization is not only compatible with ordinary MaxEnt, but can also be considered an extension of it, as it allows us to address...

  1. Best-retransmission count selection for environment optimization over wireless heterogeneous networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Zhao; Yuning Dong; Hui Zhang; Nanjie Liu; Hongbo Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an environment-aware best-retransmission count selected optimization control scheme over IEEE 802.11 multi-hop wireless networks. The proposed scheme predicts the wireless resources by using statistical channel state and provides maximum retransmission count optimization based on wireless channel environment state to improve the packet delivery success ratio. The media access control (MAC) layer selects the best-retransmission count by perceiving the types of packet loss in wireless link and using the wireless channel charac-teristics and environment information, and adjusts the packet for-warding adaptively aiming at improving the packet retransmission probability. Simulation results show that the best-retransmission count selected scheme achieves a higher packet successful de-livery percentage and a lower packet col ision probability than the corresponding traditional MAC transmission control protocols.

  2. IPv6 Protocol Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the emerging of next generation Intemet protocol (IPv6), it is expected to replace the current version of Internet protocol (IPv4) that will be exhausted in the near future. Besides providing adequate address space, some other new features are included into the new 128 bits of IP such as IP auto configuration, quality of service, simple routing capability, security, mobility and multicasting. The current protocol analyzer will not be able to handle IPv6 packets. This paper will focus on developing protocol analyzer that decodes IPv6 packet. IPv6 protocol analyzer is an application module,which is able to decode the IPv6 packet and provide detail breakdown of the construction of the packet. It has to understand the detail construction of the IPv6, and provide a high level abstraction of bits and bytes of the IPv6 packet.Thus it increases network administrators' understanding of a network protocol,helps he/she in solving protocol related problem in a IPv6 network environment.

  3. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  4. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  5. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise......Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification...... implementations that closely correspond to their legal specification, thereby increasing trust....

  6. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  7. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    the secure computation. Especially we look at the communication complexity of protocols in this model, and perfectly secure protocols. We show general protocols for any finite functionality with statistical security and optimal communication complexity (but exponential amount of preprocessing). And for two......This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  8. Statistical approaches to the analysis of point count data: A little extra information can go a long way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, G.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Fancy, S.G.; Pollock, K.H.; Shriner, S.A.; Simons, T.R.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    Point counts are a standard sampling procedure for many bird species, but lingering concerns still exist about the quality of information produced from the method. It is well known that variation in observer ability and environmental conditions can influence the detection probability of birds in point counts, but many biologists have been reluctant to abandon point counts in favor of more intensive approaches to counting. However, over the past few years a variety of statistical and methodological developments have begun to provide practical ways of overcoming some of the problems with point counts. We describe some of these approaches, and show how they can be integrated into standard point count protocols to greatly enhance the quality of the information. Several tools now exist for estimation of detection probability of birds during counts, including distance sampling, double observer methods, time-depletion (removal) methods, and hybrid methods that combine these approaches. Many counts are conducted in habitats that make auditory detection of birds much more likely than visual detection. As a framework for understanding detection probability during such counts, we propose separating two components of the probability a bird is detected during a count into (1) the probability a bird vocalizes during the count and (2) the probability this vocalization is detected by an observer. In addition, we propose that some measure of the area sampled during a count is necessary for valid inferences about bird populations. This can be done by employing fixed-radius counts or more sophisticated distance-sampling models. We recommend any studies employing point counts be designed to estimate detection probability and to include a measure of the area sampled.

  9. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  10. Cognitive Protocol Stack Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    directly related to the protocol stack, e.g., environmental or positioning data) that can be exploited to design and test novel cognitive networking ...quality of service (QoS) is challenging. Currently, 5G technologies are being developed to answer the need for further increasing network capacity, and...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In the ARO “Cognitive Protocol Stack Design" project we proposed cognitive networking solutions published in international

  11. Counting pairs of faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, D; Richer, H B; Woods, David; Fahlman, Gregory G; Richer, Harvey B

    1995-01-01

    The number of close pairs of galaxies observed to faint magnitude limits, when compared to nearby samples, determines the interaction or merger rate as a function of redshift. The prevalence of mergers at intermediate redshifts is fundamental to understanding how galaxies evolve and the relative population of galaxy types. Mergers have been used to explain the excess of galaxies in faint blue counts above the numbers expected from no-evolution models. Using deep CFHT (I\\leq24) imaging of a ``blank'' field we find a pair fraction which is consistent with the galaxies in our sample being randomly distributed with no significant excess of ``physical'' close pairs. This is contrary to the pair fraction of 34\\%\\pm9\\% found by Burkey {\\it et al.} for similar magnitude limits and using an identical approach to the pair analysis. Various reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Colors and morphologies of our close pairs are consistent with the bulk of them being random superpositions although, as indicators of int...

  12. Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Liew; Jie Jin Wang; Elena Rochtchina; Tien Yin Wong; Paul Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken ...

  13. Improvement of Delayed Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Guo-jun; XIAO; Cai-jin; YANG; Wei; ZHANG; Gui-ying; JIN; Xiang-chun; WANG; Ping-sheng; NI; Bang-fa

    2012-01-01

    <正>A new delayed neutron counting system, which is good at qualitative and quantitative analysis of fissionable nuclide mixture, will be established at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). We use 3 He proportional counters to count the delayed neutrons after the samples irradiated by reactor neutrons, including U3O8-stantard, uranium ore and enriched uranium. Then, the counting efficiency and limit of this system were calculated.

  14. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrer, Ruth; Tansella, Vittorio

    2016-07-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  15. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  16. Cochleotoxicity monitoring protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Penêda, José; Barros Lima, Nuno; Ribeiro, Leandro; Helena, Diamantino; Domingues, Bruno; Condé, Artur

    2017-05-10

    Cochlear damage is frequent in long-term aminoglycosides therapy or chemotherapeutic treatments with platinum-based agents. Despite its prevalence, it is currently underestimated and underdiagnosed. A monitoring protocol is vital to the early detection of cochleotoxicity and its implementation is widely encouraged in every hospital unit. Our aim was to elaborate a cochleotoxicity monitoring protocol for patients treated with platinum compounds or aminoglycosides antibiotics. PubMed® database was searched using terms relevant to drug cochleotoxicity in order to identify the most adequate protocol. Several articles and guidelines influenced our decision. There is no consensus on a universal monitoring protocol. Its formulation and application rely heavily on available resources and personnel. High-frequency audiometry and otoacoustic emissions play an important role on early detection of cochleotoxicity caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics and platinum compounds. A cochleotoxicity monitoring protocol consisting on an initial evaluation, treatment follow-up and post-treatment evaluation is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  17. Counting losses due to saturation effects of scintillation counters at high count rates

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, K

    1999-01-01

    The counting statistics of a scintillation counter, with a preamplifier saturated by an overloading input, are investigated. First, the formulae for the variance and the mean number of counts, accumulated within a given gating time, are derived by considering counting-loss effects originating from the saturation and a finite resolving time of the electronic circuit. Numerical examples based on the formulae indicate that the saturation makes a positive contribution to the variance-to-mean ratio and that the contribution increases with count rate. Next the ratios are measured under high count rates when the preamplifier saturation can be observed. By fitting the present formula to the measured data, the counting-loss parameters can be evaluated. Corrections based on the parameters are made for various count rates measured in a nuclear reactor. As a result of the corrections, the linearity between count rate and reactor power can be restored.

  18. 拓扑指数在烃类化合物定量构效关系中的研究进展%Research Progress of Topological Index in QSPR Study of Hydrocarbon Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯恩卿; 谢占川; 李秀庆; 杨林

    2011-01-01

    拓扑指数是一种重要的分子结构数学描述符,在烃类化合物的定量构效关系(QSPR)研究中占有重要作用.本文主要从烃类化合物的物理化学性质、热力学性质和色谱保留指数三个方面,综述了近年来分子拓扑指数在烷烃、烯烃、炔烃、卤代烃中的定量构效关系的研究进展.%The topological index is an important mathematical descriptors of molecular structure,plays an important role in the quantitative structure property relationship(QSPR) study of hydrocarbon compounds.This article reviewed the research progress of QSPR study about the properties of hydrocarbon compounds,such as physicochemical properties,thermodynamic properties and chromatographic retention indices by using topological index.

  19. Genetic Regulatory Networks that count to 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Sneppen, K.

    2013-01-01

    that contain repressive links, which we model by Michaelis-Menten terms. Interestingly, we find that counting to 3 does not require a hierarchy in Hill coefficients, in contrast to counting to 2, which is known from lambda phage. Furthermore, we find two main circuit architectures: one design also found...

  20. Correcting Finger Counting to Snellen Acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjia, Rustum; Hwang, Tiffany Jean; Chen, Alexander Francis; Pouw, Andrew; Tian, Jack J; Chu, Edward R; Wang, Michelle Y; Tran, Jeffrey Show; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the authors describe an online tool with which to convert and thus quantify count finger measurements of visual acuity into Snellen equivalents. It is hoped that this tool allows for the re-interpretation of retrospectively collected data that provide visual acuity in terms of qualitative count finger measurements.

  1. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  2. It Is Time to Count Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henscheid, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    As the modern learning community movement turns 30, it is time to determine just how many, and what type, of these programs exist at America's colleges and universities. This article first offers a rationale for counting learning communities followed by a description of how disparate counts and unclear definitions hamper efforts to embed these…

  3. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  4. Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR Methods: Application to Jet Fuels Développement d’un outil d’aide à la formulation des carburants alternatifs utilisant des méthodes QSPR (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship: application aux carburéacteurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldana D.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels are a promising solution for road transport but also for aircraft. In the aviation field, a huge amount of work has been done in the past years with the approval to use up to 50 % by volume of SPK (Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene in blends with conventional fossil Jet A-1. SPK are Fischer-Tropsch (FT fuels but also Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA. However, these alternative fuels can have different chemical properties depending on the process used for their production. These properties include normal to iso paraffin ratio, carbon chain length and level of branching. R&D studies of alternative fuels are based on the evaluation of products coming from identified production processes. However, it appears that a better way of studying them could be firstly to determine the best chemical composition regarding aviation problems and secondly to find the best process and finishing process in order to obtain such a product. The objective of this work is to design a tool that aims to guide the future formulation of alternative fuels for aviation through the prediction of targeted physical properties. Thus, it is proposed to apply a methodology that identifies relationships between the structure and properties of a molecule (QSPR for Quantitative Structure Property Relationship, with the aim of establishing predictive models. These models will be built for hydrocarbons (normal and iso paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics, etc. and oxygenated compounds (esters and alcohols. For aviation, oxygenated compounds are not considered as a drop-in fuel. It could be seen as a disruptive solution in a long term view. There are concerns with oxygenates in aviation that are covered in this paper such as the flash point but others such as the energetic content, the water affinity that are not taken into account in this paper. The properties currently studied are flash point, cetane number, density and viscosity. The data sets will contain data

  5. Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2010; Ray H. Gavin (Ed; Springer Protocols methods in molecular biology, vol. 586 Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 390; €95.44; ISBN: 978-1-60761-375-6Ray H. Gavin, from the Brooklyn College of The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA, wrote a few line as preface of this book. This is quite understandable: there is not a great need of words when there are facts that sustain and favour the dissemination of a cultural product. This is the case of the second edition of Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols, which appears just ten years after the first edition...

  6. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  7. Blind Cognitive MAC Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Mehanna, Omar; Gamal, Hesham El

    2008-01-01

    We consider the design of cognitive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols enabling an unlicensed (secondary) transmitter-receiver pair to communicate over the idle periods of a set of licensed channels, i.e., the primary network. The objective is to maximize data throughput while maintaining the synchronization between secondary users and avoiding interference with licensed (primary) users. No statistical information about the primary traffic is assumed to be available a-priori to the secondary user. We investigate two distinct sensing scenarios. In the first, the secondary transmitter is capable of sensing all the primary channels, whereas it senses one channel only in the second scenario. In both cases, we propose MAC protocols that efficiently learn the statistics of the primary traffic online. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed blind protocols asymptotically achieve the throughput obtained when prior knowledge of primary traffic statistics is available.

  8. IP Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco Pinto, Armando

    2002-03-01

    Uyless Black is a widely known expert in computer networks and data communications. He is author of more than ten books in the communication technologies field, which puts him in a good position to address this topic. In IP Routing Protocols he starts by providing the background and concepts required for understanding TCP/IP technology. This is done clearly and assumes little prior knowledge of the area. As might be expected, he emphasizes the IP route discovery problem. Later he details several routing protocols.

  9. Apoptosis - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2009; Peter Erhardt and Ambrus Toth (Eds; Springer Protocols - Methods in molecular biology, vol. 559; Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 400; €88.35; ISBN: 978-1-60327-016-8The editors rightly begin the preface telling us that: “The ability to detect and quantify apoptosis, to understand its biochemistry and to identify its regulatory genes and proteins is crucial to biomedical research”. Nowadays this is a grounding concept of biology and medicine. What is particularly remarkable...

  10. Evaluation of heterotrophic plate and chromogenic agar colony counting in water quality laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Gary; Monis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of bacteria using plate-based counts is a core technique used by food and water microbiology testing laboratories. However, manual counting of bacterial colonies is both time and labour intensive, can vary between operators and also requires manual entry of results into laboratory information management systems, which can be a source of data entry error. An alternative is to use automated digital colony counters, but there is a lack of peer-reviewed validation data to allow incorporation into standards. We compared the performance of digital counting technology (ProtoCOL3) against manual counting using criteria defined in internationally recognized standard methods. Digital colony counting provided a robust, standardized system suitable for adoption in a commercial testing environment. The digital technology has several advantages:•Improved measurement of uncertainty by using a standard and consistent counting methodology with less operator error.•Efficiency for labour and time (reduced cost).•Elimination of manual entry of data onto LIMS.•Faster result reporting to customers.

  11. Security Protocol Design: A Case Study Using Key Distribution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Dojen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays security protocols are a key component in providing security services for fixed and mobile networks. These services include data confidentiality, radio link encryption, message integrity, mobile subscriber authentication, electronic payment, certified e-mail, contract signing and nonrepudiation. This paper is concerned with design of effective security protocols. Security protocols are introduced and some common attacks against security protocols are discussed. The vulnerabilities that lead to theattacks are analyzed and guidelines for effective security protocol design are proposed. The presented guidelines are applied to the Andrew Secure RPC protocol and its adapted versions. It is demonstrated that compliance with the guidelines successfully avoidsfreshness and parallel session attacks.

  12. Protocol Materials: A Clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Wilfred; O'Gorman, David

    "Protocol materials" are records or recordings of a wide variety of behavioral situations. Characteristically they are neither simulated nor extensively edited. They are to be used for the empirical verification of concepts derived from both educational theory and the social sciences. They are attempts to capture reality so that it may be studied…

  13. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  14. THE MASTER PROTOCOL CONCEPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Carmen J.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution---from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars---to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demand the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study). PMID:26433553

  15. Noun Countability; Count Nouns and Non-count Nouns, What are the Syntactic Differences Between them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar A. Alkazwini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Words that function as the subjects of verbs, objects of verbs or prepositions and which can have a plural form and possessive ending are known as nouns. They are described as referring to persons, places, things, states, or qualities and might also be used as an attributive modifier. In this paper, classes and subclasses of nouns shall be presented, then, noun countability branching into count and non-count nous shall be discussed. A number of present examples illustrating differences between count and non-count nouns and this includes determiner-head-co-occurrence restrictions of number, subject-verb agreement, in addition to some exceptions to this agreement rule shall be discussed. Also, the lexically inherent number in nouns and how inherently plural nouns are classified in terms of (+/- count are illustrated. This research will discuss partitive construction of count and non-count nouns, nouns as attributive modifier and, finally, conclude with the fact that there are syntactic difference between count and non-count in the English Language. Keywords: English Language, Nouns, Count, Non-count, Syntactic Differences, Proper Nouns

  16. Using citizen science butterfly counts to predict species population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily B; Morgan, Byron J T; Brereton, Tom M; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard

    2017-05-05

    Citizen scientists are increasingly engaged in gathering biodiversity information, but trade-offs are often required between public engagement goals and reliable data collection. We compared population estimates for 18 widespread butterfly species derived from the first 4 years (2011-2014) of a short-duration citizen science project (Big Butterfly Count [BBC]) with those from long-running, standardized monitoring data collected by experienced observers (U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme [UKBMS]). BBC data are gathered during an annual 3-week period, whereas UKBMS sampling takes place over 6 months each year. An initial comparison with UKBMS data restricted to the 3-week BBC period revealed that species population changes were significantly correlated between the 2 sources. The short-duration sampling season rendered BBC counts susceptible to bias caused by interannual phenological variation in the timing of species' flight periods. The BBC counts were positively related to butterfly phenology and sampling effort. Annual estimates of species abundance and population trends predicted from models including BBC data and weather covariates as a proxy for phenology correlated significantly with those derived from UKBMS data. Overall, citizen science data obtained using a simple sampling protocol produced comparable estimates of butterfly species abundance to data collected through standardized monitoring methods. Although caution is urged in extrapolating from this U.K. study of a small number of common, conspicuous insects, we found that mass-participation citizen science can simultaneously contribute to public engagement and biodiversity monitoring. Mass-participation citizen science is not an adequate replacement for standardized biodiversity monitoring but may extend and complement it (e.g., through sampling different land-use types), as well as serving to reconnect an increasingly urban human population with nature. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published

  17. Count response model for the CMB spots

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The statistics of the curvature quanta generated during a stage of inflationary expansion is used to derive a count response model for the large-scale phonons determining, in the concordance lore, the warmer and the cooler spots of the large-scale temperature inhomogeneities. The multiplicity distributions for the counting statistics are shown to be generically overdispersed in comparison with conventional Poissonian regressions. The generalized count response model deduced hereunder accommodates an excess of correlations in the regime of high multiplicities and prompts dedicated analyses with forthcoming data collected by instruments of high angular resolution and high sensitivity to temperature variations per pixel.

  18. The theory and practice of scintillation counting

    CERN Document Server

    Birks, John Bettely

    1964-01-01

    The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting is a comprehensive account of the theory and practice of scintillation counting. This text covers the study of the scintillation process, which is concerned with the interactions of radiation and matter; the design of the scintillation counter; and the wide range of applications of scintillation counters in pure and applied science. The book is easy to read despite the complex nature of the subject it attempts to discuss. It is organized such that the first five chapters illustrate the fundamental concepts of scintillation counting. Chapters 6

  19. B Counting at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  20. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  1. A family of quantum protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Devetak, I; Winter, A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce two dual, purely quantum protocols: for entanglement distillation assisted by quantum communication (``mother'' protocol) and for entanglement assisted quantum communication (``father'' protocol). We show how a large class of ``children'' protocols (including many previously known ones) can be derived from the two by direct application of teleportation or super-dense coding. Furthermore, the parent may be recovered from most of the children protocols by making them ``coherent''. We also summarize the various resource trade-offs these protocols give rise to.

  2. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use ... high blood pressure, or seizures Continue Reading How Low is too Low? When your blood is tested, ...

  3. Mourning Dove Call-count Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) Call-Count Survey was developed to provide an index to population size and to detect annual changes in mourning dove breeding...

  4. Furbearer track count index testing and development

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Indices of abundance can be useful in monitoring furbearer populations where actual counts of individual animals are difficult. I sampled marten and snowshoe hare...

  5. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this page, ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like other ...

  6. VSRR Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data contains provisional counts for drug overdose deaths based on a current flow of mortality data in the National Vital Statistics System. National...

  7. Uranium Determination by Delayed Neutron Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Uranium is a very important resource in nuclear industry, especially in the exploiture of nuclear energy. Determination of uranium using delayed neutron counting (DNC) is simple, non-destructive, and

  8. Four square mile survey pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides guidance for conducting bird pair count measurements on wetlands for the HAPETs Four-Square-Mile survey. This set of...

  9. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and state...

  10. 2012 bobwhite whistle count : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring whistle count to monitor northern bobwhite abundance in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1998, and is preformed on...

  11. 2013 bobwhite whistle count : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2013 spring whistle count to monitor northern bobwhite abundance in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1998, and is preformed on...

  12. Recommended protocols for monitoring impacts of wind turbines on birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-28

    The proponent of a wind-powered generating station may be required to gather baseline information on birds that reside or migrate through the area to be developed. Proponents may also be required follow-up on the actual impact of the installation on the birds in order to fulfil the requirements of a federal environmental assessment. In order to evaluate impacts of wind turbines on birds, information was provided to proponents on the types of protocols likely to be useful for baseline studies and follow-up monitoring at proposed wind turbine sites. Uses of the document, field data collection, and reporting requirements were first discussed, followed by a detailed discussion of pre-construction baseline sample methods that might be expected as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment process. This information was presented according to monitoring during breeding season, non-breeding season, and offshore locations. Monitoring prospective wind turbine sites to determine whether any of the sites present an elevated risk for substantial bat mortality was also discussed. An overview of post-construction follow-up studies was provided for breeding season, non-breeding season, carcass searches and collision studies. The first appendix provided further details on some of the sampling protocols that are likely to be appropriate for bird monitoring in the context of wind turbine environmental assessment. These include area searches, standardized area searches, distance sampling, behavioural studies, point counts, microphone point counts, playback counts, stopover counts, passage migration counts, acoustic monitoring of migrating birds, radar monitoring, carcass searches, and estimating collisions using other methods. Codes for breeding evidence and a sample data sheet for ten minute point counts were also provides in appendices. 3 appendices.

  13. Recommended protocols for monitoring impacts of wind turbines on birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The behaviour of birds in relation to turbine locations are routinely monitored to determine risk factors. Baseline information is typically gathered on birds that reside or migrate through an area to be developed. The purpose of this document was to provide proponents of wind turbine projects with information on the types of protocols likely to be used for baseline studies and follow-up monitoring at proposed wind turbine sites in order to evaluate the impacts of wind turbines on birds. It is intended to facilitate the comparison of data among wind power projects. In order to meet federal environmental assessment requirements, proponents may also be required to follow-up on the actual impact of the installation on birds. This document described methods for collecting field data as well as pre-construction baseline sample methods that might be expected as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Follow-up monitoring should be undertaken during the breeding season, non-breeding season, and at offshore locations. This document also discussed the need to monitor prospective wind turbine sites to determine whether any of the sites present an elevated risk for substantial bat mortality. An overview of post-construction follow-up studies was also provided for carcass searches and collision studies. Details on some of the sampling protocols that are likely to be appropriate for bird monitoring in the context of wind turbine environmental assessment were presented with reference to searches, standardized area searches, distance sampling, behavioural studies, point counts, microphone point counts, playback counts, stopover counts, passage migration counts, acoustic monitoring of migrating birds, radar monitoring, carcass searches, and estimating collisions using other methods. This document also included codes for breeding evidence and a sample data sheet for ten minute point counts. 3 appendices.

  14. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle.

  15. How to count an introduction to combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Allenby, RBJT

    2010-01-01

    What's It All About? What Is Combinatorics? Classic Problems What You Need to Know Are You Sitting Comfortably? Permutations and Combinations The Combinatorial Approach Permutations CombinationsApplications to Probability Problems The Multinomial Theorem Permutations and Cycles Occupancy Problems Counting the Solutions of Equations New Problems from Old A ""Reduction"" Theorem for the Stirling Numbers The Inclusion-Exclusion Principle Double Counting Derangements A Formula for the Stirling NumbersStirling and Catalan Numbers Stirling Numbers Permutations and Stirling Numbers Catalan Numbers Pa

  16. The Complexity of Approximately Counting Stable Matchings

    CERN Document Server

    Chebolu, Prasad; Martin, Russell

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the complexity of approximately counting stable matchings in the $k$-attribute model, where the preference lists are determined by dot products of "preference vectors" with "attribute vectors", or by Euclidean distances between "preference points" and "attribute points". Irving and Leather proved that counting the number of stable matchings in the general case is $#P$-complete. Counting the number of stable matchings is reducible to counting the number of downsets in a (related) partial order and is interreducible, in an approximation-preserving sense, to a class of problems that includes counting the number of independent sets in a bipartite graph ($#BIS$). It is conjectured that no FPRAS exists for this class of problems. We show this approximation-preserving interreducibilty remains even in the restricted $k$-attribute setting when $k \\geq 3$ (dot products) or $k \\geq 2$ (Euclidean distances). Finally, we show it is easy to count the number of stable matchings in the 1-attribute dot-product ...

  17. Mitosis Methods & Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis Methods & Protocols Andrew D. McAinsh (Edt Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 545, 2009 ISBN: 978-1-60327-992-5   It is quite clear from the contents of this book that the remarkably fascinating phenomenon of mitosis (that captured, and still is capturing, the attention of entire generations of scientists is still open to research. This is mainly due to our lack of knowledge of so many multifaced events of this extraordinarly complex process. The reader giving a glace through the Contents and Contributors sections is speechless: All of the first-class models (i.e., budding yeast, Caenorabditis, Drosophila, Xenopus and Human are presented..... 

  18. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  19. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  20. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  1. 支持向量机用于多溴联苯醚蒸汽压的QSPR研究%QSPR study of vapor pressure of PBDEs by SVM method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗元锋; 黄俊; 余刚

    2009-01-01

    With MOPAC-PM3 method in the ChemOffice 8.0 software, 6 quantum chemistry parameters for 23 kinds of PBDEs were calculated. Using support vector machine (SVM) method based on polynomial kernel, radial basis kernel, sigmoid kernel, a QSPR model has been set up for vapor pressure of 23 kinds of PBDEs. For the training set, the correlation coefficient R2 of the three types of kernel function is 0. 994, 0. 996 and 0. 994, the mean square error (MSE) is 0. 0102, 0. 0081 and 0. 0095, respectively. The correla-tion coefficient R2 of Leave One Out (LOO) cross validation is 0. 992, 0. 991 and 0. 991, respectively. For the testing set, the correla-tion coefficient R2 of the three types of kernel function is 0. 994, 0. 986 and 0. 991, the MSE is 0. 0225,0. 0458 and 0. 0247, respec-tively. The results show that the SVM regression algorithm play an excellent performance on QSPR modeling for the vapor pressure of PBDEs, and the choice of kernel function of SVM model do not significantly affect performance. The overall performance of the three types of kernel functions has been compared through model fitting, prediction ability and the stability, and compared the influence of the support vector number on the prediction ability. The results show that the properties of polynomial kernel and sigmoid kernel are similar, better than radial basis kernel.%应用ChemOffice 8.0中的MOPAC-PM3算法计算得到多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)的6个量子化学参数,采用基于多项式核,径向基核及Sigmoid核的支持向量机(SVM)方法建立了23种PBDEs蒸汽压的QSPR模型.三类核函数对训练集拟合的相关系数R2分别为0.994,0.996,0.994.,均方误差MSE分别为0.0102,0.0081,0.0095;留一法交叉验证(LOO)的相关系数分别为0.992,0.991,0.991.对测试集进行同归的相关系数分别为0.994,0.986,0.991,均方误差MSE分别为0.0225,0.0458,0.0247.结果表明SVM回归算法在PBDEs蒸汽压的QSPR建模上表现出色,核函数的选择对SVM模犁性能影响不

  2. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo;

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  3. Evaluation of DAPI direct count, computer assisted and plate count methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chivu, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatic counting of bacteria stained with highly specific and sensitive fluorescing DNA stain DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and direct manual counting to enumerate both pure culture of Pseudomonas putida overnight culture and sea water enhanced culture, was tested in correlation with plate direct counting, turbidity and absorbance at 600nm, to obtain cross validation. Six diluted samples from overnight pure culture of Pseudomonas putida and sea water culture ...

  4. Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford Count Rumford on the nature of heat

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Sanborn C

    1967-01-01

    Men of Physics: Benjamin Thompson - Count Rumford: Count Rumford on the Nature of Heat covers the significant contributions of Count Rumford in the fields of physics. Count Rumford was born with the name Benjamin Thompson on March 23, 1753, in Woburn, Massachusetts. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 11 chapters, and begins with a presentation of Benjamin Thompson's biography and his interest in physics, particularly as an advocate of an """"anti-caloric"""" theory of heat. The subsequent chapters are devoted to his many discoveries that profoundly affected the physical thought

  5. The Acquisition of Counting Skill in Preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Çakır

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- The aim of this study was to find out more information on the acquisition of counting skill in preschool children. For this purpose, children’s judgment of acceptability of a counting activity was used to investigate whether children’s counting skills are governed by their implicit knowledge of a number of counting principles. Data showed that children easily recognized the violation of one or more counting principles in a one’s application of counting principles in sequences of English and Turkish count words, implying that children have the understanding of counting principles. The sessions on counting in Turkish make it very likely that the children were responding to violations of rules rather than merely violation of well-learning of count words. These results give additional support to the assumption that there are innate counting principles that rule young children’s counting. Keywords: counting principles, error-detection task, mathematical development. Özet- Okul Öncesi Çocuklarda Sayma İlkeleri. Bu çalışmada çocukların bir sayma etkinliğinin geçerli olup olmadığı hakkındaki yargıları kullanılarak, sayma becerisinin doğuştan sahip olunan bir dizi örtük ilkeler tarafından yönlendirilip yönlendirilmediği incelenmiştir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, bir grup okul öncesi çocuklardan videodan izledikleri bir aktör çocuğun hem anadilinde (İngilizce hem de bilmedikleri bir yabancı dilde (Türkçe yaptığı farklı hatalar içeren sayma serilerinin doğru veya yanlış olup olmadığı belirtmesi istenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar çocukların sayma etkinliklerine rehberlik eden doğuştan getirdikleri örtük “sayma ilkelerine” sahip olduklarına ilişkin görüşleri destekler yönündedir. Örneğin, gerek İngilizce gerekse Türkçe sayma serilerinde, “standart (doğru sayma” serisi diğer tüm serilere göre anlamlı ölçüde “doğru” bir sayma olarak değerlendirilirken, T

  6. It counts who counts: an experimental evaluation of the importance of observer effects on spotlight count estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Jessen, Lonnie

    2013-01-01

    Spotlight surveys conducted by volunteers is a promising method to assess the abundance of nocturnally active mammals, but estimates are subject to bias if different observer groups differ in their ability to detect animals in the dark. We quantified the variation amongst volunteer spotlight...... with non-hunters and decreased as function of age but were independent of sex or educational background. If observer-specific detection probabilities were applied to real counting routes, point count estimates from inexperienced observers without a hunting background would only be 43 % (95 % CI, 39...

  7. Photon-counting spaceborne altimeter simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Josef

    2004-11-01

    We are presenting of a photon counting laser altimeter simulator. The simulator is designed to be a theoretical and numerical complement for a Technology Demonstrator of the space born laser altimeter for planetary studies built on our university. The European Space Agency has nominated the photon counting altimeter as one of the attractive devices for planetary research. The device should provide altimetry in the range 400 to 1400 km with one meter range resolution under rough conditions - Sun illumination, radiation, etc. The general altimeter concept expects the photon counting principle laser radar. According to this concept, the simulator is based on photon counting radar simulation, which has been enhanced to handle planetary surface roughness, vertical terrain profile and its reflectivity. The simulator is useful complement for any photon counting altimeter both for altimeter design and for measured data analysis. Our simulator enables to model the orbital motion, range, terrain profile, reflectivity, and their influence on the over all energy budget and the ultimate signal to noise ratio acceptable for the altimetry. The simulator can be adopted for various air or space born application.

  8. CT protocol review and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, James M; Cody, Dianna D; Morin, Richard L

    2014-03-01

    To reduce the radiation dose associated with CT scans, much attention is focused on CT protocol review and improvement. In fact, annual protocol reviews will soon be required for ACR CT accreditation. A major challenge in the protocol review process is determining whether a current protocol is optimal and deciding what steps to take to improve it. In this paper, the authors describe methods for pinpointing deficiencies in CT protocols and provide a systematic approach for optimizing them. Emphasis is placed on a team approach, with a team consisting of at least one radiologist, one physicist, and one technologist. This core team completes a critical review of all aspects of a CT protocol and carefully evaluates proposed improvements. Changes to protocols are implemented only with consensus of the core team, with consideration of all aspects of the CT examination, including image quality, radiation dose, patient care and safety, and workflow.

  9. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 74683-79494

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  10. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  11. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  12. CERN_DxCTA counting mode chip

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, D; Nygård, E

    2008-01-01

    This ASIC is a counting mode front-end electronic optimized for the readout of CdZnTe/CdTe and silicon sensors, for possible use in applications where the flux of ionizing radiation is high. The chip is implemented in 0.25 μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain shaper stage with 21 ns peaking time, two discriminators and two 18-bit counters. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 118 mV/fC and an equivalent noise charge of about 711 e−, for a detector capacitance of 5 pF. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and pixel detectors.

  13. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D.; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller. PMID:27446749

  14. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-01

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm2 for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm2, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τn for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  15. Counting dyons in N = 4 string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman

    1997-02-01

    We present a microscopic index formula for the degeneracy of dyons in four-dimensional N = 4 string theory. This counting formula is manifestly symmetric under the duality group, and its asymptotic growth reproduces the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We give a derivation of this result in terms of the type 11 five-brane compactified on K3, by assuming that its fluctuations are described by a closed string theory on its world-volume. We find that the degeneracies are given in terms of the denominator of a generalized super Kac-Moody algebra. We also discuss the correspondence of this result with the counting of D-brane states.

  16. Counting dyons in N=4 string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    We present a microscopic index formula for the degeneracy of dyons in four-dimensional N=4 string theory. This counting formula is manifestly symmetric under the duality group, and its asymptotic growth reproduces the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We give a derivation of this result in terms of the type II five-brane compactified on K3, by assuming that its fluctuations are described by a closed string theory on its world-volume. We find that the degeneracies are given in terms of the denominator of a generalized super Kac-Moody algebra. We also discuss the correspondence of this result with the counting of D-brane states.

  17. Deep Source-Counting at 3 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernstrom, Tessa; Wall, Jasper; Scott, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    We describe an analysis of 3-GHz confusion-limited data from the Karl J. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We show that with minimal model assumptions, P(D), Bayesian and Markov-Chain Mone-Carlo (MCMC) methods can define the source count to levels some 10 times fainter than the conventional confusion limit. Our verification process includes a full realistic simulation that considers known information on source angular extent and clustering. It appears that careful analysis of the statistical properties of an image is more effective than counting individual objects.

  18. The Borda count and agenda manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dummett

    1998-01-01

    A standard objection to the Borda count, as an actual voting procedure, is that it is subject to agenda manipulation. The classical example is the introduction, in order to favour a candidate or option y, of a new option z ranked on every voter's preference scale immediately below y; y may as a result obtain the highest Borda count, although, if z had not been introduced, a different option would have done so. Strategic use of this device is not greatly to be feared, but it does point to a de...

  19. An analytical model of crater count equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Minton, David A.; Fassett, Caleb I.

    2017-06-01

    Crater count equilibrium occurs when new craters form at the same rate that old craters are erased, such that the total number of observable impacts remains constant. Despite substantial efforts to understand this process, there remain many unsolved problems. Here, we propose an analytical model that describes how a heavily cratered surface reaches a state of crater count equilibrium. The proposed model formulates three physical processes contributing to crater count equilibrium: cookie-cutting (simple, geometric overlap), ejecta-blanketing, and sandblasting (diffusive erosion). These three processes are modeled using a degradation parameter that describes the efficiency for a new crater to erase old craters. The flexibility of our newly developed model allows us to represent the processes that underlie crater count equilibrium problems. The results show that when the slope of the production function is steeper than that of the equilibrium state, the power law of the equilibrium slope is independent of that of the production function slope. We apply our model to the cratering conditions in the Sinus Medii region and at the Apollo 15 landing site on the Moon and demonstrate that a consistent degradation parameterization can successfully be determined based on the empirical results of these regions. Further developments of this model will enable us to better understand the surface evolution of airless bodies due to impact bombardment.

  20. A multilevel analysis of intercompany claim counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Frees, E.W.; Valdez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use multilevel models to analyze data on claim counts provided by the General Insurance Association of Singapore, an organization consisting of most of the general insurers in Singapore. Our data comes from the financial records of automobile insurance policies followed over a peri

  1. Asynchronous ASCII Event Count Status Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    IRIG STANDARD 215-12 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP ASYNCHRONOUS ASCII EVENT COUNT STATUS CODES...Inter-range Instrumentation Group ( IRIG ) Standard for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)-formatted EC status transfer which can be...circuits and Ethernet networks. Provides systems engineers and equipment vendors with an Inter-range Instrumentation Group ( IRIG ) Standard for American

  2. Approximately Counting Embeddings into Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Furer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Let H be a graph, and let C(H,G) be the number of (subgraph isomorphic) copies of H contained in a graph G. We investigate the fundamental problem of estimating C(H,G). Previous results cover only a few specific instances of this general problem, for example, the case when H has degree at most one (monomer-dimer problem). In this paper, we present the first general subcase of the subgraph isomorphism counting problem which is almost always efficiently approximable. The results rely on a new graph decomposition technique. Informally, the decomposition is a labeling of the vertices generating a sequence of bipartite graphs. The decomposition permits us to break the problem of counting embeddings of large subgraphs into that of counting embeddings of small subgraphs. Using this method, we present a simple randomized algorithm for the counting problem. For all decomposable graphs H and all graphs G, the algorithm is an unbiased estimator. Furthermore, for all graphs H having a decomposition where each of the bipa...

  3. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  4. A multilevel analysis of intercompany claim counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Frees, E.W.; Valdez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use multilevel models to analyze data on claim counts provided by the General Insurance Association of Singapore, an organization consisting of most of the general insurers in Singapore. Our data comes from the financial records of automobile insurance policies followed over a peri

  5. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  6. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  7. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  8. Renormalization of singular potentials and power counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, B.; van Koick, U.; van Kolck, U.

    2008-01-01

    We use a toy model to illustrate how to build effective theories for singular potentials. We consider a central attractive 1/r(2) potential perturbed by a 1/r(4) correction. The power-counting rule, an important ingredient of effective theory, is established by seeking the minimum set of short-range

  9. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  10. Single Entity Electrochemistry Progresses to Cell Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J Justin

    2016-10-10

    Red blood cells have been counted in an electrochemical collision experiment recently described by Compton and co-workers. As a cell collides with the electrode it lyses and a current is observed from the reduction of oxygen from within the cell.

  11. Stalking the count. Dracula, Fandom and Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLarge numbers of tourists travel to Transylvania every year, looking for traces of Count Dracula. This article investigates why people feel the need to connect fictional stories, such as Dracula, with identifiable physical locations, and why they subsequently want to visit these

  12. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewalle Vincent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.

  13. Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , we consider the 1-D range selection problem, where a query in an array involves finding the kth least element in a given subarray. This problem is closely related to 2-D 3-sided orthogonal range counting. Recently, Jørgensen and Larsen [SODA 2011] presented a linear-space adaptive data structure...

  14. Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

  15. Fast box-counting algorithm on GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J; Ruiz de Miras, J

    2012-12-01

    The box-counting algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the fractal dimension (FD). The FD has many image analysis applications in the biomedical field, where it has been used extensively to characterize a wide range of medical signals. However, computing the FD for large images, especially in 3D, is a time consuming process. In this paper we present a fast parallel version of the box-counting algorithm, which has been coded in CUDA for execution on the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The optimized GPU implementation achieved an average speedup of 28 times (28×) compared to a mono-threaded CPU implementation, and an average speedup of 7 times (7×) compared to a multi-threaded CPU implementation. The performance of our improved box-counting algorithm has been tested with 3D models with different complexity, features and sizes. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm has been confirmed using models with well-known FD values. As a case study, a 3D FD analysis of several brain tissues has been performed using our GPU box-counting algorithm.

  16. Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , we consider the 1-D range selection problem, where a query in an array involves finding the kth least element in a given subarray. This problem is closely related to 2-D 3-sided orthogonal range counting. Recently, Jørgensen and Larsen [SODA 2011] presented a linear-space adaptive data structure...

  17. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…

  18. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

  19. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., grimace, bending over, and final normal breathing. The TSI PortaCount Plus fit-testing instrument...-mask and ambient-air sampling tubes. \\2\\ This protocol eliminated the initial normal-breathing exercise... sample tube. The instrument cannot know the path taken by a particle found in the breathing zone of a...

  20. ADAPTIVE COUNTING RULE FOR COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING UNDER CORRELATED ENVIRONMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2010-01-01

    counting rule to perform the data fusion. The proposed scheme is evaluated against other common counting rules (e.g. 1-out-of-n and n-out-of-n) and the optimum counting rule, under different correlation conditions. The impact of correlation on the performance of the data fusion schemes, based on counting...

  1. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter’s performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  2. Survey protocol for invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Menza, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This protocol was developed by the Biogeography Branch of NOAA’s Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment to support invasive species research by the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The protocol’s objective is to detect Carijoa riisei and Hypnea musciformis in deepwater habitats using visual surveys by technical divers. Note: This protocol is designed to detect the presence or absence of invasive species. A distinct protocol is required to collect information on abundance ...

  3. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  4. To count or not to count: the effect of instructions on expecting a break in timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette

    2013-04-01

    When a break is expected during a time interval production, longer intervals are produced as the break occurs later during the interval. This effect of break location was interpreted as a result of distraction related to break expectancy in previous studies. In the present study, the influence of target duration and of instructions about chronometric counting strategies on the break location effect was examined. Using a strategy such as chronometric counting enhances the reliability of temporal processing, typically in terms of reduced variability, and could influence how timing is affected by break expectancy, especially when relatively long target durations are used. In two experiments, results show that time productions lengthened with increasing value of break location at various target durations and that variability was greater in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. More important, the break location effect was stronger in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. We conclude that chronometric counting orients attention toward timing processes, making them less likely to be disrupted by concurrent nontemporal processes.

  5. A PROGRAMMED LABOUR - PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Prospective randomized Clinical study of outcome of labour following. “A Programmed labour. Protocol” was done at Department of OBG, MRMC Gulbarga. The Protocol was aimed with dual. Objective of Providing Pain relief during labour and teaching the goal of safe motherhood by optimizing objective outcome. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Shortening of duration of labour. Effect of labour analgesia. Monitoring of the events during labour. Lowering the incidence of operative deliveries. METHODS: 100 cases primi pregnant women admitted in labour room are randomly selected. It is designed to apply to low risk primi parous, singleton cephalic presentation without evidence of CPD and spontaneous onset of labour. RESULTS: Shortened duration of all the stages of Labour, especially significant reduction in duration of active phase of labour. CONCLUSION: The programmed labour is simple easy and effective method for painless and safe delivery.

  6. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  7. Denver Papillae Protocol for Objective Analysis of Fungiform Papillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessle, Tiffany M; Garneau, Nicole L; Sloan, Meghan M; Santorico, Stephanie A

    2015-06-08

    The goal of the Denver Papillae Protocol is to use a dichotomous key to define and prioritize the characteristics of fungiform papillae (FP) to ensure consistent scoring between scorers. This protocol builds off of a need that has arisen from the last two decades of taste research using FP as a proxy for taste pore density. FP density has historically been analyzed using Miller & Reedy's 1990 characterizations of their morphology: round, stained lighter, large, and elevated. In this work, the authors forewarned that stricter definitions of FP morphology needed to be outlined. Despite this call to action, follow up literature has been scarce, with most studies continuing to cite Miller & Reedy's original work. Consequently, FP density reports have been highly variable and, combined with small sample sizes, may contribute to the discrepant conclusions on the role of FP in taste sensitivity. The Genetics of Taste Lab explored this apparent inconsistency in counting and found that scorers were individually prioritizing the importance of these characteristics differently and had no guidance for when a papilla had some, but not all, of the reported qualities of FP. The result of this subjectivity is highly variable FP counts of the same tongue image. The Denver Papillae Protocol has been developed to remedy this consequence through use of a dichotomous key that further defines and prioritizes the importance of the characteristics put forth by Miller & Reedy. The proposed method could help create a standard way to quantify FP for researchers in the field of taste and nutritional studies.

  8. A multiple channel assignment algorithm and routing protocol base on wireless mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaochuan; Li, Nan

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a hybrid routing protocol TOIRP and a distributed channel assignment algorithm CLBCA of WMN in the multi-channel environment are proposed. The tree base protocol and the traditional AODV routing protocol are integrated together to reduce delay in the routing protocol, which is proposed by HWMP. A new routing metric CETTI is used in this routing protocol, which uses a new method to quantify the interference of communication. It divided interference into two parts: inter-flow interference and intra- flow interference, and it integrate the considerations of hop- count and delay. This improves the throughput of WMN. The channel assignment algorithm is divided into two parts: radio- neighbor binding and channel-radio binding. This algorithm is based on the channel load and avoids the channel-dependency problem which is common in the multi-channel environment. In the same time, it increases the utilization of each channel.

  9. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.;

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  10. 酚类化合物在树脂XAD-4上吸附性能的QSPR研究%QSPR study of the adsorption of phenofic compounds on the XAD-4 resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾云兰; 费正皓; 陶建清; 唐树和

    2011-01-01

    DFT-B3LYP method with the basis set 6-311G** was employed to calculate the molecular geometric and electronic structures of phenolic compounds. The adsorption of phenolic compounds on the XAD-4 along with the above descriptors and hydrophobic features(log/*), temperature( T) was used to establish the quantitative structureproperty relationship. The variables were reduced using stepwise multiple regression method, and the statistical results indicated that the double correlation coefficient in the multiple linear regression and cross validation using leave-one-out were 0.946 and 0.905,respectively.To validate the predictive power of resulting model,external validation were performed with Qext2 values of 0.959. The model suggests that temperature, hydrophobic,and the most negative atomic net charge of molecule are dominant factors in goneming the adsorption capacity of phenolic compounds on XAD-4 resin. The consistency between observed and predicted values indicates that the developed model can be used for estimating adsorption of phenolic compounds on XAD-4.%应用密度泛函方法(DFT)在B3 LYP/6-311G**水平上全优化计算酚类化合物的量子化学参数,结合疏水性参数logP、温度T与酚类化合物在树脂XAD-4上的Frendlich等温吸附方程常数进行定量构效关系研究(QSPR).经逐步回归筛选变量后,所建多元线性回归方程的复相关系数R2及去一法(LOO)交互检验复相关系数RCv2分别为0.946和0.905,用预测集样本进行了外部预测,所得外部预测集交互检验系数Qext2为0.959.模型结果表明,有机酚在XAD-4上的吸附性能主要与有机酚的疏水性、温度和最负的原子净电荷有关,模型预测值与实测值接近,说明逐步回归得到的模型较为合理,能有效地预测有机酚类化合物在XAD-4上的吸附行为.

  11. Relationship between Somatic Cell Counts, Mastitis and Milk Quality in Ettawah Grade and PESA Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molefe PETLANE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is a bacterial disease that leads to increased somatic cell counts and reduced milk quality in dairy goats. Reduction in quality is manifested through a reduction in fat, protein, lactose content and an increase in milk somatic cell counts and salts content. Thus mastitis affects productivity of animals and hence their economic value. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of somatic cell counts (SCC and mastitis on milk quality in PE and PESA. On-Farm mastitis tests were performed on 38 lactating dairy goats and milk samples were collected from both mastitis positive and healthy animals from which quality parameters were measured using a milko tester while bacterial isolation and enumeration were done following standard protocols. Data was analyzed descriptively and the results showed that somatic cell counts and somatic cell score correlate positively with mastitis (P < 0.05. Lactose and fat content decreased with severity of mastitis in both breeds whereas in PESA protein content increased with mastitis. Salt content increases with mastitis in both breeds. S. aureus was the most isolated bacteria and associated with high SCC whereas E. coli was poorly isolated. The study concludes that mastitis leads to increased SCC and reduced milk quality in dairy goats.

  12. Age and leukocyte count as prognostic factors on acute lymphoblastic leukemia: hgmlal07 cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Ladines-Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the cutoff with prognostic implications for white blood cell count and age at diagnosis in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, we conducted an observational, descriptive and analytical study nested in a retrospective cohort of patients with ALL treated by institutional protocol HGMLAL07 during 2007-2014. We study 255 patients, the 52.9% (n=135 were female and 47.1% (n=120 were male. The mean age was 31 (16-80 years-old. The disease-free survival (DFS decreases in both genders after 20 years-old (p = 0.001. Leukocyte count average was 56.1 x 109/L (0.1-850 x 109/L. DFS decreases significantly from an equal or greater leukocyte count of 20 x 109/L (p<0.05. With this results, we can conclude that use foreign cutoff for age and leukocyte count could determine a bad prognosis stratification and a consequent suboptimal treatment.

  13. Counting dyons in N=4 string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science; Verlinde, E. [TH-Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universtity of Utrecht, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verlinde, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    1997-01-27

    We present a microscopic index formula for the degeneracy of dyons in four-dimensional N=4 string theory. This counting formula is manifestly symmetric under the duality group, and its asymptotic growth reproduces the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We give a derivation of this result in terms of the type II five-brane compactified on K3, by assuming that its fluctuations are described by a closed string theory on its world-volume. We find that the degeneracies are given in terms of the denominator of a generalized super Kac-Moody algebra. We also discuss the correspondence of this result with the counting of D-brane states. (orig.).

  14. Efficient Prime Counting and the Chebyshev Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Planat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function where is the logarithm integral and the number of primes up to is well known to be positive up to the (very large Skewes' number. Likewise, according to Robin's work, the functions and , where and are Chebyshev summatory functions, are positive if and only if Riemann hypothesis (RH holds. One introduces the jump function at primes and one investigates , , and . In particular, , and for . Besides, for any odd , an infinite set of the so-called Chebyshev primes. In the context of RH, we introduce the so-called Riemann primes as champions of the function (or of the function . Finally, we find a good prime counting function , that is found to be much better than the standard Riemann prime counting function.

  15. MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Kajisawa, M; Suzuki, R; Tokoku, C; Uchimoto, Y K; Yoshikawa, T; Akiyama, M; Ichikawa, T; Ouchi, M; Omata, K; Tanaka, I; Nishimura, T; Yamada, T; Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

    2006-01-01

    We use very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We have observed a 4x7 arcmin^2 field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N), and our data reach J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5sigma, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J-K>2.3 is 2.35+-0.31 arcmin^-2 at K22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 222 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of low-mass galaxies are blue while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

  16. Direct calibration of click-counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, M.; Kruse, R.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce and experimentally implement a method for the detector calibration of photon-number-resolving time-bin multiplexing layouts based on the measured click statistics of superconducting nanowire detectors. In particular, the quantum efficiencies, the dark count rates, and the positive operator-valued measures of these measurement schemes are directly obtained with high accuracy. The method is based on the moments of the click-counting statistics for coherent states with different coherent amplitudes. The strength of our analysis is that we can directly conclude—on a quantitative basis—that the detection strategy under study is well described by a linear response function for the light-matter interaction and that it is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light field. Moreover, our method is further extended to a two-mode detection scenario. Finally, we present possible applications for such well-characterized detectors, such as sensing of atmospheric loss channels and phase sensitive measurements.

  17. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Brigham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom – from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards a degree. However, for a range of reasons, not every institution can offer prior learning assessment (PLA in every discipline or for every student. With funding from several U.S. philanthropic organizations, the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL is launching Learning Counts, a national online service that will offer students a range of opportunities to have their learning evaluated for college credit. This online service will expand the capacity of institutions offering PLA to students and provide an efficient and scalable delivery mechanism for the awarding of credit through PLA.

  18. Mesoscopic full counting statistics and exclusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P.-E.; Derrida, B.; Douçot, B.

    2005-02-01

    We calculate the distribution of current fluctuations in two simple exclusion models. Although these models are classical, we recover even for small systems such as a simple or a double barrier, the same distibution of current as given by traditional formalisms for quantum mesoscopic conductors. Due to their simplicity, the full counting statistics in exclusion models can be reduced to the calculation of the largest eigenvalue of a matrix, the size of which is the number of internal configurations of the system. As examples, we derive the shot noise power and higher order statistics of current fluctuations (skewness, full counting statistics, ....) of various conductors, including multiple barriers, diffusive islands between tunnel barriers and diffusive media. A special attention is dedicated to the third cumulant, which experimental measurability has been demonstrated lately.

  19. Counting and Enumeration Problems with Bounded Treewidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Reinhard; Rümmele, Stefan; Woltran, Stefan

    By Courcelle's Theorem we know that any property of finite structures definable in monadic second-order logic (MSO) becomes tractable over structures with bounded treewidth. This result was extended to counting problems by Arnborg et al. and to enumeration problems by Flum et al. Despite the undisputed importance of these results for proving fixed-parameter tractability, they do not directly yield implementable algorithms. Recently, Gottlob et al. presented a new approach using monadic datalog to close the gap between theoretical tractability and practical computability for MSO-definable decision problems. In the current work we show how counting and enumeration problems can be tackled by an appropriate extension of the datalog approach.

  20. Pharmacy Automation-Pill Counting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Mohamed Adam Adlan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispensing medications in a community pharmacy was a time-consuming operation. The pharmacist dispensed most prescriptions that were in tablet or capsule form with a simple tray and spatula. Many new medications were being developed by pharmaceutical manufacturers at an ever-increasing pace, and the prices of those medications were rising steeply. A typical community pharmacist was working longer hours and often forced to hire additional staff to handle increased workloads. This extra workload did not allow the time to focus on safety issues. This new factor led to the concept of using a machine to count medications. This paper introduces a design based on using microcontrollers for counting tablets and capsules . A production flow is build to automate the whole operations

  1. Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training.

  2. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar da Costa Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  3. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  4. Refined curve counting on complex surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Göttsche, Lothar; Shende, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    We define refined invariants which "count" nodal curves in sufficiently ample linear systems on surfaces, conjecture that their generating function is multiplicative, and conjecture explicit formulas in the case of K3 and abelian surfaces. We also give a refinement of the Caporaso-Harris recursion, and conjecture that it produces the same invariants in the sufficiently ample setting. The refined recursion specializes at y = -1 to the Itenberg-Kharlamov-Shustin recursion for Welschinger invari...

  5. Positive motivic measures are counting measures

    CERN Document Server

    Ellenberg, Jordan S

    2009-01-01

    Let K be a field. A positive motivic measure on the Grothendieck ring K_0(Var_K) is a homomorphism from K_0(Var_K) to the real numbers assigning a nonnegative value to every variety. In this note we show that the only positive motivic measures are the counting measures: measures on K_0(Var_{F_q}) which send a variety to its number of rational points over some fixed finite extension of F_q.

  6. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Brigham; Rebecca Klein-Collins

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom – from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards a degree. However, for a range of reasons, not every institution can offer prior learning assessment (PLA) in every discipline or for every student...

  7. Faint Submillimter Galaxy Counts at 450 micron

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Barger, Amy J; Casey, Caitlin M; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B; Wang, Wei-Hao; Williams, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of SCUBA2 observations at 450 micron and 850 micron of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area > 100 arcmin2 and 1 sigma sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy/beam at 450 and 850 micron respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 micron and 26 sources at 850 micron with a signal-to-noise ratio > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 micron number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that ~47-61% of the 450 micron extragalactic background light (EBL) resolved into individual sources with 450 micron fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 micron sources in the 4 sigma sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcseconds, while brighter sources (signal-to-noise > 6 sigma) are good to 1.4 arcseconds. Using the deep radio map (1 sigma ~ 6 uJy) we find tha...

  8. Passive hand movements disrupt adults’ counting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke eImbo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we experimentally tested the role of hand motor circuits in simple-arithmetic strategies. Educated adults solved simple additions (e.g., 8+3 or simple subtractions (e.g., 11–3 while they were required to retrieve the answer from long-term memory (e.g., knowing that 8+3 = 11, to transform the problem by making an intermediate step (e.g., 8+3 = 8+2+1 = 10+1 = 11 or to count one-by-one (e.g., 8+3 = 8…9…10…11. During the process of solving the arithmetic problems, the experimenter did or did not move the participants’ hand on a 4-point matrix. The results show that passive hand movements disrupted the counting strategy while leaving the other strategies unaffected. This pattern of results is in agreement with a procedural account, showing that the involvement of hand motor circuits in adults’ mathematical abilities is reminiscent of finger counting during childhood.

  9. Automatic vehicle counting system for traffic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzil, Alain; Khoudour, Louahdi; Valiere, Paul; Truong Cong, Dung Nghy

    2016-09-01

    The article is dedicated to the presentation of a vision-based system for road vehicle counting and classification. The system is able to achieve counting with a very good accuracy even in difficult scenarios linked to occlusions and/or presence of shadows. The principle of the system is to use already installed cameras in road networks without any additional calibration procedure. We propose a robust segmentation algorithm that detects foreground pixels corresponding to moving vehicles. First, the approach models each pixel of the background with an adaptive Gaussian distribution. This model is coupled with a motion detection procedure, which allows correctly location of moving vehicles in space and time. The nature of trials carried out, including peak periods and various vehicle types, leads to an increase of occlusions between cars and between cars and trucks. A specific method for severe occlusion detection, based on the notion of solidity, has been carried out and tested. Furthermore, the method developed in this work is capable of managing shadows with high resolution. The related algorithm has been tested and compared to a classical method. Experimental results based on four large datasets show that our method can count and classify vehicles in real time with a high level of performance (>98%) under different environmental situations, thus performing better than the conventional inductive loop detectors.

  10. FIRBACK Source Counts and Cosmological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Dole, H; Lagache, G; Puget, J L; Aussel, H; Bouchet, F R; Ciliegi, P; Clements, D L; Césarsky, C J; Désert, F X; Elbaz, D; Franceschini, A; Guiderdoni, B; Harwit, M; Laureijs, R J; Lemke, D; McMahon, R; Moorwood, A F M; Oliver, S; Reach, W T; Rowan-Robinson, M; Stickel, M; Dole, Herve; Gispert, Richard; Lagache, Guilaine; Puget, Jean-Loup

    2000-01-01

    FIRBACK is a one of the deepest surveys performed at 170 microns with ISOPHOTonboard ISO, and is aimed at the study of cosmic far infrared backgroundsources. About 300 galaxies are detected in an area of four square degrees, andsource counts present a strong slope of 2.2 on an integral "logN-logS" plot,which cannot be due to cosmological evolution if no K-correction is present.The resolved sources account for less than 100f the Cosmic InfraredBackground at 170 microns. In order to understand the nature of the sourcescontributing to the CIB, and to explain deep source counts at otherwavelengths, we have developed a phenomenological model, which constrains in asimple way the luminosity function evolution with redshift, and fits all theexisting deep source counts from the mid-infrared to the submillimetre range.Images, materials and papers available on the FIRBACK web:http://wwwfirback.ias.u-psud.fr wwwfirback.ias.u-psud.fr

  11. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Mittal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IPTV is one of the mostly used technology of Internet and IP application. IPTV is a service for the delivery of broadcast TV, movies on demand and other interactive multimedia services over a secure, end-to-end operator managed broadband IP data network with desired QoS to the public with a broadband Internet connection. IPTV system may also include Internet services such as Web access and VoIP where it may be called Triple Play and is typically supplied by a broadband operator using the same infrastructure. IPTV is not the Internet Video that simply allows users to watch videos, like movie previews and web-cams, over the Internet in a best effort fashion. IPTV technology offers revenue-generating opportunities for the telecom and cable service providers. For traditional telephone service providers, Triple Play is delivered using a combination of optical fiber and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL technologies to its residential base. IPTV is a system where a digital television service is delivered by using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. A general definition of IPTV is television content that, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. In this paper I am trying to discuss this topic as my knowledge, including what is IPTV, how it works, its advantages and its applications

  12. A Hop-Count Analysis Scheme for Avoiding Wormhole Attacks in MANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Shang-Ming; Laih, Chi-Sung; Kuo, Wen-Chung

    2009-01-01

    MANET, due to the nature of wireless transmission, has more security issues compared to wired environments. A specific type of attack, the Wormhole attack does not require exploiting any nodes in the network and can interfere with the route establishment process. Instead of detecting wormholes from the role of administrators as in previous methods, we implement a new protocol, MHA, using a hop-count analysis from the viewpoint of users without any special environment assumptions. We also discuss previous works which require the role of administrator and their reliance on impractical assumptions, thus showing the advantages of MHA.

  13. A Hop-Count Analysis Scheme for Avoiding Wormhole Attacks in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sung Laih

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available MANET, due to the nature of wireless transmission, has more security issues compared to wired environments. A specific type of attack, the Wormhole attack does not require exploiting any nodes in the network and can interfere with the route establishment process. Instead of detecting wormholes from the role of administrators as in previous methods, we implement a new protocol, MHA, using a hop-count analysis from the viewpoint of users without any special environment assumptions. We also discuss previous works which require the role of administrator and their reliance on impractical assumptions, thus showing the advantages of MHA.

  14. AN IMPROVED AUTHENTICATED KEY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, Seo and Sweeney proposed a simple authenticated key agreement protocol that was designed to act as a Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol with user authentication.Various attacks on this protocol are described and enhanced in the literature. Recently, Ku and Wang proposed an improved authenticated key agreement protocol, where they asserted the protocol could withstand the existing attacks. This paper shows that Ku and Wang's protocol is still vulnerable to the modification attack and presents an improved authenticated key agreement protocol to enhance the security of Ku and Wang's protocol. The protocol has more efficient performance by replacing exponentiation operations with message authentication code operations.

  15. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.

  16. Dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy for penile cancer: a comparison between 1- and 2-day protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Panagiotis; Christopoulos, Panagiotis; Shilito, Sam; Gall, Zara; Murby, Brian; Ashworth, David; Taylor, Ben; Carrington, Bernadette; Shanks, Jonathan; Clarke, Noel; Ramani, Vijay; Parr, Nigel; Lau, Maurice; Sangar, Vijay

    2016-06-01

    To determine the outcome of clinically negative node (cN0) patients with penile cancer undergoing dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB), comparing the results of a 1- and 2-day protocol that can be used as a minimal invasive procedure for staging of penile cancer. This is a retrospective analysis of 151 cN0 patients who underwent DSNB from 2008 to 2013 for newly diagnosed penile cancer. Data were analysed per groin and separated into groups according to the protocol followed. The comparison of the two protocols involved the number of nodes excised, γ-counts, false-negative rates (FNR), and complication rates (Clavien-Dindo grading system). In all, 280 groins from 151 patients underwent DSNB after a negative ultrasound ± fine-needle aspiration cytology. The 1-day protocol was performed in 65 groins and the 2-day protocol in 215. Statistically significantly more nodes were harvested with the 1-day protocol (1.92/groin) compared with the 2-day protocol (1.60/groin). The FNRs were 0%, 6.8% and 5.1%, for the 1-day protocol, 2-day protocol, and overall, respectively. Morbidity of the DSNB was 21.4% for all groins, and 26.2% and 20.1% for the 1-day and 2-day protocols, respectively. Most of the complications were of Clavien-Dindo Grade 1-2. DSNB is safe for staging patients with penile cancer. There is a trend towards a 1-day protocol having a lower FNR than a 2-day protocol, albeit at the expense of a slightly higher complication rate. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Cascajares, Susana; Nacle-López, Inmaculada; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Aguilella-Vizcaíno, María José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Cortés-Funes Castro, Hernán; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel-Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to antineoplastic drugs can force doctors to stop treatment and seek other alternatives. These alternatives may be less effective, not as well tolerated and/or more expensive. Another option is to use desensitization protocols that induce a temporary state of tolerance by gradually administering small quantities of the antineoplastic drug until the therapeutic dosage is reached. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols. A retrospective observational study was carried out between January 2006 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin who had developed an HSR to the drug and who were candidates for continuing the treatment using a desensitization protocol. The patients' clinical records were reviewed and variables were gathered relating to the patient, the treatment, the HSR, and the desensitization protocol administered. The data were analysed using version 18.0 of the statistics program SPSS. A total of 53 desensitization protocols were administered to 21 patients. In 89 % of these cases, no new reactions occurred while the drug was being administered. New reactions of mild severity only occurred in 11 % of cases, and none of these reactions were severe enough for treatment to be stopped. All patients were able to complete the desensitization protocol. This study confirms that oxaliplatin desensitization protocols are safe and effective and allow patients to continue with the treatment that initially caused an HSR.

  18. Counting, Measuring And The Semantics Of Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Rothstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two central claims. The first is that there is an intimate and non-trivial relation between the mass/count distinction on the one hand and the measure/individuation distinction on the other: a (if not the defining property of mass nouns is that they denote sets of entities which can be measured, while count nouns denote sets of entities which can be counted. Crucially, this is a difference in grammatical perspective and not in ontological status. The second claim is that the mass/count distinction between two types of nominals has its direct correlate at the level of classifier phrases: classifier phrases like two bottles of wine are ambiguous between a counting, or individuating, reading and a measure reading. On the counting reading, this phrase has count semantics, on the measure reading it has mass semantics.ReferencesBorer, H. 1999. ‘Deconstructing the construct’. In K. Johnson & I. Roberts (eds. ‘Beyond Principles and Parameters’, 43–89. Dordrecht: Kluwer publications.Borer, H. 2008. ‘Compounds: the view from Hebrew’. In R. Lieber & P. Stekauer (eds. ‘The Oxford Handbook of Compounds’, 491–511. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Carlson, G. 1977b. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Carlson, G. 1997. Quantifiers and Selection. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leiden.Carslon, G. 1977a. ‘Amount relatives’. Language 53: 520–542.Chierchia, G. 2008. ‘Plurality of mass nouns and the notion of ‘semantic parameter”. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 53–103. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Danon, G. 2008. ‘Definiteness spreading in the Hebrew construct state’. Lingua 118: 872–906.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2007.05.012Gillon, B. 1992. ‘Toward a common semantics for English count and mass nouns’. Linguistics and Philosophy 15: 597–640.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628112Grosu, A. & Landman, F. 1998. ‘Strange relatives of the third kind

  19. Elevated neutrophil and monocyte counts in peripheral blood are associated with poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma: a prognostic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, H; Bastholt, L; Geertsen, P

    2005-01-01

    of several phase II protocols and the majority received treatment with intermediate dose subcutaneous IL-2 and interferon-alpha. Neutrophil and monocyte counts, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), number of metastatic sites, location of metastases and performance status were all statistically significant prognostic...

  20. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  1. Interoperation between AODV protocol and AOHR protocol for mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaochuan; Wang, Changhong; Zhang, Jiayan

    2009-12-01

    Although AOHR protocol has some excellent performance, no actual network utilizes AOHR as routing protocol. It is because that this protocol cannot interoperate with AODV protocol, which is the most famous routing protocol and used all over the world. The cost will be very huge to replace AODV protocol with AOHR protocol for existing networks, so the only feasible method is to modify AOHR protocol to interoperate with AODV as introduced in this paper. The simulation results prove that the modified AOHR protocol can help the existing AODV protocol provide routing service, and the interoperation of these two routing protocols is realized.

  2. The impact of the cycle counting in the inventory accuracy: multiple cases in industries of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Drohomeretski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the impact of cycle counting on inventory accuracy. Multiple case studies were used as research method; these include seven case studies of companies in Paraná. A research protocol was used as the basis for collecting the data. For the data analysis, the content analysis method was used with the triangulation of collected data. For the main results, the study demonstrates the relationship between cycle counting, the level of importance attributed by the organization, the number of items and the rate of accuracy obtained. The high level of control of inventory processes, together with the use of cycle counting made it possible to eliminate the main cause of failure in inventory accuracy – errors in recording the movement of material – and with this, improve the operational efficiency of the companies.

  3. LabVIEW-based auto-timing counts virtual instrument system with ORTEC 974 Counter/Timer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jie; LIU Rong; LI Cheng; JIANG Li; LU Xinxin; ZHU Tonghua; WANG Mei; WEN Zhongwei; LIN Jufang

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve the auto-timing counts measurement of nuclear radiation using ORTEC 974 Counter/Timer,an auto-timing counts virtual instrument system based on the LabVIEW virtual instrument development platform and GPIB instrument control and transmission bus protocol is designed in this paper.By introducing software timing technique,the minimum time base of factory setting improves from 0.1 s to 0.03 s.The timing counts performance and longtime stability are also discussed in detail.The automatic data recording and saving facilitates data analysis and processing.Its real-time display and statistic function is very convenient for monitoring the nuclear radiation.

  4. geoCount: An R Package for the Analysis of Geostatistical Count Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the R package geoCount for the analysis of geostatistical count data. The package performs Bayesian analysis for the Poisson-lognormal and binomial-logitnormal spatial models, which are subclasses of the class of generalized linear spatial models proposed by Diggle, Tawn, and Moyeed (1998. The package implements the computational intensive tasks in C++ using an R/C++ interface, and has parallel computation capabilities to speed up the computations. geoCount also implements group updating, Langevin- Hastings algorithms and a data-based parameterization, algorithmic approaches proposed by Christensen, Roberts, and Sko ?ld (2006 to improve the efficiency of the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. In addition, the package includes functions for simulation and visualization, as well as three geostatistical count datasets taken from the literature. One of those is used to illustrate the package capabilities. Finally, we provide a side-by-side comparison between geoCount and the R packages geoRglm and INLA.

  5. Bibliometric Approach to Research Assessment: Publication Count, Citation Count, & Author Rank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang, Kiduk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how bibliometric indicators such as publication count and citation count affect the assessment of research performance by computing various bibliometric scores of the works of Korean LIS faculty members and comparing the rankings by those scores. For the study data, we used the publication and citation data of 159 tenure-track faculty members of Library and Information Science departments in 34 Korean universities. The study results showed correlation between publication count and citation count for authors with many publications but the opposite evidence for authors with few publications. The study results suggest that as authors publish more and more work, citations to their work tend to increase along with publication count. However, for junior faculty members who have not yet accumulated enough publications, citations to their work are of great importance in assessing their research performance. The study data also showed that there are marked differences in the magnitude of citations between papers published in Korean journals and papers published in international journals.

  6. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Levinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater nonattachment (i.e. less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward. We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  7. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MB to MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SU to TE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CD to CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names NB to OL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AS to BA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CP to DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names C to CE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  16. Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  17. Low Blood Cell Counts: Side Effect of Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell counts can be a serious complication during cancer treatment. Know why your doctor closely tracks your blood ... monitor your blood cell counts carefully during your cancer treatment. There's a good reason you're having your ...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LB to LI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SJ to ST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. 91st Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1990 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 14 species and 1,469 individual birds were counted.

  1. 92nd Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1991 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 25 species and 2,655 individual birds were counted.

  2. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OY to PI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names V to Z

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names BCE to BZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SD to SI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LJ to MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names EV to GN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names A to AM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names Q to SA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HJ to ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PP to PZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names ED to EU

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PL to PO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has been reviewed by Thanai ... rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air during different times of ...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AN to AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MP to NA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  1. Counting Trees in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Cordova, Clay

    2015-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric ground states of the Kronecker model of quiver quantum mechanics. This is the simplest quiver with two gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, and appears universally in four-dimensional N=2 systems. The ground state degeneracy may be written as a multi-dimensional contour integral, and the enumeration of poles can be simply phrased as counting bipartite trees. We solve this combinatorics problem, thereby obtaining exact formulas for the degeneracies of an infinite class of models. We also develop an algorithm to compute the angular momentum of the ground states, and present explicit expressions for the refined indices of theories where one rank is small.

  2. A new sieve for distinct coordinate counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We present a new sieve for the distinct coordinate counting problem.This significantly improves the classical inclusion-exclusion sieve for this problem,in the sense that the number of terms is reduced from 2(k 2) to k!,and reduced further to p(k) in the symmetric case,where p(k) denotes the number of partitions of k.As an illustration of applications,we give an in-depth study of a basic example arising from coding theory and graph theory.

  3. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L

    2013-01-01

    with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... concentration did not differ significantly across BMI categories. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI categories and risk of oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Compared with men of normal weight, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for oligozoospermia or azoospermia was 1.15 (0...

  4. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Hume, D B; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-01-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  5. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D. B.; Stroescu, I.; Joos, M.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Oberthaler, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  6. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Janos [Institute of Isotopes (IKI)-Budapest (Hungary); Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra, VA (Italy); Dufour, Jean-Luc [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Holzleitner, Ludwig [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy); Huszti, Joseph [Institute of Isotopes (IKI)-Budapest (Hungary); Looman, Marc [Consulenze Tecniche-Cocquio Trevisago (Italy); Marin Ferrer, Montserrat [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy); Lambert, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.peerani@jrc.it; Rackham, Jamie [VT Nuclear Services-Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom); Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve [N-1, Safeguards Science and Technology Group, LANL-Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weber, Anne-Laure [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Wilson, Mark [VT Nuclear Services-Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-11

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of 'virtual instruments.' These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will

  7. Counting Processes for Retail Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiefer, Nicholas Maximilian; Larson, C. Erik

    in a discrete state space. In a simple case, the states could be default/non-default; in other models relevant for credit modeling the states could be credit scores or payment status (30 dpd, 60 dpd, etc.). Here we focus on the use of stochastic counting processes for mortgage default modeling, using data...... on high LTV mortgages. Borrowers seeking to finance more than 80% of a house's value with a mortgage usually either purchase mortgage insurance, allowing a first mortgage greater than 80% from many lenders, or use second mortgages. Are there differences in performance between loans financed...

  8. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  9. Applied categorical and count data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wan; Tu, Xin M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Discrete Outcomes Data Source Outline of the BookReview of Key Statistical ResultsSoftwareContingency Tables Inference for One-Way Frequency TableInference for 2 x 2 TableInference for 2 x r TablesInference for s x r TableMeasures of AssociationSets of Contingency Tables Confounding Effects Sets of 2 x 2 TablesSets of s x r TablesRegression Models for Categorical Response Logistic Regression for Binary ResponseInference about Model ParametersGoodness of FitGeneralized Linear ModelsRegression Models for Polytomous ResponseRegression Models for Count Response Poisson Regression Mode

  10. Perturbative tests of non-perturbative counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Gomes, João

    2010-03-01

    We observe that a class of quarter-BPS dyons in mathcal{N} = 4 theories with charge vector ( Q, P) and with nontrivial values of the arithmetic duality invariant I := gcd( Q∧ P) are nonperturbative in one frame but perturbative in another frame. This observation suggests a test of the recently computed nonperturbative partition functions for dyons with nontrivial values of the arithmetic invariant. For all values of I, we show that the nonperturbative counting yields vanishing indexed degeneracy for this class of states everywhere in the moduli space in precise agreement with the perturbative result.

  11. Expected Number Counts of Radio Galaxy Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies may contain radio sources if they still experience successive mergers at present. This has been confirmed by radio observations that about 30% of nearby clusters possess radio halos. We present a theoretical prediction of radio cluster counts using a semi-analytic approach which incorporates the empirical correlation between radio power and dynamical mass of clusters, and the cluster mass function described by the Press-Schechter formalism. The total population of radio clusters over the whole sky and their redshift distribution are given.

  12. Accurate atom counting in mesoscopic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D B; Stroescu, I; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-12-20

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  13. Improved Authenticated Multi-Key Agreement Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; YUAN Zheng; WEN Qiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Zhou et al give an attack on Harn's modified authenticated multi-key agreement protocol, and give a protocol that can prevent the unknown key-share attack. The paper points out that the protocol is vulnerable to a concatenation attack. This paper proposes an improved authenticated multi-key agreement protocol which shows how to make Harn's protocol more secure by modifying the signature and verification. And this protocol can escape the concatenation attack.

  14. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali......The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol...

  15. An exact exponential time algorithm for counting bipartite cliques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutzkov, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple exact algorithm for counting bicliques of given size in a bipartite graph on n vertices. We achieve running time of O(1.249^n), improving upon known exact algorithms for finding and counting bipartite cliques.......We present a simple exact algorithm for counting bicliques of given size in a bipartite graph on n vertices. We achieve running time of O(1.249^n), improving upon known exact algorithms for finding and counting bipartite cliques....

  16. Automata-theoretic protocol programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Sung-Shik Theodorus Quirinus

    2016-01-01

    Parallel programming has become essential for writing scalable programs on general hardware. Conceptually, every parallel program consists of workers, which implement primary units of sequential computation, and protocols, which implement the rules of interaction that workers must abide by. As

  17. National Elk Refuge vaccination protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal by the State of Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, to vaccinate elk on the National Elk Refuge. The proposal provides a protocol for vaccinating elk...

  18. Assessment of Established Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A form and instructions for quickly and briefly assessing a previously (prior to 2013) reviewed or approved survey protocol for use as a National or Regional survey...

  19. Process for Reviewing Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the process for conducting two types of reviews of survey protocols. A quick assessment is used to acknowledge and describe to potential...

  20. Formal Modeling of Communication Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    problems have been developed. 4 FORMAL MODELING OF COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS The state machine model is motivated by the observation that protocols may be...simplest types of state machine model because they have only a single state variable (the state) which takes on a relatively small range of values. For...grammar, this correspondence is very apparent. For each state of the state machine model , we define a nonterminal symbol in the grammar. The inputs

  1. Development of New Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Li-qun; XU; Xiao-ming; BAI; Lei; LI; Xin-jun; GU; Shao-gang; HE; Li-xia; WANG; Mian

    2012-01-01

    <正>The development of a new neutron counting system (Fig. 1) for 200 L drummed radioactive waste measurement has been accomplished in this year. This waste neutron counting system is mainly used for solid radioactive waste classification. It is based on the passive neutron counting technique. The amount of radionuclide contained in the waste is

  2. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section...

  3. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used...

  4. Automated vehicle counting using image processing and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meany, Sean; Eskew, Edward; Martinez-Castro, Rosana; Jang, Shinae

    2017-04-01

    Vehicle counting is used by the government to improve roadways and the flow of traffic, and by private businesses for purposes such as determining the value of locating a new store in an area. A vehicle count can be performed manually or automatically. Manual counting requires an individual to be on-site and tally the traffic electronically or by hand. However, this can lead to miscounts due to factors such as human error A common form of automatic counting involves pneumatic tubes, but pneumatic tubes disrupt traffic during installation and removal, and can be damaged by passing vehicles. Vehicle counting can also be performed via the use of a camera at the count site recording video of the traffic, with counting being performed manually post-recording or using automatic algorithms. This paper presents a low-cost procedure to perform automatic vehicle counting using remote video cameras with an automatic counting algorithm. The procedure would utilize a Raspberry Pi micro-computer to detect when a car is in a lane, and generate an accurate count of vehicle movements. The method utilized in this paper would use background subtraction to process the images and a machine learning algorithm to provide the count. This method avoids fatigue issues that are encountered in manual video counting and prevents the disruption of roadways that occurs when installing pneumatic tubes

  5. Treatment Protocols as Hierarchical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Bassat, Moshe; Carlson, Richard W.; Puri, Vinod K.; Weil, Max Harry

    1978-01-01

    We view a treatment protocol as a hierarchical structure of therapeutic modules. The lowest level of this structure consists of individual therapeutic actions. Combinations of individual actions define higher level modules, which we call routines. Routines are designed to manage limited clinical problems, such as the routine for fluid loading to correct hypovolemia. Combinations of routines and additional actions, together with comments, questions, or precautions organized in a branching logic, in turn, define the treatment protocol for a given disorder. Adoption of this modular approach may facilitate the formulation of treatment protocols, since the physician is not required to prepare complex flowcharts. This hierarchical approach also allows protocols to be updated and modified in a flexible manner. By use of such a standard format, individual components may be fitted together to create protocols for multiple disorders. The technique is suited for computer implementation. We believe that this hierarchical approach may facilitate standarization of patient care as well as aid in clinical teaching. A protocol for acute pancreatitis is used to illustrate this technique.

  6. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Iseley

    2009-10-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

  7. Maximal subbundles, quot schemes, and curve counting

    CERN Document Server

    Gillam, W D

    2011-01-01

    Let $E$ be a rank 2, degree $d$ vector bundle over a genus $g$ curve $C$. The loci of stable pairs on $E$ in class $2[C]$ fixed by the scaling action are expressed as products of $\\Quot$ schemes. Using virtual localization, the stable pairs invariants of $E$ are related to the virtual intersection theory of $\\Quot E$. The latter theory is extensively discussed for an $E$ of arbitrary rank; the tautological ring of $\\Quot E$ is defined and is computed on the locus parameterizing rank one subsheaves. In case $E$ has rank 2, $d$ and $g$ have opposite parity, and $E$ is sufficiently generic, it is known that $E$ has exactly $2^g$ line subbundles of maximal degree. Doubling the zero section along such a subbundle gives a curve in the total space of $E$ in class $2[C]$. We relate this count of maximal subbundles with stable pairs/Donaldson-Thomas theory on the total space of $E$. This endows the residue invariants of $E$ with enumerative significance: they actually \\emph{count} curves in $E$.

  8. Regression Models for Count Data in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kleiber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical Poisson, geometric and negative binomial regression models for count data belong to the family of generalized linear models and are available at the core of the statistics toolbox in the R system for statistical computing. After reviewing the conceptual and computational features of these methods, a new implementation of hurdle and zero-inflated regression models in the functions hurdle( and zeroinfl( from the package pscl is introduced. It re-uses design and functionality of the basic R functions just as the underlying conceptual tools extend the classical models. Both hurdle and zero-inflated model, are able to incorporate over-dispersion and excess zeros-two problems that typically occur in count data sets in economics and the social sciences—better than their classical counterparts. Using cross-section data on the demand for medical care, it is illustrated how the classical as well as the zero-augmented models can be fitted, inspected and tested in practice.

  9. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  10. Signatures of synchrony in pairwise count correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Tchumatchenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerted neural activity can reflect specific features of sensory stimuli or behavioral tasks. Correlation coefficients and count correlations are frequently used to measure correlations between neurons, design synthetic spike trains and build population models. But are correlation coefficients always a reliable measure of input correlations? Here, we consider a stochastic model for the generation of correlated spike sequences which replicate neuronal pairwise correlations in many important aspects. We investigate under which conditions the correlation coefficients reflect the degree of input synchrony and when they can be used to build population models. We find that correlation coefficients can be a poor indicator of input synchrony for some cases of input correlations. In particular, count correlations computed for large time bins can vanish despite the presence of input correlations. These findings suggest that network models or potential coding schemes of neural population activity need to incorporate temporal properties of correlated inputs and take into consideration the regimes of firing rates and correlation strengths to ensure that their building blocks are an unambiguous measures of synchrony.

  11. Language and counting: Some recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Garry

    1990-02-01

    It has long been recognised that the language of mathematics is an important variable in the learning of mathematics, and there has been useful work in isolating and describing the linkage. Steffe and his co-workers at Georgia, for example, (Steffe, von Glasersfeld, Richardson and Cobb, 1983) have suggested that young children may construct verbal countable items to count objects which are hidden from their view. Although there has been a surge of research interest in counting and early childhood mathematics, and in cultural differences in mathematics attainment, there has been little work reported on the linkage between culture as exemplified by language, and initial concepts of numeration. This paper reports on some recent clinical research with kindergarten children of European and Asian background in Australia and America. The research examines the influence that number naming grammar appears to have on young children's understandings of two-digit numbers and place value. It appears that Transparent Standard Number Word Sequences such as Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese which follow the numerical representation pattern by naming tens and units in order ("two tens three"), may be associated with distinctive place value concepts which may support sophisticated mental algorithms.

  12. Characterization of APDs for single photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglak, Wladimir; Hannen, Volker; Joehren, Raphael; Surholt, Martin; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    For the SPECTRAP experiment at GSI, Germany, a detector system with single-photon counting capability operating in the wavelength region from 300 nm up to 1100 nm has been developed at the University of Muenster. The detector system utilises a silicon avalanche photo diode (APD) cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures and operated near the breakdown voltage to obtain high gain values. While the current setup uses a 2 x 2 mm{sup 2} APD (type RMD S0223), it would be advantageous to have a larger active area for easier adjustment of the experiment optics. On the other hand a larger active area is accompanied by increased thermal noise which might harm the photon counting performance of the device. The characterization of a 8 x 8 mm{sup 2} APD (RMD S0814) is the subject of this poster. Furthermore a signal analysis software was developed to supress noise signals, e.g. caused by microphonic effects. The software processes signal waveforms recorded by a Flash ADC and should allow for a lower trigger threshold and thus higher detection efficiency.

  13. Sampling site matters when counting lymphocyte subpopulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Ogunjimi

    Full Text Available Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins and proximal (antecubital veins sampling sites. Naïve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes.

  14. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year.

  15. B Decay Charm Counting Via Topological Vertexing

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Aaron Sze Ting

    2002-01-01

    We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z0 decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97–98 run. The analysis takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BRB→0D X=3.7±1.1 stat±2.1 syst% BRB→2D X=17.9±1.4 stat±3.3 syst% where B, and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, Nc = 1.188 ± 0.010 ± 0.040 ± 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.

  16. B Decay Charm Counting via Topological Vertexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Aaron S

    2001-10-15

    We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97-98 run. The method takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BR(B {yields} (0D)X) = (3.7{+-}1.1(stat) {+-} 2.1(syst))%; and BR(B {yields} (2D)X) = (17.9{+-}1.4(stat) {+-} 3.3(syst))% where B and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, N{sub c} = 1.188 {+-} 0.010 {+-} 0.040 {+-} 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.

  17. Testing gravity with gravitational wave source counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Battaglia, Nicholas; Spergel, David N.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise ratio (ρ) from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as {R}-1, thus we expect the source counts to follow {{d}}{N}/{{d}}ρ \\propto {ρ }-4. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the strain falls as {R}-γ , where γ =1 recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled Universe, and forecast the sensitivity of future observations to deviations from standard General Relativity. We first consider the case of few objects, seven sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on γ, finding γ \\gt 0.33 at 95% confidence level. The distribution of our simulated sample is very consistent with the distribution of the trigger events reported by Advanced LIGO. Future measurements will improve these constraints: with 100 events, we estimate that γ can be measured with an uncertainty of 15%. We generalize the formalism to account for a range of chirp masses and the possibility that the signal falls as {exp}(-R/{R}0)/{R}γ .

  18. The Great World Wide Star Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 31,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first 3 years. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from 2007—2010. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  19. Testing Gravity with Gravitational Wave Source Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Calabrese, Erminia; Spergel, David N

    2016-01-01

    We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as $R^{-1}$, thus we expect the source counts to follow $dN/dS \\propto S^{-4}$. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or can propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the signal-to-noise falls as $R^{-\\gamma}$, where $\\gamma=1$ recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled universe. We forecast the sensitivity of future observations in constraining gravitational wave physics using this method by simulating sources distributed over a finite range of signal-to-noise. We first consider the case of few objects, 7 sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on $\\gamma$, findi...

  20. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1

  1. Optimal allocation of point-count sampling effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Both unlimited and fixedradius point counts only provide indices to population size. Because longer count durations lead to counting a higher proportion of individuals at the point, proper design of these surveys must incorporate both count duration and sampling characteristics of population size. Using information about the relationship between proportion of individuals detected at a point and count duration, we present a method of optimizing a pointcount survey given a fixed total time for surveying and travelling between count points. The optimization can be based on several quantities that measure precision, accuracy, or power of tests based on counts, including (1) meansquare error of estimated population change; (2) mean-square error of average count; (3) maximum expected total count; or (4) power of a test for differences in average counts. Optimal solutions depend on a function that relates count duration at a point to the proportion of animals detected. We model this function using exponential and Weibull distributions, and use numerical techniques to conduct the optimization. We provide an example of the procedure in which the function is estimated from data of cumulative number of individual birds seen for different count durations for three species of Hawaiian forest birds. In the example, optimal count duration at a point can differ greatly depending on the quantities that are optimized. Optimization of the mean-square error or of tests based on average counts generally requires longer count durations than does estimation of population change. A clear formulation of the goals of the study is a critical step in the optimization process.

  2. Absolute lymphocyte count is not a suitable alternative to CD4 count for determining initiation of antiretroviral therapy in fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Dashika A; Bissell, Karen; Roseveare, Christine; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R; Graham, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm(3). Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm(3) or 500 cells/mm(3). The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm(3) and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm(3) it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.

  3. Improving EWMA Plans for Detecting Unusual Increases in Poisson Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Sparks

    2009-01-01

    adaptive exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA plan is developed for signalling unusually high incidence when monitoring a time series of nonhomogeneous daily disease counts. A Poisson transitional regression model is used to fit background/expected trend in counts and provides “one-day-ahead” forecasts of the next day's count. Departures of counts from their forecasts are monitored. The paper outlines an approach for improving early outbreak data signals by dynamically adjusting the exponential weights to be efficient at signalling local persistent high side changes. We emphasise outbreak signals in steady-state situations; that is, changes that occur after the EWMA statistic had run through several in-control counts.

  4. Optimization of high count rate event counting detector with Microchannel Plates and quad Timepix readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu; Vallerga, J.V.; McPhate, J.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W.

    2015-07-01

    Many high resolution event counting devices process one event at a time and cannot register simultaneous events. In this article a frame-based readout event counting detector consisting of a pair of Microchannel Plates and a quad Timepix readout is described. More than 10{sup 4} simultaneous events can be detected with a spatial resolution of ~55 µm, while >10{sup 3} simultaneous events can be detected with <10 µm spatial resolution when event centroiding is implemented. The fast readout electronics is capable of processing >1200 frames/sec, while the global count rate of the detector can exceed 5×10{sup 8} particles/s when no timing information on every particle is required. For the first generation Timepix readout, the timing resolution is limited by the Timepix clock to 10–20 ns. Optimization of the MCP gain, rear field voltage and Timepix threshold levels are crucial for the device performance and that is the main subject of this article. These devices can be very attractive for applications where the photon/electron/ion/neutron counting with high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as energy resolved neutron imaging, Time of Flight experiments in lidar applications, experiments on photoelectron spectroscopy and many others.

  5. Method for effective dead time measurement in counting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, F.L.R. E-mail: fleonor@saturno.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N

    2001-04-21

    The counting losses introduced by the dead time of a counting system are a limiting factor in counting measurements. The purpose of this work is to report an efficient method for the measurement of the effective dead time of a counting system and to characterize its dead time behavior, providing a way to investigate each experimental situation. The method, which we designate as Delayed and Mixed Pulses method, is based on the artificial piling-up of detector pulses with electronic pulses delayed by a specific time interval. It is applicable to the measurement of the effective dead time of a counting system, including both pile-up effects and the dead time characteristics of the elements of the counting chain. With counting systems relying on gaseous radiation detectors, we achieved a standard uncertainty of about 5-10% in the dead times measured.

  6. Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, B M; Manohar, A V; Merlo, L

    2016-01-01

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT). The relation between $\\Lambda$ and $f$ is generalized to $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis $4\\pi$ counting is related to $\\hbar$ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to $\\chi$PT, to Standard Model EFT and to the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT, which combines the $\\Lambda$ and chiral counting rules within a single theory.

  7. Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

  8. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  9. 13/2 ways to count curves

    CERN Document Server

    Pandharipande, R

    2011-01-01

    In the past 20 years, compactifications of the families of curves in algebraic varieties X have been studied via stable maps, Hilbert schemes, stable pairs, unramified maps, and stable quotients. Each path leads to a different enumeration of curves. A common thread is the use of a 2-term deformation/obstruction theory to define a virtual fundamental class. The richest geometry occurs when X is a nonsingular projective variety of dimension 3. We survey here the 13/2 principal ways to count curves with special attention to the 3-fold case. The different theories are linked by a web of conjectural relationships which we highlight. Our goal is to provide a guide for graduate students looking for an elementary route into the subject.

  10. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

  11. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    . RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...... of cobalt ions in particular on T-cells with 2-year whole-blood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of -0.10 (95% CI: -0.16 to -0.04) × 10(9) cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of -0.06 (-0.09 to -0.03) × 10(9) cells/ppb, and for CD3(+)CD8(+) of -0.02 (-0.03 to -0.00) × 10(9) cells/ppb...

  12. Number Counts and Non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Shandera, Sarah; Scott, Pat; Galarza, Jhon Yana

    2013-01-01

    We describe a general procedure for using number counts of any object to constrain the probability distribution of the primordial fluctuations, allowing for generic weak non-Gaussianity. We apply this procedure to use limits on the abundance of primordial black holes and dark matter ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs) to characterize the allowed statistics of primordial fluctuations on very small scales. We present constraints on the power spectrum and the amplitude of the skewness for two different families of non-Gaussian distributions, distinguished by the relative importance of higher moments. Although primordial black holes probe the smallest scales, ultracompact minihalos provide significantly stronger constraints on the power spectrum and so are more likely to eventually provide small-scale constraints on non-Gaussianity.

  13. Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautet, H; Deschamps, P; Dion, B; Macgregor, A D; Macsween, D; McIntyre, R J; Trottier, C; Webb, P P

    1993-07-20

    The properties of avalanche photodiodes and associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger and the sub-Geiger modes are reviewed. When the Geiger mode is used, there are significant improvements reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 70% at 633 nm), and a timing jitter (under 200 ps) is achieved with passive quenching at high overvoltages (20-30 V). The results obtained by using an active-mode fast quench circuit capable of switching overvoltages as high as 15 V (giving photon detection efficiencies in the 50% range) with a dead time of less than 50 ns are reported. Larger diodes (up to 1 mm in diameter) that are usable in the Geiger mode and that have quantum efficiencies over 80% in the 500-800-nm range are also reported.

  14. Optimal Planar Orthogonal Skyline Counting Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    The skyline of a set of points in the plane is the subset of maximal points, where a point (x,y) is maximal if no other point (x',y') satisfies x'≥ x and y'≥ x. We consider the problem of preprocessing a set P of n points into a space efficient static data structure supporting orthogonal skyline...... counting queries, i.e. given a query rectangle R to report the size of the skyline of P\\cap R. We present a data structure for storing n points with integer coordinates having query time O(lg n/lglg n) and space usage O(n). The model of computation is a unit cost RAM with logarithmic word size. We prove...

  15. Instanton Counting Through Non-abelian Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Martens, J

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation we study the problem of calculating equivariant volumes of moduli-spaces of framed instantons. The motivation for this is given by instanton counting, a recent development in theoretical physics that gives a direct approach to the non-perturbative study of certain super-symmetric quantum field theories. We develop a strategy for calculating the integrals using a combination of several techniques in symplectic geometry and equivariant cohomology. Most importantly we use an equivariant version of non-abelian localization, applied to the ADHM-construction of the moduli-spaces. Furthermore, we reduce the problem to a compact setting by means of varying compactifications using symplectic cuts, recovering the original integral over a non-compact space as the limit of integrals over compact spaces. In contrast with previous applications, in our case the contribution at infinity introduced by these compactifications turns out to be of primordial importance. We illustrate this method by explicitly...

  16. Counting surfaces CRM Aisenstadt chair lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    The problem of enumerating maps (a map is a set of polygonal "countries" on a world of a certain topology, not necessarily the plane or the sphere) is an important problem in mathematics and physics, and it has many applications ranging from statistical physics, geometry, particle physics, telecommunications, biology, ... etc. This problem has been studied by many communities of researchers, mostly combinatorists, probabilists, and physicists. Since 1978, physicists have invented a method called "matrix models" to address that problem, and many results have been obtained. Besides, another important problem in mathematics and physics (in particular string theory), is to count Riemann surfaces. Riemann surfaces of a given topology are parametrized by a finite number of real parameters (called moduli), and the moduli space is a finite dimensional compact manifold or orbifold of complicated topology. The number of Riemann surfaces is the volume of that moduli space. More generally, an important problem in algeb...

  17. Counting Closed String States in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Meana, M L; Peñalba, J P; Meana, Marco Laucelli; Peñalba, Jesús Puente

    1997-01-01

    The computation of the microcanonical density of states for a string gas in a finite volume needs a one by one count because of the discrete nature of the spectrum. We present a way to do it using geometrical arguments in phase space. We take advantage of this result in order to obtain the thermodynamical magnitudes of the system. We show that the results for an open universe exactly coincide with the infinite volume limit of the expression obtained for the gas in a box. For any finite volume the Hagedorn temperature is a maximum one, and the specific heat is always positive. We also present a definition of pressure compatible with R-duality seen as an exact symmetry, which allows us to make a study on the physical phase space of the system. Besides a maximum temperature the gas presents an asymptotic pressure.

  18. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. To this end, we use a Halo Model framework complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD), and we work in full-sky. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions, as the Gaussian part of the covariance can in fact become subdominant in certain configurations. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias, and demonstrating interesting mathematical properties. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeable better constraints, in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales....

  19. Calibrating photon counts from a single image

    CERN Document Server

    Heintzmann, Rainer; Nieuwenhuizen, Robert P J; Lidke, Keith A; Rieger, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Most image capturing devices do not directly report the number of detected photons, but a value proportional to the photoelectron charge produced in a photomultiplier tube or collected in a camera pixel. In order to establish the photon count, the gain of the device must be measured, typically by recording tens of calibration images and exploiting the linear relationship between mean intensity and its variance [vanVliet1998]. Here we propose and evaluate a method that obtains the gain from a single acquired image by quantifying out-of-band information. As noise is not limited to the cut-off frequency of the optical transfer function (OTF), estimation of the out-of-band energy relative to the total energy enables computation of the gain. We show on simulation and experimental data that this much simpler procedure, which can be retroactively applied to any image, is comparable in precision to traditional gain calibration procedures.

  20. Neutron triples counting data for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Stephen, E-mail: crofts@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); LaFleur, Adrienne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos , NM 87545 (United States); McElroy, Robert D. [Oak Ridge National laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos , NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Correlated neutron counting using multiplicity shift register logic extracts the first three factorial moments from the detected neutron pulse train. The descriptive properties of the measurement item (mass, the ratio of (α,n) to spontaneous fission neutron production, and leakage self-multiplication) are related to the observed singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (T) rates, and this is the basis of the widely used multiplicity counting assay method. The factorial moments required to interpret and invert the measurement data in the framework of the point kinetics model may be calculated from the spontaneous fission prompt neutron multiplicity distribution P(ν). In the case of {sup 238}U very few measurements of P(ν) are available and the derived values, especially for the higher factorial moments, are not known with high accuracy. In this work, we report the measurement of the triples rate per gram of {sup 238}U based on the analysis of a set of measurements in which a collection of 10 cylinders of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}, each containing about 230 g of compound, were measured individually and in groups. Special care was taken to understand and compensate the recorded multiplicity histograms for the effect of random cosmic-ray induced background neutrons, which, because they also come in bursts and mimic fissions but with a different and harder multiplicity distribution. We compare our fully corrected (deadtime, background, efficiency, multiplication) experimental results with first principles expectations based on evaluated nuclear data. Based on our results we suspect that the current evaluated nuclear data is biased, which points to a need to undertake new basic measurements of the {sup 238}U prompt neutron multiplicity distribution.

  1. Counting OCR errors in typeset text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonathan S.

    1995-03-01

    Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

  2. Influence of preventive dental treatment on mutans streptococci counts in patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Buzati Meca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium fluoride and sodium iodine on mutans streptococci counts in saliva of irradiated patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five patients were separated into three experimental groups and received chlorhexidine (0.12%, sodium fluoride (0.5% or sodium iodine (2%, which were used daily during radiotherapy and for 6 months after the conclusion of the treatment. In addition, a fourth group, composed by 15 additional oncologic patients, who did not receive the mouthwash or initial dental treatment, constituted the control group. Clinical evaluations were performed in the first visit to dental clinic, after initial dental treatment, immediately before radiotherapy, after radiotherapy and 30, 60, 90 days and 6 months after the conclusion of radiotherapy. After clinical examinations, samples of saliva were inoculated on SB20 selective agar and incubated under anaerobiosis, at 37ºC for 48 h. Total mutans streptococci counts were also evaluated by using real-time PCR, through TaqMan system, with specific primers and probes for S. mutans and S. sobrinus. RESULTS: All preventive protocols were able to reduce significantly mutans streptococci counts, but chlorhexidine gluconate was the most effective, and induced a significant amelioration of radiotherapy side effects, such as mucositis and candidosis. CONCLUSION: These results highlights the importance of the initial dental treatment for patients who will be subjected to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment.

  3. New technique to count mosquito adults: using ImageJ software to estimate number of mosquito adults in a trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Dickson, Sammie

    2012-12-01

    A new technique is described here to count mosquitoes using open-source software. We wanted to develop a protocol that would estimate the total number of mosquitoes from a picture using ImageJ. Adult mosquitoes from CO2-baited traps were spread on a tray and photographed. The total number of mosquitoes in a picture was estimated using various calibrations on ImageJ, and results were compared with manual counting to identify the ideal calibration. The average trap count was 1,541, and the average difference between the manual count and the best calibration was 174.11 +/- 21.59, with 93% correlation. Subsequently, contents of a trap were photographed 5 different times after they were shuffled between each picture to alter the picture pattern of adult mosquitoes. The standard error among variations stayed below 50, indicating limited variation for total count between pictures of the same trap when the pictures were processed through ImageJ. These results indicate the software could be utilized efficiently to estimate total number of mosquitoes from traps.

  4. The mesh network protocol evaluation and development

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Ping; PETRENKO Y.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Mesh network protocol evaluation and development. It has a special protocol. We could easily to understand that how different protocols are used in mesh network. In addition to our comprehension, Multi – hop routing protocol could provide robustness and load balancing to communication in wireless mesh networks.

  5. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  6. Cryptographic Protocols under Quantum Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Lunemann, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    The realm of this thesis is cryptographic protocol theory in the quantum world. We study the security of quantum and classical protocols against adversaries that are assumed to exploit quantum effects to their advantage. Security in the quantum world means that quantum computation does not jeopardize the assumption, underlying the protocol construction. But moreover, we encounter additional setbacks in the security proofs, which are mostly due to the fact that some well-known classical proof techniques are forbidden by certain properties of a quantum environment. Interestingly, we can exploit some of the very same properties to the benefit of quantum cryptography. Thus, this work lies right at the heart of the conflict between highly potential effects but likewise rather demanding conditions in the quantum world.

  7. The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Tung; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for 1-out-of-n OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against...... optimizations) is at least one order of magnitude faster than previous work. Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Oblivious Transfer, UC Security, Elliptic Curves, Efficient Implementation...

  8. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  9. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  10. Improved aerobic colony count technique for hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, L J; Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I

    1993-09-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h.

  11. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Developing protocols for obstetric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Cheryl K; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Dent, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    There is potential for important steps to be missed in emergency situations, even in the presence of many health care team members. Developing a clear plan of response for common emergencies can ensure that no tasks are redundant or omitted, and can create a more controlled environment that promotes positive health outcomes. A multidisciplinary team was assembled in a large community hospital to create protocols that would help ensure optimum care and continuity of practice in cases of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, emergency cesarean surgical birth, eclamptic seizure and maternal code. Assignment of team roles and responsibilities led to the evolution of standardized protocols for each emergency situation.

  13. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security...

  14. Protocol Writing in Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, Azzam

    2016-01-01

    Writing a research proposal is probably one of the most challenging and difficult task as research is a new area for the majority of postgraduates and new researchers. The purpose of this article is to summarize the most important steps and necessary guidelines for producing a standard research protocol. Academic and administrative success of any project is usually determined by acquiring a grant for the related field of research. Hence, the quality of a protocol is primarily required to achieve success in this scientific competition. PMID:28050522

  15. Frequency Count Attribute Oriented Induction of Corporate Network Data for Mapping Business Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanutama, Lukas

    2014-03-01

    Companies increasingly rely on Internet for effective and efficient business communication. As Information Technology infrastructure backbone for business activities, corporate network connects the company to Internet and enables its activities globally. It carries data packets generated by the activities of the users performing their business tasks. Traditionally, infrastructure operations mainly maintain data carrying capacity and network devices performance. It would be advantageous if a company knows what activities are running in its network. The research provides a simple method of mapping the business activity reflected by the network data. To map corporate users' activities, a slightly modified Attribute Oriented Induction (AOI) approach to mine the network data was applied. The frequency of each protocol invoked were counted to show what the user intended to do. The collected data was samples taken within a certain sampling period. Samples were taken due to the enormous data packets generated. Protocols of interest are only Internet related while intranet protocols are ignored. It can be concluded that the method could provide the management a general overview of the usage of its infrastructure and lead to efficient, effective and secure ICT infrastructure.

  16. Orion Routing Protocol for Delay-Tolerant Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Medjiah, Samir; 10.1109/icc.2011.5963362

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of efficient routing in delay tolerant network. We propose a new routing protocol dubbed as ORION. In ORION, only a single copy of a data packet is kept in the network and transmitted, contact by contact, towards the destination. The aim of the ORION routing protocol is twofold: on one hand, it enhances the delivery ratio in networks where an end-to-end path does not necessarily exist, and on the other hand, it minimizes the routing delay and the network overhead to achieve better performance. In ORION, nodes are aware of their neighborhood by the mean of actual and statistical estimation of new contacts. ORION makes use of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) stochastic processes for best contact prediction and geographical coordinates for optimal greedy data packet forwarding. Simulation results have demonstrated that ORION outperforms other existing DTN routing protocols such as PRoPHET in terms of end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, hop count and first packet arr...

  17. Adolescent pedometer protocols: examining reactivity, tampering and participants' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Joseph John; Morgan, Philip James; Plotnikoff, Ronald Cyril; Trost, Stewart Graeme; Lubans, David Revalds

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents' potential reactivity and tampering while wearing pedometers by comparing different monitoring protocols to accelerometer output. The sample included adolescents (N = 123, age range = 14-15 years) from three secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia. Schools were randomised to one of the three pedometer monitoring protocols: (i) daily sealed (DS) pedometer group, (ii) unsealed (US) pedometer group or (iii) weekly sealed (WS) pedometer group. Participants wore pedometers (Yamax Digi-Walker CW700, Yamax Corporation, Kumamoto City, Japan) and accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, USA) simultaneously for seven days. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine potential reactivity. Bivariate correlations between step counts and accelerometer output were calculated to explore potential tampering. The correlation between accelerometer output and pedometer steps/day was strongest among participants in the WS group (r = 0.82, P ≤ 0.001), compared to the US (r = 0.63, P ≤ 0.001) and DS (r = 0.16, P = 0.324) groups. The DS (P ≤ 0.001) and US (P = 0.003), but not the WS (P = 0.891), groups showed evidence of reactivity. The results suggest that reactivity and tampering does occur in adolescents and contrary to existing research, pedometer monitoring protocols may influence participant behaviour.

  18. The relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in patients infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokarami F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: CD4 T-Lymphocyte counts have proven to be a standard laboratory marker of disease progression and severity of immunodeficiency in adults infected with HIV is used to initiate and monitor highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, its application may not be feasible for its expensive equipments and reagent in resource-limited setting. There is a need to have another marker of immunodeficiency that is less resource-demanding. In April 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended that, when CD4 cell count is not available, a TLC of 1200cell/mm3 or less in individuals with stage 2 or 3 of the disease may be used as an indication to initiate ART."n"nMethods: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected adults. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Subject characteristics were patients who had positive serologic HIV test results, confirmed via western blot. Analysis unit was the results of CBC and CD4 measurements on the same blood sample each time. Data of 100 patients were collected. In this study, TLC accounts for the main predictor of CD4 count. The amounts of TLC which can predict CD4 less than 200cell/mm3 were

  19. The lost castle of Count Rodrigo Gonzalez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that a castle called Toron built in 1137 by Count Rodrigo of Lara, and granted to the Templar Order was in Summil, where remains of a Crusader castles are still visible (ca. 25 km from Ascalon, in south west Israel. This opinion opposes a consensual view that the castle built by Count Rodrigo was in Latrun, midway between Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem. This identifi cation is based on names’ similarity and on the universal opinion that Latrun was a Templar castle. In this article it is demonstrated that the geographic setting of Summil fi ts the Count’s castle, whereas Latrun does not; that Toron was a common name in the Crusader Kingdom; and, moreover, it is not certain that Latrun was a Templar castle. The article also suggest that there was a village near the castle, called Casale Sancti Salvatoris, and also discusses Frankish fortifi cation and settlement policy during the twelfth century.Este artículo sugiere que un castillo llamado Toron, construido el año 1137 por el conde Rodrigo González de Lara, y que fue luego otorgado a la orden del Temple, estaba en Summil, donde todavía permanecen las ruinas de un castillo de los cruzados (a unos 25 km de Ascalon, en el sudoeste de Israel. Esta opinión se contrapone a la tesis general que sostiene que el castillo construido por el conde estuvo situado en Latrun, a medio camino entre Tel-Aviv y Jerusalén. Una identificación basada en la similitud de nombres y en la común opinión que Latrun era un castillo templario. En este estudio se demuestra que la ubicación geográfica de Summil encaja con la del castillo del conde, mientras que Latrun no lo hace; que Toron fue un nombre habitual en el reino cruzado y que, por otra parte, no es cierto que Latrun fuera un castillo templario. Se sugiere también que cerca del castillo de Summil existía un pueblo llamado casale Sancti Salvatoris, analizándose asimismo la política de fortificación y colonización llevada a cabo por

  20. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E. [Philips Healthcare, Solna 171 41 (Sweden); Siewerdsen, J. H., E-mail: jeff.siewerdsen@jhu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f{sub 50} (spatial

  1. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, Antoine; Karcher, Gilles [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Djaballah, Wassila [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Fourquet, Nicolas [Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse (France); Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique [AP-HP, Hopital Bichat, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); INSERM U 773 Inserm and Denis Diderot University, Paris (France); Koehl, Gregoire; Roch, Veronique [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Imbert, Laetitia [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Centre Alexis Vautrin, Department of Radiotherapy, Vandoeuvre (France); Poussier, Sylvain [INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Fay, Renaud [INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique CIC-P 9501, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); INSERM U961, Nancy (France); Hopital de Brabois, CHU-Nancy, Medecine Nucleaire, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2013-03-15

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving {sup 201}Tl (n = 120) or {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, {sup 201}Tl 92 %, {sup 99m}Tc-Low 86 %, {sup 99m}Tc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p < 0.001). This larger extent was mainly observed in 50 obese patients who were in the {sup 201}Tl or {sup 99m}Tc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 {+-} 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 {+-} 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT. (orig.)

  2. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kinase, S

    2003-01-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and m...

  3. Analysis of general power counting rules in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavela, Belen; Merlo, Luca [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Physics, La Jolla, CA (United States); CERN TH Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-09-15

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in d dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and they predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. We show that the size of the cross sections is controlled by the Λ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory (χPT). The relation between Λ and f is generalized to d dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis 4π counting is related to ℎ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to χPT, low-energy weak interactions, Standard Model EFT and the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT. (orig.)

  4. Improving the DGK comparison protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Comparison of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol between the parties and will be relatively expensive. A well-known and frequently used comparison pr

  5. Protocol Natuurplan voor biologische landbouwbedrijven.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, F.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Protocol Nature Plan is a step by step approach leading to the design of a Nature Plan for a biological farm. The aim is to increase nature values and ecological relationships on the farm. Research results are translated into easy practical measures

  6. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    Compos- able framework by Canetti for specifying and analysing protocols, and show that our model is sound with respect to its standard computational interpretation. Our model supports powerful primitives such as homomorphic encryption and non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, which we show may be used...

  7. Automata-theoretic protocol programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Sung-Shik Theodorus Quirinus

    2016-01-01

    Parallel programming has become essential for writing scalable programs on general hardware. Conceptually, every parallel program consists of workers, which implement primary units of sequential computation, and protocols, which implement the rules of interaction that workers must abide by. As progr

  8. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  9. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use of...

  10. The Kyoto Protocol and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘巧云

    2005-01-01

    The kyoto Protocol is an agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on CLimate Change (UNFCCC)2,an international treaty on global warming .It is a legally binding agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2% compared to the level of 1990 during the 2008-12 period.

  11. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrat...

  12. Recursive Ping-Pong Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a process calculus with recursion which allows us to express an unbounded number of runs of the ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. We study the decidability issues associated with two common approaches to checking security properties, namely reachability analys...

  13. Probability Distributions over Cryptographic Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    exception. Cryptyc integrates use of pattern- matching in the spi calculus framework , which in turn allows the specification of nested cryptographic...programs too: the metaheuristic search for security protocols,” Information and Software Technology, vol. 43, pp. 891– 904, December 2001. 131 [9] X

  14. Metabolomics protocols for filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummer, Joel P A; Krill, Christian; Du Fall, Lauren; Waters, Ormonde D C; Trengove, Robert D; Oliver, Richard P; Solomon, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics and transcriptomics are established functional genomics tools commonly used to study filamentous fungi. Metabolomics has recently emerged as another option to complement existing techniques and provide detailed information on metabolic regulation and secondary metabolism. Here, we describe broad generic protocols that can be used to undertake metabolomics studies in filamentous fungi.

  15. From protocol to published report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Callréus, Torbjörn; Petersen, Lene Grejs

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unacknowledged inconsistencies in the reporting of clinical trials undermine the validity of the results of the trials. Little is known about inconsistency in the reporting of academic clinical drug trials. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of consistency between protocols and...

  16. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use of...... of possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools....

  18. Protocol biopsies for renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocol biopsies in renal transplantation are those that are procured at predetermined times post renal transplantation, regardless of renal function. These biopsies have been useful to study the natural history of the transplanted kidney as they have detected unexpected - i.e. "subclinical" pathology. The most significant subclinical pathologies that have been detected with protocol biopsies have been acute lesions, such as cellular and antibody mediated rejection, and chronic lesions, such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and transplant glomerulopathy. The potential benefit of early recognition of the above lesions is that their early treatment may result in improved long-term outcomes. Conversely, the identification of normal histology on a protocol biopsy, may inform us about the safety of reduction in overall immunosuppression. Our centre, as well as others, is attempting to develop non-invasive methods of immune monitoring of renal transplant patients. However, we believe that until such methods have been developed and validated, the protocol biopsy will remain an indispensable tool for the complete care of renal transplant patients.

  19. Formally Generating Adaptive Security Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    a proven version of leader election and 2/3 consensus. In 2011 we did the same for a simple version of Paxos. At each stage of the evolution as our... leader election [2] and authentication [4] would suffice for Paxos as well. In preparation for the harder protocols, we had added expressive power to the

  20. Counting colorings of a regular graph

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, David

    2012-01-01

    At most how many (proper) q-colorings does a regular graph admit? Galvin and Tetali conjectured that among all n-vertex, d-regular graphs with 2d|n, none admits more q-colorings than the disjoint union of n/2d copies of the complete bipartite graph K_{d,d}. In this note we give asymptotic evidence for this conjecture, giving an upper bound on the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph of the form a^n b^{n(1+o(1))/d} (where a and b depend on q and where o(1) goes to 0 as d goes to infinity) that agrees up to the o(1) term with the count of q-colorings of n/2d copies of K_{d,d}. An auxiliary result is an upper bound on the number of colorings of a regular graph in terms of its independence number. For example, we show that for all even q and fixed \\epsilon > 0 there is \\delta=\\delta(\\epsilon,q) such that the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph with no independent set of size n(1-\\epsilon)/2 is at most (a-\\delta)^n.