WorldWideScience

Sample records for counting energy dispersive

  1. Photon Counting Energy Dispersive Detector Arrays for X-ray Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S; Nygård, Einar; Meirav, Oded; Arenson, Jerry; Barber, William C; Hartsough, Neal E; Malakhov, Nail; Wessel, Jan C

    2009-01-01

    The development of an innovative detector technology for photon-counting in X-ray imaging is reported. This new generation of detectors, based on pixellated cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector arrays electrically connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for readout, will produce fast and highly efficient photon-counting and energy-dispersive X-ray imaging. There are a number of applications that can greatly benefit from these novel imagers including mammography, planar radiography, and computed tomography (CT). Systems based on this new detector technology can provide compositional analysis of tissue through spectroscopic X-ray imaging, significantly improve overall image quality, and may significantly reduce X-ray dose to the patient. A very high X-ray flux is utilized in many of these applications. For example, CT scanners can produce ~100 Mphotons/mm(2)/s in the unattenuated beam. High flux is required in order to collect sufficient photon statistics in the measurement of the transmitted flux (attenuated beam) during the very short time frame of a CT scan. This high count rate combined with a need for high detection efficiency requires the development of detector structures that can provide a response signal much faster than the transit time of carriers over the whole detector thickness. We have developed CdTe and CZT detector array structures which are 3 mm thick with 16×16 pixels and a 1 mm pixel pitch. These structures, in the two different implementations presented here, utilize either a small pixel effect or a drift phenomenon. An energy resolution of 4.75% at 122 keV has been obtained with a 30 ns peaking time using discrete electronics and a (57)Co source. An output rate of 6×10(6) counts per second per individual pixel has been obtained with our ASIC readout electronics and a clinical CT X-ray tube. Additionally, the first clinical CT images, taken with several of our prototype photon-counting and

  2. Counting systems in wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometry: the principle and how to check and to adjust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, Francoise

    1978-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the optimum operating conditions of the whole counting systems in wavelength dispersive spectrometry (mostly used in conjunction with electron microprobes) and in energy dispersive spectrometry (more often connected to scanning electron microscopes). For both these techniques, the principle of the detector and its attached counting electronics is recalled; a check list is then given for verifying the qualities of the apparatus and detecting the defects; finally the best operating conditions are defined as essential in an analytical instrument whose reliability has to be perfect [fr

  3. Using the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer to do mineral identification and compositional point counting on unconsolidated marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid and accurate method of point-counting sands and silt-size in unconsolidated open-ocean sediments. As traditional techniques for this operation cannot be employed on the fine-grained material which frequently forms the bulk of deep sea marine sediments, an alternative method has been sought. The method described makes use of equipment known as QUANTEX-RAY comprising a computerised data acquisition and reduction system designed for use in X-ray energy spectrometry and used in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Grains that cannot be identified by their visual morphology in the scanning electron microscope are analysed by X-ray spectrometry. Spectra are acquired in 200 seconds or less and processed by a sequence of software routines under semi-automatic control producing a listing of oxide concentrations as the final result. Each user must customize the control programme and operating conditions to suit his requirements

  4. Tomography with energy dispersive diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S. R.; Okasinski, J. S.; Woods, R.; Baldwin, J.; Madden, T.; Quaranta, O.; Rumaiz, A.; Kuczewski, T.; Mead, J.; Krings, T.; Siddons, P.; Miceli, A.; Almer, J. D.

    2017-09-01

    X-ray diffraction can be used as the signal for tomographic reconstruction and provides a cross-sectional map of the crystallographic phases and related quantities. Diffraction tomography has been developed over the last decade using monochromatic x-radiation and an area detector. This paper reports tomographic reconstruction with polychromatic radiation and an energy sensitive detector array. The energy dispersive diffraction (EDD) geometry, the instrumentation and the reconstruction process are described and related to the expected resolution. Results of EDD tomography are presented for two samples containing hydroxyapatite (hAp). The first is a 3D-printed sample with an elliptical crosssection and contains synthetic hAp. The second is a human second metacarpal bone from the Roman-era cemetery at Ancaster, UK and contains bio-hAp which may have been altered by diagenesis. Reconstructions with different diffraction peaks are compared. Prospects for future EDD tomography are also discussed.

  5. Economies Evolve by Energy Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Salthe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity can be regarded as an evolutionary process governed by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The universal law, when formulated locally as an equation of motion, reveals that a growing economy develops functional machinery and organizes hierarchically in such a way as to tend to equalize energy density differences within the economy and in respect to the surroundings it is open to. Diverse economic activities result in flows of energy that will preferentially channel along the most steeply descending paths, leveling a non-Euclidean free energy landscape. This principle of 'maximal energy dispersal‘, equivalent to the maximal rate of entropy production, gives rise to economic laws and regularities. The law of diminishing returns follows from the diminishing free energy while the relation between supply and demand displays a quest for a balance among interdependent energy densities. Economic evolution is dissipative motion where the driving forces and energy flows are inseparable from each other. When there are multiple degrees of freedom, economic growth and decline are inherently impossible to forecast in detail. Namely, trajectories of an evolving economy are non-integrable, i.e. unpredictable in detail because a decision by a player will affect also future decisions of other players. We propose that decision making is ultimately about choosing from various actions those that would reduce most effectively subjectively perceived energy gradients.

  6. Relativistic energy loss in a dispersive medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2002-01-01

    The electron energy loss in a dispersive medium is obtained using macroscopic electrodynamics taking advantage of a static frame of reference. Relativistic corrections are described in terms of a dispersive Lorentz factor obtained by replacing the vacuum velocity c by the characteristic phase...... velocity c/n, where n is the complex index of refraction. The angle-resolved energy-loss spectrum of a Drude conductor is analyzed in detail and it is shown that the low-energy peak due to Ohmic losses is enhanced compared to the classical approximation....

  7. Sun power: an energy to count on?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellaton, Michel; Valentin, Priscille; Rondaud, Annabelle; Lipari, Celine

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) held its first general meeting. At a time when the oil-coal-gas trinity represents 87% of the world's energy supply, IRENA is anticipating a fall to 78% in 2035 and a rise in renewables from 7% to 14%. At present, solar energy only represents 1%... (authors)

  8. Dispersion self-energy of the electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawton, M.

    1991-01-01

    Electron mass renormalization and the Lamb shift have been investigated using the dispersion self-energy formalism. If shifts of both the electromagnetic field and quantum-mechanical transitions frequencies are considered, absorption from the electromagnetic field is canceled by emission due to atomic fluctuations. The frequencies of all modes are obtained from the self-consistency condition that the field seen by the electron is the same as the field produced by the expectation value of current. The radiation present can thus be viewed as arising from emission and subsequent reabsorption by matter. As developed here, the numerical predictions of dispersion theory are identical to those of quantum electrodynamics. The physical picture implied by dispersion theory is discussed in the context of semiclassical theories and quantum electrodynamics

  9. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0 Diet Dr. Pepper 12 oz 0 Diet Pepsi 12 oz 0 Dr. Pepper 12 oz 150 ... 12 oz 160 Orange Crush 12 oz 195 Pepsi 12 oz. 150 Sierra Mist 12 oz 150 ... Vanilla Coca-Cola 12 oz 150 Wild Cherry Pepsi 12 oz 160 Energy Drinks AMP Energy Strawberry ...

  10. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  11. Recreational use in dispersed public lands measured using social media data and on-site counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M; Wood, Spencer A; White, Eric M; Blahna, Dale J; Lange, Sarah; Weinberg, Alex; Tomco, Michael; Lia, Emilia

    2018-09-15

    Outdoor recreation is one of many important benefits provided by public lands. Data on recreational use are critical for informing management of recreation resources, however, managers often lack actionable information on visitor use for large protected areas that lack controlled access points. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for social media data (e.g., geotagged images shared on Flickr and trip reports shared on a hiking forum) to provide land managers with useful measures of recreational use to dispersed areas, and to provide lessons learned from comparing several more traditional counting methods. First, we measure daily and monthly visitation rates to individual trails within the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (MBSNF) in western Washington. At 15 trailheads, we compare counts of hikers from infrared sensors, timelapse cameras, and manual on-site counts, to counts based on the number of shared geotagged images and trip reports from those locations. Second, we measure visitation rates to each National Forest System (NFS) unit across the US and compare annual measurements derived from the number of geotagged images to estimates from the US Forest Service National Visitor Use Monitoring Program. At both the NFS unit and the individual-trail scales, we found strong correlations between traditional measures of recreational use and measures based on user-generated content shared on the internet. For national forests in every region of the country, correlations between official Forest Service statistics and geotagged images ranged between 55% and 95%. For individual trails within the MBSNF, monthly visitor counts from on-site measurements were strongly correlated with counts from geotagged images (79%) and trip reports (91%). The convenient, cost-efficient and timely nature of collecting and analyzing user-generated data could allow land managers to monitor use over different seasons of the year and at sites and scales never previously

  12. Ecological succession as an energy dispersal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtz, Peter; Annila, Arto

    2010-04-01

    Ecological succession is described by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. According to the universal law of the maximal energy dispersal, an ecosystem evolves toward a stationary state in its surroundings by consuming free energy via diverse mechanisms. Species are the mechanisms that conduct energy down along gradients between repositories of energy which consist of populations at various thermodynamic levels. The salient characteristics of succession, growing biomass production, increasing species richness and shifting distributions of species are found as consequences of the universal quest to diminish energy density differences in least time. The analysis reveals that during succession the ecosystem's energy transduction network, i.e., the food web organizes increasingly more effective in the free energy reduction by acquiring new, more effective and abandoning old, less effective species of energy transduction. The number of species does not necessarily peak at the climax state that corresponds to the maximum-entropy partition of species maximizing consumption of free energy. According to the theory of evolution by natural selection founded on statistical physics of open systems, ecological succession is one among many other evolutionary processes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy flow in angularly dispersive optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, M.; Dibble, W. E.; Glasgow, S. A.; Peatross, J.

    2001-01-01

    Light-pulse propagation in angularly dispersive systems is explored in the context of a center-of-mass definition of energy arrival time. In this context the time of travel is given by a superposition of group delays weighted by the spectral content of the pulse. With this description the time of travel from one point to the next for a pulse is found to be completely determined by the spectral content, independent of the state of chirp. The effect of sensor orientation on arrival time is also considered. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  14. Excitation methods for energy dispersive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklevic, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid development in recent years of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis has been based primarily on improvements in semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometers. However, the whole analysis system performance is critically dependent on the availability of optimum methods of excitation for the characteristic x rays in specimens. A number of analysis facilities based on various methods of excitation have been developed over the past few years. A discussion is given of the features of various excitation methods including charged particles, monochromatic photons, and broad-energy band photons. The effects of the excitation method on background and sensitivity are discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Recent developments such as pulsed excitation and polarized photons are also discussed

  15. Fundamentals of energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Russ, John C; Kiessling, R; Charles, J

    1984-01-01

    Fundamentals of Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of dispersive X-ray analysis. It presents descriptions, equations, and graphs to enable the users of these techniques to develop an intuitive and conceptual image of the physical processes involved in the generation and detection of X-rays. The book begins with a discussion of X-ray detection and measurement, which is accomplished by one of two types of X-ray spectrometer: energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive. The emphasis is on energy dispersive spectrometers, given their rather wid

  16. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, John [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Molecular and Radiological Biosciences Building, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We propose a radiation detection system which generates its own discrete sampling distribution based on past measurements of background. The advantage to this approach is that it can take into account variations in background with respect to time, location, energy spectra, detector-specific characteristics (i.e. different efficiencies at different count rates and energies), etc. This would therefore be a 'machine learning' approach, in which the algorithm updates and improves its characterization of background over time. The system would have a 'learning mode,' in which it measures and analyzes background count rates, and a 'detection mode,' in which it compares measurements from an unknown source against its unique background distribution. By characterizing and accounting for variations in the background, general purpose radiation detectors can be improved with little or no increase in cost. The statistical and computational techniques to perform this kind of analysis have already been developed. The necessary signal analysis can be accomplished using existing Bayesian algorithms which account for multiple channels, multiple detectors, and multiple time intervals. Furthermore, Bayesian machine-learning techniques have already been developed which, with trivial modifications, can generate appropriate decision thresholds based on the comparison of new measurements against a nonparametric sampling distribution. (authors)

  17. Calorimetric energy-dispersive detectors for ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Energy-dispersive detectors for photons and alpha particles have recently been built. They are based on designs for infrared bolometric detectors working at liquid helium temperatures. For 5.5 Mev alpha particles the energy resolution (FWHM) has been published to be better than 35 keV in preliminary experiments, but thermodynamic limits to the resolution were calculated to be of the order of a few tens of eV. In the present paper limitations to the resolution caused by fluctuations in the processes converting particle energy to heat in the detectors will be calculated. It appears that an FWHM of a few hundred eV for MeV alphas may realistically be hoped for. As these detectors are windowless and may at the same time extend solid angles as large as surface-barrier detectors, be built in any desired geometrical shape, and work with count rates well above 10 3 Hz, exiting possibilities for ion beam analysis will open up through their realization. (orig.)

  18. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA) technique us- ing an energy-dispersive X-ray detector with an ultra-thin window, designated as low-Z particle. EPMA, has been developed. The low-Z particle EPMA allows the quantitative determination of concentrations of low-Z elements such ...

  19. Automatic energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, J.C.; Carey, R.; Chopra, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    The invention discloses a number of improvements for an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system having computer supervised data collection, display and processing. The systems with which the improved circuitry and methods may be used include a dual interlocking bus structure so that the analyzer and computer functions communicate directly with each other and the user has immediate keyboard control of both. Such a system normally includes a system base control, a control console and a display console. The portions of the system which have been improved include a new type of ratemeter which gives a voltage output proportional to the intensity of the energy window or windows under consideration, an output which is an absolute digital representation of the intensity count rate, circuitry for input multiplexing and multiple output voltage buffering of the ratemeter to accomodate multiple single channel signals, and a new dead time correction to enable meaningful single channel intensity data to be handled by the system. An extension of the ratemeter is also disclosed for use in conjunction with X-ray mapping, enabling enhancements to be made on mapping SCA data

  20. Spanish juniper gain expansion opportunities by counting on a functionally diverse dispersal assemblage community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Ávila, Gema; Pías, Beatriz; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Seed dispersal is typically performed by a diverse array of species assemblages with different behavioral and morphological traits which determine dispersal quality (DQ, defined as the probability of recruitment of a dispersed seed). Fate of ecosystems to ongoing environmental changes is critically dependent on dispersal and mainly on DQ in novel scenarios. We assess here the DQ, thus the multiplicative effect of germination and survival probability to the first 3 years of life, for seeds dispersed by several bird species (Turdus spp.) and carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Martes foina) in mature woodland remnants of Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) and old fields which are being colonized by this species. Results showed that DQ was similar in mature woodlands and old fields. Germination rate for seeds dispersed by carnivores (11.5%) and thrushes (9.12%) was similar, however, interacted with microhabitat suitability. Seeds dispersed by carnivores reach the maximum germination rate on shrubs (16%), whereas seeds dispersed by thrushes did on female juniper canopies (15.5) indicating that each group of dispersers performed a directed dispersal. This directional effect was diluted when survival probability was considered: thrushes selected smaller seeds which had higher mortality in the seedling stage (70%) in relation to seedlings dispersed by carnivores (40%). Overall, thrushes resulted low-quality dispersers which provided a probability or recruitment of 2.5%, while a seed dispersed by carnivores had a probability of recruitment of 6.5%. Our findings show that generalist dispersers (i.e., carnivores) can provide a higher probability of recruitment than specialized dispersers (i.e., Turdus spp.). However, generalist species are usually opportunistic dispersers as their role as seed dispersers is dependent on the availability of trophic resources and species feeding preferences. As a result, J. thurifera dispersal community is composed by two functional groups of

  1. Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometric study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometric study of compositional differences in trace elements in dried Moringa oleifera leaves grown in two different agro-ecological locations in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

  2. Self-energy dispersion effects on neutron matter superfluidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Wei

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the dispersion and ground state correlation of the single particle self-energy on neutron matter superfluidity have been investigated in the framework of the Extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock and the generalized BCS approaches. A sizable reduction of the energy gap is found due to the energy dependence of the self-energy. And the inclusion of the ground state correlations in the self-energy suppresses further the neutron matter superfluidity

  3. Relativistic energy-dispersion relations of 2D rectangular lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Engin; Demirhan, Doğan; Büyükkılıç, Fevzi

    2017-04-01

    An exactly solvable relativistic approach based on inseparable periodic well potentials is developed to obtain energy-dispersion relations of spin states of a single-electron in two-dimensional (2D) rectangular lattices. Commutation of axes transfer matrices is exploited to find energy dependencies of the wave vector components. From the trace of the lattice transfer matrix, energy-dispersion relations of conductance and valence states are obtained in transcendental form. Graphical solutions of relativistic and nonrelativistic transcendental energy-dispersion relations are plotted to compare how lattice parameters V0, core and interstitial size of the rectangular lattice affects to the energy-band structures in a situation core and interstitial diagonals are of equal slope.

  4. Air quality dispersion models from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevska, Ana

    1996-01-01

    Along with the continuing development of new air quality models that cover more complex problems, in the Clean Air Act, legislated by the US Congress, a consistency and standardization of air quality model applications were encouraged. As a result, the Guidelines on Air Quality Models were published, which are regularly reviewed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA. These guidelines provide a basis for estimating the air quality concentrations used in accessing control strategies as well as defining emission limits. This paper presents a review and analysis of the recent versions of the models: Simple Terrain Stationary Source Model; Complex Terrain Dispersion Model; Ozone,Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Models; Long Range Transport Model; Other phenomenon Models:Fugitive Dust/Fugitive Emissions, Particulate Matter, Lead, Air Pathway Analyses - Air Toxic as well as Hazardous Waste. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  5. Assessing risk from low energy radionuclide aerosol dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, Edward; Perera, Sharman; Erhardt, Lorne; Cousins, Tom; Desrosiers, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Full text: When considering the potential dispersal of radionuclides into the environment, there are two broad classifications: explosive and non-explosive dispersal. An explosive dispersal relies on a violent and sudden release of energy, which may disrupt or vapourised any source containment. As such, the explosion provides the energy to both convert the source into a dispersable physical form and provides initial kinetic energy to transport the source away from the initiation point. This would be the case for sources of radiation in proximity to a steam or chemical explosion of high energy density. A low energy dispersal, on the other hand, may involve a lower energy initiator event (such as a fire or water spray) that transports particles into the near release zone, to be spread via wind or mechanical fields. For this type of dispersion to take place, the source must be in physical form ready for dispersal. In broad terms, this suggests either an ab initio powder form, or soluble/insoluble particulate form in a liquid matrix. This may be the case for radioactive material released from pressurized piping systems, material released through ventilation systems, or deliberate dispersals. To study aerosol dispersion of radionuclides and risk from low energy density initiators, there are a number of important parameters to consider. For example, particle size distribution, physicochemical form, atmospheric effects, charge effects, coagulation and agglomeration. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) a unique small scale aerosol test chamber has been developed to study the low energy dispersal properties of a number of radioactive source simulant. Principle emphasis has been given to salts (CsCl and CoCl 2 ) and oxides (SrTiO 3 , CeO 2 and EuO 2 ). A planetary ball mill has been utilized to reduce particle size distributions when required. Particle sizing has been performed using Malvern Spraytec spray particle analyzers, cascade impactors, and

  6. Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R.; Zan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

  7. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  8. Rapid determination of 226Ra in drinking water samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, B.K.; Chunsheng Li; Kramer, G.H.; Johnson, C.L.; Queenie Ko; Lai, E.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    A new radioanalytical method was developed for rapid determination of 226 Ra in drinking water samples. The method is based on extraction and preconcentration of 226 Ra from a water sample to an organic solvent using a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique followed by radiometric measurement using liquid scintillation counting. In DLLME for 226 Ra, a mixture of an organic extractant (toluene doped with dibenzo-21-crown-7 and 2-theonyltrifluoroacetone) and a disperser solvent (acetonitrile) is rapidly injected into the water sample resulting in the formation of an emulsion. Within the emulsion, 226 Ra reacts with dibenzo-21-crown-7 and 2-theonyltrifluoroacetone and partitions into the fine droplets of toluene. The water/toluene phases were separated by addition of acetonitrile as a de-emulsifier solvent. The toluene phase containing 226 Ra was then measured by liquid scintillation counting. Several parameters were studied to optimize the extraction efficiency of 226 Ra, including water immiscible organic solvent, disperser and de-emulsifier solvent type and their volume, chelating ligands for 226 Ra and their concentrations, inorganic salt additive and its concentration, and equilibrium pH. With the optimized DLLME conditions, the accuracy (expressed as relative bias, B r ) and method repeatability (expressed as relative precision, S B ) were determined by spiking 226 Ra at the maximum acceptable concentration level (0.5 Bq L -1 ) according to the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. Accuracy and repeatability were found to be less than -5% (B r ) and less than 6% (S B ), respectively, for both tap water and bottled natural spring water samples. The minimum detectable activity and sample turnaround time for determination of 226 Ra was 33 mBq L -1 and less than 3 h, respectively. The DLLME technique is selective for extraction of 226 Ra from its decay progenies. (author)

  9. Vacuum field energy and spontaneous emission in anomalously dispersive cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, Douglas H.; Di Rosa, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously dispersive cavities, particularly white-light cavities, may have larger bandwidth to finesse ratios than their normally dispersive counterparts. Partly for this reason, they have been proposed for use in laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO)-like gravity-wave detectors and in ring-laser gyroscopes. In this paper we analyze the quantum noise associated with anomalously dispersive cavity modes. The vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode is proportional to the cavity-averaged group velocity of that mode. For anomalously dispersive cavities with group index values between 1 and 0, this means that the total vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode must exceed (ℎ/2π)ω/2. For white-light cavities in particular, the group index approaches zero and the vacuum field energy of a particular spatial mode may be significantly enhanced. We predict enhanced spontaneous emission rates into anomalously dispersive cavity modes and broadened laser linewidths when the linewidth of intracavity emitters is broader than the cavity linewidth.

  10. Energy prices, technological knowledge and green energy innovation. A dynamic panel analysis of patent counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, Juergen; Wetzel, Heike; Koeln Univ.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on innovation in green energy technologies. In doing so, we consider both demand-pull effects, which induce innovative activity by increasing the expected value of innovations, and technology-push effects, which drive innovative activity by extending the technological capability of an economy. Our analysis is conducted using patent data from the European Patent Office on a panel of 26 OECD countries over the period 1978-2009. Utilizing a dynamic count data model for panel data, we analyze 11 distinct green energy technologies. Our results indicate that the existing knowledge stock is a significant driver of green energy innovation for all technologies. Furthermore, the results suggest that energy prices have a positive impact on innovation for some but not all technologies and that the e.ect of energy prices and technological knowledge on green energy innovation becomes more pronounced after the Kyoto protocol agreement in 1997.

  11. Energy-correction photon counting pixel for photon energy extraction under pulse pile-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Daehee; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Cho, Gyuseong, E-mail: gscho@kaist.ac.kr

    2017-06-01

    A photon counting detector (PCD) has been proposed as an alternative solution to an energy-integrating detector (EID) in medical imaging field due to its high resolution, high efficiency, and low noise. The PCD has expanded to variety of fields such as spectral CT, k-edge imaging, and material decomposition owing to its capability to count and measure the number and the energy of an incident photon, respectively. Nonetheless, pulse pile-up, which is a superimposition of pulses at the output of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) in each PC pixel, occurs frequently as the X-ray flux increases due to the finite pulse processing time (PPT) in CSAs. Pulse pile-up induces not only a count loss but also distortion in the measured X-ray spectrum from each PC pixel and thus it is a main constraint on the use of PCDs in high flux X-ray applications. To minimize these effects, an energy-correction PC (ECPC) pixel is proposed to resolve pulse pile-up without cutting off the PPT by adding an energy correction logic (ECL) via a cross detection method (CDM). The ECPC pixel with a size of 200×200 µm{sup 2} was fabricated by using a 6-metal 1-poly 0.18 µm CMOS process with a static power consumption of 7.2 μW/pixel. The maximum count rate of the ECPC pixel was extended by approximately three times higher than that of a conventional PC pixel with a PPT of 500 nsec. The X-ray spectrum of 90 kVp, filtered by 3 mm Al filter, was measured as the X-ray current was increased using the CdTe and the ECPC pixel. As a result, the ECPC pixel dramatically reduced the energy spectrum distortion at 2 Mphotons/pixel/s when compared to that of the ERCP pixel with the same 500 nsec PPT.

  12. Contact angle dependence on the fluid-wall dispersive energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, M.; Heitzig, M.; Dan, C.M.; Harting, J.D.R.; Hasse, H.; Vrabec, J.

    2010-01-01

    Menisci of the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones fluid between parallel planar walls are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Thereby, the characteristic energy of the unlike dispersive interaction between fluid molecules and wall atoms is systematically varied to determine its influence

  13. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometric Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-11

    Jun 11, 2017 ... Compositional Differences in Trace Elements in Dried Moringa oleifera ... Ti, Cu, Mo, Fe, Zn, Ni, Re, Eu and Pb using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence ... Africa, Southeast Asia (Valdez-Solana et al., 2015). ... vegetable in many countries, including Nigeria .... of other elements in environmental samples.

  14. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in himematsutake was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). The atomic percentage of the metals was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Results show that the accumulation of ...

  15. Research Note: Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique for the analysis of geological, biological and environmental samples is described. The technique has been applied in the analysis of 10 (geological, biological, environmental) standard reference materials. The accuracy and precision of the technique were attested ...

  16. A new energy-dispersive powder diffraction facility at the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A new energy-dispersive powder diffraction facility has been constructed on the 6 T wiggler beam line of the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source. This paper describes the facility, in particular the beam definition apparatus (front end), the detector positioning system (back end), a 10 000 kN loading frame and high pressure cell and the counting and control electronics. Some recent results are presented including a study of the compressibility of talc and the phase I→II transition of ammonium chloride. (orig.)

  17. Acoustomagnetoelectric effect in nondegenerate semiconductor with nonparabolic energy dispersion law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah, G.; Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.

    2007-10-01

    We have studied acoustomagnetoelectric effect in nondegenerate semiconductor with nonparabolic energy dispersion Law. Attention was focused on the surface acoustomagnetoelectric effect (SAME). This is to reduce Joule's energy dissipated in the sample. It was observed that in a weak magnetic field the SAME is proportional to H 2 whiles in strong magnetic field it is independent of H. The effect is also dependent on the the scattering mechanism and finally SAME changes sign when the magnetic field is turned through 90 deg. (author)

  18. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy with microcalorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerith, C.; Wernicke, D.; Buehler, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Huber, M.; Hoehne, J.; Hertrich, T.; Jochum, J.; Phelan, K.; Stark, M.; Simmnacher, B.; Weiland, W.; Westphal, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shrinking feature sizes in semiconductor device production as well as the use of new materials demand innovation in device technology and material analysis. X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting sensor technology are currently closing the gap between fast energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and high-resolution wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). This work reports on the successful integration of iridium/gold transition edge sensors in the first industrially used microcalorimeter EDS. The POLARIS microcalorimeter system is installed at the failure analysis lab FA5 at Infineon Technologies AG in Neuperlach (Munich) and is used in routine analysis

  19. Polar Quassinoids in Standardized Eurycoma longifolia Extract Formulated into a Lipid-Based Solid Dispersion to Improve Rat Sperm Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Qiu; Ebrahimi, Forough; Low, Bin-Seng; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2017-12-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack is popularly sought in Southeast Asian countries for traditional remedies to improve sexual performance and fertility. 13α(21)-Epoxyeurycomanone and eurycomanone, two major quassinoids in a root extract (TAF2) were reported to improve rat spermatogenesis and fertility. Unfortunately, these quassinoids possess low bioavailability because of high aqueous solubility and low lipid membrane permeability. Often, other possible barriers may be P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux in the gut and presystemic hepatic metabolism. The present study attempted to solve these problems by formulating a lipid-based solid dispersion (TAF2-SD) of optimized mixture of TAF2 and emulsifiers, which was then orally administered to rats prior to sperm count analysis. The TAF2-SD-treated rats showed significantly twofold (p < 0.001) and fourfold (p < 0.001) higher sperm count than did TAF2-treated and vehicle-treated (control) rats, respectively. The study also demonstrated no significant in vitro ileal absorption changes of the quassinoids by P-gp efflux inhibitors and concentration change or secondary metabolite formation upon in vitro incubation with rat liver homogenates, suggesting that P-gp-mediated efflux and presystemic metabolism were not limiting their bioavailability. Further study on orally TAF2-treated rats confirmed that the area under the curve and bioavailability curve of each quassinoid in the absence and presence of ketoconazole were unchanged. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Energy band dispersion in photoemission spectra of argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, Marko; Mucke, Melanie; Arion, Tiberiu; Lischke, Toralf; Barth, Silko; Ulrich, Volker; Ohrwall, Gunnar; Bjoerneholm, Olle; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Bradshaw, Alex M.

    2011-01-01

    Using photoemission we have investigated free argon clusters from a supersonic nozzle expansion in the photon energy range from threshold up to 28 eV. Measurements were performed both at high resolution with a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser and at lower resolution with a magnetic bottle device. The latter experiments were performed for various mean cluster sizes. In addition to the ∼1.5 eV broad 3p-derived valence band seen in previous work, there is a sharper feature at ∼15 eV binding energy. Surprisingly for non-oriented clusters, this peak shifts smoothly in binding energy over the narrow photon energy range 15.5-17.7 eV, indicating energy band dispersion. The onset of this bulk band-like behaviour could be determined from the cluster size dependence.

  1. Nuclear safeguards applications of energy-dispersive absorption edge densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Hsue, S.T.; Langner, D.G.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The principles and techniques of absorption edge densitometry in the energy-dispersive mode are summarized as they apply to the nondestructive assay of special nuclear materials. Five existing field instruments, designed for special nuclear materials accounting measurements, are described. Results of the testing of these instruments as well as recent laboratory results are used to define the capabilities of the technique for special nuclear materials accounting. Possibilities for future applications are reviewed. 14 figures

  2. Quantitative analysis with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Kapoor, S.S.; Lal, M.; Rao, B.V.N.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of samples using radioisotope excited energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence system is described. The complete set-up is built around a locally made Si(Li) detector x-ray spectrometer with an energy resolution of 220 eV at 5.94 KeV. The photopeaks observed in the x-ray fluorescence spectra are fitted with a Gaussian function and the intensities of the characteristic x-ray lines are extracted, which in turn are used for calculating the elemental concentrations. The results for a few typical cases are presented. (author)

  3. X-ray energy-dispersive diffractometry using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.; Staun Olsen, J.; Gerward, L.

    1977-03-01

    In contrast to bremsstrahlung from X-ray tubes, synchrotron radiation is very intense, has a smooth spectrum, its polarization is well defined, and at DESY the range of useful photon energies can be extended to about 70 keV and higher. In addition the X-ray beam is very well collimated. Thus synchrotron radiation seems to be an ideal X-ray source for energy-dispersive diffractometry. This note briefly describes the experimental set up at DESY, shows examples of results, and presents the underlying 'philosophy' of the research programme. (Auth.)

  4. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis Short Course. Introduction to X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Paul; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This course will cover practical applications of the energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to x-ray microanalysis. Topics covered will include detector technology, advances in pulse processing, resolution and performance monitoring, detector modeling, peak deconvolution and fitting, qualitative and quantitative analysis, compositional mapping, and standards. An emphasis will be placed on use of the EDS for quantitative analysis, with discussion of typical problems encountered in the analysis of a wide range of materials and sample geometries.

  5. Multipole expansion of the retarded interatomic dispersion energy: derivation from quantum electrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1972-01-01

    The multipole expansion of the retarded dispersion energy of two atoms in nondegenerate ground states is derived. The result shows that multipoles of different order may give rise to dispersion energies varying in the same way for large interatomic separations.

  6. Gaseous detectors for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Silva, A. L. M.

    2018-01-01

    The energy resolution capability of gaseous detectors is being used in the last years to perform studies on the detection of characteristic X-ray lines emitted by elements when excited by external radiation sources. One of the most successful techniques is the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis. Recent developments in the new generation of micropatterned gaseous detectors (MPGDs), triggered the possibility not only of recording the photon energy, but also of providing position information, extending their application to EDXRF imaging. The relevant features and strategies to be applied in gaseous detectors in order to better fit the requirements for EDXRF imaging will be reviewed and discussed, and some application examples will be presented.

  7. Direct observation of vibrational energy dispersal via methyl torsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M; Tuttle, William D; Whalley, Laura E; Wright, Timothy G

    2018-02-28

    Explicit evidence for the role of methyl rotor levels in promoting energy dispersal is reported. A set of coupled zero-order vibration/vibration-torsion (vibtor) levels in the S 1 state of para -fluorotoluene ( p FT) are investigated. Two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) and two-dimensional zero-kinetic-energy (2D-ZEKE) spectra are reported, and the assignment of the main features in both sets of spectra reveals that the methyl torsion is instrumental in providing a route for coupling between vibrational levels of different symmetry classes. We find that there is very localized, and selective, dissipation of energy via doorway states, and that, in addition to an increase in the density of states, a critical role of the methyl group is a relaxation of symmetry constraints compared to direct vibrational coupling.

  8. Van der Waals dispersion energy between atoms and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boustimi, M; Loulou, M; Natto, S; Belafhal, A; Baudon, J

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the atom-surface interaction where the geometry of the surface is highly symmetric (i.e. sphere, cylinder and plane) and the atom is in ground state. We first present the main features of our model, based on the susceptibility tensors of the two partners in interaction, to determine a general expression of the dispersive energy of van der Waals interaction. Some results are given as applications of this model which addresses recent nanophysical problems, for example, when atoms are in the vicinity of metallic nanoshells, nanospheres or nanowires. (paper)

  9. K-edge energy-based calibration method for photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yongshuai; Ji, Xu; Zhang, Ran; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, potential applications of energy-resolved photon counting detectors (PCDs) in the x-ray medical imaging field have been actively investigated. Unlike conventional x-ray energy integration detectors, PCDs count the number of incident x-ray photons within certain energy windows. For PCDs, the interactions between x-ray photons and photoconductor generate electronic voltage pulse signals. The pulse height of each signal is proportional to the energy of the incident photons. By comparing the pulse height with the preset energy threshold values, x-ray photons with specific energies are recorded and sorted into different energy bins. To quantitatively understand the meaning of the energy threshold values, and thus to assign an absolute energy value to each energy bin, energy calibration is needed to establish the quantitative relationship between the threshold values and the corresponding effective photon energies. In practice, the energy calibration is not always easy, due to the lack of well-calibrated energy references for the working energy range of the PCDs. In this paper, a new method was developed to use the precise knowledge of the characteristic K-edge energy of materials to perform energy calibration. The proposed method was demonstrated using experimental data acquired from three K-edge materials (viz., iodine, gadolinium, and gold) on two different PCDs (Hydra and Flite, XCounter, Sweden). Finally, the proposed energy calibration method was further validated using a radioactive isotope (Am-241) with a known decay energy spectrum.

  10. Secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Tisue, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    A secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer has been built and tested. In this instrument the primary source of x rays is a tungsten-target tube powered by a high-voltage (75 kV), a high-power (3.7 kW) generator from a wavelength spectrometer (G.E. XRD-6). The primary polychromatic x rays irradiate an elemental foil, the secondary source. Its characteristic essentially monochromatic x rays are used to irradiate the sample. Fluorescent x rays from the sample are detected and resolved by a lithium-drifted silicon detector, multichannel-analyzer system. The design of the instrument provides a convenient means for changing the secondary, and hence, the energy of the excitation radiation

  11. Improvements in the energy resolution and high-count-rate performance of bismuth germanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.E.; Wender, S.A.; Kapustinsky, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods for improving the energy resolution of bismuth germanate (BGO) have been investigated. It is shown that some of these methods resulted in a substantial improvement in the energy resolution. In addition, a method to improve the performance of BGO at high counting rates has been systematically studied. The results of this study are presented and discussed

  12. X-ray fluorescence spectrometers: a comparison of wavelength and energy dispersive instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.V.

    1977-11-01

    Wavelength dispersive and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometers are compared. Separate sections are devoted to principles of operation, sample excitation, spectral resolution, and x-ray detection. Tabulated data from the literature are cited in the comparison of accuracy, precision, and detection limits. Spectral interferences and distortions are discussed. Advantages and limitations are listed for simultaneous wavelength dispersive spectrometers, sequential wavelength dispersive spectrometers, and Si(Li) energy dispersive spectrometers. Accuracy, precision, and detection limits are generally superior for wavelength dispersive spectrometers

  13. Analysis of gold in jewellery articles by energy dispersive XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Latifah Amin

    2001-01-01

    The value of a precious metal article is much related to its fineness. For gold assay, conventional fire assay technique has been used as the standard technique for more than 500 years. Alternative modern techniques like energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence can also be used in the determination of gold purity. Advantages of this technique compared to the conventional method including non-destructive analysis, does not use any toxic or hazardous chemicals, automatic computer control and is user friendly, requires minimum number of personnel, shorter analysis time and able to determine associated elements in the metal. Analysis was performed on different sizes and purity of gold. Comparison results for the analysis using different reference standards show small differences between technique and its certified value. The technique also gives small standard deviation value in its repeatability test. (Author)

  14. Calibration of the Accuscan II IN Vivo System for High Energy Lung Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovard R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for high energy lung counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable lung set manufactured at the University of Cincinnati UCLL43AMEU & UCSL43AMEU containing Am-241 and Eu-152 with energies from 26 keV to 1408 keV. The lung set was used in conjunction with a Realistic Torso phantom. The phantom was placed on the RMC II counting table (with pins removed) between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The top of the detector housing was positioned perpendicular to the junction of the phantom clavicle with the sternum. This position places the approximate center line of the detector housing with the center of the lungs. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using a Realistic Torso phantom (Appendix I) and the University of Cincinnati lung set. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for high energy lung counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  15. Is scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) quantitative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2013-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a widely applied elemental microanalysis method capable of identifying and quantifying all elements in the periodic table except H, He, and Li. By following the "k-ratio" (unknown/standard) measurement protocol development for electron-excited wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), SEM/EDS can achieve accuracy and precision equivalent to WDS and at substantially lower electron dose, even when severe X-ray peak overlaps occur, provided sufficient counts are recorded. Achieving this level of performance is now much more practical with the advent of the high-throughput silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS). However, three measurement issues continue to diminish the impact of SEM/EDS: (1) In the qualitative analysis (i.e., element identification) that must precede quantitative analysis, at least some current and many legacy software systems are vulnerable to occasional misidentification of major constituent peaks, with the frequency of misidentifications rising significantly for minor and trace constituents. (2) The use of standardless analysis, which is subject to much broader systematic errors, leads to quantitative results that, while useful, do not have sufficient accuracy to solve critical problems, e.g. determining the formula of a compound. (3) EDS spectrometers have such a large volume of acceptance that apparently credible spectra can be obtained from specimens with complex topography that introduce uncontrolled geometric factors that modify X-ray generation and propagation, resulting in very large systematic errors, often a factor of ten or more. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A method to test the performance of an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Procop, Mathias

    2014-10-01

    A test material for routine performance evaluation of energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) is presented. It consists of a synthetic, thick coating of C, Al, Mn, Cu, and Zr, in an elemental composition that provides interference-free characteristic X-ray lines of similar intensities at 10 kV scanning electron microscope voltage. The EDS energy resolution at the C-K, Mn-Lα, Cu-Lα, Al-K, Zr-Lα, and Mn-Kα lines, the calibration state of the energy scale, and the Mn-Lα/Mn-Kα intensity ratio as a measure for the low-energy detection efficiency are calculated by a dedicated software package from the 10 kV spectrum. Measurements at various input count rates and processor shaping times enable an estimation of the operation conditions for which the X-ray spectrum is not yet corrupted by pile-up events. Representative examples of EDS systems characterized with the test material and the related software are presented and discussed.

  17. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction as a means to identify illicit materials: A preliminary optimisation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Emily [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ecook@medphys.ucl.ac.uk; Fong, Ruby [Clinical Physics Department, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Horrocks, Julie [Clinical Physics Department, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, David [HOSDB, Woodcock Hill, Sandridge, Herts. AL4 9HQ (United Kingdom); Speller, Robert [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction is proposed as a suitable non-destructive method to rapidly identify illicit drugs in parcels. A preliminary data set of 7 illicit drug samples and a possible cutting agent has been collected with a range of count times using a tungsten target X-ray source, a high resolution HpGe detector and a variable geometry diffraction cell. These results have been used to calibrate and train multivariate analysis software to predict the drug content in previously unseen spectra.

  18. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction as a means to identify illicit materials: A preliminary optimisation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Emily; Fong, Ruby; Horrocks, Julie; Wilkinson, David; Speller, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction is proposed as a suitable non-destructive method to rapidly identify illicit drugs in parcels. A preliminary data set of 7 illicit drug samples and a possible cutting agent has been collected with a range of count times using a tungsten target X-ray source, a high resolution HpGe detector and a variable geometry diffraction cell. These results have been used to calibrate and train multivariate analysis software to predict the drug content in previously unseen spectra

  19. Analytical Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Measurements with a Scanty Amounts of Plant and Soil Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, R.; Rao, P.; Kaur, P.

    2018-01-01

    Elemental evaluations in scanty powdered material have been made using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements, for which formulations along with specific procedure for sample target preparation have been developed. Fractional amount evaluation involves an itinerary of steps; (i) collection of elemental characteristic X-ray counts in EDXRF spectra recorded with different weights of material, (ii) search for linearity between X-ray counts and material weights, (iii) calculation of elemental fractions from the linear fit, and (iv) again linear fitting of calculated fractions with sample weights and its extrapolation to zero weight. Thus, elemental fractions at zero weight are free from material self absorption effects for incident and emitted photons. The analytical procedure after its verification with known synthetic samples of macro-nutrients, potassium and calcium, was used for wheat plant/ soil samples obtained from a pot experiment.

  20. Composition measurement in substitutionally disordered materials by atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Taplin, D J; Weyland, M; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy invites the question of whether its success in precision composition determination at lower magnifications can be replicated in the atomic resolution regime. In this paper, we explore, through simulation, the prospects for composition measurement via the model system of Al x Ga 1-x As, discussing the approximations used in the modelling, the variability in the signal due to changes in configuration at constant composition, and the ability to distinguish between different compositions. Results are presented in such a way that the number of X-ray counts, and thus the expected variation due to counting statistics, can be gauged for a range of operating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of energy response for photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Huanjun; Cho, Hyo-Min; Molloi, Sabee; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of characterizing a Si strip photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. Methods: X-ray fluorescence was generated by using a pencil beam from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with 2 mm Al filtration. Spectra were acquired at 90° from the primary beam direction with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on an edge illuminated Si strip detector. The distances from the source to target and the target to detector were approximately 19 and 11 cm, respectively. Four different materials, containing silver (Ag), iodine (I), barium (Ba), and gadolinium (Gd), were placed in small plastic containers with a diameter of approximately 0.7 cm for x-ray fluorescence measurements. Linear regression analysis was performed to derive the gain and offset values for the correlation between the measured fluorescence peak center and the known fluorescence energies. The energy resolutions and charge-sharing fractions were also obtained from analytical fittings of the recorded fluorescence spectra. An analytical model, which employed four parameters that can be determined from the fluorescence calibration, was used to estimate the detector response function. Results: Strong fluorescence signals of all four target materials were recorded with the investigated geometry for the Si strip detector. The average gain and offset of all pixels for detector energy calibration were determined to be 6.95 mV/keV and −66.33 mV, respectively. The detector’s energy resolution remained at approximately 2.7 keV for low energies, and increased slightly at 45 keV. The average charge-sharing fraction was estimated to be 36% within the investigated energy range of 20–45 keV. The simulated detector output based on the proposed response function agreed well with the experimental measurement. Conclusions: The performance of a spectral imaging system using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is very dependent on the energy calibration of the

  2. High Flux Energy-Resolved Photon-Counting X-Ray Imaging Arrays with CdTe and CdZnTe for Clinical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, William C.; Hartsough, Neal E.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Wessel, Jan C.; Nygard, Einar; Malakhov, Nail; Wawrzyniak, Gregor; Dorholt, Ole; Danielsen, Roar

    2013-06-01

    We have fabricated fast room-temperature energy dispersive photon counting x-ray imaging arrays using pixellated cadmium zinc (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductors. We have also fabricated fast application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) with a two dimensional (2D) array of inputs for readout from the CdZnTe sensors. The new CdTe and CdZnTe sensors have a 2D array of pixels with a 0.5 mm pitch and can be tiled in 2D. The new 2D ASICs have four energy discriminators per pixel with a linear energy response across the entire dynamic range for clinical CT. The ASICs can also be tiled in 2D and are designed to fit within the active area of the 2D sensors. We have measured several important performance parameters including; an output count rate (OCR) in excess of 20 million counts per second per square mm, an energy resolution of 7 keV full width at half maximum (FWHM) across the entire dynamic range, and a noise floor less than 20 keV. This is achieved by directly interconnecting the ASIC inputs to the pixels of the CdTE and CdZnTe sensors incurring very little additional capacitance. We present a comparison of the performance of the CdTe and CdZnTe sensors including the OCR, FWHM energy resolution, and noise floor. (authors)

  3. Dispersion of radioactive tracers (Energy transport in geological media)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltyaner, G.L.; Wills, A.

    1991-01-01

    The idea of adding a gamma-emitting tracer like radioiodine to groundwater to measure its velocity offers a new approach to contaminant transport studies. In fact, the groundwater velocity is acquired by measuring, in situ, changes that the flowing water and sedimentary matrix jointly impose on the electromagnetic field generated by radioiodine. The information is encoded in the measured field intensity and it is transmitted continuously from the source to a radiation detector by electromagnetic energy photons. In situ sensed data acquired by scanning dry boreholes provide information on joint variations of static (sedimentary matrix) and dynamic (flowing water) elements of the aquifer over its depth. The spatial structure of the aquifer heterogeneities may be modelled in terms of the space-correlation coefficient between two velocities at two points a specified distance apart. This gives a new method for defining aquifer heterogeneities by the introduction of kinematically significant length scales of velocity variation without invoking Darcy's law and the concept of hydraulic conductivity. The dimensions of aquifer heterogeneities are defined in a longitudinal sense, along the mean flow direction, and in a transverse sense, in the transverse to flow direction. Two hierarchical scales of motion, local and integral, are introduced to characterize the mixing process caused by aquifer heterogeneity and depositional heterogeneity, respectively. At the microscopic and local scales, transport processes are characterized by the three-dimensional diffusion equation with, generally speaking, variable coefficients. At the integral scale, aquifer heterogeneities impose conditions on the transport such that for shallow aquifers the transport may be modelled by the dispersion equation with constant coefficients in one longitudinal dimension. 3 figs., 25 refs

  4. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides, KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas Galiano, G.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electron-capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high

  5. Probing dark energy with cluster counts and cosmic shear power spectra: including the full covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Masahiro; Bridle, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Several dark energy experiments are available from a single large-area imaging survey and may be combined to improve cosmological parameter constraints and/or test inherent systematics. Two promising experiments are cosmic shear power spectra and counts of galaxy clusters. However, the two experiments probe the same cosmic mass density field in large-scale structure, therefore the combination may be less powerful than first thought. We investigate the cross-covariance between the cosmic shear power spectra and the cluster counts based on the halo model approach, where the cross-covariance arises from the three-point correlations of the underlying mass density field. Fully taking into account the cross-covariance, as well as non-Gaussian errors on the lensing power spectrum covariance, we find a significant cross-correlation between the lensing power spectrum signals at multipoles l∼10 3 and the cluster counts containing halos with masses M∼>10 14 M o-dot . Including the cross-covariance for the combined measurement degrades and in some cases improves the total signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios up to ∼±20% relative to when the two are independent. For cosmological parameter determination, the cross-covariance has a smaller effect as a result of working in a multi-dimensional parameter space, implying that the two observables can be considered independent to a good approximation. We also discuss the fact that cluster count experiments using lensing-selected mass peaks could be more complementary to cosmic shear tomography than mass-selected cluster counts of the corresponding mass threshold. Using lensing selected clusters with a realistic usable detection threshold ((S/N) cluster ∼6 for a ground-based survey), the uncertainty on each dark energy parameter may be roughly halved by the combined experiments, relative to using the power spectra alone

  6. Energy dispersive CdTe and CdZnTe detectors for spectral clinical CT and NDT applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, W.C., E-mail: william.barber@dxray.com [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA (United States); Interon AS, Asker (Norway); Wessel, J.C. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA (United States); Interon AS, Asker (Norway); Nygard, E. [Interon AS, Asker (Norway); Iwanczyk, J.S. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We are developing room temperature compound semiconductor detectors for applications in energy-resolved high-flux single x-ray photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT), including functional imaging with nanoparticle contrast agents for medical applications and non-destructive testing (NDT) for security applications. Energy-resolved photon-counting can provide reduced patient dose through optimal energy weighting for a particular imaging task in CT, functional contrast enhancement through spectroscopic imaging of metal nanoparticles in CT, and compositional analysis through multiple basis function material decomposition in CT and NDT. These applications produce high input count rates from an x-ray generator delivered to the detector. Therefore, in order to achieve energy-resolved single photon counting in these applications, a high output count rate (OCR) for an energy-dispersive detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) compound semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel provided the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions, and at a sufficiently high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). We have developed high-flux energy-resolved photon-counting x-ray imaging array sensors using pixellated CdTe and CdZnTe semiconductors optimized for clinical CT and security NDT. We have also fabricated high

  7. The Dosepix detector—an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector for spectrometric measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Zang, A; Ballabriga, R; Bisello, F; Campbell, M; Celi, J C; Fauler, A; Fiederle, M; Jensch, M; Kochanski, N; Llopart, X; Michel, N; Mollenhauer, U; Ritter, I; Tennert, F; Wölfel, S; Wong, W; Michel, T

    2015-01-01

    The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation wa...

  8. Full-counting statistics of energy transport of molecular junctions in the polaronic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Gaomin; Yu, Zhizhou; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the full-counting statistics (FCS) of energy transport carried by electrons in molecular junctions for the Anderson–Holstein model in the polaronic regime. Using the two-time quantum measurement scheme, the generating function (GF) for the energy transport is derived and expressed as a Fredholm determinant in terms of Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function in the time domain. Dressed tunneling approximation is used in decoupling the phonon cloud operator in the polaronic regime. This formalism enables us to analyze the time evolution of energy transport dynamics after a sudden switch-on of the coupling between the dot and the leads towards the stationary state. The steady state energy current cumulant GF in the long time limit is obtained in the energy domain as well. Universal relations for steady state energy current FCS are derived under a finite temperature gradient with zero bias and this enabled us to express the equilibrium energy current cumulant by a linear combination of lower order cumulants. The behaviors of energy current cumulants in steady state under temperature gradient and external bias are numerically studied and explained. The transient dynamics of energy current cumulants is numerically calculated and analyzed. Universal scaling of normalized transient energy cumulants is found under both temperature gradient and external bias. (paper)

  9. Dispersion relations for the self-energy in noncommutative field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, F.T.; Das, Ashok; Frenkel, J.

    2002-01-01

    We study the IR-UV connection in noncommutative φ 3 theory as well as in noncommutative QED from the point of view of the dispersion relation for self-energy. We show that, although the imaginary part of the self-energy is well behaved as the parameter of noncommutativity vanishes, the real part becomes divergent as a consequence of the high energy behavior of the dispersion integral. Some other interesting features that arise from this analysis are also briefly discussed

  10. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y., E-mail: cycjty@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Fuji, Hino, Tokyo 191-8502 (Japan); Fujiwara, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M. [Nuclear Professional School, the University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Tomita, H. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshihara, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  11. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X.; Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M.; Tomita, H.; Yoshihara, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-01-01

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  12. Quantitative material decomposition using spectral computed tomography with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) techniques have been used to decompose materials and characterize tissues according to their physical and chemical compositions. However, these techniques are hampered by the limitations of conventional x-ray detectors operated in charge integrating mode. Energy-resolved photon-counting detectors provide spectral information from polychromatic x-rays using multiple energy thresholds. These detectors allow simultaneous acquisition of data in different energy ranges without spectral overlap, resulting in more efficient material decomposition and quantification for dual-energy CT. In this study, a pre-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique based on volume conservation was proposed for three-material decomposition. The technique was combined with iterative reconstruction algorithms by using a ray-driven projector in order to improve the quality of decomposition images and reduce radiation dose. A spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector was used to implement the proposed dual-energy CT technique. We obtained dual-energy images of calibration and three-material phantoms consisting of low atomic number materials from the optimal energy bins determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The material decomposition process was accomplished by both the proposed and post-reconstruction dual-energy CT techniques. Linear regression and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) analyses were performed to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of decomposition images. The calibration accuracy of the proposed dual-energy CT technique was higher than that of the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique, with fitted slopes of 0.97–1.01 and NRMSEs of 0.20–4.50% for all basis materials. In the three-material phantom study, the proposed dual-energy CT technique decreased the NRMSEs of measured volume fractions by factors of 0.17–0.28 compared to the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique. It was concluded that the

  13. Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Uganda, Making Energy Efficiency Count. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Pudleiner, David; Jones, David; Khan, Aleisha

    2017-06-15

    Like many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda has focused its energy sector investments largely on increasing energy access by increasing energy supply. The links between energy efficiency and energy access, the importance of energy efficiency in new energy supply, and the multiple benefits of energy efficiency for the level and quality of energy available, have been largely overlooked. Implementing energy efficiency in parallel with expanding both the electricity grid and new clean energy generation reduces electricity demand and helps optimize the power supply so that it can serve more customers reliably at minimum cost. Ensuring efficient appliances are incorporated into energy access efforts provides improved energy services to customers. Energy efficiency is an important contributor to access to modern energy. This Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Uganda (Roadmap) is a response to the important role that electrical energy efficiency can play in meeting Uganda’s energy goals. Power Africa and the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) initiatives collaborated with more than 24 stakeholders in Uganda to develop this document. The document estimates that if the most efficient technologies on the market were adopted, 2,224 gigawatt hours could be saved in 2030 across all sectors, representing 31% of the projected load. This translates into 341 megawatts of peak demand reductions, energy access to an additional 6 million rural customers and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 10.6 million tonnes in 2030. The Roadmap also finds that 91% of this technical potential is cost-effective, and 47% is achievable under conservative assumptions. The Roadmap prioritizes recommendations for implementing energy efficiency and maximizing benefits to meet the goals and priorities established in Uganda’s 2015 SEforALL Action Agenda. One important step is to create and increase demand for efficiency through long-term enabling policies and financial incentives

  14. Energy dispersion of x-ray continua in the energy range 9kev to 19kev refraction on Si wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, H.; Streli, C.; Pepponi, G.; Wobrauschek, P.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection of x-rays in matter at given grazing incidence angle is characterized by the occurrence of an energy cut-off. Photons with energies greater than the cut-off energy penetrate into matter and are refracted according to a transition from the optically more dense to the optically less dense medium. Since the refractive index depends on photon energy, an energy dispersion of continuous x-radiation is observed. The present investigation is dedicated to the energy dispersion of continuous x-radiation (Mo, 45 kV) by Si wafers. Theory and experimental results are in excellent agreement. (author)

  15. Fast GPU-based spot extraction for energy-dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghabi, F.; Schipper, U.; Kolb, A.; Send, S.; Abboud, A.; Pashniak, N.; Pietsch, U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for fast online analysis of X-ray Laue spots taken by means of an energy-dispersive X-ray 2D detector. Current pnCCD detectors typically operate at some 100 Hz (up to a maximum of 400 Hz) and have a resolution of 384 × 384 pixels, future devices head for even higher pixel counts and frame rates. The proposed online data analysis is based on a computer utilizing multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which allow for fast and parallel data processing. Our multi-GPU based algorithm is compliant with the rules of stream-based data processing, for which GPUs are optimized. The paper's main contribution is therefore an alternative algorithm for the determination of spot positions and energies over the full sequence of pnCCD data frames. Furthermore, an improved background suppression algorithm is presented.The resulting system is able to process data at the maximum acquisition rate of 400 Hz. We present a detailed analysis of the spot positions and energies deduced from a prior (single-core) CPU-based and the novel GPU-based data processing, showing that the parallel computed results using the GPU implementation are at least of the same quality as prior CPU-based results. Furthermore, the GPU-based algorithm is able to speed up the data processing by a factor of 7 (in comparison to single-core CPU-based algorithm) which effectively makes the detector system more suitable for online data processing

  16. Low-dose electron energy-loss spectroscopy using electron counting direct detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maigné, Alan; Wolf, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    Since the development of parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), charge-coupled devices (CCDs) have been the default detectors for EELS. With the recent development of electron-counting direct-detection cameras, micrographs can be acquired under very low electron doses at significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. In spectroscopy, in particular in combination with a monochromator, the signal can be extremely weak and the detection limit is principally defined by noise introduced by the detector. Here we report the use of an electron-counting direct-detection camera for EEL spectroscopy. We studied the oxygen K edge of amorphous ice and obtained a signal noise ratio up to 10 times higher than with a conventional CCD.We report the application of electron counting to record time-resolved EEL spectra of a biological protein embedded in amorphous ice, revealing chemical changes observed in situ while exposed by the electron beam. A change in the fine structure of nitrogen K and the carbon K edges were recorded during irradiation. A concentration of 3 at% nitrogen was detected with a total electron dose of only 1.7 e-/Å2, extending the boundaries of EELS signal detection at low electron doses.

  17. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides. KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiano, G.; Grau, A.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electro capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high. (Author)

  18. Energy dispersive X-ray diffractometry in texture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Information about texture is traditionally obtained from the two-dimensional distributions of crystallographic directions in the reference frame of the specimen. The distributions can be measured using the angular dispersive diffractometry. In such measurements the rotation of the specimen brings the crystallographic planes of differently oriented crystals into the diffraction position. The distribution (pole figure) can be measured continuously or alternatively the angular space can be scanned in different directions and with required accuracy. The subject is discussed, with examples. (author)

  19. Certification of reference materials by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Leif Højslet; Heydorn, Kaj

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies the precision and accuracy that can be achieved using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of total sulphur content in BCR 38 Fly Ash issued by the European Community Bureau of Reference.......This paper studies the precision and accuracy that can be achieved using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of total sulphur content in BCR 38 Fly Ash issued by the European Community Bureau of Reference....

  20. How to count and assess different energies, in particular renewable energies: methodological reflections and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled the meaning of the concepts of primary energy and of final energy, as well as their relationships which are conventionally adopted at the international level, the author shows that these concepts are not suitable to the assessment of economic and energetic efficiency of energy systems, notably those comprising several transformations of an energy into another. He also shows that the methodology developed by the Academy of Technologies in its 'Vecteurs' report is perfectly adapted. This is illustrated by two examples: the main uses of biomass, and the use of peak productions of wind energy which is essentially intermittent. With this method, it is possible to identify the main factors which must be quantified when assessing the technical-economic relevance of such or such choice, notably thermodynamic efficiencies of each step, capitals to be invested and expectable load factors, or impact in terms of CO 2 emissions. Appendices proposes energetic statistics for France (energy assessment, consumption of primary energy), an assessment of methanization, and an analysis of wind energy production in Europe while taking its intermittency into account, for the production of hydrogen

  1. Photon counting and energy discriminating X-ray detectors. Benefits and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, David; Zscherpel, Uwe; Ewert, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Since a few years the direct detection of X-ray photons into electrical signals is possible by usage of highly absorbing photo conducting materials (e.g. CdTe) as detection layer of an underlying CMOS semiconductor X-ray detector. Even NDT energies up to 400 keV are possible today, as well. The image sharpness and absorption efficiency is improved by the replacement of the unsharp scintillation layer (as used at indirect detecting detectors) by a photo conducting layer of much higher thickness. If the read-out speed is high enough (ca. 50 - 100 ns dead time) single X-ray photons can be counted and their energy measured. Read-out noise and dark image correction can be avoided. By setting energy thresholds selected energy ranges of the X-ray spectrum can be detected or suppressed. This allows material discrimination by dual-energy techniques or the reduction of image contributions of scattered radiation, which results in an enhanced contrast sensitivity. To use these advantages in an effective way, a special calibration procedure has to be developed, which considers also time dependent processes in the detection layer. This contribution presents some of these new properties of direct detecting digital detector arrays (DDAs) and shows first results on testing fiber reinforced composites as well as first approaches to dual energy imaging.

  2. Energy dispersive detector for white beam synchrotron x-ray fluorescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Matthew D., E-mail: Matt.Wilson@stfc.ac.uk; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus,UK (United Kingdom); Connolley, Thomas [Diamond Light Source, I12 Beamline, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dolbnya, Igor P.; Malandain, Andrew; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, B16 Beamline, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Grant, Patrick S.; Liotti, Enzo; Lui, Andrew [Department of Materials, University of Oxford Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    A novel, “single-shot” fluorescence imaging technique has been demonstrated on the B16 beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron using the HEXITEC energy dispersive imaging detector. A custom made furnace with 200µm thick metal alloy samples was positioned in a white X-ray beam with a hole made in the furnace walls to allow the transmitted beam to be imaged with a conventional X-ray imaging camera consisting of a 500 µm thick single crystal LYSO scintillator, mirror and lens coupled to an AVT Manta G125B CCD sensor. The samples were positioned 45° to the incident beam to enable simultaneous transmission and fluorescence imaging. The HEXITEC detector was positioned at 90° to the sample with a 50 µm pinhole 13 cm from the sample and the detector positioned 2.3m from pinhole. The geometric magnification provided a field of view of 1.1×1.1mm{sup 2} with one of the 80×80 pixels imaging an area equivalent to 13µm{sup 2}. Al-Cu alloys doped with Zr, Ag and Mo were imaged in transmission and fluorescence mode. The fluorescence images showed that the dopant metals could be simultaneously imaged with sufficient counts on all 80x80 pixels within 60 s, with the X-ray flux limiting the fluorescence imaging rate. This technique demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously image and identify multiple elements on a spatial resolution scale ~10µm or higher without the time consuming need to scan monochromatic energies or raster scan a focused beam of X-rays. Moving to high flux beamlines and using an array of detectors could improve the imaging speed of the technique with element specific imaging estimated to be on a 1 s timescale.

  3. Energy dispersive detector for white beam synchrotron x-ray fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Matthew D.; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C.; Connolley, Thomas; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Malandain, Andrew; Sawhney, Kawal; Grant, Patrick S.; Liotti, Enzo; Lui, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A novel, “single-shot” fluorescence imaging technique has been demonstrated on the B16 beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron using the HEXITEC energy dispersive imaging detector. A custom made furnace with 200µm thick metal alloy samples was positioned in a white X-ray beam with a hole made in the furnace walls to allow the transmitted beam to be imaged with a conventional X-ray imaging camera consisting of a 500 µm thick single crystal LYSO scintillator, mirror and lens coupled to an AVT Manta G125B CCD sensor. The samples were positioned 45° to the incident beam to enable simultaneous transmission and fluorescence imaging. The HEXITEC detector was positioned at 90° to the sample with a 50 µm pinhole 13 cm from the sample and the detector positioned 2.3m from pinhole. The geometric magnification provided a field of view of 1.1×1.1mm"2 with one of the 80×80 pixels imaging an area equivalent to 13µm"2. Al-Cu alloys doped with Zr, Ag and Mo were imaged in transmission and fluorescence mode. The fluorescence images showed that the dopant metals could be simultaneously imaged with sufficient counts on all 80x80 pixels within 60 s, with the X-ray flux limiting the fluorescence imaging rate. This technique demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously image and identify multiple elements on a spatial resolution scale ~10µm or higher without the time consuming need to scan monochromatic energies or raster scan a focused beam of X-rays. Moving to high flux beamlines and using an array of detectors could improve the imaging speed of the technique with element specific imaging estimated to be on a 1 s timescale.

  4. Statistical measurement of the gamma-ray source-count distribution as a function of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechlin, H.-S.; Cuoco, A.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.

    2017-01-01

    Photon counts statistics have recently been proven to provide a sensitive observable for characterizing gamma-ray source populations and for measuring the composition of the gamma-ray sky. In this work, we generalize the use of the standard 1-point probability distribution function (1pPDF) to decompose the high-latitude gamma-ray emission observed with Fermi-LAT into: (i) point-source contributions, (ii) the Galactic foreground contribution, and (iii) a diffuse isotropic background contribution. We analyze gamma-ray data in five adjacent energy bands between 1 and 171 GeV. We measure the source-count distribution dN/dS as a function of energy, and demonstrate that our results extend current measurements from source catalogs to the regime of so far undetected sources. Our method improves the sensitivity for resolving point-source populations by about one order of magnitude in flux. The dN/dS distribution as a function of flux is found to be compatible with a broken power law. We derive upper limits on further possible breaks as well as the angular power of unresolved sources. We discuss the composition of the gamma-ray sky and capabilities of the 1pPDF method.

  5. Evaluation of high-energy electron detectors for probing the inner magnetosphere under high-counting condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Yukihiro; Takashima, Takeshi; Mitani, Takefumi; Miyake, Wataru

    2013-01-01

    An ERG (Energization and Radiation in Geospace) satellite will be launched to study the acceleration processes of energetic particles in the radiation belt surrounding the earth. It is very important to reveal the acceleration process of high-energy particles for both science and the application to space weather forecast. Drastic increases of high-energy electrons in the radiation belt is sometimes observed during a geomagnetic storm. When a large magnetic storm occurs, energetic electron count rates may exceed flux limits expected in the nominal design and large number of incident electrons leading to detection loss. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the count rate range of a single detection on board ERG satellite can be expanded by means of reading circuit operations to decrease an area of detection. In our ground experiment, we also found an unexpected result that count peaks shift to the higher energy side under high counting conditions. (author)

  6. Particle and surfactant interactions effected polar and dispersive components of interfacial energy in nanocolloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, A. R.; Das, Sarit K.; Agnihotri, Prabhat K.; Dhar, Purbarun

    2017-08-01

    We segregate and report experimentally for the first time the polar and dispersive interfacial energy components of complex nanocolloidal dispersions. In the present study, we introduce a novel inverse protocol for the classical Owens Wendt method to determine the constitutive polar and dispersive elements of surface tension in such multicomponent fluidic systems. The effect of nanoparticles alone and aqueous surfactants alone are studied independently to understand the role of the concentration of the dispersed phase in modulating the constitutive elements of surface energy in fluids. Surfactants are capable of altering the polar component, and the combined particle and surfactant nanodispersions are shown to be effective in modulating the polar and dispersive components of surface tension depending on the relative particle and surfactant concentrations as well as the morphological and electrostatic nature of the dispersed phases. We observe that the combined surfactant and particle colloid exhibits a similar behavior to that of the particle only case; however, the amount of modulation of the polar and dispersive constituents is found to be different from the particle alone case which brings to the forefront the mechanisms through which surfactants modulate interfacial energies in complex fluids. Accordingly, we are able to show that the observations can be merged into a form of quasi-universal trend in the trends of polar and dispersive components in spite of the non-universal character in the wetting behavior of the fluids. We analyze the different factors affecting the polar and dispersive interactions in such complex colloids, and the physics behind such complex interactions has been explained by appealing to the classical dispersion theories by London, Debye, and Keesom as well as by Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory. The findings shed light on the nature of wetting behavior of such complex fluids and help in predicting the wettability and the degree of

  7. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S.; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H.; Tang, Henry

    2014-01-01

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored

  8. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Tang, Henry [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  9. Interatomic methods for the dispersion energy derived from the adiabatic connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Ambrosetti, Alberto; DiStasio, Robert A.

    2013-02-01

    Interatomic pairwise methods are currently among the most popular and accurate ways to include dispersion energy in density functional theory calculations. However, when applied to more than two atoms, these methods are still frequently perceived to be based on ad hoc assumptions, rather than a rigorous derivation from quantum mechanics. Starting from the adiabatic connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem, an exact expression for the electronic exchange-correlation energy, we demonstrate that the pairwise interatomic dispersion energy for an arbitrary collection of isotropic polarizable dipoles emerges from the second-order expansion of the ACFD formula upon invoking the random-phase approximation (RPA) or the full-potential approximation. Moreover, for a system of quantum harmonic oscillators coupled through a dipole-dipole potential, we prove the equivalence between the full interaction energy obtained from the Hamiltonian diagonalization and the ACFD-RPA correlation energy. This property makes the Hamiltonian diagonalization an efficient method for the calculation of the many-body dispersion energy. In addition, we show that the switching function used to damp the dispersion interaction at short distances arises from a short-range screened Coulomb potential, whose role is to account for the spatial spread of the individual atomic dipole moments. By using the ACFD formula, we gain a deeper understanding of the approximations made in the interatomic pairwise approaches, providing a powerful formalism for further development of accurate and efficient methods for the calculation of the dispersion energy.

  10. Dependency of non-homogeneity energy dispersion on absorbance line-shape of luminescent polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Castanheira da, E-mail: mar_castanheira@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Acre, CP 500, 69915-900 Rio Branco, AC (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, CP 593, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Santos Silva, H.; Silva, R.A.; Marletta, Alexandre [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, CP 593, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2013-01-16

    In this paper, we study the importance of the non-homogeneity energy dispersion on absorption line-shape of luminescent polymers. The optical transition probability was calculated based on the molecular exciton model, Franck–Condon states, Gaussian distribution of non-entangled chains with conjugate degree n, semi-empirical parameterization of energy gap, electric dipole moment, and electron-vibrational mode coupling. Based on the approach of the energy gap functional dependence 1/n, the inclusion of the non-homogeneity energy dispersion 1/n{sup 2} is essential to obtain good experimental data agreement, mainly, where the absorption spectra display peaks width of about 65 meV. For unresolved absorption spectra, such as those observed for a large number of conjugated polymers processed via spin-coating technique, for example, the non-homogeneity energy dispersion parameterization is not significant. Results were supported by the application of the model for poly (p-phenylene vinylene) films.

  11. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with Bragg polarized Mo radiation. Energiedispersive Roentgenfluoreszenzanalyse mit Bragg-polarisierter Mo Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeckl, H

    1983-01-01

    The aim of introducing energy dispersive analysis into X-ray fluorescence analysis is to suppress background from the Bremsstrahlung spectrum and the characteristic radiation without an undue reduction of the signal. The variant under consideration uses linearly polarization radiation obtained after a Bragg reflection,under delta = 90/sup 0/. In an introductory part, Bragg reflection, fluorescence and strong radiation are considered quantitatively with respect to counting statistics and detection limits. In the experimental part two combinations are describe, of a Ta crystal with a Cr tube and of a Mo crystal with a Mo tube. Details of adjustment, sample preparation and calibration and detection limits are given. The pros and cons of the Ta/Cr and the Mo/Mo are contrasted and proposals for further improvements are given.

  12. Dispersion and energy conservation relations of surface waves in semi-infinite plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanassov, V.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrodynamic theory of surface wave propagation in semi-infinite homogeneous isotropic plasma is considered. Explicit linear surface wave solutions are given for the electric and magnetic fields, charge and current densities. These solutions are used to obtain the well-known dispersion relations and, together with the general energy conservation equation, to find appropriate definitions for the energy and the energy flow densities of surface waves. These densities are associated with the dispersion relation and the group velocity by formulae similar to those for bulk waves in infinite plasmas. Both cases of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) surface waves are considered. (author)

  13. On the method of calibration of the energy dispersive EXAFS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    samples, whose absorption edge energies are well-established. .... bend the crystal to take shape of an ellipse (Lee et al 1994). ..... Kelly S D, Hesterberg D and Ravel B 2008 Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 5, Mineralogical Methods,. Chapter ...

  14. Preliminary evaluation of a novel energy-resolved photon-counting gamma ray detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L-J; Tan, J W; Spartiotis, K; Schulman, T

    2009-06-11

    In this paper, we present the design and preliminary performance evaluation of a novel energy-resolved photon-counting (ERPC) detector for gamma ray imaging applications. The prototype ERPC detector has an active area of 4.4 cm × 4.4 cm, which is pixelated into 128 × 128 square pixels with a pitch size of 350 µm × 350µm. The current detector consists of multiple detector hybrids, each with a CdTe crystal of 1.1 cm × 2.2 cm × 1 mm, bump-bonded onto a custom-designed application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The ERPC ASIC has 2048 readout channels arranged in a 32 × 64 array. Each channel is equipped with pre- and shaping-amplifiers, a discriminator, peak/hold circuitry and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for digitizing the signal amplitude. In order to compensate for the pixel-to-pixel variation, two 8-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are implemented into each channel for tuning the gain and offset. The ERPC detector is designed to offer a high spatial resolution, a wide dynamic range of 12-200 keV and a good energy resolution of 3-4 keV. The hybrid detector configuration provides a flexible detection area that can be easily tailored for different imaging applications. The intrinsic performance of a prototype ERPC detector was evaluated with various gamma ray sources, and the results are presented.

  15. Absorbed impact energy and mode of fracture: A statistical description of the micro-structural dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontikis, V., E-mail: Vassilis.Pontikis@cea.f [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, CNRS UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Gorse, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, CNRS UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2009-10-01

    A statistical model is proposed to account for the influence of the dispersion of the microstructure on the ductile-to-brittle transition in body centered cubic (bcc) metals and their alloys. In this model, the dispersion of the microstructure is expressed via a normal distribution of transition temperatures whereas a simple relation exists between the values of absorbed, lower and upper shelf energies, the ductile area fraction and the distribution parameters. It is shown that via an appropriate renormalization of energies and temperatures, experimental data for different materials and ageing conditions align all together on a master curve, guaranteeing thereby the effectiveness of the proposed statistical description.

  16. Absorbed impact energy and mode of fracture: A statistical description of the micro-structural dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, V.; Gorse, D.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical model is proposed to account for the influence of the dispersion of the microstructure on the ductile-to-brittle transition in body centered cubic (bcc) metals and their alloys. In this model, the dispersion of the microstructure is expressed via a normal distribution of transition temperatures whereas a simple relation exists between the values of absorbed, lower and upper shelf energies, the ductile area fraction and the distribution parameters. It is shown that via an appropriate renormalization of energies and temperatures, experimental data for different materials and ageing conditions align all together on a master curve, guaranteeing thereby the effectiveness of the proposed statistical description.

  17. ChromAIX2: A large area, high count-rate energy-resolving photon counting ASIC for a Spectral CT Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Roger; Herrmann, Christoph; Livne, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Spectral CT based on energy-resolving photon counting detectors is expected to deliver additional diagnostic value at a lower dose than current state-of-the-art CT [1]. The capability of simultaneously providing a number of spectrally distinct measurements not only allows distinguishing between photo-electric and Compton interactions but also discriminating contrast agents that exhibit a K-edge discontinuity in the absorption spectrum, referred to as K-edge Imaging [2]. Such detectors are based on direct converting sensors (e.g. CdTe or CdZnTe) and high-rate photon counting electronics. To support the development of Spectral CT and show the feasibility of obtaining rates exceeding 10 Mcps/pixel (Poissonian observed count-rate), the ChromAIX ASIC has been previously reported showing 13.5 Mcps/pixel (150 Mcps/mm2 incident) [3]. The ChromAIX has been improved to offer the possibility of a large area coverage detector, and increased overall performance. The new ASIC is called ChromAIX2, and delivers count-rates exceeding 15 Mcps/pixel with an rms-noise performance of approximately 260 e-. It has an isotropic pixel pitch of 500 μm in an array of 22×32 pixels and is tile-able on three of its sides. The pixel topology consists of a two stage amplifier (CSA and Shaper) and a number of test features allowing to thoroughly characterize the ASIC without a sensor. A total of 5 independent thresholds are also available within each pixel, allowing to acquire 5 spectrally distinct measurements simultaneously. The ASIC also incorporates a baseline restorer to eliminate excess currents induced by the sensor (e.g. dark current and low frequency drifts) which would otherwise cause an energy estimation error. In this paper we report on the inherent electrical performance of the ChromAXI2 as well as measurements obtained with CZT (CdZnTe)/CdTe sensors and X-rays and radioactive sources.

  18. Evaluating Chemical Dispersant Efficacy In An Experimental Wave Tank: 1, Dispersant Effectiveness As A Function Of Energy Dissipation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous laboratory test systems have been developed for the comparison of efficacy between various chemical oil dispersant formulations. However, for the assessment of chemical dispersant effectiveness under realistic sea state, test protocols are required to produce hydrodynam...

  19. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry by microcalorimetry for the SEM

    CERN Document Server

    Newbury, D; Sae Woo Nam; Hilton, G; Irwin, K; Small, J; Martinis, J

    2002-01-01

    Analytical x-ray spectrometry for electron beam instruments has advanced significantly with the development of the microcalorimeter energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (mu cal EDS). The mu cal EDS operates by measuring the temperature rise when a single photon is absorbed in a metal target. A cryoelectronic circuit with electrothermal feedback and a superconducting transition edge sensor serves as the thermometer. Spectral resolution approaching 4.5 eV for high energy photons (6000 eV) and 2 eV for low energy photons below 2000 eV has been demonstrated in energy dispersive operation across a photon energy range from 250 eV to 8 keV. Spectra of a variety of materials demonstrate the power of the mu cal EDS to solve practical problems while operating on a scanning electron microscope platform. (author)

  20. Illicit drug detection using energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E. J.; Griffiths, J. A.; Koutalonis, M.; Gent, C.; Pani, S.; Horrocks, J. A.; George, L.; Hardwick, S.; Speller, R.

    2009-05-01

    Illicit drugs are imported into countries in myriad ways, including via the postal system and courier services. An automated system is required to detect drugs in parcels for which X-ray diffraction is a suitable technique as it is non-destructive, material specific and uses X-rays of sufficiently high energy to penetrate parcels containing a range of attenuating materials. A database has been constructed containing the measured powder diffraction profiles of several thousand materials likely to be found in parcels. These include drugs, cutting agents, packaging and other innocuous materials. A software model has been developed using these data to predict the diffraction profiles which would be obtained by X-ray diffraction systems with a range of suggested detector (high purity germanium, CZT and scintillation), source and collimation options. The aim of the model was to identify the most promising system geometries, which was done with the aid of multivariate analysis (MVA). The most promising systems were constructed and tested. The diffraction profiles of a range of materials have been measured and used to both validate the model and to identify the presence of drugs in sample packages.

  1. Dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves in high-energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation on the propagation of electromagnetic waves and electron plasma waves in high energy density plasmas using the covariant Wigner function approach. Based on the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, a relativistic quantum kinetic model is established to describe the physical processes in high-energy density plasmas. With the zero-temperature Fermi–Dirac distribution, the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves containing the relativistic quantum corrected terms are derived. The relativistic quantum corrections to the dispersion relation and Landau damping are analyzed by comparing our results with those obtained in classical and non-relativistic quantum plasmas. We provide a detailed discussion on the Landau damping obtained in classical plasmas, non-relativistic Fermi plasmas and relativistic Fermi plasmas. The contributions of the Bohm potential, the Fermi statistics pressure and relativistic effects to the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves are quantitatively calculated with real plasma parameters. (paper)

  2. Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline at Indus-2 synchrotron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline has been designed, developed and commissioned at BL-11 bending magnet port of the Indian synchrotron source, Indus-2. The performance of this beamline has been benchmarked by measuring diffraction patterns from various elemental metals and standard inorganic ...

  3. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry: A Long Overdue Addition to the Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have undergone significant improvements over the past decade. Salient advantages of XRF for elemental analysis include minimal sample preparation, multielement analysis capabilities, detection limits in the low parts per million (ppm) range, and analysis times on the order of 1 min.…

  4. Photon induced x-ray fluorescence analysis using energy dispersive detector and dichotomous sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklevic, J.M.; Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    Operating experience in using the photon-excited energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis system has demonstrated the applicability of this technique to large-scale air-sampling networks. This experience has shown that it is possible to perform automatic sampling and analysis of aerosol particulates at a sensitivity and accuracy more than adequate for most air pollution studies

  5. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence – A tool for interdisciplinary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence; trace elements; oral cancer; biomonitoring; air pollution. Abstract. Trace elements have been at the focus of attention for decades with considerable emphasis on their role in biology and biomedical sciences, environmental sciences, geology, archaeology and material ...

  6. First experience with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) in lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, G.; Wiesner, B.; Strausz, J.; Zglinicki, T. von

    1987-01-01

    Biopsies from 68 patients suffering from interstitial lung disease were examined with regard to minerals using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In 31 patients a higher portion of minerals or elements were found as pigments. The interpretation of these findings is difficult. If there is a occupational exposure and a reaction of the lung parenchyma the findings could be of clinical value. (author)

  7. A new NAMA framework for dispersed energy end-use sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for a nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA) framework that can unlock the huge potential for greenhouse gas mitigation in dispersed energy end-use sectors in developing countries; specifically, the building sector and the industrial sector. These two ...

  8. Elemental analysis of soils from central Sudan by energy dispersive XRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousif, A. A.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    1986-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is employed to determine the concentration of nineteen elements in seven profiles representing the aridisols and vertisols groups from agricultural plains of Sudan. A significant variation in the concentration of alkaline and alkaline earth elements...

  9. ENDIX. A computer program to simulate energy dispersive X-ray and synchrotron powder diffraction diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovestreydt, E.; Karlsruhe Univ.; Parthe, E.; Benedict, U.

    1987-01-01

    A Fortran 77 computer program is described which allows the simulation of energy dispersive X-ray and synchrotron powder diffraction diagrams. The input consists of structural data (space group, unit cell dimensions, atomic positional and displacement parameters) and information on the experimental conditions (chosen Bragg angle, type of X-ray tube and applied voltage or operating power of synchrotron radiation source). The output consists of the normalized intensities of the diffraction lines, listed by increasing energy (in keV), and of an optional intensity-energy plot. The intensities are calculated with due consideration of the wave-length dependence of both the anomalous dispersion and the absorption coefficients. For a better agreement between observed and calculated spectra provision is made to optionally superimpose, on the calculated diffraction line spectrum, all additional lines such as fluorescence and emission lines and escape peaks. The different effects which have been considered in the simulation are discussed in some detail. A sample calculation of the energy dispersive powder diffraction pattern of UPt 3 (Ni 3 Sn structure type) is given. Warning: the user of ENDIX should be aware that for a successful application it is necessary to adapt the program to correspond to the actual experimental conditions. Even then, due to the only approximately known values of certain functions, the agreement between observed and calculated intensities will not be as good as for angle dispersive diffraction methods

  10. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of elements' content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate elements' content and anti-microbial effects of two Malaysian plants, Pereskia bleo and Goniothalamus umbrosus. Elements' analysis was carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis combined with Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (EDX, VPSEM).

  11. Rationalization of activation energies for creep of dispersion strengthened aluminium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno, F.; Ruano, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    The high apparent activation energies for creep of various aluminum dispersion strengthened materials have been analyzed. A direct relationship between the activation energies and stress exponents for every material has been observed. The values of the Q a p/n a p ratios group around some constant values, Q m , which depend solely on the deformation mechanism. Therefore, Q m establishes an easy, fast and reliable criterion to determine the underlying creep deformation mechanism of any reinforced materials. (Author) 18 refs

  12. Use of semiconductors in energy-dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiekel, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the application of semiconductor detectors with high resolution for photon radiation in energy-dispersive spectrometers is reviewed. It is concluded that the use of semiconductor detectors results in an improvement of spectrometers and thus in a wider range of application. Characteristics of the spectrometers, such as energy resolution and efficiency, are discussed and possible applications indicated. (author)

  13. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Arinc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or those P-waves and QT intervals unavailable in at least eight ECG leads were excluded. Subjects having insomnia, lactose intolerance, caffeine allergy, recurrent headaches, depression, any psychiatric condition, and history of alcohol or drug abuse, pregnant or lactating women were also excluded from participation. 12 lead ECG was obtained before and after consumption of 250 cc enegry drink. QT and P-wave dispersion was calculated. RESULTS: No significant difference have occurred in heart rate (79 ± 14 vs.81 ±13, p=0.68, systolic pressure (114 ± 14 vs.118 ± 16,p=0.38, diastolic blood pressure (74 ± 12 vs.76 ± 14, p=0.64, QT dispersion (58 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 22, p= 0.785 and P-wave dispersion (37 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 13, p= 0.755 between before and 2 hours after consumption of energy drink. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Consumption of single dose energy drink doesn't affect QT dispersion and P-wave dispersion, heart rate and blood pressure in healthy adults.

  14. Derivation of Hamaker Dispersion Energy of Amorphous Carbon Surfaces in Contact with Liquids Using Photoelectron Energy-Loss Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, Christian; David, Denis

    2017-12-01

    Hamaker interaction energies and cutoff distances have been calculated for disordered carbon films, in contact with purely dispersive (diiodomethane) or polar (water) liquids, using their experimental dielectric functions ɛ ( q, ω) obtained over a broad energy range. In contrast with previous works, a q-averaged q is derived from photoelectron energy-loss spectroscopy (XPS-PEELS) where the energy loss function (ELF) q is a weighted average over allowed transferred wave vector values, q, given by the physics of bulk plasmon excitation. For microcrystalline diamond and amorphous carbon films with a wide range of (sp3/sp2 + sp3) hybridization, non-retarded Hamaker energies, A 132 ( L < 1 nm), were calculated in several configurations, and distance and wavenumber cutoff values were then calculated based on A 132 and the dispersive work of adhesion obtained from contact angles. A geometric average approximation, H 0 CVL = ( H 0 CVC H 0 LVL )1/2, holds for the cutoff separation distances obtained for carbon-vacuum-liquid (CVL), carbon-vacuum-carbon (CVC) and liquid-vacuum-liquid (LVL) equilibrium configurations. The linear dependence found for A CVL, A CLC and A CLV values as a function of A CVC, for each liquid, allows predictive relationships for Hamaker energies (in any configuration) using experimental determination of the dispersive component of the surface tension, {γ}_{CV}^d , and a guess value of the cutoff distance H 0 CVC of the solid. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. On the relationship between magnetostatic wave energy and dispersion characteristics in ferrite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashkovsky, Anatolii V; Lock, Edwin H

    2011-01-01

    The energy and dispersion characteristics of a dipole spin wave in a ferrite-dielectric-metal structure are calculated. An analysis of spin wave dispersion characteristics with extreme points demonstrates how fundamental relationships among the propagation constant, phase and group velocities, Poynting vector, and power flux manifest themselves when the wavenumber changes near these points. A comparison of magnetostatic approximation results with calculations using Maxwell's equations shows the inadequacy of the magnetostatic approximation formulas currently used for calculating the Poynting vector and power flux of dipole spin waves. A correct alternative is proposed. (methodological notes)

  16. Imaging ultrasonic dispersive guided wave energy in long bones using linear radon transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tho N H T; Nguyen, Kim-Cuong T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Le, Lawrence H

    2014-11-01

    Multichannel analysis of dispersive ultrasonic energy requires a reliable mapping of the data from the time-distance (t-x) domain to the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) or frequency-phase velocity (f-c) domain. The mapping is usually performed with the classic 2-D Fourier transform (FT) with a subsequent substitution and interpolation via c = 2πf/k. The extracted dispersion trajectories of the guided modes lack the resolution in the transformed plane to discriminate wave modes. The resolving power associated with the FT is closely linked to the aperture of the recorded data. Here, we present a linear Radon transform (RT) to image the dispersive energies of the recorded ultrasound wave fields. The RT is posed as an inverse problem, which allows implementation of the regularization strategy to enhance the focusing power. We choose a Cauchy regularization for the high-resolution RT. Three forms of Radon transform: adjoint, damped least-squares, and high-resolution are described, and are compared with respect to robustness using simulated and cervine bone data. The RT also depends on the data aperture, but not as severely as does the FT. With the RT, the resolution of the dispersion panel could be improved up to around 300% over that of the FT. Among the Radon solutions, the high-resolution RT delineated the guided wave energy with much better imaging resolution (at least 110%) than the other two forms. The Radon operator can also accommodate unevenly spaced records. The results of the study suggest that the high-resolution RT is a valuable imaging tool to extract dispersive guided wave energies under limited aperture. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Elementary analysis by means of the x fluorescence and energy dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jbeli, H.

    1988-10-01

    Three actualisation reports are shown, in the three first chapters, concerning the following subjects: x fluorescence principle, energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy and excitation spectrum characteristics. The matrice effects, the energy equivalence concept, and the correction methods of the interelement effects, related to a calibration curve, are discussed. For the last ones, it is shown that they are supplied to rough values. Quantitative analysis results are shown. A new possibility has been added to those of data processing program usually applied in quantitative analysis. In the second method applied in quantitative analysis, standard samples are used. In both methods an error appreciation analysis is carried out. It is shown that energy dispersive X fluorescence analysis can be applied to thin layers composition and thickness characterization [fr

  18. A high count rate position decoding and energy measuring method for nuclear cameras using Anger logic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.H.; Li, H.; Uribe, J.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for processing signals from Anger position-sensitive detectors used in gamma cameras and PET is proposed for very high count-rate imaging where multiple-event pileups are the norm. This method is designed to sort out and recover every impinging event from multiple-event pileups while maximizing the collection of scintillation signal for every event to achieve optimal accuracy in the measurement of energy and position. For every detected event, this method cancels the remnant signals from previous events, and excludes the pileup of signals from following events. The remnant subtraction is exact even for multiple pileup events. A prototype circuit for energy recovery demonstrated that the maximum count rates can be increased by more than 10 times comparing to the pulse-shaping method, and the energy resolution is as good as pulse shaping (or fixed integration) at low count rates. At 2 x 10 6 events/sec on NaI(Tl), the true counts acquired with this method is 3.3 times more than the delay-line clipping method (256 ns clipping) due to events recovered from pileups. Pulse-height spectra up to 3.5 x 10 6 events/sec have been studied. Monte Carlo simulation studies have been performed for image-quality comparisons between different processing methods

  19. Relation of wave energy and momentum with the plasma dispersion relation in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Pfirsch, D.

    1988-01-01

    The expressions for wave energy and angular momentum commonly used in homogeneous and near-homogeneous media is generalized to inhomogeneous media governed by a nonlocal conductivity tensor. The expression for wave energy applies to linear excitations in an arbitrary three-dimensional equilibrium, while the expression for angular momentum applies to linear excitations of azimuthally symmetric equilibria. The wave energy E-script/sub wave/ is interpreted as the energy transferred from linear external sources to the plasma if there is no dissipation. With dissipation, such a simple interpretation is lacking as energy is also thermally absorbed. However, for azimuthally symmetric equilibria, the expression for the wave energy in a frame rotating with a frequency ω can be unambiguously separated from thermal energy. This expression is given by E-script/sub wave/ -ωL/sub wave/ l, where L/sub wave/ is the wave angular momentum defined in the text and l the azimuthal wavenumber and it is closely related to the real part of a dispersion relation for marginal stability. The imaginary part of the dispersion is closely related to the energy input into a system. Another useful quantity discussed is the impedance form, which can be used for three-dimensional equilibrium without an ignorable coordinate and the expression is closely related to the wave impedance used in antenna theory. Applications to stability theory are also discussed

  20. Time-domain electromagnetic energy in a frequency-dispersive left-handed medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Tiejun; Kong Jinau

    2004-01-01

    From Maxwell's equations and the Poynting theorem, the time-domain electric and magnetic energy densities are generally defined in the frequency-dispersive media based on the conservation of energy. As a consequence, a general definition of electric and magnetic energy is proposed. Comparing with existing formulations of electric and magnetic energy in frequency-dispersive media, the new definition is more reasonable and is valid in any case. Using the new definition and staring from the equation of motion, we have shown rigorously that the total energy density and the individual electric and magnetic energy densities are always positive in a realistic artificial left-handed medium (LHM) [R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001)], which obeys actually the Lorentz medium model, although such a LHM has negative permittivity and negative permeability simultaneously in a certain frequency range. We have also shown that the conservation of energy is not violated in LHM. The earlier conclusions can be easily extended to the Drude medium model and the cold plasma medium model. Through an exact analysis of a one-dimensional transient current source radiating in LHM, numerical results are given to demonstrate that the work done by source, the power flowing outwards a surface, and the electric and magnetic energy stored in a volume are all positive in the time domain

  1. The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Maitreyi; Belthoff, James R.; Bjerre, Emily R.; Millsap, Brian A.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Wind energy development is rapidly expanding in North America, often accompanied by requirements to survey potential facility locations for existing wildlife. Within the USA, golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are among the most high-profile species of birds that are at risk from wind turbines. To minimize golden eagle fatalities in areas proposed for wind development, modified point count surveys are usually conducted to estimate use by these birds. However, it is not always clear what drives variation in the relationship between on-site point count data and actual use by eagles of a wind energy project footprint. We used existing GPS-GSM telemetry data, collected at 15 min intervals from 13 golden eagles in 2012 and 2013, to explore the relationship between point count data and eagle use of an entire project footprint. To do this, we overlaid the telemetry data on hypothetical project footprints and simulated a variety of point count sampling strategies for those footprints. We compared the time an eagle was found in the sample plots with the time it was found in the project footprint using a metric we called “error due to sampling”. Error due to sampling for individual eagles appeared to be influenced by interactions between the size of the project footprint (20, 40, 90 or 180 km2) and the sampling type (random, systematic or stratified) and was greatest on 90 km2 plots. However, use of random sampling resulted in lowest error due to sampling within intermediate sized plots. In addition sampling intensity and sampling frequency both influenced the effectiveness of point count sampling. Although our work focuses on individual eagles (not the eagle populations typically surveyed in the field), our analysis shows both the utility of simulations to identify specific influences on error and also potential improvements to sampling that consider the context-specific manner that point counts are laid out on the landscape.

  2. Transition edge sensor-energy-dispersive spectrometer (TES-EDS) using a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Odawara, Akikazu; Nagata, Atsushi; Ikeda, Masanori; Baba, Yukari; Nakayama, Satoshi; Chinone, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    A cryogen-free energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) using a transition edge sensor (TES) was developed for material analysis. This system can maintain a temperature at 130 mK within 30 μK, and has good energy resolution (19 eV for Mn-Kα) for long-time measurement with a drift in the DC level of less than 0.02 eV/min. This system utilizes a dilution refrigerator (φ 272 mmxheight 572 mm) and has a snout (370 mm long and φ25 mm) similar to that in a conventional EDS system. The dilution refrigerator is pre-cooled by a GM refrigerator. A flexible tube between the dilution refrigerator and GM refrigerator damps the mechanical vibration of the GM refrigerator. Two shields (4 and 80 K) thermally protect the Cu rod (φ8 mm) cooled to be 100 mK. Windows composed of polyimide+Al film allow X-ray detection above the C-Kα line. A TES (6 mmx6 mm) and array SQUID amplifier (1.5 mmx3 mm) are mounted on top of the Cu rod. For Mn-Kα, the pulse height is 5.5 μA and decay time (τ eff ) is 90 μs. The maximum count rate (1/20 τ eff ) is estimated at about 500 cps

  3. The materials science synchrotron beamline EDDI for energy-dispersive diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzel, Ch.; Denks, I.A.; Gibmeier, J.; Klaus, M.; Wagener, G.

    2007-01-01

    In April 2005 the materials science beamline EDDI (Energy Dispersive DIffraction) at the Berlin synchrotron storage ring BESSY started operation. The beamline is operated in the energy-dispersive mode of diffraction using the high energy white photon beam provided by a superconducting 7 T multipole wiggler. Starting from basic information on the beamline set-up, its measuring facilities and data processing concept, the wide range of applications for energy-dispersive diffraction is demonstrated by a series of examples coming from different fields in materials sciences. It will be shown, that the EDDI beamline is especially suitable for the investigation of structural properties and gradients in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. In particular, this concerns the analysis of multiaxial residual stress fields in the highly stressed surface zone of technical parts. The high photon flux further facilitates fast in situ experiments at room as well as high temperature to monitor for example the growth kinetics and reaction in thin film growth

  4. Compact energy dispersive X-ray microdiffractometer for diagnosis of neoplastic tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, C.; Malezan, A.; Poletti, M. E.; Perez, R. D.

    2017-08-01

    An energy dispersive X-ray microdiffractometer with capillary optics has been developed for characterizing breast cancer. The employment of low divergence capillary optics helps to reduce the setup size to a few centimeters, while providing a lateral spatial resolution of 100 μm. The system angular calibration and momentum transfer resolution were assessed by a detailed study of a polycrystalline reference material. The performance of the system was tested by means of the analysis of tissue-equivalent samples previously characterized by conventional X-ray diffraction. In addition, a simplified correction model for an appropriate comparison of the diffraction spectra was developed and validated. Finally, the system was employed to evaluate normal and neoplastic human breast samples, in order to determine their X-ray scatter signatures. The initial results indicate that the use of this compact energy dispersive X-ray microdiffractometer combined with a simplified correction procedure is able to provide additional information to breast cancer diagnosis.

  5. Influence of experimental conditions on atom column visibility in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dycus, J.H.; Xu, W.; Sang, X. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way Engineering Building 1, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); D' Alfonso, A.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); LeBeau, J.M., E-mail: jmlebeau@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way Engineering Building 1, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Here we report the influence of key experimental parameters on atomically resolved energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In particular, we examine the role of the probe forming convergence semi-angle, sample thickness, lattice spacing, and dwell/collection time. We show that an optimum specimen-dependent probe forming convergence angle exists to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the atomically resolved signal in EDX mapping. Furthermore, we highlight that it can be important to select an appropriate dwell time to efficiently process the X-ray signal. These practical considerations provide insight for experimental parameters in atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray analysis. - Highlights: • Impacts of microscope operating conditions on EDX signal and atom column contrast are demonstrated. • Influence of sample thickness and lattice spacing is shown. • Conditions for obtaining optimal signal and contrast for different sample types are discussed. • Effects of dwell time during EDX acquisition are discussed.

  6. Ultrastructural and Energy dispersive analysis of inorganic inclusions in a muscle biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, R.F.; Castillo-Mozun, P.; Hieger, L.R.; Williams, M.G. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A muscle biopsy that, by light microscopy, exhibited mild atrophy consistent with chronic denervating disease was submitted for ultrastructural analysis. Inorganic structures within the tissue were defined by energy dispersive analysis as aluminosilicates, magnesium silicates, and iron deposits. These structures were localized in the interstitial (intercollagenous) area and in high concentrations within degenerated muscle bundles. An alteration of the blood/muscle barrier has obviously occurred; however, the extent to which the end result commonly occurs in humans is unknown. Clarification of the question raised by this observation will have to be derived from animal studies, and clinicians must have an awareness of the need for electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray analysis in muscle biopsies from patients with similar therapeutic backgrounds

  7. Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, S.; Cook, E.J.; Horrocks, J.A.; Jones, J.L.; Speller, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    A method for sample characterization using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography (EDXRDCT) is presented. The procedures for extracting diffraction patterns from the data and the corrections applied are discussed. The procedures were applied to the characterization of breast tissue samples, 6 mm in diameter. Comparison with histological sections of the samples confirmed the possibility of grouping the patterns into five families, corresponding to adipose tissue, fibrosis, poorly differentiated cancer, well differentiated cancer and benign tumour.

  8. Analysis of trace elements in medicinal plants with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, N.; Polat, R.; Budak, G.; Ekinci, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mankind still depend on traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases and ailments. Elemental composition and concentration of medicinal plants have been investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The elements present in medicinal plants are P, Cl, K, Ca, S, Al, Ti, V, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, In, Sn, I and Ce. The physical basis of the used analytical method, the experimental set up and the procedure of sample preparation are presented. (author)

  9. Energy-latitude dispersion patterns near the isotropy boundaries of energetic protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, V. A.; Chernyaeva, S. A.; Apatenkov, S. V.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Dubyagin, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    Non-adiabatic motion of plasma sheet protons causes pitch-angle scattering and isotropic precipitation to the ionosphere, which forms the proton auroral oval. This mechanism related to current sheet scattering (CSS) provides a specific energy-latitude dispersion pattern near the equatorward boundary of proton isotropic precipitation (isotropy boundary, IB), with precipitation sharply decreasing at higher (lower) latitude for protons with lower (higher) energy. However, this boundary maps to the inner magnetosphere, where wave-induced scattering may provide different dispersion patterns as recently demonstrated by Liang et al. (2014). Motivated by the potential usage of the IBs for the magnetotail monitoring as well as by the need to better understand the mechanisms forming the proton IB, we investigate statistically the details of particle flux patterns near the proton IB using NOAA-POES polar spacecraft observations made during September 2009. By comparing precipitated-to-trapped flux ratio (J0/J90) at >30 and >80 keV proton energies, we found a relatively small number of simple CSS-type dispersion events (only 31 %). The clear reversed (wave-induced) dispersion patterns were very rare (5 %). The most frequent pattern had nearly coinciding IBs at two energies (63 %). The structured precipitation with multiple IBs was very frequent (60 %), that is, with two or more significant J0/J90 dropouts. The average latitudinal width of multiple IB structures was about 1°. Investigation of dozens of paired auroral zone crossings of POES satellites showed that the IB pattern is stable on a timescale of less than 2 min (a few proton bounce periods) but can evolve on a longer (several minutes) scale, suggesting temporal changes in some mesoscale structures in the equatorial magnetosphere. We discuss the possible role of CSS-related and wave-induced mechanisms and their possible coupling to interpret the emerging complicated patterns of proton isotropy boundaries.

  10. Energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence techniques in water pollution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynska, B.

    1980-01-01

    Advantages and limitations of energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence methods for analysis of pollutants in water are discussed. The necessary equipment for X-ray measurement of insoluble and dissolved trace metals in water is described. Different techniques of enrichment of trace metals are presented: ion exchange on selective Chelex-100 exchanger, precipitation with chelating agents DDTC and APDC, and adsorption on activated carbon. Some results obtained using different preconcentration methods for trace metals determination in different waters are presented. (author)

  11. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  12. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Arınç, Hüseyin; Sarli, Bahadir; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Yolcu, Mustafa; Ozyildirim, Serhan; Kayardi, Mahmut; Cosgun, Mehmet; Erguzel, Nuri; Gunduz, Huseyin; Uyan, Cihangir

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull) on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram.Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or tho...

  13. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of cerium in ferrosilicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbec, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    The cerium was determined in ferrosilicon samples by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF) techniques, with a secondary target of gadolinium. The methods employed were: comparison and linear regression with reference materials with cerium concentration between 0.4 and 1.0%. The samples were prepared in the form of pellets and the analytical results are reported as an average of five determinations with a confidence limits at 95% probability. (Author) [es

  14. Analysis of kiwi fruit (Accented deliciosa) by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Oliveira, Marcia L. de; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Valter; Almeida, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to eat fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, however, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi has at least eight nutrients beneficial to health: calcium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, iron, potassium, sodium and has also high vitamin C, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray (EDX) is the analytical technique used for elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It is a variant of fluorescence spectroscopy X-ray based on the sample through an investigation of interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter, analyzing X-rays emitted by matter in response to being struck by charged particles. The aim of this study were to determine potassium, calcium, iron and bromine (K, Ca, Fe and Br, respectively) present in kiwifruit using the technique of fluorescence X-ray energy dispersive (EDXRF). Kiwifruit were peeled, washed and cut into slices and freeze-dried. After drying the sample was held digestion and subsequent reading of the same equipment in the X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF). The results indicated that the contents of potassium, calcium, iron and bromine are present in kiwifruit as expected when compared to Brazilian Table of Food Composition. (author)

  15. Material specific X-ray imaging using an energy-dispersive pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, Christopher K., E-mail: christopher.egan@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Seller, Paul [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Jacques, Simon D.M.; Cernik, Robert J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    By imaging the X-ray spectral properties or ‘colours’ we have shown how material specific imaging can be performed. Using a pixelated energy-dispersive X-ray detector we record the absorbed and emitted hard X-radiation and measure the energy (colour) and intensity of the photons. Using this technology, we are not only able to obtain attenuation contrast but also to image chemical (elemental) variations inside objects, potentially opening up a very wide range of applications from materials science to medical diagnostics.

  16. A spectrometer for X-ray energy-dispersive diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.; Steenstrup, S.

    1981-10-01

    The paper describes a white-beam X-ray energy dispersive diffractometer using the synchroton radiation from the DORIS ESR. The following features of the instrument are discussed: Horizontal or vertical scattering plane, collimators, sample environment, remote control of gonimeter, data acquisition, energy-sensitive detectors using small-area and large-area detector crystals, modes of operation, powder and single crystal diffraction. An example is given from a high-pressure study of YbH 2 using a diamond anvil cell. (orig./HP)

  17. The influence of the directional energy distribution on the nonlinear dispersion relation in a random gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Tung, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the directional distribution of wave energy on the dispersion relation is calculated numerically using various directional wave spectrum models. The results indicate that the dispersion relation varies both as a function of the directional energy distribution and the direction of propagation of the wave component under consideration. Furthermore, both the mean deviation and the random scatter from the linear approximation increase as the energy spreading decreases. Limited observational data are compared with the theoretical results. The agreement is favorable.

  18. Energy dispersion of charged particles decelerated in a two-dimensional electrostatic field of the type x1/n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zashkvara, V.V.; Bok, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Two components of the spatial dispersion of particles with respect to kinetic energy can be distinguished of the motion of charged particle beams in electrostatic mirros with a two-dimensional field φ(x,y) ans xz symmetry plane. The first is the longitudinal dispersion, which is along the z axis perpendicular to the field; the second is the transverse dispersion, along the x axis parallel to the field vector in the plane of symmetry. The longitudinal dispersion is a basic characteristic of electrostatic mirrors used as energy analyzers. It has been shown that for first-order angular focusing, the longitudinal dispersion, divided by the focal length, is independent of the structure of the two-dimensional field and is a function only of the angle at which the charged particle beam enters the mirror. The transverse dispersion stems from the energy dependence of the penetration depth of the beam as it is decelerated, and it plays an important role when the energy of a charged particle beam is analyzed by the filtering principle, making use of the property of an electrostatic mirror to transmit or reflect charged particles with kinetic energy in a specified interval. This type of dispersion in electrostatic mirrors with two-dimensional fields has not been analyzed systematically. In the present note the authors consider a particular type of two-dimensional electrostatic field which is characterized by a large transverse dispersion, many times larger than in existing electrostatic reflecting filters employing planar and cylindrical fields

  19. Application of decision tree algorithm for identification of rock forming minerals using energy dispersive spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaş, Efe; Çubukçu, H. Evren; Artuner, Harun

    2014-05-01

    Rapid and automated mineral identification is compulsory in certain applications concerning natural rocks. Among all microscopic and spectrometric methods, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) integrated with scanning electron microscopes produce rapid information with reliable chemical data. Although obtaining elemental data with EDS analyses is fast and easy by the help of improving technology, it is rather challenging to perform accurate and rapid identification considering the large quantity of minerals in a rock sample with varying dimensions ranging between nanometer to centimeter. Furthermore, the physical properties of the specimen (roughness, thickness, electrical conductivity, position in the instrument etc.) and the incident electron beam (accelerating voltage, beam current, spot size etc.) control the produced characteristic X-ray, which in turn affect the elemental analyses. In order to minimize the effects of these physical constraints and develop an automated mineral identification system, a rule induction paradigm has been applied to energy dispersive spectral data. Decision tree classifiers divide training data sets into subclasses using generated rules or decisions and thereby it produces classification or recognition associated with these data sets. A number of thinsections prepared from rock samples with suitable mineralogy have been investigated and a preliminary 12 distinct mineral groups (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, apatite, amphibole, plagioclase, K- feldspar, zircon, magnetite, titanomagnetite, biotite, quartz), comprised mostly of silicates and oxides, have been selected. Energy dispersive spectral data for each group, consisting of 240 reference and 200 test analyses, have been acquired under various, non-standard, physical and electrical conditions. The reference X-Ray data have been used to assign the spectral distribution of elements to the specified mineral groups. Consequently, the test data have been analyzed using

  20. Angular dispersion and energy loss of H+ and He+ in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantero, Esteban

    2006-01-01

    In this master thesis the effects produced when a light ion beam traverses a thin metallic film were studied.In particular, the interactions of low energy (E ≤ 10 keV) light ions (H + ,H 2 + , D + , He + ) with monocrystalline and also polycrystalline gold samples were investigated.In first place, the dependence of the stopping power with projectiles' velocity was studied, analyzing the threshold effect in the excitation of the 5d electrons in the channelling regime for energies between 0,4 and 9 keV.Next, the angular dispersion of ions in polycrystalline and monocrystalline films was measured and analyzed.Comparisons for different energies and projectiles were done, studying molecular and isotopic effects.Using Lindhard's channeling theory, a scale law for the angular dispersion of angles greater than the critical angle was found.Additionally, the angular dependence of the energy loss and the energy loss straggling of protons transmitted through monocrystals were measured.To explain the angular variations of these magnitudes a theoretical model based on the electronic density fluctuations inside the channel was developed [es

  1. Impact localization in dispersive waveguides based on energy-attenuation of waves with the traveled distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajlouni, Sa'ed; Albakri, Mohammad; Tarazaga, Pablo

    2018-05-01

    An algorithm is introduced to solve the general multilateration (source localization) problem in a dispersive waveguide. The algorithm is designed with the intention of localizing impact forces in a dispersive floor, and can potentially be used to localize and track occupants in a building using vibration sensors connected to the lower surface of the walking floor. The lower the wave frequencies generated by the impact force, the more accurate the localization is expected to be. An impact force acting on a floor, generates a seismic wave that gets distorted as it travels away from the source. This distortion is noticeable even over relatively short traveled distances, and is mainly caused by the dispersion phenomenon among other reasons, therefore using conventional localization/multilateration methods will produce localization error values that are highly variable and occasionally large. The proposed localization approach is based on the fact that the wave's energy, calculated over some time window, decays exponentially as the wave travels away from the source. Although localization methods that assume exponential decay exist in the literature (in the field of wireless communications), these methods have only been considered for wave propagation in non-dispersive media, in addition to the limiting assumption required by these methods that the source must not coincide with a sensor location. As a result, these methods cannot be applied to the indoor localization problem in their current form. We show how our proposed method is different from the other methods, and that it overcomes the source-sensor location coincidence limitation. Theoretical analysis and experimental data will be used to motivate and justify the pursuit of the proposed approach for localization in a dispersive medium. Additionally, hammer impacts on an instrumented floor section inside an operational building, as well as finite element model simulations, are used to evaluate the performance of

  2. A new NAMA framework for dispersed energy end-use sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for a nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA) framework that can unlock the huge potential for greenhouse gas mitigation in dispersed energy end-use sectors in developing countries; specifically, the building sector and the industrial sector. These two sectors make up the largest portions of energy consumption in developing countries. However, due to multiple barriers and lack of effective polices, energy efficiency in dispersed energy end-use sectors has not been effectively put into practice. The new NAMA framework described in this paper is designed to fulfill the demand for public policies and public sector investment in developing countries and thereby boost private sector investment through project based market mechanisms, such as CDM. The new NAMA framework is designed as a need-based mechanism which effectively considers the conditions of each developing country. The building sector is used as an example to demonstrate how NAMA measures can be registered and implemented. The described new NAMA framework has the ability to interface efficiently with Kyoto Protocol mechanisms and to facilitate a systematic uptake for GHG emission reduction investment projects. This is an essential step to achieve the global climate change mitigation target and support sustainable development in developing countries.

  3. The internal strain parameter of gallium arsenide measured by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousins, C.S.G.; Sheldon, B.J.; Webster, G.E.; Gerward, L.; Selsmark, B.; Staun Olsen, J.

    1989-01-01

    The internal strain parameter of GaAs has been measured by observing the stress-dependence of the integrated intensity of the weak 006 reflection, with the compressive stress along the [1anti 10] axis. An energy-dispersive technique was employed so that the reflection could be obtained at a photon energy close to the minimum in the structure factor, thereby approaching closely the strictly-forbidden condition that applies at any energy in the diamond structure. A value anti A=-0.138±0.005, equivalent to a bond-bending parameter ζ=0.55=0.02, has been found. This is in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations and indirect determinations related to the bandstructure of GaAs. (orig.)

  4. A new analysis technique to measure fusion excitation functions with large beam energy dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuera, P.; Di Pietro, A.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Shotter, A. C.; Ruiz, C.; Zadro, M.

    2018-01-01

    Peculiar nuclear structures of two colliding nuclei such has clustering, neutron halo/skin or very low breakup thresholds can affect the reaction dynamics below the Coulomb barrier and this may also have astrophysical consequences. In order to have a better understanding of this topic, in the last decade, several experiments were performed. A typical experimental challenge of such studies is the need to measure excitation functions below the Coulomb barrier, having a strong energy dependence, with rather large beam energy dispersions inside the target. This may easily lead to ambiguities in associating the measured cross section with a proper beam energy. In this paper a discussion on this topic is reported and a new technique to deal with the above problem will be proposed.

  5. Energy storage and dispersion of surface acoustic waves trapped in a periodic array of mechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown previously that surface acoustic waves can be efficiently trapped and slowed by steep ridges on a piezoelectric substrate, giving rise to two families of shear-horizontal and vertically polarized surface waves. The mechanisms of energy storage and dispersion are explored by using...... the finite element method to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes. A periodic model is proposed including a perfectly matched layer to simulate radiation conditions away from the sources, from which the modal distributions are found. The ratio of the mechanical energy...... confined to the electrode as compared to the total mechanical energy is calculated and is found to be increasing for increasing aspect ratio and to tend to a definite limit for the two families of surface waves. This observation is in support of the interpretation that high aspect ratio electrodes act...

  6. New software to model energy dispersive X-ray diffraction in polycrystalline materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghammraoui, B., E-mail: bahaa.ghammraoui@cea.fr [CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Tabary, J. [CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Pouget, S. [CEA-INAC Sciences de la matieres, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Paulus, C.; Moulin, V.; Verger, L. [CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Duvauchelle, Ph. [CNDRI-Insa Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2012-02-01

    Detection of illicit materials, such as explosives or drugs, within mixed samples is a major issue, both for general security and as part of forensic analyses. In this paper, we describe a new code simulating energy dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns in polycrystalline materials. This program, SinFullscat, models diffraction of any object in any diffractometer system taking all physical phenomena, including amorphous background, into account. Many system parameters can be tuned: geometry, collimators (slit and cylindrical), sample properties, X-ray source and detector energy resolution. Good agreement between simulations and experimental data was obtained. Simulations using explosive materials indicated that parameters such as the diffraction angle or the energy resolution of the detector have a significant impact on the diffraction signature of the material inspected. This software will be a convenient tool to test many diffractometer configurations, providing information on the one that best restores the spectral diffraction signature of the materials of interest.

  7. Thermally induced dispersion mechanisms for aluminum-based plate-type fuels under rapid transient energy deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkham, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Kim, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    A thermally induced dispersion model was developed to analyze for dispersive potential and determine onset of fuel plate dispersion for Al-based research and test reactor fuels. Effect of rapid energy deposition in a fuel plate was simulated. Several data types for Al-based fuels tested in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Japan and in the Transient Reactor Test in Idaho were reviewed. Analyses of experiments show that onset of fuel dispersion is linked to a sharp rise in predicted strain rate, which futher coincides with onset of Al vaporization. Analysis also shows that Al oxidation and exothermal chemical reaction between the fuel and Al can significantly affect the energy deposition characteristics, and therefore dispersion onset connected with Al vaporization, and affect onset of vaporization

  8. A comparative analysis of OTF, NPS, and DQE in energy integrating and photon counting digital x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: One of the benefits of photon counting (PC) detectors over energy integrating (EI) detectors is the absence of many additive noise sources, such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that thresholding voltage gains to detect individual x rays actually generates an unexpected source of white noise in photon counters. Methods: To distinguish the two detector types, their point spread function (PSF) is interpreted differently. The PSF of the energy integrating detector is treated as a weighting function for counting x rays, while the PSF of the photon counting detector is interpreted as a probability. Although this model ignores some subtleties of real imaging systems, such as scatter and the energy-dependent amplification of secondary quanta in indirect-converting detectors, it is useful for demonstrating fundamental differences between the two detector types. From first principles, the optical transfer function (OTF) is calculated as the continuous Fourier transform of the PSF, the noise power spectra (NPS) is determined by the discrete space Fourier transform (DSFT) of the autocovariance of signal intensity, and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is found from combined knowledge of the OTF and NPS. To illustrate the calculation of the transfer functions, the PSF is modeled as the convolution of a Gaussian with the product of rect functions. The Gaussian reflects the blurring of the x-ray converter, while the rect functions model the sampling of the detector. Results: The transfer functions are first calculated assuming outside noise sources such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise are negligible. It is demonstrated that while OTF is the same for two detector types possessing an equivalent PSF, a frequency-independent (i.e., ''white'') difference in their NPS exists such that NPS PC ≥NPS EI and hence DQE PC ≤DQE EI . The necessary and sufficient condition for equality is that the PSF

  9. Processing and quantification of x-ray energy dispersive spectra in the Analytical Electron Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1988-08-01

    Spectral processing in x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy deals with the extraction of characteristic signals from experimental data. In this text, the four basic procedures for this methodology are reviewed and their limitations outlined. Quantification, on the other hand, deals with the interpretation of the information obtained from spectral processing. Here the limitations are for the most part instrumental in nature. The prospects of higher voltage operation does not, in theory, present any new problems and may in fact prove to be more desirable assuming that electron damage effects do not preclude analysis. 28 refs., 6 figs

  10. Calibration of energy dispersive x-ray spectrometers for analysis of thin environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giauque, R.D.; Garrett, R.B.; Goda, L.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Four separate techniques for calibrating energy dispersive x-ray spectrometers are described. They include the use of (1) individual evaporated elemental thin-film standards, (2) nebulized multielement standard solution deposits to determine relative elemental sensitivity factors, (3) a semi-empirical approach to calculate relative elemental sensitivity factors, and (4) thick pure element disks. The first three techniques are applicable for a broad range of elements. The utilization of nebulized multielement standard solution deposits, along with an evaporated single element thin-film standard for absolute system calibration, is the most accurate method of the calibration techniques described

  11. Analysis of siliceous geologic materials by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Bayon, A.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in siliceous geologic samples by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence is investigated using the most adequate excitation conditions: direct excitation mode (rhodium anode X-ray tube) for the former two elements, and the secondary targets titanium for K and Ca, and germanium for Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe. For the correction of matrix effects the use of ratio methods has been tested. Procedure files have been defined allowing the automatic simultaneous acquisition and processing of spectra. (author)

  12. A laser heating facility for energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantor, Innokenty; Marini, C.; Mathon, O.

    2018-01-01

    A double-sided laser heating setup for diamond anvil cells installed on the ID24 beamline of the ESRF is presented here. The setup geometry is specially adopted for the needs of energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) studies of materials under extreme pressure and temperature...... conditions. We illustrate the performance of the facility with a study on metallic nickel at 60 GPa. The XAS data provide the temperature of the melting onset and quantitative information on the structural parameters of the first coordination shell in the hot solid up to melting....

  13. Application of energy-dispersive XRF technique in the hydrometallurgy study of local zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Sulaiman; Kamaruddin Hussin; Azizan Aziz

    1996-01-01

    In this study, energy-dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXR-F) was used to analyse the elemental composition of the starting zircon mineral associated elements in the leaching solution. Besides analysing the major elements i.e. of zirconium, silicon and hafnium, trace elemental analysis for iron, titanium and the naturally occurring radioactive element thorium and uranium are important in establishing the grades of Malaysian zircon. The technique was also used in determine the optimum conditions for zirconium and hafnium recovery during the leaching process

  14. Application of direct peak analysis to energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.

    1977-07-01

    A modified Covell method for direct peak analysis has been applied to energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectra. The method is background independent and is well-suited to computerized data reduction. It provides acceptable precision, minimizes errors from instrumental gain shift, and permits peak overlap correction. Peak overlap errors exhibit both positive and negative nodes as a function of peak separation distance, and are corrected using concentration ratios determined from thin, single-element standards. Peak precisions and overlaps are evaluated as a function of window width to aid in width selection. Least-square polynomial smoothing prior to peak analysis significantly improves peak area precisions without significantly affecting their accuracies

  15. Quantitative schemes in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence implemented in AXIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchantchane, A.; Benamar, M.A.; Tobbeche, S.

    1995-01-01

    E.D.X.R.F (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) has long been used for quantitative analysis of many types of samples including environment samples. the software package AXIL (Analysis of x-ray spectra by iterative least quares) is extensively used for the spectra analysis and the quantification of x-ray spectra. It includes several methods of quantitative schemes for evaluating element concentrations. We present the general theory behind each scheme implemented into the software package. The spectra of the performance of each of these quantitative schemes. We have also investigated their performance relative to the uncertainties in the experimental parameters and sample description

  16. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of industrial paint samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.H.; Drabaek, I.

    1986-01-01

    An energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence method for the direct, simultaneous determination of major and minor elements in coatings is described. The method relies on the back-scatter/fundamental parameter concept and provides a general solution to matrix problems. The method has been implemented and verified on spectrometers based both on tube excitation and radioisotope excitation. Results demonstrating some performance characteristics are presented. Sample inhomogeneity problems that impede quantification of low-Z elements in some types of paint are discussed. (Auth.)

  17. RBC count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  18. Making It Count: Understanding the Value of Energy Efficiency Financing Programs Funded by Utility Customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Utility customer-supported financing programs are receiving increased attention as a strategy for achieving energy saving goals. Rationales for using utility customer funds to support financing initiatives

  19. A new X-ray pinhole camera for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A new X-ray pinhole camera for the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution, was designed and developed. It consists of a back-illuminated and deep depleted CCD detector (composed of 1024 × 1024 pixels with a lateral size of 13 μm) coupled to a 70 μm laser-drilled pinhole-collimator, positioned between the sample under analysis and the CCD. The X-ray pinhole camera works in a coaxial geometry allowing a wide range of magnification values. The characteristic X-ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube working at a maximum power of 100 W (50 kV and 2 mA operating conditions). The spectroscopic capabilities of the X-ray pinhole camera were accurately investigated. Energy response and energy calibration of the CCD detector were determined by irradiating pure target-materials emitting characteristic X-rays in the energy working-domain of the system (between 3 keV and 30 keV). Measurements were performed by using a multi-frame acquisition in single-photon counting. The characteristic X-ray spectra were obtained by an automated processing of the acquired images. The energy resolution measured at the Fe–Kα line is 157 eV. The use of the X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D resolved elemental analysis was investigated by using reference-patterns of different materials and geometries. The possibility of the elemental mapping of samples up to an area of 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} was demonstrated. Finally, the spatial resolution of the pinhole camera was measured by analyzing the profile function of a sharp-edge. The spatial resolution determined at the magnification values of 3.2 × and 0.8 × (used as testing values) is about 90 μm and 190 μm respectively. - Highlights: • We developed an X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D X-ray fluorescence imaging. • X-ray spectra are obtained by a multi-frame acquisition in single photon mode. • The energy resolution in the X

  20. Imaging the Formation of High-Energy Dispersion Anomalies in the Actinide UCoGa_{5}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Das

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to image the emergence of substantial dispersion and spectral-weight anomalies in the electronic renormalization of the actinide compound UCoGa_{5} that was presumed to belong to a conventional Fermi-liquid family. Kinks or abrupt breaks in the slope of the quasiparticle dispersion are detected both at low (approximately 130 meV and high (approximately 1 eV binding energies below the Fermi energy, ruling out any significant contribution of phonons. We perform numerical calculations to demonstrate that the anomalies are adequately described by coupling between itinerant fermions and spin fluctuations arising from the particle-hole continuum of the spin-orbit-split 5f states of uranium. These anomalies resemble the “waterfall” phenomenon of the high-temperature copper-oxide superconductors, suggesting that spin fluctuations are a generic route toward multiform electronic phases in correlated materials as different as high-temperature superconductors and actinides.

  1. The energy-dispersive reflectometer at BESSY II: a challenge for thin film analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pietsch, U; Geue, T; Neissendorfer, F; Brezsesinski, G; Symietz, C; Moehwald, H; Gudat, W

    2001-01-01

    Installed in 1999 the energy-dispersive reflectometer at the 13.2 bending magnet employs the exponentially decaying white X-ray emission spectrum of the 1.7 GeV storage ring of BESSY II outside the vacuum. Using an energy-dispersive detector specular and longitudinal-diffuse reflectivity spectra of thin films can be recorded simultaneously between 0.2 A sup - sup 1

  2. Practical applications of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in diagnostic oral pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, T.D.; Gibson, D.

    1990-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis is a powerful tool that can reveal the presence and relative quantities of elements in minute particles in biologic materials. Although this technique has been used in some aspects of dental research, it has rarely been applied to diagnostic oral pathology. The purpose of this paper is to inform practicing dentists and oral specialists about the diagnostic potential of this procedure by presenting three case reports. The first case involved the identification of flakes of a metallic material claimed by a 14-year-old girl to appear periodically between her mandibular molars. In the second case, a periodontist was spared a lawsuit when a freely mobile mass in the antrum of his patient was found to be a calcium-phosphorus compound not related to the periodontal packing that had been used. The third case involved the differential diagnosis of amalgam tattoo and graphite tattoo in a pigmented lesion of the hard palate mucosa. The results of the analyses were significant and indicate a role for this technique in the assessment of selected cases. Potential for wider use of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in diagnostic oral pathology exists as research progresses

  3. Determination of 40K radioactivity in the soil using energy dispersive X ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiwei; Song Fuxiang; Zeng Liping; Lu Hongning

    2012-01-01

    The 40 K radioactive of' the pressed powder sample was determined by Epsilon 5 high-energy polarized energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. The correlation coefficient of the standard curve method was 0.9910, the precision was 2.98% and the relative deviation of the measurement standard samples was up to 6.40%, which showed that the precision and accuracy of the method were also good. Simultaneous measurement of seven soil samples using this method and γ-spectrometer were carried, the results of two analytical methods were compared using a paired t-test by SPSS program, which showed that there was no significant difference in the two sets of data, P>0.05. It indicated that EDXRF could be a potential simple method for analyzing 40 K radioactive in soil samples. (authors)

  4. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction at high pressure in CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoff, A.L.; Baublitz, M.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray techniques were used with a diamond anvil cell in the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). It was shown that quantitative relative intensity measurement could be made when the pressure was hydrostatic and the crystals were relatively defect free. The crystal structures of the high pressure polymorphs of Ge, GaAs, GaP, and AlSb were studied. Ge exhibits the β-tetragonal structure as found by Jamieson; however, the transition pressure is 80 +- 5 kbars. GaAs exhibits an orthorhombic structure above 172 +- 7 kbars, GaP the β-Sn structure above 215 +- 8 kbars, and AlSb an orthorhombic structure above 77 +- 5 kbars. (Auth.)

  5. Instrumental aspects of tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Nullens, H.; Espen, P. van

    1983-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is an attractive and widely used method for sensitive multi-element analysis. The method suffers from the extreme density of spectral components in a rather limited energy range which implies the need for computer based spectrum analysis. The method of iterative least squares analysis is the most powerful tool for this. It requires a systematic and accurate description of the spectral features. Other important necessities for accurate analysis are the calibration of the spectrometer and the correction for matrix absorption effects in the sample; they can be calculated from available physical constants. Ours and similar procedures prove that semi-automatic analyses are possible with an accuracy of the order of 5%. (author)

  6. A wavelet-based Gaussian method for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wavelet-based Gaussian method (WGM for the peak intensity estimation of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF. The relationship between the parameters of Gaussian curve and the wavelet coefficients of Gaussian peak point is firstly established based on the Mexican hat wavelet. It is found that the Gaussian parameters can be accurately calculated by any two wavelet coefficients at the peak point which has to be known. This fact leads to a local Gaussian estimation method for spectral peaks, which estimates the Gaussian parameters based on the detail wavelet coefficients of Gaussian peak point. The proposed method is tested via simulated and measured spectra from an energy X-ray spectrometer, and compared with some existing methods. The results prove that the proposed method can directly estimate the peak intensity of EDXRF free from the background information, and also effectively distinguish overlap peaks in EDXRF spectrum.

  7. Inducing Strong Density Modulation with Small Energy Dispersion in Particle Beams and the Harmonic Amplifier Free Electron Laser

    CERN Document Server

    McNeil, Brian W J; Robb, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    We present a possible method of inducing a periodic density modulation in a particle beam with little increase in the energy dispersion of the particles. The flow of particles in phase space does not obey Liouville's Theorem. The method relies upon the Kuramoto-like model of collective synchronism found in free electron generators of radiation, such as Cyclotron Resonance Masers and the Free Electron Laser. For the case of an FEL interaction, electrons initially begin to bunch and emit radiation energy with a correlated energy dispersion which is periodic with the FEL ponderomotive potential. The relative phase between potential and particles is then changed by approximately 180 degrees. The particles continue to bunch, however, there is now a correlated re-absorption of energy from the field. We show that, by repeating this relative phase change many times, a significant density modulation of the particles may be achieved with only relatively small energy dispersion. A similar method of repeated relative ele...

  8. Anomalous resonance-radiation energy-transfer rate in a scattering dispersive medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhtman, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a generalization of the concept of group velocity as an energy-transfer rate in a dispersive medium with complex refractive index when the polaritons, which are energy carriers, undergo scattering, in contrast to the classical concept of the group velocity of free polaritons (i.e., without scattering in the medium). The concept of delay time from quantum multichannel-scattering, theory is used as the fundamental concept. Based on Maxwell's equations and the new mathematical Φ-function method, a consistent conceptual definition of group velocity in terms of the ratio of the coherent-energy flux density to the coherent-energy density is obtained for the first time, and a critical analysis of the earlier (Brillouin) understanding of energy-transfer rate is given in the light of radiation-trapping theory and the quantum theory of resonance scattering. The role of generalized group velocity is examined for the interpretation of the phenomenon of multiple resonance scattering, or radiation diffusion. The question of causality for the given problem is touched upon; a new relationship is obtained, called the microcausality condition, which limits the anomalous values of group velocity by way of the indeterminacy principle and the relativistic causality principle for macroscopic time intervals directly measurable in experiment, whereby attention is focused on the connection of the given microcausality condition and the well-known Wigner inequality for the time delay of spherical waves. 22 refs

  9. Dose optimization for dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography based on an energy-resolved photon-counting detector: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngjin; Lee, Seungwan; Kang, Sooncheol; Eom, Jisoo

    2017-01-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) has been used to decompose breast images and improve diagnostic accuracy for tumor detection. However, this technique causes an increase of radiation dose and an inaccuracy in material decomposition due to the limitations of conventional X-ray detectors. In this study, we simulated the dual-energy CEDM with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector (ERPCD) for reducing radiation dose and improving the quantitative accuracy of material decomposition images. The ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM was compared to the conventional dual-energy CEDM in terms of radiation dose and quantitative accuracy. The correlation between radiation dose and image quality was also evaluated for optimizing the ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM technique. The results showed that the material decomposition errors of the ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM were 0.56–0.67 times lower than those of the conventional dual-energy CEDM. The imaging performance of the proposed technique was optimized at the radiation dose of 1.09 mGy, which is a half of the MGD for a single view mammogram. It can be concluded that the ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM with an optimal exposure level is able to improve the quality of material decomposition images as well as reduce radiation dose. - Highlights: • Dual-energy mammography based on a photon-counting detector was simulated. • Radiation dose and image quality were evaluated for optimizing the proposed technique. • The proposed technique reduced radiation dose as well as improved image quality. • The proposed technique was optimized at the radiation dose of 1.09 mGy.

  10. Development of a Schottky CdTe Medipix3RX hybrid photon counting detector with spatial and energy resolving capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, E.N., E-mail: Eva.Gimenez@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Oxforshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Astromskas, V. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Horswell, I.; Omar, D.; Spiers, J.; Tartoni, N. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Oxforshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-11

    A multichip CdTe-Medipix3RX detector system was developed in order to bring the advantages of photon-counting detectors to applications in the hard X-ray range of energies. The detector head consisted of 2×2 Medipix3RX ASICs bump-bonded to a 28 mm×28 mm e{sup −} collection Schottky contact CdTe sensor. Schottky CdTe sensors undergo performance degrading polarization which increases with temperature, flux and the longer the HV is applied. Keeping the temperature stable and periodically refreshing the high voltage bias supply was used to minimize the polarization and achieve a stable and reproducible detector response. This leads to good quality images and successful results on the energy resolving capabilities of the system. - Highlights: • A high atomic number (CdTe sensor based) photon-counting detector was developed. • Polarization effects affected the image were minimized by regularly refreshing the bias voltage and stabilizing the temperature. • Good spatial resolution and image quality was achieved following this procedure.

  11. Mass and energy dispersive recoil spectrometry of GaAs structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, M.

    1994-01-01

    Mass and energy dispersive Recoil Spectrometry (RS) using heavy ions at energies of about 0.2Α-0.8Α MeV has attracted much interest recently due to its potential for separately and unambiguously generating information on isotopic depth distributions. The principal advantages of mass and energy dispersive RS are that both light and heavy elements can be separately studied simultaneously and problems caused by chemical matrix effects are avoided since the technique is based on high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering. In order to elucidate reactions taking place in various GaAs structures, Time of flight-Energy (ToF-E) RS was developed to allow Ga and As to be studied separately down to depths of about 500-800 nm with a depth resolution of about 16 nm at the surface. This was shown in a study of an Al x Ga 1-x As quantum-well structure. The benefits of using ToF-E RS on GaAs structures were further demonstrated in studies of Co/GaAs and CoSi 2 /GaAs reactions, as well as in a study of the composition of MOCVD grown Al x Ga 1-x As. Most recoil measurements employed 127 I at energies of about 50-90 MeV as projectiles. The recoil detector telescope consisted of a silicon energy detector and two carbon foil time pick-off detectors separated by a variable flight length of 213.5-961 mm. The reactions taking place between various thin films and GaAs were also studied using complementary techniques such as XRD, XPS and SEM. Co was found to react extensively with GaAs, already at about 300 degrees C, making it unsuitable as a contact material. Thin films of Co and Si were found to react extensively with each other and to form CoSi 2 at 500 degrees C and above. CoSi 2 , a low resistivity silicide, turned out to be stable on GaAs, at least up to 700 degrees C. Considerable grain growth could cause problems, however, in the use of CoSi 2 -contacts. 112 refs, figs, tabs

  12. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Morel, C.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  13. TU-G-207-01: CT Imaging Using Energy-Sensitive Photon-Counting Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Last few years has witnessed the development of novel of X-ray imaging modalities, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT, and X-ray acoustic/fluorescence/luminescence imaging. This symposium will present the recent advances of these emerging X-ray imaging modalities and update the attendees with knowledge in various related topics, including X-ray photon-counting detectors, X-ray physics underlying the emerging applications beyond the traditional X-ray imaging, image reconstruction for the novel modalities, characterization and evaluation of the systems, and their practical implications. In addition, the concept and practical aspects of X-ray activatable targeted nanoparticles for molecular X-ray imaging will be discussed in the context of X-ray fluorescence and luminescence CT. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of various emerging X-ray imaging techniques, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT and X-ray fluorescence/luminescence CT. Discuss the practical need, technical aspects and current status of the emerging X-ray imaging modalities. Describe utility and future impact of the new generation of X-ray imaging applications

  14. Nondestructive, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of product-stream concentrations from reprocessed LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.; Ruhter, W.D.; Benjamin, S.

    1979-01-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis can be used for quantitative on-line monitoring of the product concentrations in single- or dual-element process streams in a reprocessing plant. The 122-keV gamma ray from 57 Co is used to excite the K x-rays of uranium and/or plutonium in nitric acid solution streams. A collimated HPGe detector is used to measure the excited x-ray intensities. Net solution radioactivity may be measured by eclipsing the exciting radiation, or by measuring it simultaneously with a second detector. The technique is nondestructive and noninvasive, and is easily adapted directly to pipes containing the solution of interest. The dynamic range of the technique extends from below 1 to 500 g/l. Measurement times depend on concentration, but better than 1% counting statistics can be obtained in 100 s for 400 g/l concentrations, and in 1000 s for as little as 10 g/l. Calibration accuracies of 0.3% or better over the entire dynamic range can be achieved easily using carefully prepared standards. Computer-based analysis equipment allows concentration changes in flowing streams to be dynamically monitored. Changes in acid normality of the stream will affect the concentration determined, hence it must also be determined by measuring the intensity of a transmitted 57 Co beam. The computer/disk-based pulse-height analysis system allows all necessary calculations to be done on-line. Experimental requirements for an in-plant installation or a test and evaluation are discussed

  15. Fundamental parameters method for quantitative energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, H.; Zararsiz, A.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, the requirement of the standart material in photon excited energy distributed X-ray fluorescence analysis has been removed. The interaction of X-rays with matter has been taken into account. A computer program has been developed by using the fundamental parameters of X-ray fluorescence technique and the spectral intensity 'K' of pure elements at saturation thickness has been obtained. For experimental purpose a convenient source-target-detector geometry has been designed. In order to excite the samples,Cd-109 radioisotope source has been used. The peak intensities has been obtained in a vacum chamber by counting the emitted X-rays. The calculation of concentration has been performed for double mixed samples correcting the effects of absorption and enchancement factors. The results were in conformity with their certificate values. (author)

  16. Improvement in minimum detectable activity for low energy gamma by optimization in counting geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma spectrometry for environmental samples of low specific activities demands low minimum detection levels of measurement. An attempt has been made to lower the gamma detection level of measurement by optimizing the sample geometry, without compromising on the sample size. Gamma energy of 50–200 keV range was chosen for the study, since low energy gamma photons suffer the most self-attenuation within matrix. The simulation study was carried out using MCNP based software “EffCalcMC” for silica matrix and cylindrical geometries. A volume of 250 ml sample geometry of 9 cm diameter is optimized as the best suitable geometry for use, against the in-practice 7 cm diameter geometry of same volume. An increase in efficiency of 10%–23% was observed for the 50–200 keV gamma energy range and a corresponding lower minimum detectable activity of 9%–20% could be achieved for the same.

  17. Clicks versus Citations: Click Count as a Metric in High Energy Physics Publishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitton, Ayelet; /UC, San Diego /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    High-energy physicists worldwide rely on online resources such as SPIRES and arXiv to perform gather research and share their own publications. SPIRES is a tool designed to search the literature within high-energy physics, while arXiv provides the actual full-text documents of this literature. In high-energy physics, papers are often ranked according to the number of citations they acquire - meaning the number of times a later paper references the original. This paper investigates the correlation between the number of times a paper is clicked in order to be downloaded and the number of citations it receives following the click. It explores how physicists truly read what they cite.

  18. Dose optimization for dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography based on an energy-resolved photon-counting detector: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngjin; Lee, Seungwan; Kang, Sooncheol; Eom, Jisoo

    2017-03-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) has been used to decompose breast images and improve diagnostic accuracy for tumor detection. However, this technique causes an increase of radiation dose and an inaccuracy in material decomposition due to the limitations of conventional X-ray detectors. In this study, we simulated the dual-energy CEDM with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector (ERPCD) for reducing radiation dose and improving the quantitative accuracy of material decomposition images. The ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM was compared to the conventional dual-energy CEDM in terms of radiation dose and quantitative accuracy. The correlation between radiation dose and image quality was also evaluated for optimizing the ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM technique. The results showed that the material decomposition errors of the ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM were 0.56-0.67 times lower than those of the conventional dual-energy CEDM. The imaging performance of the proposed technique was optimized at the radiation dose of 1.09 mGy, which is a half of the MGD for a single view mammogram. It can be concluded that the ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM with an optimal exposure level is able to improve the quality of material decomposition images as well as reduce radiation dose.

  19. High-energy pulse compressor using self-defocusing spectral broadening in anomalously dispersive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (3) with a net positive dispersion. Furthermore, the net positive dispersion in the dispersive unit at least partially compensates for the negative nonlinear phase variation and the negative group-velocity dispersion produced by the bulk quadratic nonlinear medium when the optical pulse passes......A method and a pulse compressor (1) for compressing an optical pulse, wherein the pulse compressor comprising a bulk quadratic nonlinear medium (2) adapted for generating a negative nonlinear phase variation on the optical pulse and having a negative group-velocity dispersion, and a dispersive unit...

  20. What drives innovation in renewable energy technology? Evidence based on patent counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jesse

    America's future economic growth and international competitiveness depend on our capacity to innovate, particularly in emerging global markets. This paper analyzes the forces that drive innovation in one such market, renewable energy technologies, utilizing the theory of induced technological innovation. Specifically, this paper operationalizes the determinants of innovation to consist of: 1) private market forces, 2) public policy that influences price and market size, and 3) public policy that catalyzes R&D investment. Analysis is conducted using a negative binomial regression to determine which of the three foundational determinants has the greatest impact on renewable energy innovation. In so doing this paper builds off of work conducted by Johnstone et al. (2010). Innovation is measured using European Patent Office data on a panel of 24 countries spanning the period from 1978-2005. The implications of this study are straightforward; policies, not market forces, are responsible for driving innovation in renewable energy technologies. Market-oriented policies are effective for mature technologies, particularly hydro, and to a lesser extent wind and solar power. R&D-oriented policy is effective for a broader technology set. In short, the United States needs a comprehensive policy environment to support renewable energy innovation; market forces alone will not provide the pace and breadth of innovations needed. That environment can and should be strategically targeted, however, to effectively allocate scare resources.

  1. Online Speed Scaling Based on Active Job Count to Minimize Flow Plus Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei; To, Isaac K. K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with online scheduling algorithms that aim at minimizing the total flow time plus energy usage. The results are divided into two parts. First, we consider the well-studied “simple” speed scaling model and show how to analyze a speed scaling algorithm (called AJC) that chan...

  2. The Characterisation of Settled Dust by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilton, Vaughan; Giess, Paul; Mitchell, David; Williams, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Settled dust has been collected inside the main foyers oft hree University buildings in Wolverhampton City Centre,U.K. Two of the three buildings are located in a street canyon used almost exclusively by heavy duty diesel vehicles. The dust was collected on adhesive carbonspectro-tabs to be in a form suitable for analysis by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Using these analytical techniques, individual particle analysis was undertaken for morphology and chemistry. Seasonal variations and variations due to location were observed in both the morphological measurements and chemical analysis. Many of the differences appear attributable to the influence of road traffic, in particular, the heavy duty diesel vehicles, travelling along the street canyon

  3. Precise calculations in simulations of the interaction of low energy neutrons with nano-dispersed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem’ev, V. A.; Nezvanov, A. Yu.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss properties of the interaction of slow neutrons with nano-dispersed media and their application for neutron reflectors. In order to increase the accuracy of model simulation of the interaction of neutrons with nanopowders, we perform precise quantum mechanical calculation of potential scattering of neutrons on single nanoparticles using the method of phase functions. We compare results of precise calculations with those performed within first Born approximation for nanodiamonds with the radius of 2–5 nm and for neutron energies 3 × 10 -7 –10 -3 eV. Born approximation overestimates the probability of scattering to large angles, while the accuracy of evaluation of integral characteristics (cross sections, albedo) is acceptable. Using Monte-Carlo method, we calculate albedo of neutrons from different layers of piled up diamond nanopowder

  4. Precise calculations in simulations of the interaction of low energy neutrons with nano-dispersed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem'ev, V. A.; Nezvanov, A. Yu.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss properties of the interaction of slow neutrons with nano-dispersed media and their application for neutron reflectors. In order to increase the accuracy of model simulation of the interaction of neutrons with nanopowders, we perform precise quantum mechanical calculation of potential scattering of neutrons on single nanoparticles using the method of phase functions. We compare results of precise calculations with those performed within first Born approximation for nanodiamonds with the radius of 2-5 nm and for neutron energies 3 × 10-7-10-3 eV. Born approximation overestimates the probability of scattering to large angles, while the accuracy of evaluation of integral characteristics (cross sections, albedo) is acceptable. Using Monte-Carlo method, we calculate albedo of neutrons from different layers of piled up diamond nanopowder.

  5. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of organic-rich soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed for elemental analysis of environmental samples of soils and sediments rich in organic matter by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. It consists of three steps (i) determining the apparent concentration of elements by using calibration coefficients based on geochemical standards, (ii) subsequent assay of the total organic matter (TOM) from loss on ignition at 550 deg C, and (iii) evaluating the correct elemental concentration by normalizing for transparency from an empirical relationship. The main feature of the method is the sample analysis prior to ignition, which avoids any loss of trace elements - especially the volatile toxic elements, such as Zn, As, Se, and Pb - during heating. The method was tested on two organic-rich lake sediments (TOM> 30%). Concentrations of five elements (K, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Pb) determined by the present method and by atomic absorption spectrometry agreed within about +-10%. (author)

  6. A new device for energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Walter; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Begemann, Klaus; Neuhaus, Hermann; Scheer, Jens

    1991-12-01

    A new measuring chamber for energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence is presented, which allows excitation of the sample by three (commonly applied) modes: secondary target excitation, Barkla scattering, and Bragg reflection. In spite of the short distances required to obtain high intensities, the transmission of the radiator through the bulk matter of the chamber wall and the collimators could be kept negligibly small. In the case of Bragg reflection, the adjustment of all degrees of freedom of the crystal is performed independently and reproducibly under vacuum conditions. The device allows the choice of excitation mode optimized for the respective analytical problem. An experimental test using an environmental specimen shows the detection limits obtainable.

  7. Co marker determination in rumen liquid sample by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Massoni, Paulo R. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN)]. E-mail: edualm@usp.br; Leite, Laudi C.; Lanna, Dante P.D. [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia. Lab. de Anatomia e Fisiologia Animal (LAFA)]. E-mail: lcleite@ciagri.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The Co element is used in nutritional studies as marker. This paper describes an analytical methodology for Co determination in rumen liquid sample using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXRF). 200 {mu}L of the sample were dried at 60 deg C on 6.35 {mu}m Mylar film. Ga was used as internal standard. The excitation was carried out utilizing Mo target X-ray tube (Zr filter) at 30 kV / 20 mA. The acquisition time was 200 s. The accuracy of this methodology was assessed through standard addition method, the recovery obtained was 98.7 % for Co. The detection limit was 0.15 mg / L for this element. (author)

  8. Co marker determination in rumen liquid sample by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Massoni, Paulo R.; Leite, Laudi C.; Lanna, Dante P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Co element is used in nutritional studies as marker. This paper describes an analytical methodology for Co determination in rumen liquid sample using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXRF). 200 μL of the sample were dried at 60 deg C on 6.35 μm Mylar film. Ga was used as internal standard. The excitation was carried out utilizing Mo target X-ray tube (Zr filter) at 30 kV / 20 mA. The acquisition time was 200 s. The accuracy of this methodology was assessed through standard addition method, the recovery obtained was 98.7 % for Co. The detection limit was 0.15 mg / L for this element. (author)

  9. Cr and Yb markers determination in animal feces by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Senicato, Luis A; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Gomide, Catarina A.

    2007-01-01

    Chromium and Ytterbium elements are utilized in animal nutritional studies as markers. This paper describes an analytical method for Cr and Yb determination in solid buffalo feces sample using standard addition method and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXRF) technique. One gram dried sample was pressed manually in an XRF sample cup with Mylar film (6.3 μm thickness) in the bottom. The experimental conditions were: Mo target X-ray tube with Zr filter, operated at 25 kV/10 mA, and 500 s of acquisition time. The limits of detection for Cr and Yb were 16.6 and 11.4 mg/kg, respectively. This methodology has showed appropriated for simultaneous Cr and Yb determination as marker in animal feces. (author)

  10. Cr and Yb markers determination in animal feces by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Senicato, Luis A; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN)]. E-mail: edualm@usp.br; Gomide, Catarina A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZEA). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: cbgomide@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Chromium and Ytterbium elements are utilized in animal nutritional studies as markers. This paper describes an analytical method for Cr and Yb determination in solid buffalo feces sample using standard addition method and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXRF) technique. One gram dried sample was pressed manually in an XRF sample cup with Mylar film (6.3 {mu}m thickness) in the bottom. The experimental conditions were: Mo target X-ray tube with Zr filter, operated at 25 kV/10 mA, and 500 s of acquisition time. The limits of detection for Cr and Yb were 16.6 and 11.4 mg/kg, respectively. This methodology has showed appropriated for simultaneous Cr and Yb determination as marker in animal feces. (author)

  11. Sodium Chloride Diffusion during Muscle Salting Evidenced by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueras, Rénata; Peyrin, Frédéric; Vénien, Annie; Hénot, Jean Marc; Astruc, Thierry

    2016-01-27

    To better understand the relationship between the muscle structure and NaCl transfers in meat, we used energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze brined and dry-salted rat muscles. The muscles were freeze-dried to avoid the delocalization of soluble ions that happens in regular dehydration through a graded series of ethanol. Na and Cl maps were superimposed on SEM images to combine the muscle structure and NaCl diffusion. Brining causes rapid diffusion of NaCl through the tissue. Most brine diffuses in a linear front from the muscle surface, but a small proportion enters through the perimysium network. The muscle area penetrated by brine shows heterogeneous patterns of NaCl retention, with some connective tissue islets containing more NaCl than other parts of perimysium. NaCl penetration is considerably slower after dry salting than after brining.

  12. A simple method to improve the quantification accuracy of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, T

    2008-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope is a standard tool for chemical microanalysis and routinely provides qualitative information on the presence of all major elements above Z=5 (boron) in a sample. Spectrum quantification relies on suitable corrections for absorption and fluorescence, in particular for thick samples and soft X-rays. A brief presentation is given of an easy way to improve quantification accuracy by evaluating the intensity ratio of two measurements acquired at different detector take-off angles. As the take-off angle determines the effective sample thickness seen by the detector this method corresponds to taking two measurements from the same position at two different thicknesses, which allows to correct absorption and fluorescence more reliably. An analytical solution for determining the depth of a feature embedded in the specimen foil is also provided.

  13. Liquid contrabands classification based on energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and hybrid discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YangDai, Tianyi; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) combined with hybrid discriminant analysis (HDA) has been utilized for classifying the liquid materials for the first time. The XRD spectra of 37 kinds of liquid contrabands and daily supplies were obtained using an EDXRD test bed facility. The unique spectra of different samples reveal XRD's capability to distinguish liquid contrabands from daily supplies. In order to create a system to detect liquid contrabands, the diffraction spectra were subjected to HDA which is the combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Experiments based on the leave-one-out method demonstrate that HDA is a practical method with higher classification accuracy and lower noise sensitivity than the other methods in this application. The study shows the great capability and potential of the combination of XRD and HDA for liquid contrabands classification.

  14. Liquid contrabands classification based on energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and hybrid discriminant analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YangDai, Tianyi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhangli@nuctech.com [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China)

    2016-02-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) combined with hybrid discriminant analysis (HDA) has been utilized for classifying the liquid materials for the first time. The XRD spectra of 37 kinds of liquid contrabands and daily supplies were obtained using an EDXRD test bed facility. The unique spectra of different samples reveal XRD's capability to distinguish liquid contrabands from daily supplies. In order to create a system to detect liquid contrabands, the diffraction spectra were subjected to HDA which is the combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Experiments based on the leave-one-out method demonstrate that HDA is a practical method with higher classification accuracy and lower noise sensitivity than the other methods in this application. The study shows the great capability and potential of the combination of XRD and HDA for liquid contrabands classification.

  15. Liquid contrabands classification based on energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and hybrid discriminant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    YangDai, Tianyi; Zhang, Li

    2016-02-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) combined with hybrid discriminant analysis (HDA) has been utilized for classifying the liquid materials for the first time. The XRD spectra of 37 kinds of liquid contrabands and daily supplies were obtained using an EDXRD test bed facility. The unique spectra of different samples reveal XRD's capability to distinguish liquid contrabands from daily supplies. In order to create a system to detect liquid contrabands, the diffraction spectra were subjected to HDA which is the combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Experiments based on the leave-one-out method demonstrate that HDA is a practical method with higher classification accuracy and lower noise sensitivity than the other methods in this application. The study shows the great capability and potential of the combination of XRD and HDA for liquid contrabands classification.

  16. Application of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers with semiconductor detectors in radiometric analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jugelt, P.; Schieckel, M.

    1983-01-01

    Problems and possibilities of applying semiconductor detector spectrometers in radiometric analyses are described. A summary of the state of the art and tendencies of device engineering and spectra evaluation is given. Liquid-nitrogen cooled Li-drifted Si-detectors and high-purity Ge-detectors are compared. Semiconductor detectors working at room temperature are under development. In this connection CdTe and HgI 2 semiconductor detectors are compared. The use of small efficient computers in the spectrometer systems stimulates the development of algorithms for spectra analyses and for determining the concentration. Fields of application of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers are X-ray diffraction and X-ray macroanalysis in investigating the structure of extensive surface regions

  17. Precise calculations in simulations of the interaction of low energy neutrons with nano-dispersed media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artem’ev, V. A., E-mail: niitm@inbox.ru [Research Institute of Materials Technology (Russian Federation); Nezvanov, A. Yu. [Moscow State Industrial University (Russian Federation); Nesvizhevsky, V. V. [Institut Max von Laue—Paul Langevin (France)

    2016-01-15

    We discuss properties of the interaction of slow neutrons with nano-dispersed media and their application for neutron reflectors. In order to increase the accuracy of model simulation of the interaction of neutrons with nanopowders, we perform precise quantum mechanical calculation of potential scattering of neutrons on single nanoparticles using the method of phase functions. We compare results of precise calculations with those performed within first Born approximation for nanodiamonds with the radius of 2–5 nm and for neutron energies 3 × 10{sup -7}–10{sup -3} eV. Born approximation overestimates the probability of scattering to large angles, while the accuracy of evaluation of integral characteristics (cross sections, albedo) is acceptable. Using Monte-Carlo method, we calculate albedo of neutrons from different layers of piled up diamond nanopowder.

  18. Investigation of Detectability of Elementary Composition of Rainbow trout muscle with EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltuk Buğrahan CEYHUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, it is investigated that detectability of elementary composition of rainbow trout muscle using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. EDS system which has worked with attached to scanning electron microscope can do qualitative and semi-quantitative elementary analyses on selected region of sample using characteristic X-rays. For this purpose, it was performed four point and two mapping analyses from four samples. According to results, it was detected 13 elements which are consist of C, N and O in 87.70 percentage. As a result, although the method is sensitive and reliable, it is concluded that not adequate for elemental analysis alone but can be used as a support for analyzes with systems such as especially atomic absorption and ICP-MS.

  19. TX 2000: total reflection and 45o energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, F.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2000-01-01

    This equipment, developed by Ital Structures, combines two kinds of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, the first using total reflection geometry and the second conventional 45 o geometry. The equipment is completely controlled by a PC and to reach the condition of total reflection is very easy because it is enough to load the file with the right position for the corresponding energy. In this apparatus we used an x-ray tube with an alloy anode of Mo/W with a long fine focus at 2200 W. To monochromatize the x-ray beam while choosing, for example, the Mo K alpha or W L alpha or a piece of white spectrum of 33 keV, we use a highly reflective multilayer made of Si/W with 2d = 45.5 A o . The detector used in the equipment is a lithium drifted silicon detector (Si(Li)) with an excellent energy resolution of 135 eV at 5.9 keV and 1000 cps. We developed two programs written in Windows 95, 98 and NT for a 32 bit microprocessor. The first one is called TYACQ32 and has the following functions: first, complete control of the hardware, second automatic alignment of the TX 2000 spectrometer and third acquisition of spectra. The second program is EDXRF32. This is a program to accomplish spectrum and quantitative analysis for TXRF and EDXRF 45 o degrees analysis. (author)

  20. Application of energy dispersive x-ray techniques for water analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funtua, I. I.

    2000-07-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a class of emission spectroscopic techniques that depends upon the emission of characteristic x-rays following excitation of the atomic electron energy levels by tube or isotopic source x-rays. The technique has found wide range of applications that include determination of chemical elements of water and water pollutants. Three EDXRF systems, the isotopic source, secondary target and total reflection (TXRF) are available at the Centre for Energy research and Training. These systems have been applied for the analysis of sediments, suspensions, ground water, river and rainwater. The isotopic source is based on 55 Fe, 109 Cd and 241 Am excitations while the secondary target and the total reflection are utilizing a Mo x-ray tube. Sample preparation requirements for water analysis range from physical and chemical pre-concentration steps to direct analysis and elements from Al to U can be determined with these systems. The EDXRF techniques, TXRF in particular with its multielement capability, low detection limit and possibility of direct analysis for water have competitive edge over the traditional methods of atomic absorption and flame photometry

  1. Quality in the chemical analysis of biological matrices by fluorescence X-ray by energy dispersive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Evely E. de; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Almeida, Macio E.S.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Hazin, Clovis A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain multielement analytical curves of high analytical rigor to the analysis of biological matrices by the technique of fluorescence x-ray energy dispersive - EDXRF. Calibration curves were constructed from the reference materials IAEA 140, IAEA 155, IAEA V8, V10 to the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, and SRM1515, SRM 1547, SRM 1570a, SRM 1573a, SEM 1567a, to the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST. After energy calibration, all samples were subjected to vacuum to the analyzes by 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltages used were respectively 15 keV for chemical elements with less than atomic number 22 and 50 keV for the others. After the construction of the curves, the analytical quality was assessed by the analysis of a portion-test of the reference material SRM 2976, also produced by NIST. Based on the number of certified reference materials used for construction of calibration curves in this work, quality analytical protocol was originated with considerable reliability for quantification of chemical elements in biological samples by EDXR

  2. Alternating magnetic field energy absorption in the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles in a viscous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolkova, Ilona S. [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, T.G. Masaryk Sq. 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Kazantseva, Natalia E., E-mail: nekazan@yahoo.com [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Babayan, Vladimir; Smolka, Petr; Parmar, Harshida; Vilcakova, Jarmila [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Schneeweiss, Oldrich; Pizurova, Nadezda [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-15

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a coprecipitation method in a controlled growth process leading to the formation of uniform highly crystalline nanoparticles with average size of 13 nm, which corresponds to the superparamagnetic state. Nanoparticles obtained are a mixture of single-phase nanoparticles of magnetite and maghemite as well as nanoparticles of non-stoichiometric magnetite. The subsequent annealing of nanoparticles at 300 °C in air during 6 h leads to the full transformation to maghemite. It results in reduced value of the saturation magnetization (from 56 emu g{sup −1} to 48 emu g{sup −1}) but does not affect the heating ability of nanoparticles. A 2–7 wt% dispersion of as-prepared and annealed nanoparticles in glycerol provides high heating rate in alternating magnetic fields allowed for application in magnetic hyperthermia; however the value of specific loss power does not exceed 30 W g{sup −1}. This feature of heat output is explained by the combined effect of magnetic interparticle interactions and the properties of the carrier medium. Nanoparticles coalesce during the synthesis and form aggregates showing ferromagnetic-like behavior with magnetization hysteresis, distinct sextets on Mössbauer spectrum, blocking temperature well about room temperature, which accounts for the higher energy barrier for magnetization reversal. At the same time, low specific heat capacity of glycerol intensifies heat transfer in the magnetic dispersion. However, high viscosity of glycerol limits the specific loss power value, since predominantly the Neel relaxation accounts for the absorption of AC magnetic field energy. - Highlights: • Mixed phase iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles were obtained by coprecipitation. • A part of nanoparticles was annealed at 300 °C to achieve the single-phase γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Nanoparticles revealed ferromagnetic-like behavior due to interparticle interactions. • Nanoparticles glycerol

  3. A semiparametric negative binomial generalized linear model for modeling over-dispersed count data with a heavy tail: Characteristics and applications to crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mohammadali; Lord, Dominique; Dhavala, Soma Sekhar; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Crash data can often be characterized by over-dispersion, heavy (long) tail and many observations with the value zero. Over the last few years, a small number of researchers have started developing and applying novel and innovative multi-parameter models to analyze such data. These multi-parameter models have been proposed for overcoming the limitations of the traditional negative binomial (NB) model, which cannot handle this kind of data efficiently. The research documented in this paper continues the work related to multi-parameter models. The objective of this paper is to document the development and application of a flexible NB generalized linear model with randomly distributed mixed effects characterized by the Dirichlet process (NB-DP) to model crash data. The objective of the study was accomplished using two datasets. The new model was compared to the NB and the recently introduced model based on the mixture of the NB and Lindley (NB-L) distributions. Overall, the research study shows that the NB-DP model offers a better performance than the NB model once data are over-dispersed and have a heavy tail. The NB-DP performed better than the NB-L when the dataset has a heavy tail, but a smaller percentage of zeros. However, both models performed similarly when the dataset contained a large amount of zeros. In addition to a greater flexibility, the NB-DP provides a clustering by-product that allows the safety analyst to better understand the characteristics of the data, such as the identification of outliers and sources of dispersion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy allocation during the maturation of adults in a long-lived insect: implications for dispersal and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G; Giffard, B; van Halder, I; Piou, D; Jactel, H

    2015-10-01

    Energy allocation strategies have been widely documented in insects and were formalized in the context of the reproduction process by the terms 'capital breeder' and 'income breeder'. We propose here the extension of this framework to dispersal ability, with the concepts of 'capital disperser' and 'income disperser', and explore the trade-off in resource allocation between dispersal and reproduction. We hypothesized that flight capacity was sex-dependent, due to a trade-off in energy allocation between dispersal and egg production in females. We used Monochamus galloprovincialis as model organism, a long-lived beetle which is the European vector of the pine wood nematode. We estimated the flight capacity with a flight mill and used the number of mature eggs as a proxy for the investment in reproduction. We used the ratio between dry weights of the thorax and the abdomen to investigate the trade-off. The probability of flying increased with the adult weight at emergence, but was not dependent on insect age or sex. Flight distance increased with age in individuals but did not differ between sexes. It was also positively associated with energy allocation to thorax reserves, which increased with age. In females, the abdomen weight and the number of eggs also increase with age with no negative effect on flight capacity, indicating a lack of trade-off. This long-lived beetle has a complex strategy of energy allocation, being a 'capital disperser' in terms of flight ability, an 'income disperser' in terms of flight performance and an 'income breeder' in terms of egg production.

  5. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  6. Stimulating energy-efficient innovations in the Dutch building sector: Empirical evidence from patent counts and policy lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noailly, Joelle; Batrakova, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands where the building sector accounts for 33% of carbon emissions, the government aims to halve the total energy use from buildings by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. To this end, the Dutch government has set specific goals in order to foster technological innovation related to energy efficiency in buildings. The objective of this paper is to explore the links between technological innovation and public policies in this sector over the last 30 years. The paper aims (1) to measure the evolution of innovations related to energy efficiency in buildings in the Netherlands using patent counts and (2) to provide a historical overview of the policy framework. Descriptive data on patenting activities show that the Netherlands have a clear comparative advantage in the field of energy-saving lighting technologies, mainly due to intensive patenting activities by Philips. High-efficiency boilers also represent a substantial share of Dutch innovation activities in this domain over the last decades. In many other fields (such as insulation, heat-pumps and cogeneration, solar boilers, etc.), however, Germany, Austria and Scandinavian countries rank much higher than the Netherlands. The descriptive analysis of Dutch energy policy shows an intensification of energy policy in the mid-1990s, followed by a slight decline after 2001. Overall, the simultaneous introduction of policy instruments makes it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of policies. Also, the policy framework is characterized by the introduction of a large number of short-lived policy instruments and frequent policy changes. The lack of stability and continuity of energy policy may be damaging for innovation. - Research Highlights: →The Netherlands are a top innovative country in the field of energy-efficient innovations for buildings, mainly due to high patenting activities by Philips in energy-saving lighting technologies. →In many other fields (insulation, heat-pumps, etc) Germany, Austria and

  7. Low-energy theorems for Compton scattering up to order e/sup 4/. [Scattering amplitudes dispersion relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippig, G

    1975-01-01

    Taking the Compton scattering of pions and deuterons as an example it is shown that low-energy theorems which are valid for the order e/sup 2/ are also valid for the next higher order of electromagnetic interactions. The imaginary component of the scattering amplitude was exactly calculated for the energy of incident photons in the order e/sup 4/ up to the desired one, whereas the real component was obtained from dispersion relations. It is proved that the results derived from the dispersion theory of strong interactions are equivalent to those obtained from quantum electrodynamics for spin 0 and spin 1, respectively.

  8. Comparison of equations for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometer counts in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Brage, S; Riddoch, C

    2008-01-01

    calorimeter-based (CAL) equation (mixture of activities). Predicted physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) was the main outcome variable. In comparison with DLW-predicted PAEE, both laboratory-derived equations significantly (PPAEE by 17% and 83%, respectively, when based on a 24-h...... prediction, while the TM equation significantly (PPAEE by 46%, when based on awake time only. In contrast, the CAL equation agreed better with the DLW equation under the awake time assumption. Predicted PAEE differ substantially between equations, depending on time-frame assumptions......, and interpretations of average levels of PAEE in children from available equations should be made with caution. Further development of equations applicable to free-living scenarios is needed....

  9. Effects of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on Salmonella and aerobic plate count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Four experiments were used to determine the effects of high-energy irradiation on the number of aerobic microorganisms and Salmonella on broiler breasts and thighs. Irradiation ranging from 100 to 700 kilorads (krads) was provided by a commercial-scale, electron-beam accelerator. Irradiation of broiler breast and thigh pieces with electron beams at levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 krads showed that levels as low as 100 krads would eliminate Salmonella. When 33 thighs were tested after irradiation at 200 krads, only one thigh tested presumptive positive. The total number of aerobic organisms was reduced by 2 to 3 log10 cycles at irradiation levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 krads. Increasing the dose above 100 krads gave little if any additional benefit

  10. Sample sizing of biological materials analyzed by energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Jose D.S.; Franca, Elvis J.; Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Almeida, Marcio E.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical portions used in chemical analyses are usually less than 1g. Errors resulting from the sampling are barely evaluated, since this type of study is a time-consuming procedure, with high costs for the chemical analysis of large number of samples. The energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence - EDXRF is a non-destructive and fast analytical technique with the possibility of determining several chemical elements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide information on the minimum analytical portion for quantification of chemical elements in biological matrices using EDXRF. Three species were sampled in mangroves from the Pernambuco, Brazil. Tree leaves were washed with distilled water, oven-dried at 60 deg C and milled until 0.5 mm particle size. Ten test-portions of approximately 500 mg for each species were transferred to vials sealed with polypropylene film. The quality of the analytical procedure was evaluated from the reference materials IAEA V10 Hay Powder, SRM 2976 Apple Leaves. After energy calibration, all samples were analyzed under vacuum for 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltage used was 15 kV and 50 kV for chemical elements of atomic number lower than 22 and the others, respectively. For the best analytical conditions, EDXRF was capable of estimating the sample size uncertainty for further determination of chemical elements in leaves. (author)

  11. Analysis of metals in organic compounds by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de

    2000-01-01

    Using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with an X-ray tube filtered with Ti. It was possible to determine the concentration of the elements at ppm level of several elements: K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Pb in two types of organic compound enough used in the agriculture: organic compound of urban garbage (Fertilurb) and aviary bed (birds manure). The experimental setup is composed of: x-ray tube (Oxford, 30 kV, 50 μA and W anode), an ORTEC Si-Li detector, with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV and an ORTEC multichannel-analyser. The X-ray beam is quasi- monochromatic by using Ti filter. The samples were prepared in pellet form with superficial density in the range of 100 mg/cm 2 . The fundamental parameter method was used in order to verify the elemental concentration. The radiation transmission method was going used to the radiation absorption effects correction in the samples. (author)

  12. Sample sizing of biological materials analyzed by energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Jose D.S.; Franca, Elvis J.; Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Almeida, Marcio E.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: maensoal@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Analytical portions used in chemical analyses are usually less than 1g. Errors resulting from the sampling are barely evaluated, since this type of study is a time-consuming procedure, with high costs for the chemical analysis of large number of samples. The energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence - EDXRF is a non-destructive and fast analytical technique with the possibility of determining several chemical elements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide information on the minimum analytical portion for quantification of chemical elements in biological matrices using EDXRF. Three species were sampled in mangroves from the Pernambuco, Brazil. Tree leaves were washed with distilled water, oven-dried at 60 deg C and milled until 0.5 mm particle size. Ten test-portions of approximately 500 mg for each species were transferred to vials sealed with polypropylene film. The quality of the analytical procedure was evaluated from the reference materials IAEA V10 Hay Powder, SRM 2976 Apple Leaves. After energy calibration, all samples were analyzed under vacuum for 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltage used was 15 kV and 50 kV for chemical elements of atomic number lower than 22 and the others, respectively. For the best analytical conditions, EDXRF was capable of estimating the sample size uncertainty for further determination of chemical elements in leaves. (author)

  13. Dispersion of near-infrared laser energy through radicular dentine when using plain or conical tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Christine Yi Jia; George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of tip design on patterns of laser energy dispersion through the dentine of tooth roots when using near-infrared diode lasers. Diode laser emissions of 810 or 940 nm were used in combination with optical fiber tips with either conventional plain ends or conical ends, to irradiate tooth roots of oval or round cross-sectional shapes. The lasers were operated in continuous wave mode at 0.5 W for 5 s with the distal end of the fiber tip placed in the apical or coronal third of the root canal at preset positions. Laser light exiting through the roots and apical foramen was imaged, and the extent of lateral spread calculated. There was a significant difference in infrared light exiting the root canal apex between plain and conical fiber tips for both laser wavelengths, with more forward transmission of laser energy through the apex for plain tips. For both laser wavelengths, there were no significant differences in emission patterns when the variable of canal shape was used and all other variables were kept the same (plain vs conical tip, tip position). To ensure optimal treatment effect and to prevent the risks of inadvertent laser effects on the adjacent periapical tissues, it is important to have a good understanding of laser transmission characteristics of the root canal and root dentine. Importantly, it is also essential to understand transmission characteristics of plain and conical fibers tips.

  14. Rigorous quantitative elemental microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) with spectrum processing by NIST DTSA-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E.; Ritchie, Nicholas W. M.

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative electron-excited x-ray microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/silicon drift detector energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM/SDD-EDS) is capable of achieving high accuracy and high precision equivalent to that of the high spectral resolution wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer even when severe peak interference occurs. The throughput of the SDD-EDS enables high count spectra to be measured that are stable in calibration and resolution (peak shape) across the full deadtime range. With this high spectral stability, multiple linear least squares peak fitting is successful for separating overlapping peaks and spectral background. Careful specimen preparation is necessary to remove topography on unknowns and standards. The standards-based matrix correction procedure embedded in the NIST DTSA-II software engine returns quantitative results supported by a complete error budget, including estimates of the uncertainties from measurement statistics and from the physical basis of the matrix corrections. NIST DTSA-II is available free for Java-platforms at: http://www.cstl.nist.gov/div837/837.02/epq/dtsa2/index.html).

  15. Possible indicators for bio-mass burning in a small Swedish city as studied by energy dispersive fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin Lindgren, Eva; Henriksson, Dag; Lundin, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    to investigate the contribution of biomass incineration to air quality, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis was performed on aerosol particles sampled in the centre of the small city of Växjö. PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 fractions were sampled with the special aim of determining the contribution...

  16. Precision and accuracy of multi-element analysis of aerosols using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Van Espen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements have been carried out for the determination of the inherent errors of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and for the evaluation of its precision and accuracy. The accuracy of the method is confirmed by independent determinations on the same samples using other analytical methods

  17. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jean Christophe Balouet; Walter C. Shortle; Michel Chalot; François Beaujard; Hakan Grudd; Don A. Vroblesky; Joel G. Burken

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to...

  18. Determination of multi-element profiles of soil using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Yeung, Z.L.L.; Lee, L.Y.L.; Stokes, M.J.; Kwok, R.C.W.

    2002-01-01

    The source profile for soil in Hong Kong is important both for determination of the main air pollutant source in Hong Kong and for assessment of the impact of Asian dust storms on Hong Kong. Soil associated with different rock types have been sampled, and the concentrations of 19 chemical elements, Na, Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, K, Ca, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr, have been determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. A profile for the average soil for Hong Kong has been determined by taking average values for the different soil categories. The values for the Hong Kong soil are commensurate with values for rural soil derived by other workers, except that Hong Kong soil has much lower Fe and Ca concentrations. The abundance of Al, Ca and Fe in the average Hong Kong soil are 9.23%, 0.11% and 0.85%. We conclude that Ca provides a good marker element for identifying dust episodes in Hong Kong while Al does not

  19. The description of compton lines in energy-dispersive x-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gysel, Mon; Van Espen, P.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) is a non-destructive technique for the element analysis in a concentration range ppm - % making use of X rays up to 100 keV. Generally, two photon matter interactions occur, respectively absorption and scattering. The absorption of incident photons gives raise to characteristic lines. Scattering gives an incoherent and a coherent line. A Gaussian peak model is adequate to describe the characteristic and coherent scattered lines. Incoherent lines appear as non-Gaussian, broadened peaks. The profile of a Compton peak is complex. It depends on the geometry and the composition of the sample. Especially, when analyzing a low Z matrix; dominant scattering and multiple scattering may cause large interferences. The absence of an appropriate fitting model makes the Compton profile seen as a limiting factor in the evaluation of spectra. An accurate description of incoherent lines should improve quantitative analysis. Therefore, a suitable fitting model, making use of the expertise of non-linear least squares procedures and Monte-Carlo calculations was systematically investigated. The proposed model, containing a modified Gaussian, is tested on experimental data recorded with a HPGe detector

  20. Influence of Zn and Pb on Rhizopogon roseolus mycelium - energy dispersion spectroscopy and cytochemical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Turnau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycelium isolated from fruitbodies of Rhizopogon roseolus, collected from calamine wastes in Poland, was cultivated on agar media supplemented with Zn or Pb salts. The stimulation of exudate production by the aerial mycelium and the mycelium growing on the surface of the media, accompanied by the change of mycelium pigmentation, was found as a result of Zn application. The presence of Pb resulted mainly in the stimulation of crystalloid production on the surface of mycelium, in direct contact with the medium. Exudate droplets formed on the surface of mycelium cultivated on media with and without the Zn addition, were investigated by means of cytochemical tests (PATAg and Gomori-Swift reaction. In the control media most droplets gave a diffused, positive reaction to both tests. In media supplemented with Zn salts, besides the droplet-like material described in the control also another kind of exudate was observed. It was characterized by the collar showing apositive Gomori-Swift reaction, while the rest of the exudate had an oily appearance and gave a faint or no reaction to both tests. Comparative research by means of scanning electron microscopy accompanied by energy dispersion spectroscopy, was carried out showing the differences in exudate and in mycelia composition as a result of the Zn and Pb presence in the medium.

  1. Spatially resolved quantification of agrochemicals on plant surfaces using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsche, Mauricio; Noga, Georg

    2009-12-01

    In the present study the principle of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), i.e. the detection of elements based on their characteristic X-rays, was used to localise and quantify organic and inorganic pesticides on enzymatically isolated fruit cuticles. Pesticides could be discriminated from the plant surface because of their distinctive elemental composition. Findings confirm the close relation between net intensity (NI) and area covered by the active ingredient (AI area). Using wide and narrow concentration ranges of glyphosate and glufosinate, respectively, results showed that quantification of AI requires the selection of appropriate regression equations while considering NI, peak-to-background (P/B) ratio, and AI area. The use of selected internal standards (ISs) such as Ca(NO(3))(2) improved the accuracy of the quantification slightly but led to the formation of particular, non-typical microstructured deposits. The suitability of SEM-EDX as a general technique to quantify pesticides was evaluated additionally on 14 agrochemicals applied at diluted or regular concentration. Among the pesticides tested, spatial localisation and quantification of AI amount could be done for inorganic copper and sulfur as well for the organic agrochemicals glyphosate, glufosinate, bromoxynil and mancozeb. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Radioisotope induced energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence - a diagnostic tool in clinical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) - an ideal technique for detecting trace elements in drugs have been used for analyzing drugs marked as Zn supplements (Jasad Bhasm) used for growth in children and Ayurvedic medicines containing toxic elements such as Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg). Folklore medicines obtained as plants extracts from Manipur plants were also analyzed for their composition. Zn supplements (Jasad Bhasm) manufactured by various manufacturers were analyzed for their trace elements besides Zn and were compared with laboratory preparations. Similarly the Ayurvedic medicines from different companies were analyzed for their metal composition. All samples in powder form were pelletized and analyzed using an X-ray spectrometer consisting of a Cd 109 radioisotope source, Si (Li) detector of resolution 170 eV at 5.9 KeV Mn X-ray, preamplifier, amplifier and a PC based multichannel analyzer. Varying amounts of trace elements were detected in Jasad Bhasm and interesting results (As and Hg) were seen in the Ayurvedic medicines in addition to other trace elements such as K,Ca,Fe,Cu and Zn. In Manipur plant extracts Sr was predominantly seen in most samples. Their levels of toxicity and significance to human health and diseases will be discussed in the remaining sections of the paper

  3. Forensic applications of scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analyser in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y S

    1982-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX) has been applied in casework for more than a year in the Forensic Division, Government Laboratory of Hong Kong. The types of samples being analysed are summarised and three cases of scientific interest are described. The first case applies SEM/EDX to characterize microscopic gold particles recovered from clothing of suspects involved in goldsmith robberies. Both elemental and morphological results obtained were used as supporting evidence. The second case describes the three types of beaded ends on fibres found in a single cloth sample. These beaded ends are different in shape and surface features and can be used as an additional parameter in fibre identification. The final case shows the application of vacuum evaporation of graphite on a document sample to reveal the area of paper which has been skillfully mechanically erased. Both the image intensity and the composition of the ink are used to differentiate between original and altered characters on the document.

  4. Micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry study of dentin coating with nanobiomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís. Eduardo Silva; Nahorny, Sídnei; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Zanin, Hudson; Lobo, Anderson de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    New biomaterials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes oxide/graphene oxide (MWCNTO/GO), nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and combination of them together or not to acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (F) have been tested as protective coating before root dentin erosion. Fourteen bovine teeth were cleaned, polished, divided into two parts (n=28) and assigned to seven groups: (Control) - without previous surface treatment; F treatment; nHAp; MWCNTO/GO; F+nHAp; F+MWCNTO/GO and F+MWCNTO/GO/nHAp composites. Each sample had two sites of pre-treatments: acid etched area and an area without treatment. After the biomaterials application, the samples were submitted to six cycles (demineralization: orange juice, 10 min; remineralization: artificial saliva, 1 h). Micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF) mapping area analyses were performed after erosive cycling on both sites (n=84). μ-EDXRF mappings showed that artificial saliva and MWCNTO/GO/nHAp/F composite treatments produced lower dentin demineralization than in the other groups. Exposed dentin tubules allowed better interaction of nanobiomaterials than in smear layer covered dentin. Association of fluoride with other biomaterials had a positive influence on acid etched dentin. MWCNTO/GO/nHAp/F composite treatment resulted in levels of demineralization similar to the control group.

  5. An attempt to reduce radioactivity for energy-dispersive x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, S.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this work is to develop a specimen preparation technique which reduces the intensity of radioactivity of a neutron-irradiated materials for microchemical analysis by analytical electron microscope (AEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). A composite specimen preparation technique for the AEM was developed using unirradiated materials. The technique reduced the mass of material from a dummy irradiated specimen by more than a factor of 100. A 1-mm diam. disk was punched from a dummy irradiated 3-mm diam. transmission electron microscope (TEM) disk. The 1-mm disk was then pressed into a hole previously punched at the center of a second 3 mm diam. disk creating a composite disk. The composite disk was electropolished using a twin jet Tenupol until the thickness of the center of the composite was about 100 μm. Approximately 100 μm of nickel plating was then deposited on the surface of the thinned composite. Standard electropolishing by Tenupol unit was performed on the nickel-plated composite specimen and the composite specimen was examined by TEM

  6. Quantitative atomic resolution elemental mapping via absolute-scale energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Sang, X.; Xu, W.; Dycus, J.H.; LeBeau, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); D' Alfonso, A.J.; Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative agreement on an absolute scale is demonstrated between experiment and simulation for two-dimensional, atomic-resolution elemental mapping via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This requires all experimental parameters to be carefully characterized. The agreement is good, but some discrepancies remain. The most likely contributing factors are identified and discussed. Previous predictions that increasing the probe forming aperture helps to suppress the channelling enhancement in the average signal are confirmed experimentally. It is emphasized that simple column-by-column analysis requires a choice of sample thickness that compromises between being thick enough to yield a good signal-to-noise ratio while being thin enough that the overwhelming majority of the EDX signal derives from the column on which the probe is placed, despite strong electron scattering effects. - Highlights: • Absolute scale quantification of 2D atomic-resolution EDX maps is demonstrated. • Factors contributing to remaining small quantitative discrepancies are identified. • Experiment confirms large probe-forming apertures suppress channelling enhancement. • The thickness range suitable for reliable column-by-column analysis is discussed.

  7. Automated energy-dispersive x-ray determination of trace elements in stream sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, J.M.; Martell, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Nickel, copper, tungsten, lead, bismuth, niobium, silver, cadmium, and tin are determined in stream sediments using a computer-controlled energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence system. The system consists of an automatic 20-position sample changer, a silicon lithium-drifted detector, a pulsed molybdenum transmission-target x-ray tube, a multichannel analyzer, and a minicomputer. Samples are analyzed as minus 325-mesh powders. A computer program positions the samples, unfolds overlapping peaks, determines peak intensities for each element, and calculates the ratio of the intensity of each peak to that of the molybdenum Kα Compton peak. Concentrations of each element are then calculated using equations obtained by analyzing prepared standards. Detection limits range from 5 ppM for silver, cadmium, lead, and bismuth to 20 ppM for niobium. The relative standard is 10 percent or less at the 100-ppM level and 20 percent at the 20-ppM level. Samples can be analyzed at the rate of sixty per day

  8. Analysis of agricultural soils by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos

    2000-03-01

    In this work, we describe an Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence System with a x-ray tube excitation for trace analysis of environmental samples (soil). The system was used to analyze the contamination of metals in treated soils with doses of 10, 20 and 30 ton/ha of compound organic of urban garbage of the type Fertilurb and 10 ton/ha of aviary bed (manure of birds). Samples of roots and foliages of plant radishes cultivated in these soils were also analyzed. The soil samples were collected in five different depths of 0,5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. The experimental set-up is composed by an OXFORD X-ray (30 kV, 50 μA and W anode), an ORTEC Si-Li detector, with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV and an ORTEC multichannel-analyser. The X-ray spectrum tube is quasi-monochromatic by using of Ti filter. Samples were prepared in pellet form with superficial density in the range of 100 mg/cm 2 . The fundamental parameter method was used in order to verify the elemental concentration. It was possible to determine the concentrations of thirteen elements: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb in the treated soils with compounds organic. The results indicate that the values found for K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb are significantly above the upper confidence limits for the control soil (α = 0.05). There is a real different between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, (α=0,05). There is a real difference between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, confirming the influence of the organic compounds in the soil. (author)

  9. Possible applications of energy-dispersive powder diffractometry in the phase analysis of metallurgical and geological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.; Jugelt, P.

    1978-01-01

    Energy-dispersive powder diffractometry renders possible nondestructive quantitative determination of both α and γ phases of iron with shorter measuring time as compared to angle-dispersive techniques. In investigating geological specimens above all the possibility of obtaining qualitative survey analyses within short time is advantageous. The comparatively lower separability leads to difficulties because of increased line density. Therefore, quantitative phase analysis requires the use of spectra unfolding programmes. For laboratory analyses it is advantageous that the same measuring equipment allows the performance of multi-element analyses. (author)

  10. Material decomposition through weighted imaged subtraction in dual-energy spectral mammography with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ji Soo; Kang, Soon Cheol; Lee, Seung Wan [Konyang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Mammography is commonly used for screening early breast cancer. However, mammographic images, which depend on the physical properties of breast components, are limited to provide information about whether a lesion is malignant or benign. Although a dual-energy subtraction technique decomposes a certain material from a mixture, it increases radiation dose and degrades the accuracy of material decomposition. In this study, we simulated a breast phantom using attenuation characteristics, and we proposed a technique to enable the accurate material decomposition by applying weighting factors for the dual-energy mammography based on a photon-counting detector using a Monte Carlo simulation tool. We also evaluated the contrast and noise of simulated breast images for validating the proposed technique. As a result, the contrast for a malignant tumor in the dual-energy weighted subtraction technique was 0.98 and 1.06 times similar than those in the general mammography and dual-energy subtraction techniques, respectively. However the contrast between malignant and benign tumors dramatically increased 13.54 times due to the low contrast of a benign tumor. Therefore, the proposed technique can increase the material decomposition accuracy for malignant tumor and improve the diagnostic accuracy of mammography.

  11. Comparison of Dorris-Gray and Schultz methods for the calculation of surface dispersive free energy by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoli; Wang, Yue; Jia, Lina

    2011-02-11

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is an important technique for the characterization of surface properties of solid materials. A standard method of surface characterization is that the surface dispersive free energy of the solid stationary phase is firstly determined by using a series of linear alkane liquids as molecular probes, and then the acid-base parameters are calculated from the dispersive parameters. However, for the calculation of surface dispersive free energy, generally, two different methods are used, which are Dorris-Gray method and Schultz method. In this paper, the results calculated from Dorris-Gray method and Schultz method are compared through calculating their ratio with their basic equations and parameters. It can be concluded that the dispersive parameters calculated with Dorris-Gray method will always be larger than the data calculated with Schultz method. When the measuring temperature increases, the ratio increases large. Compared with the parameters in solvents handbook, it seems that the traditional surface free energy parameters of n-alkanes listed in the papers using Schultz method are not enough accurate, which can be proved with a published IGC experimental result. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simple methodologies to estimate the energy amount stored in a tree due to an explosive seed dispersal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Eduardo; Goncalves Hönnicke, Marcelo

    2018-05-01

    There are different forms to introduce/illustrate the energy concepts for the basic physics students. The explosive seed dispersal mechanism found in a variety of trees could be one of them. Sibipiruna trees carry out fruits (pods) who show such an explosive mechanism. During the explosion, the pods throw out seeds several meters away. In this manuscript we show simple methodologies to estimate the energy amount stored in the Sibipiruna tree due to such a process. Two different physics approaches were used to carry out this study: by monitoring indoor and in situ the explosive seed dispersal mechanism and by measuring the elastic constant of the pod shell. An energy of the order of kJ was found to be stored in a single tree due to such an explosive mechanism.

  13. A low-dispersion, exactly energy-charge-conserving semi-implicit relativistic particle-in-cell algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangye; Luis, Chacon; Bird, Robert; Stark, David; Yin, Lin; Albright, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Leap-frog based explicit algorithms, either ``energy-conserving'' or ``momentum-conserving'', do not conserve energy discretely. Time-centered fully implicit algorithms can conserve discrete energy exactly, but introduce large dispersion errors in the light-wave modes, regardless of timestep sizes. This can lead to intolerable simulation errors where highly accurate light propagation is needed (e.g. laser-plasma interactions, LPI). In this study, we selectively combine the leap-frog and Crank-Nicolson methods to produce a low-dispersion, exactly energy-and-charge-conserving PIC algorithm. Specifically, we employ the leap-frog method for Maxwell equations, and the Crank-Nicolson method for particle equations. Such an algorithm admits exact global energy conservation, exact local charge conservation, and preserves the dispersion properties of the leap-frog method for the light wave. The algorithm has been implemented in a code named iVPIC, based on the VPIC code developed at LANL. We will present numerical results that demonstrate the properties of the scheme with sample test problems (e.g. Weibel instability run for 107 timesteps, and LPI applications.

  14. Counting cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two...

  15. Performance of a gaseous detector based energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging system: Analysis of human teeth treated with dental amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.L.M.; Figueroa, R.; Jaramillo, A.; Carvalho, M.L.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) imaging systems are of great interest in many applications of different areas, once they allow us to get images of the spatial elemental distribution in the samples. The detector system used in this study is based on a micro patterned gas detector, named Micro-Hole and Strip Plate. The full field of view system, with an active area of 28 × 28 mm 2 presents some important features for EDXRF imaging applications, such as a position resolution below 125 μm, an intrinsic energy resolution of about 14% full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV X-rays, and a counting rate capability of 0.5 MHz. In this work, analysis of human teeth treated by dental amalgam was performed by using the EDXRF imaging system mentioned above. The goal of the analysis is to evaluate the system capabilities in the biomedical field by measuring the drift of the major constituents of a dental amalgam, Zn and Hg, throughout the tooth structures. The elemental distribution pattern of these elements obtained during the analysis suggests diffusion of these elements from the amalgam to teeth tissues. - Highlights: • Demonstration of an EDXRF imaging system based on a 2D-MHSP detector for biological analysis • Evaluation of the drift of the dental amalgam constituents, throughout the teeth • Observation of Hg diffusion, due to hydroxyapatite crystal defects that compose the teeth tissues

  16. Performance of a gaseous detector based energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging system: Analysis of human teeth treated with dental amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.L.M. [I3N, Physics Dept, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Figueroa, R.; Jaramillo, A. [Physics Department, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile); Carvalho, M.L. [Atomic Physics Centre, University of Lisbon, 1649-03 Lisboa (Portugal); Veloso, J.F.C.A., E-mail: joao.veloso@ua.pt [I3N, Physics Dept, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-08-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) imaging systems are of great interest in many applications of different areas, once they allow us to get images of the spatial elemental distribution in the samples. The detector system used in this study is based on a micro patterned gas detector, named Micro-Hole and Strip Plate. The full field of view system, with an active area of 28 × 28 mm{sup 2} presents some important features for EDXRF imaging applications, such as a position resolution below 125 μm, an intrinsic energy resolution of about 14% full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV X-rays, and a counting rate capability of 0.5 MHz. In this work, analysis of human teeth treated by dental amalgam was performed by using the EDXRF imaging system mentioned above. The goal of the analysis is to evaluate the system capabilities in the biomedical field by measuring the drift of the major constituents of a dental amalgam, Zn and Hg, throughout the tooth structures. The elemental distribution pattern of these elements obtained during the analysis suggests diffusion of these elements from the amalgam to teeth tissues. - Highlights: • Demonstration of an EDXRF imaging system based on a 2D-MHSP detector for biological analysis • Evaluation of the drift of the dental amalgam constituents, throughout the teeth • Observation of Hg diffusion, due to hydroxyapatite crystal defects that compose the teeth tissues.

  17. Performance of a gaseous detector based energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging system: Analysis of human teeth treated with dental amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. L. M.; Figueroa, R.; Jaramillo, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2013-08-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) imaging systems are of great interest in many applications of different areas, once they allow us to get images of the spatial elemental distribution in the samples. The detector system used in this study is based on a micro patterned gas detector, named Micro-Hole and Strip Plate. The full field of view system, with an active area of 28 × 28 mm2 presents some important features for EDXRF imaging applications, such as a position resolution below 125 μm, an intrinsic energy resolution of about 14% full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV X-rays, and a counting rate capability of 0.5 MHz. In this work, analysis of human teeth treated by dental amalgam was performed by using the EDXRF imaging system mentioned above. The goal of the analysis is to evaluate the system capabilities in the biomedical field by measuring the drift of the major constituents of a dental amalgam, Zn and Hg, throughout the tooth structures. The elemental distribution pattern of these elements obtained during the analysis suggests diffusion of these elements from the amalgam to teeth tissues.

  18. Multichannel spin polarimeter for energy- and angle-dispersive photoemission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization measurements of free electrons remain challenging since their first realization by Mott. The relevant quantity of a spin polarimeter is its figure of merit, FoM=S 2 I/I 0 , with the asymmetry function S and the ratio between scattered and primary intensity I/I 0 . State-of-the-art devices are based on single-channel scattering (spin-orbit or exchange interaction) which is characterized by FoM ≅10 -4 . On the other hand, modern hemispherical analyzers feature an efficient multichannel detection of spin-integral intensity with more than 10 4 data points simultaneously. In comparison between spin-resolved and spin-integral electron spectroscopy we are thus faced with a difference in counting efficiency by 8 orders of magnitude. The present work concentrates on the development and investigation of a novel technique for increasing the efficiency in spin-resolved electron spectroscopy by multichannel detection. The spin detector was integrated in a μ-metal shielded UHV-chamber and mounted behind a conventional hemispherical analyzer. The electrostatic lens system's geometry was determined by electron-optical simulations. The basic concept is the k parallel -conserving elastic scattering of the (0,0)-beam on a W(100) scattering crystal under 45 impact angle. It could be demonstrated that app. 960 data points (15 energy and 64 angular points) could be displayed simultaneously on a delayline detector in an energy interval of ≅3 eV. This leads to a two-dimensional figure of merit of FoM 2D =1.7. Compared to conventional spin detectors, the new type is thus characterized by a gain in efficiency of 4 orders of magnitude. The operational reliability of the new spin polarimeter could be proven by measurements with a Fe/MgO(100) and O p(1 x 1)/Fe(100)-sample, where results from the literature were reproduced with strongly decreased measuring time. Due to the high intensity it becomes possible, to investigate strongly reactive samples in a short time. This

  19. Micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of polychrome lead-glazed Portuguese faiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, A.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M.L.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Coroado, J.

    2010-01-01

    Several glazed ceramic pieces, originally produced in Coimbra (Portugal), were submitted to elemental analysis, having as premise the pigment manufacture production recognition. Although having been produced in Coimbra, their location changed as time passed due to historical reasons. A recent exhibition in Coimbra brought together a great number of these pieces and in situ micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF) analyses were performed in order to achieve some chemical and physical data on the manufacture of faiences in Coimbra. A non-commercial μ-EDXRF equipment for in situ analysis was employed in this work, carrying some important improvements when compared to the conventional ones, namely, analyzing spot sizes of about 100 μm diameter. The combination of a capillary X-ray lens with a new generation of low power microfocus X-ray tube and a drift chamber detector enabled a portable unit for micro-XRF with a few tens of μm lateral resolution. The advantages in using a portable system emphasized with polycapillary optics enabled to distinguish proximal different pigmented areas, as well as the glaze itself. These first scientific results on the pigment analysis of the collection of faiences seem to point to a unique production center with own techniques and raw materials. This conclusion arose with identification of the blue pigments having in its constitution Mn, Fe Co and As and the yellows as a result of the combination between Pb and Sb. A statistical treatment was used to reveal groups of similarities on the pigments elemental profile.

  20. High temperature monitoring of silicon carbide ceramics by confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • X-ray scattering was used for monitoring oxidation situation of SiC ceramics. • A calibration curve was obtained. • The confocal X-ray scattering technology was based on polycapillary X-ray optics. • The variations of contents of components of SiC ceramics were obtained. - Abstract: In the present work, we presented an alternative method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics at various high temperatures in air by measuring the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratios (I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra}) and effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}) of SiC ceramics with the confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. A calibration curve of the relationship between I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra} and Z{sub eff} was established by using a set of 8 SiC calibration samples. The sensitivity of this approach is so high that it can be easily distinguished samples of Z{sub eff} differing from each other by only 0.01. The linear relationship between the variation of Z{sub eff} and the variations of contents of C, Si and O of SiC ceramics were found, and the corresponding calculation model of the relationship between the ΔZ and the ΔC{sub C}, ΔC{sub Si}, and ΔC{sub O} were established. The variation of contents of components of the tested SiC ceramics after oxidation at high temperature was quantitatively calculated based on the model. It was shown that the results of contents of carbon, silicon and oxygen obtained by this method were in good agreement with the results obtained by XPS, giving values of relative deviation less than 1%. It was concluded that the practicality of this proposed method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of SiC ceramics at high temperatures was acceptable.

  1. Depth profiling: RBS versus energy-dispersive X-ray imaging using scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is known to be one of the techniques ideal for analysis of thin films. Elemental concentrations of matrix components and impurities can be investigated as well as depth profiles of almost each element of the periodic table. Best of all, RBS has both a high sensitivity and a high depth resolution, and is a non-destructive analysis technique that does not require specific sample preparation. Solid-state samples are mounted without preparation inside a high-vacuum analysis chamber. However, depth-related interpretation of elemental depth profiles requires the material density of the specimen and stopping power values to be taken into consideration. In many cases, these parameters can be estimated with sufficient precision. However, the assumed density can be inaccurate for depth scales in the nanometer range. For example, in the case of Ge nanoclusters in 500 nm thick SiO 2 layers, uncertainty is related to the actual position of a very thin Ge nanocluster band. Energy-dispersive X-ray emission (EDX) spectroscopy, using a high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can assist in removing this uncertainty. By preparing a thin section of the specimen, EDX can be used to identify the position of the Ge nanocluster band very precisely, by correlating the Ge profile with the depth profiles of silicon and oxygen. However, extraction of the concentration profiles from STEM-EDX spectra is in general not straightforward. Therefore, a combination of the two very different analysis techniques is often the best and only successful way to extract high-resolution concentration profiles

  2. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  3. Elemental contents in exotic Brazilian tropical fruits evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Alessandra Lopes de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The exotic flavor of Brazilian tropical fruits led to increased consumption. Consumers awareness regarding balanced diets, makes necessary determining nutritional composition - vitamins and minerals of the fruits ordinarily consumed. This study contributed to the evaluation of macro (K, Ca and microelements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in eight exotic Brazilian tropical fruits: "abiu" (Lucuma caimito Ruiz & Pav., "jenipapo" (Genipa americana L., "jambo rosa" (rose apple, Eugenia Jambos L., "jambo vermelho" (Syzygium malaccence L., Merr & Perry, "macaúba" (Acrocomia aculeata Jacq. Lood. Ex Mart., "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa, "pitanga" (Brazilian Cherry, Eugenia uniflora L., and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF technique. "jambo vermelho" and "macaúba" presented the highest values of K concentrations, 1,558 and 1,725 mg 100 g-1, respectively. On the other hand, Ca concentrations were highest in "macaúba" (680 mg 100 g-1 and "jenipapo" (341 mg 100 g-1. The microelemental concentrations in these eight fruits ranged from: 0.9 to 2.0 mg 100 g-1 for Mn, 3.9 to 11.4 mg 100 g-1 for Fe, 0.5 to 1.0 mg 100 g-1 for Cu, 0.6 to 1.5 mg 100 g-1 for, Zn and 0.3 to 1.3 mg 100 g-1 for Br. The amounts of macro and microelements in the eight fruits analyzed were compared to other tropical fruits and it was found that some of them could be classified as rich sources for these macro and microelements.

  4. Comment on: Power loss and electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive metamaterial medium

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsler, Paul

    2010-01-01

    By clarifying the approach of Luan (Phys. Rev. E, 2009), we can generalize the analysis of dispersive (meta)materials, and treat other material responses involving not only loss, but also gain and coherent response.

  5. Multichannel spin polarimeter for energy- and angle-dispersive photoemission measurements; Vielkanal-Spinpolarimeter fuer energie- und winkeldispersive Photoemissionsmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, Michaela

    2011-09-09

    Spin polarization measurements of free electrons remain challenging since their first realization by Mott. The relevant quantity of a spin polarimeter is its figure of merit, FoM=S{sup 2}I/I{sub 0}, with the asymmetry function S and the ratio between scattered and primary intensity I/I{sub 0}. State-of-the-art devices are based on single-channel scattering (spin-orbit or exchange interaction) which is characterized by FoM {approx_equal}10{sup -4}. On the other hand, modern hemispherical analyzers feature an efficient multichannel detection of spin-integral intensity with more than 10{sup 4} data points simultaneously. In comparison between spin-resolved and spin-integral electron spectroscopy we are thus faced with a difference in counting efficiency by 8 orders of magnitude. The present work concentrates on the development and investigation of a novel technique for increasing the efficiency in spin-resolved electron spectroscopy by multichannel detection. The spin detector was integrated in a {mu}-metal shielded UHV-chamber and mounted behind a conventional hemispherical analyzer. The electrostatic lens system's geometry was determined by electron-optical simulations. The basic concept is the k {sub parallel} -conserving elastic scattering of the (0,0)-beam on a W(100) scattering crystal under 45 impact angle. It could be demonstrated that app. 960 data points (15 energy and 64 angular points) could be displayed simultaneously on a delayline detector in an energy interval of {approx_equal}3 eV. This leads to a two-dimensional figure of merit of FoM{sub 2D}=1.7. Compared to conventional spin detectors, the new type is thus characterized by a gain in efficiency of 4 orders of magnitude. The operational reliability of the new spin polarimeter could be proven by measurements with a Fe/MgO(100) and O p(1 x 1)/Fe(100)-sample, where results from the literature were reproduced with strongly decreased measuring time. Due to the high intensity it becomes possible, to

  6. Energy time dispersion of a new class of magnetospheric ion events observed near the Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Anagnostopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed high time resolution (\\geq6 s data during the onset and the decay phase of several energetic (\\geq35 keV ion events observed near the Earth's bow shock by the CCE/AMPTE and IMP-7/8 spacecraft, during times of intense substorm/geomagnetic activity. We found that forward energy dispersion at the onset of events (earlier increase of middle energy ions and/or a delayed fall of the middle energy ion fluxes at the end of events are often evident in high time resolution data. The energy spectra at the onset and the decay of this kind of events show a characteristic hump at middle (50-120 keV energies and the angular distributions display either anisotropic or broad forms. The time scale of energy dispersion in the ion events examined was found to range from several seconds to \\sim1 h depending on the ion energies compared and on the rate of variation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF direction. Several canditate processes are discussed to explain the observations and it is suggested that a rigidity dependent transport process of magnetospheric particles within the magnetosheath is most probably responsible for the detection of this new type of near bow shock magnetospheric ion events. The new class of ion events was observed within both the magnetosheath and the upstream region.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks

  7. Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis in dermatology--an up-date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forslind, B.

    1988-01-01

    Dermatological papers comprising scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis data published 1983 through 1986 in international journals are reviewed, as an update to our 1984 paper on Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis in dermatology. The present paper not only deals with a review of recent publications in this area but also presents the application of microincineration to hair and cryosectioned freeze-dried skin specimens. Examples of the increased contrast obtained in hair cross sections are presented and a discussion on the feasibility of microincineration at analysis of hair and skin cross sections is given. Particle probe analysis (EDX: energy dispersive X-ray analysis and PMP: proton microprobe analysis) as applied to hair and skin samples are presented with stress put on the proton probe analysis. The complementarity of EDX and PMP is demonstrated and future applications are suggested. 75 references

  8. Non-matrix corrected organic sulfur determination by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for western Kentucky coals and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.P.; Freeman, G.B.; Hower, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A method for non-matrix corrected organic sulfur analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has been developed using petroleum coke standards. Typically, electron beam microanalysis is a rapid, nondestructive analytical technique to quantitatively measure organic sulfur in coal. The results show good correlation to ASTM values for numerous well characterized coals with a wide range in total and pyritic sulfur content. This direct analysis is capable of reducing error commonly associated with the present ASTM method which relies on an indirect measure of organic sulfur by difference. The precision of the organic sulfur values determined in the present study is comparable to that obtained by ZAF matrix corrected microanalysis. The energy dispersive microanalysis is capable of measuring micro as well as bulk organic sulfur levels

  9. Determination of the structure factors of a LiF powder sample by the energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, R.; Ahtee, A.; Paakkari, T.

    1977-01-01

    The structure factors of a LiF powder sample were determined by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction in the range 9 to 25 keV, with the use of a Si(Li) solid state detector, following the method applied on GaP. Since the absorption coefficient of LiF is small at high energy, a fraction of the incident x-rays penetrates through the sample and does not contribute to the diffraction. This effect was taken into account in the determination of the structure factors. Then the structure factors generally agree, within the limit of 5 % error, with those obtained by the usual angle dispersive method, if the penetrated part of the incident beam is less than 40 %. (author)

  10. Threat detection of liquid explosives and precursors from their x-ray scattering pattern using energy dispersive detector technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Lyksborg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) can be applied for identification of liquid threats in luggage scanning in security applications. To define the instrumental design, the framework for data reduction and analysis and test the performance of the threat detection in various scenarios....... Initial testing of the threat detection algorithms with this data set indicate the feasibility of detection levels of > 95 % true positive with

  11. Tower counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  12. Analysis of the 48Ca neutron skin using a nonlocal dispersive-optical-model self-energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mack; Mahzoon, Hossein; Dickhoff, Willem; Charity, Robert

    2017-09-01

    A nonlocal dispersive-optical-model (DOM) analysis of the 40Ca and 48Ca nuclei has been implemented. The real and imaginary potentials are constrained by fitting to elastic-scattering data, total and reaction cross sections, energy level information, particle number, and the charge densities of 40Ca and 48Ca, respectively. The nonlocality of these potentials permits a proper dispersive self-energy which accurately describes both positive and negative energy observables. 48Ca is of particular interest because it is doubly magic and has a neutron skin due to the excess of neutrons. The DOM neutron skin radius is found to be rskin = 0.245 , which is larger than most previous calculations. The neutron skin is closely related to the symmetry energy which is a crucial part of the nuclear equation of state. The combined analysis of 40Ca and 48Ca energy densities provides a description of the density dependence of the symmetry energy which is compared with the 48Ca neutron skin. Results for 208Pb will also become available in the near future. NSF.

  13. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence determination of cadmium in uranium matrix using Cd Kα line excited by continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    An energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method for determination of cadmium (Cd) in uranium (U) matrix using continuum source of excitation was developed. Calibration and sample solutions of cadmium, with and without uranium were prepared by mixing different volumes of standard solutions of cadmium and uranyl nitrate, both prepared in suprapure nitric acid. The concentration of Cd in calibration solutions and samples was in the range of 6 to 90 μg/mL whereas the concentration of Cd with respect to U ranged from 90 to 700 μg/g of U. From the calibration solutions and samples containing uranium, the major matrix uranium was selectively extracted using 30% tri-n-butyl phosphate in dodecane. Fixed volumes (1.5 mL) of aqueous phases thus obtained were taken directly in specially designed in-house fabricated leak proof Perspex sample cells for the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence measurements and calibration plots were made by plotting Cd Kα intensity against respective Cd concentration. For the calibration solutions not having uranium, the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra were measured without any extraction and Cd calibration plots were made accordingly. The results obtained showed a precision of 2% (1σ) and the results deviated from the expected values by < 4% on average.

  14. The Microstructures and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Analysis of a Hypoeutectoid Steels With 1% Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rożniata E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule zamieszczono wyniki badań mikrostruktury, analizy EDS i twardości stali podeutektoidalnych z 1% Cr imitujących składem chemicznym stale do ulepszania cieplnego. Badania dylatometryczne wykonano przy użyciu dylatometru L78R.I.T.A niemieckiej firmy LlNSElS. Za pomocą dyla- tometru rejestrowano zmiany wydłużenia (Al próbek o wymiarach >p 3X10mm w funkcji temperatury (T. Otrzymane krzywe nagrzewania posłużyły do precyzyjnego wyznaczenia temperatur krytycznych (punktów przełomowych dla badanych stali. Natomiast otrzymane krzywe chłodzenia różniczkowano, co pozwoliło precyzyjnie określić temperatury początków i końców poszczególnych przemian dla wykonania dwóch wykresów CTPc. Analizę składu chemicznego występujących faz w badanych stalach dla różnych szybkości chłodzenia wykonano przy użyciu mikrosondy elektronowej (mikroanalizator rentgenowski. W niniejszej pracy wykorzystano technikę analizy punktowej, liniowej oraz w obszarze o ustalonym polu. Po umieszczeniu próbek z badanych stali w komorze i osiągnięciu odpowiedniej próżni, wyszukano miejsca i dokonano analizy techniką EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Analizy EDS dokonano przy użyciu skaningowego mikroskopu transmisyjnego typu Nova NanoS EM 450. Opracowane wykresy CTPc zgodnie z klasyfikacją Wever’a i Rose’go są typu IV, co oznacza, że przemiany dyfuzyjne są rozdzielone zakresem trwałości przechłodzonego austenitu i mają kształt litery „C". Hartowność badanych stali jest zbliżona, jednak molibden działa zdecydowanie skuteczniej niż nikiel. Molibden zajmuje I-sze miejsce wśród skuteczności pierwiastków stopowych dla stali do niskiego odpuszczania, gdzie „tło" pierwiastków jest słabe. Dla obu badanych stali podeutektoidalnych analiza EDS wykazała wydzielanie się cementy tu stopowego na granicach ziaren. Chrom, jako pierwiastek terrytotwórczy dość silnie dyfunduje do granic ziaren. Widocznie jest to przy

  15. Time moments of the energy flow of optical pulses in highly dispersive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Lipsa; Wanare, Harshawardhan; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2010-01-01

    We use the time moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse to characterize the traversal times and temporal pulse widths as the pulse propagates in highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with the propagation distance is analysed in three canonical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, a Raman gain doublet amplifying medium and a medium exhibiting electromagnetically induced transparency. We find that superluminal pulse propagation in the first two cases with anomalous dispersion is usually accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation. In a medium with electromagnetically induced transparency with large normal dispersion, we identify a range of frequencies for which the pulse undergoes minimal temporal expansion while propagating with ultra-slow speed.

  16. The mean energy loss by neutrino with magnetic moment in strong magnetic field with consideration of positronium contribution to photon dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosichkin, A. F.

    2017-11-01

    The process of radiative decay of the neutrino with a magnetic moment in a strong magnetic field with consideration of positronium influence on photon dispersion has been studied. Positronium contribution to the photon polarization operator induces significant modifications of the photon dispersion law and neutrino radiative decay amplitude. It has been shown that the mean energy loss of a neutrino with magnetic a moment significantly increases, when the positronium contribution to photon dispersion is taken into account.

  17. Dispersion Energy Analysis of Rayleigh and Love Waves in the Presence of Low-Velocity Layers in Near-Surface Seismic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Binbin; Xia, Jianghai; Shen, Chao; Wang, Limin

    2018-03-01

    High-frequency surface-wave analysis methods have been effectively and widely used to determine near-surface shear (S) wave velocity. To image the dispersion energy and identify different dispersive modes of surface waves accurately is one of key steps of using surface-wave methods. We analyzed the dispersion energy characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves in near-surface layered models based on numerical simulations. It has been found that if there is a low-velocity layer (LVL) in the half-space, the dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves is discontinuous and ``jumping'' appears from the fundamental mode to higher modes on dispersive images. We introduce the guided waves generated in an LVL (LVL-guided waves, a trapped wave mode) to clarify the complexity of the dispersion energy. We confirm the LVL-guided waves by analyzing the snapshots of SH and P-SV wavefield and comparing the dispersive energy with theoretical values of phase velocities. Results demonstrate that LVL-guided waves possess energy on dispersive images, which can interfere with the normal dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves. Each mode of LVL-guided waves having lack of energy at the free surface in some high frequency range causes the discontinuity of dispersive energy on dispersive images, which is because shorter wavelengths (generally with lower phase velocities and higher frequencies) of LVL-guided waves cannot penetrate to the free surface. If the S wave velocity of the LVL is higher than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves only contaminates higher mode energy of surface waves and there is no interlacement with the fundamental mode of surface waves, while if the S wave velocity of the LVL is lower than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves may interlace with the fundamental mode of surface waves. Both of the interlacements with the fundamental mode or higher mode energy may cause misidentification for the dispersion curves of surface

  18. On the energy flux of stationary electromagnetic waves in anisotropic dissipative media with spatial dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokman, M. D.; Westerhof, E.; Gavrilova, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The special features of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in gyrotropic medium with dispersion and resonant dissipation (specifically, in a magnetoactive plasma) are studied. Even though the anti-Hermitian components of the permittivity tensor are substantial in magnitude, weakly damped waves

  19. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Mitchell, David R.G. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results.

  20. Electric and magnetic field modulated energy dispersion, conductivity and optical response in double quantum wire with spin-orbit interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Y.; Gisi, B.; Sakiroglu, S.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sokmen, I.

    2018-02-01

    We study the influence of electric field on the electronic energy band structure, zero-temperature ballistic conductivity and optical properties of double quantum wire. System described by double-well anharmonic confinement potential is exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field and Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. Numerical results show up that the combined effects of internal and external agents cause the formation of crossing, anticrossing, camel-back/anomaly structures and the lateral, downward/upward shifts in the energy dispersion. The anomalies in the energy subbands give rise to the oscillation patterns in the ballistic conductance, and the energy shifts bring about the shift in the peak positions of optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes.

  1. Thickness-dependent dispersion parameters, energy gap and nonlinear refractive index of ZnSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Deo; Shaaban, E.R.; Shapaan, M.; Mohamed, S.H.; Othman, A.A.; Verma, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined experimental and theoretical researches on ZnSe Thin Films. • The film thickness and refractive index were determined using envelope method. • The absorption coefficient and the energy gap were calculated. • Dispersion parameters were determined using Wemple-DiDomenico relation. • The third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were calculated. - Abstract: Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films with different thicknesses were evaporated onto glass substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that both the film and powder have cubic zinc-blende structure. The fundamental optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and band gap were evaluated in transparent region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The optical transition of the films was found to be allowed, where the energy gap increased from 2.576 to 2.702 eV with increasing film thickness. Also, the refractive index value increase with increasing film thickness. The refractive indices evaluated through envelope method were extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectra range. Additionally, the dispersion of refractive index was determined in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. Third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined for different thickness of ZnSe thin films.

  2. Challenges for energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the ESRF: microsecond time resolution and Mega-bar pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilanti, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Thesis concerns the development of two different applications of energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the ESRF: time-resolved studies pushed to the microsecond time resolution and high-pressure studies at the limit of the Mega-bar pressures. The work has been developed in two distinct parts, and the underlying theme has been the exploitation of the capabilities of an X-ray absorption spectrometer in dispersive geometry on a third generation synchrotron source. For time-resolved studies, the study of the triplet excited state following a laser excitation of Pt 2 (P 2 O 5 H 2 ) 4 4- has been chosen to push the technique to the microsecond time resolution. In the high-pressure part, the suitability of the energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectrometer for high-pressure studies using diamond anvils cell is stressed. Some technical developments carried out on beamline ID24 are discussed. Finally, the most extensive scientific part concerns a combined X-ray absorption and diffraction study of InAs under pressure. (author)

  3. Thickness-dependent dispersion parameters, energy gap and nonlinear refractive index of ZnSe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Deo [School of Computer Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, SMVD University, Kakryal, Katra 182320, J& K (India); Shaaban, E.R., E-mail: esam_ramadan2008@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71542 (Egypt); Shapaan, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azahar University, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, S.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag (Egypt); Othman, A.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Verma, K.D., E-mail: kdverma1215868@gmail.com [Material Science Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh 202001, U.P. (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Combined experimental and theoretical researches on ZnSe Thin Films. • The film thickness and refractive index were determined using envelope method. • The absorption coefficient and the energy gap were calculated. • Dispersion parameters were determined using Wemple-DiDomenico relation. • The third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were calculated. - Abstract: Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films with different thicknesses were evaporated onto glass substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that both the film and powder have cubic zinc-blende structure. The fundamental optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and band gap were evaluated in transparent region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The optical transition of the films was found to be allowed, where the energy gap increased from 2.576 to 2.702 eV with increasing film thickness. Also, the refractive index value increase with increasing film thickness. The refractive indices evaluated through envelope method were extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectra range. Additionally, the dispersion of refractive index was determined in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. Third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined for different thickness of ZnSe thin films.

  4. Modulational instability and nano-scale energy localization in ferromagnetic spin chain with higher order dispersive interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, L.; Mohamadou, A.; Parasuraman, E.; Gopi, D.; Akila, N.; Prabhu, A.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear localization phenomena in ferromagnetic spin lattices have attracted a steadily growing interest and their existence has been predicted in a wide range of physical settings. We investigate the onset of modulational instability of a plane wave in a discrete ferromagnetic spin chain with physically significant higher order dispersive octupole–dipole and dipole–dipole interactions. We derive the discrete nonlinear equation of motion with the aid of Holstein–Primakoff (H–P) transformation combined with Glauber's coherent state representation. We show that the discrete ferromagnetic spin dynamics is governed by an entirely new discrete NLS model with complex coefficients not reported so far. We report the study of modulational instability (MI) of the ferromagnetic chain with long range dispersive interactions both analytically in the frame work of linear stability analysis and numerically by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our numerical simulations explore that the analytical predictions correctly describe the onset of instability. It is found that the presence of the various exchange and dispersive higher order interactions systematically favors the local gathering of excitations and thus supports the growth of high amplitude, long-lived discrete breather (DB) excitations. We analytically compute the strongly localized odd and even modes. Further, we employ the Jacobi elliptic function method to solve the nonlinear evolution equation and an exact propagating bubble-soliton solution is explored. - Highlights: • Higher order dispersive interactions plays significant role in ferromagnetic spin chain. • The energy localization is studied both analytically and numerically. • The existence of DBs are studied under the effect of higher order dispersive interaction.

  5. Influence of ultrasonic energy on dispersion of aggregates and released amounts of organic matter and polyvalent cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M.; Kleber, M.; Berhe, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Aggregates play important roles in soil carbon storage and stabilization. Identification of scale-dependent mechanisms of soil aggregate formation and stability is necessary to predict and eventually manage the flow of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems. Application of ultrasonic energy is a common tool to disperse soil aggregates. In this study, we used ultra sonic energy (100 to 2000 J cm-3) to determine the amount of polyvalent cations and organic matter involved in aggregation processes in three arable and three forest soils that varied in soil mineral composition. To determine the amount of organic matter and cations released after application of different amount of ultrasonic energy, we removed the coarse fraction (>250 µm). The remaining residue (solid residue freeze dried before we analyzed the amounts of water-extracted organic carbon (OC), Fe, Al, Ca, Mn, and Mg in the filtrates. The extracted OM and solid residues were further characterized by Fourier Transformed Infra Red spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our results show a linear increase in amount of dissolved OC with increasing amounts of ultra sonic energy up to 1500 J cm-3 indicating maximum dispersion of soil aggregates at this energy level independent from soil type or land use. In contrast to Mn, and Mg, the amounts of dissolved Ca, Fe, and Al increase with increasing ultra sonic energy up to 1500 J cm-3. At 1500 J cm-3, the absolute amounts of OC, Ca, Fe, and Al released were specific for each soil type, likely indicating differences in type of OM-mineral interactions involved in micro-scaled aggregation processes. The amounts of dissolved Fe, and Al released after an application of 1500 J cm-3 are not related to oxalate- and dithionite- extractable, or total Al content indicating less disintegration of pedogenic oxides or clay minerals due to high levels of ultrasonic energy.

  6. Evaluation of the impact of higher-order energy enhancement characteristics of solitons in strongly dispersion-managed optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Otero, Francisco J.; Guillán-Lorenzo, Omar; Pedrosa-Rodríguez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Empirical model describing the pulse energy enhancement required to obtain stable pulses to higher-order polynomial equations • An improvement in the accuracy is obtained through the addition of a new quartic addend dependent on the map strength. • This conclusion is validated through a comparison in a commercial DM soliton submarine network. • The error in the interaction distance for two adjacent pulses in the same channel is of the same order as the energy error - Abstract: We study the propagation properties of nonlinear pulses with periodic evolution in a dispersion-managed transmission link by means of a variational approach. We fit the energy enhancement required for stable propagation of a single soliton in a prototypical commercial link to a polynomial approximation that describes the dependence of the energy on the map strength of the normalized unit cell. We present an improvement of a relatively old and essential result, namely, the dependence of the energy-enhancement factor of dispersion-management solitons with the square of the map strength of the fiber link. We find that adding additional corrections to the conventional quadratic formula up to the fourth order results in an improvement in the accuracy of the description of the numerical results obtained with the variational approximation. Even a small error in the energy is found to introduce large deviations in the pulse parameters during its evolution. The error in the evaluation of the interaction distance between two adjacent time division multiplexed pulses propagating in the same channel in a prototypical submarine link is of the same order as the error in the energy.

  7. A Forging Hardness Dispersion Effect on the Energy Consumption of Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mal'kova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate a hardness dispersion of forgings to be further machined, and analyse the impact of this dispersion on the resulting power consumption when cutting.The paper studies the hardness values of three kinds of parts for automotive manufacturing. Sample of each part was n = 100 pieces. Analysis of measurements showed that 46% - 93% of parts meet requirements for a range defined by the work-piece working drawing. It was found that hardness of one batch of forgings is under dispersion, which distribution is governed by the normal law.The work provides calculations for machining the external cylindrical surfaces of the considered parts. In the context of calculating are adopted parameters of the enterprise-processing rate. It is found that power consumption of machining because of the dispersion values of the work-piece hardness is a function of the random BH variable and it itself is a random variable. Two types of samples are considered, namely: the full sample and that of the values that meet requirements for hardness. The coefficient of variation for samples that meet the technical requirements for hardness is lower than for the full samples, so their average value is more reliable characteristic of a set. It was also found that to ensure a reliable prediction of power consumption in designing the manufacturing processes it is necessary to reduce a tolerance range of workpiece hardness to the limit.The work gives a comparative evaluation of electric power consumption per unit cylindrical surface of the parts under consideration. A relative change in the electric power consumed at the minimum and maximum levels of the hardness value was introduced as an evaluation criterion. It is found that with changing hardness of machined work-pieces within the tolerance, the change in power consumption in machining the unit surface reaches 16% while in the case its being out of the specified range it does 47%.

  8. Supervised Mineral Classification with Semi-automatic Training and Validation Set Generation in Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Images of Thin Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesche, Harald; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of classifying minerals common in siliciclastic and carbonate rocks. Twelve chemical elements are mapped from thin sections by energy dispersive spectroscopy in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Extensions to traditional multivariate statistical methods...

  9. Calibration and energy resolution study of a high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer with monochromatic proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Stancampiano, C.; Tramontana, A.; Amato, A.; Caruso, G.F.; Salamone, S.; Maggiore, M.; Velyhan, A.; Margarone, D.; Palumbo, G. Parasiliti; Russo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A high energy resolution, high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer has been developed at INFN-LNS in order to characterize laser-driven beams up to 30- 40 MeV for protons. This device has parallel electric and magnetic field to deflect particles of a certain charge-to-mass ratio onto parabolic traces on the detection plane. Calibration of the deflection sector is crucial for data analysis, namely energy determination of analysed beam, and to evaluate the effective energy limit and resolution. This work reports the study of monochromatic proton beams delivered by the TANDEM accelerator at LNS (Catania) in the energy range between 6 and 12.5 MeV analysed with our spectrometer which allows a precise characterization of the electric and magnetic deflections. Also the energy and the Q/A resolutions and the energy limits have been evaluated proposing a mathematical model that can be used for data analysis, for the experimental set up and for the device scalability for higher energy

  10. An Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Analysis of Elemental Changes of a Persimmon Phytobezoar Dissolved in Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Urata, Haruo; Higashi, Reiji; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Shin; Shiraha, Hidenori; Okada, Hiroyuki

    To investigate the mechanism of phytobezoar dissolution by Coca-Cola(®), persimmon phytobezoar pieces removed from a 60-year-old Japanese woman were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The amount of calcium significantly decreased after dissolution treatment using Coca-Cola(®), suggesting a potential contribution of calcium to dissolution mechanisms. Moreover, immersion in Coca-Cola(®) for 120 hours on the exterior surface revealed that Coca-Cola(®) did not permeate persimmon phytobezoars. This is the first study to investigate the mechanisms of persimmon phytobezoar permeability and dissolution induced by Coca-Cola(®).

  11. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z ≥ 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs

  12. In situ multi-element analyses by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence on varnishes of historical violins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echard, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire de recherche et de restauration, Musee de la musique, Cite de la musique, 221, avenue Jean-Jaures, 75019 Paris (France)]. E-mail: jpechard@cite-musique.fr

    2004-10-08

    Varnishes of Italian violins and other historical stringed instruments have been analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The instruments whose varnishes were to be analyzed were chosen from the collection kept in Musee de la Musique in Paris. Direct analyses were performed on instrument varnishes, without any sampling and non-destructively, showing inorganic elements such as lead, mercury and iron that could be related to siccatives or pigments. Analytical results and their comparison with old formulae or traditional recipes of violin varnishes, as with the few previous analytical results, will be discussed.

  13. In situ multi-element analyses by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence on varnishes of historical violins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echard, Jean-Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Varnishes of Italian violins and other historical stringed instruments have been analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The instruments whose varnishes were to be analyzed were chosen from the collection kept in Musée de la Musique in Paris. Direct analyses were performed on instrument varnishes, without any sampling and non-destructively, showing inorganic elements such as lead, mercury and iron that could be related to siccatives or pigments. Analytical results and their comparison with old formulae or traditional recipes of violin varnishes, as with the few previous analytical results, will be discussed.

  14. Analysis of Precious Stones Deposited in Various Rock Samples of Mogok Region by energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyi Kyi San; Soe Lwin; Win Win Thar; Sein Htoon

    2004-06-01

    The analysis of precious stones deposited in various rock samples of Mogok region were investigated by the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. The x-ray machine with Rh target was used to excite the characteristic x-ray from the sample. X-rays emitted from the sample were measured by a high resolution, cooled Si (Li) detector. The calibration was made by the measurement of minerals which composed in each kind of precious stones. The kind of precious stone deposited in the rocks sample was determined by the measurement of minerals from the rock samples compared with those obtained from each kind of precious stones

  15. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis of Soil in the Vicinity of Industrial Areas and Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V.; Joshi, G. C.; Bisht, D.

    2017-05-01

    The soil of two agricultural sites near an industrial area was investigated for heavy metal pollution using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The concentration values for 17 elements were determined in the soil samples including eight heavy metal elements, i.e., Fe, Ni, As, Pb, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Zn. The soil near a pulp and paper mill was found to be highly polluted by the heavy metals. The concentration data obtained by EDXRF were further examined by calculating the pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index.

  16. In situ multi-element analyses by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence on varnishes of historical violins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echard, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Varnishes of Italian violins and other historical stringed instruments have been analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The instruments whose varnishes were to be analyzed were chosen from the collection kept in Musee de la Musique in Paris. Direct analyses were performed on instrument varnishes, without any sampling and non-destructively, showing inorganic elements such as lead, mercury and iron that could be related to siccatives or pigments. Analytical results and their comparison with old formulae or traditional recipes of violin varnishes, as with the few previous analytical results, will be discussed

  17. Energy and pitch-angle dispersions of LLBL/cusp ions seen at middle altitudes: predictions by the open magnetosphere model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are presented of the ion distribution functions seen by middle-altitude spacecraft in the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL and cusp regions when reconnection is, or has recently been, taking place at the equatorial magnetopause. From the evolution of the distribution function with time elapsed since the field line was opened, both the observed energy/observation-time and pitch-angle/energy dispersions are well reproduced. Distribution functions showing a mixture of magnetosheath and magnetospheric ions, often thought to be a signature of the LLBL, are found on newly opened field lines as a natural consequence of the magnetopause effects on the ions and their flight times. In addition, it is shown that the extent of the source region of the magnetosheath ions that are detected by a satellite is a function of the sensitivity of the ion instrument . If the instrument one-count level is high (and/or solar-wind densities are low, the cusp ion precipitation detected comes from a localised region of the mid-latitude magnetopause (around the magnetic cusp, even though the reconnection takes place at the equatorial magnetopause. However, if the instrument sensitivity is high enough, then ions injected from a large segment of the dayside magnetosphere (in the relevant hemisphere will be detected in the cusp. Ion precipitation classed as LLBL is shown to arise from the low-latitude magnetopause, irrespective of the instrument sensitivity. Adoption of threshold flux definitions has the same effect as instrument sensitivity in artificially restricting the apparent source regionKey words. Low-latitude boundary layer · Cusp regions · Open magnetosphere model · Mid-altitudes

  18. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  19. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Exchange-Hole Dipole Dispersion Model for Accurate Energy Ranking in Molecular Crystal Structure Prediction II: Nonplanar Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittleton, Sarah R; Otero-de-la-Roza, A; Johnson, Erin R

    2017-11-14

    The crystal structure prediction (CSP) of a given compound from its molecular diagram is a fundamental challenge in computational chemistry with implications in relevant technological fields. A key component of CSP is the method to calculate the lattice energy of a crystal, which allows the ranking of candidate structures. This work is the second part of our investigation to assess the potential of the exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) dispersion model for crystal structure prediction. In this article, we study the relatively large, nonplanar, mostly flexible molecules in the first five blind tests held by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. Four of the seven experimental structures are predicted as the energy minimum, and thermal effects are demonstrated to have a large impact on the ranking of at least another compound. As in the first part of this series, delocalization error affects the results for a single crystal (compound X), in this case by detrimentally overstabilizing the π-conjugated conformation of the monomer. Overall, B86bPBE-XDM correctly predicts 16 of the 21 compounds in the five blind tests, a result similar to the one obtained using the best CSP method available to date (dispersion-corrected PW91 by Neumann et al.). Perhaps more importantly, the systems for which B86bPBE-XDM fails to predict the experimental structure as the energy minimum are mostly the same as with Neumann's method, which suggests that similar difficulties (absence of vibrational free energy corrections, delocalization error,...) are not limited to B86bPBE-XDM but affect GGA-based DFT-methods in general. Our work confirms B86bPBE-XDM as an excellent option for crystal energy ranking in CSP and offers a guide to identify crystals (organic salts, conjugated flexible systems) where difficulties may appear.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy - useful tools in the analysis of pharmaceutical products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Balwierz, Radoslaw; Ostrozka-Cieslik, Aneta; Dyja, Renata; Lukowiec, Dariusz; Jankowski, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The quality of the drug, its purity and identification of degradation products provide the highest quality of pharmaceutical products. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) method analyses the percentage of each element form as well as their distribution, and morphological characteristics of the drug form. We analysed the usefulness of EDS method in testing orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) with trimetazidine hydrochloride with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM, SUPRA25 Carl Zeiss company) with spectrophotometer equipped with an X-ray energy dispersion (EDAX Company). The samples of the analysed tablets were imaged after applying conductive layers of gold on their surface. In the EDS analysis the compositions of each sample of the obtained tablets were observed to be virtually identical. The differences in the content of carbon and oxygen came from differences in the composition of particular tablets. The presence of gold in the composition resulted from the sputtering the surface of tablets with gold during the analysis. Knowing the composition of the tablet, SEM-EDS method helps to locate and identify the impurities and degradation products of the compounds, leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms of their formation.

  2. A low cost multi-purpose experimental arrangement for variants in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Silva, R.M.C.; Moraes, L.M.B.; Parreira, P.S.; Appoloni, R.C.; Silva, R.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Based in an X-ray tower with four exits (two line and two point beams) experimental conditions were arranged to carry out variants in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis: (1) the conventional one (EDXRF), with excitation/detection of thin and thick samples, under vacuum and air atmosphere, (2) the X-ray energy dispersive micro- fluorescence analysis(μ-EDXRF), with 2D mapping, using a quartz capillar, (3) the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), under He and air atmosphere, and (4) secondary target/polarized X-ray fluorescence (P-EDXRF). It was possible to use a Cu, Mo or W target on the X-ray tube, with or without filter (V, Fe, Ni and Zr), and Si(Li) or Si-PIN semicondutor detectors coupled to a multichannel analyzer. In addition, it was possible to use the point beam to carry out experiments on (5) X-ray radiography and (6) X-ray absorption, and the line beam on (7) X-ray diffractometry studies.

  3. Comparison between energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and other nuclear analytical techniques in mineral exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Packer, T.W.; Wormald, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    At the present time there is an increasing awareness of the value and need for in-situ analytical methods throughout the general area of mineral exploration and mining. Of the alternative techniques, the measurement of natural gamma radiation is well established for uranium exploration and it is now being developed for sea-bed and lake-bed surveying. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment is becoming more generally accepted, especially for mine control. Neutron techniques, for so long used routinely in oil well logging, are now being developed for a wide range of applications in all aspects of exploration and mining. It is believed that these techniques will result in major applications in the future. The present paper compares the principal characteristics of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and neutron techniques in particular, with special emphasis being given to those factors which affect the accuracy of analytical content; such as elemental resolution, matrix effects, material heterogeneity and neutron transport. A generalised comparison between the techniques is difficult to achieve because of the different nature of radiation interactions, but a range of applications is described and these show the complementary nature of the methods and point to the areas for more active development in the future. (author)

  4. On the superposition of strengthening mechanisms in dispersion strengthened alloys and metal-matrix nanocomposites: Considerations of stress and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J. B.; Schultz, Benjamin F.; Venugopalan, Dev; Lopez, Hugo F.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.; Cho, Kyu; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Yield strength improvement in dispersion strengthened alloys and nano particle-reinforced composites by well-known strengthening mechanisms such as solid solution, grain refinement, coherent and incoherent dispersed particles, and increased dislocation density resulting from work-hardening can all be described individually. However, there is no agreed upon description of how these mechanisms combine to determine the yield strength. In this work, we propose an analytical yield strength prediction model combining arithmetic and quadratic addition approaches based on the consideration of two types of yielding mechanisms; stress-activated and energy-activated. Using data available in the literature for materials of differing grain sizes, we consider the cases of solid solutions and coherent precipitates to show that they follow stress-activated behavior. Then, we applied our model with some empirical parameters to precipitationhardenable materials of various grain sizes in both coherent and incoherent precipitate conditions, which demonstrated that grain boundary and Orowan-strengthening can be treated as energy-activated mechanisms.

  5. Development of analytical software for semi-quantitative analysis of x-ray spectrum acquired from energy-dispersive spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.; Rana, M.A.; Qamar, R.; Latif, A; Ahmad, M.; Farooq, M.A.; Ahmad, Z.

    2003-12-01

    Software package for elemental analysis for X-ray spectrum obtained from Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) attached with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has been developed: A Personal Computer Analyzer card PCA-800 is used to acquire data from the EDS. This spectrum is obtained in binary format, which is transformed into ASCII format using PCAII card software. The program is modular in construction and coded using Microsoft's QUICKBASIC compiler linker. Energy line library containing all lines of elements is created for analysis of acquired characteristic X-ray spectrum. Two techniques of peak identification are provided. Statistical tools are employed for smoothing of a curve and for computing area under the curve. Elemental concentration is calculated in weight % and in atomic. (author)

  6. Defining the contributions of permanent electrostatics, Pauli repulsion, and dispersion in density functional theory calculations of intermolecular interaction energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Paul R., E-mail: prhorn@berkeley.edu; Mao, Yuezhi; Head-Gordon, Martin, E-mail: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu [Kenneth S. Pitzer Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    In energy decomposition analysis of Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations, the so-called frozen (or pre-polarization) interaction energy contains contributions from permanent electrostatics, dispersion, and Pauli repulsion. The standard classical approach to separate them suffers from several well-known limitations. We introduce an alternative scheme that employs valid antisymmetric electronic wavefunctions throughout and is based on the identification of individual fragment contributions to the initial supersystem wavefunction as determined by an energetic optimality criterion. The density deformations identified with individual fragments upon formation of the initial supersystem wavefunction are analyzed along with the distance dependence of the new and classical terms for test cases that include the neon dimer, ammonia borane, water-Na{sup +}, water-Cl{sup −}, and the naphthalene dimer.

  7. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles dispersed in silica prepared by high-energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E. M.; Montero, M. I.; Cebollada, F.; de Julián, C.; Vicent, J. L.; González, J. M.

    1998-04-01

    We analyze the magnetic properties of mechanically ground nanosized Ni particles dispersed in a SiO2 matrix. Our magnetic characterization of the as-milled samples show the occurrence of two blocking processes and that of non-monotonic milling time evolutions of the magnetic-order temperature, the high-field magnetization and the saturation coercivity. The measured coercivities exhibit giant values and a uniaxial-type temperature dependence. Thermal treatment carried out in the as-prepared samples result in a remarkable coercivity reduction and in an increase of the high-field magnetization. We conclude, on the basis of the consideration of a core (pure Ni) and shell (Ni-Si inhomogeneous alloy) particle structure, that the magnetoelastic anisotropy plays the dominant role in determining the magnetic properties of our particles.

  8. Study of soil aggregate breakdown dynamics under low dispersive ultrasonic energies with sedimentation and X-ray attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomakers, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Mentler, Axel; Ottner, Franz; Mayer, Herwig

    2015-10-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that soil organic matter stabilization is strongly controlled by physical binding within soil aggregates. It is therefore essential to measure soil aggregate stability reliably over a wide range of disruptive energies and different aggregate sizes. To this end, we tested highaccuracy ultrasonic dispersion in combination with subsequent sedimentation and X-ray attenuation. Three arable topsoils (notillage) from Central Europe were subjected to ultrasound at four different specific energy levels: 0.5, 6.7, 100 and 500 J cm-3, and the resulting suspensions were analyzed for aggregate size distribution by wet sieving (2 000-63 μm) and sedimentation/X-ray attenuation (63-2 μm). The combination of wet sieving and sedimentation technique allowed for a continuous analysis, at high resolution, of soil aggregate breakdown dynamics after defined energy inputs. Our results show that aggregate size distribution strongly varied with sonication energy input and soil type. The strongest effects were observed in the range of low specific energies (aggregate stability and release of soil organic matter upon aggregate breakdown.

  9. Study of soil aggregate breakdown dynamics under low dispersive ultrasonic energies with sedimentation and X-ray attenuation**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomakers, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Mentler, Axel; Ottner, Franz; Mayer, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that soil organic matter stabilization is strongly controlled by physical binding within soil aggregates. It is therefore essential to measure soil aggregate stability reliably over a wide range of disruptive energies and different aggregate sizes. To this end, we tested high-accuracy ultrasonic dispersion in combination with subsequent sedimentation and X-ray attenuation. Three arable topsoils (notillage) from Central Europe were subjected to ultrasound at four different specific energy levels: 0.5, 6.7, 100 and 500 J cm−3, and the resulting suspensions were analyzed for aggregate size distribution by wet sieving (2 000-63 μm) and sedimentation/X-ray attenuation (63-2 μm). The combination of wet sieving and sedimentation technique allowed for a continuous analysis, at high resolution, of soil aggregate breakdown dynamics after defined energy inputs. Our results show that aggregate size distribution strongly varied with sonication energy input and soil type. The strongest effects were observed in the range of low specific energies (aggregate stability and release of soil organic matter upon aggregate breakdown. PMID:27099408

  10. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  11. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  12. Parametric normalization for full-energy peak efficiency of HPGe γ-ray spectrometers at different counting positions for bulky sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Nie; Bang-Fa, Ni; Wei-Zhi, Tian

    2013-02-01

    Application of effective interaction depth (EID) principle for parametric normalization of full energy peak efficiencies at different counting positions, originally for quasi-point sources, has been extended to bulky sources (within ∅30 mm×40 mm) with arbitrary matrices. It is also proved that the EID function for quasi-point source can be directly used for cylindrical bulky sources (within ∅30 mm×40 mm) with the geometric center as effective point source for low atomic number (Z) and low density (D) media and high energy γ-rays. It is also found that in general EID for bulky sources is dependent upon Z and D of the medium and the energy of the γ-rays in question. In addition, the EID principle was theoretically verified by MCNP calculations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterizing high-energy-formed particulates with the scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer system. Progress report, March--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, A.W.; Biermann, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is being sought that will allow the differentiation between particulates formed in implosions and particulates formed in explosions. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS) were used to measure and compare particle size, shape, surface morphology, and composition. Implosion and explosion detonations yielded spherical, smooth particles within the same size range. Although the particle size, shape, and morphology were the same for comparable samples of different detonation type, there were distinct differences in composition. It is not certain whether differences in composition reflect differences in device components or differences in the nature of the detonation

  14. Criterion-Validity of Commercially Available Physical Activity Tracker to Estimate Step Count, Covered Distance and Energy Expenditure during Sports Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Wahl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the past years, there was an increasing development of physical activity tracker (Wearables. For recreational people, testing of these devices under walking or light jogging conditions might be sufficient. For (elite athletes, however, scientific trustworthiness needs to be given for a broad spectrum of velocities or even fast changes in velocities reflecting the demands of the sport. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the validity of eleven Wearables for monitoring step count, covered distance and energy expenditure (EE under laboratory conditions with different constant and varying velocities.Methods: Twenty healthy sport students (10 men, 10 women performed a running protocol consisting of four 5 min stages of different constant velocities (4.3; 7.2; 10.1; 13.0 km·h−1, a 5 min period of intermittent velocity, and a 2.4 km outdoor run (10.1 km·h−1 while wearing eleven different Wearables (Bodymedia Sensewear, Beurer AS 80, Polar Loop, Garmin Vivofit, Garmin Vivosmart, Garmin Vivoactive, Garmin Forerunner 920XT, Fitbit Charge, Fitbit Charge HR, Xaomi MiBand, Withings Pulse Ox. Step count, covered distance, and EE were evaluated by comparing each Wearable with a criterion method (Optogait system and manual counting for step count, treadmill for covered distance and indirect calorimetry for EE.Results: All Wearables, except Bodymedia Sensewear, Polar Loop, and Beurer AS80, revealed good validity (small MAPE, good ICC for all constant and varying velocities for monitoring step count. For covered distance, all Wearables showed a very low ICC (<0.1 and high MAPE (up to 50%, revealing no good validity. The measurement of EE was acceptable for the Garmin, Fitbit and Withings Wearables (small to moderate MAPE, while Bodymedia Sensewear, Polar Loop, and Beurer AS80 showed a high MAPE up to 56% for all test conditions.Conclusion: In our study, most Wearables provide an acceptable level of validity for step counts at different

  15. An overview of quantification methods in energy-dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. A Markowicz1. Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Nuclear Spectrometry & Applications Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, Wagramer Strasse 5, 1400 Vienna, Austria ...

  16. ESA Gaia & the multifrequency behavior of high-energy sources with ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Šimon, Vojtěch; Hudec, L.; Hudcová, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2012), s. 342-346 ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on multifrequency behaviour of high energy cosmic sources. Vulcano, 23.05.2011-28.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays * high-energy sources * satellites Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  17. Energy Calibration of a Silicon-Strip Detector for Photon-Counting Spectral CT by Direct Usage of the X-ray Tube Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats; Karlsson, Staffan; Persson, Mats; Xu, Cheng; Huber, Ben

    2015-02-01

    The variation among energy thresholds in a multibin detector for photon-counting spectral CT can lead to ring artefacts in the reconstructed images. Calibration of the energy thresholds can be used to achieve homogeneous threshold settings or to develop compensation methods to reduce the artefacts. We have developed an energy-calibration method for the different comparator thresholds employed in a photon-counting silicon-strip detector. In our case, this corresponds to specifying the linear relation between the threshold positions in units of mV and the actual deposited photon energies in units of keV. This relation is determined by gain and offset values that differ for different detector channels due to variations in the manufacturing process. Typically, the calibration is accomplished by correlating the peak positions of obtained pulse-height spectra to known photon energies, e.g. with the aid of mono-energetic x rays from synchrotron radiation, radioactive isotopes or fluorescence materials. Instead of mono-energetic x rays, the calibration method presented in this paper makes use of a broad x-ray spectrum provided by commercial x-ray tubes. Gain and offset as the calibration parameters are obtained by a regression analysis that adjusts a simulated spectrum of deposited energies to a measured pulse-height spectrum. Besides the basic photon interactions such as Rayleigh scattering, Compton scattering and photo-electric absorption, the simulation takes into account the effect of pulse pileup, charge sharing and the electronic noise of the detector channels. We verify the method for different detector channels with the aid of a table-top setup, where we find the uncertainty of the keV-value of a calibrated threshold to be between 0.1 and 0.2 keV.

  18. A reduced switch count UPF power conditioner for grid connected variable speed wind energy conversion system employing PM generators: a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, A.B.; Fernandes, B.G.; Chatterjee, K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, modelling and simulation of a grid connected variable speed wind energy conversion system (VSWECS) with reduced switch count power converter is presented. The system consists of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), two-pulse width modulated B-4 power converters and a maximum power point tracker (MPPT). Mathematical models of each element of the system are developed separately and are then integrated to simulate the whole system for various wind velocities. The complete system is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and simulation results are presented. (author)

  19. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides. KLMN model; Probabilidades y energias de reestructuracion atomica subsiguientes a la captura electronica. Modelo KLMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiano, G.; Grau, A.

    1994-07-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electro capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high. (Author)

  20. Spectral and raw quasi in-situ energy dispersive X-ray data captured via a TEM analysis of an ODS austenitic stainless steel sample under 1 MeV Kr2+ high temperature irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Adam J; Yao, Zhongwen

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article is related to the research experiment, titled: ' Quasi in-situ energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy observation of matrix and solute interactions on Y-Ti-O oxide particles in an austenitic stainless steel under 1 MeV Kr 2+ high temperature irradiation' (Brooks et al., 2017) [1]. Quasi in-situ analysis during 1 MeV Kr 2+ 520 °C irradiation allowed the same microstructural area to be observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM), on an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) austenitic stainless steel sample. The data presented contains two sets of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data collected before and after irradiation to 1.5 displacements-per-atom (~1.25×10 -3  dpa/s with 7.5×10 14  ions cm -2 ). The vendor software used to process and output the data is the Bruker Esprit v1.9 suite. The data includes the spectral (counts vs. keV energy) of the quasi in-situ scanned region (512×512 pixels at 56k magnification), along with the EDX scanning parameters. The.raw files from the Bruker Esprit v1.9 output are additionally included along with the.rpl data information files. Furthermore included are the two quasi in-situ HAADF images for visual comparison of the regions before and after irradiation. This in-situ experiment is deemed ' quasi' due to the thin foil irradiation taking place at an external TEM facility. We present this data for critical and/or extended analysis from the scientific community, with applications applying to: experimental data correlation, confirmation of results, and as computer based modeling inputs.

  1. The application of a microstrip gas counter to energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Conde, C.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Performance characteristics of a microstrip gas counter operated as a x-ray fluorescence spectrometer are reported. Gas amplification as a function of microstrip anode-cathode voltage was measured, and the breakdown threshold voltage was determined in pure xenon. The detector temporal stability and the effect of gas purity were assessed. Energy resolution and linearity, detection efficiency, and uniformity of spatial response in the 2- to 60-keV x-ray energy range were determined from the pulse-height distributions of the fluorescence x-ray spectra induced in a variety of single- and multi-element sample materials. Energy resolution similar to conventional proportional counters was achieved at 6 keV

  2. Correlation of Effective Dispersive and Polar Surface Energies in Heterogeneous Self-Assembled Monolayer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Yanxin; Hansen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    grown oil oxidized (100) silicon Surfaces in a vapor phase process using five different precursors. Experimentally, effective surface energy components of the fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayers were determined from measured contact angles using the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble method. We show...

  3. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear energy is one of the clean options of electricity generation for the betterment of human life. India has an ambitious program for such electricity generation using different types of nuclear reactors. The safe and efficient generation of electricity from these reactors requires quality control of different nuclear materials, ...

  4. Analysis of stainless steel samples by energy dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the total sample mass absorption coefficients for X-ray energies E0, Ej and ... from published literature (McMaster et al 1969; Bam- bynek et al 1972). .... Table 1. Concentrations of CRM samples determined by EDXRF and VES. Concentrations ...

  5. Dispersive X-ray fluorescence applications in energy in environmental problems diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odino, R.; Souto, B.; Roca, S.; Campomar, W.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence energy was used to detect the grade of contamination due to a Portland cement factory. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the incidence of a Portland cement plant in the quality of air in its surroundings. Many contaminants (Cu, Pb, Ni, Br) do not come from the Portland cement industry but other industries in the zone

  6. Foerster resonance energy transfer in inhomogeneous non-dispersive nanophotonic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Vos, Willem L.

    A nondispersive inhomogeneous dielectric environment of a donor-acceptor pair of quantum emitters affects their Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) rate. We find that this rate does not depend on the emission frequency and hence not on the local optical density of states (LDOS) at that freq...

  7. Simple procedure for nutrient analysis of coffee plant with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezotto, Tiago; Favarin, Jose Laercio; Neto, Ana Paula; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes, E-mail: tiago.tezotto@usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Gratao, Priscila Lupino [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP/ FCAV), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada a Agropecuaria; Mazzafera, Paulo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP/IB), SP (Brazil). Dept. Biologia Vegetal

    2013-07-15

    Nutrient analysis is used to estimate nutrient content of crop plants to manage fertilizer application for sustained crop production. Direct solid analysis of agricultural and environmental samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) was chosen as alternative technique to evaluate the simultaneous multielemental quantification of the most important essential elements in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and certified reference materials made from leaves were used to calibrate and check the trueness of EDXRF method for the determination of the concentration of several nutrients in coffee leaves and branches. Fluorescence spectrometry proved to be advantageous and presented low cost as loose powder samples could be used. Samples collected from a field experiment where coffee plants were treated with excess of Ni and Zn were used to verify the practical application of the method. Good relationships were achieved between certified values and data obtained by EDXRF, with recoveries ranging from 82 to 117 %.(author)

  8. Elemental profiling of laser cladded multilayer coatings by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Filippov, M. N.; Grishin, M. Ya.; Filichkina, V. A.; Stavertiy, A. Ya.; Tretyakov, R. S.; Bunkin, A. F.; Pershin, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Multilayer tungsten carbide wear resistant coatings were analyzed by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Coaxial laser cladding technique was utilized to produce tungsten carbide coating deposited on low alloy steel substrate with additional inconel 625 interlayer. EDX and LIBS techniques were used for elemental profiling of major components (Ni, W, C, Fe, etc.) in the coating. A good correlation between EDX and LIBS data was observed while LIBS provided additional information on light element distribution (carbon). A non-uniform distribution of tungsten carbide grains along coating depth was detected by both LIBS and EDX. In contrast, horizontal elemental profiling showed a uniform tungsten carbide particles distribution. Depth elemental profiling by layer-by-layer LIBS analysis was demonstrated to be an effective method for studying tungsten carbide grains distribution in wear resistant coating without any sample preparation.

  9. Trace elemental analysis of school chalk using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruthi, Y. A.; Das, N. Lakshmana; Ramprasad, S.; Ram, S. S.; Sudarshan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present studies focus the quantitative analysis of elements in school chalk to ensure the safety of its use. The elements like Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si) and Chromium (Cr) were analyzed from settled chalk dust samples collected from five classrooms (CD-1) and also from another set of unused chalk samples collected from local market (CD-2) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray florescence(ED-XRF) spectroscopy. Presence of these elements in significant concentrations in school chalk confirmed that, it is an irritant and occupational hazard. It is suggested to use protective equipments like filtered mask for mouth, nose and chalk holders. This study also suggested using the advanced mode of techniques like Digital boards, marker boards and power point presentations to mitigate the occupational hazard for classroom chalk

  10. Sodium lauryl sulfate enhances nickel penetration through guinea-pig skin. Studies with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, M.; Sagstroem, S.R.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), a common ingredient of detergents, on the penetration of nickel through the stratum corneum in the guinea-pig skin model was studied with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) to evaluate the barrier-damaging properties of this common detergent. The EDX technique allows a simultaneous determination of physiologically important elements, e.g., Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca and S in addition to Ni at each point of measurement in epidermal cell strata. Our results show that SLS reduces the barrier function to Ni-ion penetration of the stratum corneum. In addition we have shown that EDX allows analysis of the influence of different factors involved in nickel penetration through the skin by giving data on the physiological effects on the epidermal cells caused by the applied substances

  11. Trapped Bose-Einstein condensates with Planck-scale induced deformation of the energy-momentum dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscese, F.

    2012-01-01

    We show that harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensates can be used to constrain Planck-scale physics. In particular we prove that a Planck-scale induced deformation of the Minkowski energy-momentum dispersion relation δE≃ξ 1 mcp/2M p produces a shift in the condensation temperature T c of about ΔT c /T c 0 ≃10 -6 ξ 1 for typical laboratory conditions. Such a shift allows to bound the deformation parameter up to |ξ 1 |≤10 4 . Moreover we show that it is possible to enlarge ΔT c /T c 0 and improve the bound on ξ 1 lowering the frequency of the harmonic trap. Finally we compare the Planck-scale induced shift in T c with similar effects due to interboson interactions and finite size effects.

  12. Determination of trace metals in sea waters of the albanian coast by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civici, N.

    1994-01-01

    Preconcentration of trace transition and heavy metal ions by precipitation with APDC has been combined with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence for environmental sea water analysis. The preconcentration procedure implies adding of 500 μg Mo ion and 10 ml of 1 % water solution of APDC to a 500 ml water sample at pH 4, filtering off on a Millipore filter and analyzing after drying. Realistic detection limits are at 1 μg * l -1 level and precision varies between 10 - 25% at about 5 μg * l -1 level, depending on the element. Eleven sea water samples, covering Albanian Adriatic and Ionian coast, are analyzed for trace metal ions. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Trace elemental analysis of school chalk using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruthi, Y. A., E-mail: ymjournal2014@gmail.com [Associate professor, Dept of Environmental Studies, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, A.P (India); Das, N. Lakshmana, E-mail: nldas9@gmail.com [Professor, Dept of Physics, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, A.P (India); Ramprasad, S., E-mail: ramprasadsurakala@gmail.com [Research Scholar, Dept of Environmental science, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, A.P (India); Ram, S. S., E-mail: tracebio@gmail.com [Research Scholar, Dept of Trace element research, UGC-DAE Consortium Centre, Kolkata centre India (India); Sudarshan, M., E-mail: sude@alpha.iuc.res.in [Scientist-F, Dept of Trace element research, UGC-DAE Consortium Centre, Kolkata centre India (India)

    2015-08-28

    The present studies focus the quantitative analysis of elements in school chalk to ensure the safety of its use. The elements like Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si) and Chromium (Cr) were analyzed from settled chalk dust samples collected from five classrooms (CD-1) and also from another set of unused chalk samples collected from local market (CD-2) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray florescence(ED-XRF) spectroscopy. Presence of these elements in significant concentrations in school chalk confirmed that, it is an irritant and occupational hazard. It is suggested to use protective equipments like filtered mask for mouth, nose and chalk holders. This study also suggested using the advanced mode of techniques like Digital boards, marker boards and power point presentations to mitigate the occupational hazard for classroom chalk.

  14. Aluminum-containing dense deposits of the glomerular basement membrane: identification by energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M. Jr.; Pitcock, J.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals, including gold, mercury, lead, bismuth, and cadmium, have the potential to cause renal disease. With the development of X-ray microanalysis, these heavy metals can now be identified in tissue deposits. This report describes a case of renal failure, probably related to dysproteinemia, in which granular, electron-opaque dense deposits were present in the glomerular basement membranes. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that these dense deposits contained aluminum. An analysis of this patient's history in relation to the current knowledge of aluminum metabolism suggests that the aluminum deposition occurred secondary to previous glomerular injury. This case emphasizes the need to utilize heavy metal identification technology whenever granular, electron-opaque dense deposits are identified and represents, to our knowledge, the first study to document aluminum deposits within the glomerular basement membrane of humans

  15. Determination of heavy metals at traces level in leached samples by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, Silvana M.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do; Inacio, Graziela R.; Navarro, Angela N.

    1996-01-01

    In landfill solid residues are disposed in the soil. When made based on technical criteria and specifically operation patterns a safe confinement is warranted according to environmental and public health protection. However, when the disposal is made by a random and unsuitable way serious problems can be caused as groundwater and superficial water contamination through leach action, indicating the usefulness of monitoring landfills. In this way energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with radioisotopic excitation was applied to evaluate the concentrations of heavy metals at trace levels in leached samples from the Americana City Landfill with pre-concentration of the elements by a non-specific precipitating agent, called ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC). (author)

  16. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C.; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Håkan; Vroblesky, Don A.; Burkem, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to distinguish dendrochemical effects of internal processes from environmental contamination. Calcium, potassium, and zinc are three marker cations that illustrate the influence of these processes. We found changes in cation chemistry in tree rings potentially due to biomineralization, development of cracks or checks, heartwood/sapwood differentiation, intra-annual processes, and compartmentalization of infection. Distinguishing internal from external processes that affect dendrochemistry will enhance the value of EDXRF for both physiological and forensic investigations.

  17. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity and GID for real-time growth studies of pentacene thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarik, S.; Gerlach, A.; Leitenberger, W.; Hu, J.; Witte, G.; Woell, C.; Pietsch, U.; Schreiber, F.

    2007-01-01

    We use energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) to follow the growth of the crystalline organic semiconductor pentacene on silicon oxide in-situ and in real-time. The technique allows for monitoring Bragg reflections and measuring X-ray growth oscillations with a time resolution of 1 min in a wide q-range in reciprocal space extending over 0.25-0.80 A -1 , i.e. sampling a large number of Fourier components simultaneously. A quantitative analysis of growth oscillations at several q-points yields the evolution of the surface roughness, showing a marked transition from layer-by-layer growth to strong roughening after four monolayers of pentacene have been deposited

  18. Some dispersive X-ray fluorescence applications in energies with radioisotopic excitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelfang, P.; Vazquez, C.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work is based on the use of interelemental correction coefficients which are calculated through fundamental parameters. To this purpose, it is necessary to know about the physical constants for each element including the absorption coefficient values and fluorescence yield, the incidence radiation energy, geometric and instrumental parameters. Besides, a special application of the program for the determination of a Nd-La mixed crystal formula is included. (Author) [es

  19. Dispersed, Decentralized and Renewable Energy Sources: Alternatives to National Vulnerability and War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    U.S. imports a major portion from the Middle East, including Iraq, Saudi Arabia. the Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar . Oman, Bahrain, Turkey and Yemen... aquifers , or fully depleted oil and gas wells. The average capacity of underground storage pools is about nineteen billion cubic feet. In 1978, there...heating demands. 4 3 Aquifers are being considered for thermal energy storage. The ground water stored in aquifers is subject to geothermal radiation

  20. Energy hyperspace for stacking interaction in AU/AU dinucleotide step: Dispersion-corrected density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanchita; Kailasam, Senthilkumar; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2014-01-01

    Double helical structures of DNA and RNA are mostly determined by base pair stacking interactions, which give them the base sequence-directed features, such as small roll values for the purine-pyrimidine steps. Earlier attempts to characterize stacking interactions were mostly restricted to calculations on fiber diffraction geometries or optimized structure using ab initio calculations lacking variation in geometry to comment on rather unusual large roll values observed in AU/AU base pair step in crystal structures of RNA double helices. We have generated stacking energy hyperspace by modeling geometries with variations along the important degrees of freedom, roll, and slide, which were chosen via statistical analysis as maximally sequence dependent. Corresponding energy contours were constructed by several quantum chemical methods including dispersion corrections. This analysis established the most suitable methods for stacked base pair systems despite the limitation imparted by number of atom in a base pair step to employ very high level of theory. All the methods predict negative roll value and near-zero slide to be most favorable for the purine-pyrimidine steps, in agreement with Calladine's steric clash based rule. Successive base pairs in RNA are always linked by sugar-phosphate backbone with C3'-endo sugars and this demands C1'-C1' distance of about 5.4 Å along the chains. Consideration of an energy penalty term for deviation of C1'-C1' distance from the mean value, to the recent DFT-D functionals, specifically ωB97X-D appears to predict reliable energy contour for AU/AU step. Such distance-based penalty improves energy contours for the other purine-pyrimidine sequences also. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 107-120, 2014. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Categorical counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

    2010-09-01

    Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of SHLW by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadivu, Senthil; Seshadreesan, N.P.; Kumar, R.; Venkatasubramani, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    The simulated high level liquid waste (SHLW) sample expected from fuel reprocessing experiments containing uranium and about 20 various other elements were analysed by EDXRF technique. An investigation with respect to Nd estimation, a burn up monitor, in presence of varying concentrations of U was also carried out. The simulated raffinate solution with a mixture of 20 expected elements was used as standard solution. Four samples of varying concentrations were prepared by appropriate dilution from the standard solution. Calibrations were carried out for its various constituent elements. The elements such as Cs, Mo, Sr,Y, Cd, Ba, Ce, U and La were analysed using W-filter whereas the elements such as Nd, Fe and Ni were analysed using Ge secondary target. The results of 4 simulated samples analysed using FDXRF are given. These values for each element are the mean of the three values obtained. The results obtained for different simulated waste are also shown. These solutions are of different compositions and therefore, vary in their matrix effects. Nevertheless, the medium of second simulated waste is in 3.5N HNO 3 where as the calibration is done with 0.1N HNO 3 medium and hence this might be the cause for large deviations observed in some of the results. A trend of the non-interference of the Uranium matrix in the assay of Nd was demonstrated typically at a fixed concentration of 92.3 ppm in uranium matrix of 900 and 6000 ppm. In both the cases, it was observed that the concentration of Nd measured remained same. This is in accordance to the fact that the characteristic X-ray energy peaks of Nd (L-lines) and U (M-lines) are well separated in the spectrum and the contribution of the low energy peak of Uranium to the higher energy peak of Nd is negligible. But the limiting concentration of Uranium may be the one in which a overlapping of its peak occurs

  3. A new energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer developed in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacso, J.; Kalinka, G.; Kovacs, P.; Lakatos, T.

    1982-01-01

    A new X-ray spectrometer developed in ATOMKI is described. The measuring head contains a p-type Si(Li) detector surrounded by an Al collimator, a charge sensitive preamplifier and a vacuum cryostat. The analog pulse processor uses filters with variable parameters. The characteristic properties of the spectrometer (energy resolution, its dependence on load, stability) are investigated. The background is measured using three different radioactive sources and the results are compared with those of other pulse forming techniques. (D.Gy.)

  4. Compositions and process for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting compositions which include certain polyethoxylated poly(oxypropylene) emulsifiers allow stable dispersion of aqueous or other samples merely by shaking. Preferred are mixtures of such emulsifiers which give homogeneous monophasic-appearing dispersions over wide ranges of temperature and aqueous sample content. Certain of these emulsifiers, without being mixed, are of particular advantage when used in analysis of samples obtained through radioimmunoassay techniques which are extremely difficult to disperse. Certain of these emulsifiers, also without being mixed, uniformly give homogeneous monophasic-appearing aqueous counting samples over much wider ranges of aqueous sample content and temperature than prior sample emulsifiers

  5. Energy-expending behaviour in frightened caribou when dispersed singly or in small bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Blehr

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of single, and small bands of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus when confronted by humans was compared with the energy—saving behaviour zoologists have ascribed to caribou in encounters with non-hunting wolves (Canis lupus. When confronted by me, or upon getting my scent, caribou ran away on all occasions. Their flight was occasionally interrupted by short stops to look back in my direction, but would continue on all occasions until they were out of sight. This behaviour is inconsistent with the one ascribed to caribou by zoologists when the intruder is a wolf instead of a human. In their view, the caribou stop their flight soon after the wolf gives up the chase, and accordingly save energy owing to their ability to distinguish between hunting and non-hunting wolves. However, small bands of caribou, as well as single animals, have never been observed to behave in this manner. On the contrary, the behaviour of caribou in such encounters is known to follow the same pattern as in their encounters with humans. Energy—saving behaviour is, however, sometimes observed when caribou become inquisitive about something in their surroundings. They will then readily approach as well as try to get down-wind of the object. When the object does not induce fear, it may simply be ignored, or charged before the caribou calm down. The effect of this "confirming behaviour" is that energy which would otherwise have been spent in needless flights from non-predators is saved.

  6. Modeling complex dispersed energy and clean water systems for the United States/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Hugo Francisco Lopez

    As world population grows, and its technology evolves, the demand for electricity inexorably increases. Until now most of this electricity has been produced via fossil fuels, non-renewable energy resources that are irreversibly deteriorating our environment. On the economical aspect it does not get any better. Let's not forget market rules, the higher the demand and lower the offer, the higher the price we will have to pay. Oil is an excellent example. Some countries try to solve this situation with Pharaohnic projects, i.e. investing absurd amounts of money in 'green electricity' building monstrous dams to power equally monstrous hydroelectric power plants. The only problem with this is that it is not green at all---it does have an enormous environmental impact---it is extremely complicated and expensive to implement. It is important to point out, that this research project does not try to solve world's thirst for electricity. It is rather aimed to help solve this problematic at a much lower scale---it should be considered as an extremely small step in the right direction. It focuses on satisfying the local electricity needs with renewable, non-contaminating and locally available resources. More concisely, this project focuses on the attainment and use of hydrogen as an alternate energy source in El Paso/Juarez region. Clean technology is nowadays available to produce hydrogen and oxygen, i.e. the photoelectrolysis process. Photovoltaic cells coupled with electrolytic devices can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen in a sustainable manner. In this research, simulation models of hybrid systems were designed and developed. They were capable to compare, predict and evaluate different options for hydrogen generation. On the other hand, with the produced hydrogen from the electrolysis process it was possible to generate electricity through fuel cells. The main objectives of the proposed research were to define how to use the resources for the attainment of hydrogen

  7. [Corrected count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected.

  8. Energy dispersive soft X-ray fluorescence analysis by radioisotopic α-particle excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.

    1977-01-01

    A Si(Li) X-ray detector system and 210 Po α-particle excitation source are combined to form a spectrometer for low energy X-rays. Its response in terms of Ksub(α) X-ray rate is shown for thick targets of elements from fluorine to copper. Potential applications of the equipment to useful quantitative elemental analysis of geological, biological and organic materials are explored. The results of analyses for oxygen and silicon in rocks and potassium in vegetation samples are included. A semi-empirical method of correcting for absorption and enhancement effects is employed. This is based upon X-ray production and photon absorption cross-sections taken from the literature and upon a minimal number of experimentally derived coefficients. (Auth.)

  9. Numerical study of influence of different dispersed components of crystal cloud on transmission of radiant energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The calculated results of the transmission of visible and infrared radiation by an atmosphere layer involving ensembles of large preferentially oriented crystals and spherical particles are presented. To calculate extinction characteristics, the physical optics method and the Mie theory are applied. Among all atmospheric particles, both the small particles that are commensurable with the wavelength of the incident radiation and the large plates and the columns are distinguished by the most pronounced dependence of the transmission on spectra of radiant energy. The work illustrates features of influence of parameters of the particle size distribution, particle aspect ratios, orientation and particle refractive index, also polarization state of the incident radiation on the transmission. The predominant effect of the plates on the wavelength dependence of the transmission is shown. A separated and cooperative contributes of the large plates and the small volume shape particles to the common transmission by medium are considered.

  10. Determination of the Effective Detector Area of an Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer at the Scanning Electron Microscope Using Experimental and Theoretical X-Ray Emission Yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, Mathias; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Terborg, Ralf; Berger, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    A method is proposed to determine the effective detector area for energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS). Nowadays, detectors are available for a wide range of nominal areas ranging from 10 up to 150 mm2. However, it remains in most cases unknown whether this nominal area coincides with the "net active sensor area" that should be given according to the related standard ISO 15632, or with any other area of the detector device. Moreover, the specific geometry of EDS installation may further reduce a given detector area. The proposed method can be applied to most scanning electron microscope/EDS configurations. The basic idea consists in a comparison of the measured count rate with the count rate resulting from known X-ray yields of copper, titanium, or silicon. The method was successfully tested on three detectors with known effective area and applied further to seven spectrometers from different manufacturers. In most cases the method gave an effective area smaller than the area given in the detector description.

  11. Sneutrino counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grifols, J.A.; Martinez, M.; Sola, J.

    1985-10-01

    We give a detailed analysis of the reaction e + e - ->γν tilde ν tilde. If the sneutrino is the lightest supersymmetric particle, detecting a single photon plus missing energy provides an excellent tool for either discover new physics or for setting interesting bounds on the masses of the sneutrino and the wino. (orig.)

  12. CNTs/Al5083 Composites of High-performance Uniform and Dispersion Fabricated by High-energy Ball-milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs, mass fraction of 0%-2% reinforced Al5083 composites were fabricated by horizontal high-energy ball milling. The effects of ball milling time and CNTs contents on the properties of composite materials were studied. The micro morphology of CNTs/Al5083 composites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM and transmission electron microscopy(TEM, the tensile strength and microhardness of the composites were tested. The results indicate that after high-energy ball milling for 1.5h, the carbon nanotubes are dispersed homogeneously in the Al5083 matrix, and good interfacial bonding strength between CNTs and Al5083 is obtained at the addition of 1.5%CNTs. Under these conditions, the tensile strength and microhardness of CNTs/Al5083 composites are 188.8MPa and 136HV, respectively. Compared to Al5083 matrix without CNTs reinforcement, tensile strength and microhardness of CNTs/Al5083 composites are increased by 32.2% and 36%, respectively.

  13. A low power x-ray tube for use in energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Govil, Rekha; Lal, M.

    1980-01-01

    A low power X-ray tube with thin molybdenum transmission target for use in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ENDXRF) element analysis has been indigenously built, along with its power supply. The X-ray tube has been in operation since August 1979, and it has been operated upto maximum target voltage of 35 KV and tube current upto 200 μA which is more than sufficient for trace element analysis. This X-ray tube has been used alongwith the indigenously built Si(Li) detector X-ray spectrometer with an energy resolution of 200 eV at 5.9 Kev MnKsub(α) X-ray peak for ENDXRF analysis. A simple procedure of calibration has been developed for thin samples based on the cellulose diluted, thin multielement standard pellets. Analytical sensitivities of the order of a few p.p.m. have been obtained with the experimental setup for elements with 20 < = Z < = 38 and 60 < = Z < = 90. A number of X-ray spectra for samples of environmental, biological, agricultural, industrial and metallurgical interest are presented to demonstrate the salient features of the experimental sep up. (auth.)

  14. A feasibility study of projection-based energy weighting based on a photon-counting detector in contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yuna; Kim, Heejoung

    2014-01-01

    Contrast media, such as iodine and gadolinium, are generally used in digital subtraction mammography to enhance the contrast between target and background materials. In digital subtraction mammography, where one image (with contrast medium) is subtracted from another (anatomical background) to facilitate visualization of the tumor structure, tumors can be more easily distinguished after the injection of a contrast medium. In order to have more an effective method to increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), we applied a projection-based energy-weighting method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the projection-based energy-weighting method in digital subtraction mammography. Unlike some other previous studies, we applied the projection-based energy-weighting method to more practical mammography conditions by using the Monte Carlo method to simulate four different iodine solutions embedded in a breast phantom comprised of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues. We also considered an optimal tube voltage and anode/filter combination in digital iodine contrast media mammography in order to maximize the figure-of-merit (FOM). The simulated source energy was from 20 to 45 keV to prevent electronic noise and include the k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy-weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05 - 1.86 compared to the conventionally integrated images. Consequently, the CNR of digital subtraction mammography images can be improved by using projection-based energy-weighting with photon-counting detectors.

  15. A feasibility study of projection-based energy weighting based on a photon-counting detector in contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yuna; Kim, Heejoung [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Contrast media, such as iodine and gadolinium, are generally used in digital subtraction mammography to enhance the contrast between target and background materials. In digital subtraction mammography, where one image (with contrast medium) is subtracted from another (anatomical background) to facilitate visualization of the tumor structure, tumors can be more easily distinguished after the injection of a contrast medium. In order to have more an effective method to increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), we applied a projection-based energy-weighting method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the projection-based energy-weighting method in digital subtraction mammography. Unlike some other previous studies, we applied the projection-based energy-weighting method to more practical mammography conditions by using the Monte Carlo method to simulate four different iodine solutions embedded in a breast phantom comprised of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues. We also considered an optimal tube voltage and anode/filter combination in digital iodine contrast media mammography in order to maximize the figure-of-merit (FOM). The simulated source energy was from 20 to 45 keV to prevent electronic noise and include the k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy-weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05 - 1.86 compared to the conventionally integrated images. Consequently, the CNR of digital subtraction mammography images can be improved by using projection-based energy-weighting with photon-counting detectors.

  16. Application of radionuclide sources for excitation in energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, P.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is in broad application in many fields of science where elemental determinations are necessary. Solid and liquid samples are analyzed by this method. Solids are introduced in thin or thick samples as melted glass, pellets, powders or as original specimen. The excitation of X-ray spectra can be performed by specific and polychromic radiation of X-ray tubes, by protons, deuterons, α-particles, heavy ions and synchrotron radiation from accelerators and by α-particles, X- and γ-rays and by bremsstrahlung generated by β - -particles from radionuclide sources. The radionuclides are devided into groups with respect to their decay mode and the energy of the emitted radiation. The broad application of radionuclides in XRF excitation is shown in examples as semi-quantitative analysis of glasses, as quantitative analysis of coarse ceramics and as quantitative determination of heavy elements (mainly actinides) in solutions. The advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide excitation in XRF analysis are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Molecular dispersion energy parameters for alkali and halide ions in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, S.; Deublein, S.; Hasse, H.; Vrabec, J.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions containing alkali and halide ions are determined by molecular simulation. The following ions are studied: Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + , F − , Cl − , Br − , and I − . The employed ion force fields consist of one Lennard-Jones (LJ) site and one concentric point charge with a magnitude of ±1 e. The SPC/E model is used for water. The LJ size parameter of the ion models is taken from Deublein et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 084501 (2012)], while the LJ energy parameter is determined in the present study based on experimental self-diffusion coefficient data of the alkali cations and the halide anions in aqueous solutions as well as the position of the first maximum of the radial distribution function of water around the ions. On the basis of these force field parameters, the electric conductivity, the hydration dynamics of water molecules around the ions, and the enthalpy of hydration is predicted. Considering a wide range of salinity, this study is conducted at temperatures of 293.15 and 298.15 K and a pressure of 1 bar

  18. In situ characterization of ancient plaster and pigments on tomb walls in Egypt using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.

    2004-01-01

    A portable type of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and fluorescence (ED-XRDF) spectrometer was developed, whose operation mode is completely different from that of an X-ray diffractometer commercially available. The former is operated in energy dispersive mode but the latter in angle dispersive mode. The performance of the ED-XRDF spectrometer was tested in the field, i.e. in the tomb of Amenhotep III, built in 1364 B.C. or earlier in Egypt. The crystal structure and chemical composition of ancient plaster and pigments were successfully determined in the field using the spectrometer. The same areas investigated by the ED-XRDF spectrometer were also examined with an optical microscope. The plaster is found to be composed of anhydrite, calcite and quartz. White and yellow pigments were identified as huntite and orpiment, respectively. Egyptian blue and goethite were found in the green colored parts

  19. Determination of the fine structure in the ionization plots obtained from a mass spectrometer with a large energy dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruaz, Daniel.

    1974-01-01

    The precise determination of ionization potentials, fragment ion appearance potentials and different excited state levels of the positive ions formed, together with phenomena due to an electron impact, were studied from ionization efficiency curves obtained by mass spectrometry. A standard ion source and an analytical method of electron energy dispersion reduction were used to study fine structures of ionization efficiency curves. Since the mass spectrometer was not adapted for the acquisition of ionization efficiency curve data an electronic system was designed to record these curves automatically. A precise stepwise potential variation of 45+-0.04mV was obtained, and for each step an intensity proportional to the number of ions created by the fragment considered, the additional gain being 4.4 and the linearity greater than 1% over a 13-volt region. Before each set of measurements the scattering was determined by calculation of the second derivative of a logistic function deduced from the cubic regression of the experimental helium function ionization efficiency curve values. The precision, given by the variance analysis SNEDECOR F test, is higher than 1/1000. For each series of recordings the numerical values were processed by a computer to raise by twenty the signal to noise ratio and calculate the ionization efficiency curve values by the energy difference method and the iterative unfolding method. In this way a high sensitivity was obtained for the determination of the curves near the ionization threshold, and a precision below 50MeV (at least equivalent to that given by ionization cells with quasi-monoenergetic electron beams) for the values of the ionization potentials, the appearance potentials and the excited state energy levels. In order to judge the reliability of the technique the ionization potentials of a set of eleven complex molecules were determined and compared with the results obtained by photoionization and photoelectron spectrometry [fr

  20. High energy resolution and high count rate gamma spectrometry measurement of primary coolant of generation 4 sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors are under development for the fourth generation of nuclear reactor. Breeders reactors could gives solutions for the need of energy and the preservation of uranium resources. An other purpose is the radioactive wastes production reduction by transmutation and the control of non-proliferation using a closed-cycle. These thesis shows safety and profit advantages that could be obtained by a new generation of gamma spectrometry system for SFR. Now, the high count rate abilities, allow us to study new methods of accurate power measurement and fast clad failure detection. Simulations have been done and an experimental test has been performed at the French Phenix SFR of the CEA Marcoule showing promising results for these new measurements. (author) [fr

  1. Characterization of particulate matter from the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martiez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Avila-Perez, P.; Carapio-Morales, L.; Zarazua, G.; Tejeda, S.

    2005-01-01

    The urban air pollution issue is a concern in many Mega cities, because of hazardous effect to human health. The Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (MZMV) is one of the ten largest urban areas around the World with a population of 24.4 million people by the year 2000. One or the 'six criteria pollutants' regulated by Norm (because the hazardous effect to human health) are those commonly designed as Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Respirable Particles (RP) lower than 10 μm (coarse, PM10 and fine PM2.5). Particulate matter consists of solids or liquid aerosol particles suspended in the air and has diverse chemical composition related to the sources. Under ambient conditions of sampling analysis particulate matter exists almost exclusively in solid phase but can include liquid aerosols such as the heavier components of diesel combustion products and nitric acid. In general particulate matter includes dust, dirt, soot, smoke and liquid droplets emitted in the air by sources such as factories, power plants, cars, fire, construction activities, aircrafts and winds blown dust. In this work the survey of TSP particles an PM10 was carried out with an automatic high volume sampler with an average flow rate of 1.5 m 3 min -1 during 24 h in five monitoring stations of the national network system chosen trying to cover the fourth cardinal directions and the central zone: Xalostoc (XAL) at NE; Tlanepantla (TLA) at NW; Merced (MER) at the downtown; Cerro de la Estrella (CES) at SE and Pedregal (PED) at SW. A sample of l cm 2 was cut from each filter and mounted with a graphite tape on an aluminum sample-holder. The analysis of 100 induvidual particles of each sample were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The analysis was performed using a scanning electron microscope PHILLIPS Model XL-30. X-ray analysis is carried out with an energy-dispersive Si(Li) detector Model Saphire, SUTW (super ultra thin window), allowing

  2. Measurement of grain size of polycrystalline materials with confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Li, Fangzuo; Sun, Xuepeng; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-11-11

    The confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction (EDMXRD) based on polycapillary X-ray optics was used to determine the grain size of polycrystalline materials. The grain size of a metallographic specimen of nickel base alloy was measured by using the confocal EDMXRD. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal EDMXRD had potential applications in measuring large grain size.

  3. Quantitative analysis without standards using local peak-to-background ratios with the energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer EDR-184

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, F.; Heckel, J.

    1986-01-01

    The method realized in program QMA-184 of the energy dispersive X-Ray-Microanalyzer EDR-184 for quantitative spectra analyzing of bulk materials by using local peak-to-background ratios is described in detail. The authors demonstrate efficiency and limitations of the used method by discussion of experimental results. (author)

  4. Comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Volume I. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burwell, C.C.; Reister, D.B.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Sisman, O.; Suffern, J.S.

    1976-05-01

    A brief summary is presented of the surrogate site concept used to compare the Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) concept with the present method of dispersed siting of nuclear power plants. Included are data on power transmission, environmental considerations, and a discussion of a site selection methodology

  5. Use of energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis as a rapid method for demarcating areas around marine outfalls that may be influenced by effluent: a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys that monitor pollution in a marine environment often include the measurement of heavy metals and other trace elements in sediments obtained from multiple stations near marine outfalls. This study investigates the use of energy-dispersive x...

  6. In-situ and operando characterization of batteries with energy-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, William Arthur

    Batteries play a pivotal role in the low-carbon society that is required to thwart the effects of climate change. Alternative low-carbon energy sources, such as wind and solar, are often intermittent and unreliable. Batteries are able capture their energy and deliver it later when it is needed. The implementation of battery systems in grid-level and transportation sectors is essential for efficient use of alternative energy sources. Scientists and engineers need better tools to analyze and measure the performance characteristics of batteries. One of the main hindrances in the progress of battery research is that the constituent electrode materials are inaccessible once an electrochemical cell is constructed. This leaves the researcher with a limited number of available feedback mechanisms to assess the cell's performance, e.g., current, voltage, and impedance. These data are limited in their ability to reveal the more-localized smaller-scale structural mechanisms on which the batteries' performance is so dependent. Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is one of the few techniques that can internally probe a sealed battery. By analyzing the structural behavior of battery electrodes, one is able to gain insight to the physical properties on which the battery's performance is dependent. In this dissertation, EDXRD with ultrahigh energy synchrotron radiation is used to probe the electrodes of manufactured primary and secondary lithium batteries under in-situ and operando conditions. The technique is then applied to solve specific challenges facing lithium ion batteries. Diffraction spectra are collected from within a battery at 40 micrometer resolution. Peak-fitting is used to quantitatively estimate the abundance of lithiated and non-lithiated phases. Through mapping the distribution of phases within, structural changes are linked to the battery's galvanic response. A three-dimensional spatial analysis of lithium iron phosphate batteries suggests that evolution

  7. Evaluation of the composition of filters additional of equipment radiological intraoral by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, Alana Caroline; Torres, Catarina A.M.P.; Rocha, Ana S.S.; Deniak, Valeriy; Lara, Alessandro L.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Fernandes, Angela; Westphalen, Fernando Henrique

    2013-01-01

    The need for high quality standards for radiographic images in order to make a diagnosis assertive, and being the additional filtration required in the intraoral X-ray equipment show the need of evaluating these filters. This study aims to examine the influence of the elemental composition of the filters of X-ray of dental intraoral equipment in the radiographic images quality. The filters analysis were performed by using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method (EDXRF). Ten conventional filters were analysed. In this study, 33 radiographic exposures were performed using films: twenty radiographs in the incisor region and ten in the molar region, three exposures were also made in the same regions with same conditions without using filter. After radiographs development, optical density was measure and all radiographs were submitted to subjective evaluation by dental radiologists. Data obtained were correlated to effects evaluation of the elemental composition of all filters in the quality of the radiographic images. The elements found were: aluminum, cobalt, copper, sulfur, iron, manganese, titanium, zinc, and zirconium. The images obtained were identified in groups: Molars to 0.3 s; Incisors to 0.2 s; Incisors to 0.3 s, and for the group without filters. From the results obtained it was concluded that both unclear radiographs and ideal radiographs were produced by using filters of elementary common. Therefore, conventional filters evaluated were an acceptable option to produce quality images in dental radiology, despite differences in the composition of the alloys. (author)

  8. Bulk substrate porosity verification by applying Monte Carlo modeling and Castaing's formula using energy-dispersive x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Lai Chin; Fei, Cheong Choke; Mandeep, Jit Singh; Amin, Nowshad; Lai, Khin Wee

    2015-11-01

    The leadframe fabrication process normally involves additional thin-metal layer plating on the bulk copper substrate surface for wire bonding purposes. Silver, tin, and copper flakes are commonly adopted as plating materials. It is critical to assess the density of the plated metal layer, and in particular to look for porosity or voids underneath the layer, which may reduce the reliability during high-temperature stress. A fast, reliable inspection technique is needed to assess the porosity or void weakness. To this end, the characteristics of x-rays generated from bulk samples were examined using an energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) detector to examine the porosity percentage. Monte Carlo modeling was integrated with Castaing's formula to verify the integrity of the experimental data. Samples with different porosity percentages were considered to test the correlation between the intensity of the collected x-ray signal and the material density. To further verify the integrity of the model, conventional cross-sectional samples were also taken to observe the porosity percentage using Image J software measurement. A breakthrough in bulk substrate assessment was achieved by applying EDX for the first time to nonelemental analysis. The experimental data showed that the EDX features were not only useful for elemental analysis, but also applicable to thin-film metal layer thickness measurement and bulk material density determination. A detailed experiment was conducted using EDX to assess the plating metal layer and bulk material porosity.

  9. Evaluation of the composition of filters additional of equipment radiological intraoral by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Alana Caroline; Torres, Catarina A.M.P.; Rocha, Ana S.S.; Deniak, Valeriy; Lara, Alessandro L.; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: alanacarolinef@gmail.com, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial; Fernandes, Angela; Westphalen, Fernando Henrique, E-mail: angelafernandes@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias da Saude

    2013-07-01

    The need for high quality standards for radiographic images in order to make a diagnosis assertive, and being the additional filtration required in the intraoral X-ray equipment show the need of evaluating these filters. This study aims to examine the influence of the elemental composition of the filters of X-ray of dental intraoral equipment in the radiographic images quality. The filters analysis were performed by using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method (EDXRF). Ten conventional filters were analysed. In this study, 33 radiographic exposures were performed using films: twenty radiographs in the incisor region and ten in the molar region, three exposures were also made in the same regions with same conditions without using filter. After radiographs development, optical density was measure and all radiographs were submitted to subjective evaluation by dental radiologists. Data obtained were correlated to effects evaluation of the elemental composition of all filters in the quality of the radiographic images. The elements found were: aluminum, cobalt, copper, sulfur, iron, manganese, titanium, zinc, and zirconium. The images obtained were identified in groups: Molars to 0.3 s; Incisors to 0.2 s; Incisors to 0.3 s, and for the group without filters. From the results obtained it was concluded that both unclear radiographs and ideal radiographs were produced by using filters of elementary common. Therefore, conventional filters evaluated were an acceptable option to produce quality images in dental radiology, despite differences in the composition of the alloys. (author)

  10. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, and strontium in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Akishige; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Itoman, Moritoshi

    1981-01-01

    Phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and strontium in a human bone extracted by surgery were determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The bone was decomposed with nitric acid, then diluted with water. A specific quantity of the solution was naturally dried on polyethylene film, and subjected to X-ray analysis. For determining the calibration curves in a mixture of phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and strontium, for the analysis of phosphorus and calcium, germanium was used as the secondary target and aluminum as the filter; and for the analysis of iron, zinc and strontium, molybdenum and molybdenum-aluminum were used, respectively. Consequently, the calibration curves were able to be obtained with high precision in the ranges from 5 to 500 μg of phosphorus, from 1 to 50 μg of calcium and from 0.1 to 1.0 μg of iron, zinc and strontium. In this way, in 1 mg of the human bone by wet weight, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and strontium were able to be determined. (J.P.N.)

  11. Enhancement of the energy storage properties of supercapacitors using graphene nanosheets dispersed with metal oxide-loaded carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhi, R. B.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2011-10-01

    Graphene nanosheets (GNs) dispersed with SnO2 nanoparticles loaded multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO2-MWCNTs) were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. SnO2-MWCNTs were obtained by a chemical method followed by calcination. GNs/SnO2-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared by ultrasonication of the GNs and SnO2-MWCNTs. Electrochemical double layer capacitors were fabricated using the composite as the electrode material and aqueous KOH as the electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes were compared to that of pure GNs electrodes and the results are discussed. Electrochemical measurements show that the maximum specific capacitance, power density and energy density obtained for supercapacitor using GNs/SnO2-MWCNTs nanocomposite electrodes were respectively 224 F g-1, 17.6 kW kg-1 and 31 Wh kg-1. The fabricated supercapacitor device exhibited excellent cycle life with ∼81% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 6000 cycles. The results suggest that the hybrid composite is a promising supercapacitor electrode material.

  12. Micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluoresence mapping of enamel and dental materials after chemical erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nahórny, Sídnei; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-10-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence was employed to test the hypothesis that beverage consumption or mouthwash utilization will change the chemical properties of dental materials and enamel mineral content. Bovine enamel samples (n = 45) each received two cavity preparations (n = 90), each pair filled with one of three dental materials (R: nanofilled composite resin; GIC: glass-ionomer cement; RMGIC: resin-modified GIC). Furthermore, they were treated with three different solutions (S: saliva; E: erosion/Pepsi Twist®; or EM: erosion+mouthwash/Colgate Plax®). It was found that mineral loss in enamel was greater in GICE samples than in RE > RMGICE > RMGICEM > REM > GICEM. An increased percentage of Zr was found in REM indicating organic matrix degradation. Dental materials tested (R, GIC, and RMGIC) were not able to protect adjacent enamel from acid erosion by the soft drink tested. The use of mouthwash promoted protection of enamel after erosion by the soft drink. To avoid chemical dissolution by mouthwashes, protection by resin composites with surface sealants is recommended.

  13. Dispersion of silicon carbide nanoparticles in a AA2024 aluminum alloy by a high-energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreño-Gallardo, C.; Estrada-Guel, I.; López-Meléndez, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of 2024-SiC NP nanocomposite by mechanical milling process. • SiC nanoparticles improved mechanical properties of aluminum alloy 2024 matrix. • A homogeneous distribution of SiC nanoparticles were observed in the matrix • Compressive and hardness properties of the composite are improved significantly. -- Abstract: Al 2024 alloy was reinforced with silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC NP ), whose concentration was varied in the range from 0 to 5 wt.%; some composites were synthesized with the mechanical milling (MM) process. Structure and microstructure of the consolidated samples were studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while mechanical properties were investigated by compressive tests and hardness measurements. The microstructural evidence shows that SiC NP were homogeneously dispersed into the Al 2024 alloy using high-energy MM after 2 h of processing. On the other hand, an increase of the mechanical properties (yield stress, maximum strength and hardness) was observed in the synthesized composites as a direct function of the SiC NP content. In this research several strengthening mechanisms were observed, but the main was the obstruction of dislocations movement by the addition of SiC NP

  14. In vivo energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence for measuring the content of essential and toxic trace elements in teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.; Ovchjarenko, N.; Zaichick, S.

    1999-01-01

    The calibration and application of a facility, based on energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis (EDXRF) using 109 Cd as an excitation source, for in vivo and in vitro estimation of Ca, Pb, Sr and Zn in tooth enamel is described. During the in vivo measurements, the device ensures tissue protection of face and mouth cavity from radiation, and only a small part of tooth surface under study is irradiated. To calibrate the facility, the contents of Ca, Sr and Zn were analyzed simultaneously in the enamel of 50 teeth by EDXRF and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Standards prepared from powdered tooth enamel with additions of chemically pure lead compounds were used to calibrate for lead graduation. Enamel calcium is suggested as an internal standard during in vivo EDXRF of teeth. The content of enamel Sr, Zn and Pb was determined by EDXRF in 35 permanent intact teeth of teenagers and adults. It was shown that lead concentration didn't exceed 3 μg/g for all the teeth

  15. Enhancement of the energy storage properties of supercapacitors using graphene nanosheets dispersed with metal oxide-loaded carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-10-01

    Graphene nanosheets (GNs) dispersed with SnO2 nanoparticles loaded multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO2-MWCNTs) were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. SnO2-MWCNTs were obtained by a chemical method followed by calcination. GNs/SnO2-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared by ultrasonication of the GNs and SnO 2-MWCNTs. Electrochemical double layer capacitors were fabricated using the composite as the electrode material and aqueous KOH as the electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes were compared to that of pure GNs electrodes and the results are discussed. Electrochemical measurements show that the maximum specific capacitance, power density and energy density obtained for supercapacitor using GNs/SnO 2-MWCNTs nanocomposite electrodes were respectively 224 F g -1, 17.6 kW kg-1 and 31 Wh kg-1. The fabricated supercapacitor device exhibited excellent cycle life with ∼81% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 6000 cycles. The results suggest that the hybrid composite is a promising supercapacitor electrode material. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Standard test method for analysis of uranium and thorium in soils by energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrochemical analysis of trace levels of uranium and thorium in soils. Any sample matrix that differs from the general ground soil composition used for calibration (that is, fertilizer or a sample of mostly rock) would have to be calibrated separately to determine the effect of the different matrix composition. 1.2 The analysis is performed after an initial drying and grinding of the sample, and the results are reported on a dry basis. The sample preparation technique used incorporates into the sample any rocks and organic material present in the soil. This test method of sample preparation differs from other techniques that involve tumbling and sieving the sample. 1.3 Linear calibration is performed over a concentration range from 20 to 1000 μg per gram for uranium and thorium. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard...

  17. Analysis of ancient masterly pieces of work by means of X-ray fluorescence analysis by dispersion in the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.; Cappio B, C.; Brunetti, A.; Rosales, M.A.; Castellano, A.; Gigante, G.E.; Fiorini, C.

    2004-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been widely used for the analysis of works of art because it is non-destructive, multi-elemental, simple to utilize, and relatively inexpensive. In the last few years, miniaturized and portable X-ray tubes and high-resolution semiconductor detectors have been developed. This progress allowed the design and construction of portable equipments that can be easily transported all over the world, for use in museums, excavations, etc. In this work, these portable systems will be described and their usefulness demonstrated in the analysis of objects of archaeological value. First, we present the analysis of a lot of gold prehispanic jewels from the Museo del Templo Mayor in Mexico City; in the second place we present the results of analysis of the golden altar of St. Ambrogio in Milan, which is considered one of the most important goldsmith's works ever realized and the gold pigments from the fresco 'The chapel of the Scrovegni' by Giotto. In the third place we give a brief account of Mycenaean and pre-Mycenaean gold objects from the Museum Benaki in Athens. Finally, the results of bulk nuragic copper based ingots from the nuragic village of St. Imbenia are presented. (Author) 19 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  18. In Situ Structure-Function Studies of Oxide Supported Rhodium Catalysts by Combined Energy Dispersive XAFS and DRIFTS Spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, John; Dent, Andrew J.; Diaz-Moreno, Sofia; Fiddy, Steven G.; Jyoti, Bhrat; Tromp, Moniek; Newton, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The techniques of energy dispersive EXAFS (EDE), diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and mass spectrometry (MS) have been combined to study the structure and function of an oxide supported metal catalyst, namely 5 wt% Rh/Al2O3. Using a FreLoN camera as the EDE detector and a rapid-scanning IR spectrometer, experiments could be performed with a repetition rate of 50 ms. The results show that the nature of the rhodium centers is a function of the partial pressures of the reacting gases (CO and NO) and also temperature. This combination of gases oxidizes metallic rhodium particles to Rh(CO)2 at room temperature. The proportion of the rhodium adopting this site increases as the temperature is raised (up to 450 K). Above that temperature the dicarbonyl decomposes and the metal reclusters. Once this condition is met, catalysis ensues. Gas switching techniques show that at 573 K with NO in excess, the clusters can be oxidized rapidly to afford a linear nitrosyl complex; re-exposure to CO also promotes reclustering and the CO adopts terminal (atop) and bridging (2-fold) sites

  19. [Energy dispersive spectrum analysis of surface compositions of selective laser melting cobalt-chromium alloy fabricated by different processing parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liang; Zeng, Li; Wei, Bin; Gong, Yao

    2015-06-01

    To fabricate selective laser melting cobalt-chromium alloy samples by different processing parameters, and to analyze the changes of energy dispersive spectrum(EDS) on their surface. Nine groups were set up by orthogonal experimental design according to different laser powers,scanning speeds and powder feeding rates(laser power:2500-3000 W, scanning speed: 5-15 mm/s, powder feeding rate: 3-6 r/min). Three cylinder specimens(10 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness) were fabricated in each group through Rofin DL 035Q laser cladding system using cobalt-chromium alloy powders which were developed independently by our group.Their surface compositions were then measured by EDS analysis. Results of EDS analysis of the 9 groups fabricated by different processing parameters(Co:62.98%-67.13%,Cr:25.56%-28.50%,Si:0.49%-1.23%) were obtained. They were similar to the compositions of cobalt-chromium alloy used in dental practice. According to EDS results, the surface compositions of the selective laser melting cobalt-chromium alloy samples are stable and controllable, which help us gain a preliminary sight into the range of SLM processing parameters. Supported by "973" Program (2012CB910401) and Research Fund of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (12441903001 and 13140902701).

  20. Operation manual for EDXRDDA - a software package for Bragg peak analysis of energy dispersive powder X-ray diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaswal, Balhans; Vijaykumar, V.; Momin, S.N.; Sikka, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    EDXRDDA is a software package for analysis of raw data for energy dispersive x-ray diffraction from powder samples. It resolves the spectra into individual peaks by a constrained non-linear least squares method (Hughes and Sexton, 1988). The profile function adopted is the Gaussian/Lorentzian product with the mixing ratio refinable in the program. The program is implemented on an IBM PC and is highly interactive with extensive plotting facilities. This report is a user's guide for running the program. In the first step after inputting the spectra, the full spectra is plotted on the screen. The user then chooses a portion of this for peak resolution. The initial guess for the peak intensity, peak position are input with the help of a cursor or a mouse. Upto twenty peaks can be fitted at a time in an interval of 500 channels. For overlapping peaks, various constraints can be applied. Bragg peaks and fluorescence peaks with different half widths can be handled simultaneously. The program on execution produces a look up table which contains the refined values of the peak position, half width, peak intensity, integrated intensity, and their error estimates of each peak. The program is very general and can also be used for curve fitting of data from many other experiments. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 appendices

  1. Characterization of wood dust from furniture by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Yepes, Milena Elizabeth; Cremades, Lázaro V

    2011-01-01

    Study characterized and analyzed form factor, elementary composition and particle size of wood dust, in order to understand its harmful health effects on carpenters in Quindío (Colombia). Once particle characteristics (size distributions, aerodynamic equivalent diameter (D(α)), elemental composition and shape factors) were analyzed, particles were then characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXRA). SEM analysis of particulate matter showed: 1) cone-shaped particle ranged from 2.09 to 48.79 µm D(α); 2) rectangular prism-shaped particle from 2.47 to 72.9 µm D(α); 3) cylindrically-shaped particle from 2.5 to 48.79 µm D(α); and 4) spherically-shaped particle from 2.61 to 51.93 µm D(α). EDXRA reveals presence of chemical elements from paints and varnishes such as Ca, K, Na and Cr. SEM/EDXRA contributes in a significant manner to the morphological characterization of wood dust. It is obvious that the type of particles sampled is a complex function of shapes and sizes of particles. Thus, it is important to investigate the influence of particles characteristics, morphology, shapes and D(α) that may affect the health of carpenters in Quindío.

  2. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence of discarded tire samples, using a Si-PIN detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, C.R.; Melquiades, Fabio L.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of zinc concentration in samples of discarded tires is of great environmental interest because the process for manufacturing tyres uses S for rubber vulcanization, and ZnO is the reaction catalyst. Discarded tyres are being used in asphalt paving, in the burning process of thermoelectric and cement industries and also for controlling erosion in agricultural areas. Analysis of tyre samples usually requires chemical digestion which is slow and expensive. Aiming to eliminate those limitations, this work uses energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a portable equipment, once it is a simultaneous multi-element analytical technique, requiring minimal sample preparation. Five samples of discarded tyres have been ground and analysed in the form of pastilles, using a mini X-ray tube (Ag target, MO filter, 25 kV/20 μA) for 200 s, and a Si-PIN semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. Zinc concentrations in the range of 40.6 to 44.2 μg g -1 have been obtained, representing 0.4% of the tire composition, which is below the maximum value (2%) recommended by the European Tyre Recycling Association. Concentrations between 0.15 and 0.52 μg g -1 were obtained for Fe

  3. Mean field for the p + 90Zr system in the energy range -60 MeV 90Zr from a dispersive optical-model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovsky, E.A.; Bespalova, O.V.; Goncharov, S.A.; Pleshkov, D.V.; Spasskaya, T.I.

    2000-01-01

    Data on the scattering of protons with energies 5 MeV 90 Zr nuclei and data on the energies of proton particle and hole levels in the A + 1 and A - 1 systems with A = 90 are analyzed within the dispersive optical model. The parameters of the mean proton field for 90 Zr are determined in the energy range -60 MeV 3 He), ( 3 He, d), (n, d), and (d, n) reactions for levels near the Fermi surface and in (e, e'p) and (p, 2p) reactions for deep levels

  4. Front-illuminated versus back-illuminated photon-counting CCD-based gamma camera: important consequences for spatial resolution and energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, Jan W T; Westra, Albert H; Linotte, Peter M; Ligtvoet, Kees M; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Beekman, Freek J

    2007-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) coupled to scintillation crystals can be used for high-resolution imaging with x-rays and gamma rays. When the CCD images can be read out fast enough, the energy and interaction position of individual gamma quanta can be estimated by a real-time image analysis of the scintillation light flashes ('photon-counting mode'). The electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) is well suited for fast read out, since even at high frame rates it has extremely low read-out noise. Back-illuminated (BI) EMCCDs have much higher quantum efficiency than front-illuminated (FI) EMCCDs. Here we compare the spatial and energy resolution of gamma cameras based on FI and BI EMCCDs. The CCDs are coupled to a 1000 μm thick columnar CsI(Tl) crystal for the purpose of Tc-99m and I-125 imaging. Intrinsic spatial resolutions of 44 μm for I-125 and 49 μm for Tc-99m were obtained when using a BI EMCCD, which is an improvement by a factor of about 1.2-2 over the FI EMCCD. Furthermore, in the energy spectrum of the BI EMCCD, the I-125 signal could be clearly separated from the background noise, which was not the case for the FI EMCCD. The energy resolution of a BI EMCCD for Tc-99m was estimated to be approximately 36 keV, full width at half maximum, at 141 keV. The excellent results for the BI EMCCD encouraged us to investigate the cooling requirements for our setup. We have found that for the BI EMCCD, the spatial and energy resolution, as well as image noise, remained stable over a range of temperatures from -50 deg. C to -15 deg. C. This is a significant advantage over the FI EMCCD, which suffered from loss of spatial and especially energy resolution at temperatures as low as -40 deg. C. We conclude that the use of BI EMCCDs may significantly improve the imaging capabilities and the cost efficiency of CCD-based high-resolution gamma cameras. (note)

  5. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the direct multi-element analysis of dried blood spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguí, E.; Queralt, I.; García-Ruiz, E.; García-González, E.; Rello, L.; Resano, M.

    2018-01-01

    Home-based collection protocols for clinical specimens are actively pursued as a means of improving life quality of patients. In this sense, dried blood spots (DBS) are proposed as a non-invasive and even self-administered alternative to sampling whole venous blood. This contribution explores the potential of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the simultaneous and direct determination of some major (S, Cl, K, Na), minor (P, Fe) and trace (Ca, Cu, Zn) elements in blood, after its deposition onto clinical filter papers, thus giving rise to DBS. For quantification purposes the best strategy was to use matrix-matched blood samples of known analyte concentrations. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated by analysis of a blood reference material (Seronorm™ trace elements whole blood L3). Quantitative results were obtained for the determination of P, S, Cl, K and Fe, and limits of detection for these elements were adequate, taking into account their typical concentrations in real blood samples. Determination of Na, Ca, Cu and Zn was hampered by the occurrence of high sample support (Na, Ca) and instrumental blanks (Cu, Zn). Therefore, the quantitative determination of these elements at the levels expected in blood samples was not feasible. The methodology developed was applied to the analysis of several blood samples and the results obtained were compared with those reported by standard techniques. Overall, the performance of the method developed is promising and it could be used to determine the aforementioned elements in blood samples in a simple, fast and economic way. Furthermore, its non-destructive nature enables further analyses by means of complementary techniques to be carried out.

  6. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry study of the protective effects of fluoride varnish and gel on enamel erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho Filho, Antonio Carlos Belfort; Sanches, Roberto Pizarro; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Do Espírito Santo, Ana Maria; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva

    2011-09-01

    Dental erosion is a risk factor for dental health, introduced by today's lifestyle. Topical fluoride applications in the form of varnishes and gel may lead to deposition of fluoride on enamel. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of two fluoride varnishes and one fluoride gel on the dissolution of bovine enamel by acids. Enamel samples (72) were divided (n = 8): artificial saliva (control-G1), Pepsi Twist® (G2), orange juice (G3), Duraphat® + Pepsi Twist® (G4), Duraphat® + orange juice (G5), Duofluorid® + Pepsi Twist® (G6), Duofluorid® + orange juice (G7), fluoride gel + Pepsi Twist® (G8), and fluoride gel + orange juice (G9). Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min and the varnishes were applied and removed after 6 h. The samples were submitted to six cycles (demineralization: Pepsi Twist® or orange juice, 10 min; remineralization: saliva, 1 h). Samples were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (144 line-scanning). The amount of Ca and P decreased significantly in the samples of G2 and G3, and the Ca/P ratio decreased in G3. Mineral gain (Ca) was greater in G9 samples than in G4 > G3 > G5 > G1, and (P) greater in G7 samples than in G9 > G4-6 > G2-3. The protective effect of Duofluorid® was significantly lower than fluoride gel against orange juice. The fluoride varnishes can interfere positively with the dissolution of dental enamel in the presence of acidic beverages. Fluoride gel showed the best protection level to extrinsic erosion with low costs. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Characterization of Roman glass tesserae from the Coriglia excavation site (Italy) via energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donais, Mary Kate; Sparks, Andrew; Redente, Monica [Saint Anselm College, Department of Chemistry, Manchester, NH (United States); Pevenage, Jolien van; Moens, Luc; Vincze, Laszlo [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent (Belgium); George, David B. [Saint Anselm College, Department of Classics, Manchester, NH (United States); Vandenabeele, Peter [Ghent University, Department of Archaeology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-12-15

    The combined use of handheld energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry permitted the characterization of Roman glass tesserae excavation from the Coriglia (Italy) archeological site. Analyses of ten different glass colors were conducted as spot analyses on intact samples and as both spot analyses and line scans on select cross-sectioned samples. The elemental and molecular information gained from these spectral measurements allowed for the qualitative chemical characterization of the bulk glass, decolorants, opacifiers, and coloring agents. The use of an antimony opacifier in many of the samples supports the late Imperial phasing as determined through numismatic, fresco, ceramics, and architectural evidence. And dealinization of the exterior glass layers caused by the burial environment was confirmed. (orig.)

  8. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient coins: The case of Greek silver drachmae from the Emporion site in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitarch, A.; Queralt, I.

    2010-01-01

    Greek colonizers arrived at the Iberian Peninsula at the beginning of the sixth century B.C. and founded a small colony known as Emporion in north-east Spain. By the fifth century B.C., this colony became a small polis with a well-organized administrative structure. In this context, the necessity of coinage was a fact and the first coins were minted. Some of these coins were characterized by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment. The analytical study focused on the elemental characterization of the coins minted from the fourth century to the first century B.C. and their compositional evolution during this period. The investigation has pointed out a very high fineness of the alloys throughout the time, with an average silver content around 98.32%, and the feasibility of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence as a screening tool for the characterization of the alloys.

  9. Measurements of Ultra-Fast single photon counting chip with energy window and 75 μm pixel pitch with Si and CdTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Kasinski, K.; Koziol, A.; Krzyzanowska, A.; Kmon, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Single photon counting pixel detectors become increasingly popular in various 2-D X-ray imaging techniques and scientific experiments mainly in solid state physics, material science and medicine. This paper presents architecture and measurement results of the UFXC32k chip designed in a CMOS 130 nm process. The chip consists of about 50 million transistors and has an area of 9.64 mm × 20.15 mm. The core of the IC is a matrix of 128 × 256 pixels of 75 μm pitch. Each pixel contains a CSA, a shaper with tunable gain, two discriminators with correction circuits and two 14-bit ripple counters operating in a normal mode (with energy window), a long counter mode (one 28-bit counter) and a zero-dead time mode. Gain and noise performance were verified with X-ray radiation and with the chip connected to Si (320 μm thick) and CdTe (750 μ m thick) sensors.

  10. The Study of the Oxide Coating Effect on Bone-Implant Interface Formation by Means of Electron Microscopy Method with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudakova, A.A.; Danilchenko, S.N.; Sukhodub, L.F.; Luk'yanchenko, V.V.; Zykova, A.V.; Safonov, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    The experimental results of the measurement of the tissue constituent elements distribution, as well as impurity elements in the tissues around a Ti-implant with protective TiO 2 oxide coating are presented. Study of morphology, qualitative and quantitative analysis were carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy method with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The results show weak migration of Ti into the bone tissue near the interface and protective role of the oxide coatings

  11. The application of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) to the analysis of cosmetic evidence in Indian nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Sawhney, K.J.S.; Lodha, G.S.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    The application of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry in the quantitative analysis of samples of Indian nail polishes of apparently similar shades from different manufacturers has been examined by evaluating the possibility of detecting spurious material which is marketed under the guise of a popular brand. On the basis of the number of elements detected, and from the ratios of particular elements [Fe/Ti,Fe/Cu,Ti/Cu] the results are very encouraging. (author)

  12. Calcium detection in secretion granules of avian oviduct by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, T.; Hatsuoka, M.; Sugi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Secretion granules in the shell gland, isthmus, and albumin-secreting region of the hen oviduct were analyzed with WET-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX, a combination of wide-angle backscattered electron detector (BED) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDX). Glutaraldehyde-fixed but unhydrated, unstained, and uncoated samples were analyzed; Ca was localized in all secretion granules in all three sections of the hen oviduct studied

  13. The application of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) to the analysis of cosmetic evidence in Indian nail polishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, G. (Forensic Science Lab., Chandigarh (India)); Sawhney, K.J.S.; Lodha, G.S. (Nuclear Research Lab., Srinagar (India)); Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S. (Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-05-01

    The application of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry in the quantitative analysis of samples of Indian nail polishes of apparently similar shades from different manufacturers has been examined by evaluating the possibility of detecting spurious material which is marketed under the guise of a popular brand. On the basis of the number of elements detected, and from the ratios of particular elements (Fe/Ti,Fe/Cu,Ti/Cu) the results are very encouraging. (author).

  14. A new analysis procedure to extract fusion excitation function with large beam energy dispersions: application to the 6Li+120Sn and 7Li+119Sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pietro Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper it is described an analysis procedure suited for experiments where cross-sections strongly varying with energy are measured using beams having large energy dispersion. These cross-sections are typically the sub-barrier fusion excitation function of reactions induced by radioactive beams. The large beam energy dispersion, typical of these experiments, can lead to ambiguities in the association of the effective beam energy to the reaction product yields and consequently to an error in the determination of the excitation function. As a test case, the approach is applied to the experiments 6Li+120Sn and 7Li+119Sn measured in the energy range 14 MeV ≤ Ec.m. ≤28 MeV. The complete fusion cross sections are deduced from activation measurements using the stacked target technique. The results of these experiments, that employ the two weakly-bound stable Li isotopes, show that the complete fusion cross sections above the barrier are suppressed of about 70% and 85% with respect to the Universal Fusion Function, used as a standard reference, in the 6Li and 7Li induced reactions respectively. Moreover, the excitation functions of the two systems at energies below the barrier, do not show significant differences, despite the two systems have different n-transfer Qvalue.

  15. Diagnosis of electrocution: The application of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visonà, S D; Chen, Y; Bernardi, P; Andrello, L; Osculati, A

    2018-03-01

    Deaths from electricity, generally, do not have specific findings at the autopsy. The diagnosis is commonly based on the circumstances of the death and the morphologic findings, above all the current mark. Yet, the skin injury due to an electrocution and other kinds of thermal injuries often cannot be differentiated with certainty. Therefore, there is a great interest in finding specific markers of electrocution. The search for the metallization of the skin through Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) probe is of special importance in order to achieve a definite diagnosis in case of suspected electrocution. We selected five cases in which the electrocution was extremely likely considering the circumstances of the death. In each case a forensic autopsy was performed. Then, the skin specimens were stained with Hematoxylin Eosin and Perls. On the other hand, the skin lesions were examined with a scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS probe in order to evaluate the morphological ultrastructural features and the presence of deposits on the surface of the skin. The typical skin injury of the electrocution (current mark) were macroscopically detected in all of the cases. The microscopic examination of the skin lesions revealed the typical spherical vacuoles in the horny layer and, in the epidermis, the elongation of the cell nuclei as well as necrosis. Perls staining was negative in 4 out 6 cases. Ultrastructural morphology revealed the evident vacuolization of the horny layer, elongation of epidermic cells, coagulation of the elastic fibers. In the specimens collected from the site of contact with the conductor of case 1 and 2, the presence of the Kα peaks of iron was detected. In the corresponding specimens taken from cases 2, 4, 5 the microanalysis showed the Kα peaks of titanium. In case 3, titanium and carbon were found. In the suspicion of electrocution, the integrated use of different tools is recommended

  16. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balpardo, C.; Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide 241 Am decays by alpha emission to 237 Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237 Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241 Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  17. Optimization of a dual-energy contrast-enhanced technique for a photon-counting digital breast tomosynthesis system: I. A theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carton, Ann-Katherine; Ullberg, Christer; Lindman, Karin; Acciavatti, Raymond; Francke, Tom; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) iodine contrast-enhanced x-ray imaging of the breast has been shown to identify cancers that would otherwise be mammographically occult. In this article, theoretical modeling was performed to obtain optimally enhanced iodine images for a photon-counting digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system using a DE acquisition technique. Methods: In the system examined, the breast is scanned with a multislit prepatient collimator aligned with a multidetector camera. Each detector collects a projection image at a unique angle during the scan. Low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) projection images are acquired simultaneously in a single scan by covering alternate collimator slits with Sn and Cu filters, respectively. Sn filters ranging from 0.08 to 0.22 mm thickness and Cu filters from 0.11 to 0.27 mm thickness were investigated. A tube voltage of 49 kV was selected. Tomographic images, hereafter referred to as DBT images, were reconstructed using a shift-and-add algorithm. Iodine-enhanced DBT images were acquired by performing a weighted logarithmic subtraction of the HE and LE DBT images. The DE technique was evaluated for 20-80 mm thick breasts. Weighting factors, w t , that optimally cancel breast tissue were computed. Signal-difference-to-noise ratios (SDNRs) between iodine-enhanced and nonenhanced breast tissue normalized to the square root of the mean glandular dose (MGD) were computed as a function of the fraction of the MGD allocated to the HE images. Peak SDNR/√(MGD) and optimal dose allocations were identified. SDNR/√(MGD) and dose allocations were computed for several practical feasible system configurations (i.e., determined by the number of collimator slits covered by Sn and Cu). A practical system configuration and Sn-Cu filter pair that accounts for the trade-off between SDNR, tube-output, and MGD were selected. Results: w t depends on the Sn-Cu filter combination used, as well as on the breast thickness; to optimally cancel 0

  18. Determining random counts in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    During measurements involving coincidence counting techniques, errors can arise due to the detection of chance or random coincidences in the multiple detectors used. A method and the electronic circuits necessary are here described for eliminating this source of error in liquid scintillation detectors used in coincidence counting. (UK)

  19. On the accuracy of DFT methods in reproducing ligand substitution energies for transition metal complexes in solution: The role of dispersive interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Jacobsen, Heiko

    2011-12-23

    The performance of a series of density functionals when tested on the prediction of the phosphane substitution energy of transition metal complexes is evaluated. The complexes Fe-BDA and Ru-COD (BDA=benzylideneacetone, COD=cyclooctadiene) serve as reference systems, and calculated values are compared with the experimental values in THF as obtained from calorimetry. Results clearly indicate that functionals specifically developed to include dispersion interactions usually outperform other functionals when BDA or COD substitution is considered. However, when phosphanes of different sizes are compared, functionals including dispersion interactions, at odd with experimental evidence, predict that larger phosphanes bind more strongly than smaller phosphanes, while functionals not including dispersion interaction reproduce the experimental trends with reasonable accuracy. In case of the DFT-D functionals, inclusion of a cut-off distance on the dispersive term resolves this issue, and results in a rather robust behavior whatever ligand substitution reaction is considered. Ne quid nimis: Describing chemical reactions in solution by computational techniques developed for gas-phase scenarios might produce erroneous results (see histogram). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Adjustable rheology of fumed silica dispersion in urethane prepolymers: Composition-dependent sol and gel behaviors and energy-mediated shear responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhong, E-mail: 11329038@zju.edu.cn; Song, Yihu, E-mail: s-yh0411@zju.edu.cn; Wang, Xiang, E-mail: 11229036@zju.edu.cn; Zheng, Qiang, E-mail: zhengqiang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Variation of colloidal and interfacial interactions leads to a microstructural diversity in fumed silica dispersions exhibiting absolutely different sol- or gel-like rheological responses. In this study, fumed silicas with different surface areas (200–400 m{sup 2}/g) and surface characteristics (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) are dispersed into moisture-cured polyurethane. The microstructures investigated using transmission electron microscope are associated perfectly with three different rheological behaviors: (i) Sols with well-dispersed silica aggregates, (ii) weak gels with agglomerate-linked networks, and (iii) strong gels with concentrated networks of large agglomerates. Though sols and gels are well distinguished by shear thickening or sustained thinning response through steady shear flow test, it is interesting that the sols and weak gels exhibit a uniform modulus plateau-softening-hardening-softening response with increasing dynamic strain at frequency 10 rad s{sup −1} while the strong gels show a sustained softening beyond the linear regime. Furthermore, the onset of softening and hardening can be normalized: The two softening are isoenergetic at mechanical energies of 0.3 J m{sup −3} and 10 kJ m{sup −3}. On the other hand, the hardening is initiated by a critical strain of 60%. The mechanisms involved in the generation of the sol- and the gel-like dispersions and their structural evolutions during shear are thoroughly clarified in relation to the polyols, the characteristic and content of silica and the curing catalysts.

  1. Compositions and process for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting compositions which include certain polyethoxylated poly(oxypropylene) emulsifiers allow stable dispersion of aqueous or other samples merely by shaking. Preferred are mixtures of such emulsifiers, which give homogeneous, monophasic-appearing dispersions over wide ranges of temperature and aqueous sample content. Certain of these emulsifiers, without being mixed, are of particular advantage when used in analysis of samples obtained through radioimmunoassay techniques, which are extremely difficult to disperse. Certain of these emulsifiers, also without being mixed, uniformly give homogeneous, monophasic appearing aqueous couting samples over much wider ranges of aqueous sample content and temperature than prior sample emulsifiers

  2. Compositions and process for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Liquid scintillation compositions which include certain polyethoxylated poly(oxypropylene) emulsifiers allow stable dispersion of aqueous or other samples merely by shaking. Preferred are mixtures of such emulsifiers, which give homogeneous, monophasic-appearing dispersions over wide ranges of temperature and aqueous sample content. Certain of these emulsifiers, without being mixed, are of particular advantage when used in analysis of samples obtained through radioimmunoassay techniques, which are extremely difficult to disperse. Certain of these emulsifiers, also without being mixed, uniformly give homogeneous, monophasic appearing aqueous counting samples over much wider ranges of aqueous sample content and temperature than prior sample emulsifiers

  3. Method development for analysis of urban dust using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry to detect the possible presence of world trade center dust constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, A.M.; Lowers, H.A.; Meeker, G.P.; Rosati, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center Towers on September 11, 2001, sent dust and debris across much of Manhattan and in the surrounding areas. Indoor and outdoor dust samples were collected and characterized by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS). From this characterization, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and USGS developed a particulate screening method to determine the presence of residual World Trade Center dust in the indoor environment using slag wool as a primary "signature". The method describes a procedure that includes splitting, ashing, and sieving of collected dust. From one split, a 10 mg/mL dust/ isopropanol suspension was prepared and 10-30 ??L aliquots of the suspension placed on an SEM substrate. Analyses were performed using SEM/EDS manual point counting for slag wool fibers. Poisson regression was used to identify some of the sources of uncertainty, which are directly related to the small number of fibers present on each sample stub. Preliminary results indicate that the procedure is promising for screening urban background dust for the presence of WTC dust. Consistent sample preparation of reference materials and samples must be performed by each laboratory wishing to use this method to obtain meaningful and accurate results. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction using diethyldithiocarbamate as a chelating agent and the dried-spot technique for the determination of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocot, Karina; Zawisza, Beata; Sitko, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) using sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) as a chelating agent was investigated for the simultaneous determination of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, selenium and lead ions in water samples. The procedure was performed using 5 mL of the sample, 100 μL of a 0.5% solution of DDTC, 30 μL of carbon tetrachloride (extraction phase) and 500 μL of methanol (disperser solvent). The experiments showed that Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb can be simultaneously extracted at a pH of 5 and that Se can be extracted at a pH of 2–3. The results were compared with those obtained using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate as a chelating agent. For all analytes, a linear range was observed up to 0.4 μg mL −1 . If Fe and Zn are present in concentrations 10 times higher than those of the other analytes, then the linearity is observed up to 0.2 μg mL −1 . In the present study, the organic phase that contained preconcentrated elements was deposited onto a Millipore filter and measured using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The obtained detection limits were 2.9, 1.5, 2.0, 2.3, 2.5, 2.0 and 3.9 ng mL −1 for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb, respectively. This combination of DLLME and the dried-spot technique is promising for multielement analyses using other spectroscopy techniques, such as laser ablation‐inductively coupled plasma‐mass spectrometry, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy or total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. - Highlights: ► Multielement trace analysis using dried-spot technique and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. ► Possibility of combination of LPME with EDXRF, LIBS or LA-ICP-MS. ► Comparison of APDC and DDTC as chelating agents.

  5. The determination of Fe, Mn and Ca in sintered iron and blast-furnace slag by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and wave dispersion-comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworak, B.; Gajek, Sz.

    1980-01-01

    The results of sintered iron and of blast-furnace slag examination obtained by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and of wave dispersion are compared. They show that the methods are comparable for such elements as Ca and Fe, whereas for Mn (in sinter) the X-ray fluorescent analysis of wave dispersion is less precise. (author)

  6. Transverse mass and rapidity distributions and space dispersion plots of (net-)protons in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fu-Hu; Tian, Tian; Wen, Xin-Jian

    2014-01-01

    The transverse mass and rapidity distributions of (net-)protons produced in Pb-Pb collisions with different centrality intervals at 40A and 158A GeV have been analyzed by using the multisource thermal model in which the whole interacting system and then the sources are described by the Tsallis statistics. The modelling results are in agreement with the experimental data of the NA49 Collaboration. The dispersion plots (or scatter plots) of (net-)protons at the stage of freeze-out in the momentum space, velocity space, and transverse momentum and rapidity space in Pb-Pb collisions at 40A and 158A GeV in different centrality intervals are obtained. We see the differences in density distributions in the dispersion plots for different origins, centrality intervals, and incident energies for the considered collisions. (orig.)

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 131 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  8. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  9. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  10. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Zirker; Nathan Jerred; Dr. Indrajit Charit; James Cole

    2012-03-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  11. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, Larry; Jerred, Nathan; Charit, Indrajit; Cole, James

    2012-01-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  12. Single-shot full strain tensor determination with microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction and a two-dimensional energy-dispersive detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, A; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Conka Nurdan, T; Send, S; Micha, J S; Ulrich, O; Hartmann, R; Strüder, L; Pietsch, U

    2017-06-01

    The full strain and stress tensor determination in a triaxially stressed single crystal using X-ray diffraction requires a series of lattice spacing measurements at different crystal orientations. This can be achieved using a tunable X-ray source. This article reports on a novel experimental procedure for single-shot full strain tensor determination using polychromatic synchrotron radiation with an energy range from 5 to 23 keV. Microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction patterns were collected from a copper micro-bending beam along the central axis (centroid of the cross section). Taking advantage of a two-dimensional energy-dispersive X-ray detector (pnCCD), the position and energy of the collected Laue spots were measured for multiple positions on the sample, allowing the measurement of variations in the local microstructure. At the same time, both the deviatoric and hydrostatic components of the elastic strain and stress tensors were calculated.

  13. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiments. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  15. Radiation counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  16. Observation of energy-time dispersed ion structures in the magnetosheath by CLUSTER: possible signatures of transient acceleration processes at shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Louarn

    Full Text Available We analyse energy-time dispersed ion signatures that have been observed by CLUSTER in the dayside magnetosheath. These events are characterized by sudden increases in the ion flux at energies larger than 10 keV. The high energy ions (30 keV are first detected, with the transition to the low energy ions (5 keV lasting about 100 s. These injections are often associated with transient plasma structures of a few minutes in duration, characterized by a hotter, less dense plasma and a diverted flow velocity, thus presenting similarities with "hot flow anomalies". They also involve modifications of the magnetic field direction, suggesting that the shock interacts with a solar wind discontinuity at the time of the event. The injections can originate from the magnetosphere or the shock region. Studying in detail a particular event, we discuss this last hypothesis. We show that the observed energy/time dispersion can be explained by combining a time-of-flight effect with a drift of the source of energetic particles along the shock. We propose that the acceleration results from a Fermi process linked to the interaction of the discontinuity with a quasi-perpendicular shock. This model explains the observed pitch-angle selection of the accelerated particles. The Fermi process acting on the beam of ions reflected from the shock appears to be sufficiently efficient to accelerate over short time scales (less than 30 s particles at energies above 30 keV.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (solar-wind-magnetosphere interaction; magnetosheath – Space plasma physics (shock waves

  17. The ground states of iron(III) porphines: role of entropy-enthalpy compensation, Fermi correlation, dispersion, and zero-point energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepp, Kasper P

    2011-10-01

    Porphyrins are much studied due to their biochemical relevance and many applications. The density functional TPSSh has previously accurately described the energy of close-lying electronic states of transition metal systems such as porphyrins. However, a recent study questioned this conclusion based on calculations of five iron(III) porphines. Here, we compute the geometries of 80 different electronic configurations and the free energies of the most stable configurations with the functionals TPSSh, TPSS, and B3LYP. Zero-point energies and entropy favor high-spin by ~4kJ/mol and 0-10kJ/mol, respectively. When these effects are included, and all electronic configurations are evaluated, TPSSh correctly predicts the spin of all the four difficult phenylporphine cases and is within the lower bound of uncertainty of any known theoretical method for the fifth, iron(III) chloroporphine. Dispersion computed with DFT-D3 favors low-spin by 3-53kJ/mol (TPSSh) or 4-15kJ/mol (B3LYP) due to the attractive r(-6) term and the shorter distances in low-spin. The very large and diverse corrections from TPSS and TPSSh seem less consistent with the similarity of the systems than when calculated from B3LYP. If the functional-specific corrections are used, B3LYP and TPSSh are of equal accuracy, and TPSS is much worse, whereas if the physically reasonable B3LYP-computed dispersion effect is used for all functionals, TPSSh is accurate for all systems. B3LYP is significantly more accurate when dispersion is added, confirming previous results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy reveals energy-band dispersion for π-stacked 7,8,15,16-tetraazaterrylene thin films in a donor–acceptor bulk heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Nabi; Wang, Qi; Ji, Ru-Ru; Wang, Bin; Fan, Jian; Duhm, Steffen

    2018-05-01

    7,8,15,16-tetraazaterrylene (TAT) thin films grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates were studied extensively with regard to their intrinsic and interfacial electronic properties by means of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Merely weak substrate–adsorbate interaction occurs at the TAT/HOPG interface, with interface energetics being only little affected by the nominal film thickness. Photon energy-dependent UPS performed perpendicular to the molecular planes of TAT multilayer films at room temperature clearly reveals band-like intermolecular dispersion of the TAT highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy. Based on a comparison with a tight-binding model, a relatively narrow bandwidth of 54 meV is derived, which points to the presence of an intermediate regime between hopping and band-like hole transport. Upon additional deposition of 2,2‧:5‧,2″:5″,2″‧-quaterthiophene (4T), a 4T:TAT donor–acceptor bulk heterojunction with a considerable HOMO-level offset at the donor–acceptor interface is formed. The 4T:TAT bulk heterojunction likewise exhibits intermolecular dispersion of the TAT HOMO energy, yet with a significant decreased bandwidth.

  19. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In Vitro assessment of dentin erosion after immersion in acidic beverages: surface profile analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz; Jeronymo, Raffaela Di Iorio; Di Nicoló, Rebeca; Araújo, Maria Amélia Máximo de; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of some acidic drinks on dentin erosion, using methods of surface profile (SP) analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). One hundred standardized dentin slabs obtained from bovine incisor roots were used. Dentin slabs measuring 5x5 mm were ground flat, polished and half of each specimen surface was protected with nail polish. For 60 min, the dentin surfaces were immersed in 50 mL of 5 different drinks (Gatorade...

  1. Study of dispersion of mass distribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using a surface array of muon and electromagnetic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosek, Dalibor; Ebr, Jan

    2015-09-01

    We consider a hypothetical observatory of ultra-high energy cosmic rays consisting of two surface detector arrays that measure independently electromagnetic and muon signals induced by air showers. Using the constant intensity cut method, sets of events ordered according to each of both signal sizes are compared giving the number of matched events. Based on its dependence on the zenith angle, a parameter sensitive to the dispersion of the distribution of the logarithmic mass of cosmic rays is introduced. The results obtained using two post-LHC models of hadronic interactions are very similar and indicate a weak dependence on details of these interactions.

  2. Determination of some elements along the length of pine needles by means of the scanning energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.; Katkevics, J.; Nulle, S.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXDF) is used to measure the distribution of trace elements along the length of single pine needles. The current set up allows simultaneous determination up to 15 trace elements. The pilot experiments showed that the distribution of some elements varied along length of the pine needle. Concentration variations of trace elements with the needle age and needle position within the foliage crown were also observed. This could be one way of studying the annual physiological cycle of needles. The scanning EDXRF method was compared with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). (authors)

  3. The design and fabrication of power splitter used in the timescale system of soft X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer in ICF experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huige; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Bai Lixin; Yu Ruizhen; Yang Cunbang; Su Cunxiao

    2006-01-01

    An improved eight power splitter is designed and fabricated newly, which is crucial in the time-scale system of soft X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer is used in ICF laser facility to measure the evolution of soft X-ray spectrum, whose duration is only several nanoseconds. The synchronization and high bandwidth of signals produced by power splitter are tested, which shows the power splitter could meet the strict requirements of the experiments. The discussion of further improvement of power splitter are also presented. (authors)

  4. Energy dispersion of the electrosubbands in parabolic confining quantum wires: interplay of Rashba, Dresselhaus, lateral spin-orbit interaction and the Zeeman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongyi; Zhao Wei; Liu Xueming

    2009-01-01

    We have made a thorough theoretical investigation of the interplay of spin-orbit interactions (SOIs) resulting from Rashba, Dresselhaus and the lateral parabolic confining potential on the energy dispersion relation of the spin subbands in a parabolic quantum wire. The influence of an applied external magnetic field is also discussed. We show the interplay of different types of SOI, as well as the Zeeman effect, leads to rather complex and intriguing electrosubbands for different spin branches. The effect of different coupling strengths and different magnetic field strengths is also investigated.

  5. Dibenzylammonium and sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamates as precipitants for preconcentration of trace elements in water for analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Precipitation with combined dibenzylammonium dibenzyldithiocarbamate and sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate at pH 5.0 can be used to separate 22 trace elements from water. Membrane filtration of the precipitate yielded a thin sample, suitable for analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Alkalis, alkaline earths, lanthanides, and halides were not precipitated, permitting a clean separation of trace elements from the macro constituents of drinking water and drinking water supplies. Methods are given for preparation of reagents of higher purity than previously described

  6. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of zinc and calcium in organelles of insulin-producing cells of the mouse, rat, and a fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkmer, S; Odselius, R [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Blondel, B; Prentki, M; Wollheim, C B [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1985-01-01

    By means of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in the scanning-transmission electron microscope, spectra were obtained from quick-frozen, cryo-ultramicrotome-cut, freeze-dried sections of insulin cells from a fish and a mouse. It was shown that both zinc and calcium are present in significant quantities in native islet cell ..beta.. granules. In the ..beta.. granules of the rat RINm5F insuloma cells calcium, but not zinc, seemed to accumulate; the zinc contents in the secretion granules of these neoplastic ..beta.. cells were probably below the detection limit.

  7. Viability utilization of one Se sup(75) source in the analysis of uranium, thorium and rare earths for use on energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova Mussel, W. da.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a study about the viable utilization of one Se sup(75) source as an excitation source for the use of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), in the analysis of Uranium, Thorium and the Rare Earths. The following arrangement was build up: a HPGE detector, two Se sup(75) sources in 30 sup(0) positions of castle, deadtime of 5%. Using this arrangement the calibration curve for U and Th was measured and the angular correlation coeficient was r+ 0,999, and for the Rare Earths was superior r+ 0,960. The answer given for this system was considered very fine. (author)

  8. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  9. Regression Models For Multivariate Count Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwen; Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Jin; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Data with multivariate count responses frequently occur in modern applications. The commonly used multinomial-logit model is limiting due to its restrictive mean-variance structure. For instance, analyzing count data from the recent RNA-seq technology by the multinomial-logit model leads to serious errors in hypothesis testing. The ubiquity of over-dispersion and complicated correlation structures among multivariate counts calls for more flexible regression models. In this article, we study some generalized linear models that incorporate various correlation structures among the counts. Current literature lacks a treatment of these models, partly due to the fact that they do not belong to the natural exponential family. We study the estimation, testing, and variable selection for these models in a unifying framework. The regression models are compared on both synthetic and real RNA-seq data.

  10. Trace and ultratrace determination of heavy metal ions by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using graphene as solid sorbent in dispersive micro solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocot, Karina; Sitko, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.sitko@us.edu.pl

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the adsorptive properties of graphene nanosheets were used for simultaneous preconcentration of cobalt, nickel, copper and lead ions from water samples. The developed methodology is based on dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (DMSPE) which is miniaturized and a simplified version of classical solid phase extraction technique. In proposed procedure only 200 μL of suspension containing graphene (0.2 mg), ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) (0.8 mg) and Triton-X-100 (0.1 mg) is rapidly injected to 50 mL of water sample. Then, graphene nanosheets with adsorbed metal-APDC chelates are collected on membrane filter and measured using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The various parameters including pH, amount of APDC, sample volume, amount of Triton-X-100 and sorption time were optimized in order to obtain the best recoveries. The experiment shows that Co, Ni, Cu and Pb can be simultaneously preconcentrated at pH of 5 with high recoveries (97%, 96%, 99% and 96% for Co, Ni, Cu and Pb, respectively) and very good precision (RSDs within 2.6–3.4%). Due to the excellent enrichment factors ranging from 400 to 2500 the proposed DMSPE–EDXRF procedure offers low detection limits. For optimized measurement conditions (voltage and current of X-ray tube, primary beam filter) the detection limits are even 0.08, 0.07, 0.08 and 0.20 ng mL{sup −1} for Co, Ni, Cu and Pb, respectively. - Highlights: • Excellent detection limits using EDXRF • A new preconcentration procedure combining DMSPE and EDXRF measurement • Graphene as a promising and efficient solid sorbent in DMSPE • Simple, fast, inexpensive and environmental friendly method.

  11. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  12. Surfactant assisted disperser pretreatment on the liquefaction of Ulva reticulata and evaluation of biodegradability for energy efficient biofuel production through nonlinear regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Dinesh; Tamilarasan, K; Kaliappan, S; Banu, J Rajesh; Rajkumar, M; Kim, Sang Hyoun

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to increase the disintegration potential of marine macroalgae, (Ulva reticulata) through chemo mechanical pretreatment (CMP) in an energy efficient manner. By combining surfactant with disperser, the specific energy input was considerably reduced from 437.1 kJ/kg TS to 264.9 kJ/kg TS to achieve 10.7% liquefaction. A disperser rpm (10,000), pretreatment time (30 min) and tween 80 dosage (21.6 mg/L) were considered as an optimum for effective liquefaction of algal biomass. CMP was designated as an appropriate pretreatment resulting in a higher soluble organic release 1250 mg/L, respectively. Anaerobic fermentation results revealed that the volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was doubled (782 mg/L) in CMP when compared to mechanical pretreatment (MP) (345 mg/L). CMP pretreated algal biomass was considered as the suitable for biohydrogen production with highest H 2 yield of about 63 mL H 2 /g COD than (MP) (45 mL H 2 /g COD) and control (10 mL H 2 /g COD). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The ground states of iron(III) porphines: Role of entropy–enthalpy compensation, Fermi correlation, dispersion, and zero-point energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2011-01-01

    on calculations of five iron(III) porphines. Here, we compute the geometries of 80 different electronic configurations and the free energies of the most stable configurations with the functionals TPSSh, TPSS, and B3LYP. Zero-point energies and entropy favor high-spin by ~4kJ/mol and 0–10kJ/mol, respectively. When...... favors low-spin by 3–53kJ/mol (TPSSh) or 4–15kJ/mol (B3LYP) due to the attractive r−6 term and the shorter distances in low-spin. The very large and diverse corrections from TPSS and TPSSh seem less consistent with the similarity of the systems than when calculated from B3LYP. If the functional......-specific corrections are used, B3LYP and TPSSh are of equal accuracy, and TPSS is much worse, whereas if the physically reasonable B3LYP-computed dispersion effect is used for all functionals, TPSSh is accurate for all systems. B3LYP is significantly more accurate when dispersion is added, confirming previous results....

  14. In-situ studies of the recrystallization process of CuInS2 thin films by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.; Mainz, R.; Rodriguez-Alvarez, H.; Marsen, B.; Abou-Ras, D.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Schock, H.-W.

    2011-01-01

    Recrystallization processes during the sulfurization of CuInS 2 (CIS) thin films have been studied in-situ using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) with synchrotron radiation. In order to observe the recrystallization isolated from other reactions occurring during film growth, Cu-poor, small grained CIS layers covered with CuS on top were heated in a vacuum chamber equipped with windows for synchrotron radiation in order to analyze the grain growth mechanism within the CIS layer. In-situ monitoring of the grain size based on diffraction line profile analysis of the CIS-112 reflection was utilized to interrupt the recrystallization process at different points. Ex-situ studies by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) performed on samples of intermediate recrystallization states reveal that during the heat treatment Cu and In interdiffuse inside the layer indicating the importance of the mobility of these two elements during CuInS 2 grain growth.

  15. Investigations of the phase transition in V3O5 using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation white beam X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbrink, S.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The reversible first order phase transition in V 3 O 5 at T t =155 0 C has been studied using a specially constructed oven, where the temperature can be kept constant within a few hundredths of a degree for several hours. Energy dispersive diffraction measurements have beem made in a temperature region around the phase transition with the fixed crystal method and the θ/2θ scanning method. White beam X-ray topographs have been obtained from the same crystal in the same temperature region using synchrotron radiation. The integrated intensities of the strong h 0 0 reflections show anomalies that are correlated with the corresponding X-ray topographs. Thus, an unexpected increase of crystal perfection is observed a few hundredths of a degree below T t . The energy dependence of the intensity maximum at T t for strong reflections has been determined and semi-quantitatively explained on the basis of extinction theory. (orig.)

  16. Spin wave energy dispersion in KCuF/sub 3/: a nearly one-dimensional spin-1/2 antiferromagnet. [4. 7/sup 0/K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, M T; Ikeda, H; Milne, J M

    1979-09-28

    Using inelastic neutron scattering techniques, the spin wave energy dispersion in the (010) plane of the distorted perovskite KCuF/sub 3/, which exhibits many magnetic properties of the spin-1/2 one-dimensional antiferromagnet, has been investigated at 4.7 K (T/sub N/ = 39 K). The measurements confirm the very strong exchange interaction between the spins in the (001) direction, and show that in this direction the expression for the excitation energies of the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic chain given by J des Cloizeaux and J J Pearson is obeyed. The exchange interaction between these chains is found to be only 1.6% of that within the chains.

  17. A new method for polychromatic X-ray μLaue diffraction on a Cu pillar using an energy-dispersive pn-junction charge-coupled device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, A.; Send, S.; Pashniak, N.; Pietsch, U. [Department of Physics, University of Siegen, Siegen 57072 (Germany); Kirchlechner, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf 40237 (Germany); Montanuniversität Leoben, Leoben 8700 (Austria); Micha, J. S.; Ulrich, O. [CEA-Grenoble/DRFMC/SprAM, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble Cedex 9, F-38054 (France); Strüder, L. [PNSensor GmbH, Munich 80803 (Germany); Keckes, J. [Montanuniversität Leoben, Leoben 8700 (Austria); Material Center Leoben Forschungs GmbH, Leoben 8700 (Austria)

    2014-11-15

    μLaue diffraction with a polychromatic X-ray beam can be used to measure strain fields and crystal orientations of micro crystals. The hydrostatic strain tensor can be obtained once the energy profile of the reflections is measured. However, this remains a challenge both on the time scale and reproducibility of the beam position on the sample. In this review, we present a new approach to obtain the spatial and energy profiles of Laue spots by using a pn-junction charge-coupled device, an energy-dispersive area detector providing 3D resolution of incident X-rays. The morphology and energetic structure of various Bragg peaks from a single crystalline Cu micro-cantilever used as a test system were simultaneously acquired. The method facilitates the determination of the Laue spots’ energy spectra without filtering the white X-ray beam. The synchrotron experiment was performed at the BM32 beamline of ESRF using polychromatic X-rays in the energy range between 5 and 25 keV and a beam size of 0.5 μm × 0.5 μm. The feasibility test on the well known system demonstrates the capabilities of the approach and introduces the “3D detector method” as a promising tool for material investigations to separate bending and strain for technical materials.

  18. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, Eduard

    2009-07-01

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  19. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, Eduard

    2009-07-15

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of ancient masterly pieces of work by means of X-ray fluorescence analysis by dispersion in the energy; Analisis de obras de arte antiguas mediante fluorescencia de rayos X por dispersion en la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, R.; Cappio B, C.; Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari (Italy); Rosales, M.A. [INAOE, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Castellano, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce (Italy); Gigante, G.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Fiorini, C. [Dip. di Elettronica ed Informazione, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been widely used for the analysis of works of art because it is non-destructive, multi-elemental, simple to utilize, and relatively inexpensive. In the last few years, miniaturized and portable X-ray tubes and high-resolution semiconductor detectors have been developed. This progress allowed the design and construction of portable equipments that can be easily transported all over the world, for use in museums, excavations, etc. In this work, these portable systems will be described and their usefulness demonstrated in the analysis of objects of archaeological value. First, we present the analysis of a lot of gold prehispanic jewels from the Museo del Templo Mayor in Mexico City; in the second place we present the results of analysis of the golden altar of St. Ambrogio in Milan, which is considered one of the most important goldsmith's works ever realized and the gold pigments from the fresco 'The chapel of the Scrovegni' by Giotto. In the third place we give a brief account of Mycenaean and pre-Mycenaean gold objects from the Museum Benaki in Athens. Finally, the results of bulk nuragic copper based ingots from the nuragic village of St. Imbenia are presented. (Author) 19 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. Significance of Space Charge and the Earth Magnetic Field on the Dispersive Characteristics of a Low Energy Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kishek, Rami A; Bernal, Santiago; Godlove, Terry; Haber, Irving; Quinn, Bryan; Reiser, Martin; Tobin, C; Walter, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The combination of energy spread and space charge provides a rich domain for interesting beam dynamics that are currently not well understood. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) [1] is a small scaled ring designed to probe the little-known regions of higher beam intensities using low-energy electrons. As such, design, commissioning and operation of UMER present many challenges, some quite novel. For example the UMER beam energy of 10 keV makes the beam very sensitive to the Earth magnetic field, which we can fortunately use to assist in bending the beam. This paper presents a systematic simulation study of the interaction of space charge and energy spread, with and without the earth magnetic field.

  2. Dispersive estimates for rational symbols and local well-posedness of the nonzero energy NV equation. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeykina, Anna; Muñoz, Claudio

    2018-04-01

    We continue our study on the Cauchy problem for the two-dimensional Novikov-Veselov (NV) equation, integrable via the inverse scattering transform for the two dimensional Schrödinger operator at a fixed energy parameter. This work is concerned with the more involved case of a positive energy parameter. For the solution of the linearized equation we derive smoothing and Strichartz estimates by combining new estimates for two different frequency regimes, extending our previous results for the negative energy case [18]. The low frequency regime, which our previous result was not able to treat, is studied in detail. At non-low frequencies we also derive improved smoothing estimates with gain of almost one derivative. Then we combine the linear estimates with a Fourier decomposition method and Xs,b spaces to obtain local well-posedness of NV at positive energy in Hs, s > 1/2. Our result implies, in particular, that at least for s > 1/2, NV does not change its behavior from semilinear to quasilinear as energy changes sign, in contrast to the closely related Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations. As a complement to our LWP results, we also provide some new explicit solutions of NV at zero energy, generalizations of the lumps solutions, which exhibit new and nonstandard long time behavior. In particular, these solutions blow up in infinite time in L2.

  3. The effect of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane dispersant and low surface energy additives on spectrally selective paint coatings with self-cleaning properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerman, Ivan; Kozelj, Matjaz; Orel, Boris [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-02-15

    Thickness-Insensitive Spectrally Selective (TISS) paint coatings were made of fluoropolymer resin binder (Lumiflon (LF), Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., Japan) and their water- and oil-repellent properties were obtained (contact angle: {theta}{sub water}{proportional_to}150 , {theta}{sub n-hexadecane}{proportional_to}55 ) by the addition of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) characterized by amino (AP), isooctyl (IO) and perfluoro (PF) groups (i.e. AP{sub 2}IO{sub 4}PF{sub 2}) attached on the silsesquioxane cube (-SiO{sub 3/2}){sub 8}. Paint dispersions were made by modifying of black spinel pigment with trisilanol isobutyl (IB{sub 7}T{sub 7}(OH){sub 3}) POSS dispersant and with a single-capped silane isobutyltrimethoxysilane (IBTMS). Infrared and {sup 29}Si NMR spectra measurements were used for the identification of the structural characteristic of the corresponding POSS compounds. Surface free energy values of the pure cross-linked (no pigment added) LF binder which was determined from the measured contact angles for water, diiodomethane and formamide revealed the {gamma}{sup tot} value of the LF unpigmented resin with added AP{sub 2}IO{sub 4}PF{sub 2} T{sub 8} POSS was about 16.4 mN/m, which led to the {theta}{sub water}{proportional_to}110 , indicating enhancement of the hydrophobicity of the pure LF resin binder ({theta}{sub water}{proportional_to}89 ). SEM micrographs, which were used for the assessment of the TISS paint coating surface morphology confirmed the beneficial dispersive effect of IB{sub 7} T{sub 7}(OH){sub 3} dispersant as compared to the IBTMS silane. The presence of large Aluminium flake pigment and finely ground black pigment led to the formation of TISS paint coating surface, which exhibited bi-hierarchical roughness, resulting in water sliding angles of less than 10 , indicating the possible self-cleaning effect ({theta}{sub water}>150 and {theta}{sub n-hexadecane}{proportional_to}55 ). The use of POSS dispersant and POSS low surface energy

  4. Platelet Count and Plateletcrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strated that neonates with late onset sepsis (bacteremia after 3 days of age) had a dramatic increase in MPV and. PDW18. We hypothesize that as the MPV and PDW increase and platelet count and PCT decrease in sick children, intui- tively, the ratio of MPV to PCT; MPV to Platelet count,. PDW to PCT, PDW to platelet ...

  5. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  7. Counting It Twice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattschneider, Doris

    1991-01-01

    Provided are examples from many domains of mathematics that illustrate the Fubini Principle in its discrete version: the value of a summation over a rectangular array is independent of the order of summation. Included are: counting using partitions as in proof by pictures, combinatorial arguments, indirect counting as in the inclusion-exclusion…

  8. Effects of density functionals and dispersion interactions on geometries, bond energies and harmonic frequencies of Etbnd UX3 (E = N, P, CH; X = H, F, Cl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Krishna Kumar; Patidar, Pankaj; Patidar, Sunil Kumar; Vishwakarma, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Quantum-chemical calculations have been performed to evaluate the geometries, bonding nature and harmonic frequencies of the compounds [Etbnd UX3] at DFT, DFT-D3, DFT-D3(BJ) and DFT-dDSc levels using different density functionals BP86, BLYP, PBE, revPBE, PW91, TPSS and M06-L. The stretching frequency of Utbnd N bond in [Ntbnd UF3] calculated with DFT/BLYP closely resembles with the experimental value. The performance of different density functionals for accurate Utbnd N vibrational frequencies follows the order BLYP > revPBE > BP86 > PW91 > TPSS > PBE > M06-L. The BLYP functional gives accurate value of the Utbnd E bond distances. The uranium atom in the studied compounds [Etbnd UX3] is positively charged. Upon going from [Etbnd UF3] to [Etbnd UCl3], the partial Hirshfeld charge on uranium atom decreases because of the lower electronegativity of chlorine compared to flourine. The Gopinathan-Jug bond order for Utbnd E bonds ranges from 2.90 to 3.29. The Utbnd E bond dissociation energies vary with different density functionals as M06-L < TPSS < BLYP < revPBE < BP86 < PBE ≈ PW91. The orbital interactions ΔEorb, in all studied compounds [Etbnd UX3] are larger than the electrostatic interaction ΔEelstat, which means the Utbnd N bonds in these compound have greater degree of covalent character (in the range 63.8-77.2%). The Usbnd E σ-bonding interaction is the dominant bonding interaction in the nitride and methylidyne complexes while it is weaker in [Ptbnd UX3]. The dispersion energy contributions to the total bond dissociation energies are rather small. Compared to the Grimme's D3(BJ) corrections, the Corminboeuf's dispersion corrections are larger with metaGGA functionals (TPSS, M06-L) while smaller with GGA functionals.

  9. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Castellano, A

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te and HgI sub 2 , coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 mu m, an area of about 2x3 mm sup 2 , an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 mu m. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching approx 9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te detector ha...

  10. Strong Energy-momentum Dispersion of Phonon Dressed Carriers in the Lightly Doped Band Insulator SrTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meevasana, Warawat

    2010-01-01

    Much progress has been made recently in the study of the effects of electron-phonon (el-ph) coupling in doped insulators using angle resolved photoemission (ARPES), yielding evidence for the dominant role of el-ph interactions in underdoped cuprates. As these studies have been limited to doped Mott insulators, the important question arises how this compares with doped band insulators where similar el-ph couplings should be at work. The archetypical case is the perovskite SrTiO 3 (STO), well known for its giant dielectric constant of 10000 at low temperature, exceeding that of La 2 CuO 4 by a factor of 500. Based on this fact, it has been suggested that doped STO should be the archetypical bipolaron superconductor. Here we report an ARPES study from high-quality surfaces of lightly doped SrTiO 3 . Comparing to lightly doped Mott insulators, we find the signatures of only moderate electron-phonon coupling: a dispersion anomaly associated with the low frequency optical phonon with a λ(prime) ∼ 0.3 and an overall bandwidth renormalization suggesting an overall λ(prime) ∼ 0.7 coming from the higher frequency phonons. Further, we find no clear signatures of the large pseudogap or small polaron phenomena. These findings demonstrate that a large dielectric constant itself is not a good indicator of el-ph coupling and highlight the unusually strong effects of the el-ph coupling in doped Mott insulators.

  11. Fabrication of electric papers of graphene nanosheet shelled cellulose fibres by dispersion and infiltration as flexible electrodes for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yan-Ru; Li, Ya-Li; Hou, Feng; Wen, Yang-Yang; Su, Dong

    2012-05-21

    An electrically conductive and electrochemically active composite paper of graphene nanosheet (GNS) coated cellulose fibres was fabricated via a simple paper-making process of dispersing chemically synthesized GNS into a cellulose pulp, followed by infiltration. The GNS nanosheet was deposited onto the cellulose fibers, forming a coating, during infiltration. It forms a continuous network through a bridge of interconnected cellulose fibres at small GNS loadings (3.2 wt%). The GNS/cellulose paper is as flexible and mechanically tough as the pure cellulose paper. The electrical measurements show the composite paper has a sheet resistance of 1063 Ω□(-1) and a conductivity of 11.6 S m(-1). The application of the composite paper as a flexible double layer supercapacitor in an organic electrolyte (LiPF(6)) displays a high capacity of 252 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) with respect to GNS. Moreover, the paper can be used as the anode in a lithium battery, showing distinct charge and discharge performances. The simple process for synthesising the GNS functionalized cellulose papers is attractive for the development of high performance papers for electrical, electrochemical and multifunctional applications.

  12. Issues in clustered nuclear siting: a comparison of a hypothetical nuclear energy center in New Jersey with dispersed nuclear siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.M.; Morell, D.

    1976-09-01

    The report is an analysis of a hypothetical nuclear energy center (NEC) conducted in support of the recently completed study by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, mandated by the Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. The intent of the analysis of the hypothetical, or ''surrogate'', site was to inject a local and regional perspective into the assessment of technical, environmental, institutional, and socioeconomic issues which could be adequately addressed only by reference to a specific site. The hypothetical NEC site in Ocean County, New Jersey, was chosen to illustrate the problems and impacts of potential energy centers in coastal and near-coastal sites in relatively close proximity to large metropolitan areas. Earlier studies of hypothetical energy centers on the Mississippi River at River Bend, La., and on the Columbia River near Hanford, Washington, were also re-examined for their relevance to this new study effort. Neither Ocean County, nor any of the other surrogate sites, have been considered for actual construction of an NEC, nor does their selection for study purposes imply any judgement of desirability. Indeed, the major finding of the report presented is that Ocean County is a relatively poor location for an energy center, and this may well be true of many coastal locations similar to the Jersey shore. The objective in selecting surrogate sites, then, was not to find the best locations, but to select sites that would illustrate the broadest range of potential public policy and siting issues

  13. A comparative transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and spatially resolved micropillar compression study of the yttria partially stabilised zirconia - porcelain interface in dental prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunt, Alexander J.G., E-mail: alexander.lunt@chch.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Mohanty, Gaurav, E-mail: gaurav.mohanty@empa.ch [EMPA Materials Science & Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Ying, Siqi, E-mail: siqi.ying@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Dluhoš, Jiří, E-mail: jiri.dluhos@tescan.cz [TESCAN Brno, s.r.o., Libušina tř. 1, 623 00 Brno-Kohoutovice (Czech Republic); Sui, Tan, E-mail: tan.sui@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Neo, Tee K., E-mail: neophyte@singnet.com.sg [Specialist Dental Group, Mount Elizabeth Orchard, 3 Mount Elizabeth, #08-03/08-08/08-10, 228510 (Singapore); Michler, Johann, E-mail: johann.michler@empa.ch [EMPA Materials Science & Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Korsunsky, Alexander M., E-mail: alexander.korsunsky@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies into the origins of failure of yttria partially stabilised zirconia–porcelain veneered prosthesis have revealed the importance of micro-to-nano scale characterisation of this interface zone. Current understanding suggests that the heat treatment, residual stresses and varying microstructure at this location may contribute to near-interface porcelain chipping. In this study the chemical, microstructural and mechanical property variation across the interfacial zone has been characterised at two differing length scales and using three independent techniques; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and micropillar compression. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping of the near-interface region revealed, for the first time, that the diffusional lengths of twelve principal elements are limited to within 2–6 μm of the interface. This study also revealed that 0.2–2 μm diameter zirconia grains had become detached from the bulk and were embedded in the near-interface porcelain. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated the presence of nanoscale spherical features, indicative of tensile creep induced voiding, within the first 0.4–1.5 μm from the interface. Within zirconia, variations in grain size and atomistic structure were also observed within the 3 μm closest to the interface. Micropillar compression was performed over a 100 μm range on either side of the interface at the spatial resolution of 5 μm. This revealed an increase in zirconia and porcelain loading modulus at close proximities (< 5 μm) to the interface and a decrease in zirconia modulus at distances between 6 and 41 μm from this location. The combination of the three experimental techniques has revealed intricate details of the microstructural, chemical and consequently mechanical heterogeneities in the YPSZ–porcelain interface, and demonstrated that the length scales typically associated with this behaviour are approximately ± 5

  14. Characterization of the ashes from the 2014-2015 Turrialba Volcano eruptions by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucke, Oscar H.; Calderon, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    The Turrialba Volcano is a stratovolcano located approximately 35 km northwest from San Jose, Costa Rica's capital city. A series of eruptions since October 29, 2014 until at least late 2015, has represented the most significant activity of this volcano since the 1860s. A significant volume of ash was dispersed with this eruptions that reached the most populous areas of the country. The characteristics of the ash particles are analyzed in order to establish the nature of the eruptive events that occurred on 2014 and 2015, and to monitor the evolution of the eruptive processes. The analysis was carried out utilizing optical microscopy and stereomicroscopy techniques, as well as novel scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods that involve imaging and element composition analysis by means of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The evolution of the Turrialba eruptions is showed from phreatic events in 2014, with ashes composed entirely of non-juvenile fragments, to phreatomagmatic events starting on March 12, 2015 with the appearance of a significant fraction of juvenile components in the ash. (author)

  15. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  16. Energy Dispersion in Solar Ion Events over 4 Orders of Magnitude: SOHO/COSTEP and Wind/STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunow, Horst W.; Posner, A.

    2003-07-01

    The ma jority of solar particle events in the COSTEP observational range of 4 75 MeV/n reveals nucleon energy disp ersion (NED), implying a flare-associated particle acceleration mechanism. Towards lower energies, the situation changes somewhat. Only in a minority of solar energetic particle (SEP) events can the effect of NED be followed into the lower keV range. We analyse the reasons for the distinctly different types of particle transport of >10 keV suprathermal up to 100 MeV energetic ions and conclude that the mean free path depends on rigidity.

  17. Enhanced creation of dispersive monolayer phonons in Xe/Pt(111) by inelastic helium atom scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Bruch, Ludwig Walter

    2007-01-01

    Conditions likely to lead to enhanced inelastic atomic scattering that creates shear horizontal (SH) and longitudinal acoustic (LA) monolayer phonons are identified, specifically examining the inelastic scattering of He-4 atoms by a monolayer solid of Xe/Pt(111) at incident energies of 2-25 meV. ...

  18. An in situ synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction study of the hydration of oilwell cement systems under high temperature/autoclave conditions up to 130 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, Sally L.; Barnes, Paul; Jupe, Andrew C.; Jacques, Simon D.M.; Hall, Christopher; Livesey, Paul; Dransfield, John; Meller, Nicola; Maitland, Geoffrey C.

    2005-01-01

    The technique of synchrotron energy dispersive diffraction has been developed for in situ studies of cement hydration under autoclave conditions. This has been applied to oilwell cements hydrating at typical oilwell temperatures up to 130 deg. C. The results show clearly the detailed interplay between 11 detectable phases, from which a phase transformation scheme has been derived; this illustrates the progression of hydration up to 130 deg. C for two extreme cases, with and without conservation of water content and autoclave pressure. The monosulphate hydrate phases are found to exhibit different stability bounds, with a surprising sequence of the 14-water, 10-water then 12-water monosulphate as temperature/time increases; the latter form is particularly associated with conditions of water/pressure loss. The effect of retarders on C 3 S dissolution and CH formation is negligible above 70 deg. C, whereas the effect on the calcium sulphoaluminate hydrates is more complex, and possible reasons for this are discussed

  19. Analysis of Catalonian silver coins from the Spanish War of Independence period (1808-1814) by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitarch, A., E-mail: apitarch@ija.csic.e [Laboratory of X-Ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' - ICTJA, Spanish Council for Scientific Research - CSIC, Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Queralt, I. [Laboratory of X-Ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' - ICTJA, Spanish Council for Scientific Research - CSIC, Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Alvarez-Perez, A. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-02-01

    Between the years 1808 and 1814, the Spanish War of Independence took place. This period, locally known as 'Guerra del Frances', generated the need for money and consequently five mints were opened around the Catalan territory. To mark the 200th anniversary of the beginning of the war, an extensive campaign of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence measurements of some of these 'emergency coins' was carried out. Apart from the silver (major constituent of all the studied coins) it has been possible to recognize copper as main metal alloying element. Likewise, the presence of zinc, tin, lead, gold, platinum, antimony, nickel and iron has been also identified. The obtained results have been useful not only for the characterization of the alloys, but also to determine the differences and analogies between the emissions and for historical explanations.

  20. Material-specific imaging system using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and spatially resolved CdZnTe detectors with potential application in breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbes, Damien, E-mail: damien.barbes@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tabary, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.tabary@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Paulus, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.paulus@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Hazemann, Jean-Louis, E-mail: jean-louis.hazemann@neel.cnrs.fr [Univ.Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Verger, Loïck, E-mail: loick.verger@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2017-03-11

    This paper presents a coherent X-ray-scattering imaging technique using a multipixel energy-dispersive system. Without any translation, the technique produces specific 1D image from data recorded by a single CdZnTe detector pixel using subpixelation techniques. The method is described in detail, illustrated by a simulation and then experimentally validated. As the main considered application of our study is breast imaging, this validation involves 2D imaging of a phantom made of plastics mimicking breast tissues. The results obtained show that our system can specifically image the phantom using a single detector pixel. For the moment, in vivo breast imaging applications remain difficult, as the dose delivered by the system is too high, but some adjustments are considered for further work.

  1. On the authenticity of eight Reales 1730 Mexican silver coins by X-ray diffraction and by energy dispersion spectroscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Rodriguez, I.; Herrera, A.; Vazquez-Lopez, C.; Apolo, R.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Hernandez-Landaverde, M.A.; Rodriguez, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Ancient silver Mexican coins made during the years 1730-1734, were analyzed non-destructively by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and by optical microscopy. Nine coins of denomination eight Reales were studied. These coins belong to the numismatic private collection in Mexico. Six elements (copper, aluminum, magnesium, silicon, chromium and silver) were determined quantitatively. The coins reveal a uniform Ag concentration. Some of the items are covered with patina. A strong positive correlation between Al and Cu content and also a strong negative correlation between S and Ag were determined. The weight of the coins varied between 26.1344 and 26.9913 g, which is a good indicator of the authenticity of the items. The purpose of this work is to investigate by precise means if some of the coins were falsified or if really all of them are authentic

  2. Preliminary results on air pollution inside an iron metallurgical plant, using rotating streaker sampler and energy dispersive X-ray microfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Silva, R.M.C.; Perez, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to study the chemical concentration of some metals in suspended particulate matter inside an-iron metallurgical plant. Using a rotating streaker air-particulate sampler with 8 and 0.45 microns pore diameter filter, it was possible to collect coarse and fine particulates during a week, with one hour step. After this, each strip of the filter was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray microfluorescence (μ-EDXRF), using in the excitation a collimated x-ray line beam from a Mo target tube (30 kV, 20 mA, Zr filter) with a quartz capillary (120 mm long, 10 mm entrance diameter and 20 microns inner diameter at exit). The detection was carried out using a Si(Li) semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer, and the X-ray spectra were fitted with the AXIL software. The profiles of several elements are shown and the results are discussed.

  3. Characterization of chemical elements in soil submitted to different systems use and management by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastowski, Arci Dirceu; Rosa, Genesio Mario da; Cherubin, Mauricio Roberto; Rigon, Joao Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical elements levels in soil, submitted to different management systems and use by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry - EDXRF. The systems were T1 - agroforestry (SAF), T2 - native field (CN), T3 - native forest (NM), T4 - tillage forest (PF); T5 - conventional tillage system (SPC) and T6 - system tillage (NT). Samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm, dried and ground for analysis in EDX-720. The soil showed no difference in the average concentrations of chemical elements analyzed in the profiles, but the systems presented different concentrations of metal elements, and T3 had the highest K, Ca and Zn at 0-10 cm and higher contents of K, Ca, Cu, Zn and Mn in the layer of 10-20 cm. (author)

  4. Application of neutron activation techniques and x-ray energy dispersion spectrometry, in analysis of metallic traces adsorbed by chelex-100 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Jair C.; Amaral, Angela M.; Magalhaes, Jesus C.; Pereira, Jose S.J.; Silva, Juliana B. da; Auler, Lucia M.L.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, the authors have investigated optimal conditions of adsorption for several ion metallic groups (cations of heavy metals and transition metals, oxyanions metallics and metalloids and cations of rare earths), as traces (ppb), withdrawn and in mixture of groups, by chelex-100 resin. The experiments have been developed by bath techniques in ammonium acetate tamponade solution 40 mM pH 5,52 content 0,5 g of chelex-100 resin. After magnetic agitation for two hours, resins were dried and submitted to X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The results have demonstrated that chelex-100 resin adsorb quantitatively transition element groups and rare earth groups in two cases (withdrawn and simultaneously adsorption)

  5. A study of accumulation of trace metals in coffee plants grown on ultisols fertilized with rock phosphates by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Lal, Madan; D'Souza, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in soil and leaves of coffee plants have been analysed by a non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study their accumulation due to repeated rock phosphate fertilization. Analysis of standard reference materials of soil and leaves through EDXRF yielded values within 5% error of the certified values. This method was therefore used to determine the trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Zr and Y) concentrations of soils, rock phosphates and leaves of coffee grown in experimental ultisols. Results indicate that rock phosphate fertilization over a period of 10 years did not contribute significantly to high trace metal concentration in plants. (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Characterization of the Carancas-Puno meteorite by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffractometry and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron Loayza, Maria L., E-mail: malucelo@hotmail.com; Bravo Cabrejos, Jorge A. [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Analisis de Suelos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru)

    2011-11-15

    We report the results of the study of a meteorite that impacted an inhabited zone on 15 September 2007 in the neighborhood of the town of Carancas, Puno Region, about 1,300 km south of Lima. The analysis carried out by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffractometry and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (at room temperature and at 4.2 K), reveal the presence in the meteorite sample of magnetic sites assigned to taenite (Fe,Ni) and troilite (Fe,S) phases, and of two paramagnetic doublets assigned to Fe{sup 2 + }, one associated with olivine and the other to pyroxene. In accord with these results, this meteorite is classified as a type IV chondrite meteorite.

  7. Determination of the activation energy of rotational microviscosity in the DPPC multilayer dispersions and the effects of high electrolyte concentration on rotational microviscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydas, C. [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Korkmaz, M. [Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2004-10-15

    In the present work, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to study, through the rotational microviscosity approach, the effects of high electrolyte concentrations on the phase behaviors of DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) multilayer aqueous dispersions of lipid concentrations of 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml containing a 5-SASL spin label. The correlation time involved in the definition of rotational microviscosity was calculated using two different equations given in the literature. The activation energies of the rotational viscosity in the gel and the liquid crystal phases and the main transition temperatures were calculated from constructed Andrade plots. The results obtained are discussed in light of the literature data, and the validity of the approach was emphasized.

  8. Quantitative analysis of the sediments from the Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plain using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology for quantitative analysis of geological, biological and environmental samples with a high fraction of light elements (atomic number less than 13), using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, is proposed. The proposed procedure is based on the method of Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (≥->13 evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for the quantitation of the light fraction of the matrix. In the order to obtain the characteristic X-ray of the elements in the Mn to Zr range a Cd-109 annular radioactive source (1,70 GBq) was used, and for Al to CR, Fe-55 (o,74 GBq). For the X-ray detection a Si (Li) detector coupled to a multichannel emulation card was employed. The characteristic X-ray net intensity as well as the coherent and incoherent scattered intensities were obtained by using the AXL software for spectrum analysis. (author). 89 refs., 37 figs., 32 tabs

  9. Analysis of Heavy Metal in Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS from the Textile Industry by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution due to discharges of heavy metal containing sludge from textile industries is a common nuisance in Bangladesh, where no treatment of sludge is carried out before final disposals. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF was employed in the present study to analyze the heavy metal content of Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS collected from a composite textile industry. Thirteen heavy metals, viz., Mn, Ti, Cu, Zn, Ni, Sr, V, Cr, Zr, Hg, Cd, Nb and Ga, were detected. Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd exceeded the permissible limit to apply the EMHS in agricultural land. Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn were compared to the values of the European legislation to evaluate the environmental risk and to classify the wastes as inert wastes or as wastes that have to be control landfilled. EMHS was categorized as class I and needs to be deposited in controlled landfills.

  10. Application of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to polychrome terracotta sculptures from the Alcobaça Monastery, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Le Gac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF was used in the Alcobaça Monastery, in order to study the chromatic coatings applied to terracotta statues that belong to two seventeenth-century monumental groupings. The main goal of this scientific approach consisted in determining the elemental composition of the constitutive layers and in trying to reconstitute the existing polychromy, taking into account the technical aspects observed at naked eye. The measurements carried out by EDXRF allowed a first material characterization of these artworks. By comparing the results obtained in each statue, it was possible to attest the application of a seventeenth-century coating to each one and at least a subsequent intervention in the form of a refurbishment or a new polychromy. According to the materials employed in their production, it appears that the refurbishment is likely dated from the 19th century while the new polychromy is still dated from the 18th century.

  11. In situ determination of K, Ca, S and Si in fresh sugar cane leaves by handheld Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Marcelo B.B.; Adame, Andressa; Almeida, Eduardo de; Brasil, Marcos A.S.; Krug, Francisco J., E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Schaefer, Carlos E.G.R. [Departamento de Solos, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG (Brazil)

    2018-05-01

    A portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was evaluated in the in situ analysis of fresh sugar cane leaves for real time plant nutrition diagnosis. Fresh leaf fragments (n = 10 sugar cane varieties; 20 fragments per leaf; 2 measurement sites per fragment) were irradiated and the averaged data from X-ray characteristic emission lines intensities (for K, Ca, S and Si Kα lines) were in close agreement with mass fraction data obtained by a validated comparative method. The linear correlation coefficients (r) ranged from 0.9575 for Ca to 0.9851 for Si. The obtained limits of detection were at least two-fold lower than the critical nutrient levels. Manganese can also be properly determined, but validation still requires more robust calibration models. The proposed method is a straightforward approach towards the fast evaluation of the nutritional profile of plants avoiding time-consuming steps, which involve drying, grinding, weighing, and acid digestion. (author)

  12. Stress distribution in mechanically surface treated Ti-2.5Cu determined by combining energy-dispersive synchrotron and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maawad, E.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Hofmann, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Wagner, L.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical surface treatments such as shot peening (SP) or ball-burnishing (BB) induce plastic deformation close to the surface resulting in work-hardening and compressive residual stresses. It enhances the fatigue performance by retarding or even suppressing micro-crack growth from the surface into the interior. SP and BB were carried out on a solution heat treated (SHT) Ti-2.5Cu. The investigations of compressive and balancing tensile residual stresses need a combination of energy-dispersive synchrotron (ED) and neutron diffraction. Essential for the stress distribution is the stress state before surface treatments which was determined by neutron diffraction. Results show that the maximum compressive stress and its depth play an important role to improve the fatigue performance.

  13. Influence of the dispersive and dissipative scales alpha and beta on the energy spectrum of the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Fried, Eliot

    2008-10-01

    Lundgren's vortex model for the intermittent fine structure of high-Reynolds-number turbulence is applied to the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations and specialized to the Navier-Stokes alpha equations. The Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations involve dispersive and dissipative length scales alpha and beta, respectively. Setting beta equal to alpha reduces the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations to the Navier-Stokes alpha equations. For the Navier-Stokes alpha equations, the energy spectrum is found to obey Kolmogorov's -5/3 law in a range of wave numbers identical to that determined by Lundgren for the Navier-Stokes equations. For the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations, Kolmogorov's -5/3 law is also recovered. However, granted that beta Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations may have the potential to resolve features smaller than those obtainable using the Navier-Stokes alpha equations.

  14. Nondestructive multielement analyses of airborne particulates by combined uses of instrumental neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Yatsuka; Mizohata, Akira

    1974-01-01

    Combined uses of instrumental neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis make it possible to analyze nondestructively a considerably large number of elements in airborne particulates. We have confirmed that up to 45 elements can be analyzed without any chemical procedures for urban airborne particulate samples. As the radiation spectrometry by semiconductor detectors and the automatic data reduction by electronic computation are quite common to the two techniques, combined uses of them produce no special annoyance. Several elements can be analyzed by both of them and therefore the reliability of the analytical results can be comfirmed by comparing the data obtained by them with each other. It is noted that this confirmation can be made for the very same sample. In this article are described our experiences of multielement analyses of airborne particulates and some problems to be solved in further studies. (auth.)

  15. Comparison of sensitivities and detection limits between direct excitation and secondary excitation modes in energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artz, B.E.; Short, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison was made between the direct tube excitation mode and the secondary target excitation mode using a Kevex 0810 energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence system. Relative sensitivities and detection limits were determined with two system configurations. The first configuration used a standard, high power, x-ray fluorescence tube to directly excite the specimen. Several x-ray tubes, including chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten, both filtered and not filtered, were employed. The second configuration consisted of using the x-ray tube to excite a secondary target which in turn excited the specimen. Appropriate targets were compared to the direct excitation results. Relative sensitivities and detection limits were determined for K-series lines for elements from magnesium to barium contained in a low atomic number matrix and in a high atomic number matrix

  16. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions using energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence with a low power X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Py, J. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Groetz, J.-E., E-mail: jegroetz@univ-fcomte.fr [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Hubinois, J.-C.; Cardona, D. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2015-04-21

    This work presents the development of an in-line energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence spectrometer set-up, with a low power X-ray generator and a secondary target, for the determination of plutonium concentration in nitric acid solutions. The intensity of the L X-rays from the internal conversion and gamma rays emitted by the daughter nuclei from plutonium is minimized and corrected, in order to eliminate the interferences with the L X-ray fluorescence spectrum. The matrix effects are then corrected by the Compton peak method. A calibration plot for plutonium solutions within the range 0.1–20 g L{sup −1} is given.

  17. Study of the pressure-time-temperature transformation of amorphous La6Ni5Al89 by the energy dispersive method for phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, B.; Rossi-Albertini, V.; Sikorski, M.

    2005-01-01

    An energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method to observe phase transitions is applied to follow the crystallization of an amorphous alloy (La6Ni5Al89) in isothermal conditions. In this way, the diffraction-based configurational entropy (DCE) of the system undergoing the phase transformations...... was measured and the curves describing the transitions, qualitatively equivalent to a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, could be drawn. Finally, the analysis of such curves allowed calculation of some points of the alloy pressure-time-temperature transformation (PTTT) diagram. More...... importantly, the present work shows that the DCE method can be successfully applied even when DSC can no longer be used. As a consequence, regions of the phase diagram that could not be reached up to now become accessible, opening the way to the study of transition phenomena under extreme conditions....

  18. Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, K; Voss, P L; Ougazzaden, A; Patriarche, G; Largeau, L; Mauguin, O; Troadec, D; Gautier, S; Moudakir, T; Suresh, S

    2012-01-01

    Using elastic scattering theory we show that a small set of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements is sufficient to experimentally evaluate the scattering function of electrons in high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission microscopy (HAADF-STEM). We then demonstrate how to use this function to transform qualitative HAADF-STEM images of InGaN layers into precise, quantitative chemical maps of the indium composition. The maps obtained in this way combine the resolution of HAADF-STEM and the chemical precision of EDX. We illustrate the potential of such chemical maps by using them to investigate nanometer-scale fluctuations in the indium composition and their impact on the growth of epitaxial InGaN layers. (paper)

  19. Geometry of physical dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzel, Dennis; Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.

    2011-01-01

    To serve as a dispersion relation, a cotangent bundle function must satisfy three simple algebraic properties. These conditions are derived from the inescapable physical requirements that local matter field dynamics must be predictive and allow for an observer-independent notion of positive energy. Possible modifications of the standard relativistic dispersion relation are thereby severely restricted. For instance, the dispersion relations associated with popular deformations of Maxwell theory by Gambini-Pullin or Myers-Pospelov are not admissible. Dispersion relations passing the simple algebraic checks derived here correspond to physically admissible Finslerian refinements of Lorentzian geometry.

  20. Test of the rem-counter WENDI-II from Eberline in different energy-dispersed neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutermuth, F.; Radon, T.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Siekmann, R.

    2004-03-01

    The neutron rem-counter WENDI-II from Eberline was tested in high-energy particle accelerator produced neutron fields. A radioactive 241 Am-Be(αn) source was used as a reference. The experimentally determined responses are compared to Monte-Carlo simulations of the response function done by R. H. Olsher et al. (2000). The energy spectra of the accelerator produced neutron fields were determined employing Monte-Carlo simulations, too. According to the simulations done by C. Birattari et al. (1998) and in this work these neutron fields exhibit large contributions to the ambient dose equivalent resulting from neutrons with kinetic energy of more than 20 MeV up to a few 100 MeV. The WENDI-II detector proved to show a response of approximately 3.10 9 pulses per Sievert ambient dose equivalent. Considering the experimental and statistical uncertainties the results are consistent with the assumption that the dose response of the WENDI-II reproduces quite accurately the function for the ambient dose equivalent of the ICRP 74

  1. On the accuracy of DFT methods in reproducing ligand substitution energies for transition metal complexes in solution: The role of dispersive interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Jacobsen, Heiko; Cavallo, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    phosphanes, while functionals not including dispersion interaction reproduce the experimental trends with reasonable accuracy. In case of the DFT-D functionals, inclusion of a cut-off distance on the dispersive term resolves this issue, and results in a

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  4. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  5. Scintillation counting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the accurate measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters and in particular for the liquid scintillation counting of both soft beta radiation and gamma radiation. Full constructional and operating details are given. (UK)

  6. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  7. Counting Knights and Knaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find ...

  10. The Kruskal Count

    OpenAIRE

    Lagarias, Jeffrey C.; Rains, Eric; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The Kruskal Count is a card trick invented by Martin J. Kruskal in which a magician "guesses" a card selected by a subject according to a certain counting procedure. With high probability the magician can correctly "guess" the card. The success of the trick is based on a mathematical principle related to coupling methods for Markov chains. This paper analyzes in detail two simplified variants of the trick and estimates the probability of success. The model predictions are compared with simula...

  11. New medical imaging systems exploiting the energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with spectrometric CdZnTe based detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbes, Damien

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies the interest of measuring the coherent scattering of X-rays for breast diagnosis imaging. Nowadays, most of X-ray-based medical imaging techniques use the information of X-rays attenuation through the tissues. It is the case for mammography, the most common breast imaging modality. The recent emergence of energy resolved detectors (based on semiconductors in particular) allows to consider using another phenomenon: the coherent X-ray scattering. Measurement of diffracted spectra can provide new information related to the molecular structure of the examined tissues, in order to improve their characterization and therefore improve the final diagnosis. Two modalities are considered: the breast cancer detection in vivo, following a suspicious mammography result, or biopsy analysis. The coherent scattering measurement system developed during this thesis work uses energy-resolved CdZnTe-based detectors, these detectors combining performances (energy resolution, sensitivity, spatial resolution, and compactness) promising for clinical application. This system is also based on the detector pixelation, which allows to provide an imaging modality capable of characterizing analyzed materials or tissues in one direction without any translation or rotation. A complete study of the measurement system is proposed in this thesis, structured in three main parts: modeling and simulation of the system, development of the processing of the data measured by the detector in order to image and characterize the analyzed sample and finally, designing of a new and more complex experimental setup based on a whole detector and multi-slit collimation system. An experimental validation is proposed for each of these three parts. (author) [fr

  12. Ship-Borne Geochemical Investigations of Deep-Sea Manganese-Nodule Deposits in the Pacific Using a Radioisotope Energy-Dispersive X-Ray System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, G.H.W.; Kunzendorf, Helmar; Plüger, W.L.

    1974-01-01

    A radioisotope energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) system has been used on board the German research vessel “Valdivia” during an exploration expedition in the northern equatorial Pacific in 1973. The instrumentation used consisted of an X-ray detection system incorporating a 30 mm2 effective-area Si (Li......) detector with a measured energy resolution of 195 eV for Mn Kα X-rays, standard nuclear electronics, a 1024-channel analyser and a data read-out unit. The X-ray spectra in the manganese-nodule samples were excited by a 30-mCi 238Pu source. The six elements Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn were analysed on board....... Precision values for the analyses were less than 3% for Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn and about 5% for Co. A total amount of 350 analyses was carried out during a one-month cruise. Average contents of 190 analysed whole manganese-nodule samples from all the sampling sites of the covered area were 23.3% Mn, 6.7% Fe...

  13. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  14. Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, S.; Mathew, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    In Liquid Scintillation Counting, the amount of light produced is proportional to the amount of radiation present in the sample and the energy of the light produced is proportional to the energy of the radiation that is present in the sample. This makes LSC a very convenient tool to measure radioactivity

  15. The application of energy-dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) to the analysis of ceramic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdelwahed, Haifa; Reguigui, Nafaa; Ghdira, Lotfi; Khosrof, S.

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of energies and intensities of fluorescent X-rays emitted from a given material when atoms are bombarded with suitable projectiles like electrons, protons, α particles or photons has been successfully used for non-destructive elemental analysis in many applications, especially in the analysis of ceramic glasses. Use of radioisotopes as a source of excitation radiation in combination with high resolution semiconductor detectors in x-ray fluorescence has found wide applications in elemental analysis. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of a standard 5.45mm Si(Li) detector having a resolution of 200 eV at 5.9 keV coupled to a TRUMP-8K multichannel analyzer has been used. Tow sources of annular geometry using 10 mCi 109Cd and 10 mCi 55Fe together with PC AXIL software have been used for this study of tile-pavement glasses of ''Ksar Said'' in Tunisia. Analytical data shows that those tile pavement witch are broken in the 19th century from France (Marseille) have not the same composition of Tunisian tile pavement. Referring to our data, The kind of that analyzed glasses is of alkaline lead. we found also, through this study, the elemental compositions of different pigments (green, blue, brownish, yellow, white and red) used to color that tile-pavement glasses

  16. Models of rural disperse electrification by means of renewable energies in Latin America: an alternative proposal based on rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, M.; Fuentes, M.; Alvarez, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the overdue change in the processes of rural electrification by means of renewable energies. The actors involve in these processes have failed to contemplate every dimension of this issue: Social, Institutional, Technological, Economical, Financial and Political. We will account for the reason why the concept of sustainability must be closely related to that of local socioeconomic development. Rural electrification must be a vector for social development. It is in this context that it cannot depend exclusively on the market and its actors, but it must be immersed within rural development planning. For this new paradigm to work properly, donor agencies -mainly- should understand the dynamics of socioeconomic development, contemplating the different local characteristics of small rural communities; they should provide genuine financial support within an adequate regulatory framework and active participation should be encouraged, both of the local community and of local enterprises. The sustainability of these initiatives is determined not only by the consideration of the dimensions above but also by the creation of labour possibilities or lack thereof. (authors)

  17. The application of energy-dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) to the analysis of ceramic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdelwahed, H.; Reguigui, N.; Ghidira, L.; Khosrof, S.

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of energies and intensities of fluorescent X-rays emitted from a given material when atoms are bombarded with suitable projectiles like electrons, protons,α particles or photons have been successfully used for non destructive elemental analysis in many applications, especially in the analysis of ceramic glasses. Use of radioisotopes as a source of excitation radiation in combination with high resolution semiconductor detectors in x-ray fluorescence has found wide applications in elemental analysis. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of a standard 5.45mm Si(Li) detector having a resolution of 200 eV at 5.9 KeV coupled to a TRUMP -8K multichannel analyser has been used. Two sources of annular geometry using 10 mCi 109 CD and 10 mCi 55 Fe together with PC AXIL software have been used for this study of tile-pavement glasses of ''Ksar Said'' in Tunisia. Analytical data shows that those tile pavements which are broken in the 19th century from France (Marseille) have not the same composition of Tunisian tile pavement. Referring to our data, the kind of that analysed glasses is of alkaline lead. We found also, through this study, the elemental compositions of different pigments (green, blue, brownish, yellow, white and red) used to color those tile-pavement glasses

  18. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  19. Principles of correlation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections

  20. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation

  1. Role of dispersion corrected hybrid GGA class in accurately calculating the bond dissociation energy of carbon halogen bond: A benchmark study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, Naveen; Mahmood, Tariq; Ayub, Khurshid

    2017-12-01

    Benchmark study has been carried out to find a cost effective and accurate method for bond dissociation energy (BDE) of carbon halogen (Csbnd X) bond. BDE of C-X bond plays a vital role in chemical reactions, particularly for kinetic barrier and thermochemistry etc. The compounds (1-16, Fig. 1) with Csbnd X bond used for current benchmark study are important reactants in organic, inorganic and bioorganic chemistry. Experimental data of Csbnd X bond dissociation energy is compared with theoretical results. The statistical analysis tools such as root mean square deviation (RMSD), standard deviation (SD), Pearson's correlation (R) and mean absolute error (MAE) are used for comparison. Overall, thirty-one density functionals from eight different classes of density functional theory (DFT) along with Pople and Dunning basis sets are evaluated. Among different classes of DFT, the dispersion corrected range separated hybrid GGA class along with 6-31G(d), 6-311G(d), aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets performed best for bond dissociation energy calculation of C-X bond. ωB97XD show the best performance with less deviations (RMSD, SD), mean absolute error (MAE) and a significant Pearson's correlation (R) when compared to experimental data. ωB97XD along with Pople basis set 6-311g(d) has RMSD, SD, R and MAE of 3.14 kcal mol-1, 3.05 kcal mol-1, 0.97 and -1.07 kcal mol-1, respectively.

  2. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  3. Characterization of the PILATUS photon-counting pixel detector for X-ray energies from 1.75 keV to 60 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, T; Brandstetter, S; Commichau, S; Hofer, P; Lüthi, B; Schneebeli, M; Schulze-Briese, C; Cibik, L; Krumrey, M; Marggraf, S; Müller, P; Wernecke, J

    2013-01-01

    The PILATUS detector module was characterized in the PTB laboratory at BESSY II comparing modules with 320 μm thick and newly developed 450 μm and 1000 μm thick silicon sensors. Measurements were carried out over a wide energy range, in-vacuum from 1.75 keV to 8.8 keV and in air from 8 keV to 60 keV. The quantum efficiency (QE) was measured as a function of energy and the spatial resolution was measured at several photon energies both in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from edge profile measurements and by directly measuring the point spread function (PSF) of a single pixel in a raster scan with a pinhole beam. Independent of the sensor thickness, the measured MTF and PSF come close to those for an ideal pixel detector with the pixel size of the PILATUS detector (172 × 172 μm 2 ). The measured QE follows the values predicted by calculation. Thicker sensors significantly enhance the QE of the PILATUS detectors for energies above 10 keV without impairing the spatial resolution and noise-free detection. In-vacuum operation of the PILATUS detector is possible at energies as low as 1.75 keV.

  4. Characterization of the PILATUS photon-counting pixel detector for X-ray energies from 1.75 keV to 60 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, T.; Brandstetter, S.; Cibik, L.; Commichau, S.; Hofer, P.; Krumrey, M.; Lüthi, B.; Marggraf, S.; Müller, P.; Schneebeli, M.; Schulze-Briese, C.; Wernecke, J.

    2013-03-01

    The PILATUS detector module was characterized in the PTB laboratory at BESSY II comparing modules with 320 μm thick and newly developed 450 μm and 1000 μm thick silicon sensors. Measurements were carried out over a wide energy range, in-vacuum from 1.75 keV to 8.8 keV and in air from 8 keV to 60 keV. The quantum efficiency (QE) was measured as a function of energy and the spatial resolution was measured at several photon energies both in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from edge profile measurements and by directly measuring the point spread function (PSF) of a single pixel in a raster scan with a pinhole beam. Independent of the sensor thickness, the measured MTF and PSF come close to those for an ideal pixel detector with the pixel size of the PILATUS detector (172 × 172 μm2). The measured QE follows the values predicted by calculation. Thicker sensors significantly enhance the QE of the PILATUS detectors for energies above 10 keV without impairing the spatial resolution and noise-free detection. In-vacuum operation of the PILATUS detector is possible at energies as low as 1.75 keV.

  5. Standardization of {sup 241}Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balpardo, C., E-mail: balpardo@cae.cnea.gov.a [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The nuclide {sup 241}Am decays by alpha emission to {sup 237}Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of {sup 237}Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of {sup 241}Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  6. Application of a portable equipment EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) in the monitoring of the restoration work of murals paints in the Church of Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio; Rizzo, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) of the Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina in the analysis in situ of pigments in wall paintings, as well as in monitoring restoration processes

  7. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  8. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 824 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 409,492 ...

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  12. Clean Hands Count

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  15. Clean Hands Count

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  16. Clean Hands Count

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  19. Detection and counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.A.N. de

    1976-01-01

    Detection devices based on gaseous ionization are analysed, such as: electroscopes ionization chambers, proportional counters and Geiger-Mueller counters. Scintillation methods are also commented. A revision of the basic concepts in electronics is done and the main equipment for counting is detailed. In the study of gama spectrometry, scintillation and semiconductor detectors are analysed [pt

  20. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 384 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...