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Sample records for counties michigan usa

  1. Vulnerability to extreme-heat-associated hospitalization in three counties in Michigan, USA, 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbomo, Adesuwa S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; O'Neill, Marie S.; Konen, Tess; Cameron, Lorraine; Wahl, Robert

    2017-05-01

    With climate change, extreme heat (EH) events are increasing, so it is important to understand who is vulnerable to heat-associated morbidity. We determined the association between EH and hospitalizations for all natural causes; cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases; diabetes mellitus; and acute myocardial infarction in Michigan, USA, at different intensities and durations. We assessed confounding by ozone and how individual characteristics and health insurance payer (a proxy for income) modified these associations. We obtained Michigan Inpatient Database, National Climatic Data Center, and US Environmental Protection Agency ozone data for May-September, 2000-2009 for three Michigan counties. We employed a case-crossover design and modeled EH as an indicator for temperature above the 95th, 97th, or 99th percentile thresholds for 1, 2, 3, or 4 days. We examined effect modification by patient age, race, sex, and health insurance payer and pooled the county results. Among non-whites, the pooled odds ratio for hospitalization on EH (97th percentile threshold) vs. non-EH days for renal diseases was 1.37 (95 % CI = 1.13-1.66), which increased with increasing EH intensity, but was null among whites (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.81, 1.25). We observed a null association between EH and cardiovascular hospitalization. EH (99th percentile threshold) was associated with myocardial infarction hospitalizations. Confounding by ozone was minimal. EH was associated with hospitalizations for renal disease among non-whites. This information on vulnerability to heat-associated morbidity helps characterize the public health burden of EH and target interventions including patient education.

  2. FLOODPLAIN, Monroe County, Michigan, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  3. TERRAIN, MONROE COUNTY, Michigan USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. FLOODPLAIN, ARENAC COUNTY, MICHIGAN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. County business patterns, 1997 : Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1996 : Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. MASON COUNTY, MICHIGAN, USA, REDELINEATION, MASON COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. Surficial geologic map of Berrien County, Michigan, and the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Kincare, Kevin A.; O'Leary, Dennis W.; Newell, Wayne L.; Taylor, Emily M.; Williams, Van S.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Abraham, Jared E.; Powers, Michael H.

    2017-12-13

    The surficial geologic map of Berrien County, southwestern Michigan (sheet 1), shows the distribution of glacial and postglacial deposits at the land surface and in the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Drill-hole information correlated in cross sections provides details of typical stratigraphic sequences that compose one or more penetrated geologic map units. A new bedrock geologic map (on sheet 2) includes contours of the altitude of the eroded top of bedrock and shows the distribution of middle Paleozoic shale and carbonate units in the subcrop. A sediment thickness map (also on sheet 2) portrays the extent of as much as 150 meters of surficial materials that overlie the bedrock surface.The major physical features of the county are related principally to deposits of the last Laurentide ice sheet that advanced and then retreated back through the region from about 19,000 to 14,000 radiocarbon years before present. Glacial and postglacial deposits underlie the entire county; shale bedrock crops out only in the adjacent offshore area on the bottom of Lake Michigan. All glacial deposits and glacial meltwater deposits in Berrien County are related to the late Wisconsinan glacial advances of the Lake Michigan ice lobe and its three regional recessional moraines, which cross the county as three north-northeast-trending belts.From east to west (oldest to youngest), the three moraine belts are known as the Kalamazoo, Valparaiso, and Lake Border morainic systems. The till-ridge morainic systems (Lake Border and local Valparaiso morainic systems) consist of multiple, elongate moraine ridges separated by till plains and lake-bottom plains. Tills in ground and end moraines in Berrien County are distinguished as informal units, and are correlated with three proposed regional till units in southwestern Michigan

  9. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn Donner; Carol I. Bocetti; Steve Sjogren

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland`s warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland`s warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan...

  10. Recent geologic development of Lake Michigan (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D.L.; Cahill, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The stresses placed on Lake Michigan since the advent of industrialization require knowledge of the sedimentology of the whole lake in order to make informed decisions for environmental planning. Sediment accumulation rates are low: areas of the lake receiving the most sediment average only 1 mm a-1; deep-water basins average 0.1 to 0.5 mm a-1; and large areas are not receiving any sediment. Sediment was deposited rapidly (typically 5 mm a-1), in the form of rock flour, during the deglaciation of both Lake Michigan and Lake Superior Basins. Then the rate of accumulation decreased by 80-90% and has remained relatively constant since final deglaciation. Because active sedimentation occurs mostly in the deep water areas of the lake, the sediment remains undisturbed and contains a record of the chemical history of the lake. ?? 1983 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  11. Geology and hydrology for environmental planning in Washtenaw County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, William B.

    1980-01-01

    Washteaw County is underlain by glacial deposits that range in thickness from about 50 feet to about 450 feet. Underlying the glacial deposits are sedimentary rocks of Mississippian and Devonian age. The youngest of these rocks are the sandstones of the Marshall Formation in the western part of the county;  the oldest are the limestones of the Detroit River Group in the southeast corner.Sand and gravel deposits in some places in the county may yield more than 500 gallons per minute of water. Approximately 50 percent of the wells tapping the Marshall Formation, the most reliable bedrock aquifer, can yield as much as 60 gallons per minute.Washtenaw County has sand and gravel deposits that are more than 50 feet thick. The deposits are mined in several areas and are of economic importance. In addition, there may be potential for peat production in the western part of the county and for clay production in the eastern part.

  12. 2010 USGS Lidar: Southeastern Michigan (Hillsdale, Jackson, Lenawee Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Lake Erie LiDAR Priority Area 1 LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Jackson, Hillsdale, and Lenawee Counties USGS Contract No....

  13. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Arenac County, Michigan, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  14. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, SHIAWASSEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  15. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, MIDLAND COUNTY, MICHIGAN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  16. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, EATON COUNTY, MICHIGAN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  17. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HURON COUNTY, MICHIGAN USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  18. Multisite outbreak of norovirus associated with a franchise restaurant--Kent County, Michigan, May 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-14

    The majority of cases of foodborne gastroenteritis in the United States are caused by noroviruses. This report summarizes an investigation by the Kent County Health Department (KCHD) in Michigan into three norovirus outbreaks and a cluster of community cases that were associated with a national submarine sandwich franchise restaurant during May 3-9, 2005. The investigation identified a potential source, a food handler who had returned to work within a few hours of having symptoms of gastrointestinal illness while he was still excreting norovirus in his stools. To prevent norovirus outbreaks, food service workers should be educated regarding norovirus transmission and control. In 2005, new guidelines for state health departments regarding norovirus containment were published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA); guidelines for local health departments in Michigan were issued by the state's Department of Community Health and Department of Agriculture. The new guidelines for Michigan recommend that food service workers with suspected norovirus not return to work until they are asymptomatic for 48-72 hours.

  19. An integrated assessment for wind energy in Lake Michigan coastal counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, Erik; VanderMolen, Jon; Gajewski, Betty; Isely, Paul; Fan, Yue; Koches, John; Damm, Sara; Ferguson, Aaron; Schoolmaster, Claire

    2015-04-01

    The benefits and challenges of onshore and offshore wind energy development were assessed for a 4-county area of coastal Michigan. Economic, social, environmental, and spatial dimensions were considered. The coastal counties have suitable wind resources for energy development, which could contribute toward Michigan's 10% renewable energy standard. Wind energy is cost-effective with contract prices less than the benchmark energy price of a new coal-fired power plant. Constructing a 100 MW wind farm could have a $54.7 million economic impact. A patchwork of township-level zoning ordinances regulates wind energy siting. Voluntary collaborations among adjacent townships standardizing the ordinances could reduce regulatory complexity. A Delphi Inquiry on offshore wind energy in Lake Michigan elicited considerable agreement on its challenges, but little agreement on the benefits to coastal communities. Offshore turbines could be acceptable to the participants if they reduced pollution, benefited coastal communities, involved substantial public participation, and had minimal impact on property values and tourism. The US Coast Guard will take a risk-based approach to evaluating individual offshore developments and has no plans to issue blanket restrictions around the wind farms. Models showed that using wind energy to reach the remainder of the 10% renewable energy standard could reduce SO2 , NOx , and CO2 pollution by 4% to 7%. Turbines are highly likely to impact the area's navigational and defense radar systems but planning and technological upgrades can reduce the impact. The integrated assessment shows that responsible wind energy development can enhance the quality of life by reducing air pollution and associated health problems and enhancing economic development. Policies could reduce the negative impacts to local communities while preserving the benefits to the broader region. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Hydrology, water quality, and effects of drought in Monroe County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J.R.; Rowe, Gary L.; Brannen, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    streamwater at low flow is suitable for most domestic u~es, irrigation, and recreation. In ground water, dissolved solids and hydrogen sulfide are present at concentrations objectionable to some users. Indicators of ground-water contamination from agricultural activities-pesticides and nitrates-were not present at detectable concentrations or were below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) limits. In streamwater, some treatment to remove bacteria may be necessary in summer months; nitrate concentrations, however, were found to be below USEPA limits.Tritium concentrations indicative of recent recharge to the Silurian-Devonian aquifer are present in a southwest-to-northeast-trending band from Whiteford to Berlin Townships. Generally, where glacial deposits are thicker than 30 feet, rech~rge.takes more than 40 years. Carbon isotope data md1cate that some of the ground water in the Silurian-Devonian aquifer is more than 14,000 years old.Mild droughts are common in Michigan, but long severe droughts, such as those during 1930-37 and 1960-67, are infrequent. The most recent drought, during 1988, was severe but short. Ground-water levels declined throughout the county; the largest declines were probably in the southwest. Shallow bedrock wells completed in only the upper part of the Silurian-Devonian aquifer and near large uses of ground water were especially susceptible to the effects of drought. Deep bedrock wells continued to produce water through the drought of 1988.During droughts, streamflow is reduced because of low ground-water levels and high consumptive uses of surface water. In 1988, annual discharge on the River Raisin was near normal, but monthly averages were below normal from March through August. The quality of surface water during droughts is similar to that during normal lowflow conditions.

  1. Residential Mobility and Breast Cancer in Marin County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Jacquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marin County (California, USA has among the highest incidences of breast cancer in the U.S. A previously conducted case-control study found eight significant risk factors in participants enrolled from 1997–1999. These included being premenopausal, never using birth control pills, lower highest lifetime body mass index, having four or more mammograms from 1990–1994, beginning drinking alcohol after age 21, drinking an average two or more alcoholic drinks per day, being in the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking, and being raised in an organized religion. Previously conducted surveys provided residential histories; while  statistic accounted for participants’ residential mobility, and assessed clustering of breast cancer cases relative to controls based on the known risk factors. These identified specific cases, places, and times of excess breast cancer risk. Analysis found significant global clustering of cases localized to specific residential histories and times. Much of the observed clustering occurred among participants who immigrated to Marin County. However, persistent case-clustering of greater than fifteen years duration was also detected. Significant case-clustering among long-term residents may indicate geographically localized risk factors not accounted for in the study design, as well as uncertainty and incompleteness in the acquired addresses. Other plausible explanations include environmental risk factors and cases tending to settle in specific areas. A biologically plausible exposure or risk factor has yet to be identified.

  2. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Rastorfer, J.R.; Van Dyke, G.D.

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 x1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems ≥2 cm dbh in 10 x 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Creating World-Class Gathering Places for People and Wildlife along the Detroit Riverfront, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Hartig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, USA is the automobile capital of the world, part of the industrial heartland and Rust Belt, and a major urban area. For over two centuries, the Detroit River was perceived as a working river that supported commerce and industry. Like many other large North American cities, the Motor City made the Detroit River its back door, with businesses facing inland and away from the river. Compounding the problem, Detroit became indifferent to the water pollution that was perceived as a necessary by-product of industrial progress. By the 1960s, the Detroit River was one of the most polluted rivers in North America. Today, the cleanup and recovery of the Detroit River represent one of the most remarkable ecological recovery stories in North America with the return of bald eagles, peregrine falcons, osprey, lake sturgeon, lake whitefish, mayflies, and more. Out of this recovery has come two transformational projects—the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge and the Detroit RiverWalk—that are helping change the perception of the region from that of a Rust Belt city to one of a leader of urban sustainability that reconnects people to nature, improves quality of life, promotes sustainable redevelopment, and enhances community pride. Key lessons learned include: recruit a well-respected champion; ensure broad support from key stakeholder groups; establish core delivery team, focused on outcomes; build trust; adopt a strategic approach to community engagement, creating a connected community; evoke a sense of place; and measure and celebrate successes to sustain momentum.

  5. Weed Diversity Affects Soybean and Maize Yield in a Long Term Experiment in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Davis, Adam S; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose L

    2017-01-01

    Managing production environments in ways that promote weed community diversity may enhance both crop production and the development of a more sustainable agriculture. This study analyzed data of productivity of maize (corn) and soybean in plots in the Main Cropping System Experiment (MCSE) at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research (KBS-LTER) in Michigan, USA, from 1996 to 2011. We used models derived from population ecology to explore how weed diversity, temperature, and precipitation interact with crop yields. Using three types of models that considered internal and external (climate and weeds) factors, with additive or non-linear variants, we found that changes in weed diversity were associated with changes in rates of crop yield increase over time for both maize and soybeans. The intrinsic capacity for soybean yield increase in response to the environment was greater under more diverse weed communities. Soybean production risks were greatest in the least weed diverse systems, in which each weed species lost was associated with progressively greater crop yield losses. Managing for weed community diversity, while suppressing dominant, highly competitive weeds, may be a helpful strategy for supporting long term increases in soybean productivity. In maize, there was a negative and non-additive response of yields to the interaction between weed diversity and minimum air temperatures. When cold temperatures constrained potential maize productivity through limited resources, negative interactions with weed diversity became more pronounced. We suggest that: (1) maize was less competitive in cold years allowing higher weed diversity and the dominance of some weed species; or (2) that cold years resulted in increased weed richness and prevalence of competitive weeds, thus reducing crop yields. Therefore, we propose to control dominant weed species especially in the years of low yield and extreme minimum temperatures to improve maize yields

  6. Mechanism of regional enrichment of groundwater by boron: the examples of Bangladesh and Michigan, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenscroft, P.; McArthur, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In Bangladesh, concentrations of boron in groundwater reach 2.1 mg L -1 and are high regionally in alluvial aquifers of Late Pleistocene/Holocene age. Concentrations exceed 0.5 mg L -1 across approximately 6700 km 2 of the deep aquifer (>150 m depth) and 3000 km 2 of the shallow aquifer ( -1 and high values are widespread in the NE of the county. These concentrations exceed the regulatory guideline values for human consumption of 0.5 mg L -1 (WHO) or 0.9 mg L -1 (USA). The boron has desorbed from mineral surfaces as freshwater flushing displaces saline waters from the aquifers. In Bangladesh, desorption is driven by decreasing ionic strength, the equilibrium re-adjustment of mineral sorption sites to the low boron concentration in freshwater, and competitive exchange with HCO 3 /CO 3 . In deep Bangladesh aquifers in Barisal District (>250 m deep), boron enrichment delineates a buried estuary marking a previous course of the Ganges and/or Brahmaputra rivers. Boron enrichment is accompanied by ion-exchange that depletes Ca and enriches Na in the flushing freshwater. The patterns of enrichment and depletion indicate the direction of water quality change, in terms of salinization or freshening, with greater sensitivity than absolute chemical parameters

  7. Estimating coastal wetland gain and losses in Galveston County and Cameron County, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Clare; Mora, Miguel A; Knight, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Coastal wetlands serve many important ecological services. One of these important ecological services is their use as storm buffers. Coastal wetlands provide habitat for migratory birds and aquatic species and can improve water quality. In the late 1990s, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) published a study outlining the trends of coastal wetlands from the 1950s to early 1990s. In the present study, wetland gains and losses were calculated for Galveston County and Cameron County, Texas, USA, between 2001 and 2011. Maps from the National Land Cover Database were used to determine wetland areas for the years 2001, 2006, and 2011. ArcGIS was used to compare land cover between the study periods to determine overall wetland losses and gains. A statistical analysis was performed between wetland loss and population data to determine whether increased population density led to a higher loss of wetlands. Our analysis indicates that wetland loss is still occurring, however at a lower rate of loss (0.14%-0.18% annually) than the USFWS study predicted earlier (2.7%). In addition, the majority of wetland losses were due to conversion to upland areas. We found a positive correlation between increased population density and decreased wetland area; however, the trend was not significant. The present study shows how the majority of wetland loss in Galveston and Cameron counties is occurring as a result of increased upland areas. In addition, the present study shows that the use of online mapping systems can be used as a low-cost alternative to assess land changes when field tests are not feasible. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:120-129. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Attitudes of veterinarians, animal control directors, and county prosecutors in Michigan regarding enforcement of state animal cruelty legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, L B; Johnson-Ifearulundu, Y J; Kaneene, J B

    1997-12-15

    To determine attitudes of veterinarians, animal control directors, and country prosecutors in Michigan toward enforcement of state animal cruelty legislation and to identify factors associated with whether veterinarians would report suspected cases of animal cruelty. Survey. Questionnaires were sent to 1,146 Michigan Veterinary Medical Association member veterinarians, 139 animal control directors, and 83 county prosecutors in Michigan. 740 (65%) veterinarians, 70 (50%) animal control directors, and 43 (52%) prosecutors responded. Six hundred forty six of 735 (88%) veterinarians reported having treated an animal that they believed had been a victim of animal cruelty, but only 192 of 719 (27%) had ever reported a case of animal cruelty, and only 217 of 734 (30%) had ever testified in an animal cruelty case. Logistic regression analysis of responses revealed that the only factor associated with whether veterinarians would report cases of suspected animal cruelty was the potential reactions of the involved clients to the accusation of animal cruelty. Veterinarians who rated reaction of the involved client as important, very important, or essential to their decision whether to report a case of animal cruelty were less likely to report such cases than were veterinarians who rated potential client reaction as somewhat important or unimportant. Concern about potential client reaction was the most important factor in whether veterinarians would report cases of suspected animal cruelty.

  9. Description and preliminary map, airborne electromagnetic survey of parts of Iron, Baraga, and Dickson counties, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heran, William D.; Smith, Bruce D.

    1980-01-01

    The data presented herein is from an airborne electromagnetic INPUT* survey conducted by Geoterrex Limited of Canada for the U.S. Geological Survey. The survey area is located in the central part of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, within parts of Iron, Baraga, and Dickinson Counties. The general area covered is between 46°00' and 46°30' latitude and 88°00' and 88°30' longitude (fig. 1).The INPUT survey was flown as part of a U.S. Geological Survey CUSMAP (Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program) project focusing on the Iron River 2° quadrangle. The survey was flown in order to provide geophysical information which will aid in an integrated geological assessment of mineral potentials of this part of the Iron River 2 quadrangle. The flight-line spacing was chosen to maximize the aerial coverage without a loss of resolution of major lithologic and structural features. East-west flight lines were flown 400 feet above ground at 1/2-mile intervals. Aerial photos were used for navigation and the flight path was recorded on continuous-strip film. A continuously recording total field ground magnetic station was used to monitor variations in the Earth's magnetic field. One north-south line was flown to provide a tie for the magnetic data which was recorded simultaneously with the electromagnetic data by a sensor mounted in the tail of the aircraft. This report is one of two open-file reports. The map in the present report contains locations of the fiducial points, the flight lines, and preliminary locations of anomalies and conductive zones, all plotted on an air photomosaic. The latitude and longitude ticks marked on this map are only approximate due to distortion in air photos used to recover the flight line position. This map is preliminary and is not to be considered a final interpretation. The other report (Reran and Smith, 1980) contains a description of the instrument specifications, a copy of the ground station magnetic data, and a microfilm

  10. Potential availability of urban wood biomass in Michigan: Implications for energy production, carbon sequestration and sustainable forest management in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Tree and wood biomass from urban areas is a potentially large, underutilized resource viewed in the broader social context of biomass production and utilization. Here, data and analysis from a regional study in a 13-county area of Michigan, U.S.A. are combined with data and analysis from several other studies to examine this potential. The results suggest that urban trees and wood waste offer a modest amount of biomass that could contribute significantly more to regional and national bio-economies than it does at present. Better utilization of biomass from urban trees and wood waste could offer new sources of locally generated wood products and bio-based fuels for power and heat generation, reduce fossil fuel consumption, reduce waste disposal costs and reduce pressure on forests. Although wood biomass generally constitutes a 'carbon-neutral' fuel, burning rather than burying urban wood waste may not have a net positive effect on reducing atmospheric CO 2 levels, because it may reduce a significant long term carbon storage pool. Using urban wood residues for wood products may provide the best balance of economic and environmental values for utilization

  11. Model Refinement and Simulation of Groundwater Flow in Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    A groundwater-flow model that was constructed in 1996 of the Saginaw aquifer was refined to better represent the regional hydrologic system in the Tri-County region, which consists of Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties, Michigan. With increasing demand for groundwater, the need to manage withdrawals from the Saginaw aquifer has become more important, and the 1996 model could not adequately address issues of water quality and quantity. An updated model was needed to better address potential effects of drought, locally high water demands, reduction of recharge by impervious surfaces, and issues affecting water quality, such as contaminant sources, on water resources and the selection of pumping rates and locations. The refinement of the groundwater-flow model allows simulations to address these issues of water quantity and quality and provides communities with a tool that will enable them to better plan for expansion and protection of their groundwater-supply systems. Model refinement included representation of the system under steady-state and transient conditions, adjustments to the estimated regional groundwater-recharge rates to account for both temporal and spatial differences, adjustments to the representation and hydraulic characteristics of the glacial deposits and Saginaw Formation, and updates to groundwater-withdrawal rates to reflect changes from the early 1900s to 2005. Simulations included steady-state conditions (in which stresses remained constant and changes in storage were not included) and transient conditions (in which stresses changed in annual and monthly time scales and changes in storage within the system were included). These simulations included investigation of the potential effects of reduced recharge due to impervious areas or to low-rainfall/drought conditions, delineation of contributing areas with recent pumping rates, and optimization of pumping subject to various quantity and quality constraints. Simulation results indicate

  12. Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanjana; Mosci, Rebekah E; Anderson, Chase M; Snyder, Brian A; Collins, James; Rudrik, James T; Manning, Shannon D

    2017-09-01

    High frequencies of antimicrobial drug resistance were observed in O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains recovered from patients in Michigan during 2010-2014. Resistance was more common in non-O157 strains and independently associated with hospitalization, indicating that resistance could contribute to more severe disease outcomes.

  13. Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Is Clustered and Associated With Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics: A Geospatial Analysis of Kent County, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Amy; Sadler, Richard C; Chassee, Todd; Reynolds, Joshua C

    2017-08-01

    Geographic clustering of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with demographic and socioeconomic features of the community where out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurred, although this association remains largely untested in rural areas. With a significant rural component and relative racial homogeneity, Kent County, Michigan, provides a unique setting to externally validate or identify new community features associated with bystander CPR. Using a large, countywide data set, we tested for geographic clustering of bystander CPR and its associations with community socioeconomic features. Secondary analysis of adult OHCA subjects (2010-2015) in the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) data set for Kent County, Michigan. After linking geocoded OHCA cases to U.S. census data, we used Moran's I-test to assess for spatial autocorrelation of population-weighted cardiac arrest rate by census block group. Getis-Ord Gi statistic assessed for spatial clustering of bystander CPR and mixed-effects hierarchical logistic regression estimated adjusted associations between community features and bystander CPR. Of 1,592 subjects, 1,465 met inclusion criteria. Geospatial analysis revealed significant clustering of OHCA in more populated/urban areas. Conversely, bystander CPR was less likely in these areas (99% confidence) and more likely in suburban and rural areas (99% confidence). Adjusting for clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic covariates, bystander CPR was associated with public location (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.39), initially shockable rhythms (OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.12-1.96), and those in urban neighborhoods (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.38-0.77). Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and bystander CPR are geographically clustered in Kent County, Michigan, but bystander CPR is inversely associated with urban designation. These results offer new insight into bystander CPR patterns in mixed urban and rural

  14. LiDAR (Terrain), THURSTON COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Fugro EarthData Company furnished the collection, processing, and development of LiDAR for 825 square miles in Washington (805 square miles of Thurston County and 20...

  15. Digital representation of exposures of Precambrian bedrock in parts of Dickinson and Iron Counties, Michigan, and Florence and Marinette Counties, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, William F.; Schulte, Ruth; Bickerstaff, Damon

    2018-04-04

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a program of bedrock geologic mapping in much of the central and western Upper Peninsula of Michigan from the 1940s until the late 1990s. Geologic studies in this region are hampered by a scarcity of bedrock exposures because of a nearly continuous blanket of unconsolidated sediments resulting from glaciation of the region during the Pleistocene ice ages. The USGS mapping, done largely at a scale of 1:24,000, routinely recorded the location and extent of exposed bedrock to provide both an indication of where direct observations were made and a guide for future investigations to expedite location of observable rock exposures. The locations of outcrops were generally shown as colored or patterned overlays on printed geologic maps. Although those maps have been scanned and are available as Portable Document Format (PDF) files, no further digital portrayal of the outcrops had been done. We have conducted a prototype study of digitizing and improving locational accuracy of the outcrop locations in parts of Dickinson County, Michigan, to form a data layer that can be used with other data layers in geographic information system applications.

  16. Soil Contamination as a Legacy of the U.S. Auto Industry, Southwest Detroit, Michigan USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K.; Peterman, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Delray community of southwest Detroit is one of the most depressed areas in southeast Michigan. Historically, Delray was a working class, racially diverse community that depended heavily on industrial jobs provided by nearby factories. However, decades of industrial waste discharges have left Delray with extensive air and soil pollution. Although high unemployment and poverty are major challenges confronting residents in Delray today, the threat to public health from Pb, Hg, As and Cr [VI] in the soil may become an even bigger issue and a significant source of concern. Newspaper headlines cite crime, substance abuse, high school and labor force dropout, as being prevalent in Delray, but recent research suggest that soil contamination, which has resulted in elevated blood Pb levels may be an underlying factor. Recent interest in this area as a potential site for a new bridge to Canada, has offered new hope to the residents by potentially opening the door for redevelopment. The initial step in this process is an environmental assessment of the Delray community. This investigation is being conducted by the University of Michigan-Dearborn in consortium with local community groups and the Detroit Public School. Although preliminary, an analysis of soil samples from over 400 residences has indicated that significant levels of As, and Pb are present in the upper 0.1 meter of soil throughout the Delray area. The high levels of metals present in the soil suggest that further investigation and possible remedial action will be necessary prior to redevelopment.

  17. DCS TERRAIN SUBMISSION for ONEIDA COUNTY, NEW York, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — For Oneida County, NY, there were two types of elevation datasets. The first type is LiDAR and the second one is Auto-correlation DEM. Auto-correlation DEM data was...

  18. Observations on besnoitiosis in Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sheikha, Hany M; Hussein, Hussein S; Monib, Mohammad el-Salahy M; Mansfield, Linda S

    2007-04-01

    Besnoitia tissue cysts were found in five naturally-infected adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Michigan. Details of the microscopy, histopathology, ultra-structure, and genetic features of the cysts were studied to identify their species-specific traits. The materials were differentiated phenotypically from cysts of other Besnoitia spp. by difference in size, pattern of tissue distribution, morphology of pellicle and nucleus, number of micronemes and rhoptries, amount of lipids and amylopectin, and presence of enigmatic bodies. Morphometric variations identified the tissue cysts and the pathologic changes in opossums host to be due to B. darlingi. The data were proved by phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences of the first internal transcribed spacer of nuclear rDNA. Cluster analysis showed that B. darlingi was distinct from all other Besnoitia spp. as two distinct phylogenetic clades: I- included Besnoitia spp. described from opossum (B. darlingi), sheep (B. jellisoni), rodent (B. akadoni) and rabbit (B. oryctofelisi) and clade II- encompassed parasites described from cattle (B. besnoiti), equids (B. bennetti) and reindeer (B. tarandi). The genetic attributed particular to the genus Besnoitia complemented the morphologica features and lead to accurate delimitation of Besnoitia species.

  19. 2011-2013 Indiana Statewide Imagery and LiDAR Program: Lake Michigan Watershed Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Indiana's Statewide LiDAR data is produced at 1.5-meter average post spacing for all 92 Indiana Counties covering more than 36,420 square miles. New LiDAR data was...

  20. Evaluating wildlife-cattle contact rates to improve the understanding of dynamics of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Michael J; Kay, Shannon L; Pepin, Kim M; Grear, Daniel A; Campa, Henry; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-12-01

    Direct and indirect contacts among individuals drive transmission of infectious disease. When multiple interacting species are susceptible to the same pathogen, risk assessment must include all potential host species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an example of a disease that can be transmitted among several wildlife species and to cattle, although the potential role of several wildlife species in spillback to cattle remains unclear. To better understand the complex network of contacts and factors driving disease transmission, we fitted proximity logger collars to beef and dairy cattle (n=37), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; n=29), raccoon (Procyon lotor; n=53), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; n=79) for 16 months in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, USA. We determined inter- and intra-species direct and indirect contact rates. Data on indirect contact was calculated when collared animals visited stationary proximity loggers placed at cattle feed and water resources. Most contact between wildlife species and cattle was indirect, with the highest contact rates occurring between raccoons and cattle during summer and fall. Nearly all visits (>99%) to cattle feed and water sources were by cattle, whereas visitation to stored cattle feed was dominated by deer and raccoon (46% and 38%, respectively). Our results suggest that indirect contact resulting from wildlife species visiting cattle-related resources could pose a risk of disease transmission to cattle and deserves continued attention with active mitigation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Groundwater flux and nutrient loading in the northeast section of Bear Lake, Muskegon County, Michigan, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Alexander R.; Maurer, Jessica A.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2017-11-30

    Bear Lake in North Muskegon, Michigan, is listed as part of the Muskegon Lake area of concern as designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This area of concern was designated as a result of eutrophication and beneficial use impairments. On the northeast end of Bear Lake, two man-made retention ponds (Willbrandt Pond East and Willbrandt Pond West), formerly used for celery farming, may contribute nutrients to Bear Lake. Willbrandt Ponds (East and West) were previously muck fields that were actively used for celery farming from the early 1900s until 2002. The restoration and reconnection of the Willbrandt Ponds into Bear Lake prompted concerns of groundwater nutrient loading into Bear Lake. Studies done by the State of Michigan and Grand Valley State University revised initial internal phosphorus load estimates and indicated an imbalance in the phosphorus budget in Bear Lake. From June through November 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) did an investigative study to quantify the load of nutrients from shallow groundwater around the Willbrandt Ponds in an effort to update the phosphorus budget to Bear Lake. Seven sampling locations were established, including five shallow groundwater wells and two surface-water sites, in the Willbrandt pond study area and Bear Lake. A total of 12 nutrient samples and discrete water-level measurements were collected from each site from June through November 2015. Continuous water-level data were recorded for both surface-water monitoring locations for the entire sampling period.Water-level data indicated that Willbrandt Pond West had the highest average water-level elevation of all sites monitored, which indicated the general direction of flux is from Willbrandt Pond West to Bear Lake. Nutrient and chloride loading from Willbrandt Pond West to Bear Lake was calculated using two distinct methods: Dupuit and direct seepage methods. Shallow groundwater loading calculations were determined by using groundwater levels to

  2. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  3. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

  4. County-level characteristics as predictors of dentists? ECC counseling in the USA: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Mancl, Lloyd A; Chi, Donald L; Garson, Gayle; Grembowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Transmission of Streptococcus mutans from mother-to-child can lead to Early Childhood Caries. A previous study identified characteristics and beliefs of general dentists about counseling pregnant women to reduce risk of infection and Early Childhood Caries. This study extends those findings with an analysis of county level factors. Methods In 2006, we surveyed 732 general dentists in Oregon, USA about dental care for pregnant women. Survey items asked about individual and practice ...

  5. Water quality and hydrology of the Lac Vieux Desert watershed, Gogebic County, Michigan, and Vilas County, Wisconsin, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, T.L.; Neff, B.P.; Ellis, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Lac Vieux Desert is a prominent 6.6 square-mile lake that straddles the Michigan-Wisconsin border and forms the headwaters of the Wisconsin River. For generations, the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians have used Lac Vieux Desert and the surrounding area for growing and harvesting wild rice, and hunting and fishing. The Lac Vieux Desert Band is concerned about the impact of lake-stage regulation on hydrology and ecology, and the impact on water quality of development along and near the shore, and recreational watercraft use and sport fishing. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a water-resources investigation of the Lac Vieux Desert watershed in cooperation with the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians.Water quality of Lac Vieux Desert is typical of many lakes in the northern United States. Trophic State Index calculations classify Lac Vieux Desert as a highly productive eutrophic lake. The pH of water in Lac Vieux Desert ranged from 6.5 to 9.5, and specific conductance ranged from 62 to 114 µs/cm. Chloride concentration was less than 1.5 mg/L, indicating little effect from septic-tank or road-salt input. Results indicate that the water can be classified as soft, with hardness concentrations reported as calcium carbonate ranging from 29 to 49 mg/L. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, chloride, and other dissolved solids ranged from 47 to 77 mg/L. Alkalinity of Lac Vieux Desert ranged from 27 to 38 mg/L.Pervasive aquatic blooms, including a bloom noted during the September 2003 sampling, are apparently common in late summer. Biological productivity at Lac Vieux Desert does not appear to have changed appreciably between 1973 and 2004. In the current study, total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.064 mg/L and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen concentrations ranged from at, or below detection limit to 0.052 mg/L. Overabundance of nutrients in Lac Vieux Desert, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus

  6. Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) dietary exposure to PCDD/DF in the Tittabawassee River floodplain in Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coefield, Sarah J; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Nadeau, Michael W; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Moore, Jeremy N; Kay, Denise P; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2010-10-01

    Soils and sediments in the floodplain of the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA contain elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD). As a long-lived, resident top predator, the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; GHO) has the potential to be exposed to bioaccumulative compounds such as PCDD/DF. Site-specific components of the GHO diet were collected along 115 km of the Tittabawassee, Pine, Chippewa, and Saginaw Rivers during 2005 and 2006. The site-specific GHO biomass-based diet was dominated by cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus). Incidental soil ingestion and cottontail rabbits were the primary contributors of PCDD/DF to the GHO diet. The great horned owl daily dietary exposure estimates were greater in the study area (SA) (3.3 to 5.0 ng 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQ(WHO-avian))/kg body wt/d) than the reference area (RA) (0.07 ng TEQ(WHO-Avian)/kg body wt/d). Hazard quotients (HQs) based on central tendency estimates of the average daily dose and no-observable-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for the screech owl and uncertainty factors were <1.0 for both the RA and the SA. Hazard quotients based on upper end estimates of the average daily dose and NOAEL were <1.0 in the RA and up to 3.4 in the SA. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2350-2362. © 2010 SETAC.

  7. The distribution of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis cases across states and counties in the USA, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Sternberg, Maya; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2010-12-01

    To examine the distribution of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis in the USA through the use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients. The distribution of three sexually transmitted diseases (STD; chlamydia, gonorrhoea and primary and secondary syphilis) was examined across states and counties in the USA in 2007, based on reported case numbers. Gini coefficients, which can range from 0 (equality in STD rates across geographical units) to 1 (complete inequality such that all STD occur in one geographical unit) were calculated. Overall, chlamydia was the most evenly distributed and syphilis was the most concentrated of the three STD examined. The Gini coefficients for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis were 0.121, 0.255 and 0.334, respectively, when examined across states, and 0.319, 0.494 and 0.630, respectively, when examined across counties. Differences in Gini coefficients were observed when the STD distributions were examined by sex, race/ethnicity and age group. The use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients can help to assess inequalities in the distribution of STD, to gauge the suitability of geographically targeted interventions, and to help in determining the epidemic phase of STD. Having a better understanding of the disparities in the distribution of STD across states and counties by sex, race/ethnicity and age group might help in understanding why disparities in STD rates exist across different groups and in developing interventions to address these disparities.

  8. Epigene and Hypogene Gypsum Karst Manifestations of the Castile Formation: Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Kevin W.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Permian evaporites of the Castile Formation crop out over ~1,800 km2 in the western Delaware Basin (Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA with abundant and diverse karst manifestations. Epigene karst occurs as well-developed karren on exposed bedrock, while sinkholes dominate the erosional landscape, including both solutional and collapse forms. Sinkhole analyses suggest that more than half of all sinks are the result of upward stoping of subsurface voids, while many solutional sinks are commonly the result of overprinting of collapsed forms. Epigene caves are laterally limited with rapid aperture decreases away from insurgence, with passages developed along fractures and anticline fold axes. Hypogene karst occurs as diverse manifestations, forming the deepest and longest caves within the region as well as abundant zones of brecciation. Hypogene caves exhibit a wide range of morphologies from complex maze and anastomotic patterns to simple, steeply dipping patterns, but all hypogene caves exhibit morphologic features (i.e. risers, outlet cupolas and half-tubes that provide a definitive suite of evidence of dissolution within a mixed convection (forced and free convection hydrologic system. Extensive blanket breccias, abundant breccia pipes and numerous occurrences of calcitized evaporites indicate widespread hypogene speleogenesis throughout the entire Castile Formation. Although most cave and karst development within the Castile outcrop region appears to have hypogene origins, epigene processes areactively overprinting features, creating a complex speleogenetic evolution within the Castile Formation.

  9. Notes from the Field: Increase in Neisseria meningitidis-Associated Urethritis Among Men at Two Sentinel Clinics - Columbus, Ohio, and Oakland County, Michigan, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Jose A; Peterson, Amy S; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Briere, Elizabeth C; Maierhofer, Courtney; Turner, Abigail Norris; Licon, Denisse B; Parker, Nicole; Dennison, Amanda; Ervin, Melissa; Johnson, Laura; Weberman, Barbara; Hackert, Pamela; Wang, Xin; Kretz, Cecilia B; Abrams, A Jeanine; Trees, David L; Del Rio, Carlos; Stephens, David S; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; DiOrio, Mary; Roberts, Mysheika Williams

    2016-06-03

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) urogenital infections, although less common than infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng), have been associated with urethritis, cervicitis, proctitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Nm can appear similar to Ng on Gram stain analysis (gram-negative intracellular diplococci) (1-5). Because Nm colonizes the nasopharynx, men who receive oral sex (fellatio) can acquire urethral Nm infections (1,3,5). This report describes an increase in Nm-associated urethritis in men attending sexual health clinics in Columbus, Ohio, and Oakland County, Michigan.

  10. Instrument specifications and geophysical records for airborne electromagnetic survey of parts of Iron, Baraga, and Dickson Counties, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heran, William D.; Smith, Bruce D.

    1980-01-01

    The data presented herein is from an airborne electromagnetic INPUT* survey conducted by Geoterrex Limited of Canada for the U.S. Geological Survey. The survey area is located in the central part of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, within parts of Iron, Baraga, and Dickinson Counties. The general area covered is between 46°00' and 46°30' latitude and 88°00' and 88°30' longitude (fig. 1).The INPUT survey was flown as part of a U.S. Geological Survey CUSMAP (Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program) project focusing on the Iron River 2° quadrangle. The survey was flown in order to provide geophysical information which will aid in an integrated geological assessment of mineral potentials of this part of the Iron River 2° quadrangle. The flight line spacing was chosen to maximize the areal coverage without a loss of resolution of major lithologic and structural features.East-west flight lines were flown 400 feet above ground at 1/2 mile intervals. Aerial photos were used for navigation, and the flight path was recorded on continuous-strip film. A continuously recording total field ground magnetic station was used to monitor variations in the Earth's magnetic field. One north-south line was flown to provide a tie for the magnetic data, which was recorded simultaneously with the electromagnetic data by a sensor mounted in the tail of the aircraft. This report is one of two open-file reports. The map in the other report Heran and Smith (1980) shows locations of the fiducial points, the flight lines, preliminary locations of anomalies and conductive zones; all plotted on an air photomosaic. The latitude and longitude ticks marked on this map are only approximate due to distortion in air photos used to recover the flight line position. This map is preliminary and is not to be considered a final interpretation. The present report contains a description of the instrument specifications, a copy of the ground station magnetic data, and a record of the

  11. 75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ..., Indiana, Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Wisconsin have already been..., Henry, Jefferson, Jessamine, Kenton, Oldham, Owen, Pendleton, Scott, Shelby, Trimble, and Woodford.... Shelby County. The entire county. Trimble County. The entire county. Woodford County. The entire county...

  12. County-level characteristics as predictors of dentists’ ECC counseling in the USA: a survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Transmission of Streptococcus mutans from mother-to-child can lead to Early Childhood Caries. A previous study identified characteristics and beliefs of general dentists about counseling pregnant women to reduce risk of infection and Early Childhood Caries. This study extends those findings with an analysis of county level factors. Methods In 2006, we surveyed 732 general dentists in Oregon, USA about dental care for pregnant women. Survey items asked about individual and practice characteristics. In the present study we matched those data to county level factors and used multinomial logistic regression to test the effects of the factors (i.e., dentist to population ratio, percentage of female dentists, percentage of females of childbearing age, and percentage of individuals living in poverty) on counseling behavior. Results County level factors were unrelated to counseling behavior when the models controlled for dentists' individual attitudes, beliefs, and practice level characteristics. The adjusted odds ratios for no counseling of pregnant patients (versus 100 percent counseling) were 1.1 (95% CI .8-1.7), 1.0 (1.0-1.1), 1.2 (.9-1.5), and 1.1 (1.0-1.2) for dentist/population ratio, percent female dentists, percent females of childbearing age, and percent in poverty, respectively Similar results were obtained when dentists who counseled some patients were compared to those counseling 100 percent of patients. Conclusions Community level factors do not appear to impact the individual counseling behavior of general dentists in Oregon, USA regarding the risk of maternal transmission of Early Childhood Caries. PMID:23688178

  13. County-level characteristics as predictors of dentists' ECC counseling in the USA: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Mancl, Lloyd A; Chi, Donald L; Garson, Gayle; Grembowski, David

    2013-05-20

    Transmission of Streptococcus mutans from mother-to-child can lead to Early Childhood Caries. A previous study identified characteristics and beliefs of general dentists about counseling pregnant women to reduce risk of infection and Early Childhood Caries. This study extends those findings with an analysis of county level factors. In 2006, we surveyed 732 general dentists in Oregon, USA about dental care for pregnant women. Survey items asked about individual and practice characteristics. In the present study we matched those data to county level factors and used multinomial logistic regression to test the effects of the factors (i.e., dentist to population ratio, percentage of female dentists, percentage of females of childbearing age, and percentage of individuals living in poverty) on counseling behavior. County level factors were unrelated to counseling behavior when the models controlled for dentists' individual attitudes, beliefs, and practice level characteristics. The adjusted odds ratios for no counseling of pregnant patients (versus 100 percent counseling) were 1.1 (95% CI .8-1.7), 1.0 (1.0-1.1), 1.2 (.9-1.5), and 1.1 (1.0-1.2) for dentist/population ratio, percent female dentists, percent females of childbearing age, and percent in poverty, respectively Similar results were obtained when dentists who counseled some patients were compared to those counseling 100 percent of patients. Community level factors do not appear to impact the individual counseling behavior of general dentists in Oregon, USA regarding the risk of maternal transmission of Early Childhood Caries.

  14. Mobility of 137Cs in freshwater lakes: A mass balance and diffusion study of Lake St. Clair, Southeast Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinlong; Baskaran, Mark; Niedermiller, John

    2017-12-01

    Cesium-137 is one of the most widely utilized anthropogenic radionuclides, both as a tracer and chronometer in the environment. Its application as an effective chronometer requires a thorough understanding of its geochemical behavior in aqueous systems. In this study, we collected and analyzed a suite of time-series water samples over a period of 8 months (April - November 2015), for particulate and dissolved 137Cs activities from a watershed in southeast Michigan, USA, using Cu2Fe(CN)6-coated cartridges developed to pre-concentrate dissolved 137Cs. We also conducted a series of laboratory experiments with the natural freshwater sediment samples and water with different chemical composition. There were seasonal variations of both particulate and dissolved 137Cs activities in the watersheds of Lake St. Clair. The distribution coefficients of 137Cs determined over a period of 8 months varied between 0.14 × 105 and 6.1 × 105 mL g-1 (mean: 2.9 × 105 mL g-1). The annual input and export flux of total 137Cs activity via rivers into and out of Lake St. Clair were calculated to be 3.6 × 1010 Bq and 1.6 × 1010 Bq, respectively. The amount of 137Cs derived by diffusion from interstitial pore water to the water column was estimated to be 0.30 × 1010 Bq (8.3% of the total input flux) which is similar to the percentage of 137Cs desorption (13%-20%) from sediment placed in oxic soft water system over a period of 30-106 days. For the same concentrations of NH4+, Mn2+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+ and Sr2+ in a distilled water, our lab work showed that the sediment-sorbed 137Cs is displaced by ions in the order NH4+ > Mn2+ > K+ > Mg2+ ≈ Ca2+ > Na+ > Sr2+. In laboratory studies, 137Cs sorbed onto sediment was found to be less mobile in oxic soft water (Kd: 2.0 × 103 mL g-1) and more mobile in anoxic soft water (Kd: 0.2 × 103 mL g-1). In a hard water system, however, there is no significant difference in Kd values for both oxic and anoxic conditions. The sequence of Kd values is

  15. FLOODPLAIN, WAYNE COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the 1-percent-annual-chance...

  16. FLOODPLAIN, Macomb COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the 1-percent-annual-chance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. FLOODPLAIN, Ottawa COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the 1-percent-annual-chance...

  19. FLOODPLAIN, Alpena COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the 1-percent-annual-chance...

  20. The value of urban tree cover: A hedonic property price model in Ramsey and Dakota Counties, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Sander; Stephen Polasky; Robert. Haight

    2010-01-01

    Urban tree cover benefits communities. These benefits' economic values, however, are poorly recognized and often ignored by landowners and planners. We use hedonic property price modeling to estimate urban tree cover's value in Dakota and Ramsey Counties, MN, USA, predicting housing value as a function of structural, neighborhood, and environmental variables...

  1. Responses of soil and water chemistry to mountain pine beetle induced tree mortality in Grand County, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Clow; Charles C. Rhoades; Jennifer Briggs; Megan Caldwell; William M. Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Pine forest in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming, USA, are experiencing the most severe mountain pine beetle epidemic in recorded history, and possible degradation of drinking-water quality is a major concern. The objective of this study was to investigate possible changes in soil and water chemistry in Grand County, Colorado in response to the epidemic,...

  2. Explaining the lung cancer versus radon exposure data for USA counties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Our study of lung cancer mortality rates, m, versus average radon levels in homes, r, for 1601 USA counties (Cohen 1995) found a very strong negative correlation. In a recent exchange (Cohen 1999), Sir Richard Doll suggested that these discrepancies may be due to lack of consideration of details on smoking habits, specifically 'the amount smoked, the proportion of ex-smokers who have stopped for different periods, the proportion of smokers who smoked cigarettes, cigars or pipes, and the age at which those smoking in different ways began'. The purpose of this letter is to explore these Doll suggestions. Our analysis is performed for males because the data are of better quality, but the results would be quite similar for females. Letter-to-the-editor

  3. Complex postglacial recolonization inferred from population genetic structure of mottled sculpin Cottus bairdii in tributaries of eastern Lake Michigan, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, J J; Ruetz, C R; Kohler, S L; Thum, R A

    2016-11-01

    This study used analyses of the genetic structure of a non-game fish species, the mottled sculpin Cottus bairdii to hypothesize probable recolonization routes used by cottids and possibly other Laurentian Great Lakes fishes following glacial recession. Based on samples from 16 small streams in five major Lake Michigan, U.S.A., tributary basins, significant interpopulation differentiation was documented (overall F ST = 0·235). Differentiation was complex, however, with unexpectedly high genetic similarity among basins as well as occasionally strong differentiation within basins, despite relatively close geographic proximity of populations. Genetic dissimilarities were identified between eastern and western populations within river basins, with similarities existing between eastern and western populations across basins. Given such patterns, recolonization is hypothesized to have occurred on three occasions from more than one glacial refugium, with a secondary vicariant event resulting from reduction in the water level of ancestral Lake Michigan. By studying the phylogeography of a small, non-game fish species, this study provides insight into recolonization dynamics of the region that could be difficult to infer from game species that are often broadly dispersed by humans. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Preliminary survey of antibiotic-resistant fecal indicator bacteria and pathogenic Escherichia coli from river-water samples collected in Oakland County, Michigan, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study was done in Oakland County, Michigan, to determine the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci), antibiotic resistance patterns of these two groups, and the presence of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). For selected sites, specific members of these groups [E. coli, Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)] were isolated and tested for levels of resistance to specific antibiotics used to treat human infections by pathogens in these groups and for their potential to transfer these resistances. In addition, water samples from all sites were tested for indicators of potentially pathogenic E. coli by three assays: a growth-based assay for sorbitol-negative E. coli, an immunological assay for E. coli O157, and a molecular assay for three virulence and two serotype genes. Samples were also collected from two non-urbanized sites outside of Oakland County. Results from the urbanized Oakland County area were compared to those from these two non-urbanized sites. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded State of Michigan recreational water-quality standards and (or) recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards in samples from all but two Oakland County sites. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant fecal coliform bacteria were found at all sites, including two reference sites from outside the county. Two sites (Stony Creek and Paint Creek) yielded fecal coliform isolates resistant to all tested antibiotics. Patterns indicative of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- producing fecal coliform bacteria were found at eight sites in Oakland County and E. coli resistant to clinically significant antibiotics were recovered from the River Rouge, Clinton River, and Paint Creek. Vancomycin-resistant presumptive enterococci were found at six sites in Oakland County and were not found at the reference sites. Evidence of acquired antibiotic resistances was

  5. Geological Carbon Sequestration Storage Resource Estimates for the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone, Illinois and Michigan Basins, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, David; Ellett, Kevin; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    The Cambro-Ordovician strata of the Midwest of the United States is a primary target for potential geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations. The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive evaluation of the Cambro-Ordovician strata in the Illinois and Michigan Basins above the basal Mount Simon Sandstone since the Mount Simon is the subject of other investigations including a demonstration-scale injection at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project. The primary reservoir targets investigated in this study are the middle Ordovician St Peter Sandstone and the late Cambrian to early Ordovician Knox Group carbonates. The topic of this report is a regional-scale evaluation of the geologic storage resource potential of the St Peter Sandstone in both the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Multiple deterministic-based approaches were used in conjunction with the probabilistic-based storage efficiency factors published in the DOE methodology to estimate the carbon storage resource of the formation. Extensive data sets of core analyses and wireline logs were compiled to develop the necessary inputs for volumetric calculations. Results demonstrate how the range in uncertainty of storage resource estimates varies as a function of data availability and quality, and the underlying assumptions used in the different approaches. In the simplest approach, storage resource estimates were calculated from mapping the gross thickness of the formation and applying a single estimate of the effective mean porosity of the formation. Results from this approach led to storage resource estimates ranging from 3.3 to 35.1 Gt in the Michigan Basin, and 1.0 to 11.0 Gt in the Illinois Basin at the P10 and P90 probability level, respectively. The second approach involved consideration of the diagenetic history of the formation throughout the two basins and used depth-dependent functions of porosity to derive a more realistic spatially variable model of porosity rather than applying a

  6. Opportunities and obstacles for rangeland conservation in San Diego County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Farley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Working landscapes such as rangelands are increasingly recognized as having high conservation value, providing a variety of ecosystem services, including food, fiber, habitat, recreation, open space, carbon storage, and water, in addition to a broad range of social benefits. However, conversion of rangelands to other land uses has been prevalent throughout the western United States, leading to greater attention in the conservation community to the importance of collaborating with private landowners. The level of interest in collaborative conservation among private landowners and the types of conservation programs they choose to participate in depend on the social, economic, and environmental context. We used GIS analysis and interviews with ranchers to evaluate rangeland conversion and participation in conservation programs among ranchers in San Diego County, California, USA, which is part of a biodiversity hotspot with high plant species richness and a large number of endemic and rare species. We found that > 25% of rangelands were converted to other uses, primarily urbanization, over the past 25 years while the area of public rangeland increased by 9%. Interviews revealed that ranchers in San Diego County have had limited involvement with most conservation programs, and a critical factor for nonparticipation was providing programs access to private land, along with other issues related to trust and social values. Among ranchers who had participated in conservation programs, the payment level and the agency or organization administering the program were key factors. Our results provide insight into factors influencing whether and when ranchers are likely to participate in conservation initiatives and illustrate that private and public land conservation are strongly linked and would be more effective if the two strategies were better integrated.

  7. Effects of Initial Stand Density and Climate on Red Pine Productivity within Huron National Forest, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O'Brien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in climate are predicted to significantly affect the productivity of trees in the Great Lakes region over the next century. Forest management decisions, such as initial stand density, can promote climatic resiliency and moderate decreased productivity through the reduction of tree competition. The influences of climate (temperature and precipitation and forest management (initial stand density on the productivity of red pine (Pinus resinosa across multiple sites within Huron National Forest, Michigan, were examined using dendrochronological methods. Two common planting regimes were compared in this analysis; low initial density (1977 trees per hectare. Low initial density stands were found to have a higher climatic resilience by combining equal or greater measures of productivity, while having a reduced sensitivity to monthly and seasonal climate, particularly to summer drought.

  8. Spatiotemporal variations in the abundance and composition of bulk and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in seasonally hypoxia-influenced Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVilbiss, Stephen E; Zhou, Zhengzhen; Klump, J Val; Guo, Laodong

    2016-09-15

    Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA, is the largest freshwater estuary in the Laurentian Great Lakes and receives disproportional terrestrial inputs as a result of a high watershed to bay surface area ratio. While seasonal hypoxia and the formation of "dead zones" in Green Bay have received increasing attention, there are no systematic studies on the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its linkage to the development of hypoxia. During summer 2014, bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) coupled with PARAFAC analysis were used to quantify the abundance, composition and source of DOM and their spatiotemporal variations in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Concentrations of DOC ranged from 202 to 571μM-C (average=361±73μM-C) in June and from 279 to 610μM-C (average=349±64μM-C) in August. In both months, absorption coefficient at 254nm (a254) was strongly correlated to bulk DOC and was most abundant in the Fox River, attesting a dominant terrestrial input. Non-chromophoric DOC comprised, on average, ~32% of bulk DOC in June with higher terrestrial DOM and ~47% in August with higher aquagenic DOM, indicating that autochthonous and more degraded DOM is of lower optical activity. PARAFAC modeling on EEM data resulted in four major fluorescent DOM components, including two terrestrial humic-like, one aquagenic humic-like, and one protein-like component. Variations in the abundance of DOM components further supported changes in DOM sources. Mixing behavior of DOM components also indicated that while bulk DOM behaved quasi-conservatively, significant compositional changes occurred during transport from the Fox River to the open bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Caillouët

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV. Monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local WNV amplification. To test this hypothesis we monitored WNV infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily Eastern bluebirds; Sialia sialis, Turdidae across Henrico County, Virginia, USA, from May to August 2012. Observed host-seeking rates were temporally variable and associated with absolute vector and host abundances. Despite substantial effort to monitor WNV among nestlings and mosquitoes, we did not detect the presence of WNV in these populations. Generally low vector-nestling host contact rates combined with the negative WNV infection data suggest that monitoring transmission parameters among nestling Eastern bluebirds in Henrico County, Virginia, USA may not be a sensitive indicator of WNV activity.

  10. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  11. Drought drove forest decline and dune building in eastern upper Michigan, USA, as the upper Great Lakes became closed basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Walter L.; Loope, Henry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Lytle, David E.; Legg, Robert J.; Wysocki, Douglas A.; Hanson, Paul R.; Young, Aaron R.

    2012-01-01

    Current models of landscape response to Holocene climate change in midcontinent North America largely reconcile Earth orbital and atmospheric climate forcing with pollen-based forest histories on the east and eolian chronologies in Great Plains grasslands on the west. However, thousands of sand dunes spread across 12,000 km2 in eastern upper Michigan (EUM), more than 500 km east of the present forest-prairie ecotone, present a challenge to such models. We use 65 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages on quartz sand deposited in silt caps (n = 8) and dunes (n = 57) to document eolian activity in EUM. Dune building was widespread ca. 10–8 ka, indicating a sharp, sustained decline in forest cover during that period. This decline was roughly coincident with hydrologic closure of the upper Great Lakes, but temporally inconsistent with most pollen-based models that imply canopy closure throughout the Holocene. Early Holocene forest openings are rarely recognized in pollen sums from EUM because faint signatures of non-arboreal pollen are largely obscured by abundant and highly mobile pine pollen. Early Holocene spikes in nonarboreal pollen are recorded in cores from small ponds, but suggest only a modest extent of forest openings. OSL dating of dune emplacement provides a direct, spatially explicit archive of greatly diminished forest cover during a very dry climate in eastern midcontinent North America ca. 10–8 ka.

  12. Mid Holocene lake level and shoreline behavior during the Nipissing phase of the upper Great Lakes at Alpena, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.A.; Lepper, K.; Endres, A.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Baedke, S.J.; Argyilan, E.P.; Booth, R.K.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nipissing phase was the last pre-modern high-water stage of the upper Great Lakes. Represented as either a one- or two-peak highstand, the Nipissing occurred following a long-term lake-level rise. This transgression was primarily an erosional event with only the final stage of the transgression preserved as barriers, spits, and strandplains of beach ridges. South of Alpena, Michigan, mid to late Holocene coastal deposits occur as a strandplain between Devils Lake and Lake Huron. The landward part of this strandplain is a higher elevation platform that formed during the final stage of lake-level rise to the Nipissing peak. The pre-Nipissing shoreline transgressed over Devils Lake lagoonal deposits from 6.4 to 6.1. ka. The first beach ridge formed ~ 6. ka, and then the shoreline advanced toward Lake Huron, producing beach ridges about every 70. years. This depositional regression produced a slightly thickening wedge of sediment during a lake-level rise that formed 20 beach ridges. The rise ended at 4.5. ka at the Nipissing peak. This peak was short-lived, as lake level fell > 4. m during the following 500. years. During this lake-level rise and subsequent fall, the shoreline underwent several forms of shoreline behavior, including erosional transgression, aggradation, depositional transgression, depositional regression, and forced regression. Other upper Great Lakes Nipissing platforms indicate that the lake-level change observed at Alpena of a rapid pre-Nipissing lake-level rise followed by a slower rise to the Nipissing peak, and a post-Nipissing rapid lake-level fall is representative of mid Holocene lake level in the upper Great Lakes. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Nitrogen fertilization of switchgrass increases biomass yield and improves net greenhouse gas balance in northern Michigan, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiema, Paligwende; Rothstein, David E.; Min, Doo-Hong; Kapp, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can increase bioenergy crop production; however, fertilizer production and application can contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, potentially undermining the GHG benefits of bioenergy crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on GHG emissions and biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop, in northern Michigan. Nitrogen fertilization treatments included 0 kg ha -1 (control), 56 kg ha -1 (low) and 112 kg ha -1 (high) of N applied as urea. Soil fluxes of CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 were measured every two weeks using static chambers. Indirect GHG emissions associated with field activities, manufacturing and transport of fertilizer and pesticides were derived from the literature. Switchgrass aboveground biomass yield was evaluated at the end of the growing season. Nitrogen fertilization contributed little to soil GHG emissions; relative to the control, there were additional global warming potential of 0.7 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 1.5 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 eq), calculated using the IPCC values, in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. However, N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by switchgrass, resulting in 1.5- and 2.5-fold increases in biomass yield in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. Nitrogen amendments improved the net GHG benefits by 2.6 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 9.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 eq relative to the control. Results suggest that N fertilization of switchgrass in this region could reduce (15-50%) the land base needed for bioenergy production and decrease pressure on land for food and forage crop production. -- Highlights: → We examine the effects of N fertilization of switchgrass on GHG emissions. → Effects of N fertilization on biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop. → N fertilization contributed little to greenhouse gas emissions. → N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by the switchgrass. → N

  14. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by State, County, Contractor, and Place, FY83, Part 2 (Oceana, Michigan - Weston, Wyoming).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    WILSON AIR SYSTEMS INC WILSON 1,302 745 557 NCAR WILSON FIRESTONE TIRE a RUBBER CO WILSON 42 42 NCAR WILSON INDUSTRIAL TECH INC ELM CITY 27 27 NCAR...THERMATICS ELM CITY 807 34 773 NCAR WILSON TOTAL COUNTY 3,840 836 359 1,214 1,431 NCAR YADKIN ASTORIA BRAID MFG CO INC BOONVILLE 113 113 NCAR YADKIN TOTAL...INC SLIPPERY ROCK 152 152 PA BUTLER M S A RESEARCH CORP EVANS CITY 227 227 PA BUTLER MINE SAFETY APPLIANCES CO EVANS CITY 8,531 253 311 1,339 6,628 PA

  15. Participatory approach used to develop a sustainability assessment tool for wood-based bioenergy industry in upper Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Ashma; Mayer, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel production has grown significantly in the past few decades as a result of global concern over energy security, climate change implications and unsustainable attributes of fossil fuels. Currently, biofuels produced from food crops (such as corn, sugarcane, soy, etc.) constitute the bulk of global biofuel production. However, purported adverse impacts of direct and indirect land-use changes (such as increased food prices, competition for agricultural land and water, and carbon emissions from land-use change) resulting from large-scale expansion of the crop-based biofuel industry have motivated many nations to further shift their attention to second-generation (non crop-based) biofuel production. Current R&D on second-generation biofuel production is largely focused on exploring prospects of using abandoned/fallow land for growing feedstock (such as Jatropha, short rotation woody coppice, Willow/Poplar species, Micanthus etc.), and on producing fuel that is cost-effective and compatible with existing infrastructures. The bulk of existing research on second-generation biofuel production concentrates on enhancing its technical feasibility and compatibility with existing infrastructure; very few have attempted to qualitatively determine and understand stakeholders' concerns and perception regarding this emergent industry. Stakeholders' decisions regarding land and resource use will play a crucial role in ensuring the social sustainability of any industry. Our research is focused on understanding stakeholders' concerns and perceptions regarding biofuel production in the upper Michigan region, where wood-based bioenergy development is being planned and researched by businesses, government agencies, and the local university. Over a century ago, the region's economy was dependent upon mining and clear-cut logging industries, which left the area once the resources were depleted. Since that time, the region has lost significant population due to the lack of economic

  16. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fishes from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D.; Holem, Ryan R.; Khim, Jong Seong; Chang, Hong; Kay, Denise P.; Roark, Shaun A.; Newsted, John L.; Patterson, William P.; Giesy, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing biological factors associated with species-specific accumulation of contaminants is one of the major focuses in ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry studies. In this study, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed in various fish species from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers (12 fish species; n = 314 individuals), Michigan, USA. Due to their migratory habits, greater δ 13 C stable isotope values were found in walleye and white sucker among 12 fish species. Meanwhile, the δ 15 N values indicated that the trophic status was least in carp and greatest in largemouth bass. The greatest total concentrations of dioxins were found in fishes with the lowest trophic status (carp (n = 50) followed by channel catfish (n = 49)), and concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs (20-440 pg/g ww (wet weight)), ΣPCBs (16-690 ng/g ww), and TEQs (6.8-350 pg/g ww) in carp were also greater than the least mean concentrations in other fishes. Contributions of various biological factors to the species accumulation were assessed. Body weight and lipid content were found to be the most significant factors influencing accumulation of ΣPCDD/Fs. Lipid content and trophic level seemed to be dominant factors determining accumulation of ΣPCB and TEQs, but negative correlations between trophic status and concentrations of ΣPCBs and TEQs were observed possibly due to the great concentrations in benthivorous fishes such as carp occupying lower trophic levels. These factors can be used to predict the contaminant levels of dioxins and health risks of the fishes in the river ecosystem.

  17. Children’s Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A.S.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.; Sadler, Richard C.; Gonzales, Christopher R.; Ball, Andrew S.; Mielke, Howard W.

    2016-01-01

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children’s average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children’s blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River. PMID:27023578

  18. Sarcoptic mange in raccoons in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Cooley, Thomas M; Murphy, Alice; Cosgrove, Melinda K; King, Betty A

    2004-04-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a cause of pruritic skin disease in domestic dogs and a wide range of wildlife species. We describe sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor). Three adult raccoons from upper Wayne County, Michigan (USA), were captured, killed, and submitted for diagnostic evaluation. The animals were intensely pruritic, and two had advanced alopecic and crusting lesions over their dorsum and hind limbs. Skin scrapings and skin biopsies revealed crusting and hyperkeratotic dermatitis with high numbers of Sarcoptes scabiei adults, larvae, nymphs, and eggs. These raccoons were not otherwise debilitated, with minimal internal parasites, good body condition, and no evidence of infectious bacterial or viral diseases. Because sarcoptic mange is highly contagious and affects many species, including humans, transiently, it is important that wildlife biologists and rehabilitators include sarcoptic mange in their differential list for raccoons exhibiting pruritus and alopecia.

  19. Colorectal Cancer, Socioeconomic Distribution and Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Counties in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaamel M Nuhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC ranks second for all cancer related deaths among men and women together and third for either sex when considered separately. Disparities exist in CRC incidence and mortality between rural and urban counties in the USA. This study sought to explore socioeconomic and behavioral factors that may partly explain these observed differences.Methods: Using educational and income levels as measures of socioeconomic status (SES, and average alcohol consumption and smoking frequency as behavioral factors, data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program for analysis were coupled.Results: Results showed statistically significant inequalities for CRC incidence (t = 2.678, p = 0.010 and mortality (t = 2.567, p = 0.013, as well as socioeconomic (i.e., poverty; t = 5.644, p < 0.001 and behavioral (i.e., smoking; t = 2.885, p = 0.006 factors between selected rural and urban counties. Regression analysis for colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates at the rural, urban, and national levels yielded relative impacts of smoking frequency, alcohol consumption, and educational level.Conclusions: Health policies aimed at reducing disparities between rural and urban populations in the USA must therefore adequately address SES and behavioral factors.Key words: colorectal cancer, rural health, social determinants of health, health behavior 

  20. County-Level Radon and Incidence of Female Thyroid Cancer in Iowa, New Jersey, and Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Oakland

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated the association between radon and thyroid cancer despite the sensitivity of the thyroid gland to radiation. Our goal is to investigate the association between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in the US States of Iowa, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Methods: Thyroid cancer incidence data were provided by individual state cancer registries and span 1990–2013. Radon data come from a publicly available third-party database, AirChek, accessed in 2017. We tabulated the percent of radon above four picocuries per liter and the female thyroid cancer incidence rate in each county. Quantile maps were constructed, and an ordinary least-squares regression model was run using Geoda 1.10.0.8 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: No association was observed between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in any of the States: New Jersey (β = 0.06, p = 0.23; Iowa (β = −0.07, p = 0.07; or Wisconsin (β = −0.01, p = 0.78. A spatial regression model was considered, but the Moran’s I of the residuals from each of the models was not significant, so no spatial term was required. Discussion: In this county-level ecological study across three different States in the US, we did not find an association between elevated radon and thyroid cancer incidence in women. While this ecologic study reports null findings, due to the ecologic fallacy, individual-level studies of this association may still be warranted.

  1. Mercury sedimentation in lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA and its relation to local industrial and municipal atmospheric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, A.J.; Norton, D.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) were measured in six dated cores from four lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA, that were at various bearings from a chlor-alkali plant, two municipal waste incinerators and a municipal sewage sludge incinerator. The importance of atmospheric emissions of Hg from these local municipal and industrial sources was evaluating by comparing the temporal trends in sedimentation of the lake cores with the emission history of each Hg species and by examining the geographical distribution of Hg sedimentation in relation to the region's primary wind pattern. Local municipal and industrial sources of atmospheric Hg were not responsible for the majority of the Hg in the upper layer of sediments of Whatcom County lakes because of (1) the significant enrichment of Hg in lake sediments prior to emissions of local industrial and municipal sources in 1964, (2) smaller increases in Hg concentrations occurred after 1964, (3) the similarity of maximum enrichments found in Whatcom County lakes to those in rural lakes around the world, (4) the inconsistency of the temporal trends in Hg sedimentation with the local emission history, and (5) the inconsistency of the geographic trends in Hg sedimentation with estimated deposition. Maximum enrichment ratios of Hg in lake sediments between 2 and 3 that are similar to rural areas in Alaska, Minnesota, and New England suggest that global sources of Hg were primarily responsible for increases of Hg in Whatcom County lakes beginning about 1900. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Government, Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

  2. The benefits of a synergistic approach to reservoir characterization and proration Rose City Prairie Du Chien Gas field, Ogemaw County, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinker, C.N.; Chambers, L.D.; Ritch, H.J.; McRae, C.D.; Keen, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on proration of gas fields in Michigan that is regulated by the Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC). Unlike other states the MPSC determines allowables for the purpose of allocating reserves. Therefore, exemplary reservoir characterization is essential to ensure each party receives, as far as can be practicably determined, an equitable share. SWEPI's Central Division Management recognizes the reality of the Michigan regulatory arena as well as the principles and value of effective leadership and teamwork. Accordingly, to better understand Rose City, a multi-disciplinary team was formed to analyze the extensive database, to prorate the field appropriately and to establish and maintain maximum acceptable production rates

  3. Insects and associated arthropods analyzed during medicolegal death investigations in Harris County, Texas, USA: January 2013- April 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The application of insect and arthropod information to medicolegal death investigations is one of the more exacting applications of entomology. Historically limited to homicide investigations, the integration of full time forensic entomology services to the medical examiner’s office in Harris County has opened up the opportunity to apply entomology to a wide variety of manner of death classifications and types of scenes to make observations on a number of different geographical and species-level trends in Harris County, Texas, USA. In this study, a retrospective analysis was made of 203 forensic entomology cases analyzed during the course of medicolegal death investigations performed by the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences in Houston, TX, USA from January 2013 through April 2016. These cases included all manner of death classifications, stages of decomposition and a variety of different scene types that were classified into decedents transported from the hospital (typically associated with myiasis or sting allergy; 3.0%), outdoor scenes (32.0%) or indoor scenes (65.0%). Ambient scene air temperature at the time scene investigation was the only significantly different factor observed between indoor and outdoor scenes with average indoor scene temperature being slightly cooler (25.2°C) than that observed outdoors (28.0°C). Relative humidity was not found to be significantly different between scene types. Most of the indoor scenes were classified as natural (43.3%) whereas most of the outdoor scenes were classified as homicides (12.3%). All other manner of death classifications came from both indoor and outdoor scenes. Several species were found to be significantly associated with indoor scenes as indicated by a binomial test, including Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), all Sarcophagidae (including B. plinthopyga), Megaselia scalaris Loew (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta Wulp (Diptera: Muscidae) and Lucilia

  4. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diana; Murray, Kristy O; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-08-01

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.

  5. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries.

  6. Reply to 'Explaining the lung cancer versus radon exposure data for USA counties'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.; Doll, R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Professor Cohen states in his letter that his analysis 'encompasses all of the Doll suggestions'. It is, however, logically impossible for it to have done so using data at the level of counties. This is because the effect of cigarette smoking on the relationship between residential radon and individual lung cancer risk will be determined by the relationship between smoking status and lung cancer among the individuals within each county. Unless smoking is irrelevant to lung cancer risk (which we know to be untrue) or smoking status and residential radon are uncorrelated within each county (which seems unlikely), the relationship between residential radon and lung cancer at the county level will differ from that at the level of the individual in a way that cannot be overcome by including corrections for smoking habits at the county level, even if these corrections correctly represent the smoking habits of the individuals within each county. The difference in the relationship between a risk factor and a disease rate at the level of the individual and at an area level is the ecologic fallacy and is described in detail by Greenland and Robins (1994) and Morgenstern (1998). Lubin (1998) has also demonstrated that biases caused by the ecologic fallacy can be of any magnitude from minus infinity to plus infinity. In two recent studies (Lagarde and Pershagen 1999, Darby et al 2000), parallel individual and ecological analyses have been carried out of identical data from case-control studies of residential radon (Peshagen et al 1994, Darby et al 1998). These analyses have shown that, in addition to any bias caused by the ecological fallacy, ecological studies of residential radon and lung cancer are also prone to biases caused by determinants of lung cancer risk that vary at the level of the ecological unit concerned. In these two examples, the additional variables were latitude and urban/rural status respectively. The explanation of these variables is not yet

  7. Neither Knowledge Deficit nor NIMBY: Understanding Opposition to Hydraulic Fracturing as a Nuanced Coalition in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Danielle M; Cutts, Bethany B

    2018-05-08

    The expansion of unconventional sources of natural gas across the world has generated public controversy surrounding fracking drilling methods. Public debates continue to reverberate through policy domains despite very inconclusive biophysical evidence of net harm. As a consequence, there is a need to test the hypothesis that resistance to fracking is due to the way it redistributes economic and environmental risks. As in many other communities, opposition to fracking is common in central Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, (USA) but the rationale underpinning opposition is poorly understood. We test the prevailing assumption in the environmental management literature that fracking opposition is motivated by knowledge deficits and/or not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) politics. This study uses Q methodology to examine emergent perspectives and sub-discourses within the fracking opposition debate in central Westmoreland County, PA. Q methodology offers a systematic and iterative use of both quantitative and qualitative research techniques to explore frequently overlooked marginal viewpoints that are critical to understanding the fracking problem. The analysis reveals four different narratives of factors amongst people actively involved in locally opposing fracking, labeled (1) Future Fears; (2) NIMBY (3) Community Concerns; and (4) Distrust Stakeholders. The conflicts that emerge across these four factors are indicative of deeper discourse within the fracking debate that signifies diversity in motivations, values, and convictions, and suggests the inadequacy of relying on knowledge deficit and/or NIMBY explanations to fracking politics.

  8. Assessment of Surface Water Contamination from Coalbed Methane Fracturing-Derived Volatile Contaminants in Sullivan County, Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Nicholas; Subedi, Bikram; Stamets, Tristan; Shifa, Naima

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing concern over the contamination of surface water and the associated environmental and public health consequences from the recent proliferation of hydraulic fracturing in the USA. Petroleum hydrocarbon-derived contaminants of concern [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] and various dissolved cations and anions were spatially determined in surface waters around 15 coalbed methane fracking wells in Sullivan County, IN, USA. At least one BTEX compound was detected in 69% of sampling sites (n = 13) and 23% of sampling sites were found to be contaminated with all of the BTEX compounds. Toluene was the most common BTEX compound detected across all sampling sites, both upstream and downstream from coalbed methane fracking wells. The average concentration of toluene at a reservoir and its outlet nearby the fracking wells was ~2× higher than other downstream sites. However, one of the upstream sites was found to be contaminated with BTEX at similar concentrations as in a reservoir site nearby the fracking well. Calcium (~60 ppm) and sulfates (~175 ppm) were the dominant cations and anions, respectively, in surface water around the fracking sites. This study represents the first report of BTEX contamination in surface water from coalbed methane hydraulic fracturing wells.

  9. Local-scale analysis of carbon mitigation strategies: Tompkins County, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadas, Timothy M.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Sherman, Ruth E.; Kay, David

    2007-01-01

    The costs and potential for several carbon mitigation options were analyzed for Tompkins County, NY, within several categories: terrestrial carbon sequestration, local power generation, transportation, and energy end-use efficiency. The total county emissions are about 340 Gg C/year, with current biomass sequestration rates of about 121 Gg C/year. The potential for mitigation with the options examined, assuming full market penetration, amounts to at least 234 Gg C/year (69%), with 100 Gg C/year (29%) at no net cost to the consumer. Effective carbon mitigation strategies for this county based on costs per mg carbon and maximum potential include reforestation of abandoned agricultural lands for terrestrial carbon sequestration, biomass production for residential heating and co-firing in coal power plants, changes in personal behavior related to transportation (e.g., carpooling or using public transportation), installation of numerous residential energy-efficient products and development of local wind power. The principal barriers to the implementation of these approaches are discussed and policies for overcoming these barriers are analyzed

  10. Local-scale analysis of carbon mitigation strategies: Tompkins County, New York, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadas, Timothy M. [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Fahey, Timothy J.; Sherman, Ruth E. [Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Fernow Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Kay, David [Department of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University, Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    The costs and potential for several carbon mitigation options were analyzed for Tompkins County, NY, within several categories: terrestrial carbon sequestration, local power generation, transportation, and energy end-use efficiency. The total county emissions are about 340 Gg C/year, with current biomass sequestration rates of about 121 Gg C/year. The potential for mitigation with the options examined, assuming full market penetration, amounts to at least 234 Gg C/year (69%), with 100 Gg C/year (29%) at no net cost to the consumer. Effective carbon mitigation strategies for this county based on costs per mg carbon and maximum potential include reforestation of abandoned agricultural lands for terrestrial carbon sequestration, biomass production for residential heating and co-firing in coal power plants, changes in personal behavior related to transportation (e.g., carpooling or using public transportation), installation of numerous residential energy-efficient products and development of local wind power. The principal barriers to the implementation of these approaches are discussed and policies for overcoming these barriers are analyzed. (author)

  11. FLOODPLAIN, ST. JOESEPH COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the 1-percent-annual-chance...

  12. Three-Dimensional Geological Model of Quaternary Sediments in Walworth County, Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Lau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D geologic model was developed for Quaternary deposits in southern Walworth County, WI using Petrel, a software package primarily designed for use in the energy industry. The purpose of this research was to better delineate and characterize the shallow glacial deposits, which include multiple shallow sand and gravel aquifers. The 3D model of Walworth County was constructed using datasets such as the U.S. Geological Survey 30 m digital elevation model (DEM of land surface, published maps of the regional surficial geology and bedrock topography, and a database of water-well records. Using 3D visualization and interpretation tools, more than 1400 lithostratigraphic picks were efficiently interpreted amongst 725 well records. The final 3D geologic model consisted of six Quaternary lithostratigraphic units and a bedrock horizon as the model base. The Quaternary units include in stratigraphic order from youngest to oldest: the New Berlin Member of the Holy Hill Formation, the Tiskilwa Member of the Zenda Formation, a Sub-Tiskilwa Sand/Gravel unit, the Walworth Formation, a Sub-Walworth Sand/Gravel unit, and a Pre-Illinoisan unit. Compared to previous studies, the results of this study indicate a more detailed distribution, thickness, and interconnectivity between shallow sand and gravel aquifers and their connectivity to shallow bedrock aquifers. This study can also help understand uncertainty within previous local groundwater-flow modeling studies and improve future studies.

  13. Use of agricultural land evaluation and site assessment in Linn County, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, J. Herbert; Pease, James R.; Forrest, William G.; Hickerson, Hugh J.; Langridge, Russell W.

    1987-07-01

    Oregon state law requires each county in the state to identify agricultural land and enact policies and regulations to protect agricultural land use. State guidelines encourage the preservation of large parcels of agricultural land and discourage partitioning of agricultural land and construction of nonfarm dwellings in agricultural areas. A land evaluation and site assessment (LESA) system was developed in Linn County to aid in the identification of agricultural land and provide assistance to decision makers concerning the relative merits of requests to partition existing parcels of ricultural land and introduce nonagricultural uses. Land evaluation was determined by calculating soil potential ratings for each agricultural soil in the county based on the soil potentials for winter wheat, annual ryegrass, permanent pasture, and irrigated sweet corn. Soil potential ratings were expressed on a scale of 0 to 150 points. The land evaluation score for a parcel consists of the weighted average soil potential rating for all of the soils in the parcel, weighted by the percentage of each soil present in the parcel. Site assessment was based on the size of a parcel and on the amount of existing conflict between agricultural and nonagricultural uses, particularly rural residential uses, both adjacent to and in the vicinity of a parcel. Parcel size refers to both size in relation to a typical field and size in relation to a typical farm unit. Conflict takes into account the number of nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile (0.4 km) of a parcel, the amount of the perimeter that adjoins conflicting land uses, and the residential density adjacent to the parcel. Empirical scales were derived for assigning points to each of the site assessment factors. Both parcel size and conflict were worth 75 points in the model. For parcel size, 45 points were allocated to field size and 30 points to farm-unit size. For conflict, 30 points were allocated to nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile and 45

  14. Kinematics, mechanics, and potential earthquake hazards for faults in Pottawatomie County, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmacher, G.C.; Berendsen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many stable continental regions have subregions with poorly defined earthquake hazards. Analysis of minor structures (folds and faults) in these subregions can improve our understanding of the tectonics and earthquake hazards. Detailed structural mapping in Pottawatomie County has revealed a suite consisting of two uplifted blocks aligned along a northeast trend and surrounded by faults. The first uplift is located southwest of the second. The northwest and southeast sides of these uplifts are bounded by northeast-trending right-lateral faults. To the east, both uplifts are bounded by north-trending reverse faults, and the first uplift is bounded by a north-trending high-angle fault to the west. The structural suite occurs above a basement fault that is part of a series of north-northeast-trending faults that delineate the Humboldt Fault Zone of eastern Kansas, an integral part of the Midcontinent Rift System. The favored kinematic model is a contractional stepover (push-up) between echelon strike-slip faults. Mechanical modeling using the boundary element method supports the interpretation of the uplifts as contractional stepovers and indicates that an approximately east-northeast maximum compressive stress trajectory is responsible for the formation of the structural suite. This stress trajectory suggests potential activity during the Laramide Orogeny, which agrees with the age of kimberlite emplacement in adjacent Riley County. The current stress field in Kansas has a N85??W maximum compressive stress trajectory that could potentially produce earthquakes along the basement faults. Several epicenters of seismic events (

  15. Exploration of the Panna Maria uranium mine, Karnes County, Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, E.C.; Cygan, N.E.; Alief, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Panna Maria Mine is located in Karnes County on the coastal plain of south-eastern Texas, about 55 miles (88 km) south-east of San Antonio. Host rock for the uranium is the Tordilla sandstone member of the Upper Eocene Jackson Group that strikes north-east and dips one to two degrees toward the coast. Chevron became interested in uranium exploration in south-east Texas in 1971 as a result of reports of increased industrial activity in the area, some of which was apparently successful. Additional attractions were the inexpensive drilling and the fact that many of the deposits were less than 200 feet deep. Also, some petroleum leases held by Chevron contained provisions relating to other minerals that might permit drilling for uranium. Regional stratigraphic studies of the Upper Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene were completed in 1972 and an area of interest was selected in western Karnes County with the Jackson group sands as the objective. Further studies narrowed the selection to the area between Hobson and Panna Maria, and the objective to the Tordilla sand Member of the Upper Jackson. The exploration model was a roll-front uranium deposit occurring along a redox front trending generally north-east. Drilling began in 1972, using rotary drills and contract drillers and loggers, and extended with interruptions until the end of 1974. Ore-grade mineralization was discovered in the 26th hole drilled in 1972. A total of 987 holes were drilled for a contract cost of US $146.000. Uranium resources at that time were estimated to be approximately 3.4 million lb (1.5 million kg) U 3 O 8 . Evaluation and development drilling during 1975 and 1976 increased the proven and probable reserves to 6 to 8 million lb (2.7 to 3.6 million kg) having a grade less than 0.1% U 3 O 8 . The mine and mill went on stream in February 1979. (author)

  16. Distribution and migration of pesticide residues in mosquito control impoundments St. Lucie County, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, R. W.; Wang, T. C.; White, J. R.; David, J. R.; Hoffman, M. E.

    1993-09-01

    This project was designed to: (1) document the distribution and migration of organochlorine pesticide residues within marsh substrates of 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments located along the Indian River Lagoon estuary, and (2) evaluate the impact of water management techniques on residue mobility. Our results indicate that detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds, applied between the late 1940s and early 1950s, are present in 16 of the 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments. These compounds are primarily restricted to the surficial, organic-rich wetland sediment, which, based upon geotechnical analysis, was exposed to the atmosphere at a time when the impoundments were subjected to pesticide treatment. Contaminated sediments are present below the surficial, organic-rich layer, suggesting that some vertical migration of pesticides has occurred. It is unlikely that leaching associated with the downward percolation of impounded water was responsible for this migration as pesticide residues were never detected within the in situ pore waters. An alternative explanation is that biological processes (e.g., rooting, burrowing) facilitated the downward flux of organochlorine compounds into sediment horizons not subjected to direct treatment. Eighty-eight surface water samples obtained from two impoundments subjected to contrasting water management techniques were analyzed for pesticide content. None of the surficial water samples collected in association with these impoundments contained detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds. These samples were unfiltered and contained as much as 25 mg/1 of particulate organic matter. This suggests that the currently preferred management technique (RIM), which is designed to maintain water quality, limit mosquito production, and provide for ecological continuity, does not hydraulically mobilize pesticide residues into the Indian River Lagoon estuary.

  17. Sand and gravel mining: effects on ground water resources in Hancock county, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckenham, John M.; Thornton, Teresa; Whalen, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Based on this preliminary study, existing sand and gravel mining regulations (in Maine, USA) can be inferred to provide some protection to water resources. Sand and gravel deposits are important natural resources that have dual uses: mining for construction material and pumping for drinking water. How the mining of sand and gravel affects aquifers and change aquifer vulnerability to contamination is not well documented. Mining regulations vary greatly by state and local jurisdiction. This study test metrics to measure the effectiveness of mining regulations. The sand and gravel aquifer system studied is covered with former and active gravel pits to nearly 25% of its areal extent. Data from homeowner interviews and field measurements found scant evidence of changes in water quantity. Water quality analyses collected from springs, streams, ponds and wells indicate that the aquifer was vulnerable to contamination by chloride and nitrate. However, water quality changes can not be related directly to mining activities.

  18. Bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Schmitt, S M; Fitzgerald, S D; Fierke, J S; Friedrich, P D; Kaneene, J B; Clarke, K A; Butler, K L; Payeur, J B; Whipple, D L; Cooley, T M; Miller, J M; Muzo, D P

    2001-01-01

    During a survey of carnivores and omnivores for bovine tuberculosis conducted in Michigan (USA) since 1996, Mycobacterium bovis was cultured from lymph nodes pooled from six coyotes (Canis latrans) (four adult female, two adult male), two adult male raccoons (Procyon lotor), one adult male red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and one 1.5-yr-old male black bear (Ursus americanus). One adult, male bobcat (Felis rufus) with histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was negative on culture but positive for organisms belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex when tested by polymerase chain reaction. All the tuberculous animals were taken from three adjoining counties where M. bovis is known to be endemic in the free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population. There were two coyotes, one raccoon, one red fox, and one bobcat infected in Alpena county. Montmorency County had two coyotes and one raccoon with M. bovis. Two coyotes and a bear were infected from Alcona County. These free-ranging carnivores/omnivores probably became infected with M. bovis through consumption of tuberculous deer. Other species included in the survey were opossum (Didelphis virginiana), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and badger (Taxidea taxus); these were negative for M. bovis.

  19. A Proposed Borehole Scientific Laboratory in Quay County, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis; Eckels, Marc; Mast, Peter; Zellman, Mark; Creed, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Our team has received funding from the US Department of Energy to initiate a Deep Borehole Field Test that will develop a subsurface test site to evaluate the drilling and scientific aspects of deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rock. Phase 1 of the project will focus on Public Outreach and land acquisition whereas Phase 2 will generate a drilling and testing plan and secure regulatory approvals. Phase 3 will complete the Drilling and Testing Plan and Phase 4 will include the drilling and testing. Phase 5 will be devoted to borehole science and experiments with emplacement technology. Although we are specifically considering issues associated with the disposal of waste, this project is a proof of concept, and no waste will be emplaced at our site. In brief, the concept envisions an 8-1/2 inch open-hole completion at a depth of 5000 m in crystalline rock. There will be an extensive program of sample collection (including core) and analysis as well as geophysical logging and borehole testing. Critical issues will be low permeability in the crystalline rock as well as the ability to manage borehole quality. Our team has proposed a site in Quay County, New Mexico that has an 850 meter thick Paleozoic section overlying homogeneous Precambrian granite. A subsequent phase of the project may drill a second hole with a 17-1/2 inch completion located about 200 m from the first. Our long-term plan is that this site will be managed as a deep scientific observatory that also provides a facility for scientific experiments and testing of borehole infrastructure and drilling equipment.

  20. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of lamproites, late cretaceous age, Woodson County, Kansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullers, R.L.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Berendsen, P.; Griffin, T.

    1985-01-01

    Lamproite sills and their associated sedimentary and contact metamorphic rocks from Woodson County, Kansas have been analyzed for major elements, selected trace elements, and strontium isotopic composition. These lamproites, like lamproites elsewhere, are alkalic (molecular K2O + Na2O Al2O3 = 1.6-2.6), are ultrapotassic ( K2O Na2O = 9.6-150), are enriched in incompatible elements (LREE or light rare-earth elements, Ba, Th, Hf, Ta, Sr, Rb), and have moderate to high initial strontium isotopic compositions (0.7042 and 0.7102). The silica-saturated magma (olivine-hypersthene normative) of the Silver City lamproite could have formed by about 2 percent melting of a phlogopite-garnet lherzolite under high H2O CO2 ratios in which the Iherzolite was enriched before melting in the incompatible elements by metasomatism. The Rose Dome lamproite probably formed in a similar fashion although the extreme alteration due to addition of carbonate presumably from the underlying limestone makes its origin less certain. Significant fractional crystallization of phases that occur as phenocrysts (diopside, olivine, K-richterite, and phlogopite) in the Silver City magma and that concentrate Co, Cr, and Sc are precluded as the magma moved from the source toward the surface due to the high abundances of Co, Cr, and Sc in the magma similar to that predicted by direct melting of the metasomatized Iherzolite. Ba and, to a lesser extent, K and Rb and have been transported from the intrusions at shallow depth into the surrounding contact metamorphic zone. The Silver City lamproite has vertical fractionation of some elements due either to volatile transport or to variations in the abundance of phenocrysts relative to groundmass most probably due to flow differentiation although multiple injection or fractional crystallization cannot be conclusively rejected. ?? 1985.

  1. 76 FR 56635 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... second zone, which is classified as modified accredited, comprises Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency, Oscoda...) A zone in Michigan that comprises Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency, and Oscoda Counties. * * * * * [[Page...

  2. A critical assessment of geographic clusters of breast and lung cancer incidences among residents living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Olga A; Oyana, Tonny J

    2009-01-01

    To assess previously determined geographic clusters of breast and lung cancer incidences among residents living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, using a new set of environmental factors. Breast and lung cancer data were acquired from the Michigan Department of Community Health, along with point source pollution data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The datasets were used to determine whether there is a spatial association between disease risk and environmental contamination. GIS and spatial techniques were combined with statistical analysis to investigate local risk of breast and lung cancer. The study suggests that neighborhoods in close proximity to the river were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, while increased risk of lung cancer was detected among neighborhoods in close proximity to point source pollution and major highways. Statistically significant (P

  3. A Critical Assessment of Geographic Clusters of Breast and Lung Cancer Incidences among Residents Living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Guajardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess previously determined geographic clusters of breast and lung cancer incidences among residents living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, using a new set of environmental factors. Materials and Methods. Breast and lung cancer data were acquired from the Michigan Department of Community Health, along with point source pollution data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The datasets were used to determine whether there is a spatial association between disease risk and environmental contamination. GIS and spatial techniques were combined with statistical analysis to investigate local risk of breast and lung cancer. Results and Conclusion. The study suggests that neighborhoods in close proximity to the river were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, while increased risk of lung cancer was detected among neighborhoods in close proximity to point source pollution and major highways. Statistically significant (P≤.001 clusters of cancer incidences were observed among residents living near the rivers. These findings are useful to researchers and governmental agencies for risk assessment, regulation, and control of environmental contamination in the floodplains.

  4. A Critical Assessment of Geographic Clusters of Breast and Lung Cancer Incidences among Residents Living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guajardo, O.A.; Oyana, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To assess previously determined geographic clusters of breast and lung cancer incidences among residents living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, using a new set of environmental factors. Materials and Methods. Breast and lung cancer data were acquired from the Michigan Department of Community Health, along with point source pollution data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The datasets were used to determine whether there is a spatial association between disease risk and environmental contamination. GIS and spatial techniques were combined with statistical analysis to investigate local risk of breast and lung cancer. Results and Conclusion. The study suggests that neighborhoods in close proximity to the river were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, while increased risk of lung cancer was detected among neighborhoods in close proximity to point source pollution and major highways. Statistically significant (P=.001) clusters of cancer incidences were observed among residents living near the rivers. These findings are useful to researchers and governmental agencies for risk assessment, regulation, and control of environmental contamination in the flood plains.

  5. FLOODPLAIN, PERRY COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. Sacramento County, CA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. HYDRAULICS, PENNINGTON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  8. FLOODPLAIN, LIBERTY COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. FLOODPLAIN, WASHINGTON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  10. TERRAIN, PIERCE, COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. FLOODPLAIN, JACKSON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. POLK COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  13. TERRAIN, JEFFERSON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. TERRAIN, BERKS COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. HYDRAULICS, BUTTE COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  16. HYDRAULICS, BUTLER COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. FLOOPLAIN, LACLEDE COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. BASEMAP, LACLEDE COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  19. HYDRAULICS, MEADE COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  20. FLOODPLAIN, CAROLINE COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. FLOODPLAIN, SUSQUEHANNA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  2. FLOODPLAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  3. FLOODPLAIN, MORGAN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. FLOODPLAIN, FAIRFAX COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. FLOODPLAIN, FLOOD COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. FLOODPLAIN, BRADFORD COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. FLOODPLAIN, LEVY COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. TERRAIN, Northampton COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, POTTER COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  10. BASEMAP, Ross COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  11. BASEMAP, WASHINGTON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme, orthographic...

  12. HYDRAULICS, GILCHRIST COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  13. ORTHOIMAGERY, CARBON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth's surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  14. FLOODPLAIN, GLENN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  15. FLOODPLAIN, HAMILTON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  16. FLOODPLAIN, TRINITY COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. Maricopa County, AZ, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. CHESTERFIELD COUNTY, VIRGINIA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazelaar, Dustin L; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than regional background concentrations. From 2005 to 2008, a multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the floodplains. A dietary-based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for American robins predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue-based risk assessment based on site-specific PCDD/DF concentrations in American robin eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose-response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary-based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident American robins, the tissue-based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue-based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population-level effects to American robins. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Evidence for stagnation of the Harvard sublobe (Lake Michigan lobe) in Northeastern Illinois, U.S.A., from 24 000 to 17 600 BP and subsequent tundra-like ice-marginal paleoenvironments from 17 600 to 15 700 BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, B. Brandon; Yansa, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    Glacial deposits of the last glaciation associated with the Harvard sublobe (Lake Michigan lobe) in northeastern Illinois, U.S.A., occur between sediment with dateable organics. The lower organics include fragments of Picea sp. as young as 24 000 ?? 270 BP. The supraglacial organics occur sparsely in laminated silt and fine sand in landforms that are positioned relatively high on the landscape, such as deposits from ice-walled lakes. These terrestrial organics yield ages that are 2500 to 1300 14C years older than organics at the base of sediment successions in nearby kettle basins. Basal 14C ages from four upland sites range from 17 610 ?? 270 to 16 120 ?? 80 BP. Our revised time-distance diagram of the Harvard sublobe now reflects a period of stagnation from 24 000 to about 17 600 BP. The supraglacial lacustrine silt yielded plant macrofossil assemblages of primarily tundra plants, including Salix herbacea and Dryas integrifolia. These plants likely grew in supraglacial and ice-marginal environments. The ostracode fauna include Cytherissa lacustris and Limnocythere friabilis. Geomorphic relations and ostracode ecology indicate that more than 17 m of ice buttressed some of the supraglacial lakes.

  1. Lower-crustal xenoliths from Jurassic kimberlite diatremes, upper Michigan (USA): Evidence for Proterozoic orogenesis and plume magmatism in the lower crust of the southern Superior Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, Robert E.; Kempton, Pamela D.; Paces, James B.; Downes, Hilary; Williams, Ian S.; Dobosi, Gábor; Futa, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    Jurassic kimberlites in the southern Superior Province in northern Michigan contain a variety of possible lower-crustal xenoliths, including mafic garnet granulites, rare garnet-free granulites, amphibolites and eclogites. Whole-rock major-element data for the granulites suggest affinities with tholeiitic basalts. P–T estimates for granulites indicate peak temperatures of 690–730°C and pressures of 9–12 kbar, consistent with seismic estimates of crustal thickness in the region. The granulites can be divided into two groups based on trace-element characteristics. Group 1 granulites have trace-element signatures similar to average Archean lower crust; they are light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched, with high La/Nb ratios and positive Pb anomalies. Most plot to the left of the geochron on a 206Pb/€204Pb vs 207Pb/€204Pb diagram, and there was probably widespread incorporation of Proterozoic to Archean components into the magmatic protoliths of these rocks. Although the age of the Group 1 granulites is not well constrained, their protoliths appear to be have been emplaced during the Mesoproterozoic and to be older than those for Group 2 granulites. Group 2 granulites are also LREE-enriched, but have strong positive Nb and Ta anomalies and low La/Nb ratios, suggesting intraplate magmatic affinities. They have trace-element characteristics similar to those of some Mid-Continent Rift (Keweenawan) basalts. They yield a Sm–Nd whole-rock errorchron age of 1046 ± 140 Ma, similar to that of Mid-Continent Rift plume magmatism. These granulites have unusually radiogenic Pb isotope compositions that plot above the 207Pb/€204Pb vs 206Pb/€204Pb growth curve and to the right of the 4·55 Ga geochron, and closely resemble the Pb isotope array defined by Mid-Continent Rift basalts. These Pb isotope data indicate that ancient continental lower crust is not uniformly depleted in U (and Th) relative to Pb. One granulite xenolith, S69-5, contains quartz, and has a

  2. Effects of dams in river networks on fish assemblages in non-impoundment sections of rivers in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jana S.; Lizhu Wang,; Infante, Dana M.; Lyons, John D.; Arthur Cooper,

    2011-01-01

    Regional assessment of cumulative impacts of dams on riverine fish assemblages provides resource managers essential information for dam operation, potential dam removal, river health assessment and overall ecosystem management. Such an assessment is challenging because characteristics of fish assemblages are not only affected by dams, but also influenced by natural variation and human-induced modification (in addition to dams) in thermal and flow regimes, physicochemical habitats and biological assemblages. This study evaluated the impacts of dams on river fish assemblages in the non-impoundment sections of rivers in the states of Michigan and Wisconsin using multiple fish assemblage indicators and multiple approaches to distinguish the influences of dams from those of other natural and human-induced factors. We found that environmental factors that influence fish assemblages in addition to dams should be incorporated when evaluating regional effects of dams on fish assemblages. Without considering such co-influential factors, the evaluation is inadequate and potentially misleading. The role of dams alone in determining fish assemblages at a regional spatial scale is relatively small (explained less than 20% of variance) compared with the other environmental factors, such as river size, flow and thermal regimes and land uses jointly. However, our results do demonstrate that downstream and upstream dams can substantially modify fish assemblages in the non-impoundment sections of rivers. After excluding river size and land-use influences, our results clearly demonstrate that dams have significant impacts on fish biotic-integrity and habitat-and-social-preference indicators. The influences of the upstream dams, downstream dams, distance to dams, and dam density differ among the fish indicators, which have different implications for maintaining river biotic integrity, protecting biodiversity and managing fisheries.

  3. Fecal-indicator bacteria and Escherichia coli pathogen data collected near a novel sub-irrigation water-treatment system in Lenawee County, Michigan, June-November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph W.; Beeler, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lenawee County Conservation District in Lenawee County, Mich., conducted a sampling effort over a single growing season (June to November 2007) to evaluate the microbiological water quality around a novel livestock reservoir wetland sub-irrigation system. Samples were collected and analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, and six genes from pathogenic strains of E. coli.A total of 73 water-quality samples were collected on nine occasions from June to November 2007. These samples were collected within the surface water, shallow ground water, and the manure-treatment system near Bakerlads Farm near Clayton in Lenawee County, Mich. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations ranged from 10 to 1.26 million colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL). E. coli bacteria concentrations ranged from 8 to 540,000 CFU/100 mL. Data from the E. coli pathogen analysis showed that 73 percent of samples contained the eaeA gene, 1 percent of samples contained the stx2 gene, 37 percent of samples contained the stx1 gene, 21 percent of samples contained the rfbO157 gene, and 64 percent of samples contained the LTIIa gene.

  4. Sedimentary phosphate and associated fossil bacteria in a Paleoproterozoic tidal flat in the 1.85 Ga Michigamme Formation, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Eric E.; Pufahl, Peir K.; Edwards, Cole T.

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is a nutrient fundamental to life and when it precipitates in modern environments bacteria are intimately involved in its release, concentration, and mineralization. Preserved fossil bacteria in phosphate crusts and grains from the ca. 1850 million-year-old Bijiki Iron Formation Member of the Michigamme Formation, Michigan provide insight into the longevity and nature of this relationship. The Michigamme Formation accumulated near the end of the Earth's initial phosphogenic episode (ca. 2.2 and 1.8 Ga) to produce one of the first granular phosphorites. Phosphatic lithofacies consist of fine- to medium-sand-sized francolite peloids concentrated on bedding surfaces in peritidal facies. Granular beds are up to 2 cm thick and peloids are often partially to completely replaced by dolomite and chert. The grains contain organic matter and pyrite framboids that suggest bacterial breakdown of organic matter and bacterial sulfate reduction. The peritidal nature of phosphorite in the Michigamme Formation is in sharp contrast to Phanerozoic phosphogenic environments in deeper coastal upwelling settings. Peritidal settings were well suited for phosphogenesis under the very low oxygen and low dissolved sulfate levels of the Paleoproterozoic as cyanobacteria produced oxygen in shallow water and evaporation led to increased sulfate concentrations. Such concomitant processes helped establish focused redox interfaces in the sediment that chemosynthetic bacterial communities (sulfur oxidizers, reducers, forms that concentrate P, and possibly iron oxidizers) could exploit. Phosphate released from organic matter by heterotrophic bacteria and Fe-redox pumping was further concentrated by these chemotrophs; a process that forms late Neoproterozoic to Phanerozoic phosphorites but on a much larger scale. This early example of a granular phosphorite demonstrates that, like their Phanerozoic counterparts, Paleoproterozoic phosphorites are the concentrated indirectly biomineralized

  5. Spatial and functional characterization, identification and assessment of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, Florida, USA - GIS and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing mapping techniques were developed to identify the locations of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, FL, a 2510 sq km area in north-central Florida with diverse geology and numerous isolated wetlands. The resul...

  6. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes is Not Increasing in a Population-Based Cohort in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Amanda K.; Owens, Lisa A.; Lahr, Brian D.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Murray, Joseph A.; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2016-01-01

    Context Worldwide studies show that the type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence is increasing by 3% annually. Objectives We investigated the recent incidence of T1D in a US Midwestern county to determine whether this increase has been sustained and compare to celiac disease (CD) incidence. The prevalence of (CD), an associated autoimmune disease, within the cohort was also investigated. Design A broad search strategy was used to identify all cases of T1D in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1,1994 and December 31, 2010 using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Diagnosis and residency status were confirmed through the medical record. Incidence rates were directly standardized to the 2010 United States population. Poisson regression was used to test for a change in incidence rate. Clinical charts were reviewed to confirm case status. Setting Population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Main Outcome Measure The trend in T1D incidence in a population-based study in a Midwestern US county. Results There were 233 incident cases of T1D. Directly adjusting for age and sex with respect to the 2010 US white population, the overall annual incidence of T1D was 9.2 (95% CI, 8.0-10.4) per 100,000 people per year among all ages and 19.9 (95% CI, 16.6-23.2) per 100,000 per people per year for those younger than 20 years. There was no significant increase in the incidence of T1D over time (P=.45). Despite the overall stability in annual incidence, there was an initial increasing trend followed by a plateau. Of the 109 T1D patients (46%) tested for CD, 12% had biopsy-proven CD. Conclusions The incidence of T1D has stopped increasing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in the most recent decade. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and explore reasons for this plateau. PMID:27492913

  7. Lake Michigan Bluff Dewatering and Stabilization Study - Allegan County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    td .(~, 742S7T11 (.1...0 5. ’U.O 5.0 I 0.0 15.0 20.0 f (,.) ;, 2.0 0 li LLJ VERTICAL STRAIN (7.) c • 0.1 (kg/crr(\\2) ~ - 21.3 ton ~~ 0.39 1-z w 0 E M Q w C...TR-12-11 136 APR- 02- 2005 12:28 p . 12 ~ LLJ z u: t-z LLJ ~ w 0. I I Particle Size Distribution Report - ASTM D 422 Jl -’ .c

  8. Reaction to "Observations on School District and Service Consolidation in Michigan." Working Paper #17 by David Arsen. Working Paper #18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakrani, Sharif M.

    2011-01-01

    The author's "School District Consolidation Study in 10 Michigan Counties" study was published in August, 2010 by The Education Policy Center at Michigan State University. It was intended to measure the financial impact of consolidation of schools at the county level akin to other states like Virginia, Florida and Maryland. The study was…

  9. LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Poole, Asheley; Lasley-Bibbs, Vivian; Johnson, Mark

    2016-04-07

    Data on adult immunization coverage at the state level and for LGBT Americans in particular are sparse. This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the LGBT females are less likely to report receiving the vaccine (15.4%) compared to the national coverage percentage of 34.5%. Males, however, are more likely to have received the vaccine (10.3%) than the national percentage of 2.3%. The small number of LGBT seniors in the study report a much higher prevalence of the Shingles (Herpes Zoster) vaccines than for U.S. seniors 60 and older (71.4% compared to 20.1% nationally). LGBT respondents report higher percentages of adult vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Family and cultural influences on cervical cancer screening among immigrant Latinas in Miami-Dade County, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Valderrama, Diana; Krupp, Karl; Ibanez, Gladys

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects minorities, immigrants and low-income women in the USA, with disparities greatest among Latino immigrants. We examined barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening practices among a group of immigrant Latino women in Florida, USA. Between January and May 2013, six focus group discussions, involving 35 participants, were conducted among Hispanic women in Miami to explore their knowledge, beliefs about cervical cancer and facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening using a theoretical framework. The data showed that family support, especially from female relatives, was an important facilitator of screening and treatment. Women, however, reported prioritising family health over their own, and some expressed fatalistic beliefs about cancer. Major obstacles to receiving a Pap smear included fear that it might result in removal of the uterus, discomfort about being seen by a male doctor and concern that testing might stigmatise them as being sexually promiscuous or having a sexually transmitted disease. Targeted education on cancer and prevention is critically needed in this population. Efforts should focus on women of all ages since younger women often turn to older female relatives for advice.

  11. Influence of Agricultural Operations on Dust Emission During the 1930a Dust Bowl, Baca County, CO, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, A. T.; Bolles, K.; Forman, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The drought that struck the U.S. Great Plains during the 1930s was one of the most intensedroughts in the region in the last millennium, spurring a major environmental and public healthcrisis. A prominent explanation for the cause of the "dust bowl" centers on the expansion ofagriculture and poor land management practices leading to widespread soil erosion. Thisprevalent hypothesis largely excludes the impacts of naturally occurring land surface processesthat contribute to eolian erosion and dust emissivity, particularly during periods of drought. Priorwork generally focuses on economic and sociological factors in agricultural decision-making forindividual fields or farms.This study utilizes early aerial photography collected by the Soil Conservation Service in 1936 ofBaca County, Colorado, to identify and quantify spatial relationships between geomorphicprocesses and anthropogenic activities impacting dust emission. From the holdings at theNational Archives, 25 photos covering 125 km2 scanned at 1200dpi are combined into acontinuous mosaic, and geo-referenced at RMSE 78.6 m2 . Detailed land cover analyses areundertaken in ArcGIS to classify uncultivated and cultivated surfaces; cultivated surfaces arefurther divided by surface agricultural operations in relation to erosion and dust emission (e.g.listing, contour furrows, terraces, circuitous plowing, listing, eolian transport, and fallow fieldswith and without vegetation). The classified surface is overlaid with National ResourceConservation Service surveys and Soil Conservation Service reconnaissance surveys of land useand erosion carried out in 1936 to infer to potential emissivity of a given cultivated surface. Inthis way, it becomes possible to evaluate human influence on dust emission in one of theworst-struck counties of the Dust Bowl and potentially identify other causative factors to thissignificant period in American history.

  12. Estimating mean long-term hydrologic budget components for watersheds and counties: An application to the commonwealth of Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Nelms, David L.; Pope, Jason P.; Selnick, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Mean long-term hydrologic budget components, such as recharge and base flow, are often difficult to estimate because they can vary substantially in space and time. Mean long-term fluxes were calculated in this study for precipitation, surface runoff, infiltration, total evapotranspiration (ET), riparian ET, recharge, base flow (or groundwater discharge) and net total outflow using long-term estimates of mean ET and precipitation and the assumption that the relative change in storage over that 30-year period is small compared to the total ET or precipitation. Fluxes of these components were first estimated on a number of real-time-gaged watersheds across Virginia. Specific conductance was used to distinguish and separate surface runoff from base flow. Specific-conductance (SC) data were collected every 15 minutes at 75 real-time gages for approximately 18 months between March 2007 and August 2008. Precipitation was estimated for 1971-2000 using PRISM climate data. Precipitation and temperature from the PRISM data were used to develop a regression-based relation to estimate total ET. The proportion of watershed precipitation that becomes surface runoff was related to physiographic province and rock type in a runoff regression equation. A new approach to estimate riparian ET using seasonal SC data gave results consistent with those from other methods. Component flux estimates from the watersheds were transferred to flux estimates for counties and independent cities using the ET and runoff regression equations. Only 48 of the 75 watersheds yielded sufficient data, and data from these 48 were used in the final runoff regression equation. Final results for the study are presented as component flux estimates for all counties and independent cities in Virginia. The method has the potential to be applied in many other states in the U.S. or in other regions or countries of the world where climate and stream flow data are plentiful.

  13. 78 FR 34129 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13042; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology... County, MI. In 1924, these items were sold to the University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, by Rev...

  14. 2010 ARRA Lidar: 4 Southeast Counties (MI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Southeast Michigan LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Monroe, St. Clair, Macomb, and Livingston Counties SEMCOG CONTRACT:...

  15. 78 FR 65380 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. The human remains were removed from Alpena, Isabella, Grand... removed from the Devil River Mound site (20AL1) in Alpena County, MI. A resident of Ossineke, MI...

  16. Limited indications of tax stamp discordance and counterfeiting on cigarette packs purchased in tobacco retailers, 97 counties, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Golden, Shelley D; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol) or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties) from June-October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted) of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s) (tax stamps (13%). This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser.

  17. Monocrotophos and dicrotophos residues in birds as a result of misuse of organophosphates in Matagorda county Texas USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Edward L.; White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Lamont, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    About 1100 birds of 12 spp. [Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), mourning dove (Zenaida macrours), Eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), common snipe (Gallinago gallinago), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), mottled duck (Anas fulvigula), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), redhead (Aythya americana) and ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres)] died from organophosphate poisoning in Matagorda County on the Texas Gulf Coast in March and May 1982. Birds died from feeding on rice seed that was illegally treated with dicrotophos or monocrotophos and placed near rice fields as bait to attract and kill birds. Brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition of affected birds averaged 87% (range 82-89%), and contents of gastrointestinal tracts contained residues of dicrotophos (5.6-14 ppm) or monocrotophos (2.1-13 ppm). Rice seed collected at mortality sites contained 210 ppm dicrotophos or 950 ppm monocrotophos. Mortality from dicrotophos poisoning continued for almost 3 wk. The practice of illegally treating rice seed with either of the 2 organophosphates appears to be infrequent but widespread at present.

  18. DCS Hydraulic Submission for Monroe County, Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Jackson County, Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  20. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Alpena County, Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  1. Limited indications of tax stamp discordance and counterfeiting on cigarette packs purchased in tobacco retailers, 97 counties, USA, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G.L. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties from June–October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s (<1%. However, a substantial minority of cigarette packs had damaged tax stamps (13%. This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser. Keywords: Taxes, Smoking, Tobacco products, Government regulation, Government

  2. 40 CFR 81.323 - Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Unclassifiable/Attainment Alcona County Alger County Alpena County Antrim County Baraga County Benzie County.../Attainment Alcona County Alger County Alpena County Antrim County Baraga County Benzie County Charlevoix.../Attainment Alcona County Alger County Alpena County Antrim County Baraga County Charlevoix County Cheboygan...

  3. Establishing baseline water quality for household wells within the Marcellus Shale gas region, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Amy L.; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laws do not specify how baseline tests are conducted prior to hydraulic fracturing. • Study estimates variability of groundwater chemistry for repeated measurements. • Water chemistry varies more geographically than at a single, household well. • A single, certified test can characterize baseline geochemistry of groundwater. • Multiple measurements better estimate upper limits of regional baseline values. - Abstract: Flowback fluids associated with hydraulic fracturing shale gas extraction are a potential source of contamination for shallow aquifers. In the Marcellus Shale region of northeastern Pennsylvania, certified water tests have been used to establish baseline water chemistry of private drinking water wells. This study investigates whether a single, certified multiparameter water test is sufficient for establishing baseline water chemistry from which possible future contamination by flowback waters could be reliably recognized. We analyzed the water chemistry (major and minor inorganic elements and stable isotopic composition) of multiple samples collected from lake, spring, and well water from 35 houses around Fiddle Lake, Susquehanna County, PA that were collected over approximately a two-year period. Statistical models estimated variance of results within and between households and tested for significant differences between means of our repeated measurements and prior certified water tests. Overall, groundwater chemistry varies more spatially due to heterogeneity of minerals within the bedrock aquifer and due to varying inputs of road salt runoff from paved roads than it does temporally at a single location. For wells located within road salt-runoff zones, Na + and Cl − concentrations, although elevated, are generally consistent through repeated measurements. High acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and base cation concentrations in well water sourced from mineral weathering reactions, and a uniform stable isotopic composition for

  4. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Kuang, Shan N; Hernandez, Rina; Chong, Melissa C; Ewing, Peter J; Fleischer, Jen; Meng, Jia; Chu, Sheena; Terashita, Dawn; English, L'Tanya; Chen, Wangxue; Xu, H Howard

    2016-05-04

    Antibiotic resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have been responsible for an increasing number of nosocomial infections including bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In this study, we analyzed 38 isolates of A. baumannii obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County for the molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, tri-locus multiplex PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (Pasteur scheme) were used to examine clonal relationships of the outbreak isolates. Broth microdilution method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing were employed to characterize antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Trilocus multiplex PCR showed these isolates belong to Global Clones I and II, which were confirmed to ST1 and ST2, respectively, by multi-locus sequence typing. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis identified two clonal clusters, one with 20 isolates (Global Clone I) and the other with nine (Global Clone II), which dominated the two outbreaks. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using 14 antibiotics indicated that all isolates were resistant to antibiotics belonging to four or more categories of antimicrobial agents. In particular, over three fourth of 38 isolates were found to be resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Additionally, all isolates were found to be resistant to piperacillin, four cephalosporin antibiotics, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Resistance phenotypes of these strains to fluoroquinolones were correlated with point mutations in gyrA and parC genes that render reduced affinity to target proteins. ISAba1 was detected immediately upstream of the bla OXA-23 gene present in those isolates that were found to be resistant to both carbapenems. Class 1 integron-associated resistance gene cassettes appear to contribute to resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. The two outbreaks were

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  6. Commentary on the Discovery of the Beautiful Style Michigan Madonna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlobil, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, 3/4 (2016), s. 256-260 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : gothic sculpture * Bohemian Beautiful Style * Madonna-torso * Museum Ann Arbor * Michigan ( USA ) Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  7. Empirical yield tables for Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1984-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1980 Forest Survey of Michigan and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Michigan's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site-index classes.

  8. Urban and community forests of the North Central East region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  9. Terlinguacreekite, Hg32+O2 Cl2, a new mineral species from the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Gault, Robert A.; Paar, W.H.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Burns, P.C.; Cisneros, S.; Foord, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Terlinguacreekite, ideally Hg32+O2 Cl2, has a very pronounced subcell that is orthorhombic, space-group choices Imam, Imcm, Ima2 and 12cm, with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a 6.737(3), b 25.528(10), c 5.533(2) A??, V951.6(6) A??3, a:b:c 0.2639:1:0.2167, Z=8. The true symmetry, supercell unit-cell parameters, and details regarding the crystal structure are unknown. The strongest nine lines of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A?? (I)(subcell hkl)] are: 5.413(30)(011), 4.063(80)(121), 3.201(50)(080), 3.023(50)(161), 2.983(60)(240), 2.858(30)(211), 2.765(50)(002), 2.518(100b)(091, 251) and 2.026(30)(242). The mineral is found in an isolated area measuring approximately 1 ?? 0.5 m in the lower level of the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas (type locality), as mm-sized anhedral dark orange to reddish orange crusts of variable thickness on calcite, and rarely as 0.5 mm-sized aggregates of crystals of the same color. It has also been identified at the McDermitt mine, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A., where it occurs with kleinite and calomel in silicified volcanic rocks and sediments. Terlinguacreekite is a secondary phase, most probably formed from the alteration of primary cinnabar or native mercury. At Terlingua, most crusts are thin, almost cryptocrystalline, with no discernable forms, and are resinous and translucent to opaque. Crystals are up to 0.2 mm in length, subhedral, acicular to prismatic, elongation [001], with a maximum length-to-width ratio of 4:1. They are vitreous, transparent, and some crystals have brightly reflecting faces, which may be {010} and {110}. The streak is yellow, and the mineral is brittle with an uneven fracture, no observable cleavage, and is soft, nonfluorescent under both long- and short-wave ultraviolet light. D (calc.) is 9.899 g/cm3 (empirical formula). Material from the McDermitt mine is reversibly photosensitive, and turns from vivid orange to black in strong

  10. FLOODPLAIN, BEDFORD COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. FLOODPLAIN, CASS COUNTY, MO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  12. TERRAIN, HENRY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. TERRAIN, BARREN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. TERRAIN, LOWNDES COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. TERRAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. TERRAIN, HARRISON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. TERRAIN, LOGAN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. HYDRAULICS, VOLUSIA COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. FLOODPLAIN, JESSAMINE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. FLOODPLAIN, WASATCH COUNTY, UTAH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. ORTHOIMAGERY, PARK COUNTY, COLORADO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  2. FLOODPLAIN, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  3. FLOODPLAIN, Nelson COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. ORTHOIMAGERY, SPALDING COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  5. ORTHOIMAGERY, Dougherty COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  6. ORTHOIMAGERY, LEE COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  7. ORTHOIMAGERY, UPSON COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  8. ORTHOIMAGERY, SUMTER COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  9. ORTHOIMAGERY, TERRELL COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  10. ORTHOIMAGERY, MACON COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  11. ORTHOIMAGERY, CALHOUN COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  12. ORTHOIMAGERY, DOOLY COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  13. ORTHOIMAGERY, THOMAS COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  14. ORTHOIMAGERY, TAYLOR COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  15. ORTHOIMAGERY, BUTTS COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  16. ORTHOIMAGERY, WEBSTER COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  17. ORTHOIMAGERY, WAYNE COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The original countywide mosaic from the NAIP was converted to grayscale for mapping purposes with the original compression. This metadata contains the information...

  18. ORTHOIMAGERY, TOOMBS COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The original countywide mosaic from the NAIP was converted to grayscale for mapping purposes with the original compression. This metadata contains the information...

  19. HYDRAULICS, KNOX COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  20. HYDRAULICS, TAYLOR COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  1. Floodplain, Boone County, IA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  2. Floodplain, Boone County, IA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a revised flood hazard dataset. STARR restudied all flooding sources with greator than 1 sq. mi. drainage area and not...

  3. Floodplain, Marshall County, IA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a new countywide FIS report and revised flood hazard dataset. STARR restudied all flooding sources with greator than 1...

  4. Floodplain, Marshall County, IA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  5. HYDROLOGY, JEFFERSON COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, DODGE COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, DUNN COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, yakima County, WA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. FLOODPLAIN, YELLOWSTONE COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. TERRAIN, LAWRENCE COUNTY, Ohio USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. TERRAIN, SEBASTIAN COUNTY, AR, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographical data that were used to create...

  13. FLOODPLAIN, MARTIN COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. HYDRAULICS, WALKER COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  15. Floodplain, Venango County, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a new countywide FIS report and a revised flood hazard dataset. GG3 restudied all flooding sources with greator than 1...

  16. ORTHOIMAGERY, TALBOT COUNTY, MD USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth's surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  17. COASTAL STUDY, LINCOLN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  18. HYDRAULICS, SHELBY COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. SURVEY, HAMILTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. BASEMAP, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  1. FLOODPLAIN, JOHNSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  2. HYDROLOGY, GEORGETOWN COUNTY, SC, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. SURVEY, PIKE COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. ORTHOIMAGERY, Crisp COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  5. FLOODPLAIN, CLEARFIELD COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. FLOODPLAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, MO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. FLOODPLAIN, CAMBRIA COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. Floodplain, Erie County, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a new countywide FIS report, but no digital flood hazard data. GG3 was not contracted to prepare digital flood data, only...

  9. FLOODPLAIN, BLAIR COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  10. HYDROLOGY, LAUREL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. Floodplain, Crawford County, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a new countywide FIS report, but no digital flood hazard data. GG3 was not contracted to prepare digital flood data, only...

  12. FLOODPLAIN, SOMERSET COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a new countywide FIS report, but no digital flood hazard data. GG3 was not contracted to prepare digital flood data, only...

  13. ORTHOIMAGERY, LANCASTER COUNTY, NEBRASKA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  14. ORTHOIMAGERY, APPLING COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The original countywide mosaic from the NAIP was converted to grayscale for mapping purposes with the original compression. This metadata contains the information...

  15. FLOODPLAIN, PULASKI COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  16. FLOODPLAIN, JEFFERSON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. HYDRAULICS, PIKE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  18. FLOODPLAIN, WALKER COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  19. HYDROLOGY, LAMAR COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. ORTHOIMAGERY, LAMAR COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  1. FLOODPLAIN, Bath COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  2. SURVEY, MAGOFFIN COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. HYDRAULICS, SHELBY COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. TERRAIN, WAKULLA COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. TERRAIN, BRADFORD COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. TERRAIN, GADSDEN COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. FLOODPLAIN, CHRISTIAN COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. BASEMAP, DUBUQUE COUNTY, IA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  10. FLOODPLAIN, SHELBY COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. FLOODPLAIN, WEBSTER COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. FLOODPLAIN, CERRO GORDO COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  13. FLOODPLAIN, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. TERRAIN, WOODFORD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. HYDROLOGY, IONIA COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. TERRAIN, POWELL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. HYDRAULICS, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  18. FLOODPLAIN, SCOTT COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  19. FLOODPLAIN, MARSHALL COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. Sweet Grass County, MT, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. TERRAIN, TALLAPOOSA COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. HYDRAULICS, MEADE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. FLOODPLAIN, SCOTT COUNTY, MISSOURI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  4. HYDROLOGY, Bourbon COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, MADISON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, MONITEAU COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. FLOODPLAIN, IRON COUNTY, UTAH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. HYDROLOGY, IRON COUNTY, UTAH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, WHITLEY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. BASEMAP, Berks County, Pennsylvania, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  11. HYDROLOGY, TUSCOLA COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. FLOODPLAIN, GREENE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  13. FLOODPLAIN, Indiana County, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a new countywide FIS report and a revised flood hazard dataset. GG3 restudied all of the effective approximate studies...

  14. TERRAIN, CHEROKEE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. TERRAIN, JEFFERSON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. HYDRAULICS, KENTON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. TERRAIN, POWESHIEK COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. TERRAIN, RANDOLPH COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. TERRAIN, ELMORE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. TERRAIN, ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. TERRAIN, WASHINGTON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, WASHINGTON COUNTY, Ohio USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. HYDRAULICS, Butler COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  4. HYDRAULICS, HANCOCK COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  5. TERRAIN, WINNESHIEK COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. HYDRAULICS, MCCREARY COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  7. HYDRAULICS, CARLISLE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  8. HYDRAULICS, LAMAR COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  9. HYDRAULICS, GRAYSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  10. HYDRAULICS, DALLAS COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  11. HYDRAULICS, Cumberland COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  12. HYDRAULICS, TUSCALOOSA COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  13. HYDRAULICS, UNION COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  14. HYDRAULICS, WHITLEY COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  15. HYDRAULICS, LEWIS COUNTY, MISSOURI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  16. HYDRAULICS, LEE COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. HYDRAULICS, SCOTT COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  18. HYDRAULICS, Washington COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. HYDRAULICS, Trigg COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  20. HYDRAULICS, AUTAUGA COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  1. HYDRAULICS, HARRISON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  2. HYDRAULICS, WORTH COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  3. HYDRAULICS, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  4. HYDRAULICS, Henry COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  5. HYDRAULICS, BUTTS COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  6. HYDRAULICS, Russell COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  7. HYDRAULICS, WARREN COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  8. HYDRAULICS, TANEY COUNTY, MISSOURI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  9. HYDRAULICS, ROWAN COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  10. HYDRAULICS, Caldwell COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  11. HYDRAULICS, ELMORE COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  12. HYDRAULICS, PIKE COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — "Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make is possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  13. FLOODPLAIN, SHELBY COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. TERRAIN, WAYNE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. TERRAIN, MCLEAN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. TERRAIN, WINSTON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. TERRAIN, CHAMBERS COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. TERRAIN, PERRY COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. TERRAIN, ESTILL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. TERRAIN, CLINTON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. TERRAIN, CHILTON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, GRAYSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. TERRAIN, GARRARD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. TERRAIN, Sedgwick COUNTY, Kansas USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. TERRAIN, MACOMB COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. TERRAIN, MARSHALL COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. Terrain Data, Caroline COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, CHOCTAW COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. TERRAIN, CARLISLE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. TERRAIN, SIMPSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. TERRAIN, GRAVES COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. BASEMAP, LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  14. TERRAIN, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. FLOODPLAIN, LIMESTONE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  16. SURVEY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. BASEMAP, Accomack County, VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  18. Floodplain, Wood County, WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  19. ORTHOIMAGERY, CLARK COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  20. TERRAIN, TANEY COUNTY, Missouri USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. TERRAIN, OVERTON COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, STEWART COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. FLOODPLAIN, Berks County, Pennsylvania, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. FLOODPLAIN, CAROLINE COUNTY, Maryland, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  5. FLOODPLAIN, CHARLES CITY COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. BASEMAP, ALLEGHENY COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  7. TERRAIN, ALLEN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, LEWIS COUNTY, Missouri USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, BUFFALO COUNTY, WISCONSIN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. TERRAIN, MARENGO COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. TERRAIN, CLARKE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. TERRAIN, HART COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. BASEMAP, HAMILTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  14. BASEMAP, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  15. BASEMAP, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  16. BASEMAP, CALHOUN COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  17. BASEMAP, LIBERTY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  18. DFIRM, BARBOUR COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  19. DFIRM, BULLOCK COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  20. FLOODPLAIN, RAVALLI COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. FLOODPLAIN, Taney COUNTY, Missouri USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  2. FLOODPLAIN, GREENE COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  3. FLOODPLAIN, FREMONT COUNTY, COLORADO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. FLOODPLAIN, CARBON COUNTY, UTAH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. FLOODPLAIN, Midland County, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a new countywide FIS report and a revised flood hazard dataset. Mill Road Engineering restudied the effective approximate...

  6. ORTHOIMAGERY, DELTA COUNTY, CO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  7. BASEMAP, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  8. FLOODPLAIN, DICKENSON COUNTY, VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. BASEMAP, DICKENSON COUNTY, VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  10. FLOODPLAIN, BIBB COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. BASEMAP, LENAWEE COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  12. BASEMAP, BRANCH COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  13. HYDROLOGY, Richland County, ND, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDRAULICS, RICHLAND COUNTY, ND, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  15. HYDROLOGY, Grant County, SD, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. FLOODPLAIN, PLATTE COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. TERRAIN, HOUSTON COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. TERRAIN, JESSAMINE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. FLOODPLAIN, SHELBY COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. FLOODPLAIN, SPENCER COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. HYDRAULICS, GRAND COUNTY, UTAH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  2. SURVEY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. HYDROLOGY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. SURVEY, GADSDEN COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. HYDRAULICS, BRADFORD COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  7. HYDROLOGY, HAMILTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, LIBERTY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDRAULICS, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  10. FLOODPLAIN, ESCAMBIA COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. Floodplain, Lawrence County, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a revised flood hazard dataset based on new Coastal Analysis performed on Homer Spit. These mapping files have also been...

  12. HYDROLOGY, RICE COUNTY, MN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. TERRAIN, LAWRENCE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. FLOODPLAIN, JOHNSON COUNTY, MISSOURI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  16. BASEMAP, ALPENA COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  17. SURVEY, KNOX COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. TERRAIN, ERIE COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The 2006 OSIP bare-earth Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was derived from digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions)....

  19. FLOODPLAIN, Montgomery COUNTY, VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. HYDRAULICS, Ballard COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  1. FLOODPLAIN, Ballard COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  2. HYDROLOGY, BALLARD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. TERRAIN, BALLARD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. BASEMAP, Ballard COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  5. TERRAIN, NELSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. HYDRAULICS, TAYLOR COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  7. ORTHOIMAGERY, LAKE COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  8. FLOODPLAIN, STORY COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. HYDROLOGY, STORY COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDRAULICS, STORY COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  11. FLOODPLAIN, HOLMES COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. TERRAIN, MENIFEE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. TERRAIN, SHELBY COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. TERRAIN, Platte County, Missouri USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. TERRAIN, SCOTT COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. TERRAIN, FAYETTE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. FLOODPLAIN, GILES COUNTY, VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. BASEMAP, HIGHLAND COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  19. BASEMAP, MONROE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  20. BASEMAP, GWINNETT COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  1. BASEMAP, Carlisle COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  2. BASEMAP, DEKALB COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  3. BASEMAP, CLARK COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  4. FLOODPLAIN, ARENAC COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  5. BASEMAP, Ohio COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  6. BASEMAP, Gloucester County, VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  7. BASEMAP, OGLETHORPE COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  8. BASEMAP, PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  9. Basemap, Miami County, Kansas, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  10. BASEMAP, HOCKING COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  11. BASEMAP, Bourbon COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  12. BASEMAP, Rowan COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  13. BASEMAP, JACKSON COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  14. BASEMAP, Westmoreland COUNTY, Pennsylvania, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  15. BASEMAP, FRANKLIN COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  16. BASEMAP, SANDUSKY COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  17. BASEMAP, Jackson COUNTY, OH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  18. HYDROLOGY, SIMPSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. FLOODPLAIN, SIMPSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. BASEMAP, SIMPSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  1. HYDRAULICS, Simpson COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  2. ORTHOIMAGERY, SUMMIT COUNTY, COLORADO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  3. HYDRAULICS, PERRY COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  4. FLOODPLAIN, PERRY COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. Floodplain, Allen County, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. TERRAIN, MUHLENBERG COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, CAMPBELL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. ORTHOIMAGERY, MANATEE COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The 8-bit 3-Band (Red, Green, Blue) one-foot orthophotos were flown with a Z/I Intergraph DMC airborne digital sensor. The flight season was from December 15, 2008...

  9. TERRAIN, CARTER COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. FLOODPLAIN, HENDERSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. FLOODPLAIN, HAMILTON COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. FLOODPLAIN, SEDGWICK COUNTY, KANSAS, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  13. FLOODPLAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. FLOODPLAIN, LUZERNE COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  15. HYDRAULICS, GREEN COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  16. HYDRAULICS, CHAMBERS COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. HYDRAULICS, Jessamine COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  18. Comparison of NOAA lidar data at 1.5 and 3 meter resolutions, for adequate watershed delineation in Tift County, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory is located in Tifton, Ga, and performs ongoing watershed research for the Tift County area, as well as surrounding counties. Current watershed delineations are based on 1972-1977, 7.5-minute USGS Quadrangle sheets, and require updating. Light Detectio...

  19. Michigan forest statistics, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows a 7% decline in commercial forest area and a 27% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  20. Notes on Michigan Boletaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Alexander H.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have continued on the diversity of the Michigan bolete flora. During the season of 1972 a variety of Boletus affinis Peck having a reticulate stipe was discovered and abundant material of Boletus bicolor var. subreticulatus Smith & Thiers was obtained. Boletus hortonii Smith & Thiers was

  1. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  2. Cisco (Coregonus artedii) mortalities in a southern Michigan lake, July 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Peter J.; Brooke, Larry T.

    1969-01-01

    Cisco die-offs are common in the summer in certain lakes of northern Indiana and southern Michigan, along the southern boundary of the national distribution of coregonine fishes. Although numerous cisco die-offs have been reported, few, if any, have been accompanied by environmental information at the time of the die-off. On 31 July and 1 August 1968, we investigated a cisco die-off on Halfmoon Lake, on the border of Washtenaw and Livingston Counties, Michigan.

  3. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  4. Michigan's forests 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  5. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  6. Energy density of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in Lakes Huron and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, S.A.; Nalepa, T.F.; Madenjian, C.P.; Rediske, R.R.; Schneeberger, P.J.; He, J.X.

    2006-01-01

    We collected lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis off Alpena and Tawas City, Michigan, USA in Lake Huron and off Muskegon, Michigan USA in Lake Michigan during 2002–2004. We determined energy density and percent dry weight for lake whitefish from both lakes and lipid content for Lake Michigan fish. Energy density increased with increasing fish weight up to 800 g, and then remained relatively constant with further increases in fish weight. Energy density, adjusted for weight, was lower in Lake Huron than in Lake Michigan for both small (≤800 g) and large fish (>800 g). Energy density did not differ seasonally for small or large lake whitefish or between adult male and female fish. Energy density was strongly correlated with percent dry weight and percent lipid content. Based on data from commercially caught lake whitefish, body condition was lower in Lake Huron than Lake Michigan during 1981–2003, indicating that the dissimilarity in body condition between the lakes could be long standing. Energy density and lipid content in 2002–2004 in Lake Michigan were lower than data for comparable sized fish collected in 1969–1971. Differences in energy density between lakes were attributed to variation in diet and prey energy content as well as factors that affect feeding rates such as lake whitefish density and prey abundance.

  7. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  8. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead

  9. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead.

  10. County Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes County spending data for Montgomery County government. It does not include agency spending. Data considered sensitive or confidential and will...

  11. Alwilkinsite-(Y), a new rare-earth uranyl sulfate mineral from the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kampf, A.R.; Plášil, Jakub; Čejka, J.; Marty, J.; Škoda, R.; Lapčák, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 4 (2017), s. 895-907 ISSN 0026-461X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Alwilkinsite-(Y) * new mineral * uranyl sulfate * crystal structure * Blue Lizard mine * Utah * USA Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.285, year: 2016

  12. 75 FR 41895 - Inteva Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification Regarding... time period at the Troy, Michigan location of Inteva Products, LLC. The Troy, Michigan location.... Accordingly, the Department is amending the certification to include workers of the Troy, Michigan location of...

  13. Inclusion of non-viable neonates in the birth record and its impact on infant mortality rates in Shelby County, Tennessee, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Lee Williams

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Rates of infant death are one of the most common indicators of a population’s overall health status. Infant mortality rates (IMRs are used to make broad inferences about the quality of health care, effects of health policies and even environmental quality. The purpose of our study was threefold: i to examine the characteristics of births in the area in relation to gestational age and birthweight; ii to estimate infant mortality using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth, and iii to calculate proportional mortality ratios for each cause of death using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all Shelby County resident-linked birth and infant death certificates during the years 1999 to 2004. Descriptive test statistics were used to examine infant mortality rates in relation to specific maternal and infant risk factors. Through careful examination of 1999-2004 resident-linked birth and infant death data sets, we observed a disproportionate number of non-viable live births (≤20 weeks gestation or ≤350 grams in Shelby County. Issuance of birth certificates to these non-viable neonates is a factor that contributes to an inflated IMR. Our study demonstrates the complexity and the appropriateness of comparing infant mortality rates in smaller geographic units, given the unique characteristics of live births in Shelby County. The disproportionate number of pre-viable infants born in Shelby County greatly obfuscates neonatal mortality and de-emphasizes the importance of post-neonatal mortality.

  14. Safety Evaluation Report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at Michigan State University (Docket No. 50-294)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Michigan State University (MSU) for a renewal of operating license number R-114 to continue to operate the TRIGA Mark I research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the Michigan State University and is located on the campus of Michigan State University in East Lansing, Ingham County, Michigan. The staff concludes that the TRIGA reactor facility can continue to be operated by MSU without endangering the health and safety of the public

  15. 78 FR 65364 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... this section are referred to as ``The Tribes.'' History and Description of the Remains In 1958, human... County, MI. A landowner unearthed human remains while digging a gas line trench on his property. He... Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an inventory of human...

  16. 75 FR 81561 - Huron-Manistee National Forests, Michigan, Land and Resource Management Plan Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... and snowmobiling, 3. The Service's reasons for keeping certain trails open to snowmobile use were... Snowmobilers with Michigan Trail Permits (2009) by Charles Nelson; Opinions of Selected Stakeholders Concerning... possible effects of the project on tourism in the counties affected. Permits and Licenses Required The...

  17. Identification of the G143A mutation associated with QoI resistance in Cercospora beticola field isolates from Michigan, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Melvin D; Rivera, Viviana; Secor, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora beticola, is the most serious foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) worldwide. Disease control is mainly achieved by timely fungicide applications. In 2011, CLS control failures were reported in spite of application of quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide in several counties in Michigan, United States. The purpose of this study was to confirm the resistant phenotype and identify the molecular basis for QoI resistance of Michigan C. beticola isolates. Isolates collected in Michigan in 1998 and 1999 that had no previous exposure to the QoI fungicides trifloxystrobin or pyraclostrobin exhibited QoI EC(50) values of ≤ 0.006 µg mL(-1) . In contrast, all isolates obtained in 2011 exhibited EC(50) values of > 0.92 µg mL(-1) to both fungicides and harbored a mutation in cytochrome b (cytb) that led to an amino acid exchange from glycine to alanine at position 143 (G143A) compared with baseline QoI-sensitive isolates. Microsatellite analysis of the isolates suggested that QoI resistance emerged independently in multiple genotypic backgrounds at multiple locations. A real-time PCR assay utilizing dual-labeled fluorogenic probes was developed to detect and differentiate QoI-resistant isolates harboring the G143A mutation from sensitive isolates. The G143A mutation in cytb is associated with QoI resistance in C. beticola. Accurate monitoring of this mutation will be essential for fungicide resistance management in this pathosystem. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field.

  19. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field

  20. Fine-scale spatial variability of heat-related mortality in Philadelphia County, USA, from 1983-2008: a case-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hondula David M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High temperature and humidity conditions are associated with short-term elevations in the mortality rate in many United States cities. Previous research has quantified this relationship in an aggregate manner over large metropolitan areas, but within these areas the response may differ based on local-scale variability in climate, population characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Methods We compared the mortality response for 48 Zip Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs comprising Philadelphia County, PA to determine if certain areas are associated with elevated risk during high heat stress conditions. A randomization test was used to identify mortality exceedances for various apparent temperature thresholds at both the city and local scale. We then sought to identify the environmental, demographic, and social factors associated with high-risk areas via principal components regression. Results Citywide mortality increases by 9.3% on days following those with apparent temperatures over 34°C observed at 7:00 p.m. local time. During these conditions, elevated mortality rates were found for 10 of the 48 ZCTAs concentrated in the west-central portion of the County. Factors related to high heat mortality risk included proximity to locally high surface temperatures, low socioeconomic status, high density residential zoning, and age. Conclusions Within the larger Philadelphia metropolitan area, there exists statistically significant fine-scale spatial variability in the mortality response to high apparent temperatures. Future heat warning systems and mitigation and intervention measures could target these high risk areas to reduce the burden of extreme weather on summertime morbidity and mortality.

  1. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 14. Birds of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, G.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report characterizes the bird life found in 100 counties of the four states peripheral to Lake Michigan. It discusses major habitats (the Lake Michigan shoreline, inland lakes, rivers and streams, marshes, fields and open spaces, and woodlots) and associates specific birds with habitats according to preferences for space and food. It also discusses the special attributes of state parks and lakeshores, refuges and sanctuaries, and other special areas which are attractive to avifauna. Patterns of historical occurrence and abundance, and the influence of pesticides and pollution, disease, and hunting pressure are explored to place present occurrence in a modern perspective. Migration patterns are discussed to explain increases and decreases which occur in nonresident avifauna of the Basin. The distribution and habits of birds that occur regularly in the Basin are described in an annotated list; a more complete list is presented in a table which encapsulates data for rapid and convenient reference. Separate sections deal with extinct, extirpated, and introduced species, and with endangered, threatened, and declining species.

  2. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Ebersole, Jun A; Dickinson, William C; Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole.

  3. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2 in Colbert County, Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Jacquemin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P. leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL. Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole.

  4. Creating a Better Funding System for Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Michigan voters approved a ballot initiative that transferred the power in Michigan's education system from local communities to the state. Proposal A succeeded in slowing the growth of local property taxes and narrowing the gap between the richest and poorest districts in Michigan. However, due to a decade of sluggish economic growth,…

  5. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  6. Identifying fecal pollution sources using 3M(™) Petrifilm (™) count plates and antibiotic resistance analysis in the Horse Creek Watershed in Aiken County, SC (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, S Michele; West, Ryan T; Yates, James R

    2014-12-01

    Sources of fecal coliform pollution in a small South Carolina (USA) watershed were identified using inexpensive methods and commonly available equipment. Samples from the upper reaches of the watershed were analyzed with 3M(™) Petrifilm(™) count plates. We were able to narrow down the study's focus to one particular tributary, Sand River, that was the major contributor of the coliform pollution (both fecal and total) to a downstream reservoir that is heavily used for recreation purposes. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 2,400 to 120,333 cfu/100 mL, with sharp increases in coliform counts observed in samples taken after rain events. Positive correlations between turbidity and fecal coliform counts suggested a relationship between fecal pollution and stormwater runoff. Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) compared antibiotic resistance profiles of fecal coliform isolates from the stream to those of a watershed-specific fecal source library (equine, waterfowl, canines, and untreated sewage). Known fecal source isolates and unknown isolates from the stream were exposed to six antibiotics at three concentrations each. Discriminant analysis grouped known isolates with an overall average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 84.3 %. A total of 401 isolates from the first stream location were classified as equine (45.9 %), sewage (39.4 %), waterfowl (6.2 %), and feline (8.5 %). A similar pattern was observed at the second sampling location, with 42.6 % equine, 45.2 % sewage, 2.8 % waterfowl, 0.6 % canine, and 8.8 % feline. While there were slight weather-dependent differences, the vast majority of the coliform pollution in this stream appeared to be from two sources, equine and sewage. This information will contribute to better land use decisions and further justify implementation of low-impact development practices within this urban watershed.

  7. Pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Arbuthnot, D.R.; Busness, K.M.; Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.; Lee, R.N.; Young, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft, a chartered boat, and a constant altitude balloon were used to study pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The experiments were conducted during the summer under strong atmospheric stability where diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants can be neglected

  8. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, James M.; Fryzelka, Evan E.

    2014-01-01

    Many of Michigan's public school districts are under substantial fiscal pressures from a combination of declining enrollment and increasing costs, particularly related to employee benefits, but most districts are responding to these challenges. One of the ways that districts can stretch their resources further is through competitive contracting…

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Michigan single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, DICKINSON, MICHIGAN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  11. Organic geochemistry and petrology of subsurface Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox and Claiborne Group coal beds, Zavala County, Maverick Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Hook, Robert W.; Alimi, Hossein; Mastalerz, Maria; Swanson, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Coal samples from a coalbed methane exploration well in northern Zavala County, Maverick Basin, Texas, were characterized through an integrated analytical program. The well was drilled in February, 2006 and shut in after coal core desorption indicated negligible gas content. Cuttings samples from two levels in the Eocene Claiborne Group were evaluated by way of petrographic techniques and Rock–Eval pyrolysis. Core samples from the Paleocene–Eocene Indio Formation (Wilcox Group) were characterized via proximate–ultimate analysis in addition to petrography and pyrolysis. Two Indio Formation coal samples were selected for detailed evaluation via gas chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Samples are subbituminous rank as determined from multiple thermal maturity parameters. Elevated rank (relative to similar age coal beds elsewhere in the Gulf Coast Basin) in the study area is interpreted to be a result of stratigraphic and/or structural thickening related to Laramide compression and construction of the Sierra Madre Oriental to the southwest. Vitrinite reflectance data, along with extant data, suggest the presence of an erosional unconformity or change in regional heat flow between the Cretaceous and Tertiary sections and erosion of up to >5 km over the Cretaceous. The presence of liptinite-rich coals in the Claiborne at the well site may indicate moderately persistent or recurring coal-forming paleoenvironments, interpreted as perennially submerged peat in shallow ephemeral lakes with herbaceous and/or flotant vegetation. However, significant continuity of individual Eocene coal beds in the subsurface is not suggested. Indio Formation coal samples contain abundant telovitrinite interpreted to be preserved from arborescent, above-ground woody vegetation that developed during the middle portion of mire development in forested swamps. Other petrographic criteria suggest enhanced biological, chemical and physical

  12. Hydrologic environment of the Silurian salt deposits in parts of Michigan, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stanley E.

    1978-01-01

    suitable for additional investigation of salt beds for purposes radioactive waste disposal. One of the Michigan areas is in the northern part of the southern peninsula, in Presque Isle and Alpena Counties; the other is in the southern part of the southern peninsula, in Oakland, Macomb, and St. Clair Counties (fig. 3). In northeast Ohio the area that appears to be suitable for investigation includes most of the eastern half of Lake County and extends eastward into Ashtabula County and southward into Geauga County. In western New York conditions may warrant additional investigation in Schuyler, Tompkins, and western Cortland Counties.

  13. High temporal resolution modeling of the impact of rain, tides, and sea level rise on water table flooding in the Arch Creek basin, Miami-Dade County Florida USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukop, Michael C; Rogers, Martina; Guannel, Greg; Infanti, Johnna M; Hagemann, Katherine

    2018-03-01

    Modeling of groundwater levels in a portion of the low-lying coastal Arch Creek basin in northern Miami-Dade County in Southeast Florida USA, which is subject to repetitive flooding, reveals that rain-induced short-term water table rises can be viewed as a primary driver of flooding events under current conditions. Areas below 0.9m North American Vertical Datum (NAVD) elevation are particularly vulnerable and areas below 1.5m NAVD are vulnerable to exceptionally large rainfall events. Long-term water table rise is evident in the groundwater data, and the rate appears to be consistent with local rates of sea level rise. Linear extrapolation of long-term observed groundwater levels to 2060 suggest roughly a doubling of the number of days when groundwater levels exceed 0.9m NAVD and a threefold increase in the number of days when levels exceed 1.5m NAVD. Projected sea level rise of 0.61m by 2060 together with increased rainfall lead to a model prediction of frequent groundwater-related flooding in areas1.5m NAVD and widespread flooding of the area in the past. Tidal fluctuations in the water table are predicted to be more pronounced within 600m of a tidally influenced water control structure that is hydrodynamically connected to Biscayne Bay. The inland influence of tidal fluctuations appears to increase with increased sea level, but the principal driver of high groundwater levels under the 2060 scenario conditions remains groundwater recharge due to rainfall events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancing Michigan's local public health accreditation program through participation in the multistate learning collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushion, Mary L; Tews, Debra Scamarcia; Parker, Melody D

    2007-01-01

    This article presents Michigan's efforts and accomplishments as a result of its involvement with the Multi-State Learning Collaborative (MLC) project. The article gives a brief overview of Michigan's accreditation program. It outlines the two goals and six objectives associated with Michigan's MLC project, and describes the structure it used to implement the project plan. It further explains and illustrates the outcomes achieved from successfully meeting the goals and objectives. The article gives a sample of a proposed voluntary component for continuous quality improvement that local health departments can implement utilizing the Shewhart Cycle of "Plan, Do, Check, and Act" and National Association of City and County Health Officials' Operational Definition of a Functional Health Department.

  15. Descriptive Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Michigan (1975–2010: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika C. Okafor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite ongoing eradication efforts, bovine tuberculosis (BTB remains a challenge in Michigan livestock and wildlife. The objectives of this study were to (1 review the epidemiology of BTB in Michigan cattle, privately owned cervids, and wildlife between 1975 and 2010 and (2 identify important lessons learned from the review and eradication strategies. BTB information was accessed from the Michigan BTB Eradication Project agencies. Cattle herds (49, privately owned deer herds (4, and wild white-tailed deer (668 were found infected with BTB during the review period. BTB has occurred primarily in counties located at the northern portion of the state's Lower Peninsula. Currently used BTB eradication strategies have successfully controlled BTB spread. However additional changes in BTB surveillance, prevention, and eradication strategies could improve eradication efforts.

  16. Influenza vaccination of Michigan children by provider type, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Joshua L; Potter, Rachel C; Wells, Eden V; Carlton, Cristi A; Boulton, Matthew L

    2014-07-01

    Influenza vaccination for all children aged 6 months to 18 years has been recommended since 2008 to prevent flu-related morbidity and mortality. However, 2010-2011 influenza vaccine coverage estimates show under-vaccination in children of all ages. We examined predictors of influenza vaccination in Michigan during the 2010-2011 influenza season. To determine whether immunization provider type was associated with a child's influenza vaccination in Michigan and assess whether county-level factors were confounders of the association. Influenza vaccinations reported to the Michigan Care Improvement Registry from the 2010-2011 influenza season were analyzed in 2012 to estimate ORs for the association between immunization provider type and influenza vaccination. Among 2,373,826 Michigan children aged 6 months through 17 years, 17% were vaccinated against influenza and lower vaccination rates were observed for public compared to private providers (13% vs 18%). In the unadjusted model, public providers had lower odds of vaccinating children compared to private providers (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.60, 0.61). County-level factors, including percentage of families living below the poverty line, median household income, and percentage black race, were not shown to confound the association. In the adjusted models, public providers had lower odds of vaccinating children compared to private providers (OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.86, 0.88). Although a child's likelihood of influenza vaccination in Michigan varies by provider type, more effective strategies to improve influenza vaccination rates for all Michigan children are needed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. OrthoImagery Submission for Gratiot County, Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The aerial image files in this archive are copies of standard digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQ) from the National Digital Cartographic Data Base that have been...

  18. Frankenmuth Dam Fish Passage, Cass River, Saginaw County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    2009letter, our office and the Alpena Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office have been worldng with you to develop monitoring programs to assess changes...Sargent. MDNR. Wildlife Division. Lansing, MI Andrea Ania, USFWS, Alpena , M1 EA - C-7 ZIIBIWING CENTER ot A~t.:..~ c •. lt • .,..~ 1’¥- ,..1

  19. Water-Quality Data, Huron County, Michigan 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Manufacturing of dye/textiles, seed treatment, bird repellant Benzo[a]pyrene Benz[a]pyrene 50-32-8 .5 µg/L irl Regulated PAH, used in cancer research...Scribner, E.A., Battaglin, W.A., Dietze, J.E., and Thurman, E.M., 2002, Reconnaissance data for glyphosate , other selected herbicides, their

  20. Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment, Northwestern Michigan College, Section 107, Grand Traverse County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    5/18/12 Thu 5/31/12 30 Single 6" x 10" wood beam, heavy mill timber framing 1.5 MBF $5,600.47 10.9 hrs Fri 5/18/12 Thu 5/31/12 31 Metals 1 EA...data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden... Apportionment 28 5.4.4 Views of Non-Federal Sponsors and Others 28 iii 6.0 Summary of Coordination, Public Involvement and 29