Sample records for countermeasures element cardiovascular

  1. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (SRP) (United States)

    Joyner, Michael


    The Cardiovascular Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated several cardiovascular risks associated with space flight along with the ongoing and emerging plans to study these issues and potentially propose and/or develop countermeasures. The areas of focus included: 1) The risk of cardiac rhythm problems during prolonged space flight, and 2) Issues related to the risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity. An emerging area of concern is radiation associated vascular injury. The risk of cardiac rhythm disturbances has emerged based on case reports only. No systematic study of this risk has been published. However, concerns about this risk are heightened by the age range of astronauts, the structural changes in the heart that occur during space flight, and the potential shifts in fluids and electrolytes. The current plan is to use prolonged Holter monitor EKG records made as part of the "Integrated Cardiovascular SMO" in space to determine more about the frequency and magnitude of this problem and to link this data to complementary data from the nutrition group on electrolytes. The SRP was supportive of this approach. The SRP also felt that any data related to cardiovascular risk in space should be better coordinated with the medical screening data that all astronauts undergo at regular intervals. Additionally, while there are potential privacy issues related to this suggestion, many of the current barriers to better coordination of experimental and clinical data appear to reflect longstanding cultural traditions at NASA that need rethinking. The risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity was seen by the SRP as an area supported by a wealth of published physiological evidence. The SRP also felt that moving forward with the planned approach to countermeasures was reasonable and that extensive additional hypothesis testing on the physiology of orthostatic intolerance was not needed at this time. There was support for developing

  2. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David


    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  3. Exercise against lower body negative pressure as a countermeasure for cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    Exposure to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) with oral salt and water ingestion has been tested by astronauts as a countermeasure to prevent postflight orthostatic intolerance. Exercise is another countermeasure that astronauts commonly use during spaceflight to maintain musculoskeletal strength. We hypothesize that a novel combination of exercise and simultaneous exposure to lower body negative pressure during spaceflight will produce Earth-like musculoskeletal loads as well as cardiovascular stimuli to maintain adaptation to Earth's gravity. Results from recent studies indicate that leg exercise within a LBNP chamber against the suction force of 100 mmHg LBNP in horizontal-supine posture produces an equivalent, if not greater exercise stress compared to similar leg exercise in upright posture (without LBNP) against Earth's gravity. 12 Therefore, the concept of LBNP combined with exercise may prove to be a low cost and low mass technique to stress the cardiovascular and the musculoskeletal systems simultaneously.

  4. Effect of fluid countermeasures of varying osmolarity on cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress (United States)

    Davis, John E.


    Current operational procedures for shuttle crewmembers include the ingestion of a fluid countermeasure approximately 2 hours before reentry into the earth's gravitational field. The ingestion of the fluid countermeasure is thought to restore plasma volume and improve orthostatic responses upon reentry. The present countermeasure consists of ingesting salt tablets and water to achieve an isotonic solution. It has yet to be determined whether this is the optimal drink to restore orthostatic tolerance. It is also not known whether the drink solution is effective in increasing plasma volume. The purpose here is to evaluate the effectiveness of drink solutions of different osmolarity on restoring plasma volume and orthostatic responses. A hypertonic drink solution was more effective in restoring plasma volume after dehydration than an isotonic solution. However, there were no differences in their effects on an orthostatic challenge. These data suggest that the plasma volume differences produced in this study were not sufficient to produce differences in the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic challenge, or there are other changes that occur during space flight that are more important in determining orthostatic intolerance.

  5. Consequences of cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight: implications for the use of pharmacological countermeasures (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.


    There is little evidence obtained from space flight to support the notion that occurrence of cardiac dysrhythmias, impaired cardiac and vascular function, and manifestation of asymptomatic cardiovascular disease represent serious risks during space flight. Therefore, the development of orthostatic hypotension and instability immediately after return from spaceflight probably reflect the most significant operational risks associated with the cardiovascular system of astronauts. Significant reductions in stroke volume and lower reserve for increasing peripheral vascular resistance contribute to ineffective maintenance of systemic arterial blood pressure during standing after spaceflight despite compensatory elevations in heart rate. The primary mechanism underlying reduced stroke volume appears to be a reduction in preload associated with less circulating blood volume while inadequate peripheral vasoconstriction may be caused partly by hyporeactivity of receptors that control arterial smooth muscle function. A focus for development of future countermeasures for hemodynamic responses to central hypovolemia includes the potential application of pharmacological agents that specifically target and restore blood volume (e.g., fludrocortisone, electrolyte-containing beverages) and reserve for vasoconstriction (e.g., midodrine, vasopressin). Based on systematic evaluations, acute physical exercise designed to elicit maximal effort or inspiratory resistance have shown promise as successful countermeasures that provide protection against development of orthostatic hypotension and intolerance without potential risks and side effects associated with specific pharmacological interventions.

  6. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (United States)

    Bistrian, Bruce


    The Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) reviewed and discussed the specific gaps and tasks for the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element related to nutrition identified in the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan. There was general consensus that the described gaps and proposed tasks were critical to future NASA mission success. The SRP acknowledged the high scientific quality of the work currently being undertaken by the Nutritional Biochemistry group under the direction of Dr. Scott Smith. In review of the entire HRP, four new gaps were identified that complement the Element's existing research activities. Given the limitations of ground-based analogs for many of the unique physiological and metabolic alterations in space, future studies are needed to quantify nutritional factors that change during actual space flight. In addition, future tasks should seek to better evaluate the time course of physiological and metabolic alterations during flight to better predict alterations during longer duration missions. Finally, given the recent data suggesting a potential role for increased inflammatory responses during space flight, the role of inflammation needs to be explored in detail, including the development of potential countermeasures and new ground based analogs, if this possibility is confirmed.

  7. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard


    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  8. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element: Evidence Report - Artificial Gravity (United States)

    Clement, Gilles


    The most serious risks of long-duration flight involve radiation, behavioral stresses, and physiological deconditioning. Artificial gravity (AG), by substituting for the missing gravitational cues and loading in space, has the potential to mitigate the last of these risks by preventing the adaptive responses from occurring. The rotation of a Mars-bound spacecraft or an embarked human centrifuge offers significant promise as an effective, efficient multi-system countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. Virtually all of the identified risks associated with bone loss, muscle weakening, cardiovascular deconditioning, and sensorimotor disturbances might be alleviated by the appropriate application of AG. However, experience with AG in space has been limited and a human-rated centrifuge is currently not available on board the ISS. A complete R&D program aimed at determining the requirements for gravity level, gravity gradient, rotation rate, frequency, and duration of AG exposure is warranted before making a decision for implementing AG in a human spacecraft.

  9. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) Final Report (United States)

    Peterson, Barry


    The Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center on October 4-6, 2009 to discuss the areas of future research targeted by the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for risks, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Sensorimotor Risk SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the realistic demands placed on the HRP. In short, all tasks presented in the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) should address specific risks related to the challenges faced by the astronauts as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity. All tasks proposed to fill the gaps in knowledge should provide applied, translational data necessary to address the specific risks. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the panel charge, either as a group or in separate sessions. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist. Taking the evidence and the risk as givens, the SRP reached the following conclusions: 1) the panel is very supportive of and endorses the present activities of the Sensorimotor Risk; and the panel is likewise supportive of the gaps and associated tasks in the IRP; 2) overall, the tasks addressed the gaps in the IRP; 3) there were some gaps and tasks that merit further enhancement and some new gaps/tasks that the SRP recommends.

  10. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Bone and Muscle Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) (United States)

    Glowacki, Julie; Gregor, Robert


    The Bone and Muscle Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on October 4-6, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Bone and Muscle Risk SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the Panel's review. The Bone and Muscle Risk SRP consisted of scientists who are experts in muscle, bone, or both and could evaluate the existing evidence with sufficient knowledge of the potential effects of long duration exposure to microgravity. More important, although expertise in basic science is important, the SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the realistic demands placed on the HRP. In short, all tasks presented in the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) should address specific questions related to the challenges faced by the astronauts as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity. All tasks proposed to fill the gaps in knowledge should provide applied, translational data necessary to answer the specific questions. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the panel charge, either as a group or in separate sessions for the Bone and Muscle Risk subgroups. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on October 6, 2009. Taking the evidence and identified risks as givens, the SRP concluded that 1) integration of information should lead to a more comprehensive approach to identifying the gaps, 2) not all tasks addressed the gaps as

  11. Treatment-related cardiovascular late effects and exercise training countermeasures in testicular germ cell cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna


    -induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. CONCLUSION: As exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate...... and/or reverse long-term cardiovascular disease sequelae in germ cell cancer survivors, a strong rationale exists for the promotion of exercise oncology research in this setting, in order to provide exercise recommendations for optimal germ cell cancer survivorship.......BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy...

  12. Consequences of Cardiovascular Adaptation to Spaceflight: Implications for the Use of Pharmacological Countermeasures (United States)


    impaired cardiac and vascular function, and manifestation of asymptomatic cardiovascular disease represent serious risks during space flight...peripheral vascular resistance contribute to ineffective maintenance of systemic arterial blood pressure during standing after spaceflight despite...blood pressure; heart rate; stroke volume; cardiac output; peripheral vascular resistance INTRODUCTION The effects of extended exposure to

  13. Trace element changes in cardiovascular diseases (United States)

    Pinheiro, T.; Fernandes, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Hebbrecht, G.; Wätjen, U.; Halpern, M. J.


    Artery samples and five different brain structures originating from both atherosclerosis affected and healthy Portuguese individuals were examined for their elemental content. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to determine K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb in all the tissues studied. The most prominent differences between the pathological and reference data were those for Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in the nucleus caudatus, putamen and substantia nigra brain regions. In the arteries a significant increase in Ca and Mn content was observed, whereas the K and Fe content declined. The decreased K and Rb content in the five brain structures from the pathological group and the changes for Mn in the nucleus caudatus, putamen and substantia nigra regions can be associated with aging. However, age cannot explain the other trace element alterations, e.g., for Fe, Cu and Zn. Most likely, the changes for these elements are due to atherosclerosis progression.

  14. Artificial gravity with ergometric exercise as a countermeasure against cardiovascular deconditioning during 4 days of head-down bed rest in humans. (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Chun; Yang, Chang-Bin; Wu, Yan-Hong; Gao, Yuan; Lu, Dong-Yuan; Shi, Fei; Wei, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Xi-Qing


    We have shown previously that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training preserved several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. We hypothesized that artificial gravity (AG) and exercise is effective to prevent changes of physical problems during head-down bed rest (HDBR). To test this hypothesis, 12 healthy male subjects had undergone 4 days of 6° HDBR. Six of them were exposed to AG of an alternating 2-min intervals of +1.0 and +2.0 Gz at foot level for 30 min twice per day with ergometric exercise of 40 W as a countermeasure during bed rest (CM group), while the remaining six served as untreated controls (no-CM group). Before and after 4 days of bed rest, leg venous hemodynamics was assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography and autonomic cardiovascular control estimated by power spectral analysis of blood pressure and heart rate. Further, orthostatic tolerance was evaluated by a 75° head-up tilt test and physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test before and after bed rest. The data showed that combined centrifuge and exercise applied twice daily for a total of 60 min during 4 days of HDBR prevented (a) a decrease in working capacity, (b) autonomic dysfunction (a decrease in the activity of parasympathetic cardiac innervation) and (c) an increase in leg venous flow resistance. The combination of a 30 min alternating of +1.0 and +2.0 Gz for twice per day of AG with 40 W ergometric exercise may offer a promising countermeasure to short duration simulated microgravity.

  15. Patient-specific modeling of human cardiovascular system elements (United States)

    Kossovich, Leonid Yu.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Polienko, Asel V.; Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.; Murylev, Vladimir V.


    Object of study: The research is aimed at development of personalized medical treatment. Algorithm was developed for patient-specific surgical interventions of the cardiovascular system pathologies. Methods: Geometrical models of the biological objects and initial and boundary conditions were realized by medical diagnostic data of the specific patient. Mechanical and histomorphological parameters were obtained with the help mechanical experiments on universal testing machine. Computer modeling of the studied processes was conducted with the help of the finite element method. Results: Results of the numerical simulation allowed evaluating the physiological processes in the studied object in normal state, in presence of different pathologies and after different types of surgical procedures.

  16. Chemical Countermeasures for Antibiotic Resistance (United States)


    New Antibacterial Discover and Development, Lucca Italy, April 15-20, 2012. • Poster: Small Molecule Suppression of Oxacillin Resistance in MRSA...1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0115 TITLE: Chemical Countermeasures for Antibiotic Resistance PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christian Melander...Countermeasures for Antibiotic Resistance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0115 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  17. IED Countermeasures (United States)

    Ziegler, James


    After the Iraq war started in 2003, within 15 months over 60% of the US casualties were being caused by a weapon that had never been significant in previous conflicts: the Improvised Explosive Device (IED). These are explosive mines that are mostly concealed at night near roads, and then detonated the next day when combatant vehicles are driven by. This talk will discuss the history of IEDs, and then concentrate on the use of IEDs in Iraq. The political decisions that may have led to the high fatality rate in Iraq will be outlined. Of note, contrasting political decisions in Afghanistan led to IED's causing fewer than 20% of the casualties there, although the number of IED's exceeded that in Iraq. Because of the terrible consequences in Iraq, with no effective available remedy, IED Countermeasures was proposed as ideal for student engineering research projects. Over five years, student work to develop a technology for ``Remote IED Deactivation without Detonation'' will be outlined (they were very successful !). They used high power beams of RF, electrons, protons and neutrons to attempt deactivation at a 100' distance. The final IED Neutralizer was very successfully field tested. (This talk will contain graphic videos, and is not for the squeamish.)

  18. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)


    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  19. Elements of patient-health-care provider communication related to cardiovascular rehabilitation referral. (United States)

    Pourhabib, Sanam; Chessex, Caroline; Murray, Judy; Grace, Sherry L


    Cardiovascular rehabilitation has been designed to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease. This study described (1) patient-health-care provider interactions regarding cardiovascular rehabilitation and (2) which discussion elements were related to patient referral. This was a prospective study of cardiovascular patients and their health-care providers. Discussion utterances were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Discussion between 26 health-care providers and 50 patients were recorded. Cardiovascular rehabilitation referral was related to greater health-care provider interactivity (odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-7.86) and less patient concern and worry (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = 0.45-0.89). Taking time for reciprocal discussion and allaying patient anxiety may promote greater referral. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Evaluating driver drowsiness countermeasures. (United States)

    Gaspar, John G; Brown, Timothy L; Schwarz, Chris W; Lee, John D; Kang, Julie; Higgins, James S


    Driver drowsiness contributes to a substantial number of fatal and nonfatal crashes, with recent estimates attributing up to 21% of fatal crashes to drowsiness. This article describes recent NHTSA research on in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures. Recent advances in technology and state detection algorithms have shown success in detecting drowsiness using a variety of data sources, including camera-based eye tracking, steering wheel position, yaw rate, and vehicle lane position. However, detection is just the first step in reducing drowsy driving crashes. Countermeasures are also needed to provide feedback to the driver, modify driver behavior, and prevent crashes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures in reducing drowsy lane departures. The tested countermeasures included different warning modalities in either a discrete or staged interface. Data were collected from 72 young adult drivers (age 21-32) in the high-fidelity full-motion National Advanced Driving Simulator. Drivers completed a 45-min simulated nighttime drive at 2 time points, late night and early morning, where drowsiness was manipulated by continuous hours awake. Forty-eight drivers were exposed to one of 6 countermeasures that varied along 2 dimensions, type and modality. The countermeasures relied on a steering-based drowsiness detection algorithm developed in prior NHTSA research. Twenty-four drivers received no countermeasure and were used as a baseline comparison. System effectiveness was measured by lane departures and standard deviation in lateral position (SDLP). There was a reduction in drowsy lane departure frequency and lane position variability for drivers with countermeasures compared to the baseline no-countermeasure group. Importantly, the data suggest that multistage alerts, which provide an indication of increasing urgency, were more effective in reducing drowsy lane departures than single-stage discrete alerts, particularly

  1. Cardiovascular Deconditioning (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William


    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  2. cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Guerrero


    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos que más discusión ha suscitado en los últimos tiempos entre quienes nos dedicamos al estudio de la emoción tiene que ver con la eventual asociación entre percepción, valoración y respuesta fisiológica. Esto es, siguiendo la máxima aristotélica, cabría cuestionar si las cosas son como son o son como cada quien las percibe. El objetivo de este experimento ha sido establecer la existencia de una conexión entre percepción de control y responsividad cardiovascular. La muestra estudiada ha estado conformada por estudiantes de la Universidad de Castellón; todos ellos han participado de forma voluntaria. La prueba de estrés ha consistido en un examen real de una asignatura troncal de la titulación que cursaban los participantes. Así pues, utilizando una situación de estrés real, hipotetizamos que las respuestas cardiovasculares (medidas a través de la tasa cardiaca, la presión sanguínea sistólica y la presión sanguínea diastólica dependen de la percepción de control que el individuo tiene, o cree tener, sobre la situación.

  3. Incorporating autoregulatory mechanisms of the cardiovascular system in three-dimensional finite element models of arterial blood flow. (United States)

    Kim, H J; Jansen, K E; Taylor, C A


    The cardiovascular system is a closed-loop system in which billions of vessels interact with each other, and it enables the control of the systemic arterial pressure and varying organ flow through autoregulatory mechanisms. In this study, we describe the development of mathematical models of autoregulatory mechanisms for systemic arterial pressure and coronary flow and discuss the connection of these models to a hybrid numerical/analytic closed-loop model of the cardiovascular system. The closed-loop model consists of two lumped parameter heart models representing the left and right sides of the heart, a three-dimensional finite element model of the aorta with coronary arteries, three-element Windkessel models and lumped parameter coronary vascular models that represent the systemic circulation, and a three-element Windkessel model to approximate the pulmonary circulation. Using the connection between the systemic arterial pressure and coronary flow regulation systems, and the hybrid closed-loop model, we studied how the heart, coronary vascular beds, and arterial system respond to physiologic changes during light exercise and showed that these models can realistically simulate temporal behaviors of the heart, coronary vascular beds, and arterial system during exercise of healthy subjects. These models can be used to study temporal changes occurring in the heart, coronary vascular beds, and arterial system during cardiovascular intervention or changes in physiological states.

  4. On-Command Exoskeleton for Countermeasure Microgravity Effects on Muscles and Bones (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Mavroidis, C.; Unluhisarcikh, O.; Pietrusinski, M.; Rajulu, S.; Berka, R.; Cowley, M.


    On-command exoskeleton with impeding and augmenting elements would support the operation of astronauts traveling to Mars. Thus, countermeasure deleterious effects on the muscles and bones during travel and assist their physical activity on Mars.

  5. Computational Modeling of Space Physiology for Informing Spaceflight Countermeasure Design and Predictions of Efficacy (United States)

    Lewandowski, B. E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Gallo, C. A.; Gilkey, K. M.; Godfrey, A. P.; Humphreys, B. T.; Jagodnik, K. M.; Kassemi, M.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E. S.; hide


    MOTIVATION: Spaceflight countermeasures mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment on astronaut health and performance. Exercise has historically been used as a countermeasure to physical deconditioning, and additional countermeasures including lower body negative pressure, blood flow occlusion and artificial gravity are being researched as countermeasures to spaceflight-induced fluid shifts. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project uses computational models of physiological systems to inform countermeasure design and to predict countermeasure efficacy.OVERVIEW: Computational modeling supports the development of the exercise devices that will be flown on NASAs new exploration crew vehicles. Biomechanical modeling is used to inform design requirements to ensure that exercises can be properly performed within the volume allocated for exercise and to determine whether the limited mass, volume and power requirements of the devices will affect biomechanical outcomes. Models of muscle atrophy and bone remodeling can predict device efficacy for protecting musculoskeletal health during long-duration missions. A lumped-parameter whole-body model of the fluids within the body, which includes the blood within the cardiovascular system, the cerebral spinal fluid, interstitial fluid and lymphatic system fluid, estimates compartmental changes in pressure and volume due to gravitational changes. These models simulate fluid shift countermeasure effects and predict the associated changes in tissue strain in areas of physiological interest to aid in predicting countermeasure effectiveness. SIGNIFICANCE: Development and testing of spaceflight countermeasure prototypes are resource-intensive efforts. Computational modeling can supplement this process by performing simulations that reduce the amount of necessary experimental testing. Outcomes of the simulations are often important for the definition of design requirements and the identification of factors essential in ensuring

  6. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit (United States)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.


    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  7. A critical benefit analysis of artificial gravity as a microgravity countermeasure (United States)

    Kaderka, Justin; Young, Laurence R.; Paloski, William H.


    Deconditioning of astronauts during long duration spaceflight, especially with regard to the cardiovascular, musculo-skeletal, and neurological systems, is a well-recognized problem that has stimulated significant investments in countermeasure research over the past five decades. Because of its potential salutary effects on all of these systems, artificial gravity via centrifugation has been one of the most persistently discussed countermeasures; however, to date, few studies have tested its efficacy, particularly in comparison to other, system-specific countermeasures. This paper reports results of a meta-analysis we performed to compare previously published results from artificial gravity studies with those from studies utilizing traditional countermeasures, such as resistive exercise, aerobic exercise, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), or some variation of these countermeasures. Published and non-published literature involving human bed rest and immersion studies, human non-bed rest studies, and flight data were examined. Our analyses were confounded by differences in research design from study to study, including subject selection criteria, deconditioning paradigm, physiological systems assessed, and dependent measures employed. Nevertheless we were able to draw comparisons between studies that had some consistency across these variables. Results indicate that for prolonged spaceflight an artificial gravity-based countermeasure may provide benefits equivalent to traditional countermeasures for the cardiovascular system. Too few comparable studies have been performed to draw any conclusions for the musculo-skeletal system. Gaps in the current knowledge of artificial gravity are identified and provide the basis for a discussion of future topics for ground-based research using this countermeasure.

  8. Physiological adaptations and countermeasures associated with long-duration spaceflights (United States)

    Tipton, C. M.; Hargens, A.


    Since 1961, there have been more than 165 flights involving several hundred individuals who have remained in a space environment from 15 min to more than a year. In addition, plans exist for humans to explore, colonize, and remain in microgravity for 1000 d or more. This symposium will address the current state of knowledge in select aspects associated with the cardiovascular, fluid and electrolytes, musculoskeletal, and the neuroendocrine and immune systems. The authors will focus on responses, mechanisms, and the appropriate countermeasures to minimize or prevent the physiological and biochemical consequences of a microgravity environment. Since exercise is frequently cited as a generic countermeasure, this topic will be covered in greater detail. Models for simulated microgravity conditions will be discussed in subsequent manuscripts, as will future directions for ground-based research.

  9. Quantitative optimisation of expendable countermeasures (United States)

    Hovland, Harald


    Self-protection systems using expendable pyrotechnics have been in operational service for several decades, and still enjoy a significant popularity on military platforms, due to potentially high efficiency, low cost and versatility. Recent developments in advanced materials as well as spatial and temporal behaviour optimization using advanced simulation tools also contribute to continued success against threat systems of ever-increasing sophistication. One of the most significant drawbacks of these systems is the limited capacity of the countermeasures dispensers of such a system. The risk of emptying the countermeasures dispensers leads to restrictions in the acceptable false-alarm-rate, again leading to a reduced detection probability. The approaches for optimization known to the author have been either one of Monte-Carlo simulations or a functional threat countering analysis. Neither of these brings insight into the parameters relating the overall performance of the self-protection system against one missile attack and the overall platform survivability on a mission. In this work, a new model is presented where an overall survivability probability can be calculated and optimized, including the effect of a limited dispenser capacity versus countermeasures program size as well as missile approach warning systems key parameters, such as detection probability and false-alarm-rate. The model is extended to allow independently variable missile attack- and false-alarm probabilities. Criteria for choosing optimal flare programs are presented. It is shown that a dynamic update of the self protection system can enhance the performance of self protection systems deploying expendable countermeasures. Monte-Carlo-simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the model.

  10. Zhengzhou Distribution Research and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wujun


    Full Text Available With the acceleration of urbanization process in China, the city has become an increasingly important part of the logistics. This paper analyzes the current development in Zhengzhou logistics and distribution, and use the SWOT analysis model to analyze the Zhengzhou logistics and distribution strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges presented in Zhengzhou distribution tertiary network architecture, and finally summarized the Zhengzhou logistics countermeasures and suggestions distribution.

  11. Fatigue-Related Countermeasures for Long-Duration Exploration Missions (United States)

    Whitmire, A.; Johnston, S.; Sipes, W.


    The NASA Human Research Program's (HRP) Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) supports and conducts research to mitigate deleterious outcomes related to fatigue, sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload. Objective evidence indicates that within the context of the International Space Station (ISS), sleep is reduced and there is circadian misalignment. Despite chronic sleep loss and high workloads; however, astronauts successfully complete their missions. Contributing to their success is not only the tremendous skills and capabilities of each astronaut, but also the collaborative team efforts amongst the crew, between flight and ground crews, and through real-time care provided by medical personnel. It is anticipated that risks to human health and performance will increase in the context of exploration missions, where crewmembers will venture to deep space for extended durations and in small vehicles with limited communication with home. Hence, fatigue-related countermeasures are being developed and/or validated that include unobtrusive monitoring technologies to detect fatigue-related performance decrements, environmental countermeasures, and sleep education and training for flight and ground crews. Given that fatigue is an issue in current ISS missions, the BHP works collaboratively with Space Medicine operations to collect data in the operational environment, to validate fatigue-related countermeasures, and provide evidence-based mitigations. Our presentation will summarize fatigue-related operational research that is underway through NASA's BHP in partnership with its operational counterparts. Efforts include studies evaluating the effects of hypnotics, lighting protocols as countermeasures for circadian entrainment, and investigations involving education and training. This presentation will further identify, based on flight and terrestrial evidence, additional sleep and circadian countermeasures that may still be needed to support

  12. RFID identity theft and countermeasures (United States)

    Herrigel, Alexander; Zhao, Jian


    This paper reviews the ICAO security architecture for biometric passports. An attack enabling RFID identity theft for a later misuse is presented. Specific countermeasures against this attack are described. Furthermore, it is shown that robust high capacity digital watermarking for the embedding and retrieving of binary digital signature data can be applied as an effective mean against RFID identity theft. This approach requires only minimal modifications of the passport manufacturing process and is an enhancement of already proposed solutions. The approach may also be applied in combination with a RFID as a backup solution (damaged RFID chip) to verify with asymmetric cryptographic techniques the authenticity and the integrity of the passport data.

  13. Can finite element models of ballooning procedures yield mechanical response of the cardiovascular site to overexpansion? (United States)

    Bosi, Giorgia M; Biffi, Benedetta; Biglino, Giovanni; Lintas, Valentina; Jones, Rod; Tzamtzis, Spyros; Burriesci, Gaetano; Migliavacca, Francesco; Khambadkone, Sachin; Taylor, Andrew M; Schievano, Silvia


    Patient-specific numerical models could aid the decision-making process for percutaneous valve selection; in order to be fully informative, they should include patient-specific data of both anatomy and mechanics of the implantation site. This information can be derived from routine clinical imaging during the cardiac cycle, but data on the implantation site mechanical response to device expansion are not routinely available. We aim to derive the implantation site response to overexpansion by monitoring pressure/dimensional changes during balloon sizing procedures and by applying a reverse engineering approach using a validated computational balloon model. This study presents the proof of concept for such computational framework tested in-vitro. A finite element (FE) model of a PTS-X405 sizing balloon (NuMed, Inc., USA) was created and validated against bench tests carried out on an ad hoc experimental apparatus: first on the balloon alone to replicate free expansion; second on the inflation of the balloon in a rapid prototyped cylinder with material deemed suitable for replicating pulmonary arteries in order to validate balloon/implantation site interaction algorithm. Finally, the balloon was inflated inside a compliant rapid prototyped patient-specific right ventricular outflow tract to test the validity of the approach. The corresponding FE simulation was set up to iteratively infer the mechanical response of the anatomical model. The test in this simplified condition confirmed the feasibility of the proposed approach and the potential for this methodology to provide patient-specific information on mechanical response of the implantation site when overexpanded, ultimately for more realistic computational simulations in patient-specific settings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of an Integrated Countermeasure Device for Long Duration Space Flight and Exploration Missions (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Streeper, T.; Spiering, B. A.; Loehr, J. A.; Guilliams, M. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Lang, T.


    Musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor deconditioning have been observed consistently in astronauts and cosmonauts following long-duration spaceflight. Studies in bed rest, a spaceflight analog, have shown that high intensity resistive or aerobic exercise attenuates or prevents musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning, respectively, but complete protection has not been achieved during spaceflight. Exercise countermeasure hardware used during earlier International Space Station (ISS) missions included a cycle ergometer, a treadmill, and the interim resistive exercise device (iRED). Effectiveness of the countermeasures may have been diminished by limited loading characteristics of the iRED as well as speed restrictions and subject harness discomfort during treadmill exercise. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and the second generation treadmill were designed to address many of the limitations of their predecessors, and anecdotal reports from ISS crews suggest that their conditioning is better preserved since the new hardware was delivered in 2009. However, several countermeasure devices to protect different physiologic systems will not be practical during exploration missions when the available volume and mass will be severely restricted. The combined countermeasure device (CCD) integrates a suite of hardware into one device intended to prevent spaceflight-induced musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor deconditioning. The CCD includes pneumatic loading devices with attached cables for resistive exercise, a cycle for aerobic exercise, and a 6 degree of freedom motion platform for balance training. In a proof of concept test, ambulatory untrained subjects increased muscle strength (58%) as well as aerobic capacity (26%) after 12-weeks of exercise training with the CCD (without balance training), improvements comparable to those observed with traditional exercise training. These preliminary results suggest that this CCD can

  15. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program business model. (United States)

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard J


    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a "virtual pharmaceutical firm," coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies.

  16. Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation. (United States)

    Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre


    Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation.

  17. 76 FR 62306 - Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program (CICP): Administrative Implementation, Final Rule (United States)


    ... countermeasures; (7) pandemic influenza diagnostics, personal respiratory devices, and respiratory support devices... medical records of an individual who applied to both programs. ] Justification for Waiver of Delayed... affect the following elements of family well-being. Family safety, family stability, marital commitment...

  18. Long-term effects of microgravity and possible countermeasures (United States)

    Wolfe, James W.; Rummel, John D.

    It is well known that long-term exposure to microgravity causes a number of physiological and biochemical changes in humans; among the most significant are: 1) negative calcium balance resulting in the loss of bone; 2) atrophy of antigravity muscles; 3) fluid shifts and decreased plasma volume; and 4) cardiovascular deconditioning that leads to orthostatic intolerance. It is estimated that a mission to Mars may require up to 300 days in a microgravity environment; in the case of an aborted mission, the astronauts may have to remain in reduced gravity for up to three years. Although the Soviet Union has shown that exercise countermeasures appear to be adequate for exposures of up to on year in space, it is questionable whether astronauts could or should have to maintain such regimes for extremely prolonged missions. Therefore, the NASA Life Sciences Division has initiated a program designed to evaluate a number of methods for providing an artificial gravity environment.

  19. Countermeasures to Enhance Sensorimotor Adaptability (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. C.; Miller, C. A.; Cohen, H. S.


    adaptability. These results indicate that SA training techniques can be added to existing treadmill exercise equipment and procedures to produce a single integrated countermeasure system to improve performance of astro/cosmonauts during prolonged exploratory space missions.

  20. Orthostatic Intolerance in Older Persons: Etiology and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Goswami


    Full Text Available Orthostatic challenge produced by upright posture may lead to syncope if the cardiovascular system is unable to maintain adequate brain perfusion. This review outlines orthostatic intolerance related to the aging process, long-term bedrest confinement, drugs, and disease. Aging-associated illness or injury due to falls often leads to hospitalization. Older patients spend up to 83% of hospital admission lying in bed and thus the consequences of bedrest confinement such as physiological deconditioning, functional decline, and orthostatic intolerance represent a central challenge in the care of the vulnerable older population. This review examines current scientific knowledge regarding orthostatic intolerance and how it comes about and provides a framework for understanding of (patho- physiological concepts of cardiovascular (in- stability in ambulatory and bedrest confined senior citizens as well as in individuals with disease conditions [e.g., orthostatic intolerance in patients with diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, spinal cord injury (SCI] or those on multiple medications (polypharmacy. Understanding these aspects, along with cardio-postural interactions, is particularly important as blood pressure destabilization leading to orthostatic intolerance affects 3–4% of the general population, and in 4 out of 10 cases the exact cause remains elusive. Reviewed also are countermeasures to orthostatic intolerance such as exercise, water drinking, mental arithmetic, cognitive training, and respiration training in SCI patients. We speculate that optimally applied countermeasures such as mental challenge maintain sympathetic activity, and improve venous return, stroke volume, and consequently, blood pressure during upright standing. Finally, this paper emphasizes the importance of an active life style in old age and why early re-mobilization following bedrest confinement or bedrest is crucial in preventing orthostatic intolerance, falls

  1. Long-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Meng; Beelen, Rob; Stafoggia, Massimo


    Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only.......Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only....

  2. NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project Overview (United States)

    Loerch, Linda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori


    Efficient exercise countermeasures are necessary to offset or minimize spaceflight-induced deconditioning and to maximize crew performance of mission tasks. These countermeasure protocols should use the fewest crew and vehicle resources. NASA s Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) Project works to identify, collect, interpret, and summarize evidence that results in effective exercise countermeasure protocols which protect crew health and performance during International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions. The ExPC and NASA s Human Research Program are sponsoring multiple studies to evaluate and improve the efficacy of spaceflight exercise countermeasures. First, the Project will measure maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) during cycle ergometry before, during, and after ISS missions. Second, the Project is sponsoring an evaluation of a new prototype harness that offers improved comfort and increased loading during treadmill operations. Third, the Functional Tasks Test protocol will map performance of anticipated lunar mission tasks with physiologic systems before and after short and long-duration spaceflight, to target system contributions and the tailoring of exercise protocols to maximize performance. In addition to these studies that are actively enrolling crewmember participants, the ExPC is planning new studies that include an evaluation of a higher-intensity/lower-volume exercise countermeasure protocol aboard the ISS using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and second-generation treadmill, studies that evaluate bone loading during spaceflight exercise, and ground-based studies that focus on fitness for duty standards required to complete lunar mission tasks and for which exercise protocols need to protect. Summaries of these current and future studies and strategies will be provided to international colleagues for knowledge sharing and possible collaboration.

  3. Threats and countermeasures for network security (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.


    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  4. NEDAC: A worm countermeasure mechanism | Ahmad | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an Internet worm countermeasure mechanism that uses DNS activities as a behavioural technique to detect worm propagation. The mechanism also uses a data-link containment solution to block traffic from an infected host. The concept has been demonstrated using a developed prototype and tested in ...

  5. Risk Analysis and Security Countermeasure Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Thomas L


    Explains how to evaluate the appropriateness of security countermeasures, from a cost-effectiveness perspective. This title guides readers from basic principles to complex processes in a step-by-step fashion, evaluating DHS-approved risk assessment methods, including CARVER, API/NPRA, RAMCAP, and various Sandia methodologies

  6. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    'Good Hunting': German Submarine Offensives and South African. Countermeasures off the South African Coast during the Second World. War, 1942-1945. Evert Kleynhans. •. Abstract .... wolf packs south, Dönitz had hoped to cause a diversionary effect whereby the Allies would be forced to split their defensive forces ...

  7. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Benoist, K.W.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.


    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human

  8. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; Benoist, Koen W.; van Lingen, Joost N. J.; Schleijpen, H. Ric M. A.


    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and the associated potential operational impact. Of practical use are flash blindness, where an intense flash of light produces a temporary "blind-spot" in (part of) the visual field, flicker distraction, where strong intensity and/or color changes at a discomfortable frequency are produced, and disability glare where a source of light leads to contrast reduction. Hence there are three possibilities to disrupt the visual task of an operator with optical countermeasures such as flares or lasers or a combination of these; namely, by an intense flash of light, by an annoying light flicker or by a glare source. A variety of flares for this purpose is now available or under development: high intensity flash flares, continuous burning flares or strobe flares which have an oscillating intensity. The use of flare arrays seems particularly promising as an optical countermeasure. Lasers are particularly suited to interfere with human vision, because they can easily be varied in intensity, color and size, but they have to be directed at the (human) target, and issues like pointing and eye-safety have to be taken into account. Here we discuss the design issues and the operational impact of optical countermeasures against human operators.

  9. Countermeasure for reducing post-flight orthostatic intolerance: Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) experiment E140 (United States)

    Charles, John B.


    Investigators have shown that after 1-2 weeks of bed rest ingestion of 1000 ml of a salt water solution during 4 hours of continuous exposure to 30 mm Hg of lower body negative pressure will protect plasma volume and orthostatic function for up to 24 hours. We hypothesize that a similar countermeasure will reduce the effects of fluid loss induced by headward fluid shift during space flight. The objective of this flight experiment is to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed countermeasure in reversing these effects on the cardiovascular system. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) involves exposing the legs and lower abdomen to reduced air pressure. The LBNP device is an air-tight chamber that seals the subject's waist to enclose the lower body. As used in this experiment, LBNP provides both the candidate treatment as well as the means of assessing the effectiveness of the treatment.

  10. Countermeasures Assessment of Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Deformation in a Slope Ground System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Forcellini


    Full Text Available Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading may result in significant damage and disruption of functionality for structures and Slope Ground System. In this regard, finite-element simulations are increasingly providing a versatile environment in order to assess economical and effective countermeasures. Several systematic bidimensional FEM computations have been conducted to evaluate mitigation strategies under the action of an applied earthquake excitation. The presented study highlights the potential of computations in providing insights for analysis of liquefaction-induced lateral deformations. In the analysis, some specific assumptions are introduced and verified such as a nine-node quadrilateral elements, massive columns of soil with periodic boundary conditions, and a Lysmer-Kuhlemeyer dashpot used to model the finite rigidity of the underlying elastic medium. Moreover, the study aims to systematically explore the effectiveness of densification as a countermeasure and then evaluate the best extension comparing two scenarios.

  11. Medical Countermeasure Models. Volume 8. Botulinum Neurotoxin (United States)


    of Internal Medicine . 129(221-228). 1998. Medical Countermeasure Models Volume 8: Botulinum Neurotoxin Gryphon Scientific, LLC 6 Figure...Sauteed Onions . Clinical and Epidemiological Observations.” Journal of the American Medical Association. 253(9). 1985. 23 Arnon SS et al. “Botulinum...Factors that Predict Outcome in Type A Foodborne Botulism.” The American Journal of Medicine . 76. 1984. 25 CDC. “Notice of CDC’s Discontinuation of

  12. Dimethyl trisulfide: A novel cyanide countermeasure. (United States)

    Rockwood, Gary A; Thompson, David E; Petrikovics, Ilona


    In the present studies, the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of a novel cyanide countermeasure, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), were evaluated. DMTS is a sulfur-based molecule found in garlic, onion, broccoli, and similar plants. DMTS was studied for effectiveness as a sulfur donor-type cyanide countermeasure. The sulfur donor reactivity of DMTS was determined by measuring the rate of the formation of the cyanide metabolite thiocyanate. In experiments carried out in vitro in the presence of the sulfurtransferase rhodanese (Rh) and at the experimental pH of 7.4, DMTS was observed to convert cyanide to thiocyanate with greater than 40 times higher efficacy than does thiosulfate, the sulfur donor component of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved cyanide countermeasure Nithiodote(®) In the absence of Rh, DMTS was observed to be almost 80 times more efficient than sodium thiosulfate in vitro The fact that DMTS converts cyanide to thiocyanate more efficiently than does thiosulfate both with and without Rh makes it a promising sulfur donor-type cyanide antidote (scavenger) with reduced enzyme dependence in vitro The therapeutic cyanide antidotal efficacies for DMTS versus sodium thiosulfate were measured following intramuscular administration in a mouse model and expressed as antidotal potency ratios (APR = LD50 of cyanide with antidote/LD50 of cyanide without antidote). A dose of 100 mg/kg sodium thiosulfate given intramuscularly showed only slight therapeutic protection (APR = 1.1), whereas the antidotal protection from DMTS given intramuscularly at the same dose was substantial (APR = 3.3). Based on these data, DMTS will be studied further as a promising next-generation countermeasure for cyanide intoxication. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Battlefield Stress: Causes, Cures and Countermeasures. (United States)


    COUNTERMEASURES ’ I A thesis presentod to the Faculty of the U.S.. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements...lost dentures and eyeglasses to obtain relief from combat, and finally, actual cases of combat stress casualties.E173 The second stress related...over time--not better. A partial solution to the problem is for units to have a strictly enforced sleep plan, especially when occupying assembly

  14. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges (United States)

    Malone, Robert W.; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R.; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James


    Introduction Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials. PMID:26934531

  15. Benefits, Consequences, and Uncertainties of Conventional (Exercise) Countermeasure Approaches (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori


    This presentation will review the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using exercise countermeasures in hypothetical long duration exploration missions. The use of artificial gravity and exercise will be briefly discussed. One benefit to continued use of exercise is related to our extensive experience with spaceflight exercise hardware and programming. Exercise has been a part of each space mission dating back to the 1960's when simple isometric and bungee exercises were performed in the Gemini capsule. Over the next 50 years, exercise hardware improved cumulating in today's ISS suite of exercise equipment: Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), Treadmill (T2) and Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Today's exercise equipment is the most robust ever to be flown in space and allows the variety and intensity of exercise that might reasonably be expected to maintain muscle mass and function, bone density and cardiovascular fitness. A second benefit is related to the large body of research literature on exercise training. There is a considerable body of supporting research literature including >40,000 peer reviewed research articles on exercise training in humans. A third benefit of exercise is its effectiveness. With the addition of T2 and ARED to our ISS exercise suite, crew member outcomes on standard medical tests have improved. Additionally exercise has other positive side effects such as stress relief, possible improvement of immune function, improved sleep, etc. Exercise is not without its consequences. The major cons to performance of in-flight exercise are the time and equipment required. Currently crew are scheduled 2.5 hrs/day for exercise and there is considerable cost to develop, fly and maintain exercise hardware. While no major injuries have been reported on ISS, there is always some risk of injury with any form of exercise There are several uncertainties going forward; these relate mostly to the development of

  16. Numerical simulation of aerobic exercise as a countermeasure in human spaceflight (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse the efficacy of long-term regular exercise on relevant cardiovascular parameters when the human body is also exposed to microgravity. Computer simulations are an important tool which may be used to predict and analyse these possible effects, and compare them with in-flight experiments. We based our study on a electrical-like computer model (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects) which was developed in our laboratory and validated with the available data, focusing on the cardiovascu-lar parameters affected by changes in gravity exposure. NELME is based on an electrical-like control system model of the physiological changes, that are known to take place when grav-ity changes are applied. The computer implementation has a modular architecture. Hence, different output parameters, potential effects, organs and countermeasures can be easily imple-mented and evaluated. We added to the previous cardiovascular system module a perturbation module to evaluate the effect of regular exercise on the output parameters previously studied. Therefore, we simulated a well-known countermeasure with different protocols of exercising, as a pattern of input electric-like perturbations on the basic module. Different scenarios have been numerically simulated for both men and women, in different patterns of microgravity, reduced gravity and time exposure. Also EVAs were simulated as perturbations to the system. Results show slight differences in gender, with more risk reduction for women than for men after following an aerobic exercise pattern during a simulated mission. Also, risk reduction of a cardiovascular malfunction is evaluated, with a ceiling effect found in all scenarios. A turning point in vascular resistance for a long-term exposure of microgravity below 0.4g has been found of particular interest. In conclusion, we show that computer simulations are a valuable tool to analyse different effects of long

  17. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices... (United States)


    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in... highly multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and...

  18. Countermeasures to the US National Missile Defense (United States)

    Gronlund, Lisbeth


    One of the key technical questions about national missile defenses is whether they can be expected to work under real-world conditions if the attacker takes steps to defeat the defense. This talk will discuss steps that an emerging missile state could take to confuse, overwhelm, or otherwise defeat the planned US NMD system developed by the Clinton administration. It will consider three such ``countermeasures" that would be within the technical capability of a state that could develop and deploy a long-range missile capable of reaching the United States, which is the threat the NMD system is intended to defend against. The talk will be based on the April 2000 report ``Countermeasures: A Technical Evaluation of the Operational Effectiveness of the Planned US National Missile Defense System," which was co-authored by the speaker and 10 other physicists and engineers. Although the talk will refer to the ground-based NMD system under development, the conclusions are applicable to any mid-course NMD system using hit-to-kill infrared-homing interceptors, regardless of their basing mode. The three countermeasures considered are: (1) biological weapons deployed on 100 or more small bomblets, or submunitions, that would be released shortly after the boost phase; (2) nuclear warheads with anti-simulation balloon decoys, in which the attacker disguises the warhead by enclosing it in an aluminum-coated mylar balloon and releasing it along with a large number of otherwise similar but empty balloons; and (3) nuclear warheads with cooled shrouds, in which the attacker foils the kill vehicle's homing process by covering each nuclear warhead with a double-walled cone containing liquid nitrogen.

  19. Research on the Combination of Underwater Acoustic Countermeasure Equipments Against Torpedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Jie


    Full Text Available Today the use of acoustic countermeasure equipment has become the main means in submarine defense torpedo operation. Combination of acoustic countermeasure equipments are used during the operation so that we can amplify the countermeasure effect. Based on the subject of the acoustic countermeasure equipments’ combined use, this paper analyses the interference between these soft kill countermeasure equipments including gas curtain, acoustic decoy and acoustic interferometer, summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the different combined use of acoustic countermeasure equipments.

  20. Digital RF delay line for ECM (electronic countermeasure) look-through (United States)


    Jamming signals, when reflected from structure to receiver, produce unwanted reflected signal interference in a countermeasure system. Elimination of these reflections would increase look-through capability. It is the goal of this project to demonstrate Digital RF Memory (DRFM) techniques which would null these unwanted reflected signals. Controlled injection of a transmitter signal into a receiver is a method of nulling this interference. Successfull nulling requires control of delay, phase, and gain of the feedback signal. The feasibility of using sampling electronics for storage and delay control was demonstrated in this project. The DRFM was used to simulate the electronic countermeasure (ECM) transmitter. Delays in the injection path were generated with high rate shift registers. The phase and gain of the injection paths were set with linear elements. The results from the experiment include bandwidth and quality of available nulls, as well as recommendations for the selection of nulling strategy.

  1. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum (United States)


    ... SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction, which will begin... the forum, and all five NTSB Board Members will serve as members of the Board of Inquiry. The forum is...

  2. Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer


    This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

  3. Countermeasure for Radiation Protection and Repair (United States)


    Exposure to ionizing radiation during long-duration space missions is expected to cause short-term illness and increase long-term risk of cancer for astronauts. Radiation-induced free radicals overload the antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to cellular damage at the membrane, enzyme, and chromosome levels. A large number of radioprotective agents were screened, but most had significant side effects. But there is increasing evidence that significant radioprotective benefit is achieved by increasing the dietary intake of foods with high antioxidant potential. Early plant-growing systems for space missions will be limited in both size and volume to minimize power and mass requirements. These systems will be well suited to producing plants containing high concentrations of bioprotective antioxidants. This project explored whether the production of bioprotective compounds could be increased by altering the lighting system, without increasing the space or power requirements for production, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions (light quantity, light quality, and carbon dioxide [CO2] concentration) on the production of bioprotective compounds in lettuce, which provide a biological countermeasure for radiation exposure. The specific deliverables were to develop a database of bioprotectant compounds in plants that are suitable for use on longduration space missions, develop protocols for maintaining and increasing bioprotectant production under light emitting diodes (LEDs), recommend lighting requirements to produce dietary countermeasures of radiation, and publish results in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

  4. Developing Personalized Sensorimotor Adaptability Countermeasures for Spaceflight (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.


    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. In this paper we will be presenting results from our ground-based study that show how behavioral, brain imaging and genomic data may be used to predict individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability to novel sensorimotor environments. This approach will allow us to better design and implement sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures against decrements in post-mission adaptive capability that are customized for each crewmember's sensory biases, adaptive capacity, brain structure, functional capacities, and genetic predispositions. The ability to customize adaptability training will allow more efficient use of crew time during training and will optimize training prescriptions for astronauts to ensure expected outcomes.

  5. Agricultural countermeasures in the Nordic countries after a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, M. [Danish Plant Directorate (Denmark); Lauritzen, B. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)] (eds.)


    This report by the NKSBOK-1.4 project group describes agricultural countermeasures after a nuclear accident, aiming at the reduction of radiation doses to man from the ingestion of foodstuffs. The intention has been to collect information based on common understanding that can be used as a Nordic handbook and in further developments of the national preparedness systems. The report covers two areas: the gathering and dissemination of information before and during a nuclear emergency, and the development of a countermeasures strategy. A number of factors are discussed, which will affect the choice of countermeasure(s), and as a case study, a technical cost-benefit assessment of a specific countermeasure is described. (au)

  6. Space motion sickness: phenomenology, countermeasures, and mechanisms. (United States)

    Matsnev, E I; Yakovleva, I Y; Tarasov, I K; Alekseev, V N; Kornilova, L N; Mateev, A D; Gorgiladze, G I


    A summary of the incidence of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in 27 Soviet cosmonauts who flew on missions varying from 2-185 d in the Salyut-6/Soyuz vehicle complex is presented. A questionnaire indicated that 88% (24) of the cosmonauts developed some type of "illusionary sensations" while 44% (12) presented some degree of SMS. The SMS countermeasures used in flight included an antihistaminic drug, pneumatic cuffs applied to the thigh region, application of lower body negative pressure, a head cap that restricted head movement while simultaneously providing force stimulus to the cervical antigravity muscles, and finally the use of an insole counterpressure device that added pressure to the sole of the foot.

  7. Cryptanalysis of Two Fault Countermeasure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey


    is meant for the protection of block ciphers like AES. The second countermeasure was proposed in IEEE-HOST 2015 and protects the Grain-128 stream cipher. The design divides the output function used in Grain-128 into two components. The first called the masking function, masks the input bits to the output...... use the internally generated random bits which make these designs vulnerable. We will outline attacks that cryptanalyze the above schemes using 66 and 512 faults respectively....... function with some additional randomness and computes the value of the function. The second called the unmasking function, is computed securely using a different register and undoes the effect of the masking with random bits. We will show that there exists a weakness in the way in which both these schemes...

  8. Biological countermeasures in space radiation health (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann R.; Todd, Paul


    Exposure to the types of ionizing radiation encountered during space travel may cause a number of health-related problems, but the primary concern is related to the increased risk of cancer induction in astronauts. The major types of radiation considered to be of importance during space travel are protons and particles of high atomic number and high energy (HZE particles). It is now clear that biological countermeasures can be used to prevent or reduce the levels of biological consequences resulting from exposure to protons or HZE particles, including the induction of cancer, immunosuppression and neurological defects caused by these types of ionizing radiation. Research related to the dietary additions of agents to minimize the risks of developing health-related problems which can result from exposure to space radiations is reviewed.

  9. A Dual Track Treadmill in a Virtual Reality Environment as a Countermeasure for Neurovestibular Adaptations in Microgravity (United States)

    DAndrea, Susan E.; Kahelin, Michael W.; Horowitz, Jay G.; OConnor, Philip A.


    While the neurovestibular system is capable of adapting to altered environments such as microgravity, the adaptive state achieved in space in inadequate for 1G. This leads to giant and postural instabilities when returning to a gravity environment and may create serious problems in future mission to Mars. New methods are needed to improve the understanding of the adaptive capabilities of the human neurovestibular system and to develop more effective countermeasures. The concept behind the current study is that by challenging the neurovestibular system while walking or running a treadmill can help to read just the relationship between the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive signals that are altered in a microgravity environment. As a countermeasure, this device could also benefit the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems and at the same time decrease the overall time spent exercising. The overall goal of this research is to design, develop, build and test a dual track treadmill, which utilizes virtual reality, VR, displays.

  10. A Dual Track Treadmill in a Virtual Reality Environment as a Countermeasure for Neurovestibular Adaptations in Microgravity (United States)

    DAndrea, Susan E.; Kahelin, Michael W.; Horowitz, Jay G.; OConnor, Philip A.


    While the neurovestibular system is capable of adapting to altered environments such as microgravity, the adaptive state achieved in space in inadequate for 1G. This leads to gait and postural instabilities when returning to a gravity environment and may create serious problems in future missions to Mars. New methods are needed to improve the understanding of the adaptive capabilities of the human neurovestibular system and to develop more effective countermeasures. The concept behind the current study is that by challenging the neurovestibular system while walking or running, a treadmill can help to readjust the relationship between the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive signals that are altered in a microgravity environment. As a countermeasure, this device could also benefit the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems and at the same time decrease the overall time spent exercising. The overall goal of this research is to design, develop, build and test a dual track treadmill, which utilizes virtual reality,

  11. Countermeasure System and Method to Emulate Target with Spatial Extent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayers, Roderick E


    ...). The individual countermeasure devices are programmed to produce acoustic signals, such as in response to a ping or pulse by an incoming torpedo, that collectively appear to be an echo similar...

  12. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka


    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  13. WISE-2005 Protective Effect of Exercise within LBNP Countermeasure Detected by Heart Rate Response to Low Levels of LBNP (United States)

    Hughson, R. L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Hargens, A. R.; Mattar, L.; Edgell, H.; Kerbeci, P.; Arbeille, Ph.


    Sixteen women were studied before, during and after a 60 day, continu ous 6" head-down bed-rest (HDBR). Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: Control (no countermeasures) and Exercise+LBNP (supine ru nning within an LBNP chamber for 40-min followed by 10-min passive L BNP for 3-4 days/week, plus flywheel resistive training of the legs e very third day). Cardiovascular responses were observed before bed re st, on day 50 of HDBR and R+8 after bed rest. Subjects were supine in the LBNP device with suction applied at 0, -10, -20 and -30 mmHg LBN P for 2-min per stage. In the pre-bed rest testing, there was no diff erence in HR between the groups at rest or at -30 mmHg. On HDBR day 50, HR was elevated at supine rest for the Con not the Ex group, whil e at -30 mmHg HR was elevated above pre-HDBR for both groups, but the magnitude of increase from Pre- to HDBR day 50 was less for the Ex g roup than for the Con group. The change in HR on HDBR day 50 is an im portant indicator as it was less than 24-hours after the Exercise+LBN P countermeasure on day 49. After bed rest, no specific countermeasu res were provided in the first week, so HR responses on day R+8 refle cted the effects of bed rest with or without countermeasure plus any recovery from simply returning to the upright posture. Relative to th e Pre-bed rest responses, HR on day R+8 had recovered in the Ex group but was still elevated in the Con group. These results indicate that the cardiovascular response to LBNP is preserved to a greater degre e during bed rest by the countermeasures, and further that the cardio vascular response returned to pre-bed rest much more rapidly in the E xercise+LBNP group than hi the group that received no cardiovascular countermeasures.

  14. Time to wake up: reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia


    HILDITCH, Cassie J.; DORRIAN, Jillian; BANKS, Siobhan


    Sleep inertia is the period of impaired performance and grogginess experienced after waking. This period of impairment is of concern to workers who are on-call, or nap during work hours, and need to perform safety-critical tasks soon after waking. While several studies have investigated the best sleep timing and length to minimise sleep inertia effects, few have focused on countermeasures -especially those that can be implemented after waking (i.e. reactive countermeasures). This structured r...

  15. Time to wake up: reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia. (United States)

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan


    Sleep inertia is the period of impaired performance and grogginess experienced after waking. This period of impairment is of concern to workers who are on-call, or nap during work hours, and need to perform safety-critical tasks soon after waking. While several studies have investigated the best sleep timing and length to minimise sleep inertia effects, few have focused on countermeasures -especially those that can be implemented after waking (i.e. reactive countermeasures). This structured review summarises current literature on reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia such as caffeine, light, and temperature and discusses evidence for the effectiveness and operational viability of each approach. Current literature does not provide a convincing evidence-base for a reactive countermeasure. Caffeine is perhaps the best option, although it is most effective when administered prior to sleep and is therefore not strictly reactive. Investigations into light and temperature have found promising results for improving subjective alertness; further research is needed to determine whether these countermeasures can also attenuate performance impairment. Future research in this area would benefit from study design features highlighted in this review. In the meantime, it is recommended that proactive sleep inertia countermeasures are used, and that safety-critical tasks are avoided immediately after waking.

  16. Planning strategies for development of effective exercise and nutrition countermeasures for long-duration space flight (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.


    Exercise and nutrition represent primary countermeasures used during space flight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity, musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise, dietary regimen, or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in maintaining or restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels after prolonged space flight. As human space flight exposures increase in duration, identification, assessment, and development of various effective exercise- and nutrition-based protective procedures will become paramount. The application of adequate dietary intake in combination with effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiologic stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity, and understanding how specific combinations of exercise characteristics (e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, and mode) can be combined with minimal nutritional requirements that mimic the stimuli normally produced by living in Earth's gravity environment. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments targeted at understanding the interactions between caloric intake and expenditure during space flight. Future strategies for application of nutrition and exercise countermeasures for long-duration space missions must be directed to minimizing crew time and the impact on life-support resources.

  17. Human Adaptation Genetic Response Suites: Toward New Interventions and Countermeasures for Spaceflight (United States)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.


    Genetic response suites in human lymphocytes in response to microgravity are important to identify and further study in order to augment human physiological adaptation to novel environments. Emerging technologies, such as DNA micro array profiling, have the potential to identify novel genes that are involved in mediating adaptation to these environments. These genes may prove to be therapeutically valuable as new targets for countermeasures, or as predictive biomarkers of response to these new environments. Human lymphocytes cultured in lg and microgravity analog culture were analyzed for their differential gene expression response. Different groups of genes related to the immune response, cardiovascular system and stress response were then analyzed. Analysis of cells from multiple donors reveals a small shared set that are likely to be essential to adaptation. These three groups focus on human adaptation to new environments. The shared set contains genes related to T cell activation, immune response and stress response to analog microgravity.

  18. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.


    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  19. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices... (United States)


    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public health...

  20. Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Humans: Alteration in Cardiovascular Regulation and Function During Simulated Microgravity (United States)

    Cohen, Richard


    Alterations in cardiovascular regulation and function that occur during and after space flight have been reported. These alterations are manifested, for example, by reduced orthostatic tolerance upon reentry to the earth's gravity from space. However, the precise physiologic mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain to be fully elucidated. Perhaps, as a result, effective countermeasures have yet to be developed. In this project we apply a powerful, new method - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system so that effective countermeasures can be developed. CSI involves the mathematical analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in non-invasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV - respiratory activity) in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of all the physiologic mechanisms coupling these signals, CSI provides a model of the closed-loop cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject. The model includes quantitative descriptions of the heart rate baroreflex, autonomic function, as well as other important physiologic mechanisms. We are in the process of incorporating beat-to-beat fluctuations of stroke volume into the CSI technique in order to quantify additional physiologic mechanisms such as those involved in control of peripheral vascular resistance and alterations in cardiac contractility. We apply CSI in conjunction with the two general protocols of the Human Studies Core project. The first protocol involves ground-based, human head down tilt bed rest to simulate microgravity and acute stressors - upright tilt, standing and bicycle exercise - to provide orthostatic and exercise challenges. The second protocol is intended to be the same as the first but with the addition of sleep deprivation to determine whether

  1. Evaluation of an Impedance Threshold Device as a VIIP Countermeasure (United States)

    Ebert, D.; Macias, B.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Stenger, M.; Kemp, D.; Hargens, A.; Johnston, S.


    Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) is a top human spaceflight risk for which NASA does not currently have a proven mitigation strategy. Thigh cuffs (Braslets) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP; Chibis) devices have been or are currently being evaluated as a means to reduce VIIP signs and symptoms, but these methods alone may not provide sufficient relief of cephalic venous congestion and VIIP symptoms. Additionally, current LBNP devices are too large and cumbersome for their systematic use as a countermeasure. Therefore, a novel approach is needed that is easy to implement and provides specific relief of symptoms. This investigation will evaluate an impedance threshold device (ITD) as a VIIP countermeasure.

  2. Excercise Within LBNP as an Artificial Gravity Countermeasure (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Meyer, R. S.; Macias, B.; Tanaka, K.; Kimura, S.; Steinbach, G.; Groppo, E.; Khalili, N.; hide


    Previous exercise in space has lacked sufficient loads to maintain preflight cardiovascular and musculoskeletal mass and function. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) produces a static force equivalent to one Earth body weight by each 52 mm Hg of LBNP during supine posture. LBNP also provides transmural blood pressures simulating upright exercise. Thus, this artificial-gravity concept may help maintain cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems of crewmembers during prolonged exposure to microgravity. Currently available, bungee cord assisted, treadmill exercise is limited by harness discomfort, lower than normal loads, abnormal post-flight gait, and the absence of gravitational blood pressures within the vascular system. PURPOSE: This project evaluates a method to create artificial gravity using supine LBNP treadmill exercise to prevent loss of physiologic function in microgravity simulated by 30 days of bed rest. Identical twins were used as volunteers so that statistical power could be maximized. This countermeasure is being transitioned to space flight. CURRENT STATUS OF RESEARCH Methods: Six sets of identical twins (6 females and 14 males, 21-36 years) remained in 6 head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest for 30 days to simulate prolonged microgravity. Six subjects were randomly selected to exercise supine in an LBNP chamber for 40 minutes six days per week (EX group), while their twin brothers served as non-exercise controls (CON). Pressure within the exercise LBNP chamber was adjusted to increase load, hence increasing exercise intensity. During supine treadmill exercise, LBNP (52-63 mmHg) was applied to produce foot ward forces equivalent to those for upright running on Earth at 1.0-1.2 times body weight (BW) and subjects performed an interval exercise protocol (40-80% peak exercise capacity [VO2pk]). Five minutes of resting LBNP immediately followed each exercise session. Results: Orthostatic tolerance time decreased significantly after 30 days bed rest in the CON

  3. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide


    Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.

  4. Causes for Ineffective College English Teaching and Relevant Countermeasures (United States)

    Li, Changyu; Li, Lijuan


    Through a questionnaire and a survey, the paper analyses the present College English teaching and the contributing factors for the ineffective College English teaching. Based on the analysis, the paper suggests four countermeasures to improve College English teaching quality. According to this paper, only when teachers and educational workers…

  5. Analysis of the Reasons and Countermeasures for Academic Corruption (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng


    This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.

  6. Development of an Integrated Sensorimotor Countermeasure Suite for Spaceflight Operations (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Caldwell, E. E. (Inventor); Feiveson, A. H.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Oddsson, L. I. E.; Peters, B. T.; Ploutz-Synder, L. L.; hide


    Astronauts experience Postflight disturbances in postural and locomotor control due to sensorimotor adaptation to the unique environment of spaceflight. These alterations might have adverse consequences if a rapid egress were required following a Mars landing or on return to Earth after a water landing. Currently, no operational countermeasure is targeted to mitigate Postflight balance and locomotor dysfunction.

  7. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan, May 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil.

  8. Fault Analysis Attacks and Its Countermeasure using Elliptic Curve Cryptography


    M. Prabu; R. Shanmugalakshmi


    In the last decade, many researchers had published the overall analysis attacks of cryptographic devices against implementation on elliptic curve attacks. Usually such type of information is not sufficient to learn about the individual attacks. Now in this article, we indisputably concentrated on fault analysis attack and its countermeasure.

  9. Toolset for evaluating infrared countermeasures and signature reduction for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.


    The protection of ships against infrared guided missiles is a concern for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents a set of simulation tools which can be used for assessing

  10. On foreign language Anxiety and Countermeasures in Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘筠; 徐淑玉


    Foreign language anxiety has been recognized as an emotional barrier that potentially impedes foreign language learning. Based upon studies on language learning anxiety, this article mainly discusses the negative impact of language anxiety on foreign language learning and a series of countermeasures in the classroom to reduce the foreign language anxiety, so as to improve the students' English proficiency.

  11. Median Light Rail Crossing: Accident Causation And Countermeasures


    Coifman, Benjamin; Bertini, Robert L.


    This paper focuses on accident causation and countermeasures at arterial median light rail grade crossings. It synthesizes accident causation and prevention literature from several fields, including traffic engineering, human factors and cognitive psychology, as it relates to the complex LRT grade crossing.

  12. Effect of smoking on vitamin A, vitamin E, and other trace elements in patients with cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Amal K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data regarding the impact of cigarette smoking on trace elements are scarce and inconsistent. In this study, we evaluated the effect of smoking on serum concentrations of trace elements among adult males with heart disease. Methods This cross-sectional study included 100 adults hospitalized with heart disease in Bangladesh. The major variables of interest included mean serum concentrations of trace elements and proportion of subjects with bacterial growth on throat swab culture. Results Smokers had significantly lower serum concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and zinc and increased concentrations of copper. Throat swab cultures were more often positive for Streptococcus β-hemolyticus in smokers than controls. Conclusions Smoking decreases serum concentrations of trace elements. Smoking control programs are needed in Bangladesh to improve health and nutrition of the people who are already nutritionally deficient.

  13. Bridge scour countermeasure assessments at select bridges in the United States, 2014–16 (United States)

    Dudunake, Taylor J.; Huizinga, Richard J.; Fosness, Ryan L.


    In 2009, the Federal Highway Administration published Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23 (HEC-23) to provide specific design and implementation guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures. However, the effectiveness of countermeasures implemented over the past decade following those guidelines has not been evaluated. Therefore, in 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, began a study to assess the current condition of bridge-scour countermeasures at selected sites to evaluate their effectiveness. Bridge-scour countermeasures were assessed during 2014-2016. Site assessments included reviewing countermeasure design plans, summarizing the peak and daily streamflow history, and assessments at each site. Each site survey included a photo log summary, field form, and topographic and bathymetric geospatial data and metadata. This report documents the study area and site-selection criteria, explains the survey methods used to evaluate the condition of countermeasures, and presents the complete documentation for each countermeasure assessment.

  14. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.


    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no

  15. Artificial gravity as a countermeasure in long-duration space flight (United States)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.


    Long-duration exposure to weightlessness results in bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, altered sensory-motor control, and central nervous system reorganizations. Exercise countermeasures and body loading methods so far employed have failed to prevent these changes. A human mission to Mars might last 2 or 3 years and without effective countermeasures could result in dangerous levels of bone and muscle loss. Artificial gravity generated by rotation of an entire space vehicle or of an inner chamber could be used to prevent structural changes. Some of the physical characteristics of rotating environments are outlined along with their implications for human performance. Artificial gravity is the centripetal force generated in a rotating vehicle and is proportional to the product of the square of angular velocity and the radius of rotation. Thus, for a particular g-level, there is a tradeoff between velocity of rotation and radius. Increased radius is vastly more expensive to achieve than velocity, so it is important to know the highest rotation rates to which humans can adapt. Early studies suggested that 3 rpm might be the upper limit because movement control and orientation were disrupted at higher velocities and motion sickness and chronic fatigue were persistent problems. Recent studies, however, are showing that, if the terminal velocity is achieved over a series of gradual steps and many body movements are made at each dwell velocity, then full adaptation of head, arm, and leg movements is possible. Rotation rates as high as 7.5-10 rpm are likely feasible. An important feature of the new studies is that they provide compelling evidence that equilibrium point theories of movement control are inadequate. The central principles of equilibrium point theories lead to the equifinality prediction, which is violated by movements made in rotating reference frames. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Settlement mechanism of piled-raft foundation due to cyclic train loads and its countermeasure (United States)

    Gu, Linlin; Ye, Guanlin; Wang, Zhen; Ling, Xianzhang; Zhang, Feng


    In this paper, numerical simulation with soil-water coupling finite element-finite difference (FE-FD) analysis is conducted to investigate the settlement and the excess pore water pressure (EPWP) of a piled-raft foundation due to cyclic high-speed (speed: 300km/h) train loading. To demonstrate the performance of this numerical simulation, the settlement and EPWP in the ground under the train loading within one month was calculated and confirmed by monitoring data, which shows that the change of the settlement and EPWP can be simulated well on the whole. In order to ensure the safety of train operation, countermeasure by the fracturing grouting is proposed. Two cases are analyzed, namely, grouting in No-4 softest layer and No-9 pile bearing layer respectively. It is found that fracturing grouting in the pile bearing layer (No-9 layer) has better effect on reducing the settlement.

  17. Specificity of psychomotor reactions in the conditions of support deprivation including effects of countermeasures (United States)

    Nichiporuk, Igor; Ivanov, Oleg

    Activity of the cosmonaut demands high level of psychomotor reactions (PMR) which can vary during space flight under the influences of psychophysiological state’s variability and unusual inhabitancy that causes the necessity of PMR estimation’s inclusion into quality monitoring of capacity for work (CW). A main objective of research was a study of features of visual-motor reactions (VMR) and elements of CW of the person within simulation of microgravity effects via 7-day dry immersion (DI) in healthy male-volunteers 20-35 years old. The experimental data were received which testified to peculiarities of VMR and recognition of simple figures of main colors of a visible spectrum (red, green, blue, the RGB-standard) in the conditions of the DI characterized by support deprivation and decreased proprioceptive afferentation - in a control series and in a series with use of mioelectrostimulation as a countermeasure.

  18. Dynamic Multitasking Countermeasures to Improve Sustained Attention (United States)


    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - UU UU UU UU 06-07-2015 1...Subsequently a series of MLMs were fit with the following characteristics: The model was run allowing for the following predictors: -Drive Condition...power.  This  produced  a  distribution  of  estimates  that  was  more   liky  to  match  the  assumptions  of   MLM

  19. Information hiding in communication networks fundamentals, mechanisms, applications, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Zander, Sebastian; Houmansadr, Amir; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof


    Describes Information Hiding in communication networks, and highlights their important issues, challenges, trends, and applications. This book provides the fundamental concepts, terminology, and classifications of information hiding in communication networks along with its historical background. Information Hiding In Communication Networks: Fundamentals, Mechanisms, Applications, and Countermeasures begins with introducing data concealment methods and their evolution. Chapter two discusses the existing terminology and describes the model for hidden communication and related communication scenarios. Chapters three to five present the main classes of information hiding in communication networks accompanied by a discussion of their robustness and undetectability. The book concludes with a discussion of potential countermeasures against information hiding techniques, which includes different types of mechanisms for the detection, limitation and prevention of covert co munication channels.

  20. The human body and weightlessness operational effects, problems and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, William


    This book focuses on all of the major problems associated with the absence of body weight in space, by analyzing effects, adaption, and re-adaptation upon returning to Earth, using sound scientific principles embedded in a historical context. Serious problems for space travelers range from Space Motion Sickness (SMS) to recently discovered ocular effects that may permanently impair vision. Fluid loss and shifts, spinal changes, and bone and muscle loss are also all results of weightlessness. Starting with a brief definition and history of weightlessness, the authors then address in detail each problem as well as the countermeasures aimed at alleviating them. In some cases, alternative hypotheses regarding what can and should be attempted are also presented. As plans for long-term missions to the Moon and Mars develop, it will be essential to find countermeasures to weightlessness that are effective for missions that could span years.

  1. Regional Logistics Information Resources Integration Patterns and Countermeasures (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Shangguan, Xu-ming

    Effective integration of regional logistics information resources can provide collaborative services in information flow, business flow and logistics for regional logistics enterprises, which also can reduce operating costs and improve market responsiveness. First, this paper analyzes the realistic significance on the integration of regional logistics information. Second, this paper brings forward three feasible patterns on the integration of regional logistics information resources, These three models have their own strengths and the scope of application and implementation, which model is selected will depend on the specific business and the regional distribution of enterprises. Last, this paper discusses the related countermeasures on the integration of regional logistics information resources, because the integration of regional logistics information is a systems engineering, when the integration is advancing, the countermeasures should pay close attention to the current needs and long-term development of regional enterprises.

  2. Research on the Countermeasures against Electromagnetic Interface in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Bin; Kang, Young Suk; Choi, Hyo Yul; Cha, Ok Hyun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Chul; Le, Jae Bok; Ha, Tae Hyun; Kim, Suk Joo; Na, Dae Yul; Kim, Yong Ho; Jeong, Kyo Beom [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    As the results of widespread use of microelectronics in electric power system, electric environment of power operation facilities in substation has become more weak and severe for surge voltages. Electromagnetic coupled overvoltage caused by HV bus switching operating lead to the malfunction or destruction of low voltage control circuit which mostly used signal. To scope with this transients overvoltage, it is necessary to be investigated transient source and propagation path and analysed its effects to low voltage circuit such as relay. This study is to analysis source of conducted EMP(electromagnetic pulse) on the low voltage control circuit and to acquits transient voltage waveforms, and to provide countermeasures against transient voltage, and EMP filtering method according to each EMP each type. With this, gradual improvement of EMI countermeasure will be achieved. (author). 49 refs., figs.

  3. Countermeasures against methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis instituted by parents show no effect. (United States)

    Scheuern, Andrea; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Hügle, Boris


    A high proportion of children with JIA will develop intolerance to MTX with anticipatory and associative gastrointestinal adverse effects. Parents and physicians frequently try to alleviate these symptoms with a variety of countermeasures. The objective of this study was to investigate the course of MTX intolerance within a 6 month period, and the effects of countermeasures on MTX intolerance severity. We performed a prospective study of 196 consecutive JIA patients treated with MTX. Intolerance was determined using the Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) questionnaire. MISS and countermeasures instituted by parents or physicians were determined at four time points, each 2 months apart. Countermeasures, classified into four types (antiemetic drugs, covert dosing, taste masking and complementary medicine), were analysed using non-parametric statistics and mixed linear modelling, adjusted by propensity scoring for use of countermeasures. Ninety patients (46%) showed MTX intolerance, with 58 (64%) using countermeasures at time of inclusion. Median MISS at inclusion was 11 (interquartile range = 8.0-14.25), and did not change significantly over time. No significant difference in MISS score was observed between patients receiving countermeasures and those who did not. For specific countermeasures, MISS did not change significantly after introduction. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for propensity score indicated no significant association of MISS severity on parents' decision to implement any countermeasures. MTX intolerance was present in many children with JIA and symptoms decreased little in the short term. Various modalities used as countermeasures against nausea by parents showed no discernible effect.

  4. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  5. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry


    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Jia


    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  6. An Investigation of Kernel Data Attacks and Countermeasures (United States)


    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION University of Delaware REPORT NUMBER 210 Hullihen...Attacks and Countermeasures" Award No: N00014-15-l-2136 Haining Wang Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Delaware...Newark, DE 19716 Email: 1 Overall Technical Achievement Altering in-memory kernel data, attackers are able to manipulate the running

  7. Analysis on Causes and Countermeasures of Bullwhip Effect


    Dai Jianhua; Li Shibiao; Peng Shengbo


    Bullwhip effect is an inevitable phenomenon in supply chain management, because of its objective existence. This phenomenon is very common and harmful to make the operating costs of enterprises double and become one of the main concerns of many enterprises. In this paper, the causes of the bullwhip effect are explored through the methods of literature research and investigated consultation to weaken the bullwhip effect. This paper analyzes the key countermeasures with Wal-Mart successful logi...

  8. Password Cracking and Countermeasures in Computer Security: A Survey


    Han, Aaron L.-F.; Wong, Derek F.; Chao, Lidia S.


    With the rapid development of internet technologies, social networks, and other related areas, user authentication becomes more and more important to protect the data of the users. Password authentication is one of the widely used methods to achieve authentication for legal users and defense against intruders. There have been many password cracking methods developed during the past years, and people have been designing the countermeasures against password cracking all the time. However, we fi...

  9. Questions and Countermeasures on Developing General Aviation Industry in China


    Zhu Yongming; Liu Yongchao


    China’s general aviation industry has exposed many problems with the low-altitude airspace expanding openness. General aviation is an important part of national economy and defence forces, the development of general aviation has a practical and far-reaching significance. By analysing the China’s current general aviation industry, combined with the importance of the development of general aviation, propose some countermeasures and suggestions for the development of China’s general aviation ind...

  10. Questions and Countermeasures on Developing General Aviation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongming


    Full Text Available China’s general aviation industry has exposed many problems with the low-altitude airspace expanding openness. General aviation is an important part of national economy and defence forces, the development of general aviation has a practical and far-reaching significance. By analysing the China’s current general aviation industry, combined with the importance of the development of general aviation, propose some countermeasures and suggestions for the development of China’s general aviation industry.

  11. Assessment of the efficacy of medical countermeasures in space flight (United States)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Sulzman, F.; Radtke, M.; Bungo, M.


    Changes in body fluids, electrolytes, and muscle mass are manifestations of adaptation to space flight and readaptation to the 1-g environment. The purposes of this paper are to review the current knowledge of biomedical responses to short- and long-duration space missions and to assess the efficacy of countermeasures to 1-g conditioning. Exercise protocols, fluid hydration, dietary and potential pharmacologic measures are evaluated, and directions for future research activities are recommended.

  12. Countermeasure Evaluation and Validation Project (CEVP) Database Requirement Documentation (United States)

    Shin, Sung Y.


    The initial focus of the project by the JSC laboratories will be to develop, test and implement a standardized complement of integrated physiological test (Integrated Testing Regimen, ITR) that will examine both system and intersystem function, and will be used to validate and certify candidate countermeasures. The ITR will consist of medical requirements (MRs) and non-MR core ITR tests, and countermeasure-specific testing. Non-MR and countermeasure-specific test data will be archived in a database specific to the CEVP. Development of a CEVP Database will be critical to documenting the progress of candidate countermeasures. The goal of this work is a fully functional software system that will integrate computer-based data collection and storage with secure, efficient, and practical distribution of that data over the Internet. This system will provide the foundation of a new level of interagency and international cooperation for scientific experimentation and research, providing intramural, international, and extramural collaboration through management and distribution of the CEVP data. The research performed this summer includes the first phase of the project. The first phase of the project is a requirements analysis. This analysis will identify the expected behavior of the system under normal conditions and abnormal conditions; that could affect the system's ability to produce this behavior; and the internal features in the system needed to reduce the risk of unexpected or unwanted behaviors. The second phase of this project have also performed in this summer. The second phase of project is the design of data entry screen and data retrieval screen for a working model of the Ground Data Database. The final report provided the requirements for the CEVP system in a variety of ways, so that both the development team and JSC technical management have a thorough understanding of how the system is expected to behave.

  13. Assessment of the efficacy of medical countermeasures in space flight (United States)

    Nicogossian, A.; Sulzman, F.; Radtke, M.; Bungo, M.

    Changes in body fluids, electrolytes, and muscle mass are manifestations of adaptation to space flight and readaptation to the 1- g environment. The purposes of this paper are to review the current knowledge of biomedical responses to short- and long-duration space missions and to assess the efficacy of countermeasures to 1- g conditioning. Exercise protocols, fluid hydration, dietary and potential pharmacologic measures are evaluated, and directions for future research activities are recommended.

  14. FDA Experience with Medical Countermeasures under the Animal Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aebersold


    Full Text Available The Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule in May 2002 to permit the Agency to approve drugs or license biological products on the basis of animal efficacy studies for use in ameliorating or preventing serious or life-threatening conditions caused by exposure to lethal or permanently disabling toxic biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear substances. Only two drugs were approved in the first nine years of the “Animal Rule” despite massive investment by the federal government since 2001 to stimulate development of medical countermeasures to biological threats. This article therefore examines the Food and Drug Administration reviews made public after approval of those two drugs and the public discussion at the Agency's Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee of one biological product under development under the Animal Rule. Despite the paucity of approved drugs or licensed biological products as medical countermeasures, several investigational drugs have been placed in the National Strategic Stockpile for use as medical countermeasures, if needed.

  15. Updates on measurements and modeling techniques for expendable countermeasures (United States)

    Gignilliat, Robert; Tepfer, Kathleen; Wilson, Rebekah F.; Taczak, Thomas M.


    The potential threat of recently-advertised anti-ship missiles has instigated research at the United States (US) Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) into the improvement of measurement techniques for visual band countermeasures. The goal of measurements is the collection of radiometric imagery for use in the building and validation of digital models of expendable countermeasures. This paper will present an overview of measurement requirements unique to the visual band and differences between visual band and infrared (IR) band measurements. A review of the metrics used to characterize signatures in the visible band will be presented and contrasted to those commonly used in IR band measurements. For example, the visual band measurements require higher fidelity characterization of the background, including improved high-transmittance measurements and better characterization of solar conditions to correlate results more closely with changes in the environment. The range of relevant engagement angles has also been expanded to include higher altitude measurements of targets and countermeasures. In addition to the discussion of measurement techniques, a top-level qualitative summary of modeling approaches will be presented. No quantitative results or data will be presented.

  16. Information Overload and Viral Marketing: Countermeasures and Strategies (United States)

    Cheng, Jiesi; Sun, Aaron; Zeng, Daniel

    Studying information diffusion through social networks has become an active research topic with important implications in viral marketing applications. One of the fundamental algorithmic problems related to viral marketing is the Influence Maximization (IM) problem: given an social network, which set of nodes should be considered by the viral marketer as the initial targets, in order to maximize the influence of the advertising message. In this work, we study the IM problem in an information-overloaded online social network. Information overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they can process, which can cause negative impacts on the overall marketing effectiveness. Many practical countermeasures have been proposed for alleviating the load of information on recipients. However, how these approaches can benefit viral marketers is not well understood. In our work, we have adapted the classic Information Cascade Model to incorporate information overload and study its countermeasures. Our results suggest that effective control of information overload has the potential to improve marketing effectiveness, but the targeting strategy should be re-designed in response to these countermeasures.

  17. Influences of Vestibular System on Sympathetic Nervous System. Implications for countermeasures. (United States)

    Denise, Pr Pierre

    As gravity is a direct and permanent stress on body fluids, muscles and bones, it is not surpris-ing that weightlessness has important effects on cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal systems. However, these harmful effects do not totally result from the removal of the direct stress of gravity on these organs, but are also partially and indirectly mediated by the vestibular sys-tem. Besides its well known crucial role in spatial orientation and postural equilibrium, it is now clear that the vestibular system is also involved in the regulation of other important physi-ological systems: respiratory and cardiovascular systems, circadian regulation, food intake and even bone mineralization. The neuroanatomical substrate for these vestibular-mediated reg-ulations is still poorly defined, but there is much evidence that vestibular system has strong impacts not only on brainstem autonomic centers but on many hypothalamic nuclei as well. As autonomic nervous system controls almost all body organs, bringing into play the vestibular system by hypergravity or microgravity could virtually affects all major physiological func-tions. There is experimental evidence that weightlessness as well as vestibular lesion induce sympathetic activation thus participating in space related physiological alterations. The fact that some effects of weightlessness on biological systems are mediated by the vestibular system has an important implication for using artificial gravity as a countermeasure: artificial gravity should load not only bones and the cardiovascular system but the vestibular system as well. In short-arm centrifuges, the g load at the head level is low because the head is near the axis of rotation. If the vestibular system is involved in cardiovascular deconditioning and bone loss during weightlessness, it would be more effective to significantly stimulate it and thus it would be necessary to place the head off-axis. Moreover, as the otolithic organs are non longer stimu-lated in

  18. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Eged, K.


    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supported STRATEGY project a series ofinvestigations were made of countermeasures...... of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as atool for decision makers and planners and constitutes a basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas....

  19. The impact of countermeasure propagation on the prevalence of computer viruses. (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chiou; Carley, Kathleen M


    Countermeasures such as software patches or warnings can be effective in helping organizations avert virus infection problems. However, current strategies for disseminating such countermeasures have limited their effectiveness. We propose a new approach, called the Countermeasure Competing (CMC) strategy, and use computer simulation to formally compare its relative effectiveness with three antivirus strategies currently under consideration. CMC is based on the idea that computer viruses and countermeasures spread through two separate but interlinked complex networks-the virus-spreading network and the countermeasure-propagation network, in which a countermeasure acts as a competing species against the computer virus. Our results show that CMC is more effective than other strategies based on the empirical virus data. The proposed CMC reduces the size of virus infection significantly when the countermeasure-propagation network has properties that favor countermeasures over viruses, or when the countermeasure-propagation rate is higher than the virus-spreading rate. In addition, our work reveals that CMC can be flexibly adapted to different uncertainties in the real world, enabling it to be tuned to a greater variety of situations than other strategies.

  20. Development of Countermeasures against North Korean Cyberterrorism through Research Case Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yong Joon Lee; ; Hyuk Jin Kwon; Jae Il Lee; Dong Kyoo Shin


    This paper intends to propose countermeasures against increasingly sophisticated North Korean cyberterrorism through analysis of the cyber attack carried out by North Korea on March 20, 2013, which...

  1. The deleterious effects of physical inactivity on elements of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in Central Africans at high cardiovascular risk. (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Nkongo Mvindu, Huguette; Kasiam On'kin, Jean Bosco; Bikuku, Nkakudulu; Kianu Phanzu, Bernard; Nge Okwe, Augustin; Kabangu, Nelly


    We aimed to describe the physical activity and to investigate the association between classical hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and new inflammation, IDF-defined metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance CV risk factors. This was a cross-sectional study based on interviews and physical and biochemistry measurements among Central African patients. Waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, weight and height to calculate body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, CRP, ERS, uric acid, cholesterol (C), LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, elements of homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) including insulin, HOMA index, QUICKI, insulin sensitivity (%S), beta-cell function (%β) and insulin resistance (IR). Of the 60 patients included, 30 (50%) were physically inactive versus 30 (50%) active. In pooled analyses, in men and in women, there was significant and positive correlation between WC and seating/laying down position (WC=92.41+1.49 seating time in hours, R(2)=0.11; P2.42 was the optimal cut-off value to detect physically inactive patients: sensitivity=93.3%, specificity=100%, area under ROC=0.991±0.01 95%=0.975-1.0; P<0.0001. The association between low-grade inflammation markers, insulin resistance and physical inactivity favours the hypothesis that a low-grade inflammatory status and enhanced insulin, sensitivity may constitute a part of the CV benefits from physical activity. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole-body vibration as a potential countermeasure for dynapenia and arterial stiffness. (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Jaime, Salvador J; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey


    Age-related decreases in muscle mass and strength are associated with decreased mobility, quality of life, and increased cardiovascular risk. Coupled with the prevalence of obesity, the risk of death becomes substantially greater. Resistance training (RT) has a well-documented beneficial impact on muscle mass and strength in young and older adults, although the high-intensity needed to elicit these adaptations may have a detrimental or negligible impact on vascular function, specifically on arterial stiffness. Increased arterial stiffness is associated with systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial ischemia. Therefore, improvements of muscle strength and arterial function are important in older adults. Recently, whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, a novel modality of strength training, has shown to exhibit similar results on muscle strength as RT in a wide-variety of populations, with the greatest impact in elderly individuals with limited muscle function. Additionally, WBV training has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular function by reducing arterial stiffness. This article reviews relevant publications reporting the effects of WBV on muscle strength and/or arterial stiffness. Findings from current studies suggest the use of WBV training as an alternative modality to traditional RT to countermeasure the age-related detriments in muscle strength and arterial stiffness in older adults.

  3. Whole-body vibration as a potential countermeasure for dynapenia and arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Figueroa


    Full Text Available Age-related decreases in muscle mass and strength are associated with decreased mobility, quality of life, and increased cardiovascular risk. Coupled with the prevalence of obesity, the risk of death becomes substantially greater. Resistance training (RT has a well-documented beneficial impact on muscle mass and strength in young and older adults, although the high-intensity needed to elicit these adaptations may have a detrimental or negligible impact on vascular function, specifically on arterial stiffness. Increased arterial stiffness is associated with systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial ischemia. Therefore, improvements of muscle strength and arterial function are important in older adults. Recently, whole-body vibration (WBV exercise, a novel modality of strength training, has shown to exhibit similar results on muscle strength as RT in a wide-variety of populations, with the greatest impact in elderly individuals with limited muscle function. Additionally, WBV training has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular function by reducing arterial stiffness. This article reviews relevant publications reporting the effects of WBV on muscle strength and/or arterial stiffness. Findings from current studies suggest the use of WBV training as an alternative modality to traditional RT to countermeasure the age-related detriments in muscle strength and arterial stiffness in older adults.

  4. Artificial Gravity as a Countermeasure of Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Spinal Cord Injury (United States)

    Cardus, David


    An essential item in the development of this project was the availability of the artificial gravity simulator (AGS). At the termination of that grant in 1994, the AGS was dismantled and transferred to NASA Johnson Space Center. It took over two years for the AGS to be re-assembled and re-certified for use. As a consequence of the non-availability of the AGS for two years, there was a considerable delay in implementing the various phases of the project. The subjects involved in the study were eight healthy able bodied subjects and twelve with spinal cord injury. After analysis of the data collected on these subjects, six of the healthy able bodied subjects and three of the sub ects with spinal cord injury were found to qualify for the study. This report gives the results of four subjects only, two healthy able bodied and two spinal cord injured subjects because the period of the grant (1 year) and its extension (1 year) expired before additional subjects could be studied. The principal objective of the study was to conduct a series of experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing artificial gravity to assist in the physical rehabilitation of persons with spinal cord injuries.

  5. A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI


    At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

  6. Vitamin E: tocopherols and tocotrienols as potential radiation countermeasures (United States)

    Singh, Vijay K.; Beattie, Lindsay A.; Seed, Thomas M.


    Despite the potential devastating health consequences of intense total-body irradiation, and the decades of research, there still remains a dearth of safe and effective radiation countermeasures for emergency, radiological/nuclear contingencies that have been fully approved and sanctioned for use by the US FDA. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant, effective in scavenging free radicals generated by radiation exposure. Vitamin E analogs, collectively known as tocols, have been subject to active investigation for a long time as radioprotectors in patients undergoing radiotherapy and in the context of possible radiation accidents or terrorism scenarios. Eight major isoforms comprise the tocol group: four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. A number of these agents and their derivatives are being investigated actively as radiation countermeasures using animal models, and several appear promising. Although the tocols are well recognized as potent antioxidants and are generally thought to mediate radioprotection through ‘free radical quenching’, recent studies have suggested several alternative mechanisms: most notably, an ‘indirect effect’ of tocols in eliciting specific species of radioprotective growth factors/cytokines such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The radioprotective efficacy of at least two tocols has been abrogated using a neutralizing antibody of G-CSF. Based on encouraging results of radioprotective efficacy, laboratory testing of γ-tocotrienol has moved from a small rodent model to a large nonhuman primate model for preclinical evaluation. In this brief review we identify and discuss selected tocols and their derivatives currently under development as radiation countermeasures, and attempt to describe in some detail their in vivo efficacy. PMID:23658414

  7. Countermeasures to the problem of accidents to intoxicated pedestrians. (United States)

    Hutchinson, T P; Kloeden, C N; Lindsay, V L


    A substantial part of the pedestrian accident problem arises from intoxicated pedestrians. Possible countermeasures are reviewed, organised into: (a) prevention of high levels of intoxication in pedestrians, (b) minimising pedestrian activity in the intoxicated, and (c) minimising risk of injury among intoxicated pedestrians. It is concluded that improved safety of intoxicated pedestrians is most likely to come about by making the environment safer for all pedestrians, drunk or sober. The measure that would be expected to have the greatest effect quickest is a reduced speed limit, especially in locations where traffic is busy and there are many pedestrians.

  8. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Y.M.


    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs.

  9. Cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Gavagan, Thomas


    The primary care physician is in a position to advise patients on the efficacy of alternative and complementary therapies as they relate to cardiovascular diseases. Anti-oxidant vitamin supplementation has not been shown to be efficacious in decreasing cardiovascular events. N-3 fatty acids appear to be beneficial in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events but their use in primary prevention is not clear. Adoption of vegetable-based diets, including whole grains, can be recommended to decrease cardiovascular events, lower cholesterol and help lower blood pressure. For patients with hypercholesterolemia, cholestin, a red-yeast rice supplement, has been shown to be effective. Garlic supplements may have some mild cholesterol-lowering effect, but this effect is not significant enough to recommend clinically. Herbal therapies with hawthorn and ubiquinone (Q10) are of possible benefit in congestive heart failure. An integrated program of rigorous diet, exercise and stress reduction in motivated patients with cardiovascular disease may have value as an alternative to cardiovascular medications and surgical interventions.

  10. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  11. Identification and development of countermeasures for bicyclist/motor-vehicle problem types. Volume 2, Public information and education messages (United States)


    A detailed re-analysis of previously collected bicycle/motor-vehicle accident data (Cross and Fisher, 1977) was conducted to define potential countermeasures. Countermeasure development was then undertaken in the areas of Public Education (this Volum...

  12. Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program. (United States)

    Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W


    The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and

  13. Evaluation of Ebola Virus Countermeasures in Guinea Pigs. (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea


    Ebola virus (EBOV) pathology in humans remains incompletely understood; therefore, a number of rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models have been established to study the disease caused by this virus. While the macaque model most accurately recapitulates human disease, rodent models, which display only certain aspects of human disease but are more cost-effective, are widely used for initial screens during EBOV countermeasure development. In particular, mice and guinea pigs were among the first species used for the efficacy testing of EBOV vaccines and therapeutics. While mice have low predictive value, guinea pigs have proven to be a more reliable predictor for the evaluation of countermeasures in NHPs. In addition, guinea pigs are larger in size compared to mice, allowing for more frequent collection of blood samples at larger volumes. However, guinea pigs have the disadvantage that there is only a limited pool of immunological tools available to characterize host responses to vaccination, treatment and infection. In this chapter, the efficacy testing of an EBOV vaccine and a therapeutic in the guinea pig model are described.

  14. Lessons learned from Shuttle/Mir: psychosocial countermeasures (United States)

    Kanas, Nick; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav; Grund, Ellen M.; Gushin, Vadim; Weiss, Daniel S.; Kozerenko, Olga; Sled, Alexander; Marmar, Charles R.


    BACKGROUND: During future long-duration space missions, countermeasures need to be developed to deal with psychosocial issues that might impact negatively on crewmember performance and well-being. METHODS: In our recently completed NASA-funded study of 5 U.S. astronauts, 8 Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control personnel who participated in the Shuttle/Mir program, we evaluated a number of important psychosocial issues such as group tension, cohesion, leadership role, and the displacement of negative emotions from crewmembers to people in mission control and from mission control personnel to management. RESULTS: Based on our findings, which are reviewed, a number of psychosocial countermeasures are suggested to help ameliorate the negative impact of potential psychosocial problems during future manned space missions. CONCLUSIONS: Crewmembers should be selected not only to rule out psychopathology but also to select-in for group compatibility and facility in a common language. Training should include briefings and team building related to a number of psychosocial issues and should involve both crewmembers and mission control personnel. During the mission, both experts on the ground and the crewmembers themselves should be alert to potential interpersonal problems, including the displacement of negative emotions from the crew to the ground. Supportive activities should consist of both individual and interpersonal strategies, including an awareness of changing leisure time needs. Finally, attention should be given to postmission readjustment and to supporting the families on Earth.

  15. Customizing Countermeasure Prescriptions using Predictive Measures of Sensorimotor Adaptability (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Miller, C. A.; Batson, C. D.; Wood, S. J.; Guined, J. R.; Cohen, H. S.; Buccello-Stout, R.; DeDios, Y. E.; hide


    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during the initial exposure to microgravity and during the readapation phase following a return to a gravitational environment. These alterations may lead to disruption in the ability to perform mission critical functional tasks during and after these gravitational transitions. Astronauts show significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability following gravitational transitions. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of a countermeasure comprised of a training program designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Due to this inherent individual variability we need to develop predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptability that will allow us to predict, before actual space flight, which crewmember will experience challenges in adaptive capacity. Thus, obtaining this information will allow us to design and implement better sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that will be customized for each crewmember's unique adaptive capabilities. Therefore the goals of this project are to: 1) develop a set of predictive measures capable of identifying individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability, and 2) use this information to design sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that are customized for each crewmember's individual sensorimotor adaptive characteristics. To achieve these goals we are currently pursuing the following specific aims: Aim 1: Determine whether behavioral metrics of individual sensory bias predict sensorimotor adaptability. For this aim, subjects perform tests that delineate individual sensory biases in tests of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive function. Aim 2: Determine if individual capability for strategic and plastic-adaptive responses predicts sensorimotor adaptability. For this aim, each subject's strategic and plastic-adaptive motor learning abilities are assessed using

  16. The Bellagio Report: Cardiovascular risks of spaceflight: implications for the future of space travel. (United States)

    Sides, Marian B; Vernikos, Joan; Convertino, Victor A; Stepanek, Jan; Tripp, Lloyd D; Draeger, Jorg; Hargens, Alan R; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Pavy-LeTraon, Anne; Russomano, Thais; Wong, Julielynn Y; Buccello, Regina R; Lee, Peter H; Nangalia, Vishal; Saary, M Joan


    Long-duration space missions, as well as emerging civilian tourist space travel activities, prompted review and assessment of data available to date focusing on cardiovascular risk and available risk mitigation strategies. The goal was the creation of tools for risk priority assessments taking into account the probability of the occurrence of an adverse cardiovascular event and available and published literature from spaceflight data as well as available risk mitigation strategies. An international group of scientists convened in Bellagio, Italy, in 2004 under the auspices of the Aerospace Medical Association to review available literature for cardiac risks identified in the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap (versions 2000, 2004). This effort led to the creation of a priority assessment framework to allow for an objective assessment of the hazard, probability of its occurrence, mission impact, and available risk mitigation measures. Spaceflight data are presented regarding evidence/ no evidence of cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiovascular disease, and cardiac function as well as orthostatic intolerance, exercise capacity, and peripheral resistance in presyncopal astronauts compared to non-presyncopal astronauts. Assessment of the priority of different countermeasures was achieved with a tabular framework with focus on probability of occurrence, mission impact, compliance, practicality, and effectiveness of countermeasures. Special operational settings and circumstances related to sensitive portions of any mission and the impact of environmental influences on mission effectiveness are addressed. The need for development of diagnostic tools, techniques, and countermeasure devices, food preparation, preservation technologies and medication, as well as an infrastructure to support these operations are stressed. Selected countermeasure options, including artificial gravity and pharmacological countermeasures need to be systematically evaluated and validated in flight

  17. In a Heartbeat: Light and Cardiovascular Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Chellappa


    Full Text Available Light impinging on the retina fulfils a dual function: it serves for vision and it is required for proper entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system to the 24-h day, thus influencing behaviors that promote health and optimal quality of life but are independent of image formation. The circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei modulates the cardiovascular system with an intrinsic ability to anticipate morning solar time and with a circadian nature of adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we infer that light exposure might affect cardiovascular function and provide evidence from existing research. Findings show a time-of-day dependent increase in relative sympathetic tone associated with bright light in the morning but not in the evening hours. Furthermore, dynamic light in the early morning hours can reduce the deleterious sleep-to-wake evoked transition on cardiac modulation. On the contrary, effects of numerous light parameters, such as illuminance level and wavelength of monochromatic light, on cardiac function are mixed. Therefore, in future research studies, light modalities, such as timing, duration, and its wavelength composition, should be taken in to account when testing the potential of light as a non-invasive countermeasure for adverse cardiovascular events.

  18. In a Heartbeat: Light and Cardiovascular Physiology. (United States)

    Chellappa, Sarah L; Lasauskaite, Ruta; Cajochen, Christian


    Light impinging on the retina fulfils a dual function: it serves for vision and it is required for proper entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system to the 24-h day, thus influencing behaviors that promote health and optimal quality of life but are independent of image formation. The circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei modulates the cardiovascular system with an intrinsic ability to anticipate morning solar time and with a circadian nature of adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we infer that light exposure might affect cardiovascular function and provide evidence from existing research. Findings show a time-of-day dependent increase in relative sympathetic tone associated with bright light in the morning but not in the evening hours. Furthermore, dynamic light in the early morning hours can reduce the deleterious sleep-to-wake evoked transition on cardiac modulation. On the contrary, effects of numerous light parameters, such as illuminance level and wavelength of monochromatic light, on cardiac function are mixed. Therefore, in future research studies, light modalities, such as timing, duration, and its wavelength composition, should be taken in to account when testing the potential of light as a non-invasive countermeasure for adverse cardiovascular events.

  19. Cardiovascular disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    +2348153319600. ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiovascular disease is a global epidemic; the prevalence is currently stable in the developed world but .... that culminate in malnutrition are believed to predominate. However, urbanization of .... risk factors promotes migration of inflammatory cells from the circulation and the ...

  20. The pathogenic mechanism of C3 glomerulopathy and its countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-quan WANG


    Full Text Available C3 glomerulopathy is a series of diseases of glomeruli mediated by abnormal activation of alternative complement pathway. A series of researches have revealed in recent years that there are diversity and multiplicity of pathogenic mechanism in the pathogenesis of C3 glomerulopathy. The pathogenic mechanism of C3 glomerulopathy may be different in different individuals and types of disease. Congenital genetic defects and/or acquired autoantibodies may be found in the same individual. Individualized therapy should be given to individual patient in order to target different pathogenic mechanisms. Chinese herbal medicine, Tripterygium wilfordii, shows promise as a potential therapeutic agent for C3 glomerulopathy. The pathogenic mechanism and countermeasures for C3 glomerulopathy have been reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.15

  1. [Countermeasures for priority control of toxic VOC pollution]. (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Li-Na; Yang, Chang-Qing; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Han-Kun; Li, Yao


    VOC pollution is worsening, not only affects the environment, air quality, but also directly harm human health, and Chinese relevant departments need to improve control measures. U. S. toxic air pollutants (HAPs) control system was studied, and Chinese environment countermeasures were proposed based on pollution features. U. S. recognized sources of hazardous air pollutants in the Clean Air Act (CAA), and reduced their emissions by industrial regulations and regional policies. In urban areas, VOC occupied a great part of toxic air and were controlled as a major project in U. S. Due to relatively weak management and technical base, China should screen some VOC components for priority pollutant control. The feature of Chinese VOC pollution was described as complex components, industry sources widely distributed, strong regional characteristics and processes, and gradual development of regional pollution. It was suggested to carry out investigation assessment activities, enhance cumulative risk assessment and environmental impact assessment management, and strengthen emergency risk prevention.

  2. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation. (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H


    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  3. Analysis on Causes and Countermeasures of Bullwhip Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jianhua


    Full Text Available Bullwhip effect is an inevitable phenomenon in supply chain management, because of its objective existence. This phenomenon is very common and harmful to make the operating costs of enterprises double and become one of the main concerns of many enterprises. In this paper, the causes of the bullwhip effect are explored through the methods of literature research and investigated consultation to weaken the bullwhip effect. This paper analyzes the key countermeasures with Wal-Mart successful logistics management case. And according to the reason of bullwhip effect, a mathematical programming model of maximizing the efficiency of supply chain is established, which provides a way to solve the negative effect of bullwhip effect and has certain reference value.

  4. Countermeasures Against Blinding Attack on Superconducting Nanowire Detectors for QKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs are used in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD instead of single-photon avalanche photodiodes. Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing technique. We developed the autoreset system which returns the SSPD to superconducting state when it is latched. We investigate latched state of the SSPD and define limit conditions for effective blinding attack. Peculiarity of the blinding attack is a long nonsingle photon response of the SSPD. It is much longer than usual single photon response. Besides, we need follow up response duration of the SSPD. These countermeasures allow us to prevent blind attack on SSPDs for Quantum Key Distribution.

  5. Drug problems in China: recent trends, countermeasures, and challenges. (United States)

    Chen, Zhonglin; Huang, Kaicheng


    Drug crime in China is on an overall rising trend. Major drug crime cases are becoming more common, the types of drugs being trafficked are more diverse, and the smuggling and trafficking of drugs into the country and the smuggling of precursor chemicals out of the country have formed a bidirectional cycle. Drug crimes in China have also begun to show a conspicuous trend of internationalization. China's main countermeasures against drug crimes have been to pass new laws and regulations against drugs, to increase the efforts to eradicate cultivation, to establish and expand "drug-free communities" programs, and to strengthen international cooperation in antidrug campaigns. The existing problems demand prompt solutions, which include a shortage of funding and lack of accurate knowledge about prevalence of drug abuse and related data for scientifically studying the drug problems.

  6. Combining Technical and Financial Impacts for Countermeasure Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonzalez-Granadillo


    Full Text Available Research in information security has generally focused on providing a comprehensive interpretation of threats, vulnerabilities, and attacks, in particular to evaluate their danger and prioritize responses accordingly. Most of the current approaches propose advanced techniques to detect intrusions and complex attacks but few of these approaches propose well defined methodologies to react against a given attack. In this paper, we propose a novel and systematic method to select security countermeasures from a pool of candidates, by ranking them based on the technical and financial impact associated to each alternative. The method includes industrial evaluation and simulations of the impact associated to a given security measure which allows to compute the return on response investment for different candidates. A simple case study is proposed at the end of the paper to show the applicability of the model.

  7. Effectiveness of Artificial Gravity and Ergometric Exercise as a Countermeasure-Comparison between Everyday and Every Other Day Protocols (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Sugenoya, Junichi; Sato, Maki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Nishimura, Nooki; Takada, Hiroki; Takada, Masumi; Mano, Tadaki; Ishida, Koji; Akima, Hiroshi; Katayama, Keisho; Hirayanagi, Kaname; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Yajima, Katzuyoshi; Watanabe, Yoriko; Suzuki, Satomi; Fukunnaga, Tetsuo; Masuo, Yoshihisa


    Effectiveness of centrifuge-induced artificial gravity and ergometric exercise as a countermeasure to space deconditioning, including cardiovascular deconditioning, myatrophy, and osteoporosis, induced by 20 days of head-down bedrest., was examined in 12 healthy men in 2006, and 8 healthy men in 2007. Bedrest was performed with 2300 kcal of diet. Water intake was recommended more than the urine volume in a previous day. A new protocol for artificial gravity with ergometric exercise was adopted, with 1.6 G of artificial gravity at heart level and 60 W of exercise every day in 2006, and every other day in 2007. The load was suspended when subjects complained all-out, and was continued until 30 min cumulative total load time. Gravity was stepped up by 0.2 G or exercise load was stepped up by 15 W alternately when the subject endured the load for 5 min. Gravity tolerance was examined by using centrifuge, and anti-G score was determined before and after the bedrest. Not all result has been analyzed, however, effectiveness of artificial gravity with ergometric exercise was evidenced in orthostatic tolerance, physical fitness, cardiac function, myatrophy, and bone metabolism in everyday protocol, but not in every other day protocol. We concluded this everyday protocol was effective in cardiovascular deconditioning myatrophy, and bone metabolism.

  8. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra


    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  9. Splitter plate as a flow-altering pier scour countermeasure (United States)

    Khaple, Shivakumar; Hanmaiahgari, Prashanth Reddy; Gaudio, Roberto; Dey, Subhasish


    Results of an experimental study on the countermeasure of scour depth at circular piers are presented. Experiments were conducted for pier scour with and without a splitter plate under a steady, uniform clear-water flow condition. The results of pier scour without splitter plate were used as a reference. Different combinations of lengths and thicknesses of splitter plates were tested attaching each of them to a pier at the upstream vertical plane of symmetry. Two different median sediment sizes ( d 50 = 0.96 and 1.8 mm) were considered as bed sediment. The experimental results show that the scour depth consistently decreases with an increase in splitter plate length, while the scour depth remains independent of splitter plate thickness. In addition, temporal evolution of scour depth at piers with and without a splitter plate is observed. The best combination is found to be with a splitter plate thickness of b/5 and a length of 2 b. Here, b denotes the pier diameter. An empirical formula for the estimation of equilibrium scour depth at piers with splitter plates is obtained from a multiple linear regression analysis of the experimental data. The flow fields for various combinations of circular piers with and without splitter plate including plain bed and equilibrium scour conditions were measured by using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The turbulent flow fields for various configurations are investigated by plotting the velocity vectors and the turbulent kinetic energy contours on vertical and horizontal planes. The splitter plate attached to the pier deflects the approach flow and thus weakens the strength of the downflow and the horseshoe vortex, being instrumental in reducing the equilibrium scour depth at piers. The proposed method of pier scour countermeasure is easy to install and cost effective as well.

  10. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden


    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense. (United States)

    Howden, Reuben


    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration” is a visionary system concept that will revolutionize space...

  13. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) is a specialized spacesuit designed to keep astronauts healthy during long-duration space exploration missions and...

  14. Global attractivity and optimal dynamic countermeasure of a virus propagation model in complex networks (United States)

    Zhang, Xulong; Gan, Chenquan


    This paper aims to study the combined impact of countermeasure and network topology on virus diffusion and optimal dynamic countermeasure. A novel heterogenous propagation model and its optimal control problem are proposed and analyzed. Qualitative analysis shows that the unique equilibrium of the proposed model is globally attractive and the optimal control problem has an optimal control. Some simulation experiments are also performed. Specifically, it is found that our obtained results are contrary to some previous results and countermeasure dissemination to higher-degree nodes is more effective than that to lower-degree nodes. The related explanations are also made. This indicates that countermeasures and network topology play an important role in suppressing viral spread.

  15. Development of test scenarios for off-roadway crash countermeasures based on crash statistics (United States)


    This report presents the results from an analysis of off-roadway crashes and proposes a set of crash-imminent scenarios to objectively test countermeasure systems for light vehicles (passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and pickup trucks) ba...

  16. 77 FR 52746 - Medical Countermeasures for a Burn Mass Casualty Incident (United States)


    ... availability of large quantities of medical countermeasures for resuscitation, wound management, pain relief..., patients may need to be treated in other care sites, such as local or regional trauma centers, if...

  17. A Framework for Evaluating Advanced Search Concepts for Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Mine Countermeasures (MCM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gooding, Trent


    .... In recent years, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) have emerged as a viable technology for conducting underwater search, survey, and clearance operations in support of the mine countermeasures (MCM) mission...

  18. Preliminary Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Results from the Joint Russian/U.S. Pilot Field Test in Preparation for the Full Field Test (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; hide


    Ongoing collaborative research efforts between NASA's Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories, and the Institute of Biomedical Problems' (IBMP) Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories have been measuring functional sensorimotor, cardiovascular and strength responses following bed rest, dry immersion, short-duration (Space Shuttle) and long-duration (Mir and International Space Station [ISS]) space flights. While the unloading paradigms associated with dry immersion and bed rest does serve as acceptable flight analogs, testing of crew responses following the long-duration flights previously has not been possible until a minimum of 24 hours after landing. As a result, it is not possible to estimate the nonlinear trend of the early (sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements, including evaluations of NASA's new anti-orthostatic compression garment and the Russian Kentavr garment. Functional sensorimotor measurements will include, but are not limited to, assessing hand/eye coordination, egressing from a seated position, walking normally without falling, measuring of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with both the hands and legs, recovering from a fall, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement, and determining postural ataxia while standing. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation includes measuring blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia testing (quiet stance sway) as well as cardiovascular responses during the other functional tasks. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data for the full FT, postflight data will be acquired between one and three more other times within the 24 hours after landing and will continue over the subsequent weeks until functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. The PFT represents a single trial run comprised of a jointly agreed upon subset of tests from

  19. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease]. (United States)

    Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim


    Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations.

  20. Adaptive Timer-Based Countermeasures against TCP SYN Flood Attacks (United States)

    Tanabe, Masao; Akaike, Hirofumi; Aida, Masaki; Murata, Masayuki; Imase, Makoto

    As a result of the rapid development of the Internet in recent years, network security has become an urgent issue. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are one of the most serious security issues. In particular, 60 percent of the DDoS attacks found on the Internet are TCP attacks, including SYN flood attacks. In this paper, we propose adaptive timer-based countermeasures against SYN flood attacks. Our proposal utilizes the concept of soft-state protocols that are widely used for resource management on the Internet. In order to avoid deadlock, a server releases resources using a time-out mechanism without any explicit requests from its clients. If we change the value of the timer in accordance with the network conditions, we can add more flexibility to the soft-state protocols. The timer is used to manage the resources assigned to half-open connections in a TCP 3-way handshake mechanism, and its value is determined adaptively according to the network conditions. In addition, we report our simulation results to show the effectiveness of our approach.

  1. Space Nutrition: Effects on Bone and Potential Nutrition Countermeasures (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.


    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and , if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first eight International Space Station (ISS) missions. Bone loss during space flight remains one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. An increase in bone resorption of ISS crew members after flight was indicated by several markers. Vitamin D status also remains a challenge for long-duration space travelers, who lack ultraviolet light exposure in the shielded craft. Many nutrients affect bone, including calcium, protein, fatty acids, sodium, and others. Data supporting their potential as countermeasures for space flight, as published in many papers, will be reviewed in this presentation. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health. Please note, this abstract is not required for the meeting. A presentation on the topics described above will be given. This abstract is for travel documentation only.

  2. Site 300 Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) near Tracy, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at Site 300. This SPCC Plan has been prepared for the entire Site 300 facility and replaces the three previous plans prepared for Site 300: LLNL SPCC for Electrical Substations Near Buildings 846 and 865 (LLNL 2015), LLNL SPCC for Building 883 (LLNL 2015), and LLNL SPCC for Building 801 (LLNL 2014).

  3. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR), Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at the Livermore Site.

  4. Animal Models for Medical Countermeasures to Radiation Exposure (United States)

    Williams, Jacqueline P.; Brown, Stephen L.; Georges, George E.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Hill, Richard P.; Huser, Amy K.; Kirsch, David G.; MacVittie, Thomas J.; Mason, Kathy A.; Medhora, Meetha M.; Moulder, John E.; Okunieff, Paul; Otterson, Mary F.; Robbins, Michael E.; Smathers, James B.; McBride, William H.


    Since September 11, 2001, there has been the recognition of a plausible threat from acts of terrorism, including radiological or nuclear attacks. A network of Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCRs) has been established across the U.S.; one of the missions of this network is to identify and develop mitigating agents that can be used to treat the civilian population after a radiological event. The development of such agents requires comparison of data from many sources and accumulation of information consistent with the “Animal Rule” from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Given the necessity for a consensus on appropriate animal model use across the network to allow for comparative studies to be performed across institutions, and to identify pivotal studies and facilitate FDA approval, in early 2008, investigators from each of the CMCRs organized and met for an Animal Models Workshop. Working groups deliberated and discussed the wide range of animal models available for assessing agent efficacy in a number of relevant tissues and organs, including the immune and hematopoietic systems, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and skin. Discussions covered the most appropriate species and strains available as well as other factors that may affect differential findings between groups and institutions. This report provides the workshop findings. PMID:20334528

  5. Smart grid data integrity attacks: characterizations and countermeasuresπ

    KAUST Repository

    Giani, Annarita


    Coordinated cyberattacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm in the power system state estimation process. These unobservable attacks present a potentially serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of line power meters is presented. This requires O(n 2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known-secure phasor measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyberattacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyberattacks. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. [Problems and countermeasures in the application of constructed wetlands]. (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Lou; Chen, Qin; Xu, Lian-Huang


    Constructed wetlands as a wastewater eco-treatment technology are developed in recent decades. It combines sewage treatment with the eco-environment in an efficient way. It treats the sewage effectively, and meanwhile beautifies the environment, creates ecological landscape, and brings benefits to the environment and economics. The unique advantages of constructed wetlands have attracted intensive attention since developed. Constructed wetlands are widely used in treatment of domestic sewage, industrial wastewater, and wastewater from mining and petroleum production. However, many problems are found in the practical application of constructed wetland, e. g. they are vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and temperature, their substrates are easily saturated and plugged, they are readily affected by plant species, they often occupy large areas, and there are other problems including irrational management, non-standard design, and a single function of ecological service. These problems to a certain extent influence the efficiency of constructed wetlands in wastewater treatment, shorten the life of the artificial wetland, and hinder the application of artificial wetland. The review presents correlation analysis and countermeasures for these problems, in order to improve the efficiency of constructed wetland in wastewater treatment, and provide reference for the application and promotion of artificial wetland.

  7. Development of an Inflight Countermeasure to Mitigate Postflight Gait Dysfunction (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.


    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience gait and postural instabilities due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. These changes can pose a risk to crew safety if nominal or emergency vehicle egress is required immediately following long-duration spaceflight. At present, no operational countermeasure is available to mitigate postflight locomotor disturbances. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop an inflight training regimen that facilitates the recovery of locomotor function after long-duration spaceflight. The countermeasure we are developing is based on the concept of variable practice. During this type of training the subject gains experience producing the appropriate adaptive motor behavior under a variety of sensory conditions and response constraints. This countermeasure is built around current ISS treadmill exercise activities. Crewmembers will conduct their nominal inflight treadmill exercise while being exposed to variations in visual flow patterns. These variations will challenge the postural and locomotor systems repeatedly, thereby promoting adaptive reorganization in locomotor behavior. As a result of this training a subject learns to solve a class of motor problems, rather than a specific motor solution to one problem, Le., the subject learns response generalizability or the ability to "learn to learn" under a variety of environmental constraints. We anticipate that this training will accelerate recovery of postural and locomotor function during readaptation to gravitational environments following spaceflight facilitating neural adaptation to unit (Earth) and partial (Mars) gravity after long-duration spaceflight. The study calls for one group of subjects to perform the inflight treadmill training regimen while a control group of subjects performs only the nominal exercise procedures. Locomotor function in both groups is assessed before and after spaceflight using two tests of gait function: The Integrated Treadmill

  8. Effectiveness of Circadian countermeasures in simulated transmeridian flight schedules (United States)

    Moline, Margaret L.; Monk, Timothy H.


    The symptoms of jet-lag commonly afflict travelers who cross time zones. Insomnia during the new night, daytime fatigue, malaise, sleepiness, and gastrointestinal disturbances can occur for as long as 3 weeks after jet travel across even a few time zones. These symptoms are largely due to the slow rate of adjustment of the internal circadian timing system to the new time zone. Since business (or pleasure) can be seriously interrupted by such symptoms, it is important to determine ways to speed up the adjustment process to ameliorate the symptoms. Airline pilots have reported that they frequently nap to counter jet lag symptoms, and that they view this as a useful technique. Napping as a countermeasure would be attractive since it is practical and would take advantage of a naturally occurring phase of sleepiness after lunch. Napping also makes sense since insomnia is a common jet lag symptom. Thus, a laboratory simulation of jet lag was designed to test the ability of napping to increase the rate of adjustment following a time zone shift in a population of middle-aged men.

  9. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness. (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko


    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  11. Human Health Countermeasures - Partial-Gravity Analogs Workshop (United States)

    Barr, Yael; Clement, Gilles; Norsk, Peter


    The experimental conditions that were deemed the most interesting by the HHC Element lead scientists are those permitting studies of the long-term effects of exposure to (a) chronic rotation when supine or in head down tilt (ground-based); and (b) long-radius centrifugation (space based). It is interesting to note that chronic ground based slow rotation room studies have not been performed since the 1960's, when the USA and USSR were investigating the potential use of AG for long-duration space missions. On the other hand, the other partial gravity analogs, i.e., parabolic flight, HUT, suspension, and short-radius centrifugation, have been regularly used in the last three decades (see review in Clément et al. 2015). Based on the workshop evaluations and the scores by the HHC scientific disciplines indicated in tables 3 and 4, simulation of partial G between 0 and 1 should be prioritized as follows: Priority 1. Chronic space-based partial-G analogs: a. Chronic space-based long-radius centrifugation. The ideal scenario would be chronic long-radius centrifugation of cells, animals and humans in a translational research approach - ideally beyond low earth orbit under deep space environmental effects and at various rotations - to obtain different G-effects. In this scenario, all physiological systems could be evaluated and the relationship between physiological response and G level established. This would be the most integrative way of defining, for the first time ever, G-thresholds for each physiological system. b. Chronic space-based centrifugation of animals. Chronic centrifugation of rodents at various G levels in space would allow for determination of AG thresholds of protection for each physiological system. In this case, all physiological systems will be of interest. Intermittent centrifugation will be of secondary interest. c. Chronic space-based centrifugation of cell cultures (RWV). Bioreactor studies of cells and cell cultures of various tissues at various G

  12. Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Angela


    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

  13. L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, as a potential countermeasure to post-suspension hypotension in rats (United States)

    Bayorh, M. A.; Socci, R. R.; Watts, S.; Wang, M.; Eatman, D.; Emmett, N.; Thierry-Palmer, M.


    A large number of astronauts returning from spaceflight experience orthostatic hypotension. This hypotension may be due to overproduction of vasodilatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. To evaluate the role of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as a countermeasure against the post-suspension reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP), we assessed the cardiovascular responses and vascular reactivity to 7-day 30 degrees tail-suspension and a subsequent 6 hr post-suspension period in conscious rats. After a pre-suspension reading, direct MAP and heart rate (HR) were measured daily and every 2 hrs post-suspension. The NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.v.), or saline, were administered after the 7th day reading prior to release from suspension and at 2 and 4 hrs post-suspension. At 6 hrs post-suspension, vascular reactivity was assessed. While MAP did not change during the suspension period, it was reduced post-suspension. Heart rate was not significantly altered. L-NAME administration reversed the post-suspension reduction in MAP. In addition, the baroreflex sensitivity for heart rate was modified by L-NAME. Thus, the post-suspension reduction in MAP may be due to overproduction of NO and altered baroreflex activity.

  14. Recent findings in cardiovascular physiology with space travel. (United States)

    Hughson, Richard L


    The cardiovascular system undergoes major changes in stress with space flight primarily related to the elimination of the head-to-foot gravitational force. A major observation has been that the central venous pressure is not elevated early in space flight yet stroke volume is increased at least early in flight. Recent observations demonstrate that heart rate remains lower during the normal daily activities of space flight compared to Earth-based conditions. Structural and functional adaptations occur in the vascular system that could result in impaired response with demands of physical exertion and return to Earth. Cardiac muscle mass is reduced after flight and contractile function may be altered. Regular and specific countermeasures are essential to maintain cardiovascular health during long-duration space flight.

  15. Cardiovascular deconditioning: From autonomic nervous system to microvascular dysfunctions. (United States)

    Coupé, M; Fortrat, J O; Larina, I; Gauquelin-Koch, G; Gharib, C; Custaud, M A


    Weightlessness induces an acute syndrome called the cardiovascular deconditioning, associating orthostatic intolerance with syncope, increase in resting heart rate and decrease in physical capability. Orthostatic intolerance occurs after short term and long term head down bed rest and after long term space flight. Both head down bed rest and space flight induce a significant decrease of the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity. However, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity only characterizes the cardiac baroreflex loop. To go further with the analysis of cardiovascular deconditioning we were interested in the microcirculation. As the endothelium plays a crucial role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis and local blood flow, we hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction is associated with bed rest induced changes. We investigated endothelial properties before and after 56 days of bed rest in 8 women of control group and in 8 women who regularly performed physical exercise as countermeasure. Our study shows that prolonged bed rest causes impairment of endothelium-dependent functions at the microcirculation level, along with an increase in circulating endothelial cells. Endothelium should be a target for countermeasures during periods of prolonged bed rest or exposure to weightlessness.

  16. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology] [and others


    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable

  17. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J


    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  18. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Eged, K. [and others


    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  19. The Cyber Defense (CyDef) Model for Assessing Countermeasure Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Margot [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeVries, Troy Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Susanna P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Cybersecurity is essential to maintaining operations, and is now a de facto cost of business. Despite this, there is little consensus on how to systematically make decisions about cyber countermeasures investments. Identifying gaps and determining the expected return on investment (ROI) of adding a new cybersecurity countermeasure is frequently a hand-waving exercise at best. Worse, cybersecurity nomenclature is murky and frequently over-loaded, which further complicates issues by inhibiting clear communication. This paper presents a series of foundational models and nomenclature for discussing cybersecurity countermeasures, and then introduces the Cyber Defense (CyDef) model, which provides a systematic and intuitive way for decision-makers to effectively communicate with operations and device experts.

  20. Immune Response in Microgravity: Genetic Basis and Countermeasure Development Implications (United States)

    Risin, Diana; Ward, Nancy E.; Risin, Semyon A.; Pellis, Neal R.


    expression were identified in the apoptosis related group (Granzyme B, APO2 ligand and Beta3endonexin). All of them were downregulated. Gene expression changes in MG might appear pivotal in identifying potential molecular targets for countermeasure development. (Supported by NRA OLMSA02 and NSCORT NAG54072 grants).

  1. Instrumentation for Non-Invasive Assessment of Cardiovascular Regulation (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J.


    It is critically important to be able to assess alterations in cardiovascular regulation during and after space flight. We propose to develop an instrument for the non-invasive assessment of such alterations that can be used on the ground and potentially during space flight. This instrumentation would be used by the Cardiovascular Alterations Team at multiple sites for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system and the evaluation of countermeasures. In particular, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team will use this instrumentation in conjunction with ground-based human bed-rest studies and during application of acute stresses e.g., tilt, lower body negative pressure, and exercise. In future studies, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team anticipates using this instrumentation to study astronauts before and after space flight and ultimately, during space flight. The instrumentation may also be used by the Bone Demineralization/Calcium Metabolism Team, the Neurovestibular Team and the Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team to measure changes in autonomic nervous function. The instrumentation will be based on a powerful new technology - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - which has been developed in our laboratory. CSI provides a non-invasive approach for the study of alterations in cardiovascular regulation. This approach involves the analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in physiologic signals such as heart rate and non-invasively measured arterial blood pressure in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of multiple physiologic mechanisms, CSI provides a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject.

  2. High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.


    More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports

  3. Seminar on countermeasures for pipe cracking in BWRs. Volume 2 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of welded type 304 stainless steel in the recirculation piping of boiling water reactors has had an impact on plant availability and reliability since the fall of 1974. Investigtions of this problem have resulted in significant progress in understanding the phenomenon and providing an engineering resolution by developing and qualifying countermeasures. A number of these countermeasures including solution heat treatment, corrosion resistant clad, alternate pipe materials, induction heating stress improvement and heat sink welding have been implemented. Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented.

  4. Seminar on countermeasures for pipe cracking in BWRs. Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of welded type 304 stainless steel in the recirculation piping of boiling water reactors has had an impact on plant availability and reliability since the fall of 1974. Investigations of this problem have resulted in significant progress in understanding the phenomenon and providing an engineering resolution by developing and qualifying countermeasures. A number of these countermeasures including solution heat treatment, corrosion resistant clad, alternate pipe materials, induction heating stress improvement and heat sink welding have been implemented. Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented.

  5. Pilot Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Results from the Joint Russian/U.S. Field Test (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; hide


    The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements, including evaluations of NASA's new anti-orthostatic compression garment and the Russian Kentavr garment. Functional sensorimotor measurements will include, but are not limited to, assessing hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with both the hands and legs, recovering from a fall (standing from a prone position), coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement, and determining postural ataxia while standing. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation includes measuring blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia testing (quiet stance sway) as well as cardiovascular responses during the other functional tasks. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data for the full FT, postflight data is being acquired twice more within the 24 hours after landing and will continue over the subsequent weeks until functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. The PFT represents a initial evaluation of the feasibility of testing in the field, and is comprised of a jointly agreed upon subset of tests from the full FT and relies heavily on Russia's Institute of Biomedical Problems Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories for content and implementation. The PFT has been collected on several ISS missions. Testing on the U.S. side has included: (1) a sit-to-stand test, (2) recovery from a fall where the crewmember began in the prone position on the ground and then stood for 3 minutes while cardiovascular stability was determined and postural ataxia data were acquired, and (3) a tandem heel-to-toe walk

  6. Preliminary Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Results from the Joint Russian and U.S. Pilot Field Test with Planning for the Full Field Test Beginning with the Year Long Intenational Space Station (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; hide


    Ongoing collaborative research efforts between NASA's Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories, and the Institute of Biomedical Problems' (IBMP) Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories have been measuring functional sensorimotor, cardiovascular and strength responses following bed rest, dry immersion, short duration (Space Shuttle) and long duration (Mir and International Space Station) space flights. While the unloading paradigms associated with dry immersion and bed rest does serve as acceptable flight analogs, testing of crew responses following the long duration flights previously has not been possible until a minimum of 24 hours after landing. As a result, it is not possible to estimate the nonlinear trend of the early (sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements, including evaluations of NASA's new anti-orthostatic compression garment and the Russian Kentavr garment. Functional sensorimotor measurements will include, but are not limited to, assessment of hand/eye coordination, ability to egress from a seated position, walk normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, ability to discriminate different forces generated with both the hands and legs, recovery from a fall, a coordinated walk involving tandem heel-to-toe placement, and determination of postural ataxia while standing. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation includes blood pressure and heart rate measurements during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia testing (quiet stance sway) as well as cardiovascular responses during other functional tasks. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data for the full FT, postflight data will be acquired at a minimum of one to three more other times within the 24 hr following landing and continue until functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. The PFT represents a single trial run comprised of jointly agreed upon subset of tests from the full

  7. Computer Aided Modeling to Determine the Effectiveness of Resistive Exercises as Countermeasures for Bone Mineral Density Loss (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin M.


    Due to the loss of gravitational loading, astronauts have a tendency to lose bone mineral density in their lumbar spine and lower extremities on orbit. NASA requires astronauts to perform exercises during space flight to help reduce the amount of demineralization. To test these exercises on earth, 17 week bed rest studies are conducted that consist of specific diet and exercise regimes. Developing a finite element model of these exercises will help to quantify the stress distribution imposed by of each of these exercises. To help develop this model, MRI images are acquired from individuals participating in the bed rest studies. The MRIs can be used to create a subject specific model of each individual for testing. The MRIs are processed in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Transfer System program to develop a three-dimensional finite element model of the femur for evaluation. Modifications were made to the MRIDTS that simplified the model creation process. These modifications made it possible to construct two separate models of different portions of a bone simultaneously and then later connect them manually. This helped alleviate the warping problem associated with the drastic changes in geometry found in some body parts, such as the joints. The code was also modified to incorporate material properties of various bone components into the model. Interior meshing was also incorporated into the program to allow for both the cortical shell and the entire bone to be modeled. A prototype model of the right femur of an adult female is being constructed and tested to determine the feasibility of finite element analysis as a tool for evaluating exercise effectiveness. The model is being run through the ANSYS finite element program on the Alabama Super Computer Network. After the model is validated, models of bedrest subjects can be generated to investigate exercise countermeasures.

  8. Gradient Compression Garments as a Countermeasure to Post-Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance: Potential Interactions with the Maximum Absorbency Garment (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Macias, B. R.; Willig, M.; Johnson, K.; Stenger, M. B.


    Astronauts and cosmonauts may experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing, and for several days post-landing following short- and long-duration spaceflight. Presyncopal symptoms have been documented in approximately 20% of short-duration and greater than 60% of long-duration flyers on landing day specifically during 5-10 min of controlled (no countermeasures employed at the time of testing) stand tests or 80 deg head-up tilt tests. Current operational countermeasures to orthostatic intolerance include fluid loading prior to and whole body cooling during re-entry as well as compression garments that are worn during and for up to several days after landing. While both NASA and the Russian space program have utilized compression garments to protect astronauts and cosmonauts traveling on their respective vehicles, a "next-generation" gradient compression garment (GCG) has been developed and tested in collaboration with a commercial partner to support future space flight missions. Unlike previous compression garments used operationally by NASA that provide a single level of compression across only the calves, thighs, and lower abdomen, the GCG provides continuous coverage from the feet to below the pectoral muscles in a gradient fashion (from approximately 55 mm Hg at the feet to approximately 16 mmHg across the abdomen). The efficacy of the GCG has been demonstrated previously after a 14-d bed rest study without other countermeasures and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Currently the GCG is being tested during a stand test following long-duration missions (6 months) to the International Space Station. While results to date have been promising, interactions of the GCG with other space suit components have not been examined. Specifically, it is unknown whether wearing the GCG over NASA's Maximum Absorbency Garment (MAG; absorbent briefs worn for the collection of urine and feces while suited during re-entry and landing) will

  9. Development of a Countermeasure to Mitigate Postflight Locomotor Dysfunction (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Ruttley, T. M.


    Astronauts returning from space flight experience locomotor dysfunction following their return to Earth. Our laboratory is currently developing a gait adaptability training program that is designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a return to a gravitational environment. The training program exploits the ability of the sensorimotor system to generalize from exposure to multiple adaptive challenges during training so that the gait control system essentially learns to learn and therefore can reorganize more rapidly when faced with a novel adaptive challenge. Evidence for the potential efficacy of an adaptive generalization gait training program can be obtained from numerous studies in the motor learning literature which have demonstrated that systematically varying the conditions of training enhances the ability of the performer to learn and retain a novel motor task. These variable practice training approaches have been used in applied contexts to improve motor skills required in a number of different sports. The central nervous system (CNS) can produce voluntary movement in an almost infinite number of ways. For example, locomotion can be achieved with many different combinations of joint angles, muscle activation patterns and forces. The CNS can exploit these degrees of freedom to enhance motor response adaptability during periods of adaptive flux like that encountered during a change in gravitational environment. Ultimately, the functional goal of an adaptive generalization countermeasure is not necessarily to immediately return movement patterns back to normal. Rather the training regimen should facilitate the reorganization of available sensory and motor subsystems to achieve safe and effective locomotion as soon as possible after long duration space flight. Indeed, this approach has been proposed as a basic feature underlying effective neurological rehabilitation. We have previously confirmed that subjects participating in an adaptive

  10. The ICV Study: Integrated Cardiovascular (United States)

    Levine, Benjamin D.; Bungo, Michael W.


    This viewgraph presentation describes the effects of long duration manned spaceflight on heart structure and function. Clinical consequences for orthostatic tolerance, cardiac arrhythmias, and countermeasures to prevent clinical problems are also discussed.

  11. Low-Load Resistance Training with Blood Flow Occlusion as a Countermeasure to Disuse Atrophy (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Cook, S. B.


    Decreases in strength and neuromuscular function are observed following prolonged disuse. Exercise countermeasures to prevent muscle dysfunction during disuse typically involve high intensity resistance training. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow occlusion to mitigate muscle loss and dysfunction during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS).

  12. 77 FR 38631 - Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the Development of Medical Countermeasures... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the Development of Medical... Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues is requesting public comment on the ethical issues associated... countermeasures in children.'' Accordingly, the Commission is examining ethical issues surrounding the development...

  13. Development of a Mid-Infrared Laser for Study of Infrared Countermeasures Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Putten, F.J.M. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Heuvel, J.C. van den


    Countermeasures against heat seeking missiles require access to efficient laser sources, which should emit wavelengths at band I, II and IV. Efficient diode pumped solid-state lasers, combined with efficient non-linear wavelength shifters, allow the development of practical tuneable mid-IR

  14. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling... (United States)


    ... Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities. 112.11 Section 112.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL...

  15. 75 FR 63655 - Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program (CICP): Administrative Implementation, Interim Final... (United States)


    ....g., doctor administering the vaccine) or the mother knew that she was pregnant at the time the...: (1) Pandemic influenza vaccines (including, but not limited to the influenza A H1N1 2009 monovalent vaccine which will be hereafter referred to as the 2009 H1N1 vaccine); (2) anthrax countermeasures; (3...

  16. Spatial distribution of urban heat island in Hangzhou and its mitigation countermeasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.-W.; Li, G.-L.; Xue, J.


    of the evolution of urban landuse types, the changes of urban spatial pattern, the rationality of the urban land layout, and the emission of anthropogenic heat. Finally, in the perspective of urban planning, some mitigation countermeasures including the reasonable control of the expansion of urban landuse...

  17. Evaluation tools for the effectiveness of infrared countermeasures and signature reduction for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, R.M.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.


    The protection of ships against infrared guided missiles is a concern for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper will present a set of simulation tools which can be used for

  18. Modelling infrared signatures of ships and decoys for countermeasure effectiveness studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Degache, M.A.C.; Veerman, H.E.T.; Sweeden, R. van; Devecchi, B.A.


    Infrared guided missiles are a threat for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents recent improvements in a simulation toolset which can be used for assessing the

  19. Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) for Agriculture (United States)

    A key element of the SPCC rule requires farms and other facilities to develop, maintain and implement an oil spill prevention plan, called an SPCC Plan. These plans help farms prevent oil spill, as well as control a spill should one occur.

  20. Evaluation of countermeasures for red light running by traffic simulator-based surrogate safety measures. (United States)

    Lee, Changju; So, Jaehyun Jason; Ma, Jiaqi


    The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures using comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis. Considering the random nature of red light running (RLR) crashes, an inventive approach regardless of data availability is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of each countermeasure face to face. The aims of this research are to (1) review erstwhile literature related to red light running and traffic safety models; (2) propose a practical methodology for evaluation of RLR countermeasures with a microscopic traffic simulation model and surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM); (3) apply the proposed methodology to actual signalized intersection in Virginia, with the most prevalent scenarios-increasing the yellow signal interval duration, installing an advance warning sign, and an RLR camera; and (4) analyze the relative effectiveness by RLR frequency and the number of conflicts (rear-end and crossing). All scenarios show a reduction in RLR frequency (-7.8, -45.5, and -52.4%, respectively), but only increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in a reduced total number of conflicts (-11.3%; a surrogate safety measure of possible RLR-related crashes). An RLR camera makes the greatest reduction (-60.9%) in crossing conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible angle crashes), whereas increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in only a 12.8% reduction of rear-end conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible rear-end crash). Although increasing the yellow signal interval duration is advantageous because this reduces the total conflicts (a possibility of total

  1. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Duda


    Full Text Available The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a viscous resistance during movements against a specified direction of down – initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from down initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation.

  2. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen


    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  3. Understanding cardiovascular disease (United States)

    ... page: // Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most ...

  4. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    ... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... help understand the role of genetic factors in cardiovascular disease . However, the testing is sometimes used in ...

  5. Cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Januszewicz, A.


    Clinical expression of phaeochromocytoma may involve numerous cardiovascular manifestations, but usually presents as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension associated with other signs and symptoms of catecholamine excess. Most of the life-threatening cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma,

  6. Exercise in space: the European Space Agency approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures for long-duration missions on ISS. (United States)

    Petersen, Nora; Jaekel, Patrick; Rosenberger, Andre; Weber, Tobias; Scott, Jonathan; Castrucci, Filippo; Lambrecht, Gunda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Damann, Volker; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Mester, Joachim


    To counteract microgravity (µG)-induced adaptation, European Space Agency (ESA) astronauts on long-duration missions (LDMs) to the International Space Station (ISS) perform a daily physical exercise countermeasure program. Since the first ESA crewmember completed an LDM in 2006, the ESA countermeasure program has strived to provide efficient protection against decreases in body mass, muscle strength, bone mass, and aerobic capacity within the operational constraints of the ISS environment and the changing availability of on-board exercise devices. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of ESA's individualised approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures and an up-to-date picture of how exercise is used to counteract physiological changes resulting from µG-induced adaptation. Changes in the absolute workload for resistive exercise, treadmill running and cycle ergometry throughout ESA's eight LDMs are also presented, and aspects of pre-flight physical preparation and post-flight reconditioning outlined. With the introduction of the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) in 2009, the relative contribution of resistance exercise to total in-flight exercise increased (33-46 %), whilst treadmill running (42-33 %) and cycle ergometry (26-20 %) decreased. All eight ESA crewmembers increased their in-flight absolute workload during their LDMs for resistance exercise and treadmill running (running speed and vertical loading through the harness), while cycle ergometer workload was unchanged across missions. Increased or unchanged absolute exercise workloads in-flight would appear contradictory to typical post-flight reductions in muscle mass and strength, and cardiovascular capacity following LDMs. However, increased absolute in-flight workloads are not directly linked to changes in exercise capacity as they likely also reflect the planned, conservative loading early in the mission to allow adaption to µG exercise, including personal comfort issues

  7. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    , oral supplementation with antioxidants appears to be an effective approach for the radioprotection of hematopoietic cells against the cell killing effects of radiation, and for improving survival in irradiated animals. Preliminary data suggest similar antioxidant protective effects for animals exposed to potentially lethal doses of proton radiation. Studies were also performed to determine whether dietary antioxidants could affect the incidence rates of malignancies in CBA mice exposed to 300 cGy proton (1 GeV/n) radiation or 50 cGy iron ion (1 GeV/n) radiation [9]. Two antioxidant formulations were utilized in these studies; an AOX formulation containing the mixture of antioxidant agents developed from our previous studies and an antioxidant dietary formulation containing the soybean-derived protease inhibitor known as the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). BBI was evaluated in the form of BBI Concentrate (BBIC), which is the form of BBI utilized in human trials. BBIC has been utilized in human trials since 1992, as described [10]. The major finding in the long-term animal studies was that there was a reduced risk of malignant lymphoma in mice exposed to space radiations and maintained on diets containing the antioxidant formulations. In addition, the two different dietary countermeasures also reduced the yields of a variety of different rare tumor types, arising from both epithelial and connective tissue cells, observed in the animals exposed to space radiation. REFERENCES [1] Guan J. et al (2004) Radiation Research 162, 572-579. [2] Wan X.S. et al (2005) Radiation Research 163, 364-368. [3] Wan X.S. et al (2005) Radiation Research 163, 232-240. [4] Guan J. et al (2006) Radiation Research 165, 373-378. [5] Wan X.S. et al (2006) International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 64, 1475-1481. [6] Kennedy A.R. et al (2006) Radiation Research 166, 327-332. [7] Kennedy A.R. et al (2007) Radiation & Environmental Biophysics 46(2), 201-3. [8]Wambi, C., Sanzari, J

  8. Epidemiology and trace elements. (United States)

    Elwood, P C


    Basically, epidemiology is the making of measurements of known reproducibility, in a bias-free manner, on representative samples of subjects drawn from defined communities. Epidemiology has become a relatively precise science and its value in medicine is widely appreciated. So too are its limitations: the difficulties in achieving a high response rate, in identifying and controlling confounding factors in the examination of an association, and the ultimate difficulties in distinguishing causation from association. While the value of community-based studies seems to be recognized by those interested in man and his environment, the need for the strict application of epidemiological procedures, and the limitations imposed on conclusions drawn from studies in which these procedures have been compromised, does not seem to be adequately understood. There are certain known links between trace elements in the environment and disease: for example the level of iodine in soil and water and the prevalence of goitre; the level of fluoride in water and the prevalence of dental caries. The investigation of other possible associations is difficult for a number of reasons, including interrelationships between trace elements, confounding of trace element levels (and disease) with social and dietary factors, and the probability that relationships are generally weak. Two conditions in which associations are likely are cardiovascular disease and cancer. Despite research along a number of lines, the relevance of trace elements to cardiovascular disease is not clear, and certainly the apparent association with hardness of domestic water supply seems unlikely to be causal. The same general conclusion seems reasonable for cancer, and although there are a very few well established associations which are likely to be causal, such as exposure to arsenic and skin cancer, the role of trace elements is obscure, and likely to be very small.

  9. Development of countermeasures for medical problems encountered in space flight (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren; Teeter, Ron


    By the turn of this century, long-duration space missions, either in low Earth orbit or for got early planetary missions, will become commonplace. From the physiological standpoint, exposure to the weightless environment results in changes in body function, some of which are adaptive in nature and some of which can be life threatening. Important issues such as environmental health, radiation protection, physical deconditioning, and bone and muscle loss are of concern to life scientists and mission designers. Physical conditioning techniques such as exercise are not sufficient to protect future space travellers. A review of past experience with piloted missions has shown that gradual breakdown in bone and muscle tissue, together with fluid losses, despite a vigorous exercise regimen can ultimately lead to increased evidence of renal stones, musculoskeletal injuries, and bone fractures. Biological effects of radiation can, over long periods of time increase the risk of cancer development. Today, a vigorous program of study on the means to provide a complex exercise regimen to the antigravity muscles and skeleton is under study. Additional evaluation of artificial gravity as a mechanism to counteract bone and muscle deconditioning and cardiovascular asthenia is under study. New radiation methods are being developed. This paper will deal with the results of these studies.

  10. Sleepiness, sleep, and use of sleepiness countermeasures in shift-working long-haul truck drivers. (United States)

    Pylkkönen, M; Sihvola, M; Hyvärinen, H K; Puttonen, S; Hublin, C; Sallinen, M


    Driver sleepiness is a prevalent phenomenon among professional drivers working unconventional and irregular hours. For compromising occupational and traffic safety, sleepiness has become one of the major conundrums of road transportation. To further elucidate the phenomenon, an on-road study canvassing the under-explored relationship between working hours and sleepiness, sleep, and use of sleepiness countermeasures during and outside statutory rest breaks was conducted. Testing the association between the outcomes and working hours, generalized estimating equations models were fitted on a data collected from 54 long-haul truck drivers (mean 38.1 ± 10.5 years, one female) volunteering in the 2-week study. Unobtrusive data-collection methods applied under naturalistic working and shift conditions included the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) measuring sleepiness, a combination of actigraphy and sleep-log measuring sleep, and self-report questionnaire items incorporated into the sleep-log measuring the use of sleepiness countermeasures during and outside statutory rest breaks. Drivers' working hours were categorized into first and consecutive night, morning and day/evening shifts based on shift timing. The results reveal severe sleepiness (KSS≥7) was most prevalent on the first night (37.8%) and least on the morning (10.0%) shifts. Drivers slept reasonably well prior to duty hours, with main sleep being longest prior to the first night (total sleep time 7:21) and shortest prior to the morning (total sleep time 5:43) shifts. The proportion of shifts whereby drivers reported using at least one sleepiness countermeasure outside statutory rest breaks was approximately 22% units greater for the night than the non-night shifts. Compared to the day/evening shifts, the odds of severe sleepiness were greater only on the first night shifts (OR 6.4-9.1 with 95% confidence intervals, depending on the statistical model), the odds of insufficient daily sleep were higher

  11. Comparison of proposed countermeasures for dilemma zone at signalized intersections based on cellular automata simulations. (United States)

    Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Ding, Yaoxian; Jia, Bin; Shi, Qi; Yan, Xuedong


    The Type II dilemma zone describes the road segment to a signalized intersection where drivers have difficulties to decide either stop or go at the onset of yellow signal. Such phenomenon can result in an increased crash risk at signalized intersections. Different types of warning systems have been proposed to help drivers make decisions. Although the warning systems help to improve drivers' behavior, they also have several disadvantages such as increasing rear-end crashes or red-light running (RLR) violations. In this study, a new warning system called pavement marking with auxiliary countermeasure (PMAIC) is proposed to reduce the dilemma zone and enhance the traffic safety at signalized intersections. The proposed warning system integrates the pavement marking and flashing yellow system which can provide drivers with better suggestions about stop/go decisions based on their arriving time and speed. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed warning system, this paper presents a cellular automata (CA) simulation study. The CA simulations are conducted for four different scenarios in total, including the typical intersection without warning system, the intersection with flashing green countermeasure, the intersection with pavement marking, and the intersection with the PMAIC warning system. Before the specific CA simulation analysis, a logistic regression model is calibrated based on field video data to predict drivers' general stop/go decisions. Also, the rules of vehicle movements in the CA models under the influence by different warning systems are proposed. The proxy indicators of rear-end crash and potential RLR violations were estimated and used to evaluate safety levels for the different scenarios. The simulation results showed that the PMAIC countermeasure consistently offered best performance to reduce rear-end crash and RLR violation. Meanwhile, the results indicate that the flashing-green countermeasure could not effectively reduce either rear

  12. Alterations in Cardiovascular Regulation and Function During Long-Term Simulated Microgravity (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J.


    The Cardiovascular Alterations Team is conducting studies of hemodynamic regulation and susceptibility to arrhythmias resulting from sixteen days of simulated microgravity exposure. In these studies very intensive measurements are made during a short duration of bed rest. In this collaborative effort are making many of the same measurements, however much less frequently, on subjects who are exposed to a much longer duration of simulated microgravity. Alterations in cardiovascular regulation and function that occur during and after space flight have been reported. These alterations are manifested, for example, by reduced orthostatic tolerance upon reentry to the earth's gravity from space. However, the precise physiologic mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain to be fully elucidated. Perhaps, as a result, effective countermeasures have yet to be developed. In addition, numerous reports from the past 30 years suggest that the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias among astronauts is increased during space flight. However, the effects of space flight and the associated physiologic stresses on cardiac conduction processes are not known, and an increase in cardiac susceptibility to arrhythmias has never been quantified. In this project we are applying the most powerful technologies available to determine, in a ground-based study of long duration space flight, the mechanisms by which space flight affects cardiovascular function, and then on the basis of an understanding of these mechanisms to develop rational and specific countermeasures. To this end we are conducting a collaborative project with the Bone Demineralization/Calcium Metabolism Team of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The Bone Team is conducting bed rest studies in human subjects lasting 17 weeks, which provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of long duration microgravity exposure on the human cardiovascular system. We are applying a number of powerful new

  13. Aquaporins in Cardiovascular System. (United States)

    Tie, Lu; Wang, Di; Shi, Yundi; Li, Xuejun


    Recent studies have shown that some aquaporins (AQPs ), including AQP1, AQP4, AQP7 and AQP9, are expressed in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and heart of cardiovascular system. These AQPs are involved in the cardiovascular function and in pathological process of related diseases, such as cerebral ischemia , congestion heart failure , hypertension and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is important to understand the accurate association between AQPs and cardiovascular system, which may provide novel approaches to prevent and treat related diseases. Here we will discuss the expression and physiological function of AQPs in cardiovascular system and summarize recent researches on AQPs related cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Recidivism rates as a measure of the effectiveness of the rehabilitation and treatment countermeasure of the Fairfax, Virginia, ASAP, 1972. (United States)


    The rehabilitation countermeasure of the Fairfax, Virginia, ASAP is concerned primarily with four modes of treatment: (1) the Fairfax Driver Improvement Schools, (2) the Community Alcohol Center Clinic of the Division of Alcohol Services, (3) the Fai...

  15. Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians, Phase 2 : Development of Potential Specifications for Vehicle Countermeasure Sounds. (United States)


    This project performed research to support the development of potential specifications for vehicle : sounds, (i.e., audible countermeasures) to be used in vehicles while operating in electric mode in specific low speed : conditions. The purpose of th...

  16. Personal use of countermeasures seen in a coping perspective. Could the development of expedient countermeasures as a repertoire in the population, optimise coping and promote positive outcome expectancies, when exposed to a contamination threat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toennessen, A.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Agency, Oesteraas (Norway); Panova, J.; Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I. [Russian Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    The appraisal and use of countermeasures in a rural district of Russia with quite high deposition after the Chernobyl accident is studied from a coping perspective. The field work was done during the summer of 1994, in the Bryansk region. There are important methodological shortages in the study, the sample of respondents is not a random sample and therefore not necessarily representative for the villages covered, and in some parts of the questionnaire the frequency of `don`t know/missing` responses is too high. With these limitations in mind the current study tries to expand the knowledge about reactions to diffuse environmental threats by studying populations as they continue their daily lives living in a contaminated area. The data from interviews with the final net sample of 163 respondents shows that about one in four were users of countermeasures such as, refraining from consumption of natural foods, or radiometric inspection of the food. Of the different countermeasures that were included in the questionnaire, the renunciation of natural products was most frequently employed. Findings indicate that the respondents who used countermeasures had lower levels of radiocaesium content in their bodies, they felt more able to influence possible health effects of the accident, and at the same time answered that they were more afraid of possible health effects than the non-users of countermeasures. This higher emotional concern is seen in a perspective of `realistic anxiety`, and the use of countermeasures is related to perceived control and outcome expectancies. (author).

  17. Countermeasures against Power Analysis Attacks for the NTRU Public Key Cryptosystem (United States)

    Lee, Mun-Kyu; Song, Jeong Eun; Choi, Dooho; Han, Dong-Guk

    The NTRU cryptosystem is a public key system based on lattice problems. While its theoretical security has been well studied, little effort has been made to analyze its security against implementation attacks including power analysis attacks. In this paper, we show that a typical software implementation of NTRU is vulnerable to the simple power analysis and the correlation power analysis including a second-order power attack. We also present novel countermeasures to prevent these attacks, and perform experiments to estimate the performance overheads of our countermeasures. According to our experimental results, the overheads in required memory and execution time are only 8.17% and 9.56%, respectively, over a Tmote Sky equipped with an MSP430 processor.

  18. A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor (United States)

    Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma


    When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

  19. Countermeasure against blinding attacks on low-noise detectors with a background-noise-cancellation scheme (United States)

    Lee, Min Soo; Park, Byung Kwon; Woo, Min Ki; Park, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung


    We developed a countermeasure against blinding attacks on low-noise detectors with a background-noise-cancellation scheme in quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Background-noise cancellation includes self-differencing and balanced avalanche photon diode (APD) schemes and is considered a promising solution for low-noise APDs, which are critical components in high-performance QKD systems. However, its vulnerability to blinding attacks has been recently reported. In this work, we propose a countermeasure that prevents this potential security loophole from being used in detector blinding attacks. An experimental QKD setup is implemented and various tests are conducted to verify the feasibility and performance of the proposed method. The obtained measurement results show that the proposed scheme successfully detects occurring blinding-attack-based hacking attempts.

  20. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects: a review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B.; Synnot, H. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, (Ireland)


    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors.

  1. Naval Mine Countermeasures: The Achilles Heel of U.S. Homeland Defense (United States)


    the Secretary of Defense is an alarming thirty days. 2 Furthermore, metrological conditions for the next four days include moderate rain, poor...freedom of maneuver and mine countermeasures it is a reality that must be planned for. Historically, prudence has dictated that the risk of...of icing conditions. SMCMs, on the other hand, have the ability operate day and night with fewer metrological restrictions. Though the SMCMs lack

  2. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures on Development of Sweet Potato Industry in Ziyun County


    Yu, Shuang; Yang, Xiaoshan; Li, Guang


    According to the actual situation of sweet potato industry development in Ziyun County, we use SWOT analysis method to conduct strategic analysis on strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment and the opportunities and challenges of the external environment of the sweet potato industry, to explore correct strategic countermeasures suitable for the future development of sweet potato industry in Ziyun County and provide reference for the sweet potato industry to maintain sustainable co...

  3. Medical countermeasures for national security: a new government role in the pharmaceuticalization of society. (United States)

    Elbe, Stefan; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Long, Christopher


    How do governments contribute to the pharmaceuticalization of society? Whilst the pivotal role of industry is extensively documented, this article shows that governments too are accelerating, intensifying and opening up new trajectories of pharmaceuticalization in society. Governments are becoming more deeply invested in pharmaceuticals because their national security strategies now aspire to defend populations against health-based threats like bioterrorism and pandemics. To counter those threats, governments are acquiring and stockpiling a panoply of 'medical countermeasures' such as antivirals, next-generation vaccines, antibiotics and anti-toxins. More than that, governments are actively incentivizing the development of many new medical countermeasures--principally by marshaling the state's unique powers to introduce exceptional measures in the name of protecting national security. At least five extraordinary policy interventions have been introduced by governments with the aim of stimulating the commercial development of novel medical countermeasures: (1) allocating earmarked public funds, (2) granting comprehensive legal protections to pharmaceutical companies against injury compensation claims, (3) introducing bespoke pathways for regulatory approval, (4) instantiating extraordinary emergency use procedures allowing for the use of unapproved medicines, and (5) designing innovative logistical distribution systems for mass drug administration outside of clinical settings. Those combined efforts, the article argues, are spawning a new, government-led and quite exceptional medical countermeasure regime operating beyond the conventional boundaries of pharmaceutical development and regulation. In the first comprehensive analysis of the pharmaceuticalization dynamics at play in national security policy, this article unearths the detailed array of policy interventions through which governments too are becoming more deeply imbricated in the pharmaceuticalization of

  4. Economic Development Mode and Countermeasure Research on the Nansi Lake Drainage Area Based on Circular Economy


    Jia, Yong-fei; Peng, Li-min


    Firstly, it is pointed out that circular economy should be vigorously developed in the Nansi Lake Drainage Area, and the connotation of circular economy is expounded. Then, problems in developing circular economy in Nansi Lake Drainage Area are analyzed from the aspects of agriculture, industrial enterprises, and waste utilization. Finally, combining with the four modes of peasant household, enterprise, region and society in the development of circular economy, corresponding countermeasures a...

  5. Study on Status, Problems and Countermeasures of Developing Popular Science Tourism of Geoparks in Yunnan, China (United States)

    Qi, Wufu; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui


    Tourism development of Yunnan geoparks keeps in the stage of “sightseeing tour” and the real “popular science tourism” keeps in the explorative stage, thus it has a series of problems, such as uncorrelation between tourist attractions and geology, uncorrelation between geologic observation spot and tourism, and insufficient scientificity of commentary, etc. By aiming at these problems, corresponding countermeasures and suggestion were proposed.

  6. The Efficacy of Dextroamphetamine as a Motion Sickness Countermeasure for the Use in Military Operational Environments (United States)


    functions of polyphasic and ultrashort sleep . In C. Stampi (Ed.), Sustained operation studies: from the field to the laboratory. Boston, MA: improve alertness and postpone the need for sleep , the U.S. military selected Dexedrine® (d- amphetamine) as a fa tigue countermeasure for use in...alert” to “extremely sleepy, fighting sleep ”. There are four intermediary states that are not designated with words. Previous research has found

  7. Assessment of Intraocular and Systemic Vasculature Pressure Parameters in Simulated Microgravity with Thigh Cuff Countermeasure (United States)

    Huang, Alex S.; Balasubramanian, Siva; Tepelus, Tudor; Sadda, Jaya; Sadda, Srinivas; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steve S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.


    Changes in vision have been well documented among astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. One hypothesis is that the space flight induced headward fluid alters posterior ocular pressure and volume and may contribute to visual acuity decrements. Therefore, we evaluated venoconstrictive thigh cuffs as a potential countermeasure to the headward fluid shift-induced effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and cephalic vascular pressure and volumes.

  8. Alcohol-impaired driving in the United States: contributors to the problem and effective countermeasures. (United States)

    Ferguson, Susan A


    To review the effectiveness of current countermeasures in alcohol-impaired driving. This article provides an overview of the contributors to the alcohol-impaired driving problem in the United States and reviews the effectiveness of alcohol-impaired driving countermeasures. Many effective countermeasures have been used during the past few decades both to deter drivers from driving when they are over the legal limit for alcohol and to discourage driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders from reoffending once they have been caught and convicted. In recent years, greater attention has been given to the problem of "hardcore" drinking drivers, a term coined to refer to those who repeatedly drive with high blood alcohol concentrations and are resistant to changing their behavior. Although such individuals are a legitimate target for attention, focusing predominantly on this group will result in missed opportunities to address a large portion of alcohol-impaired driving crashes. This article provides a review of the primary countermeasures that have been used to reduce alcohol-impaired driving and summarizes evidence for their effectiveness. It asks the question of where, in an environment of limited resources, attention should be focused. General deterrent approaches, such as frequent and highly publicized sobriety checkpoints, have the greatest potential to save lives and should be the mainstay of state and local efforts. Specific deterrent approaches, aimed at deterring DWI offenders from reoffending, such as alcohol ignition interlocks, should be applied to all apprehended drivers, whatever their drinking history. Evidence suggests that they could benefit from them. In the future, advanced in-vehicle technologies that would prevent vehicles from being driven when their drivers are over the legal limit may hold the key to drastically reducing the alcohol-impaired driving problem.

  9. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information


    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres; Yoshimi Teshigawara


    Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines ...

  10. [Mistakes and countermeasures in diagnosis and treatment of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc]. (United States)

    Xu, Lin-bo


    The mistakes in clinical diagnosis and treatment due to dealing with symptoms, signs and imaging data in isolation, and unclear differentiation of relative diseases are found by reviewing definition and cause of disease and pathogenesis of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc, so as to probe into mistakes and countermeasures in diagnosis and treatment of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc. Only combined analysis of clinical symptoms, signs and imaging data, can correct diagnosis and treatment be made.

  11. Causes, consequences and countermeasures to driver fatigue in the rail industry: The train driver perspective. (United States)

    Filtness, A J; Naweed, A


    Fatigue is an important workplace risk management issue. Within the rail industry, the passing of a stop signal (signal passed at danger; SPAD) is considered to be one of the most major safety breaches which can occur. Train drivers are very aware of the negative consequences associated with a SPAD. Therefore, SPADs provide a practical and applied safety relevant context within which to structure a discussion on fatigue. Focus groups discussing contributing factors to SPADs were undertaken at eight passenger rail organisations across Australia and New Zealand (n = 28 drivers). Data relating to fatigue was extracted and inductively analysed identifying three themes: causes, consequences, and countermeasures (to fatigue). Drivers experienced negative consequences of fatigue, despite existing countermeasures to mitigate it. Organisational culture was a barrier to effective fatigue management. A fatigue assessment tool consistently informed rostering, however, shift swapping was commonplace and often unregulated, reducing any potential positive impact. In discussing fatigue countermeasure strategies, drivers talked interchangeably about mitigating task related fatigue (e.g. increasing cognitive load) and sleepiness (e.g. caffeine). Ensuring the concepts of fatigue and sleepiness are properly understood has the potential to maximise safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exercise Countermeasures Demonstration Project During the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project Phase 2A (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Williams, W. Jon; Greenisen, M. C.; Fortney, S. M.


    This demonstration project assessed the crew members' compliance to a portion of the exercise countermeasures planned for use onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and the outcomes of their performing these countermeasures. Although these countermeasures have been used separately in other projects and investigations, this was the first time they'd been used together for an extended period (60 days) in an investigation of this nature. Crew members exercised every day for six days, alternating every other day between aerobic and resistive exercise, and rested on the seventh day. On the aerobic exercise days, subjects exercised on an electronically braked cycle ergometer using a protocol that has been previously shown to maintain aerobic capacity in subjects exposed to a space flight analogue. On the resistive exercise days, crew members performed five major multijoint resistive exercises in a concentric mode, targeting those muscle groups and bones we believe are most severely affected by space flight. The subjects favorably tolerated both exercise protocols, with a 98% compliance to aerobic exercise prescription and a 91% adherence to the resistive exercise protocol. After 60 days, the crew members improved their peak aerobic capacity by an average 7%, and strength gains were noted in all subjects. These results suggest that these exercise protocols can be performed during ISS, lunar, and Mars missions, although we anticipate more frequent bouts with both protocols for long-duration spaceflight. Future projects should investigate the impact of increased exercise duration and frequency on subject compliance, and the efficacy of such exercise prescriptions.

  13. Countermeasure against probabilistic blinding attack in practical quantum key distribution systems (United States)

    Qian, Yong-Jun; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Han, Zheng-Fu


    In a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, imperfect equipment, especially the single-photon detector, can be eavesdropped on by a blinding attack. However, the original blinding attack may be discovered by directly detecting the current. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic blinding attack model, where Eve probabilistically applies a blinding attack without being caught by using only an existing intuitive countermeasure. More precisely, our countermeasure solves the problem of how to define the bound in the limitation of precision of current detection, and then we prove security of the practical system by considering the current parameter. Meanwhile, we discuss the bound of the quantum bit error rate (QBER) introduced by Eve, by which Eve can acquire information without the countermeasure. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61475148, 61201239, 61205118, and 11304397), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M540514).

  14. Countermeasure effectiveness against an intelligent imaging infrared anti-ship missile (United States)

    Gray, Greer J.; Aouf, Nabil; Richardson, Mark; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy


    Ship self defense against heat-seeking anti-ship missiles is of great concern to modern naval forces. One way of protecting ships against these threats is to use infrared (IR) offboard countermeasures. These decoys need precise placement to maximize their effectiveness, and simulation is an invaluable tool used in determining optimum deployment strategies. To perform useful simulations, high-fidelity models of missiles are required. We describe the development of an imaging IR anti-ship missile model for use in countermeasure effectiveness simulations. The missile model's tracking algorithm is based on a target recognition system that uses a neural network to discriminate between ships and decoys. The neural network is trained on shape- and intensity-based features extracted from simulated imagery. The missile model is then used within ship-decoy-missile engagement simulations, to determine how susceptible it is to the well-known walk-off seduction countermeasure technique. Finally, ship survivability is improved by adjusting the decoy model to increase its effectiveness against the tracker.

  15. Economic Spillovers From Public Investments in Medical Countermeasures: A Case Study of a Burn Debridement Product. (United States)

    Farahati, Farah; Nystrom, Scott; Howell, David R; Jaffe, Richard


    The US federal government invests in the development of medical countermeasures for addressing adverse health effects to the civilian population from chemical, biological, and radiological or nuclear threats. We model the potential economic spillover effects in day-to-day burn care for a federal investment in a burn debridement product for responding to an improvised nuclear device. We identify and assess 4 primary components for projecting the potential economic spillover benefits of a burn debridement product: (1) market size, (2) clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, (3) product cost, and (4) market adoption rates. Primary data sources were the American Burn Association's 2015 National Burn Repository Annual Report of Data and published clinical studies used to gain European approval for the burn debridement product. The study results showed that if approved for use in the United States, the burn debridement product has potential economic spillover benefits exceeding the federal government's initial investment of $24 million a few years after introduction into the burn care market. Economic spillover analyses can help to inform the prioritizing of scarce resources for research and development of medical countermeasures by the federal government. Future federal medical countermeasure research and development investments could incorporate economic spillover analysis to assess investment options. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 9).

  16. Molecular events underlying skeletal muscle atrophy and the development of effective countermeasures (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Criswell, D. S.


    Skeletal muscle adapts to loading; atrophying when exposed to unloading on Earth or in spaceflight. Significant atrophy (decreases in muscle fiber cross-section of 11-24%) in humans has been noted after only 5 days in space. Since muscle strength is determined both by muscle cross-section and synchronization of motor unit recruitment, a loss in muscle size weakens astronauts, which would increase risks to their safety if an emergency required maximal muscle force. Numerous countermeasures have been tested to prevent atrophy. Resistant exercise together with growth hormone and IGF-I are effective countermeasures to unloading as most atrophy is prevented in animal models. The loss of muscle protein is due to an early decrease in protein synthesis rate and a later increase in protein degradation. The initial decrease in protein synthesis is a result of decreased protein translation, caused by a prolongation in the elongation rate. A decrease in HSP70 by a sight increase in ATP may be the factors prolonging elongation rate. Increases in the activities of proteolytic enzymes and in ubiquitin contribute to the increased protein degradation rate in unloaded muscle. Numerous mRNA concentrations have been shown to be altered in unloaded muscles. Decreases in mRNAs for contractile proteins usually occur after the initial fall in protein synthesis rates. Much additional research is needed to determine the mechanism by which muscle senses the absence of gravity with an adaptive atrophy. The development of effective countermeasures to unloading atrophy will require more research.

  17. Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.


    Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

  18. Practical Attacks on Mobile Cellular Networks and Possible Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Oğul


    Full Text Available Due to widespread adoption of mobile communications devices and increasingly high throughput capacity of cellular networks, Third-Generation (3G and Long Term Evolution (LTE are becoming ever more popular. Millions of smart phones with 3G capabilities are sold every year and used for mostly browsing the Internet. Hence, mobile operators have been heavily investing in their packet switched networks to meet customer demand and stay ahead in the market. The widespread use of broadband mobile Internet bring along also some IP based threats such as the Denial of Service (DoS attacks, botnets and malwares. In this paper, we performed DoS and flooding attacks on 3G mobile networks and measured their effect on the most critical elements of a network such as the Radio Network Controller (RNC and the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN devices. We carried out our experiments on a real mobile network, not just a simulation environment, and hence our findings depict a realistic picture of the vulnerabilities existent in 3G mobile networks. We propose alternative solutions to avoid these vulnerabilities and mitigate the issues raised.

  19. Obesity and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Jokinen, E


    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease.

  20. Effects of Vegetables on Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yi Tang


    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, and vitamins, essential elements, dietary fibers, botanic proteins and phytochemicals were bioactive components. The cardioprotective effects of vegetables might involve antioxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; regulating blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile; attenuating myocardial damage; and modulating relevant enzyme activities, gene expression, and signaling pathways as well as some other biomarkers associated to cardiovascular diseases. In addition, several vegetables and their bioactive components have been proven to protect against cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials. In this review, we analyze and summarize the effects of vegetables on cardiovascular diseases based on epidemiological studies, experimental research, and clinical trials, which are significant to the application of vegetables in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. The Project for Developing Countermeasures against Landslides in the Abay River Gorge, Ethiopia (United States)

    Guta, H. E.


    The Blue Nile Gorge of Ethiopia is characterized by high relief landscape. The stretch of major arterial road that connects Ethiopia to Sudan passes through the Gorge. The Gorge is plagued by swarms of landslides which makes it a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication. Therefore, landside study was carried out from 2010 to 2012 by JICA and Geological survey of Ethiopia to figure out the mechanisms that trigger the swarms of landslides that occur in the area and identify appropriate countermeasures that would be best implemented. The study included geomorphologic and geologic survey, drilling survey, displacement monitoring, ground water and precipitation monitoring, geophysical exploration, and stability analysis. About 42 landslide monitoring instruments namely extensometers (both surface and borehole), inclinometers and ground water level meters were installed in four highly landslide prone areas to detect slip surface, and determine amount and direction of movement. The amount of landslide movement at the four zones is 42.4, 57.6, 294.9 and 136mm during rainy season. Ground water level rising, nature of material and intense rainfall are found to be among the major triggering factors. Stability analysis using Simple Jambu and modified Fellenus methods was conducted resulting in safety factor Fs less than one and reasonably 0.98 by adopting shear parameters of soils by back analysis. By assuming cohesion (c') to be very close to 0 due to landslide blocks active movement when ground water rises during rainy season, Shear resistance angle, ɸ, was obtained to be 10.80, 26.30, 10.20 and 16.30 in the four areas using Modified Fellenius method and 10.70, 26.60, 10.00 and 16.10 using Simple Janbu method. Effect of countermeasures was checked by trial calculation. Accordingly the factory of safety increased from 0.98 to 1.2 when ɸ=60, ground water is lowered by 6m, and steel pipe pile of ɸ500mm x t40mm at an interval of 1.9m are implemented. consequently

  2. Bayesian methodology incorporating expert judgment for ranking countermeasure effectiveness under uncertainty: example applied to at grade railroad crossings in Korea. (United States)

    Washington, Simon; Oh, Jutaek


    Transportation professionals are sometimes required to make difficult transportation safety investment decisions in the face of uncertainty. In particular, an engineer may be expected to choose among an array of technologies and/or countermeasures to remediate perceived safety problems when: (1) little information is known about the countermeasure effects on safety; (2) information is known but from different regions, states, or countries where a direct generalization may not be appropriate; (3) where the technologies and/or countermeasures are relatively untested, or (4) where costs prohibit the full and careful testing of each of the candidate countermeasures via before-after studies. The importance of an informed and well-considered decision based on the best possible engineering knowledge and information is imperative due to the potential impact on the numbers of human injuries and deaths that may result from these investments. This paper describes the formalization and application of a methodology to evaluate the safety benefit of countermeasures in the face of uncertainty. To illustrate the methodology, 18 countermeasures for improving safety of at grade railroad crossings (AGRXs) in the Republic of Korea are considered. Akin to "stated preference" methods in travel survey research, the methodology applies random selection and laws of large numbers to derive accident modification factor (AMF) densities from expert opinions. In a full Bayesian analysis framework, the collective opinions in the form of AMF densities (data likelihood) are combined with prior knowledge (AMF density priors) for the 18 countermeasures to obtain 'best' estimates of AMFs (AMF posterior credible intervals). The countermeasures are then compared and recommended based on the largest safety returns with minimum risk (uncertainty). To the author's knowledge the complete methodology is new and has not previously been applied or reported in the literature. The results demonstrate that the

  3. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna


    with the increasing opportunities and challenges in multidisciplinary research, the Science Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professionals (CCNAP) recognised the need for a position statement to guide researchers, policymakers and funding bodies to contribute to the advancement...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  4. Exosomes and Cardiovascular Protection. (United States)

    Davidson, Sean M; Takov, Kaloyan; Yellon, Derek M


    Most, if not all, cells of the cardiovascular system secrete small, lipid bilayer vesicles called exosomes. Despite technical challenges in their purification and analysis, exosomes from various sources have been shown to be powerfully cardioprotective. Indeed, it is possible that much of the so-called "paracrine" benefit in cardiovascular function obtained by stem cell therapy can be replicated by the injection of exosomes produced by stem cells. However, exosomes purified from plasma appear to be just as capable of activating cardioprotective pathways. We discuss the potential roles of endogenous exosomes in the cardiovascular system, how this is perturbed in cardiovascular disease, and evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents to protect the heart.

  5. Cardiovascular changes of conscious rats after simulated microgravity with and without daily -Gx gravitation. (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fan; Cheng, Jiu-Hua; Liu, Xin; Wang, Shouyan; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hong-Bing; Ma, Jin


    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that postsuspension cardiovascular manifestation in conscious rats after a medium-term (28-day) tail suspension (SUS) is hypertensive and tachycardiac and can be prevented by a countermeasure of daily 1-h dorsoventral (-G(x)) gravitation provided by standing (STD). To assess associated changes in cardiovascular regulation, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) variability were analyzed by spectral analysis computed by parametric autoregressive (AR) method and by nonlinear recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and approximate entropy (ApEn) measure. The results showed that conscious SUS rats manifested hypertensive and tachycardiac response before and after being released from suspension compared with the controls, and the countermeasure of 1 h/day -G(x) prevented the hypertensive response. Auto- and cross-spectral analysis and transfer function analysis did not show significant changes in cardiovascular variability. However, SUS decreased the three RQA indexes [recurrence percentage (RC%), determinism percentage (DT%), and the longest diagonal line (L(max))] of systolic BP, whereas STD alleviated these changes. ApEn values of HR data sets were significantly higher in the SUS and SUS + STD groups compared with those of the control group before and after release from suspension. The present study has demonstrated that daily -G(x) for as short as 1 h is sufficient to prevent postsuspension cardiovascular alteration in conscious rats after a medium-term SUS. Nonlinear measures, but not spectral analysis, might provide promising data to estimate the overall changes in cardiovascular autonomic regulation due to microgravity exposure.

  6. Space physiology IV: mathematical modeling of the cardiovascular system in space exploration. (United States)

    Keith Sharp, M; Batzel, Jerry Joseph; Montani, Jean-Pierre


    Mathematical modeling represents an important tool for analyzing cardiovascular function during spaceflight. This review describes how modeling of the cardiovascular system can contribute to space life science research and illustrates this process via modeling efforts to study postflight orthostatic intolerance (POI), a key issue for spaceflight. Examining this application also provides a context for considering broader applications of modeling techniques to the challenges of bioastronautics. POI, which affects a large fraction of astronauts in stand tests upon return to Earth, presents as dizziness, fainting and other symptoms, which can diminish crew performance and cause safety hazards. POI on the Moon or Mars could be more critical. In the field of bioastronautics, POI has been the dominant application of cardiovascular modeling for more than a decade, and a number of mechanisms for POI have been investigated. Modeling approaches include computational models with a range of incorporated factors and hemodynamic sophistication, and also physical models tested in parabolic and orbital flight. Mathematical methods such as parameter sensitivity analysis can help identify key system mechanisms. In the case of POI, this could lead to more effective countermeasures. Validation is a persistent issue in modeling efforts, and key considerations and needs for experimental data to synergistically improve understanding of cardiovascular responses are outlined. Future directions in cardiovascular modeling include subject-specific assessment of system status, as well as research on integrated physiological responses, leading, for instance, to assessment of subject-specific susceptibility to POI or effects of cardiovascular alterations on muscular, vision and cognitive function.

  7. Improved mechanical properties of chitosan fibers with applications to degradable radar countermeasure chaff (United States)

    Knaul, Jonathan Zvi

    The objective of this work has been to improve the mechanical properties of wet spun chitosan fibers for applications to a degradable form of radar countermeasure chaff. The first part of the study characterizes the chitosan used for spinning. Three methods for determining the degree of deacetylation (% DDA) were used and they include titration, elemental analysis, and first derivative ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry. The molecular weight of the chitosan was determined in a solvent system of 0.25 M CH3COOH/0.25 M CH3COONa, using viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Several samples of chitosan were used with the % DDA varying from 64.3 to 96.0%. The Mark-Houwink-Sakurada constants used for the determination of viscosity average molecular weight and the universal calibration of the HPLC system were K = 1.40 x 10 -4 dL/g and a = 0.83, respectively. A literature review of molecular weight analysis of chitosan is included. Preliminary wet spinning experiments involved a coagulation rate study which demonstrated that 1 M KOH was an effective coagulant for wet spinning and that the rate of coagulation increases with decreasing solvent ratio in the spin dope. A drying study confirmed the effectiveness of a methanol drying bath followed by a heated roller at 50°C. Following these studies, a wet spinning system was constructed and used. A lack of published data exists concerning the subjects of chitosan fiber spinning and mechanical improvements to both wet and dry chitosan fibers. Several post-spinning modification experiments focused on the reaction of the dried as-spun chitosan fibers with aqueous agents including potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4), potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP), glutaraldehyde (GA), and glyoxal (GLY). For the aqueous buffering agents of KH2PO4, and KHP, the highest mechanical properties resulted from solutions containing phthalate ions at pH 5.00, and from solutions containing phosphate ions at pH 5.39. The best time and

  8. Cardiovascular risk calculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James A. Ker


    Aug 20, 2014 ... Introduction. Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause in the majority of cardiovascular disease events. Traditional independent risk factors for car diovascular disease include age, abnormal lipid levels, elevated blood ...

  9. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most

  10. Cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Amaral de Paula


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess cardiovascular risk by means of the traditional Framingham score and the version modified through the incorporation of emerging risk factors, such as family history of acute myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. METHOD: participants were 50 hypertensive patients under outpatient treatment. The clinical data were collected through a semi-structured interview and the laboratory data from patients' histories. RESULTS: it was verified that the traditional Framingham score was predominantly low (74%, with 14% showing medium risk and 12% high risk. After the inclusion of emerging risk factors, the chance of a coronary event was low in 22% of the cases, medium in 56% and high in 22%. CONCLUSIONS: the comparison between the traditional Framingham risk score and the modified version demonstrated a significant difference in the cardiovascular risk classification, whose correlation shows discreet agreement between the two scales. Lifestyle elements seem to play a determinant role in the increase in cardiovascular risk levels.

  11. Cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Amaral de Paula

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess cardiovascular risk by means of the traditional Framingham score and the version modified through the incorporation of emerging risk factors, such as family history of acute myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. METHOD: participants were 50 hypertensive patients under outpatient treatment. The clinical data were collected through a semi-structured interview and the laboratory data from patients' histories. RESULTS: it was verified that the traditional Framingham score was predominantly low (74%, with 14% showing medium risk and 12% high risk. After the inclusion of emerging risk factors, the chance of a coronary event was low in 22% of the cases, medium in 56% and high in 22%. CONCLUSIONS: the comparison between the traditional Framingham risk score and the modified version demonstrated a significant difference in the cardiovascular risk classification, whose correlation shows discreet agreement between the two scales. Lifestyle elements seem to play a determinant role in the increase in cardiovascular risk levels.

  12. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette


    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  13. Molecular Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Yvonne Y; Pfeifer, Andreas; Ebersberger, Hans U


    In the Western world and developing countries, the number one causes of mortality and morbidity result from cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases represent a wide range of pathologies, including myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease, which...... impact on society, there are still limitations in the early diagnosis and the prevention of the disease. Current imaging methods mainly focus on morphological changes that occur at an advanced disease stage, e.g., degree of stenosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and specifically molecular...... cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging are capable to reveal pathophysiological changes already occurring during early atherosclerotic plaque formation. This allows for the assessment of cardiovascular disease on a level, which goes beyond morphological or anatomical criteria. In this review, we...

  14. The Gravity-Loading countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) and its effect upon aerobic exercise performance (United States)

    Attias, Julia; Philip, A. T. Carvil; Waldie, James; Russomano, Thais; Simon, N. Evetts; David, A. Green


    The Russian Pingvin suit is employed as a countermeasure to musculoskeletal atrophy in microgravity, though its 2-stage loading regime is poorly tolerated. The Gravity-Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) has been devised to comfortably compress the body via incrementally increasing longitudinal elastic-fibre tensions from the shoulders to the feet. We tested whether the Mk III GLCS was a feasible adjunct to sub-maximal aerobic exercise and resulting VO2Max predictions. Eight healthy subjects (5♂, 28±6 yr) performed cycle ergometry at 75% VO2Max (derived from an Astrand-Rhyming protocol) whilst wearing a GLCS and gym clothing (GYM). Ventilatory parameters, heart rate (HR), core temperature (TC), and blood lactate (BL) were recorded along with subjective perceived exertion, thermal comfort, movement discomfort and body control. Physiological and subjective responses were compared over TIME and between GYM and GLCS (ATTIRE) with 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests respectively. Resultant VO2Max predictions were compared with paired t-tests between ATTIRE. The GLCS induced greater initial exercise ventilatory responses which stabilised by 20 min. HR and TC continued to rise from 5 min irrespective of ATTIRE, whereas BL was greater in the GLCS at 20 min. Predicted V O2Max did not differ with ATTIRE, though some observed differences in HR were noteworthy. All subjective ratings were exacerbated in the GLCS. Despite increased perception of workload and initial ventilatory augmentations, submaximal exercise performance was not impeded. Whilst predicted VO2Max did not differ, determination of actual VO2Max in the GLCS is warranted due to apparent modulation of the linear HR-VO2 relationship. The GLCS may be a feasible adjunct to exercise and potential countermeasure to unloaded-induced physiological deconditioning on Earth or in space.

  15. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III


    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').

  16. Development of Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Sensorimotor Countermeasure: Improving Otolith Ocular and Motor Task Responses (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; DeDios,Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Bloomberg, Jacob; Wood, Scott


    Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. The goal of our present study is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular SR that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and improve motor task responses to mitigate associated risks.

  17. Trends in sensorimotor research and countermeasures for exploration-class space flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eShelhamer


    Full Text Available Research in the area of sensorimotor and neurovestibular function has played an important role in enabling human space flight. This role, however, is changing. One of the key aspects of sensorimotor function relevant to this role will build on its widespread connections with other physiological and psychological systems in the body. The firm knowledge base in this area can provide a strong platform to explore these interactions, which can also provide for the development of effective and efficient countermeasures to the deleterious effects of space flight.

  18. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens]. (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui


    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  19. A review of radiation countermeasures focusing on injury-specific medicinals and regulatory approval status: part II. Countermeasures for limited indications, internalized radionuclides, emesis, late effects, and agents demonstrating efficacy in large animals with or without FDA IND status. (United States)

    Singh, Vijay K; Garcia, Melissa; Seed, Thomas M


    The threat of a radiological/nuclear event is a critical concern for all government agencies involved in national security and public health preparedness. Countermeasures that are safe, easily administered, and effective at diminishing or eliminating adverse health effects to individuals and the overall public health impact of radiation exposure are urgently needed. Radiation countermeasures included in this three-part series have been classified under various subheadings based specifically on their developmental stages for United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. We have included FDA-approved agents for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in part I. This is part II in which we have reviewed FDA-approved agents for limited indications, internalized radionuclides, emesis, late effects, radiomitigators available in the strategic national stockpile (SNS), agents with FDA investigational new drug (IND) status, and those with NHP efficacy data without FDA IND. Agents discussed in part III are those agents that have been peer reviewed, published, and have demonstrated significant survival benefits in animal models of ARS. Agents investigated in in vitro models only or studied in animal models without peer-reviewed publications have not been included. The dearth of FDA-approved radiation countermeasures has prompted intensified research for a new generation of radiation countermeasures. A number of promising radiation countermeasures are currently moving forward with continued support and effort by both governmental agencies and by publicly and privately held pharmaceutical companies. There is a limited number of countermeasures which are progressing well following the Animal Rule and may get approved in the near future, thus serving to close the gap of this critically important, unmet radiobiomedical need.

  20. Caffeine and cardiovascular health. (United States)

    Turnbull, Duncan; Rodricks, Joseph V; Mariano, Gregory F; Chowdhury, Farah


    This report evaluates the scientific literature on caffeine with respect to potential cardiovascular outcomes, specifically relative risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), effects on arrhythmia, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, blood pressure, hypertension, and other biomarkers of effect, including heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cardiac output, plasma homocysteine levels, serum cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram (EKG) parameters, heart rate variability, endothelial/platelet function and plasma/urine catecholamine levels. Caffeine intake has been associated with a range of reversible and transient physiological effects broadly and cardiovascular effects specifically. This report attempts to understand where the delineations exist in caffeine intake and corresponding cardiovascular effects among various subpopulations. The available literature suggests that cardiovascular effects experienced by caffeine consumers at levels up to 600 mg/day are in most cases mild, transient, and reversible, with no lasting adverse effect. The point at which caffeine intake may cause harm to the cardiovascular system is not readily identifiable in part because data on the effects of daily intakes greater than 600 mg is limited. However, the evidence considered within this review suggests that typical moderate caffeine intake is not associated with increased risks of total cardiovascular disease; arrhythmia; heart failure; blood pressure changes among regular coffee drinkers; or hypertension in baseline populations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Element 115


    Forsberg, Ulrika


    This thesis is devoted to detailed studies of element 115 decay chains using the highly efficient multi-coincidence alpha, electron, gamma and X-ray detector setup TASISpec at the gas-filled separator TASCA at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. In a three-week long experiment thirty new decay chains assumed to stem from element 115 isotopes were observed together with the very first detections of gamma rays and potential X-rays from these nuclei. Paper I describes preparations in terms of optimisations...

  2. [Cancer and cardiovascular disease]. (United States)

    Lahoz, Carlos; Valdivielso, Pedro; González-Alegre, María Teresa; García-Iglesias, María Francisca; Estirado, Eva; Mostaza, José M


    Survivors of cancer have a shorter survival in the long term partly due to the increase in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Some chemotherapy drugs, thoracic and cranial radiotherapy and above all the transplantation of hematopoietic cells are associated with an increase in the incidence of cardiovascular events compared with general population. Some of these treatments favor the development of a metabolic syndrome that could be the intermediary between these treatments and the development of CVD. It is recommended for cancer survivors to promote healthy lifestyles and the strict control of cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    Tambo, Amos; Roshan, Mohsin H.K.; Pace, Nikolai P.


    Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID:27014372

  4. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik


    Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysi......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed.  ...

  5. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  6. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysi......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  7. Exercise and cardiovascular diseases. (United States)

    Villella, Massimo; Villella, Alessandro


    Exercise is a physiologic stressor that has multiple beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. Currently exercise training is a class I intervention as part of a multifactorial long-term process that includes: clinical assistance, assessment of global cardiovascular risk, identification of specific objective for each cardiovascular risk factor, formulation of an individual treatment plan with multiple intervention aimed at reduction of the risk, educational programs, planning of long term follow-up. This paper reviews the evidences of benefit of exercise in the most common heart diseases and describes the role of exercise training in the cardiac rehabilitation programs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road: popular but hardly effective against driver sleepiness. (United States)

    Schwarz, Johanna F A; Ingre, Michael; Fors, Carina; Anund, Anna; Kecklund, Göran; Taillard, Jacques; Philip, Pierre; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn


    This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24 individuals participated in the study. Sixteen participants received intermittent 10-min intervals of: (i) open window (2 cm opened); and (ii) listening to music, during both day and night driving on an open motorway. Both subjective sleepiness and physiological sleepiness (blink duration) was estimated to be significantly reduced when subjects listened to music, but the effect was only minor compared with the pronounced effects of night driving and driving duration. Open window had no attenuating effect on either sleepiness measure. No significant long-term effects beyond the actual countermeasure application intervals occurred, as shown by comparison to the control group (n = 8). Thus, despite their popularity, opening the window and listening to music cannot be recommended as sole countermeasures against driver sleepiness. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Heart in space: effect of the extraterrestrial environment on the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Hughson, Richard L; Helm, Alexander; Durante, Marco


    National space agencies and private corporations aim at an extended presence of humans in space in the medium to long term. Together with currently suboptimal technology, microgravity and cosmic rays raise health concerns about deep-space exploration missions. Both of these physical factors affect the cardiovascular system, whose gravity-dependence is pronounced. Heart and vascular function are, therefore, susceptible to substantial changes in weightlessness. The altered cardiovascular function in space causes physiological problems in the postflight period. A compromised cardiovascular system can be excessively vulnerable to space radiation, synergistically resulting in increased damage. The space radiation dose is significantly lower than in patients undergoing radiotherapy, in whom cardiac damage is well-documented following cancer therapy in the thoracic region. Nevertheless, epidemiological findings suggest an increased risk of late cardiovascular disease even with low doses of radiation. Moreover, the peculiar biological effectiveness of heavy ions in cosmic rays might increase this risk substantially. However, whether radiation-induced cardiovascular effects have a threshold at low doses is still unclear. The main countermeasures to mitigate the effect of the space environment on cardiac function are physical exercise, antioxidants, nutraceuticals, and radiation shielding.

  10. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  11. Cardiovascular diseases in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Lisheng


    .... World Health Organization statistics on the death rate for total cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke in men and women aged 35-74 years revealed discrepancies between rural...

  12. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes (United States)

    ... factors, including high blood pressure. Lack of physical activity Physical inactivity is another modifiable major risk factor for insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Exercising and losing weight can prevent or delay ...

  13. Depression and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S


    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)


    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  15. X1: A Robotic Exoskeleton for In-Space Countermeasures and Dynamometry (United States)

    Rea, Rochelle; Beck, Christopher; Rovekamp, Roger; Diftler, Myron; Neuhaus, Peter


    Bone density loss and muscle atrophy are among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) highest concerns for crew health in space. Countless hours are spent maintaining an exercise regimen aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to counteract the effect of zero-gravity. Looking toward the future, NASA researchers are developing new compact and innovative exercise technologies to maintain crew health as missions increase in length and take humans further out into the solar system. The X1 Exoskeleton, initially designed for assisted mobility on Earth, was quickly theorized to have far-reaching potential as both an in-space countermeasures device and a dynamometry device to measure muscle strength. This lower-extremity device has the ability to assist or resist human movement through the use of actuators positioned at the hips and knees. Multiple points of adjustment allow for a wide range of users, all the while maintaining correct joint alignment. This paper discusses how the X1 Exoskeleton may fit NASA's onorbit countermeasures needs.

  16. A fuzzy analytic network process for multi-criteria evaluation of contaminated site remedial countermeasures. (United States)

    Promentilla, Michael Angelo B; Furuichi, T; Ishii, K; Tanikawa, N


    The Analytic Network Process (ANP) has been proposed to incorporate interdependence and feedback effect in the prioritization of remedial countermeasures using a hierarchical network decision model, but this approach seems to be incapable of capturing the vagueness and fuzziness during value judgment elicitation. The aim of this paper is to present an evaluation method using a fuzzy ANP (FANP) approach to address this shortcoming. Triangular fuzzy numbers (TFN) and their degree of fuzziness are used in the semantic scale as human judgment expressed in natural language is most often vague and fuzzy. The method employs the alpha-cuts, interval arithmetic and optimism index to transform the fuzzy comparative judgment matrix into set of crisp matrices, and then calculates the desired priorities using the eigenvector method. A numerical example, which was drawn from a real-life case study of an uncontrolled landfill in Japan, is presented to demonstrate the process. Results from the sensitivity analysis describe how the fuzziness in judgment could affect the solution robustness of the prioritization method. The proposed FANP approach therefore could effectively deal with the uncertain judgment inherent in the decision making process and derive the meaningful priorities explicitly from a complex decision structure in the evaluation of contaminated site remedial countermeasures.

  17. Artificial gravity as a countermeasure for mitigating physiological deconditioning during long-duration space missions. (United States)

    Clément, Gilles R; Bukley, Angelia P; Paloski, William H


    In spite of the experience gained in human space flight since Yuri Gagarin's historical flight in 1961, there has yet to be identified a completely effective countermeasure for mitigating the effects of weightlessness on humans. Were astronauts to embark upon a journey to Mars today, the 6-month exposure to weightlessness en route would leave them considerably debilitated, even with the implementation of the suite of piece-meal countermeasures currently employed. Continuous or intermittent exposure to simulated gravitational states on board the spacecraft while traveling to and from Mars, also known as artificial gravity, has the potential for enhancing adaptation to Mars gravity and re-adaptation to Earth gravity. Many physiological functions are adversely affected by the weightless environment of spaceflight because they are calibrated for normal, Earth's gravity. Hence, the concept of artificial gravity is to provide a broad-spectrum replacement for the gravitational forces that naturally occur on the Earth's surface, thereby avoiding the physiological deconditioning that takes place in weightlessness. Because researchers have long been concerned by the adverse sensorimotor effects that occur in weightlessness as well as in rotating environments, additional study of the complex interactions among sensorimotor and other physiological systems in rotating environments must be undertaken both on Earth and in space before artificial gravity can be implemented.

  18. Artificial gravity as a countermeasure for mitigating physiological deconditioning during long-duration space missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles eClement


    Full Text Available In spite of the experience gained in human space flight since Yuri Gagarin’s historical flight in 1961, there has yet to be identified a completely effective countermeasure for mitigating the effects of weightlessness on humans. Were astronauts to embark upon a journey to Mars today, the six-month exposure to weightlessness en route would leave them considerably debilitated, even with the implementation of the suite of piece-meal countermeasures currently employed. Continuous or intermittent exposure to simulated gravitational states on board the spacecraft while traveling to and from Mars, also known as artificial gravity, has the potential for enhancing adaptation to Mars gravity and re-adaptation to Earth gravity. Many physiological functions are adversely affected by the weightless environment of spaceflight because they are calibrated for normal, Earth’s gravity. Hence, the concept of artificial gravity is to provide a broad-spectrum replacement for the gravitational forces that naturally occur on the Earth’s surface, thereby avoiding the physiological deconditioning that takes place in weightlessness. Because researchers have long been concerned by the adverse sensorimotor effects that occur in weightlessness as well as in rotating environments, additional study of the complex interactions among sensorimotor and other physiological systems in rotating environments must be undertaken both on Earth and in space before artificial gravity can be implemented.

  19. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights (United States)

    Banks, Akeem


    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  20. Optimized mid-infrared thermal emitters for applications in aircraft countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón G. Lorenzo


    Full Text Available We introduce an optimized aperiodic multilayer structure capable of broad angle and high temperature thermal emission over the 3 μm to 5 μm atmospheric transmission band. This aperiodic multilayer structure composed of alternating layers of silicon carbide and graphite on top of a tungsten substrate exhibits near maximal emittance in a 2 μm wavelength range centered in the mid-wavelength infrared band traditionally utilized for atmospheric transmission. We optimize the layer thicknesses using a hybrid optimization algorithm coupled to a transfer matrix code to maximize the power emitted in this mid-infrared range normal to the structure’s surface. We investigate possible applications for these structures in mimicking 800–1000 K aircraft engine thermal emission signatures and in improving countermeasure effectiveness against hyperspectral imagers. We find these structures capable of matching the Planck blackbody curve in the selected infrared range with relatively sharp cutoffs on either side, leading to increased overall efficiency of the structures. Appropriately optimized multilayer structures with this design could lead to matching a variety of mid-infrared thermal emissions. For aircraft countermeasure applications, this method could yield a flare design capable of mimicking engine spectra and breaking the lock of hyperspectral imaging systems.

  1. Investigating the formal countermeasures and informal strategies used to mitigate SPAD risk in train driving. (United States)

    Naweed, Anjum; Rainbird, Sophia; Chapman, Janine


    Various countermeasures are used to mitigate signal passed at danger (SPAD) events on railways, yet they continue. While risk factors that destabilise cognitive processes have been identified, less has been published on the relationship between these factors and the informal strategies that drivers themselves adopt to reduce individual SPAD risk. This study aimed to address this gap and used a participative approach to collect and thematically analyse data from 28 drivers across eight rail organisations in Australia and New Zealand. The results showed not all formal countermeasures were considered effective, and identified several informal strategies. These aimed to reduce task disruption, service distortion and maintain connectedness to signals. While some evidenced redundancies in the task and cab, others did not reduce baseline risk. This paper explores the relationship between the established risks and identified strategies towards evaluating the utility of formal and informal mitigations. The research has application to the investigation of collision risk in all transport domains. Practitioner Summary: A participative approach was used to investigate SPAD mitigation techniques in train driving, and to explore risk-strategy relationship dynamics. Several informal strategies designed to reduce task disruption, service distortion and maintain signal connectedness were identified. While some evidenced redundancies in the task and cab, others did not reduce baseline risk.

  2. Violence and Cardiovascular Health (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.


    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  3. NASA'S Standard Measures During Bed Rest: Adaptations in the Cardiovascular System (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Martin, David S.; Cromwell, Roni L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.


    Bed rest is a well-accepted analog of space flight that has been used extensively to investigate physiological adaptations in a larger number of subjects in a shorter amount of time than can be studied with space flight and without the confounding effects associated with normal mission operations. However, comparison across studies of different bed rest durations, between sexes, and between various countermeasure protocols have been hampered by dissimilarities in bed rest conditions, measurement protocols, and testing schedules. To address these concerns, NASA instituted standard bed rest conditions and standard measures for all physiological disciplines participating in studies conducted at the Flight Analogs Research Unit (FARU) at the University of Texas-Medical Branch. Investigators for individual studies employed their own targeted study protocols to address specific hypothesis-driven questions, but standard measures tests were conducted within these studies on a non-interference basis to maximize data availability while reducing the need to implement multiple bed rest studies to understand the effects of a specific countermeasure. When possible, bed rest standard measures protocols were similar to tests nominally used for medically-required measures or research protocols conducted before and after Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. Specifically, bed rest standard measures for the cardiovascular system implemented before, during, and after bed rest at the FARU included plasma volume (carbon monoxide rebreathing), cardiac mass and function (2D, 3D and Doppler echocardiography), and orthostatic tolerance testing (15- or 30-minutes of 80 degree head-up tilt). Results to-date indicate that when countermeasures are not employed, plasma volume decreases and the incidence of presyncope during head-up tilt is more frequent even after short-duration bed rest while reductions in cardiac function and mass are progressive as bed rest duration

  4. Immune, inflammatory and cardiovascular consequences of sleep restriction and recovery. (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Vanhamme, Luc; Kerkhofs, Myriam


    In addition to its effects on cognitive function, compelling evidence links sleep loss to alterations in the neuroendocrine, immune and inflammatory systems with potential negative public-health ramifications. The evidence to suggest that shorter sleep is associated with detrimental health outcomes comes from both epidemiological and experimental sleep deprivation studies. This review will focus on the post-sleep deprivation and recovery changes in immune and inflammatory functions in well-controlled sleep restriction laboratory studies. The data obtained indicate non-specific activation of leukocyte populations and a state of low-level systemic inflammation after sleep loss. Furthermore, one night of recovery sleep does not allow full recovery of a number of these systemic immune and inflammatory markers. We will speculate on the mechanism(s) that link(s) sleep loss to these responses and to the progression of cardiovascular disease. The immune and inflammatory responses to chronic sleep restriction suggest that chronic exposure to reduced sleep (recovery sleep could have gradual deleterious effects, over years, on cardiovascular pathogenesis with a heightened risk in women and in night and shift workers. Finally, we will examine countermeasures, e.g., napping or sleep extension, which could improve the recovery processes, in terms of alertness and immune and inflammatory parameters, after sleep restriction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular Cardiovascular system aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Ocampo


    Full Text Available El envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular está asociado con un número característico de cambios a nivel bioquímico, histológico y morfológico. Sin embargo, no todas las modificaciones presentadas se asocian con deterioro en la función. Entre los cambios a nivel cardiaco se tienen: disminución en el número de miocitos y en las células del sistema de conducción cardiaca, desarrollo de fibrosis, cambios en el transporte de calcio a través de las membranas y disminución del cronotropismo, inotropismo y lusitropismo mediados por estímulo b-adrenérgico. A nivel vascular, hay incremento en la rigidez de la pared de las arterias, con aumento en la velocidad de la onda de pulso, disfunción endotelial y disminución de la vasodilatación mediada por estímulo b-adrenérgico. Durante el reposo el sistema cardiovascular es capaz de desarrollar mecanismos adaptativos eficientes, pero en situaciones de estrés como el ejercicio, los cambios asociados con el envejecimiento se hacen evidentes ya que está disminuida la capacidad para obtener la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, está incrementada la postcarga y hay disminución de la contractilidad intrínseca. Por lo anterior, los ancianos deben utilizar al máximo el mecanismo de Frank-Starling para mantener el gasto cardiaco. Los cambios estructurales y funcionales asociados con el envejecimiento cardiovascular, disminuyen de forma significativa el umbral en el cual las enfermedades cardiacas llegan a ser evidentes, y deben ser conocidos por el personal de salud encargado de cuidar a los ancianos.Cardiovascular aging is associated with characteristic biochemical, histological and morphological changes. Nevertheless, these changes are not necessarily associated to a deterioration in its function. Among the cardiac changes found, there is a reduction in the number of myocytes and of the cardiac conduction system cells, development of fibrosis, changes in the trans-membrane calcium transport and a

  6. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif


    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  7. The factors associated with preferences for napping and drinking coffee as countermeasures for sleepiness at the wheel among Japanese drivers. (United States)

    Asaoka, Shoichi; Abe, Takashi; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi


    We explored differences between professional and non-professional drivers in terms of the factors associated with preferences for generally accepted, effective countermeasures for sleepiness at the wheel--i.e., napping and drinking coffee. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Data from professional (n = 716) and non-professional (n = 3365) drivers were used for analyses. The results showed that professional drivers experienced drowsy driving and traffic accidents due to falling asleep more often than non-professional drivers. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that variables which may act as aggravating factors for sleepiness (i.e., engagement in shift-work and insufficient sleep) were associated with preferences for these countermeasures among non-professional drivers. In contrast, among professional drivers, being male and having experienced traffic accidents due to drowsy driving were associated with a preference for napping, while longer annual driving distances and shorter periods after the acquisition of driving licenses were associated with drinking coffee. Our results suggest that non-professional drivers are likely to take these effective countermeasures when they feel or have the potential to experience sleepiness at the wheel. However, this tendency was not observed in professional drivers, and it is speculated that they do not use naps as a countermeasure until they have experienced traffic accidents due to drowsy driving. Sleep education for professional drivers and their employers is desirable for preventing drowsy driving-related traffic accidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of tsunami countermeasures based on lessons from the 2011 great east Japan earthquake and tsunami : situation after five years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suppasri, A; Latcharote, Panon; Bricker, J.D.; Leelawat, Natt; Hayashi, A; Yamashita, Kei; Makinoshima, Fumiyasu; Roeber, Volker; Makinoshima, Fumihiko


    The 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami exposed many hidden weaknesses in Japan’s tsunami countermeasures. Since then, many improvements have been made in both structural measures (numerical simulations, coastal defense structures, building damage assessment and control forests) and nonstructural measures

  9. 40 CFR 112.10 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and... (United States)


    ... Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and... structures to intercept and contain discharges of fuel, crude oil, or oily drilling fluids. (d) Install a... Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and workover facilities. 112.10 Section 112.10...

  10. Back pain in space and post-flight spine injury: Mechanisms and countermeasure development (United States)

    Sayson, Jojo V.; Lotz, Jeffrey; Parazynski, Scott; Hargens, Alan R.


    During spaceflight many astronauts experience moderate to severe lumbar pain and deconditioning of paraspinal muscles. There is also a significant incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in astronauts post-flight being most prevalent in cervical discs. Relief of in-flight lumbar back pain is facilitated by assuming a knee-to-chest position. The pathogenesis of lumbar back pain during spaceflight is most likely discogenic and somatic referred (from the sinuvertebral nerves) due to supra-physiologic swelling of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) due to removal of gravitational compressive loads in microgravity. The knee-to-chest position may reduce lumbar back pain by redistributing stresses through compressive loading to the IVDs, possibly reducing disc volume by fluid outflow across IVD endplates. IVD stress redistribution may reduce Type IV mechanoreceptor nerve impulse propagation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral endplate resulting in centrally mediated pain inhibition during spinal flexion. Countermeasures for lumbar back pain may include in-flight use of: (1) an axial compression harness to prevent excessive IVD expansion and spinal column elongation; (2) the use of an adjustable pulley exercise developed to prevent atrophy of spine muscle stabilisers; and (3) other exercises that provide Earth-like annular stress with low-load repetitive active spine rotation movements. The overall objective of these countermeasures is to promote IVD health and to prevent degenerative changes that may lead to HNPs post-flight. In response to "NASA's Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions" regarding disc injury and higher incidence of HNPs after space flight (Integrated Research Plan Gap-B4), future studies will incorporate pre- and post-flight imaging of International Space Station long-duration crew members to investigate mechanisms of lumbar back pain as well as degeneration and damage to spinal structures. Quantitative results on morphological, biochemical

  11. Bone Loss in Space: Shuttle/MIR Experience and Bed Rest Countermeasure Program (United States)

    Shackelford, L. C.; LeBlanc, A.; Feiveson, A.; Oganov, V.


    Loss of bone mineral during space flight was documented in the 1970's Skylab missions. The USSR space program made similar observations in the 1980's. The Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow and NASA JSC in 1989 began to collect pre- and post-flight bone mineral density (BMD) using Hologic QDR 1000 DEXA scanners transferred from JSC to Moscow and Star City. DEXA whole body, hip, and lumbar spine scans were performed prior to and during the first week after return from 4- to 6-month missions (plus one 8-month mission and one 14- month mission) on the Mir space station. These data documented the extent and regional nature of bone loss during long duration space flight. Of the 18 cosmonauts participating in this study between 1990 and 1995, seven flew two missions. BMD scans prior to the second flight compared to the first mission preflight scans indicated that recovery was possibly delayed or incomplete. Because of these findings, NASA and IBMP initiated the study "Bone Mineral Loss and Recovery After Shuttle/Mir Flights" in 1995 to evaluate bone recovery during a 3-year post-flight period. All of the 14 participants thus far evaluated lost bone in at least one region of the spine and lower extremities during flight. Of the 14, only one to date has exhibited full return to baseline BNM values in all regions. The current study will continue until the last participant has reached full bone recovery in all regions, has reached a plateau, or until three years after the flight (2001 for the last mission of the program). Bone mineral density losses in space and difficulty in returning to baseline indicate a need for countermeasure development. In late 1996 NASA JSC and Baylor College of Medicine were approved to conduct two countermeasure studies during 17 weeks of bed rest. In 1997 the studies were begun in the bed rest facility established by NASA, Baylor College of Medicine, and The Methodist Hospital in Houston. To date, three bed rest controls, five resistive

  12. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach (United States)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.


    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  13. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.


    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  14. Mitochondria and Cardiovascular Aging (United States)

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Ungvari, Zoltan


    Old age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several lines of evidence in experimental animal models have indicated the central role of mitochondria both in lifespan determination and cardiovascular aging. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and biogenesis as well as the crosstalk between mitochondria and cellular signaling in cardiac and vascular aging. Intrinsic cardiac aging in the murine model closely recapitulates age-related cardiac changes in humans (left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction), while the phenotype of vascular aging include endothelial dysfunction, reduced vascular elasticity and chronic vascular inflammation. Both cardiac and vascular aging involve neurohormonal signaling (e.g. renin-angiotensin, adrenergic, insulin-IGF1 signaling) and cell-autonomous mechanisms. The potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and cardiovascular diseases are also discussed, with a focus on mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, calorie restriction, calorie restriction mimetics and exercise training. PMID:22499901

  15. Mortalidad y morbilidad cardiovascular


    Villar, Fernando


    En la actualidad se producen en España más de 120.000 muertes y más de 5 millones de estancias hospitalarias por enfermedades cardiovasculares al año. Por ello, las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen la primera causa de muerte y hospitalización en la población española. La enfermedad isquémica del corazón es la que ocasiona un mayor número de muertes cardiovasculares (31% en total, un 39% en varones y 24% en mujeres) en España. Este fenómeno se empezó a dar en el año 1996, y se debe al...

  16. Compiler optimizations as a countermeasure against side-channel analysis in MSP430-based devices. (United States)

    Malagón, Pedro; de Goyeneche, Juan-Mariano; Zapater, Marina; Moya, José M; Banković, Zorana


    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) requires devices everywhere, dynamic and massively distributed networks of low-cost nodes that, among other data, manage private information or control restricted operations. MSP430, a 16-bit microcontroller, is used in WSN platforms, as the TelosB. Physical access to devices cannot be restricted, so attackers consider them a target of their malicious attacks in order to obtain access to the network. Side-channel analysis (SCA) easily exploits leakages from the execution of encryption algorithms that are dependent on critical data to guess the key value. In this paper we present an evaluation framework that facilitates the analysis of the effects of compiler and backend optimizations on the resistance against statistical SCA. We propose an optimization-based software countermeasure that can be used in current low-cost devices to radically increase resistance against statistical SCA, analyzed with the new framework.

  17. Compiler Optimizations as a Countermeasure against Side-Channel Analysis in MSP430-Based Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Banković


    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI requires devices everywhere, dynamic and massively distributed networks of low-cost nodes that, among other data, manage private information or control restricted operations. MSP430, a 16-bit microcontroller, is used in WSN platforms, as the TelosB. Physical access to devices cannot be restricted, so attackers consider them a target of their malicious attacks in order to obtain access to the network. Side-channel analysis (SCA easily exploits leakages from the execution of encryption algorithms that are dependent on critical data to guess the key value. In this paper we present an evaluation framework that facilitates the analysis of the effects of compiler and backend optimizations on the resistance against statistical SCA. We propose an optimization-based software countermeasure that can be used in current low-cost devices to radically increase resistance against statistical SCA, analyzed with the new framework.

  18. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX. (United States)

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H; Price, Matthew E; Graham, Stuart J; Green, A Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J; Timperley, Christopher M


    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM-VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro. The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved.

  19. Design and test of an airborne IR countermeasures hyper-hemispherical silicon dome (United States)

    Bender, Michael J.; Guyer, Robert C.; Fenton, Thomas E.


    A 6.5 inch diameter hyper-hemispherical silicon dome was developed on IRAD for an infrared countermeasures aircraft self-protection system. Having passed operational level environmental testing and many hours of flight performance, a prototype dome was subjected to MIL test requirements in simulated crash safety testing at the manufacturer's facility. Although the dome cracked during shock testing, it remained intact preserving aircraft integrity and actually passing safety requirements. This paper describes design requirements, stress analyses of the dome and its mounting, and test results including a forensic cause of failure study of the dome. The results add insight to the margins of safety normally applied to the stress analyses of brittle optical materials and examine actual cause of failure in the prototype part.

  20. Advanced Fade Countermeasures for DVB-S2 Systems in Railway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Párraga Niebla


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of advanced fade countermeasures for supporting DVB-S2 reception by mobile terminals mounted on high-speed trains. Recent market studies indicate this as a potential profitable market for satellite communications, provided that integration with wireless terrestrial networks can be implemented to bridge the satellite connectivity inside railway tunnels and large train stations. In turn, the satellite can typically offer the coverage of around 80% of the railway path with existing space infrastructure. This piece of work, representing the first step of a wider study, is focusing on the modifications which may be required in the DVB-S2 standard (to be employed in the forward link in order to achieve reliable reception in a challenging environment such as the railway one. Modifications have been devised trying to minimize the impact on the existing air interface, standardized for fixed terminals.

  1. Advanced Fade Countermeasures for DVB-S2 Systems in Railway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niebla CristinaPárraga


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of advanced fade countermeasures for supporting DVB-S2 reception by mobile terminals mounted on high-speed trains. Recent market studies indicate this as a potential profitable market for satellite communications, provided that integration with wireless terrestrial networks can be implemented to bridge the satellite connectivity inside railway tunnels and large train stations. In turn, the satellite can typically offer the coverage of around 80% of the railway path with existing space infrastructure. This piece of work, representing the first step of a wider study, is focusing on the modifications which may be required in the DVB-S2 standard (to be employed in the forward link in order to achieve reliable reception in a challenging environment such as the railway one. Modifications have been devised trying to minimize the impact on the existing air interface, standardized for fixed terminals.

  2. Industrial symbiosis as a countermeasure for resource dependent city: a case study of Guiyang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Dong, Liang; Ren, Jingzheng


    Solutions towards sustainable cities are of vital importance for China's stakeholders due to the rapid urbanizations, serious resources depletion and environmental contaminations in China. China as the second largest economy is suffering from the dilemma of rapid industrialization and urbanization......, and sustainable development. One of the most severe problems affecting China's sustainable urban development is the resource dependent city, in which resource mining and process industries dominate the local economy. With the depletion of natural resources and the degradation of environment, the concept...... of sustainability and economy transition solutions become more and more important. Under this condition, this study aims to conduct a comprehensive review on the major projects for a more sustainable future in China's national resource dependent cities and propose a countermeasure for the sustainability transition...

  3. Toxins as biological weapons for terror-characteristics, challenges and medical countermeasures: a mini-review. (United States)

    Berger, Tamar; Eisenkraft, Arik; Bar-Haim, Erez; Kassirer, Michael; Aran, Adi Avniel; Fogel, Itay


    Toxins are hazardous biochemical compounds derived from bacteria, fungi, or plants. Some have mechanisms of action and physical properties that make them amenable for use as potential warfare agents. Currently, some toxins are classified as potential biological weapons, although they have several differences from classic living bio-terror pathogens and some similarities to manmade chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on category A and B bio-terror toxins recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Botulinum neurotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, and ricin. Their derivation, pathogenesis, mechanism of action, associated clinical signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed in detail. Given their expected covert use, the primary diagnostic challenge in toxin exposure is the early detection of morbidity clusters, apart from background morbidity, after a relatively short incubation period. For this reason, it is important that clinicians be familiar with the clinical manifestations of toxins and the appropriate methods of management and countermeasures.

  4. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres


    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  5. Evaluation and Countermeasures on sustainable development of nickel resources in China (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng


    Nickel is an important strategic resource in China. With the gradual reduction of nickel re-sources and the increasing competition of the global mineral resources market, the safety of nickel resources in China has been seriously threatened. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the sustainable develop-ment of nickel resources in China and put forward the corresponding countermeasures. In this paper, the concept and research situation of sustainable development are analyzed. Based on the specific development of nickel resources in China, this paper uses AHP to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in china. Finally, it puts forward the concrete measures to implement the sustainable development strategy of nickel resources in China.

  6. Review of concentrating solar thermal power industry in China: Status quo, problems, trend and countermeasures (United States)

    Zou, Jiajun


    Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) industry is a strategic emerging industry in China. Its further development is of great significance for promoting the energy revolution, achieving energy saving and emission reduction. In this paper, China’s CSP industry is systematically analysed. First of all, the status quo is elaborated from the perspectives of relevant policies and regulations, market and generation technology development. Secondly, the problems and the underlying reasons of China’s CSP industry are deeply studied. On this basis, the future trends of CSP are expounded on the three levels of policy, market and power generation technology. Finally, a series of feasible countermeasures are put forward, designed to promote the development of CSP industry and the transformation of energy structure.

  7. Exercise as Countermeasure for Decrements of Performance and Mood During Long-Term Confinement (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Piacentini, Maria F.; Meeusen, Romain; Brummer, Vera; Struder, Heiko K.


    In order to prepare for crewed exploratory missions to Moon and Mars, currently ESA is participating in two isolation studies, MARS 500 and on the antarctis station CONCORDIA. The aim of the present study is to identify exercise as a countermeasure to confinement addicted changes in mood. It is planned (1) to look at influences of exercise on the serotonergic system, which is known to have mood regulating effects and (2) to record changes in brain cortical activity due to exercise. Mood and performance tests will be carried out several times during the confinement. We hypothesize that impairments in mood due to the isolated and confined environment together with a lack of physical exercise lead to decreases in mental and perceptual motor performance whereas physical exercise linked with an activation of the serotonergic system will improve mood and therefore performance irrespectively of the environmental restrictions.

  8. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M


    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  9. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies. (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny


    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Singh


    Full Text Available The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication.

  11. Adapting to confined and isolated environment: Emotional effects and countermeasures in LUNAR PALACE 1 (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Wu, Ruilin

    Most operations in manned spaceflight originate in mental work, and numerous factors in aerospace can cause psychological problems. Among these problems, negative emotions are the most important and critical. Confined isolated environment, limited communication with outside and unpredictable risks may lead to the aggravation and acceleration of depression, anxiety and monotony, which could deteriorate astronauts’ effectiveness and safety.Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify possible change rules over time of emotional states in 90-day isolation period. The experiment is conducted in an analogue space station in Beihang University called LUNAR PALACE 1, which forms 100 percent of carbon and oxygen cycle closed environment, containing one comprehensive cabin and one plant cabin. Three healthy subjects (so called crews) are selected in the research, and they are assigned to tasks every day to imitate astronaut schedule. In order to monitor their emotional states, all crews will complete a questionnaire named profile of mood states (POMS) every week. Considering the limitation of questionnaire survey, we employ another method of automatic analysis. We set a network camera in the staff room (for meal and entertainment) in comprehensive cabin, and the videos will be analyzed through FaceReader, a facial expressions recognition software, to indicate their emotions. In addition, interviews will also be conducted after the experiment isolation period.Previous researches have shown that mission positive impact on crews, support from outside psychologists and surgeons, or surprise presents and favorite foods act well to against negative effects of the Third quarter phenomenon, displacement and other conflictions. Beyond these countermeasures, in LUNAR PALACE 1 we used open network environment to increase crews’ communication with family or friends and provide them digital camera to record their daily life as a kind of recreation.From all these measures, we will

  12. Virtual Reality as a Medium for Sensorimotor Adaptation Training and Spaceflight Countermeasures (United States)

    Madansingh, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.


    With the upcoming shift to extra-long duration missions (1 year) aboard the ISS, sensorimotor adaptations during transitory periods in-and-out of microgravity are more important to understand and prepare for. Advances in virtual reality technology enables everyday adoption of these tools for entertainment and use in training. Experiencing virtual environments (VE) allows for the manipulation of visual flow to elicit automatic motor behavior and produce sensorimotor adaptation (SA). Recently, the ability to train individuals using repeatable and varied exposures to SA challenges has shown success by improving performance during exposure to a novel environment (Batson 2011). This capacity to 'learn to learn' is referred to as sensorimotor adaptive generalizability and, through the use of treadmill training, represents an untapped potential for individualized countermeasures. The goal of this study is to determine the feasibility of present head mounted displays (HMDs) to produce compelling visual flow information and the expected adaptations for use in future SA treadmill-based countermeasures. Participants experience infinite hallways providing congruent (baseline) or incongruent visual information (half or double speed) via HMD while walking on an instrumented treadmill at 1.1m/s. As gait performance approaches baseline levels, an adaptation time constant is derived to establish individual time-to-adapt (TTA). It is hypothesized that decreasing the TTA through SA treadmill training will facilitate sensorimotor adaptation during gravitational transitions. In this way, HMD technology represents a novel platform for SA training using off-the-shelf consumer products for greater training flexibility in astronaut and terrestrial applications alike.

  13. Autonomous, Computer-Based Behavioral Health Countermeasure Evaluation at HI-SEAS Mars Analog. (United States)

    Anderson, Allison P; Fellows, Abigail M; Binsted, Kim A; Hegel, Mark T; Buckey, Jay C

    Living in an isolated, confined environment (ICE) can induce conflict, stress, and depression. Computer-based behavioral health countermeasures are appealing for training and treatment in ICEs because they provide confidentiality and do not require communication with the outside environment. We evaluated the Virtual Space Station (VSS), a suite of interactive computer-delivered psychological training and treatment programs, at the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) III expedition. Six subjects (3 male, 3 female) spent 8 mo in group-isolation and used the Conflict, Stress, and Depression modules in the VSS. Survey evaluations, data collected within the program, and postdeployment interviews were collected. This crew dealt with behavioral health issues common to ICEs. The VSS proved to be a valuable resource and was used both as intended, and in unanticipated ways, to help maintain behavioral health. The Conflict and Stress Modules were rated as highly acceptable (1.8 on a 7-point Likert scale). The crew identified a total of 13 stressors and worked on 9 problems through the VSS. Opinions about the modules were highly individualized. Crewmembers identified exercises in the VSS that were applicable and not applicable to their needs. Additional content to improve the program was identified. Autonomous, confidential training and treatment for behavioral health issues will need to be a critical component of long duration spaceflight travel. This work provides an evaluation of such a tool in a relevant ICE. Anderson AP, Fellows AM, Binsted KA, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. Autonomous, computer-based behavioral health countermeasure evaluation at HI-SEAS Mars analog. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(11):912-920.

  14. The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects Ann R. Kennedy Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 195 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, United States 19104-6072 The development of countermeasures for radiation induced adverse health effects is a lengthy process, particularly when the countermeasure/drug has not yet been evaluated in human trials. One example of a drug developed from the bench to the clinic is the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which has been developed as a countermeasure for radiation induced cancer. It was originally identified as a compound/drug that could prevent the radiation induced carcinogenic process in an in vitro assay system in 1975. The first observation that BBI could inhibit carcinogenesis in animals was in 1985. BBI received Investigational New Drug (IND) Status with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 (after several years of negotiation with the FDA about the potential IND status of the drug), and human trials began at that time. Phase I, II and III human trials utilizing BBI have been performed under several INDs with the FDA, and an ongoing Phase III trial will be ending in the very near future. Thus, the drug has been in development for 35 years at this point, and it is still not a prescription drug on the market which is available for human use. A somewhat less time-consuming process is to evaluate compounds that are on the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. These compounds would include some over-the-counter medications, such as antioxidant vitamins utilized in human trials at the levels for which Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been established. To determine whether GRAS substances are able to have beneficial effects on radiation induced adverse health effects, it is still likely to be a lengthy process involving many years to potentially decades of human trial work. The

  15. Mathematical modeling of acute and chronic cardiovascular changes during Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) flights (United States)

    White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Srinivasan, R. Srini; Charles, John B.

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program aims to extend the capability of the Shuttle orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration. This goal is to be accomplished in steps, partly due to our limited knowledge of the physiological changes resulting from long-term exposure to weightlessness and their likely influence on critical mission operations involved in EDO flights. Answers to questions related to physiologic adaptation to weightlessness are being actively sought at the present time to help implement the EDO program. In the cardiovascular area, the loss of orthostatic tolerance is a medical concern because of its potential adverse effects on crew performance and safety during reentry and following return to earth. Flight and ground-based physiologic studies are being planned to understand the mechanism and time course of spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance and to develop effective countermeasures for improving post-flight cardiovascular performance. Where feasible, these studies are aided by theoretical analyses using mathematical modeling and computer simulation of physiological systems. This paper is concerned with the application of proven models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems in the analysis of chronic cardiovascular changes under weightless conditions.

  16. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk. (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg


    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  17. [Hemodialysis and cardiovascular outcome]. (United States)

    Panicali, Laura; Brigante, Fabiana; Mancini, Elena


    Hemodialysis patients often present multiple comorbidities and have a high mortality rate (15-20% per year), mostly due to cardiovascular events. Besides predisposing pathological conditions related to uremia (heart failure, coronary heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmias), they also have specific risk factors linked to the hemodialysis (HD) treatment in itself: chronic inflammation, fluid overload, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, arterovenous fistula. These factors may affect the hemodynamic compensatory systems (vascular refilling, arteriolar and venous tone, autonomic nervous system response) to fluid removal, with high risk of intra-dialysis hypotension (IDH) episodes or arrhythmic events. IDH is recognized as associated to a negative long term outcome, due to the repeated episodes of organ hypoperfusion with ischemic damage to heart, brain and gut. Over the years, dialysis technology has greatly improved, with the development of continuous and noninvasive monitoring systems, able to control some hemodynamic parameters affecting blood pressure (mainly blood volume and body temperature), with positive results in terms of hemodynamic instability during HD. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that hemodiafiltration may reduce the risk of IDH and cardiovascular mortality, compared with conventional HD. Diabetic and/or old patients, as well as those with a previous cardiovascular event, are the first patients who should receive the new treatment options. Overall, the HD prescription needs to be tailored to each patient's need, to improve the hemodynamic tolerance to treatment and the cardiovascular outcome. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of gliptins. (United States)

    Scheen, André J


    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (commonly referred to as gliptins) are a novel class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preclinical data and mechanistic studies have indicated a possible beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. DPP-4 inhibition increases the concentration of many peptides with potential vasoactive and cardioprotective effects. Clinically, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several risk factors in patients with T2DM. They improve blood glucose control (mainly by reducing postprandial glycaemia), are weight neutral (or even induce modest weight loss), lower blood pressure, improve postprandial lipaemia, reduce inflammatory markers, diminish oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function. Some positive effects on the heart have also been described in patients with ischaemic heart disease or congestive heart failure, although their clinical relevance requires further investigation. Post-hoc analyses of phase II-III, controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend for a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with gliptins than with placebo or active agents. However, the actual relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials with predefined cardiovascular outcomes and involving various DPP-4 inhibitors are now underway in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile.

  19. Cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z.; Jespersen, Lasse


    Aim European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed the potential...

  20. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  1. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  2. Cardiovascular consequences of hypophosphatemia. (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Nobuhiro; Nogi, Masayuki; Ando, Akika; Watanabe, Hideaki; Umekawa, Sari


    Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of hypophosphatemia on cardiovascular consequences. The goal of this review was to determine whether hypophosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular consequences and to increase its awareness as a new clinical entity and a reversible cause of cardiovascular consequences. We searched MEDLINE and PubMed through September 2016 for primary studies that reported the relationship between hypophosphatemia and cardiovascular consequences including cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia. A total of 937 articles were initially obtained. Of these articles, 921 publications were excluded according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Sixteen articles were included in this review. These articles included 3 prospective cohort studies, 1 retrospective cohort study, 7 case series or case reports, 2 case-control studies, 1 pre- vs. post-test in a single group, and 2 animal studies. The mechanisms of hypophosphatemia in cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia have been reported to be a depletion of adenosine triphosphate in myocardial cells and decreased 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in erythrocytes. Left ventricular performance seems to improve when severe hypophosphatemia is corrected, but not in those with mild to moderate hypophosphatemia. However, analyses of the relationship between cardiac function and hypophosphatemia using clinical end points have not been conducted. The association between hypophosphatemia and arrhythmia remains unclear, but anecdotal reports exist in the literature.

  3. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard


    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the

  4. cardiovascular disease intervention programme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in smoking during a community-based cardiovascular disease intervention programme. The Coronary Risk Factor Study. H. J. STEENKAMP, P. L. JOOSTE, P. C. J. JORDAAN,. A. S. P. SWANEPOEL, J. E. ROSSOUW. Summary. A prospective anti-smoking clinical trial was conducted as part of a coronary risk factor ...

  5. The Cardiovascular Research Grid (CVRG) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...

  6. Nutrition and cardiovascular health. (United States)

    Berciano, Silvia; Ordovás, José M


    A multitude of studies have been published on the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and a variety of nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns. Despite the well-accepted notion that diet has a significant influence on the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease, the foods considered healthy and harmful have varied over the years. This review aims to summarize the current scientific evidence on the cardioprotective effect of those foods and nutrients that have been considered healthy as well as those that have been deemed unhealthy at any given time in history. For this purpose, we reviewed the most recent literature using as keywords foods and nutrients (ie, meat, omega-3) and cardiovascular disease-related terms (ie, cardiovascular diseases, stroke). Emphasis has been placed on meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. In general, there is a paucity of intervention studies with a high level of evidence supporting the benefits of healthy foods (ie, fruits and vegetables), whereas the evidence supporting the case against those foods considered less healthy (ie, saturated fat) seems to be weakened by most recent evidence. In summary, most of the evidence supporting the benefits and harms of specific foods and nutrients is based on observational epidemiological studies. The outcome of randomized clinical trials reveals a more confusing picture with most studies providing very small effects in one direction or another; the strongest evidence comes from dietary patterns. The current status of the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk calls for more tailored recommendations based on genomic technologies. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease


    Bridger, Tracey


    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Costina LUCA


    Full Text Available Involving systemic autoimmune diseases, they primarily affect the joints, muscles and connective tissues. Cardiovascular impairment is often common in these disease manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to life-situations in danger. Otherwise impaired cardiovascular reason may be the first presentation. This may require aggressive therapy immunosuppressed, therefore the diagnosis is very important for a good choice of therapy. This article discusses the cardiovascular manifestations of systemic autoimmune diseases, mainly rheumatic diseases, focusing on diagnosis and manangement cardiovascular implications.

  9. Modified lipoproteins as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, José Luis; Pérez, Antonio


    Prevention of high incidence of cardiovascular disease in diabetes is one of the challenges of endocrinology. Validation of new biomarkers that may contribute to a better assessment of cardiovascular risk and help implement treatment strategies is one of the promising approaches in research on prevention and reduction of cardiovascular risk. Modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key element in development of atherosclerotic lesions. Several pathophysiological characteristics of diabetes are crucial for the LDL of these patients to have higher modification rates as compared to the healthy population. Diabetic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress synergistically promote the occurrence of lipoperoxidation, glycosylation and glycoxidation processes, which will generate modified lipoproteins that stimulate development of atherosclerosis. This article reviews the role of different types of modified LDL in development of atherosclerosis in diabetes, as well as the possibility of using its quantification in cardiovascular risk prediction. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of selected spices in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kulczyński


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Literature data indicate that, due to these diseases, approximately 17.5 million people died in 2012. Types of cardiovascular disease include ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia. Proper nutrition is an important factor in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. An interesting element of our diets is spices. For thousands of years, they have been used in the treatment of many diseases: bacterial infections, coughs, colds, and liver diseases. Many studies also demonstrate their antioxidant, chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. This paper focuses on discussing the importance of selected spices (garlic, cinnamon, ginger, coriander and turmeric in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Symposium Conclusion: Women's cardiovascular health after bed rest or space flight (United States)

    Hughson, Richard L.; Arbeille, Phillipe; Shoemaker, Kevin; Edgell, Heather

    The Canadian Space Agency has recently funded research on two long-duration missions to study cardiovascular deconditioning associated with bed rest or space flight. The first, Women's International Space simulation for Exploration (WISE-2005) examined the responses during a 60-day head down bed rest (HDBR) of 24 women with or without a countermeasure that consisted of supine treadmill running within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device followed by 10-minutes resting LBNP and on different days high intensity resistance exercise on a flywheel device. The second study, Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular Control on return from the International Space Station (CCISS) is currently underway with two male astronauts tested and the first woman anticipated later this year. Women have been previously identified as being more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance than men after both bed rest and space flight studies. Thus, in the WISE-2005 study we examined responses of the cardiovascular system after HDBR in women and compared these to previously published data from men. We found that after HDBR women have a greater increase in heart rate with infusion of the drug isoproterenol and this was consistent with observations in men. However, during drug infusion the women had a reduction in leg vascular resistance while men had an increase. The exercise countermeasure group had preserved heart rate and leg vascular resistance responses to drug infusion. The ability to vasoconstrict the legs and splanchnic region is critical to maintenance of upright posture after HDBR and space flight. In the WISE-2005 study, subjects who were able to constrict the legs and/or splanchnic region after HDBR were much less likely to have a marked drop in blood pressure before the end of 10-minutes upright tilt, and subjects who performed the countermeasure were more likely to be in this group of tilt test finishers. These data provide new insight into mechanisms that might be responsible for

  12. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited


    Han, Seung Hwan; Nicholls, Stephen J; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong; Koh, Kwang Kon


    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids co...

  13. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J


    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  14. Comparative and functional analysis of cardiovascular-related genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.


    The ability to detect putative cis-regulatory elements in cardiovascular-related genes has been accelerated by the availability of genomic sequence data from numerous vertebrate species and the recent development of comparative genomic tools. This improvement is anticipated to lead to a better understanding of the complex regulatory architecture of cardiovascular (CV) genes and how genetic variants in these non-coding regions can potentially play a role in cardiovascular disease. This manuscript reviews a recently established database dedicated to the comparative sequence analysis of 250 human CV genes of known importance, 37 of which currently contain sequence comparison data for organisms beyond those of human, mouse and rat. These data have provided a glimpse into the variety of possible insights from deep vertebrate sequence comparisons and the identification of putative gene regulatory elements.

  15. Recreational Snow-Sports Injury Risk Factors and Countermeasures: A Meta-Analysis Review and Haddon Matrix Evaluation. (United States)

    Hume, Patria A; Lorimer, Anna V; Griffiths, Peter C; Carlson, Isaac; Lamont, Mike


    Snow sports (alpine skiing/snowboarding) would benefit from easily implemented and cost-effective injury prevention countermeasures that are effective in reducing injury rate and severity. For snow sports, to identify risk factors and to quantify evidence for effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures. Searches of electronic literature databases to February 2014 identified 98 articles focused on snow sports that met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 90% confidence intervals (CIs) and inferences (percentage likelihood of benefit/harm) were calculated using data from 55 studies using a spreadsheet for combining independent groups with a weighting factor based on quality rating scores for effects. More experienced skiers and snowboarders are more likely to sustain an injury as a result of jumps, while beginners sustain injuries primarily as a result of falls. Key risk factors that countermeasure interventions should focus on include, beginner skiers (OR 2.72; 90% CI 2.15-3.44, 99% most likely harmful), beginner snowboarders (OR 2.66; 90% CI 2.08-3.40, 99% harmful), skiers/snowboarders who rent snow equipment (OR 2.58; 90% CI 1.98-3.37, 99% harmful) and poor visibility due to inclement weather (OR 2.69; 90% CI 1.43-5.07, 97% harmful). Effective countermeasures include helmets for skiers/snowboarders to prevent head injuries (OR 0.58; 90% CI 0.51-0.66, 99% most likely beneficial), and wrist guards for snowboarders to prevent wrist injuries (OR 0.33; 90% CI 0.23-0.47, 99% beneficial). The review identified key risk factors for snow-sport injuries and evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of existing injury prevention countermeasures in recreational (general public use of slopes, not racing) snow sports using a Haddon's matrix conceptual framework for injury causation (host/snow-sport participant, agent/mechanism and environment/community). Best evidence for the effectiveness of injury prevention

  16. A Proposed Study Examining Individual Differences in Temporal Profiles of Cardiovascular Responses to Head Down Tilt During Fluid Loading (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; Winther, Sean; Martinez, Jacqueline; Dominguez, Margaret


    Susceptibility of healthy astronauts to orthostatic hypotension and presyncope is exacerbated upon return from spaceflight. The effect of altered gravity during space flight and planetary transition on human cardiovascular function is of critical importance to maintenance of astronaut health and safety. Hypovolemia, reduced plasma volume, is suspected to play an important role in cardiovascular deconditioning following exposure to spaceflight, which may lead to increased peripheral resistance, attenuated arterial baroreflex, and changes in cardiac function. A promising countermeasure for post-flight orthostatic intolerance is fluid loading used to restore lost plasma volume by giving crew salt tablets and water prior to re-entry. The main purpose of the proposed study is to define the temporal profile of cardiac responses to simulated 0-G conditions before and following a fluid loading countermeasure. 8 men and 8 women will be tested during 4 hour exposures at 6o head down tilt (HDT). Each subject will be given two exposures to HDT on separate days, one with and one without fluid loading (one liter of 0.9% saline solution). Stand tests (orthostatic stress) will be done before and after each HDT. Cardiac measures will be obtained with both impedance cardiography and echo ultrasound

  17. Human cardiovascular and vestibular responses in long minutes and low +Gz loading by a short arm centrifuge (United States)

    Yajima, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Ito, M.; Maru, R.; Maeda, T.; Sanada, E.; Nakazato, T.; Saiki, C.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Igarashi, M.; Matsumoto, S.

    1.4 G, 1.7 G, and 2.0 G of +Gz and 60 minutes centrifugation was adopted to 20 healthy male subjects using 1.8 m radius centrifuge equipped to Nihon University School of Medicine. G was applied from lower G, considering G training effect for the subjects. Effects on performance decline and side effects of such a short-arm centrifugation were especially observed in the experiments, because this size of centrifuge could be used in space station in future for a strong countermeasure of cardiovascular deconditioning, demineralization from bone, etc. G training effect was observed same as higher and rapid G acceleration in fighter pilot. Subjects suffered from many types of discomfort; such as sensation of heaviness of diaphragm, cold sweat, nausea, irritable feeling, arrhythmia, tachycardia, rapid decrease of blood pressure, which sometimes caused interruption of G load. As 2.0 G and 60 minutes centrifugation seemed very tough load to the subjects, there should be necessary some G suit or other countermeasure, if we apply a higher G and/or longer G duration. Performance decline due to the load commonly continued for 1 hour or so. Side effects were observed in relation to neuro-vestibular, cardio-vascular, and autonomic nervous system.

  18. A review of radiation countermeasures focusing on injury-specific medicinals and regulatory approval status: part III. Countermeasures under early stages of development along with 'standard of care' medicinal and procedures not requiring regulatory approval for use. (United States)

    Singh, Vijay K; Hanlon, Briana K; Santiago, Paola T; Seed, Thomas M


    Terrorist attacks, with their intent to maximize psychological and economic damage as well as inflicting sickness and death on given targeted populations, are an ever-growing worldwide concern in government and public sectors as they become more frequent, violent, and sensational. If given the chance, it is likely that terrorists will use radiological or nuclear weapons. To thwart these sinister efforts, both physical and medical countermeasures against these weapons are currently being researched and developed so that they can be utilized by the first responders, military, and medical providers alike. This is the third article of a three-part series in which we have reviewed additional radiation countermeasures that are currently under early preclinical phases of development using largely animal models and have listed and discussed clinical support measures, including agents used for radiation-induced emesis, as well as countermeasures not requiring Food and Drug Administration approval. Despite the significant progress that has been made in this area during the last several years, additional effort is needed in order to push promising new agents, currently under development, through the regulatory pipeline. This pipeline for new promising drugs appears to be unreasonably slow and cumbersome; possible reasons for this inefficiency are briefly discussed. Significant and continued effort needs to be afforded to this research and development area, as to date, there is no approved radioprotector that can be administered prior to high dose radiation exposure. This represents a very significant, unmet medical need and a significant security issue. A large number of agents with potential to interact with different biological targets are under development. In the next few years, several additional radiation countermeasures will likely receive Food and Drug Administration approval, increasing treatment options for victims exposed to unwanted ionizing irradiation.

  19. Short-arm human centrifugation with 0.4g at eye and 0.75g at heart level provides similar cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses to standing. (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Bruner, Michelle; Xu, Da; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Blaber, Andrew P


    Orthostatic intolerance continues to be a problem with astronauts upon return to Earth as a result of cerebral and cardiovascular adaptations to weightlessness. We tested the hypothesis that artificial gravity from a short-arm human centrifuge (SAHC) could provide cerebral and cardiovascular stimuli similar to upright posture and thereby serve as a suitable countermeasure. We compared cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses before, during, and after exposure to hyper-G with that of standing in healthy young participants. The head was positioned such that the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was 0.46 m from the center of rotation. Two levels of hyper-G that provided 1g and 2g at foot level were investigated. Continuous blood pressure, heart rate, calf blood volume, MCA mean blood flow velocity (MFV) and end-tidal CO2 were measured. Blood pressure at the level of the MCA (BP-MCA) and MFV was reduced during stand and at 2g. The relationship between MFV and BP-MCA at 2g was different from supine and similar to standing, while 1g centrifugation was not different from supine. The cardiovascular system was also not different from supine at 1g but was similarly challenged in 2g compared to stand. Our data suggest that short-arm centrifugation 2g at the feet, with the head offset 0.5 m from the center, provides similar cardiovascular and cerebral responses to standing. This supports the hypothesis that passive 2g SAHC exposure at the feet could be used as a countermeasure for in-flight cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deconditioning.

  20. MS Non-Pharmacological Countermeasure to Decrease Landing Sickness and Improve Functional Performance While Disorientad (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Reschke, M. F.


    Upon return from spaceflight, a majority of crewmembers experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. The interactions between crewmembers' adaptation to a gravitational transition, the performance decrements resulting from MS and/or use of promethazine (PMZ), and the constraints imposed by mission task demands could significantly challenge and limit an astronaut's ability to perform functional tasks during gravitational transitions. No operational countermeasure currently exists to mitigate the risks associated with these sensorimotor disturbances. Stochastic resonance (SR) can be thought of simply as "noise benefit" or an increase in information transfer by a system when in the presence of a non-zero level of noise. We have shown that low levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) improve balance and locomotor performance due to SR (Goel et al. 2015, Mulavara et al. 2011, 2015). Additionally, a study in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemi-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease demonstrated improvements in locomotor activity after low-level SVS delivery possibly due to an increase in nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in a dopamine independent way (Samoudi et al. 2012). SVS specifically increased GABA release on the lesioned, but not the intact side. These results suggest that SVS can cause targeted alterations of GABA release to affect performance of functional tasks. Activation of the GABA pathway is important in modulating MS and promoting adaptability (Cohen 2008). Magnusson et al. (2000) supported this finding by showing that the administration of a GABAB agonist caused a reversal of the symptoms that is normally seen after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Thus, GABA could play a significant role in reducing MS and promoting adaptability. We have taken advantage of the SR mechanism as a modulator of neurotransmitters to develop a unique SVS countermeasure system to mitigate MS symptoms and improve functional performance after landing. Healthy

  1. Countermeasures for dairy products in nuclear emergencies; Maitotuotteisiin kohdistuvat vastatoimenpiteet ydinonnettomuustilanteessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M.; Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Salo, A. [Tampere, (Finland); Liskola, K. [Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Mustajoki, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Systems Analysis Lab.


    This work was performed in order to plan countermeasures that, after an accidental release of radioactivity, could reduce the dose to the public due to the consumption of contaminated milk and milk products. The attention was focused on whether there are justified and optimised actions below the international recommended concentration levels in foodstuffs. The analysis was conducted as a case study, i.e., it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had happened in a nuclear power plant leading to a release of radionuclides which severely contaminated a wide area of Ostrobothnia, one of Finland's most important milk production areas. The dose averted by actions, the' monetary costs and the feasibility of actions were assessed. It was also studied what information is needed by decision-makers and in which form this information should be presented. Finally, it was examined how planning of countermeasures could be enhanced by applying decision analysis in establishing actions strategies and valuing attributes considered in decision making. Preparative meetings and a concluding workshop was arranged and all authorities involved in food-related emergency management were invited to jointly analyse different options. According to the query made the participants considered the decision workshop and decision analysis very practicable in exercises. The exercise as a whole was also evaluated useful or very useful. The presented techniques in a real situation were considered applicable but not as useful as in exercises. Thus it can be deduced that the concluding workshop and decision analysis interviews augment well conventional emergency exercises. Realistic dose assessments proved out to be very difficult. The software used was able to calculate the maximum radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs processed from local raw materials. Radionuclide concentration in food or feedstuffs may, however, change quickly. Also, the production and processing of foodstuffs is a

  2. Simulating past severe flood events to evaluate the effectiveness of nonstructural flood countermeasures in the upper Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Jamrussri


    Their effectiveness in the Upper Chao Phraya River Basin was quantitatively assessed by comparing the model results for the actual conditions with the scenario results. Results showed that the proposed nonstructural measures had considerable potential to reduce peak discharges and flood volumes in the Upper Chao Phraya River Basin. Integration of these proposed nonstructural flood countermeasures with the existing countermeasures in the Chao Phraya River Basin may be the most practical way to cope with the challenges of future flood disasters.

  3. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian


    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  4. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  5. Cardiovascular safety of etoricoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Georgievna Barskova


    Full Text Available Meticulous attention is paid to the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, the so-called selective cyclooxy-genase 2 (COX-2 inhibitors in particular. The author considers precisely this matter in case of Russia's recent NSAID etoricoxib that has been tested along with other most studied medications from this group, by applying one of the latest meta-analyses. The EULAR recommendations to use NSAIDs are given.

  6. Continuing to drive while sleepy: the influence of sleepiness countermeasures, motivation for driving sleepy, and risk perception. (United States)

    Watling, Christopher N; Armstrong, Kerry A; Obst, Patricia L; Smith, Simon S


    Driver sleepiness is a major contributor to road crashes. The current study sought to examine the association between perceptions of effectiveness of six sleepiness countermeasures and their relationship with self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy among 309 drivers after controlling for the influence of age, sex, motivation for driving sleepy, and risk perception of sleepy driving. The results demonstrate that the variables of age, sex, motivation, and risk perception were significantly associated with self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy and only one countermeasure was associated with self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy. Further, it was found that age differences in self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy was mediated by participants' motivation and risk perception. These findings highlight modifiable factors that could be focused on with interventions that seek to modify drivers' attitudes and behaviours of driving while sleepy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psoriasis and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaby, Line; Ahlehoff, Ole; de Thurah, Annette


    So far, systematic reviews have suggested an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in psoriatic patients, though some results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to update the current level of evidence through a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central...... Register databases. In total, 13 high-quality observational studies estimating the incidence of CVD were included. Patients with mild psoriasis had an increased risk of stroke [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.0-1.19] and myocardial infarction (MI) (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.35), but not cardiovascular...... death. The risks of both stroke (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.60), MI (HR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.18-2.43) and cardiovascular death (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.13-1.67) were increased in patients with severe psoriasis. In conclusion, this updated meta-analysis confirmed that patients with psoriasis have an increased...

  8. Patent landscape of countermeasures against smallpox and estimation of grant attraction capability through patent landscape data. (United States)

    Mayburd, Anatoly L; Kedia, Govind; Evans, Haydn W; Kaslival, Pritesh C


    The study was concerned with countermeasures against a possible smallpox outbreak. In the process of assessment 18 landscaping sectors were defined and described, the advantages and drawbacks of the corresponding countermeasures being reviewed. The data of the previously published influenza landscape were revisited. The current economic climate of deficit cutting (austerity) also puts emphasis on the optimization of capital investment. We used the materials of the landscape to define and analyze metrics of capital placement optimization. Value score was obtained by fitting patent landscape internals to the sale price of individual patents. Success score was obtained as a product of a-priori parameters that measure likelihood of emergence of a marketable product in a technological sector. Both scores were combined in a qualitative metric. Our methodology defined weight as a product of the sector size by the success score. We hypothesized - based on the material of two landscapes- that a life cycle of a technology begins in IP space with a high patent quality low volume "bud" of low weight, reaches maximum weight and then weight falls again when the technology becomes outdated. The weight and the annual dynamic of weight can serve a measure of investment risk and return. In this report we modeled investment by issue of government grants or purchase of patents by government. In the smallpox landscape the number of patents purchased by government agencies was the highest in the sectors with the highest weight and the trend was confirmed by the count of NIH grants issued in support of the technological sectors. In the influenza landscape only grant issue count was statistically meaningful and the trend was also confirmed. To better fit the grant support levels, the weight expression was optimized by using training coefficients. We propose to use value scores for evaluation of individual patent publications/company portfolios and to use weights for assessment of

  9. Inflight Treadmill Exercise Can Serve as Multi-Disciplinary Countermeasure System (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide


    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects, functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. These data also support the concept that space flight may cause central adaptation of converging body-load somatosensory and vestibular input during gravitational transitions [1]. Therefore, we conclude that providing significant body-support loading during inflight treadmill along with balance training is necessary to mitigate decrements in critical mission tasks that require dynamic postural stability and mobility. Data obtained from space flight and bed rest

  10. Development of the Inventory Management and Tracking System (IMATS) to Track the Availability of Public Health Department Medical Countermeasures During Public Health Emergencies. (United States)

    Sahar, Liora; Faler, Guy; Hristov, Emil; Hughes, Susan; Lee, Leslie; Westnedge, Caroline; Erickson, Benjamin; Nichols, Barbara


    To bridge gaps identified during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic by developing a system that provides public health departments improved capability to manage and track medical countermeasures at the state and local levels and to report their inventory levels to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC Countermeasure Tracking Systems (CTS) program designed and implemented the Inventory Management and Tracking System (IMATS) to manage, track, and report medical countermeasure inventories at the state and local levels. IMATS was designed by CDC in collaboration with state and local public health departments to ensure a "user-centered design approach." A survey was completed to assess functionality and user satisfaction. IMATS was deployed in September 2011 and is provided at no cost to public health departments. Many state and local public health departments nationwide have adopted IMATS and use it to track countermeasure inventories during public health emergencies and daily operations. A successful response to public health emergencies requires efficient, accurate reporting of countermeasure inventory levels. IMATS is designed to support both emergency operations and everyday activities. Future improvements to the system include integrating barcoding technology and streamlining user access. To maintain system readiness, we continue to collect user feedback, improve technology, and enhance its functionality. IMATS satisfies the need for a system for monitoring and reporting health departments' countermeasure quantities so that decision makers are better informed. The "user-centered design approach" was successful, as evident by the many public health departments that adopted IMATS.

  11. Personalized medicine in human space flight: using Omics based analyses to develop individualized countermeasures that enhance astronaut safety and performance. (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael A; Goodwin, Thomas J


    Space flight is one of the most extreme conditions encountered by humans. Advances in Omics methodologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have revealed that unique differences exist between individuals. These differences can be amplified in extreme conditions, such as space flight. A better understanding of individual differences may allow us to develop personalized countermeasure packages that optimize the safety and performance of each astronaut. In this review, we explore the role of "Omics" in advancing our ability to: (1) more thoroughly describe the biological response of humans in space; (2) describe molecular attributes of individual astronauts that alter the risk profile prior to entering the space environment; (3) deploy Omics techniques in the development of personalized countermeasures; and (4) develop a comprehensive Omics-based assessment and countermeasure platform that will guide human space flight in the future. In this review, we advance the concept of personalized medicine in human space flight, with the goal of enhancing astronaut safety and performance. Because the field is vast, we explore selected examples where biochemical individuality might significantly impact countermeasure development. These include gene and small molecule variants associated with: (1) metabolism of therapeutic drugs used in space; (2) one carbon metabolism and DNA stability; (3) iron metabolism, oxidative stress and damage, and DNA stability; and (4) essential input (Mg and Zn) effects on DNA repair. From these examples, we advance the case that widespread Omics profiling should serve as the foundation for aerospace medicine and research, explore methodological considerations to advance the field, and suggest why personalized medicine may become the standard of care for humans in space.

  12. Alendronate and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Against Bed Rest-Induced Bone Loss: Biochemical Markers of Bone and Calcium Metabolism (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Nillen, Jeannie L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; DeKerlegand, Diane E.; LeBlanc, Adrian; Shackelford, Linda C.


    Weightlessness-induced bone loss must be counteracted to ensure crew health during extendedduration space missions. Studies were conducted to assess two bone loss countermeasures in a ground-based model: horizontal bed rest. Following a 3-wk ambulatory adaptation period, male and female subjects (aged 21-56 y) completed a 17-wk bed rest protocol. Subjects were assigned to one of three treatments: alendronate (ALEN; 10 mg/d, n=6), resistive exercise (RE; 1.5 h/d, 6 d/wk, n=8), or control (CN; no countermeasure, n=8). Dietary intake was adjusted to maintain body weight. Endocrine and biochemical indices were measured in blood and urine using standard laboratory methods. All data reported are expressed as percent change from individual pre-bedrest data. Serum calcium changed little during bed rest, and tended to decrease (4-8%) in ALEN subjects. In RE subjects, bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were increased >65 and >30%, respectively, during bed rest, while these were unchanged or decreased in ALEN and CN subjects. Urinary calcium was increased 50% in CN subjects, but was unchanged or decreased in both ALEN and RE groups. Urinary n-telopeptide excretion was increased 40-50% in CN and RE subjects, but decreased 20% in ALEN subjects. Pyridinium crosslink and deoxypyridinoline excretion were increased 20-50% during bed rest. These data suggest that RE countermeasures are effective at increasing markers of bone formation in an analog of weightlessness, while ALEN reduces markers of bone resorption. Counteracting the bone loss of space flight may require both pharmacologic and exercise countermeasures.

  13. Decomposition Analysis Resolution Process (DAR) of Systems Engineering Applied to Development of Countermeasure on Leakage of Engine Head-Gasket


    Ohkawa, Satoshi; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Ohkami, Yoshiaki


    Part 5: Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering; International audience; This paper reviews a countermeasure development of leakage from coolant seals of head-gaskets in a diesel engine applying the Decomposition Analysis and Resolution Process (DAR). We can find complexity arising from some causes of leakage even in a simple square-ring rubber seal. The major causes are (1) large displacement around a head-gasket generated by the combustion, (2) seal distortion at a high compression, (3) sea...

  14. A New Countermeasure against Brute-Force Attacks That Use High Performance Computers for Big Data Analysis


    Hyun-Ju Jo; Ji Won Yoon


    Using high performance parallel and distributed computing systems, we can collect, generate, handle, and transmit ever-increasing amounts of data. However, these technical advancements also allow malicious individuals to obtain high computational power to attack cryptosystems. Traditional cryptosystem countermeasures have been somewhat passive in response to this change, because they simply increase computational costs by increasing key lengths. Cryptosystems that use the conventional counter...

  15. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri


    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  16. Trace elements: implications for nursing. (United States)

    Hayter, J


    Although most were unknown a few years ago, present evidence indicates that at least 25 trace elements have some pertinence to health. Unlike vitamins, they cannot be synthesized. Some trace elements are now considered important only because of their harmful effects but traces of them may be essential. Zinc is especially important during puberty, pregnancy and menopause and is related to protein metabolism. Both fluoride and cadmium accumulate in the body year after year. Cadmium is positively correlated with several chronic diseases, especially hypertension. It is obtained from smoking and drinking soft water. Silicon, generally associated with silicosis, may be necessary for healthy bone and connective tissue. Chromium, believed to be the glucose tolerance factor, is obtained from brewer's yeast, spices, and whole wheat products. Copper deficiency may be implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular and blood related disorders. Either marginal deficiencies or slight excesses of most trace elements are harmful. Nurses should instruct patients to avoid highly refined foods, fad diets, or synthetic and fabricated foods. A well balanced and varied diet is the best safeguard against trace element excesses or deficiencies.

  17. Framed primal elements


    Debongnie, Jean-François


    Framed primal finite elements may be viewed as a generalized class of elements including conforming elements, primal hybrids, and non concorming elements passing the patch test. This systematization is illustrated on a lot of examples.

  18. 2014 Cardiovascular Risks SRP Evidence Review Final Report. [Evidence Review For: The Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During Re-Exposure to Gravity (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan; Ziegler, Michael; Carter, Jason; Claydon, Victoria; Krummen, David; Thomas, Gail


    The 2014 Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 17-18, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated evidence report for The Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During re-Exposure to Gravity (OI Risk). The SRP found the 2014 OI Evidence Report to be a well written, comprehensive overview of the OI risk; that clearly documents the key scientific evidence relevant for both mechanistic understanding and countermeasure development. The 2014 OI Evidence Report could be further strengthened by addressing the points discussed below.

  19. [Analysis and countermeasures of adverse drug reactions of traditional Chinese medicine injections in children]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Lian; Li, Meng; Rong, Ping; Ma, Rong


    We aimed to analyse the adverse drug reactions (ADR) in children due to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections and the related factors, and explored the rational use of medicines and safty countermeasures in clinical. We preformed statistical analyses on data from the CNKI and researched on literatures, from April 1987 to May 2012, relevant to the TCM injections which lead to reactions of clinical adverse, to conduct a analysis of the species, cases, clinical manifestations and related factors of these injections. The incidence of ADR in children leaded by TCM injections is high and the manifestations were chiefly characterized by the luscious of skin and appendages. In addition to the correlation with the physiological and pathologic characteristic in childhood, the ADR is also closely related with preparing technology, irrational use and imperfect supervisory system. Because of the high incidence, we should taking appropriate measures, such as constructing strict supervision system and strengthening rational drug use, to reduce the occurrence of ADRs to the greatest extent.

  20. Analyze the Problems and Countermeasures on China’s Food Safety Supervision in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfu You


    Full Text Available Food safety is directly related to the public’s health and life safety as well as the improvment of life quality. From a practical point of view, despite the unremitting efforts made by Chinese government to put in place and improve the food monitoring system, the food safety incidents keep cropping up. Under the context of the deteriorating contradiction between the increasing demand and short supply for food safety on the part of the general public and governments respectively, how to address the current problems of food safety monitoring system remains an urgent point. This thesis aims to make a statistical analysis with nearly one-year occurring incidents of food safety so as to expound upon various problems in food safety monitoring system. This article presents the viewpoints have building a major ministering system in structure innovation; forming an efficient multi-centered coordinated supervision mechanism in mechanism innovation and bolstering food safety in security innovation. Based on the countermeasures, attempts to work out and establish a practical and long-term mechanism to improve food safety monitoring system.

  1. Medical radiation countermeasures for nuclear and radiological emergencies: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Arora


    Full Text Available Nuclear and radiological emergencies (NREs occurred globally and recent incidences in India are indicating toward the need for comprehensive medical preparedness required both at incident site and hospitals. The enhanced threat attributed toward insurgency is another causative factor of worry. The response capabilities and operational readiness of responders (both health and non-health service providers in contaminated environment need to be supported by advancement in R & D and technological efforts to develop prophylactics and radiation mitigators. It is essential to develop phase 1 alternatives of such drugs for unseen threats as a part of initial preparedness. At the incident site and hospital level, external decontamination procedures need to be standardized and supported by protective clothing and Shudika kits developed by INMAS. The medical management of exposure requires systematic approach to perform triage, resuscitation and curative care. The internal contamination requires decorporation agents to be administered based on procedural diagnostics. Various key issues pertaining to policy decisions, R & D promotion, community awareness, specialized infrastructure for NREs preparedness has been discussed. The present review is an attempt to provide vital information about the current status of various radiation countermeasures and future perspective(s ahead.

  2. The Job Burnout Phenomenon of Chinese University Counselors and the Countermeasure to it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jiang


    Full Text Available The harmfulness of the job burnout phenomenon of Chinese university counsellors cannot be neglected. How to relieve counsellors’ job burnout effectively by improving their involvement in work is an important research field. Firstly, to start from three aspects of social roots, organizational roots and personal factors, the writer conducts a preliminary interpretation about the key factors leading to the job burnout of university counsellors which include the workload, role conflict, role ambiguity, a sense of fairness, job characteristics, personality factor, etc. Then, to start from the roots as well as the connotation of job burnout, the writer elaborates that job burnout is a state of body, emotional and spirit exhaustion, especially the wastage and continuous fatigue of body, a sense of hopelessness and desperation, negative self-concept and a negative attitude towards life and work. Finally, from three aspects of mind emancipation, firm faith and clear roles in profession, solution, learning strengthening and self-efficacy enhancing, the writer proposes a countermeasure to solve the job burnout phenomenon of university counsellors, and compares the effect of dealing with job burnout phenomenon according to the data before and after one year practice.

  3. Mixed-Signal Hardware Security: Attacks and Countermeasures for ΔΣ ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan Taheri


    Full Text Available Mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs play an eminent and critical role in design and development of the embedded systems leveraged within smart weapons and military systems. These ICs can be a golden target for adversaries to compromise in order to function maliciously. In this work, we study the security aspects of a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET-based first-order one-bit delta-sigma ( Δ Σ analog to digital converter (ADC through proposing four attack and one defense models. The first attack manipulates the input signal to the Δ Σ modulator. The second attack manipulates the analog version of the modulator output bit and is triggered by the noise signal. The third attack manipulates the modulator output bit and has a controllable trigger mechanism. The fourth attack manipulates the analog version of the modulator output bit and is triggered by a victim capacitance within the chip. For the defense, a number of signal processing filters are used in order to purge the analog version of the modulator output bit for elimination of the malicious unwanted features, introduced by the attacks. According to the simulation results, the second threat model displays the strongest attack. Derived from the countermeasure evaluation, the best filter to confront the threat models is the robust regression using the least absolute residual computing method.

  4. Security threats to automotive CAN networks-Practical examples and selected short-term countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.hoppe@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Kiltz, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kiltz@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Dittmann, Jana, E-mail: jana.dittmann@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)


    The IT security of automotive systems is an evolving area of research. To analyse the current situation and the potentially growing tendency of arising threats we performed several practical tests on recent automotive technology. With a focus on automotive systems based on CAN bus technology, this article summarises the results of four selected tests performed on the control systems for the window lift, warning light and airbag control system as well as the central gateway. These results are supplemented in this article by a classification of these four attack scenarios using the established CERT taxonomy and an analysis of underlying security vulnerabilities, and especially, potential safety implications. With respect to the results of these tests, in this article we further discuss two selected countermeasures to address basic weaknesses exploited in our tests. These are adaptations of intrusion detection (discussing three exemplary detection patterns) and IT-forensic measures (proposing proactive measures based on a forensic model). This article discusses both looking at the four attack scenarios introduced before, covering their capabilities and restrictions. While these reactive approaches are short-term measures, which could already be added to today's automotive IT architecture, long-term concepts also are shortly introduced, which are mainly preventive but will require a major redesign. Beneath a short overview on respective research approaches, we discuss their individual requirements, potential and restrictions.

  5. Designing and constructing/installing technical security countermeasures (TSCM) into supersensitive facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.L.


    The design and construction of supersensitive facilities and the installation of systems secure from technical surveillance and sabotage penetration involve ''TSCM'' in the broad sense of technical ''security'' countermeasures. When the technical threat was at a lower level of intensity and sophistication, it was common practice to defer TSCM to the future facility occupant. However, the New Moscow Embassy experience has proven this course of action subject to peril. Although primary concern with the embassy was audio surveillance, elsewhere there are other threats of equal or greater concern, e.g., technical implants may be used to monitor readiness status or interfere with the operation of C3I and weapons systems. Present and future technical penetration threats stretch the imagination. The Soviets have committed substantial hard scientific resources to a broad range of technical intelligence, even including applications or parapsychology. Countering these threats involves continuous TSCM precautions from initial planning to completion. Designs and construction/installation techniques must facilitate technical inspections and preclude the broadest range of known and suspected technical penetration efforts.

  6. African schistosomiasis in mainland China: risk of transmission and countermeasures to tackle the risk. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng; Hong, Qing-Biao; Dai, Jian-Rong


    Schistosomiasis is a major disease of public health importance in humans occurring in 76 countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. In China, schistosomiasis japonica is one of the highest priorities in communicable disease control defined by the central government. Since 1970s, the habitats of Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in South America, have been identified in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen city, Guangdong province of China. With the sharp growth in the China-aided projects in Africa and labor services export to Africa, a gradual rise in the cases infected with S. haematobium or S. mansoni is reported in those returning from Africa to China. The existence of intermediate snail hosts and import of infectious source of schistosomiasis results in concern about the transmission of African schistosomiasis in mainland China in the context of global climate change. This paper evaluates the risk of transmission of African schistosomiasis in China, and proposes countermeasures and research priorities to tackle the risk.

  7. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12`s compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant`s background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures.

  8. Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension and Visual Impairment: Pathophysiology and Countermeasures. (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fan; Hargens, Alan R


    Visual impairment intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is considered an unexplained major risk for future long-duration spaceflight. NASA recently redefined this syndrome as Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS). Evidence thus reviewed supports that chronic, mildly elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in space (as opposed to more variable ICP with posture and activity on Earth) is largely accounted for by loss of hydrostatic pressures and altered hemodynamics in the intracranial circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid system. In space, an elevated pressure gradient across the lamina cribrosa, caused by a chronic but mildly elevated ICP, likely elicits adaptations of multiple structures and fluid systems in the eye which manifest themselves as the VIIP syndrome. A chronic mismatch between ICP and intraocular pressure (IOP) in space may acclimate the optic nerve head, lamina cribrosa, and optic nerve subarachnoid space to a condition that is maladaptive to Earth, all contributing to the pathogenesis of space VIIP syndrome. Relevant findings help to evaluate whether artificial gravity is an appropriate countermeasure to prevent this seemingly adverse effect of long-duration spaceflight. Copyright © 2018 the American Physiological Society.

  9. [Quantitative classification in catering trade and countermeasures of supervision and management in Hunan Province]. (United States)

    Liu, Xiulan; Chen, Lizhang; He, Xiang


    To analyze the status quo of quantitative classification in Hunan Province catering industry, and to discuss the countermeasures in-depth. According to relevant laws and regulations, and after referring to Daily supervision and quantitative scoring sheet and consulting experts, a checklist of key supervision indicators was made. The implementation of quantitative classification in 10 cities in Hunan Province was studied, and the status quo was analyzed. All the 390 catering units implemented quantitative classified management. The larger the catering enterprise, the higher level of quantitative classification. In addition to cafeterias, the smaller the catering units, the higher point of deduction, and snack bars and beverage stores were the highest. For those quantified and classified as C and D, the point of deduction was higher in the procurement and storage of raw materials, operation processing and other aspects. The quantitative classification of Hunan Province has relatively wide coverage. There are hidden risks in food security in small catering units, snack bars, and beverage stores. The food hygienic condition of Hunan Province needs to be improved.

  10. Background Radiation Survey of the Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Okada


    In preparation for operations at the Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Complex (Rad/NucCTEC), the Department of Homeland Security Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DHS/DNDO) requested that personnel from the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) conduct a survey of the present radiological conditions at the facility. The measurements consist of the exposure rate from a high-pressure ion chamber (HPIC), high-resolution spectra from a high-purity germanium (HPGe) system in an in situ configuration, and low-resolution spectra from a sodium iodide (NaI) detector in a radiation detection backpack. Measurements with these systems were collected at discrete locations within the facility. Measurements were also collected by carrying the VECTOR backpack throughout the complex to generate a map of the entire area. The area was also to be surveyed with the Kiwi (an array of eight-2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch NaI detectors) from the Aerial Measuring Systems; however, conflicts with test preparation activities at the site prevented this from being accomplished.

  11. Assessment of radiological efficiency of countermeasures on peat-bog soils of Ukrainian Polissya. (United States)

    Maloshtan, Igor; Polishchuk, Sergiy; Kashparov, Valery; Yoschenko, Vasyl


    In the field conditions, the long-term (2013-2015) small-plots experiment was carried out for evaluation of radiological efficiency of application of ameliorants as the countermeasures for reduction of the 137Cs uptake to herbage at the Peat-boggy (Histosols) soils of Ukrainian Polissya. At the late stage after the Chernobyl accident, the average radiological efficiencies of application of sand (175-200 ton ha-1) and ferrocyn (0.2 ton ha-1) as the ameliorants were rather low ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Application of 4 ton ha-1 of chalk and 5 ton ha-1 of peat ash decreased 1.7-1.9 times the 137Cs activity concentrations in plans. The highest radiological efficiencies, 4.4 ± 2.0 and 7 ± 2, were reached at applications of chalk-ferrocyn ameliorant (4 + 0.2 ton ha-1) and ferrocyn-bentonite absorbent HZH-90 (30 ton ha-1), respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Two New Types of Retroreflective Materials as Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands (United States)

    Sakai, Hideki; Iyota, Hiroyuki


    In this study, the side effects of high-reflective and ordinary retroreflective materials, used as countermeasures to urban heat islands, are discussed. In addition, two retroreflective materials are proposed in order to avoid these adverse effects. These materials could be applied to roads and building exteriors to reduce their heat absorption from solar radiation. The first proposed type is the directional retroreflective material, which reflects light only during summer; therefore, it reduces the cooling load in summer, reduces the heating load in winter, and prevents light pollution at night. However, its structure is complicated and fragile; thus, it is suited for small areas, such as roofs and walls. The second type is the rough-surface retroreflective material, which shows weak retroreflectivity but can withstand distortion; thus, it is suited for roads. These two types require little maintenance, because they have no moving parts. Hence, these materials would not experience any breakdown, which is a great advantage for roads and building materials. Combining high-reflective, ordinary retroreflective, directional retroreflective, and rough-surface retroreflective materials, and assigning each type to the appropriate application would form an advanced mitigation system against urban heat islands.

  13. Fast evaluation of polynomials over binary finite fields and application to side-channel countermeasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coron, Jean-Sébastien; Roy, Arnab; Vivek, Srinivas


    We describe a new technique for evaluating polynomials over binary finite fields. This is useful in the context of anti-DPA countermeasures when an S-box is expressed as a polynomial over a binary finite field. For n-bit S-boxes, our new technique has heuristic complexity O(2n/2/√n) instead of O(2n....../2) proven complexity for the Parity-Split method. We also prove a lower bound of Ω(2n/2/√n) on the complexity of any method to evaluate n-bit S-boxes; this shows that our method is asymptotically optimal. Here, complexity refers to the number of non-linear multiplications required to evaluate...... the polynomial corresponding to an S-box. In practice, we can evaluate any 8-bit S-box in 10 non-linear multiplications instead of 16 in the Roy–Vivek paper from CHES 2013, and the DES S-boxes in 4 non-linear multiplications instead of 7. We also evaluate any 4-bit S-box in 2 non-linear multiplications instead...

  14. Countermeasures and Functional Testing in Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest (CFT 70) (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.


    This 70-day bed rest campaign was comprised of 6 integrated studies and conducted at the NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit (FARU). The FARU is located at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas and is a satellite unit of the Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center. This presentation will describe the FARU, discuss the utility of the bed rest platform for use in these studies, and introduce the studies that participated in the CFT 70 bed rest campaign. Information in this presentation will serve as the background for subsequent talks from each individual study. Individual study presentations will discuss preliminary results from completed subjects. Studies included in CFT70 were: ? Physiological Factors Contributing to Post Flight Changes in Functional Performance. J. Bloomberg, NASA ? Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study. L. Ploutz-Snyder, USRA ? Testosterone Supplementation as a Countermeasure Against Musculoskeletal losses during Space Exploration. R. Urban, University of Texas Medical Branch ? Effects of Retronasal Smelling, Variety and Choice on Appetite & Satiety. J. Hunter, Cornell University ? AD ASTRA: Automated Detection of Attitudes and States through Transaction Recordings Analysis. C. Miller, Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC ? Bed Rest as a Spaceflight Analog to Study Neuro-cognitive Changes: Extent, Longevity, and Neural Bases. R. Seidler, University of Michigan

  15. Long-haul pilots use in-flight napping as a countermeasure to fatigue. (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Darwent, David; Sletten, Tracey L; Dawson, Drew


    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue on the amount of in-flight sleep obtained by airline pilots during long-haul duty periods. A total of 301 pilots collected sleep/wake and work/rest data for a period of at least 2 weeks each. Fatigue likelihood, i.e. low, moderate, high, or extreme, was estimated for each duty period based on a pilot's sleep/wake behaviour prior to duty and the time of day that the duty period occurred. Participants obtained 1.8 h of sleep (i.e. 27% of their rest time) during duty periods with low fatigue likelihood and 3.7 h of sleep (i.e. 54% of their rest time) during duty periods with extreme fatigue likelihood. These results indicate that (i) long-haul pilots obtain substantially more sleep during duty periods when fatigue is likely to be extreme than when fatigue is likely to be low and (ii) long-haul pilots use in-flight napping as a fatigue countermeasure, but more could be done to increase its efficacy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Food processing as an agricultural countermeasure after an accidental contamination event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igreja, Eduardo; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Prado, Nadya M.P.D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho


    Food processing allows significant reduction in the radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs. The effects of processing on contaminated food depend on the radionuclide, the type of foodstuff and the method of processing. The effectiveness of radionuclide removal from raw material during processing can vary widely; however, processing of raw materials of vegetable and animal origin is often considered one of the most effective countermeasures for reducing the radioactive contamination of the foodstuff to or below permissible levels, and can be applied both domestically and in industrial processing of food. The food processing retention factor, Fr, is the fraction of radionuclide activity that is retained in the food after processing; it is obtained by the product of two quantities, the processing efficiency, Pe, that is the ratio of the fresh weight of the processed food to the weight of the original raw material, and the processing factor, Pf, that is the ratio of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the processed and in the raw material. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the reduction in dose due to food processing after a nuclear or radiological accident. Radionuclides considered were Cs-137, Sr-90 and I-131. The effect on total diet of individuals was investigating for a typical diet of the Southeast region, where the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants are located. The effect was analyzed considering the use of the processing technologies after contamination events occurring in different seasons of the year. (author)

  17. Agricultural countermeasure program - AGRICP: food and dose module in ARGOS- accident reporting and Guidance Operational System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calábria, Jaqueline A.A.; Morais, Gustavo F., E-mail:, E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Nuclear or radiological emergencies can affect food, feed and commodities grown. The regulatory bodies has a role in the post-accident phase instructing the population regarding the consumption of agricultural products, monitoring and recovering the contaminated areas and disposing the generated waste. To deal with nuclear/radiological emergencies, in the end of 2007, Brazil took part of the ARGOS consortium. ARGOS is a software used for support the Preparedness and Response of a nuclear emergency. Specifically for use during the recovery phase, ARGOS has a module called AgriCP (Agricultural Countermeasure Program). This functionality was add to the version 9.0 of ARGOS, in 2012, replacing FMD (Food and Dose Module) model. AgriCP can be very useful in the post-accident phasing, helping to planning the actions that must be taken, saving human and budged resources. However, most of the parameters used by default for the model are specific for Central Europe and must be adapted to the Brazilian characteristics. In this paper the basic functionalities of AgriCP are presented and a general view of the issues to be addressed while implementing AgriCP for the Brazilian case is given. Besides the lack of specific parameters for the Brazilian reality, the definition of the area to be considering for intervention in an accident, taking into account the very complex meteorological characteristic of the Brazilian NPPs (nuclear power plants) site, are some of the matters of concern. (author)

  18. Geochemistry of water in relation to cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Relations between trace and major element chemistry of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed and documented. Several aspects of the problem, related both to the pathway that drinking water takes to man and to its transit through man, are reviewed. Several steps in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that could be affected by water factors were explored. There is little evidence bearing on the contribution from drinking water to human tissue levels of cadmium, chromium, or zinc. Copper and magnesium levels of tissues may be related to drinking water, but confirmatory evidence is needed. Lead levels in blood and other tissues are most certainly affected by lead levels in drinking water in areas where these levels are unusually elevated. There is little evidence that relatively low levels of lead are toxic to the cardiovascular system, except for the causation of cardiomyopathy. The protective action of selenium and zinc applies mainly to cadmium toxicity. The mode of the protective action of silicon, if any, is unclear at present. Some epidemiological associations between the cadmium level or cadmium:zinc ratio and cardiovascular disease have been reported, but are contradictory. Some epidemiological support exists for a protective effect by selenium; results for zinc are equivocal. Interactions within the human system involving calcium and selected trace elements might be very important for the cardiovascular system. Review of the epidemiological literature indicates that there may be a water factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Its effects, if any, must be very weak in comparison with the effects of known risk factors. The reported inverse relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of local drinking water supplies appears to be considerably less distinctive in small regional studies. (ERB)

  19. Cardiovascular Aspects of Space Shuttle Flights: At the Heart of Three Decades of American Spaceflight Experience (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Platts, S. H.


    The advent of the Space Shuttle era elevated cardiovascular deconditioning from a research topic in gravitational physiology to a concern with operational consequences during critical space mission phases. NASA has identified three primary cardiovascular risks associate with short-duration (less than 18 d) spaceflight: orthostatic intolerance; decreased maximal oxygen uptake; and cardiac arrhythmias. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) was observed postflight in Mercury astronauts, studied in Gemini and Apollo astronauts, and tracked as it developed in-flight during Skylab missions. A putative hypotensive episode in the pilot during an early shuttle landing, and well documented postflight hypotension in a quarter of crewmembers, catalyzed NASA's research effort to understand its mechanisms and develop countermeasures. Shuttle investigations documented the onset of OH, tested mechanistic hypotheses, and demonstrated countermeasures both simple and complex. Similarly, decreased aerobic capacity in-flight threatened both extravehicular activity and post-landing emergency egress. In one study, peak oxygen uptake and peak power were significantly decreased following flights. Other studies tested hardware and protocols for aerobic conditioning that undergird both current practice on long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions and plans for interplanetary expeditions. Finally, several studies suggest that cardiac arrhythmias are of less concern during short-duration spaceflight than during long-duration spaceflight. Duration of the QT interval was unchanged and the frequency of premature atrial and ventricular contractions was actually shown to decrease during extravehicular activity. These investigations on short-duration Shuttle flights have paved the way for research aboard long-duration ISS missions and beyond. Efforts are already underway to study the effects of exploration class missions to asteroids and Mars.

  20. ASICs and cardiovascular homeostasis. (United States)

    Abboud, François M; Benson, Christopher J


    In this review we address primarily the role of ASICs in determining sensory signals from arterial baroreceptors, peripheral chemoreceptors, and cardiopulmonary and somatic afferents. Alterations in these sensory signals during acute cardiovascular stresses result in changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic activities that restore cardiovascular homeostasis. In pathological states, however, chronic dysfunctions of these afferents result in serious sympatho-vagal imbalances with significant increases in mortality and morbidity. We identified a role for ASIC2 in the mechano-sensitivity of aortic baroreceptors and of ASIC3 in the pH sensitivity of carotid bodies. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, we reported decreased expression of ASIC2 in nodose ganglia neurons and overexpression of ASIC3 in carotid bodies. This reciprocal expression of ASIC2 and ASIC3 results in reciprocal changes in sensory sensitivity of baro- and chemoreceptors and a consequential synergistic exaggeration sympathetic nerve activity. A similar reciprocal sensory dysautonomia prevails in heart failure and increases the risk of mortality. There is also evidence that ASIC heteromers in skeletal muscle afferents contribute significantly to the exercise pressor reflex. In cardiac muscle afferents of the dorsal root ganglia, they contribute to nociception and to the detrimental sympathetic activation during ischemia. Finally, we report that an inhibitory influence of ASIC2-mediated baroreceptor activity suppresses the sympatho-excitatory reflexes of the chemoreceptors and skeletal muscle afferents, as well as the ASIC1a-mediated excitation of central neurons during fear, threat, or panic. The translational potential of activation of ASIC2 in cardiovascular disease states may be a beneficial sympatho-inhibition and parasympathetic activation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Nervous System'. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cardiovascular regulation in microgravity (United States)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Lane, L. D.; Wright, S. J.; Meny, G. M.; Buckey, J. C.; Levine, B. D.; Gaffney, F. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Arbeille, P.; Baisch, F.


    The human cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity was investigated in the framework of the German Spacelab D2 mission. Preflight and postflight studies were performed to examine the relationship between disuse atrophy and the function of cardiac and skeletal muscles. Special attention was given to fluid load responses and postflight orthostatic hypotension. The preflight measurements were obtained, in supine and sitting positions. These measurements, carried out in the four D2 crew members, were performed six and nine months before flight and on mission day number five. The results obtained on the male crew showed that the stroke volume data from microgravity are virtually identical to preflight measurements in the sitting position.

  2. Cardiovascular Physiology of Dinosaurs. (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S


    Cardiovascular function in dinosaurs can be inferred from fossil evidence with knowledge of how metabolic rate, blood flow rate, blood pressure, and heart size are related to body size in living animals. Skeletal stature and nutrient foramen size in fossil femora provide direct evidence of a high arterial blood pressure, a large four-chambered heart, a high aerobic metabolic rate, and intense locomotion. But was the heart of a huge, long-necked sauropod dinosaur able to pump blood up 9 m to its head? ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  3. Osteoporosis y enfermedad cardiovascular


    Sarahí Mendoza; Miriam Noa; Rosa Más


    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) y la osteoporosis son causas frecuentes de morbilidad en la población adulta, cuya frecuencia aumenta con la edad, por lo que al aumentar la expectativa de vida, constituyen importantes problemas de salud. El riesgo a padecer ambas patologías depende de factores de riesgo, y la prevención consiste en controlar los modificables. Las ECV y la osteoporosis presentan factores etiológicos comunes que involucran la biosíntesis del colesterol y la oxidación li...



    Alina-Costina LUCA; Constantin IORDACHE; Mariana PĂGUȚE


    Involving systemic autoimmune diseases, they primarily affect the joints, muscles and connective tissues. Cardiovascular impairment is often common in these disease manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to life-situations in danger. Otherwise impaired cardiovascular reason may be the first presentation. This may require aggressive therapy immunosuppressed, therefore the diagnosis is very important for a good choice of therapy. This article discusses the cardiovascular manifestations of sys...

  5. [Autophagy in the cardiovascular system]. (United States)

    Kheloufi, Marouane; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Boulanger, Chantal M


    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Studies regarding the role of autophagy in cardiac and vascular tissues have opened new therapeutic avenues to treat cardiovascular disorders. Altogether, these studies point out that autophagic activity needs to be maintained at an optimal level to preserve cardiovascular function. Reaching this goal constitutes a challenge for future efficient therapeutic strategies. The present review therefore highlights recent advances in the understanding of the role of autophagy in cardiovascular pathologies. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  6. Brimonidine gel: Systemic cardiovascular effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    Safety News United Kingdom - The MHRA has informed health care professionals that systemic cardiovascular effects including bradycardia, hypotension and dizziness have been reported after application of brimonidine gel...

  7. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu


    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  8. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    ... Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of ... Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and ...

  9. [Hyperuricemia, gout and cardiovascular diseases]. (United States)

    Murray, Karsten; Burkard, Thilo


    Hyperuricemia, gout as well as arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrom are highly prevalent and clinicians are frequently confronted with both conditions in the same patient. Hyperuricemia and gout are associated with cardiovascular comorbidities and a high cardiovascular risk. Despite coherent pathophysiological concepts, it remains to be determined, if this association is independent and causal. In daily clinical practice, cardiovascular risk factors should be thoroughly identified and consequently treated in all patients with hyperuricemia and gout. If preventive treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia with urate-lowering agents may improve cardiovascular risk and outcomes remains to be determined and is recommended only in special situations like young patients with severe hyperuricemia.

  10. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy (United States)

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.


    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833

  11. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot


    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.

  12. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK


    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  13. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy. (United States)

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K


    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman's physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.

  14. Cardiovascular Health, Part 1 (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjaya; Baman, Timir; Day, Sharlene M.


    Context: Identification of potentially fatal cardiac conditions in otherwise healthy athletes presents a major challenge to the sports medicine community. The requirements for preparticipation screening vary among countries and even from state to state within the United States. The mandated use of an electrocardiogram as a screening implement has provoked international controversy. Evidence acquisition: Part 1 of this review highlights the current guidelines and controversies surrounding cardiovascular screening, with a focus on the diagnostic challenges associated with identifying athletes with inheritable cardiomyopathies. Data sources were limited to peer-reviewed publications from 1984 to the present. Results: Preparticipation screening should include at least a history and a physical examination for all athletes, whereas use of an electrocardiogram is still controversial. Diagnosis of inherited cardiomyopathies presents unique challenges, particularly in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, where many features can mimic those found in the “athlete’s heart.” Conclusions: Recognizing cardiac conditions in athletes that can predispose them to sudden cardiac death or other adverse outcomes is of vital importance, as is the appropriate exclusion of these athletes from competition. Further studies are needed to determine the most efficient and cost-effective means of screening and to increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic testing for inheritable cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23015913

  15. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Gongora


    Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.

  16. Cardiovascular Implications of Preeclampsia. (United States)

    Burgess, Adriane; Founds, Sandra


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death of women in the United States. Many healthcare providers are unaware of sex-specific factors that affect the development of CVD. Nursing care for women with a history of preeclampsia and their children is presented. Preeclampsia affects 4% to 8% of all pregnancies. Rates have increased by 25% over the past 2 decades. Research supports the link between preeclampsia and risk of future CVD in women and the children of affected pregnancies. Appropriate preconception, prenatal and postpartum education, and surveillance are necessary to improve the long-term health of both mother and infant. Currently, there are no evidence-based interventions specific to the prevention of CVD for women and their children who have been affected by preeclampsia. However, women who have had preeclampsia may require yearly risk factor assessment and education regarding cardiovascular prevention strategies such as smoking cessation, increased physical activity, importance of a healthy diet, and maintenance of a healthy weight. Preeclampsia should be acknowledged by healthcare providers as a CVD risk factor. Appropriate monitoring, education, and CVD preventive strategies need to be implemented with this population and their children.

  17. PHYSIOLAB: A cardiovascular laboratory (United States)

    Cauquil, D.; Laffaye, C.; Camus, A. L.; Weerts, G.; Gratchev, V.; Alferova, I.; Kotovskaya, A.

    PHYSIOLAB is a cardio-vascular laboratory designed by CNES in cooperation with IMBP, with double scientific and medical goals: • a better understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in blood pressure and heart rate regulation, in order to predict and control the phenomenon of cardio-vascular deconditionning. • a real-time monitoring of cosmonauts during functionnal tests. Launched to the MIR station in 1996, this laboratory was set up and used for the first time by Claudie André-Deshays during the French mission ≪ Cassiopeia ≫. The scientific program is performed pre, post and in-flight to study phenomena related to the transition to microgravity as well as the return to the earth conditions. Particular emphasis was placed on the development of the real-time telemetry to monitor LBNP test. This function was successfull during the Cassiopeia mission, providing the medical team at TSOUP (MIR Control Center in Moscow) with efficient means to control the physiological state of the cosmonaut. Based on the results of this first mission, IMBP and CNES will go on using Physiolab with Russian crews. CNES will take advantage of the upcoming French missions on MIR to improve the system, and intends to develop a new laboratory for the International Space Station.

  18. Update of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Certification Exam. (United States)

    Petersen, Steffen E; Almeida, Ana G; Alpendurada, Francisco; Boubertakh, Redha; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Cosyns, Bernard; Greil, Gerald F; Karamitsos, Theodoros D; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Stefanidis, Alexandros S; Tann, Oliver; Westwood, Mark; Plein, Sven


    An updated version of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) Certification Exam is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in CMR. It represents a framework for the development of training curricula and provides expected knowledge-based learning outcomes to the CMR trainees, in particular those intending to demonstrate CMR knowledge in the European CMR exam, a core requirement in the CMR certification process. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email:

  19. Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity and its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal


    Full Text Available Background: several studies show a relationship between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and cardiovascular risk factors. However, finding new evidence to corroborate. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular reactivity and cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in a universe composed of the population aged 15 to 74 years in the urban area of Cienfuegos municipality. The sample included 644 people studied in 2010. The variables analyzed were: sex, skin color, age, height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. Chi-square and prevalence ratio with a 95 % confidence interval were calculated. Results: the prevalence of cardiovascular hyperreactivity was 42.3 %. A prevalence ratio of 51.3 % in men and 36.8 % in women was observed and it exceeded 65 % in individuals older than 64 years. It increased with age. Highest percentage of hyperreactivity was found in obese and overweight individuals. Triglyceride levels associated with cardiovascular hyperreactivity were also significant. Conclusions: there is an association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in normotensive individuals, a situation still observed in non-obese individuals.

  20. Computational Analysis of Artificial Gravity as a Possible Countermeasure to Spaceflight Induced Bone Loss (United States)

    Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.


    During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.

  1. [The present crisis of the publication activity in anesthesia research in Japan and its countermeasure]. (United States)

    Hirota, Kazuyoshi


    In Japan, a reduction in the number of qualified anesthesiologists has become apparent particularly in local university hospitals since the introduction of a new postgraduate clinical training system in 2004. In addition, our younger generation seems to desire the qualification as an anesthesiologists but not the research degree of Doctor of Medicine. As a consequence of high clinical workload and a relative lack of interest in research degrees, the publication of anesthesia research papers from Japan is progressively declining. In addition, the issue of data fabrication in randomized controlled clinical trials by Fujii had a negative impact on the motivation within our specialty to perform research and may consequently decrease research publications in Japan. If we do not engage in anesthesia research activities, it is really possible that our colleagues and patients may view us simply as technicians in near future. In the extreme case a medical degree may no longer be required for anesthesiologists. However, once we were in that kind of position and situation the restoration would be difficult. To take countermeasure against this decline in anesthesia research activity, I would like to present proposals as follows. Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists (JSA) and each educational institution should desperately emdeavour to encourage anesthesiologists to enter graduate school of medicine, develop environment for continuation in employment of female anesthetists during pregnancy and parenting and to perform planning and implementation of JSA initiated research projects educating young anesthesiologist for English article writing and medical ethics. Moreover, each anesthesiologist must deeply recognize the present crisis of anesthesia research activity in Japan, and then do what should be done now.

  2. Evaluation of medical countermeasures against organophosphorus compounds: the value of experimental data and computer simulations. (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Aurbek, Nadine; Herkert, Nadja M; John, Harald; Eddleston, Michael; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst


    Despite extensive research for more than six decades on medical countermeasures against poisoning by organophosphorus compounds (OP) the treatment options are meagre. The presently established acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators (oximes), e.g. obidoxime and pralidoxime, are insufficient against a number of nerve agents and there is ongoing debate on the benefit of oxime treatment in human OP pesticide poisoning. Up to now, the therapeutic efficacy of oximes was mostly evaluated in animal models but substantial species differences prevent direct extrapolation of animal data to humans. Hence, it was considered essential to establish relevant experimental in vitro models for the investigation of oximes as antidotes and to develop computer models for the simulation of oxime efficacy in different scenarios of OP poisoning. Kinetic studies on the various interactions between erythrocyte AChE from various species, structurally different OP and different oximes provided a basis for the initial assessment of the ability of oximes to reactivate inhibited AChE. In the present study, in vitro enzyme-kinetic and pharmacokinetic data from a minipig model of dimethoate poisoning and oxime treatment were used to calculate dynamic changes of AChE activities. It could be shown that there is a close agreement between calculated and in vivo AChE activities. Moreover, computer simulations provided insight into the potential and limitations of oxime treatment. In the end, such data may be a versatile tool for the ongoing discussion of the pros and cons of oxime treatment in human OP pesticide poisoning. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of countermeasures on the validity of the Concealed Information Test. (United States)

    Peth, Judith; Suchotzki, Kristina; Gamer, Matthias


    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a psychophysiological technique that allows for detecting crime-related knowledge. Usually, autonomic response measures are used for this purpose, but ocular measures have also been proposed recently. Prior studies reported heterogeneous results for the usage of countermeasures (CM) to corrupt the CIT's validity, depending on the CM technique and the dependent measure. The current study systematically compared the application of physical and mental CM on autonomic and ocular measures during the CIT. Sixty participants committed a mock crime and were assigned to one of three guilty conditions: standard guilty (without CM), physical CM, or mental CM. An additional group of 20 innocents was investigated with the same CIT to calculate validity estimates. Electrodermal responses were more vulnerable for CM usage compared to heart rate and respiration, and physical CM were more effective than mental CM. Independent of CM usage, a combined score of autonomic responses enabled a valid differentiation between guilty and innocent examinees. Fixations and blinks also allowed for detecting crime-related knowledge, but these measures were more affected by CM application than autonomic responses. The current study delivered further evidence that CM differentially impact physiological and ocular responses in the CIT. Whereas individual data channels were strongly affected by CM usage, a combination of different response measures yielded a relatively stable differentiation of guilty and innocent examinees when mental CM were used. These findings are especially relevant for field applications and might inspire future studies to detect or prevent CM usage in CIT examinations. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher E. Van Zandt


    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs, the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA Animal Rule 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified 6 strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

  5. One-health approach as counter-measure against "autoimmune" responses in biosecurity. (United States)

    Mutsaers, Inge


    This Swine flu pandemic of 2009 and the potential Avian flu threat of 2011-2012 have revived a most challenging debate on protection against infectious diseases. The response to the Swine flu pandemic has been ambivalent, both on the societal (political) and the scientific level. While some scientists warned against potential massive loss of human lives and urged for immediate and large-scale vaccination, others accused them of unnecessary scaremongering, arguing that the pandemic would not be that severe. The lab-created virulent Avian flu virus - which has been created in order to 'fight' a potential Avian flu pandemic - sparked a fierce debate on the dual-use risks of such a pre-emptive strategy. This article involves an analysis of the medical-political response to these recent viral threats using Peter Sloterdijk's immunological framework as diagnostic tool. In his trilogy Spheres Sloterdijk uses immunological concepts to analyse and assess the contemporary biopolitical situation. It shows how drawing a parallel between the functioning of the biological immune system and "immune responses" on socio-political level enables to assess and reconceptualise biosecurity. It demonstrates that ideas such as "nature is the biggest terrorist" - as advanced by many virologists - sometimes result in exaggerated "immunisation responses". This strong defensive attitude sometimes brings about collateral damage. In other words, fierce biosecurity measures sometimes risk developing into "autoimmune" responses that actually destruct the body politic they are meant to protect. By drawing on recent insights in the functioning of the biological immune system it is shown how a One-Health approach that incorporates a broader and nuanced "immunological" repertoire could act as counter-measure against "autoimmune" responses in biosecurity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Countermeasures for heat damage in rice grain quality under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Morita


    Full Text Available Climate change has been an increasingly significant factor behind fluctuations in the yield and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L., particularly regarding chalky (white-back, basal-white, and milky-white grain, immature thin grain, and cracked grain. The development and use of heat-tolerant varieties is an effective way to reduce each type of grain damage based on the existence of each varietal difference. Cultivation methods that increase the available assimilate supply per grain, such as deep-flood irrigation, are effective for diminishing the occurrence of milky-white grains under high temperature and low solar radiation conditions. The application of sufficient nitrogen during the reproductive stage is important to reduce the occurrence of most heat damage with the exception of milky-white grain. In regard to developing measures for heat-induced poor palatability of cooked rice, a sensory parameter, the hardness/adhesion ratio may be useful as an indicator of palatability within a relatively wide air–temperature range during ripening. Methods for heat damage to rice can be classified as either avoidance or tolerance measures. The timing of the measures is further divided into preventive and prompt types. The use of heat-tolerant varieties and late transplanting are preventive measures, whereas the application of sufficient nitrogen as a top dressing and irrigation techniques during the reproductive stage are prompt types which may function to lower the canopy temperature by enhancing evapotranspiration. Trials combining the different types of techniques will contribute towards obtaining more efficient and steady countermeasures against heat damage under conditions of climate change.

  7. Exercise and pharmacological countermeasures for bone loss during long-duration space flight (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Licata, Angelo A.; Rice, Andrea J.


    Bone loss in the lower extremities and lumbar spine is an established consequence of long-duration human space flight. Astronauts typically lose as much bone mass in the proximal femur in 1 month as postmenopausal women on Earth lose in 1 year. Pharmacological interventions have not been routinely used in space, and countermeasure programs have depended solely upon exercise. However, it is clear that the osteogenic stimulus from exercise has been inadequate to maintain bone mass, due to insufficient load or duration. Attention has therefore been focused on several pharmacological interventions that have been successful in preventing or attenuating osteoporosis on Earth. Anti-resorptives are the class of drugs most commonly used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, notably alendronate sodium, risedronate sodium, zoledronic acid, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. There has also been considerable recent interest in anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and teriparatide (rhPTH [1-34]). Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have also been used. Recent studies of kindreds with abnormally high bone mineral density have provided insight into the genetic regulation of bone mass. This has led to potential therapeutic interventions based on the LRP5, Wnt and BMP2 pathways. Another target is the RANK-L/osteoprotegerin signaling pathway, which influences bone turnover by regulating osteoclast formation and maturation. Trials using such therapies in space are being planned. Among the factors to be considered are dose-response relationships, bone quality, post-use recovery, and combination therapies--all of which may have unique characteristics when the drugs are used in space.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes. (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Fraiman, Joseph B


    Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs demonstrated in humans are consistent with the known effects of nicotine. Pharmacological and toxicological studies support the biological plausibility that nicotine contributes to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis. However, epidemiological studies assessing Swedish smokeless tobacco, which exposes users to nicotine without combustion products, generally have not found an increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke among users, but suggest that nicotine might contribute to acute cardiovascular events, especially in those with underlying coronary heart disease. The effects of aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants derived from ECs on cardiovascular health have not been determined. Although ECs might pose some cardiovascular risk to users, particularly those with existing cardiovascular disease, the risk is thought to be less than that of cigarette smoking based on qualitative and quantitative comparisons of EC aerosol versus cigarette smoke constituents. The adoption of ECs rather than cigarette smoking might, therefore, result in an overall benefit for public health.

  9. Cardiovascular toxicities of biological therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Marianne


    effects. One serious adverse effect is the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction. Some targeted therapies, eg, treatment with monoclonal antibodies or angiogenesis inhibitors, have shown an increased risk of cardiac events. Their influence on the cardiovascular system, however, seems to be transient...

  10. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøllesdal, M. K. R.; Ariansen, I.; Mortensen, L. H.


    Aims: To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974–2003) were linked...

  11. Platelet reactivity and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoep, Jacob Daniël


    Cardiovascular disease are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the Western world. Platelets play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease, not only in the acute onset of thrombosis after atherosclerotic plaque rupture but also in the initiation and progression of

  12. Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk. 18. Vol 52 No 1. SA Fam Pract 2010. SA Fam Pract 2010;52(1): 18. Much evidence points towards inflammation as a key regulatory process linking cardiovascular risk factors for atherosclerosis and its complications to an altered arterial biology.1 Systemic inflammatory ...

  13. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... to contain high amounts of SFA. However, cheese also contributes with several nutrients in the diet such as essential amino acids and calcium. The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of cheese intake on CVD risk through evidence from both observational, intervention and explorative studies....... By reviewing results from published observational studies it was concluded that cheese does not seem to increase CVD risk, despite of the high SFA content of most cheeses. A human cross-over intervention study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the effect of hard cheese intake on risk markers...

  14. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese


    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  15. Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A.; Sortso, C.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup


    We present an investigation of the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes in Denmark 2000 through 2011. The Diabetes Impact Study 2013 is based on all registrants in the Danish National Diabetes Register as of July 3rd 2013 (n=497,232). Record linkage with the Danish...... of diabetes has been rather constant at higher level in males (around 16-18%) than in females (around 12-14%) during 2000-2011 (incl.). In contrast, the incidence rate of CVD after having diabetes diagnosis has declined from about 4.5 to less than 3 during the same period, with higher declining level...... for males than for females. Efforts to detect diabetes at an earlier stage have not resulted in a reduced occurrence of CVD at the diagnosis of diabetes in Denmark. However, the risk of developing CVD after the diagnosis of diabetes has been declining, possibly reflecting benefits of intensified treatment...

  16. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases. (United States)

    Kachur, Sergey; Lavie, Carl J; de Schutter, Alban; Milani, Richard V; Ventura, Hector O


    Obesity is increasingly more common in postindustrial societies, and the burden of childhood obesity is increasing. The major effects of obesity on cardiovascular (CV) health are mediated through the risk of metabolic syndrome (insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension), such that an absence of these risk factors in obese individuals may not be associated with increased mortality risk. In individuals already diagnosed with chronic CV disease (CVD), the overweight and class I obese have significant associations with improved survival. However, this effect is attenuated by increases in cardiorespiratory fitness. The negative effects of obesity on CV health manifest as accelerated progression of atherosclerosis, higher rates of ventricular remodeling and a higher risk of associated diseases, including stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. The most effective therapies at reversing CVD risk factors associated with obesity have been dietary changes with exercise, especially through structured exercise programs, such as cardiac rehabilitation.

  17. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited (United States)

    Han, Seung Hwan; Nicholls, Stephen J; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong


    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids continue to be evaluated and new specialized targeting treatment modulating triglyceride pathways, such as inhibition of apolipoprotein C-III and angiopoietin-like proteins, are being tested with regard to their effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the role of hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and remnant cholesterol on cardiovascular disease, and the potential implications for treatment stargeting hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27014342

  18. Educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust Hvas


    AIMS: Educational inequality in diseases in the circulatory system (here termed cardiovascular disease) is well documented but may be confounded by early life factors. The aim of this observational study was to examine whether the associations between education and all cardiovascular diseases...... educational status was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. All associations attenuated in the within-sibship analyses, in particular in the analyses on ischaemic heart disease before age 45 years. For instance, in the cohort analyses, the hazard rate...... factors shared by siblings explained the associations between education and the cardiovascular disease outcomes but to varying degrees. This should be taken into account when planning interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in the development of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart...

  19. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (United States)

    Pelc, Norbert


    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  20. Cardiovascular hospitalizations and associations with environmental quality (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease has been identified as a condition that may be associated with environmental factors. Air pollution in particular has been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, which can increase the likelihood of cardiovascular eve...

  1. Whole-body vibration as a potential countermeasure for dynapenia and arterial stiffness


    Figueroa, Arturo; Salvador J. Jaime; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey


    Age-related decreases in muscle mass and strength are associated with decreased mobility, quality of life, and increased cardiovascular risk. Coupled with the prevalence of obesity, the risk of death becomes substantially greater. Resistance training (RT) has a well-documented beneficial impact on muscle mass and strength in young and older adults, although the high-intensity needed to elicit these adaptations may have a detrimental or negligible impact on vascular function, specifically on a...

  2. Operational stressors on physical performance in special operators and countermeasures to improve performance: a review of the literature. (United States)

    O'Hara, Reginald; Henry, Amy; Serres, Jennifer; Russell, Dawn; Locke, Robert


    Military training in elite warfighters (e.g., U.S. Army Rangers, Navy SEALs, and U.S. Air Force Battlefield Airmen) is challenging and requires mental and physical capabilities that are akin to that of professional athletes. However, unlike professional athletes, the competitive arena is the battlefield, with winning and losing replaced by either life or death. The rigors of both physical training and prolonged deployments without adequate rest and food intake can compromise physical performance. Therefore, the primary purpose of this effort was to identify occupational stressors on the physical performance of Special Operators during training and while on missions. The secondary purpose was to suggest specific countermeasures to reduce or prevent significant decrements in physical performance and reduce musculoskeletal injuries. A search of the literature for 2000?2012 was performed using the Air Force Institute of Technology search engines (i.e., PubMed and ProQuest). There were 29 articles located and selected that specifically addressed the primary and secondary purposes of this literature review. The remaining 32 of 61 referenced articles were reviewed after initial review of the primary literature. This review indicates that operational stress (e.g., negative energy balance, high-energy expenditure, sleep deprivation, environmental extremes, heavy load carriage, etc.) associated with rigorous training and sustained operations negatively affects hormonal levels, lean muscle mass, and physical performance of Special Operators. The number of musculoskeletal injuries also increases as a result of these stressors. Commanders may use simple field tests to assess physical decrements before and during deployment to effectively plan for missions. Specific countermeasures for these known decrements are lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, future researchers should focus on studying specific physical training programs, equipment, and other methods to

  3. A comprehensive Guyton model analysis of physiologic responses to preadapting the blood volume as a countermeasure to fluid shifts (United States)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Myrick, E. E.; Blomkalns, A. L.; Charles, J. B.


    The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions. It has been modified for use at NASA to simulate head-down tilt, a frequently used analog of weightlessness. Weightlessness causes a headward shift of body fluids that is believed to expand central blood volume, triggering a series of physiologic responses resulting in large losses of body fluids. We used the modified Guyton model to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume before weightless exposure could counteract the central volume expansion caused by fluid shifts, and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses that result in body fluid losses. Simulation results show that circulatory preadaptation, by a procedure resembling blood donation immediately before head-down bedrest, is effective in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After 10 hours of head-down tilt, preadaptation also produces higher blood volume, extracellular volume, and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest, compared with non-preadapted control. These results indicate that circulatory preadaptation before current Space Shuttle missions may be beneficial for the maintenance of reentry and postflight orthostatic tolerance in astronauts. This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the simulation results pertaining to changes in relevant physiologic variables produced by blood volume reduction before a prolonged head-down tilt. The objectives were to study and develop the countermeasure theoretically, to aid in planning experimental studies of the countermeasure, and to identify potentially disadvantageous physiologic responses that may be caused by the countermeasure.

  4. Public Communication Model for Practical Countermeasure on Climate Change Risk: On the Subject of Establishing Public Sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SeongKyung


    Risk problems occurred by climate change distinguishes itself from other problems in its nature and influence. It is reasonable for ordinary citizens are unable to realize the climate change problems, and great gap exists between potential disaster and perception of the public as a result. These problems must be solved via democratic procedures and processes. Raising probability concerning governance of climate change risks is possible by balance and harmony of political will, apposite policy, and public supports by participation. This research proposes for establishment of realistic public sphere which is a precondition for countermeasure.

  5. Trace Elements and Residual Elements in Superalloys, (United States)

    Trace elements , *Superalloys, Impurities, Nickel alloys, Refining, Refractory materials, Gases, Residuals, Porosity, Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Segregation(Metallurgy), Auger electron spectroscopy, Fracture(Mechanics), Symposia

  6. Individual Differences in the Temporal Profile of Cardiovascular Responses to Head Down Tilt and Orthostatic Stress with and Without Fluid Loading (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; Kanis, Dionisios; Gebreyesus, Fiyore


    Susceptibility of healthy astronauts to orthostatic hypotension and presyncope is exacerbated upon return from spaceflight. Hypo-volemia is suspected to play an important role in cardiovascular deconditioning following exposure to spaceflight, which may lead to increased peripheral resistance, attenuated arterial baroreflex, and changes in cardiac function. The effect of altered gravity during space flight and planetary transition on human cardiovascular function is of critical importance to maintenance of astronaut health and safety. A promising countermeasure for post-flight orthostatic intolerance is fluid loading used to restore loss fluid volume by giving crew salt tablets and water prior to re-entry. Eight men and eight women will be tested during two, 6-hour exposures to 6o HDT: 1) fluid loading, 2) no fluid loading. Before and immediately after each HDT, subjects will perform a stand test to assess their orthostatic tolerance. Physiological measures (e.g., ECG, blood pressure, peripheral blood volume) will be continuously monitored while echocardiography measures are recorded at 30-minute intervals during HDT and stand tests. Preliminary results (N=4) clearly show individual differences in responses to this countermeasure and the time course of physiological changes induced by HDT.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating lifespan and health, including mitochondria, telomeres, stem cells, sirtuins, Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. We also provide future perspectives of lifespan and health, which are intimately linked fields. SUMMARY: Aging remains the biggest non-modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The biological, structural and mechanical changes in senescent cardiovascular system are thought to contribute in increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in aging. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to such changes is therefore crucial for both prevention and development of treatment for cardiovascular diseases. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular aging, mitochondria, telomeres, sirtuin, stem cells.

  8. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell


    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  9. [Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypothyroidism]. (United States)

    Mitu, F; Cojocaru, Elena; Tamba, B; Leon, Maria-Magdalena


    The cardiovascular risk in patients with hypothyroidism is related to an increased risk of functional cardiovascular abnormalities and atherosclerosis. AIMS--The purpose of the present study was to examine a possible association between subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The retrospective study, which covered a 12 months period, had the purpose to establish the prevalence of various risk factors for CVD, within subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism. We have studied 64 subjects with subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism admitted to the Rehabilitation Hospital, in the Cardiovascular Clinic. They were divided by sex, age, living environment (urban, rural), value of cholesterol, heart rate, BMI, blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS--The study revealed an increased risk of cardiovascular abnormalities and an increased risk of atherosclerosis: 65,61% subjects were obese, 90,6% with high blood pressure, 62,5% had dyslipidaemia. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is common in older people. The identification of subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism earlier, pursuit of markers for subclinical atherosclerosis and deployment of lifestyle changes, are elements that can also be the key in improving clinical and paraclinical parameters.

  10. [Risk assessment and countermeasures of BTEX contamination in soils of typical pesticide factory]. (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Li, Qi-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long


    Soil samples around three representative pesticide factories were collected in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, and analyzed to identify their pollution characteristics and health risk of BTEX by purge-and trap and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy method. Total concentrations of BTEX in soils in Plant A, B and C ranged from 673.50 to 32 363.50 ng x g(-1), nd to 6 461.80 ng x g(-1) and 461.70 to 8 740.80 ng x g(-1), respectively. Concentrations of detected toluene (4 619.50-7 234.30 ng x g(-1)) and ethylbenzene (364.60-7 944.60 ng x g(-1)) had exceeded the Canadian guidelines for industrial land (370 ng x g(-1) and 82 ng x g(-1)), and concentration of xylene (19 799.40 ng x g(-1)) in dust in production area of Plant A was larger than the Dutch soil intervention value (17 000 ng x g(-1)). While concentrationsn of BTEX around Plant A (Region I ) and Plant B and C (Region II) ranged from nd to 645.81 ng x g(-1), and nd to 309.13 ng x g(-1), respectively, which were below the Canadian guidelines for agricultural land. The non-carcinogenic risk of BTEX in Plant A (2.90E-06 -1.32E-04), B (nd -4.30E-05) and C (1.29E-06 -5.64E-05) were all below 1, which suggested that no obvious health risk existed in each plant. The non-carcinogenic risks in Region I (nd -2.02E-06) and Region II (nd -1.10E-06) were below than 1, and also lower than those in factories. High risk areas were mainly concentrated in the downwind, moreover, soils around villages and towns were also with higher risk. In conclusion, soils and dusts in each factory had been polluted and the quality of agricultural land had been partly deteriorated. Finally, environmental management and occupational protection countermeasures were proposed based on the research results.

  11. Deposition of caesium and strontium substances on growing crops: Effects and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, S. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Soil and Environment (Sweden))


    Full text: To investigate how the two radionuclides caesium (134Cs) and strontium (85Sr) are taken up and transported to the harvested parts (the seeds) by fallout in a growing crop. Further on how this is related to the size and time of the fallout. From the information collected recommendation of suitable countermeasures at different scenarios to prevent further spreading to food stuff can be suggested. In the project a number of field trials where artificial deposited by the two radionuclides 134Cs and 85Sr in a contaminated rainfall, on the two agricultural crops Brassica napus L. (spring rape) and Triticum aestivum L. (spring wheat). The trial contained different treatments where the radionuclides where deposited by a rainfall simulator at different growing stages of the crops. The field trial continues for two more years and the reason for that is due to the variation of the climate for the different years. The radionuclides were applied in the form of a wet deposition and the rainfall was about 1 mm m-1 with a concentration of 20 kBq m-1 for each radionuclide. Samples were taken from the plots at the day(s) after the treatment of contaminated rainfall, both from the latest treated plots and from the earlier treated plots. The hypotheses are: 1. That the size of the deposition and the time in relation to the development stages of the crop will steer how much caesium and strontium that are coughed, detained and transferred to the harvested parts. 2. That the levels of caesium and strontium in the harvested parts of the crops are related to the insensitivity of the rainfall after a deposition and also how long time the first intensive rain will occur. 3. That the size of caesium and strontium in harvested plant parts are related to the size of uptake throw the leaves. 4. If the deposition of caesium and strontium will be the same, the levels of caesium will be much higher than strontium in the harvested parts. (author)

  12. Exercise and the cardiovascular system: clinical science and cardiovascular outcomes. (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Arena, Ross; Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-Chul; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S; O'Keefe, James H; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N


    Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews some basics of exercise physiology and the acute and chronic responses of ET, as well as the effect of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular diseases. This review also surveys data from epidemiological and ET studies in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary heart disease and heart failure. These data strongly support the routine prescription of ET to all patients and referrals for patients with cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease and heart failure, to specific cardiac rehabilitation and ET programs. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization. (United States)

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Garcia, Daireen


    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana.

  14. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease. (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen


    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  15. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena. (United States)

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley


    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  16. Sampling Methods in Cardiovascular Nursing Research: An Overview. (United States)

    Kandola, Damanpreet; Banner, Davina; O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; Jassal, Debbie


    Cardiovascular nursing research covers a wide array of topics from health services to psychosocial patient experiences. The selection of specific participant samples is an important part of the research design and process. The sampling strategy employed is of utmost importance to ensure that a representative sample of participants is chosen. There are two main categories of sampling methods: probability and non-probability. Probability sampling is the random selection of elements from the population, where each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. There are five main types of probability sampling including simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and multi-stage sampling. Non-probability sampling methods are those in which elements are chosen through non-random methods for inclusion into the research study and include convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and snowball sampling. Each approach offers distinct advantages and disadvantages and must be considered critically. In this research column, we provide an introduction to these key sampling techniques and draw on examples from the cardiovascular research. Understanding the differences in sampling techniques may aid nurses in effective appraisal of research literature and provide a reference pointfor nurses who engage in cardiovascular research.

  17. Depression and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A


    Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Ordovás, José M; Smith, Caren E


    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only explain a small part of the variability in CVD risk, which is a major obstacle for its prevention and treatment. A more thorough understanding of the factors that contribute to CVD is, therefore, needed to develop more efficacious and cost-effective therapy. Application of the 'omics' technologies will hopefully make these advances a reality. Epigenomics has emerged as one of the most promising areas that will address some of the gaps in our current knowledge of the interaction between nature and nurture in the development of CVD. Epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA alterations, which collectively enable the cell to respond quickly to environmental changes. A number of CVD risk factors, such as nutrition, smoking, pollution, stress, and the circadian rhythm, have been associated with modification of epigenetic marks. Further examination of these mechanisms may lead to earlier prevention and novel therapy for CVD.

  19. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Scheel-Thomsen, Jan


    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who...... subsequently suffered from CE; controls were DM patients with no history of CE after DM diagnosis. Using the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, we included DM patients with information on date of DM diagnosis, date of CE, and comorbidities. From the Central Region of Jutland, Denmark, medication use......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  20. [A nationwide survey for implementation of Health Japan 21 anti-smoking countermeasures in municipalities throughout Japan]. (United States)

    Shinmura, Hiromi; Wakabayashi, Chihiro; Kunisawa, Naoko; Kayaba, Kazunori; Miura, Yoshihiko; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Yanagawa, Hiroshi


    Smoking cessation is one of the most important items for improvement of health in Japan. The Japanese government started a new campaign called the "Health Japan 21" to promote better health of Japanese citizens in the 21st century. The purpose of the present study was to observe the situation of the municipalities throughout Japan regarding implementation of anti-smoking countermeasures and setting of the level of target values to be achieved over the next ten years. Mail questionnaire forms were sent to 953 municipalities which had formulated specific local plans for the promotion of health. Of this total, 793 (83.2%) responded to the inquiry. The most commonly implemented countermeasure against smoking was restricting smoking only to limited areas in municipality offices (75%), followed by providing support for stopping smoking (35%), and providing a complete smoke free environment in municipality offices (32.4%). Proportions of local governments putting a ban on smoking on public roads (7.5%), giving publicity to restaurants with smoking restrictions (vending machines and restricting tobacco advertisement. Most municipalities have made much of anti-smoking activities. However, measures for school children were not satisfactorily implemented. The execution rates for anti-smoking activities are low in small-scale municipalities and therefore it is necessary to provide particular support in these cases.

  1. Fatigue Risk Management: The Impact of Anesthesiology Residents' Work Schedules on Job Performance and a Review of Potential Countermeasures. (United States)

    Wong, Lily R; Flynn-Evans, Erin; Ruskin, Keith J


    Long duty periods and overnight call shifts impair physicians' performance on measures of vigilance, psychomotor functioning, alertness, and mood. Anesthesiology residents typically work between 64 and 70 hours per week and are often required to work 24 hours or overnight shifts, sometimes taking call every third night. Mitigating the effects of sleep loss, circadian misalignment, and sleep inertia requires an understanding of the relationship among work schedules, fatigue, and job performance. This article reviews the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines for resident duty hours, examines how anesthesiologists' work schedules can affect job performance, and discusses the ramifications of overnight and prolonged duty hours on patient safety and resident well-being. We then propose countermeasures that have been implemented to mitigate the effects of fatigue and describe how training programs or practice groups who must work overnight can adapt these strategies for use in a hospital setting. Countermeasures include the use of scheduling interventions, strategic naps, microbreaks, caffeine use during overnight and extended shifts, and the use of bright lights in the clinical setting when possible or personal blue light devices when the room lights must be turned off. Although this review focuses primarily on anesthesiology residents in training, many of the mitigation strategies described here can be used effectively by physicians in practice.

  2. Gender differences and demographic influences in perceived concern for driver safety and support for impaired driving countermeasures. (United States)

    Butters, Jennifer; Mann, Robert E; Wickens, Christine M; Boase, Paul


    Driving safety, impaired driving, and legislation to address these concerns remain important issues. It is imperative countermeasures be targeted toward the most appropriate groups. This paper explores the potential relationship between gender and driving attitudes toward safety issues and impaired-driving countermeasures. The data are from the 2007 Impaired Driving Survey commissioned by Transport Canada and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) Canada. The survey is a, stratified by region, telephone survey of 1,514 Canadian drivers 18years of age and older with a valid driver's license who had driven within the past 30days. The findings illustrate a consistent impact of gender on these issues. Other variables were also identified as relevant factors although less consistently. Current findings suggest that strategies for building support for interventions, or for changing risk perception/concern for risky driving behaviors should be tailored by gender to maximize the potential for behavior change. This information may assist program and policy developers through the identification of more or less receptive target groups. Future research directions are also presented. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Midodrine as a Countermeasure to Orthostatic Hypotension Immediately After Space Shuttle Landing (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ribeiro, L. Christine; Lee, Stuart M. C.


    Midodrine prevents post-space flight orthostatic intolerance when testing is conducted in a controlled laboratory setting within 2-4 hours after Space Shuttle landing. It is unknown if midodrine is as effective during re-entry and immediately following landing. METHODS: Cardiovascular responses to 10 minutes of 80 head-up tilt in five male astronauts were compared before and immediately after Space Shuttle missions. Preflight tests were conducted in the Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular Laboratory without midodrine. Post-flight testing was performed in the Crew Transport Vehicle on the Space Shuttle runway within 60 minutes of landing; midodrine was self-administered before re-entry. Survival analysis was performed (Gehan-Breslow test) to compare presyncope rates pre- to post-flight. Cardiovascular responses (last minute standing minus supine) to tilt before and after space flight were compared using paired t-tests. RESULTS: Midodrine did not prevent post-flight orthostatic hypotension in two of the five astronauts, but the rate of presyncope across the group did not increase (p=0.17) from pre- to post-flight. Also, although the change in heart rate from supine to the last minute of standing was not affected by space flight, systolic blood pressure decreased more (p=0.05) and diastolic blood pressure tended to decrease (p=0.08) after space flight. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate interpretation of the current results requires that similar data be collected in control subjects (without midodrine) on the CTV. However, drug interaction concerns with commonly used anti-emetics and potentiation of prolonged QTc intervals observed in long duration astronauts make the routine use of midodrine for immediate post-flight orthostatic hypotension unlikely. 2

  4. Simulation of Cardiovascular Response to the Head-Up/Head-Down Tilt at Different Angles (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lu, Hong-Bing; Jiao, Chun; Zhang, Li-Fan


    The disappearance of hydrostatic pressure is the original factor that causes the changes of cardiovascular system under microgravity. The hydrostatical changes can be simulated by postural changes. Especially the head-down position can be used to simulate the effects of microgravity. The goal of this investigation was to develop a mathematical model for simulation of the human cardiovascular responses to acute and prolonged exposure under microgravity environment. We were particularly interested in the redistribution of transmural pressures, flows, blood volume, and the consequent alterations in local hemodynamics in different cardiovascular compartments during acute exposure and chronic adjustments. As a preliminary study, we first developed a multi-element, distributed hemodynamic model of human cardiovascular system, and verified the model to simulate cardiovascular changes during head up/down tilt at various angles.

  5. Role of Trace Elements In Diabetes And Hypertension | Odusan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Endocrine Practice ... Low concentrations and imbalances of certain trace elements occur from poor dietary intake, chronic illnesses,disasters or old age and may result in malfunction of the cardiovascular system, hypertension, arrhythmias andsudden death, or be significantly associated with diabetes. Major role of ...

  6. Are there genetic paths common to obesity, cardiovascular disease outcomes, and cardiovascular risk factors? (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude


    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ≥ 1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Efficiency of natural self-purification of ecosystems vs. countermeasures applied at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) (United States)

    Molchanova, I.; Pozolotina, V.; Mikhailovskaya, L.; Antonova, E.


    As a result of the radiation accident in 1957 at the Production Association "Mayak" (Russia, the Urals) a fast area (23000 km^2), later named the East-Ural radioactive trace, was contaminated. Accidental emission presented by the long-living radionuclides was found to be dominated by Sr-90. In 1967 the EURT area was subjected to a secondary contamination resulting from radioactive sediments transport by wind from "Mayak" technological reservoir, Karachay Lake. Currently, the stock of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 in the EURT's soil cover consist of 640•10^12 Bq. This study is aimed to compare an efficiency of the countermeasures adopted at the EURT and natural processes responsible for self-purification of contaminated ecosystems. With concern to the principle of ranging the contaminated areas two zones were established: impact and buffer ones. The impact zone is situated near the accident epicenter, i.e. within 2-30 km from of the Trace central axis. After accident this zone was removed from agricultural utilization. The buffer zone has permanent anthropogenic pressure. The native, undisturbed during the reclamation operations, flow adjacent of landscape sites were chosen within the impact and buffer zones. They included of a watershed area and bank area of the lakes. The impact zone demonstrated the lowest concentration of the radionuclides around the frequently flooded lake shore. Absence of anthropogenic pressure, the high density of the plant cover and deficit of the soil moisture in summer time are the main reasons for decreasing the intensity of the water runoff from watershed. As a result the self-purification processes are dominated around the shoreline soils. The buffer zone is characterized by an opposite regularity appeared in increasing of the Sr-90 content in the soils of the lake shore. In this case, the intensive agricultural utilization of the flat watersheds leads to increase of erosion and degradation processes and, as consequently, to the

  8. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafarmand, M.H.


    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors

  9. Cannabinoids in the Cardiovascular System. (United States)

    Ho, Wing S V; Kelly, Melanie E M


    Cannabinoids are known to modulate cardiovascular functions including heart rate, vascular tone, and blood pressure in humans and animal models. Essential components of the endocannabinoid system, namely, the production, degradation, and signaling pathways of endocannabinoids have been described not only in the central and peripheral nervous system but also in myocardium, vasculature, platelets, and immune cells. The mechanisms of cardiovascular responses to endocannabinoids are often complex and may involve cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors or non-CB1/2 receptor targets. Preclinical and some clinical studies have suggested that targeting the endocannabinoid system can improve cardiovascular functions in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. In this chapter, we summarize the local and systemic cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids and highlight our current knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid signaling and modulation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy


    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests....... diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, 2. detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, OH, nondipping, QT interval prolongation), 3. risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 4. modulation of targets of diabetes therapy...

  11. Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel


    Fatty acids have been classified into "good" or "bad" groups according to their degree of unsaturation or whether they are "animal fat" or "vegetable fat". Today, it appears that the effects of fatty acids are complex and vary greatly according to the dose and the nature of the molecule. Monounsaturated fatty acids are still considered as having a "neutral" status, but any benefits may be related to the chemical environment of the source food or the associated overall food pattern. Controversy surrounds omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, because even though they lower LDL cholesterol levels, excessive intakes do not appear to be correlated with cardiovascular benefit. The omega-3 fatty acids are known to exert cardiovascular protective effects. Dairy fat and its cardiovascular impact are being evaluated. This review examines the existing literature on the relationships between the different fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

  12. Cardiovascular diseases in China1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisheng Liu


    .... World Health Organization statistics on the death rate for total cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke in men and women aged 35-74 years revealed discrepancies between rural...

  13. Pharmacoeconomics of cardiovascular disease prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevanovic, Jelena


    In this thesis, some of the methodological challenges in simulating and synthesizing pharmacoeconomic evidence in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention were assessed and potential solutions to those challenges were proposed. This includes a set of recommendations for enhancing the robustness of

  14. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease. (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C


    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health.

  15. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael


    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations with a focus on humans, but also covers animal data. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1-32, 2016....

  16. Stress and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Inoue, Nobutaka


    Recent major advances in medical science have introduced a wide variety of treatments against atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality associated with these diseases. However, atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death. Furthermore, progress in medical science has demonstrated the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease to be complicated, with a wide variety of underlying factors. Among these factors, stress is thought to be pivotal. Several types of stress are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress, mental stress, hemodynamic stress and social stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, induce oxidative stress in the vasculature. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, hypertension and remodeling of blood vessels. Meanwhile, mental stress is a well-known major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular system is constantly exposed to hemodynamic stress by the blood flow and/or pulsation, and hemodynamic stress exerts profound effects on the biology of vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, social stress, such as that due to a lack of social support, poverty or living alone, has a negative impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there are interactions between mental, oxidative and hemodynamic stress. The production of reactive oxygen species is increased under high levels of mental stress in close association with oxidative stress. These stress responses and their interactions play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the pathophysiological and clinical implications of stress are discussed in this article.

  17. Short Communication - Mortality associated with cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital mortality due to cardiovascular afflictions was high in Lome-city due to the deficient organization of the cardiovascular resuscitation units. Better organization, more equipment for cardiovascular care units and better public health efforts surrounding control of cardiovascular risk factors could go a long way towards ...

  18. Circadian rhythm and cardiovascular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L


    Full Text Available Lilei Zhang,1–3 Mohamed Khaled Sabeh,2,3 Mukesh K Jain2,31Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, 2Case Cardiovascular Research Institute, Case Western Reserve University, 3Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, Department of Medicine, University Hospitals at Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Circadian rhythmicity affects all living organisms on earth. Central and peripheral cellular clocks have the ability to oscillate and be entrained to environmental cues, thus allowing organisms to anticipate and synchronize their physiologic processes and behavior to recurring daily environmental alterations. Disruption of the circadian rhythm in modern life, such as by shift work and jet travel, leads to dyssynchrony of the central and peripheral clocks, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Aging has also been associated with attenuated cellular rhythmicity. Here we summarize the clinical observations linking cardiovascular health to circadian rhythm. In addition, we discuss recent advances in experimental models for understanding the clock machinery in terms of a variety of physiologic processes within the cardiovascular system. Together, these studies build the foundation for applying our knowledge of circadian biology to the development of novel therapy for cardiovascular disorders.Keywords: circadian rhythm, diurnal variation, cardiovascular

  19. Cardiovascular effects of bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Beamish, Andrew J; Olbers, Torsten; Kelly, Aaron S; Inge, Thomas H


    Obesity is a major global health problem, and its multisystem effects are inextricably linked with elevated cardiovascular risk and adverse outcomes. The cardiovascular benefits of reversing obesity in adults are well-established. Compared with other weight-loss strategies, programmes that incorporate bariatric surgery for weight loss are beneficial for sustained BMI reduction. A marked improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, inflammation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been observed after bariatric surgery. This broad improvement in cardiovascular risk profile has led to substantial reductions in the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. As with all procedures, the benefits of bariatric surgery must be weighed against its potential risks. Modern bariatric surgery has an excellent safety profile, but important limitations remain, including the potential for surgical complications and nutritional deficiencies, and the lifelong requirement for nutritional supplementation. Surgery should be considered in patients with severe obesity, especially those with cardiovascular comorbidities. In this Review, we summarize the current management options for patients with obesity, and discuss the effects of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes.

  20. Environmental Factors and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas


    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical observations have led to the hypothesis that the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is influenced not only by genetic, lifestyle and major risk factors, but also by environmental factors. Environmental factors are considered key determinants of cardiovascular diseases. Although lifestyle choices such as smoking, diet, and exercise are viewed as major environmental influences, the contribution of pollutants and environmental chemicals is less clear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to physically and chemical pollutants could elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies report that exposure to physically, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors are associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality. Relationships between environmental factors and coronary arter disease, arhythmias, and cardiomyopathies have been reported. Exposures to arsenic, lead, cadmium, pollutant gases, solvents, and pesticides have also been linked to increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, I review that relationships between exposure to physically, chemical, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors and cardiovascular diseases. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 435-444

  1. The cardiovascular effects of insulin. (United States)

    Younk, Lisa M; Lamos, Elizabeth M; Davis, Stephen N


    Cardiovascular disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus. A causal link between insulin, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk has been investigated at the basic science level and studied in large clinical trials. The cardiovascular actions of insulin and its role at the level of the endothelium will be reviewed. Cardiovascular outcomes in several large diabetes trials where insulin management was prominent will be summarized. The vascular actions of insulin are complex and mediated primarily via nitric oxide and endothelin-1. It appears that insulin resistance, rather than hyperinsulinemia itself, increases cardiovascular risk. In fact, hyperinsulinemia in the setting of normal beta cell function protects obese and insulin-resistant individuals from type 2 diabetes. Large clinical trials have supported that insulin management is not associated with increased adverse outcomes. A multifactorial approach targeting modifiable risk factors, including smoking cessation, blood pressure and lipid management, reduces cardiovascular risk. Therapy goals should be individualized and hypoglycemia, especially in individuals receiving insulin management, should be strictly avoided.

  2. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease (United States)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.


    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  3. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease. (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N


    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past few decades. In 2013, the prevalence of obesity exceeded the 50% of the adult population in some countries from Oceania, North Africa, and Middle East. Lower but still alarmingly high prevalence was observed in North America (≈30%) and in Western Europe (≈20%). These figures are of serious concern because of the strong link between obesity and disease. In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the relationship of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD), discussing how both the degree and the duration of obesity affect CVD. Although in the general population, obesity and, especially, severe obesity are consistently and strongly related with higher risk of CVD incidence and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach should not be used with obesity. There are relevant factors largely affecting the CVD prognosis of obese individuals. In this context, we thoroughly discuss important concepts such as the fat-but-fit paradigm, the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype and the obesity paradox in patients with CVD. About the MHO phenotype and its CVD prognosis, available data have provided mixed findings, what could be partially because of the adjustment or not for key confounders such as cardiorespiratory fitness, and to the lack of consensus on the MHO definition. In the present review, we propose a scientifically based harmonized definition of MHO, which will hopefully contribute to more comparable data in the future and a better understanding on the MHO subgroup and its CVD prognosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome. (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija


    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Trace Elements and Health (United States)

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.


    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  6. Data Element Registry Services (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  7. Lifetime Risks of Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    Berry, Jarett D.; Dyer, Alan; Cai, Xuan; Garside, Daniel B.; Ning, Hongyan; Thomas, Avis; Greenland, Philip; Van Horn, Linda; Tracy, Russell P.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.


    BACKGROUND The lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease have not been reported across the age spectrum in black adults and white adults. METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis at the individual level using data from 18 cohort studies involving a total of 257,384 black men and women and white men and women whose risk factors for cardiovascular disease were measured at the ages of 45, 55, 65, and 75 years. Blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking status, and diabetes status were used to stratify participants according to risk factors into five mutually exclusive categories. The remaining lifetime risks of cardiovascular events were estimated for participants in each category at each age, with death free of cardiovascular disease treated as a competing event. RESULTS We observed marked differences in the lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease across risk-factor strata. Among participants who were 55 years of age, those with an optimal risk-factor profile (total cholesterol level, risks of death from cardiovascular disease through the age of 80 years than participants with two or more major risk factors (4.7% vs. 29.6% among men, 6.4% vs. 20.5% among women). Those with an optimal risk-factor profile also had lower lifetime risks of fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.6% vs. 37.5% among men, risk-factor strata were observed among blacks and whites and across diverse birth cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Differences in risk-factor burden translate into marked differences in the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease, and these differences are consistent across race and birth cohorts. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.) PMID:22276822

  8. Early Prevention of Instability-Use of Self Propagating Graph for the Fast Search for Optimal Grid Nodes to Apply Countermeasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgenia; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde


    This paper presents a method for a fast determination of the grid nodes where countermeasures, in the form of changes in nodal admittance, would provide greatest impact on the stability margin for a specific generator that is facing the risk of instability. The sensitivity of the stability criteria...

  9. [A survey examining the countermeasures taken by restaurants to prevent passive smoking and an analysis of the economic impact of smoking prohibition in restaurants]. (United States)

    Usami, Takeshi; Inaba, Akiho; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ikari, Akira; Tominaga, Suketami


    This study examines the countermeasures taken by restaurants to prevent passive smoking and the impact of smoking prohibition on both the number of customers and sales volume in restaurants. An interview-based survey was administered to 8,558 restaurant managers in Aichi prefecture. The survey questions concerned the countermeasures taken against passive smoking within each restaurant and the effect of the prohibition of smoking on both the number of customers and sales volume between November 1, 2009, and February 26, 2010. Seven thousand and eighty managers responded to the survey (response rate 83%). The proportion of managers of restaurants with a complete smoking ban was 16.4%, of restaurants with a smoking and non-smoking room or section was 20.2%, and of restaurants where no countermeasures were taken was 63.4%. The results showed that among the restaurants with a complete smoking ban, the number of customers and sales volume increased in 1.5%, decreased in 3.9%, and did not change in 95%. Differences in countermeasures were seen according to the type of restaurant. A high proportion of restaurants with a complete ban were curry shops and fast food restaurants, while few such restaurants were bars or Izakaya (Japanese style bars) and Yakiniku (Korean style BBQ) restaurants. The results of this large-scale survey in Aichi prefecture suggest that the economic impact of smoking prohibition in restaurants, in terms of the number of customers and sales volume, is small.

  10. Information Overload in the New World of Work: Qualitative Study into the Reasons and Countermeasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Jeroen; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan


    In this chapter the authors present a revision of the information overload concept elaborated by Eppler and Mengis (2004). The main elements of our approach are literature synopsis and analysis, qualitative semi-structured interviews, and discussion. Their review of the information overload concept


    Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.


    A boron-10 containing reactor control element wherein the boron-10 is dispersed in a matrix material is describeri. The concentration of boron-10 in the matrix varies transversely across the element from a minimum at the surface to a maximum at the center of the element, prior to exposure to neutrons. (AEC)

  12. PPARs and the Cardiovascular System (United States)

    Hamblin, Milton; Chang, Lin; Fan, Yanbo; Zhang, Jifeng


    Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone-receptor superfamily. Originally cloned in 1990, PPARs were found to be mediators of pharmacologic agents that induce hepatocyte peroxisome proliferation. PPARs also are expressed in cells of the cardiovascular system. PPARγ appears to be highly expressed during atherosclerotic lesion formation, suggesting that increased PPARγ expression may be a vascular compensatory response. Also, ligand-activated PPARγ decreases the inflammatory response in cardiovascular cells, particularly in endothelial cells. PPARα, similar to PPARγ, also has pleiotropic effects in the cardiovascular system, including antiinflammatory and antiatherosclerotic properties. PPARα activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle proinflammatory responses, attenuating the development of atherosclerosis. However, PPARδ overexpression may lead to elevated macrophage inflammation and atherosclerosis. Conversely, PPARδ ligands are shown to attenuate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by improving endothelial cell proliferation and survival while decreasing endothelial cell inflammation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Furthermore, the administration of PPAR ligands in the form of TZDs and fibrates has been disappointing in terms of markedly reducing cardiovascular events in the clinical setting. Therefore, a better understanding of PPAR-dependent and -independent signaling will provide the foundation for future research on the role of PPARs in human cardiovascular biology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1415–1452. PMID:19061437

  13. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim


    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake 6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine. (United States)

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo


    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 μM in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 Δbpm in heart rate and 51 ΔmmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 μM and 30 μM, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation.

  15. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler


    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  16. Roadmap for cardiovascular circulation model (United States)

    Bradley, Christopher P.; Suresh, Vinod; Mithraratne, Kumar; Muller, Alexandre; Ho, Harvey; Ladd, David; Hellevik, Leif R.; Omholt, Stig W.; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Müller, Lucas O.; Watanabe, Sansuke M.; Blanco, Pablo J.; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J.


    Abstract Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well‐established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo‐skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real‐time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model. PMID:27506597

  17. Cardiovascular benefits of bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Lee, Glenn K; Cha, Yong-Mei


    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the United States and worldwide, bringing with it an excess of morbidity and premature death. Obesity is strongly associated with both traditional cardiovascular risk factors as well as direct effects on hemodynamics and cardiovascular structure and function. In fact, cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in obese patients. Often, lifestyle and pharmacological weight-loss interventions are of limited efficacy in severely obese patients. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be a feasible option to achieve substantial and sustained weight loss in this group of patients. It is a safe procedure with low in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates even in groups that are considered higher risk for surgery (e.g., the elderly), especially if performed in high-volume centers. There is observational evidence that bariatric surgery in severely obese patients is associated with both a reduction of traditional cardiovascular risk factors as well as improvement in cardiac structure and function. Marked decreases in the levels of inflammatory and prothrombotic markers, as well as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction, are seen after bariatric surgery. This article summarizes the existing evidence regarding the cardiovascular benefits in patients following bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The cardiovascular system after exercise. (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; Minson, Christopher T; Halliwill, John R


    Recovery from exercise refers to the time period between the end of a bout of exercise and the subsequent return to a resting or recovered state. It also refers to specific physiological processes or states occurring after exercise that are distinct from the physiology of either the exercising or the resting states. In this context, recovery of the cardiovascular system after exercise occurs across a period of minutes to hours, during which many characteristics of the system, even how it is controlled, change over time. Some of these changes may be necessary for long-term adaptation to exercise training, yet some can lead to cardiovascular instability during recovery. Furthermore, some of these changes may provide insight into when the cardiovascular system has recovered from prior training and is physiologically ready for additional training stress. This review focuses on the most consistently observed hemodynamic adjustments and the underlying causes that drive cardiovascular recovery and will highlight how they differ following resistance and aerobic exercise. Primary emphasis will be placed on the hypotensive effect of aerobic and resistance exercise and associated mechanisms that have clinical relevance, but if left unchecked, can progress to symptomatic hypotension and syncope. Finally, we focus on the practical application of this information to strategies to maximize the benefits of cardiovascular recovery, or minimize the vulnerabilities of this state. We will explore appropriate field measures, and discuss to what extent these can guide an athlete's training. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Elements of spin motion (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio; Ishizaki, Hideharu


    For use in numerical studies of rotational motion, a set of elements is introduced for the torque-free rotational motion of a rigid body around its barycenter. The elements are defined as the initial values of a modification of the Andoyer canonical variables. A computational procedure is obtained for determining these elements from the combination of the spin angular momentum vector and a triad defining the orientation of the rigid body. A numerical experiment shows that the errors of transformation between the elements and variables are sufficiently small. The errors increase linearly with time for some elements and quadratically for some others.

  20. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  1. Biomechanical Modeling of the Deadlift Exercise on the HULK Device to Improve the Efficacy of Resistive Exercise Microgravity Countermeasures (United States)

    Jagodnik, K. M.; Thompson, W. K.; Gallo, C. A.; Crentsil, L.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Perusek, G. P.; Sheehan, C. C.; Lewandowski, B. E.


    Extended spaceflight typically results in the loss of muscular strength and bone density due to exposure to microgravity. Resistive exercise countermeasures have been developed to maintain musculoskeletal health during spaceflight. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the "gold standard" of available devices; however, its footprint and volume are too large for use in space capsules employed in exploration missions. The Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) device, with its smaller footprint, is a prototype exercise device for exploration missions. This work models the deadlift exercise being performed on the HULK device using biomechanical simulation, with the long-term goal to improve and optimize astronauts' exercise prescriptions, to maximize the benefit of exercise while minimizing time and effort invested.

  2. The influence of South-North Water Diversion Middle-Line Project on agricultural water in Jingmen and countermeasures (United States)

    Jiang, Li


    Based on the investigation, the author puts forward a variety of adverse impacts of South-North Water Diversion Middle-Line Project on agricultural water in Jingmen. For examples, the land resource utilization is reduced; the farmland irrigation water cannot be guaranteed; the pollution of agricultural water is very serious. Combining the characteristics of South - North Water Diversion Project with the agricultural development in Jingmen, some countermeasures are provided in this paper, such as enhancing soil-water protection relying on related laws and policies, developing water resources and optimizing the use of water sources, adjusting the planting structure by adopting water-saving irrigation projects, developing dry farming and water-saving agriculture, controlling water pollution, and so on.

  3. Carotid-cardiac baroreflex - Relaxation with orthostatic hypotension following simulated microgravity and implications for development of countermeasures (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.


    An examination has been made of the function of the human carotid-cardiac baroreflex (CCB) under the influence of simulated microgravity, varying states of vascular volume, and acute exercise. Results have been obtained which suggest that acute fluid replacement prior to reentry may not reverse the impaired baroreflex associated with postflight hypotension. It is also noted that one bout of maximal exercise increased baroreflex sensitivity and buffer capacity through 24 hrs post exercise; these baroreflex changes were the opposite of those following head-down bedrest. Contributions of reduced blood volume and impaired CCB function to orthostatic hypotension following microgravity appear to be separate and additive, so that maximal exercise and fluid replacement could be a potent countermeasure against postflight hypotension.

  4. MOIRA models and methodologies for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures in complex aquatic systems contaminated by radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Brittain, J.E. [Oslo Univ., Oslo (Norway); Zoological Museum, Oslo (Norway); Haakanson, L. [Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Science; Gallego Diaz, E. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear


    The present report is composed of a set of articles written by the partners of the MOIRA project (a model-based computerized system for management support to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring radionuclide contaminated aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas). The report describes models for predicting the behaviour of radionuclides in complex aquatic systems and the effects of countermeasures for their restoration. [Italian] Il rapporto contiene articoli preparati nell'ambito del progetto MOIRA (a model-based computerized system for management support to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring radionuclide contaminated aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas), che descrive alcuni modelli per la previsione del comportamento di radionuclidi in sistemi acquatici complessi e per la valutazione dell'effetto delle contromisure per il loro recupero.

  5. Characterization of disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and the efficacy of a novel muscle atrophy countermeasure during spaceflight and simulated microgravity (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea Marie

    Humans are an integral part of the engineered systems that will enable return to the Moon and eventually travel to Mars. Major advancements in countermeasure development addressing deleterious effects of microgravity and reduced gravity on the musculoskeletal system need to be made to ensure mission safety and success. The primary objectives of this dissertation are to advance the knowledge and understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy, and support development of novel countermeasures for disuse atrophy to enable healthy long-duration human spaceflight. Models simulating microgravity and actual spaceflight were used to examine the musculoskeletal adaptations during periods of unloading. Myostatin inhibition, a novel anti-atrophy drug therapy, and exercise were examined as a means of preventing and recovering from disuse atrophy. A combination of assays was used to quantify adaptation responses to unloading and examine efficacy of the countermeasures. Body and muscle masses were collected to analyze systemic changes due to treatments. Hindlimb strength and individual muscle forces were measured to demonstrate functional adaptations to treatments. Muscle fiber morphology and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression was examined to identify adaptations at the cellular level. Protein synthesis signals insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), Akt, and p70s6 kinase; and the degradation signals Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 were examined to identify adaptations at the molecular level that ultimately lead to muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. A time course study provided a thorough characterization of the adaptation of skeletal muscle during unloading in C57BL/6 mice, and baseline data for comparison to and evaluation of subsequent studies. Time points defining the on-set and endpoints of disuse muscle atrophy were identified to enable characterization of rapid vs. long-term responses of skeletal muscle to hindlimb suspension. Unloading-induced atrophy primarily resulted from increased protein

  6. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Suetta, C; Caserotti, P


    and size (sarcopenia), resulting in impaired mechanical muscle performance that in turn leads to a reduced functional capacity during everyday tasks. Concurrently, maximum muscle strength, power, and rate of force development are decreased with aging, even in highly trained master athletes. The impairment...... in muscle mechanical function is accompanied and partly caused by an age-related loss in neuromuscular function that comprise changes in maximal MN firing frequency, agonist muscle activation, antagonist muscle coactivation, force steadiness, and spinal inhibitory circuitry. Strength training appears...... to elicit effective countermeasures in elderly individuals even at a very old age (>80 years) by evoking muscle hypertrophy along with substantial changes in neuromuscular function, respectively. Notably, the training-induced changes in muscle mass and nervous system function leads to an improved functional...

  7. Cardiovascular Session Summary (United States)

    Raven, Peter; Schneider, Sue


    It was apparent that the bed-rest and spaceflight data indicated that decreases in plasma volume and cardiac atrophy along with cardiac remodeling were fundamental changes which predisposed many astronauts to post flight orthostatic intolerance. Despite the recently acquired in-flight and post-flight muscle sympathetic nerve activity findings suggesting that the sympathetic nerve responses were appropriate there remains significant contrary data from bed-rest studies, post- flight stand tests and hind-limb unweighted rat studies that suggest that the vasoconstrictive responses were compromised at least insufficient in susceptible individuals. The key issues raised is whether a diminished increase in sympathetic activity from baseline without changes in 254 First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators'Workshop Cardiovascular peak response or receptor adaptations is an abnormal response or is an individual variance of response to the accentuated decrease in stroke volume. Data relating autonomic neural control of heart rate were presented to suggest that the vagal and sympathetic control of heart rate was attenuated. Also, bed-rest and space flight induced attenuated baroreflex control of heart rate was shown to be restored to pre-bedrest function by one bout of maximal dynamic exercise. However, these data were confounded by relying on the use of R-R interval as a measure of efferent responses of the baroreflex during a condition in which the baseline heart rate was changed. Clearly the idea that the autonomic control of heart rate may be changed by microgravity needs further investigation. This direction is suggested despite the fact that in the triple product (HR x SV x TPR = MAP) assessment of the regulation of arterial blood pressure during orthostasis the role of the HR reflex may be less influential than that associated. with cardiac atrophy (SV changes) and aberrant sympathetic vasoconstriction (resistance) changes. Although sympathetic nerve activity

  8. In-flight Assessment of Lower Body Negative Pressure as a Countermeasure for Post-flight Orthostatic Intolerance (United States)

    Charles, J. B.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Arzeno, N. M.; Lee, S. M. C.


    Introduction. We investigated the efficacy of combining fluid loading with sustained lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to reverse orthostatic intolerance associated with weightlessness during and immediately after Space Shuttle missions. Methods. Shuttle astronauts (n=13) underwent 4 hours of LBNP at -30 mm(Hg) and ingested water and salt ( soak treatment) during flight in two complementary studies. In the first study (n=8), pre-flight heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to an LBNP ramp (5-min stages of -10 mm(Hg) steps to -50 mm(Hg) were compared to responses in-flight one and two days after LBNP soak treatment. In the second study (n=5), the soak was performed 24 hr before landing, and post-flight stand test results of soak subjects were compared with those of an untreated cohort (n=7). In both studies, the soak was scheduled late in the mission and was preceded by LBNP ramp tests at approximately 3-day intervals to document the in-flight loss of orthostatic tolerance. Results. Increased HR and decreased BP responses to LBNP were evident early in-flight. In-flight, one day after LBNP soak, HR and BP responses to LBNP were not different from pre-flight, but the effect was absent the second day after treatment. Post-flight there were no between-group differences in HR and BP responses to standing, but all 5 treatment subjects completed the 5-minute stand test whereas 2 of 7 untreated cohort subjects did not. Discussion. Exaggerated HR and BP responses to LBNP were evident within the first few days of space flight, extending results from Skylab. The combined LBNP and fluid ingestion countermeasure restored in-flight LBNP HR and BP responses to pre-flight levels and provided protection of post-landing orthostatic function. Unfortunately, any benefits of the combined countermeasure were offset by the complexity of its implementation, making it inappropriate for routine application during Shuttle flights.

  9. A Evaluation of Effects on a Ecosystem and Countermeasures in accordance with Climate Change I- Forest Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha; Jeon, Seong Woo; Choi, Jae Yong; Jeong Hwi Chol; Kim, Jeong Won [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    Climate change requests a lot of changes in the existing life style and economic developing system, which form the foundation of modern culture and economic/social development. Especially, in Korea, whose economic basis is mainly dependent on fossil energy, it is expected that the change of policies on climate change have a bigger effect on many-sided fields including ecosystem than other nations. Therefore, even though all of the Government, academic organizations, and private organizations have made efforts to estimate effects of climate change and to prepare countermeasures, the focus has been on forecast and evaluation of the mutual effect between industrial/economic activities and climate change. Forecast of ecosystem change and preservation of ecosystem according to climate change is another political field to promote. However, such a field has not been promoted systematically in Korea. The Institute recognizing such a current state, as part of the policy on ecosystem preservation according to climate change, forecasted the effect on forest ecosystem, analyzed the economic effects according to the effect of forest ecosystem, and started this study to prepare the countermeasures of the Government-level. This study collected and analyzed international trend and necessary data to develop the model, which would be executed in future, and then suggested the selection and development of the model fitted to Korea. There could be differences between Institute's view and the Government/other institutes. However, such differences are caused by the different methods in capturing the effects of various ecosystems. Such various approaching methods will be of great help to estimate the correct effects and to establish the Government's policies as base data. I hope that this study cannot only be applied to analyze the effects of forest ecosystem according to climate change but contribute to enlarging the understanding of various problems according to climate

  10. A Metabolomic and Lipidomic Serum Signature from Nonhuman Primates Administered with a Promising Radiation Countermeasure, Gamma-Tocotrienol. (United States)

    Cheema, Amrita K; Mehta, Khyati Y; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O; Wise, Stephen Y; Hinzman, Charles P; Wolff, Josh; Singh, Vijay K


    The development of radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) has been underway for the past six decades, leading to the identification of multiple classes of radiation countermeasures. However, to date, only two growth factors (Neupogen and Neulasta) have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the mitigation of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). No radioprotector for ARS has been approved by the FDA yet. Gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) has been demonstrated to have radioprotective efficacy in murine as well as nonhuman primate (NHP) models. Currently, GT3 is under advanced development as a radioprotector that can be administered prior to radiation exposure. We are studying this agent for its safety profile and efficacy using the NHP model. In this study, we analyzed global metabolomic and lipidomic changes using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS) in serum samples of NHPs administered GT3. Our study, using 12 NHPs, demonstrates that alterations in metabolites manifest only 24 h after GT3 administration. Furthermore, metabolic changes are associated with transient increase in the bioavailability of antioxidants, including lactic acid and cholic acid and anti-inflammatory metabolites 3 deoxyvitamin D3, and docosahexaenoic acid. Taken together, our results show that the administration of GT3 to NHPs causes metabolic shifts that would provide an overall advantage to combat radiation injury. This initial assessment also highlights the utility of metabolomics and lipidomics to determine the underlying physiological mechanisms involved in the radioprotective efficacy of GT3.

  11. Fatigue in U.S. Astronauts Onboard the International Space Station: Environmental Factors, Operational Impacts, and Implementation of Countermeasures (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Moomaw, R. C.; Johnston, S. L.


    Since 2000, US astronauts have been supporting missions up to a six month duration on the International Space Station (ISS). Crewmembers have experienced fatigue for reasons similar to military deployments. Astronauts experience psychological stressors such as heavy workloads, extended duty periods, circadian misalignment, inadequate/ineffective sleep, and loss of the environmental cues of a gravity environment. Complicating the psychological stressors are environmental factors; distracting background noise, unexpected and variable mission schedules, unfavorable thermal control, elevated CO2 levels, and an unusual sleep environment with schedules that impinge on pre-sleep periods. Physiological contributors to poor sleep and fatigue include a cephalad fluid shift and back pain. Restful sleep is further challenged due to a lack of gravity-related proprioceptive cues and need for restraints. The term "space fog" has been used by astronauts to describe a phenomenon of forgetfulness, slowed reaction time and transient confusion while trying to complete tasks. There is a distinct temporal correlation with arrival on the Space Station and the onset of slowed cognitive skills and a spontaneous resolution that may take up to 6 weeks. The Genesis of this phenomenon may be chronic fatigue secondary to transitioning from a planar environment to a 360deg microgravity perspective. Recently, countermeasures to improve sleep duration and quality in astronauts on the ISS have been instituted with moderate degrees of success as measured by self-reaction time (psychomotor vigilance task testing), actigraphy, and subjective reports. Judicious use of stimulants and hypnotics, light therapy, controlled sleep periods and sleep shifting and reducing ambient CO2 levels are a few of the most promising countermeasures being used in space to improve sleep and reduce fatigue.

  12. A Effect on Environment and Countermeasures in accordance with a Shift to a Knowledge-Based Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ki Bok; Moon, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Hyun Keun; Kim, Tae Yol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    The importance of knowledge has been being more stressed now than any other time. How efficiently and effectively knowledge is created, spread, and applied is an important point to secure the competitiveness of an individual economic unit as well as to grow nation's economy. For that reason, the Government has been promoting various policies to accelerate a shift to a knowledge-based economy, establishing 'a Strategy for Knowledge-Based Economic Development', pan-governments level. Companies also have been positively accepting 'a Knowledge-Based Management' as a new strategy of managing companies. Accordingly, only knowledge-based industries, including a high technology manufacturing industry and an information/communication industry, are not sharply grow, but a knowledge-based activity in individual economic activities, such as R and D, has been expanding its share. As such a shift to a knowledge-based economy, it is expected that there are lots of effects in many-sided fields, society, culture, and politics, as well as economy. Based on due consideration to such various effects, the strategy for knowledge-based economic development and the policies on the related fields have to be promoted with a balance. An environmental field also cannot be exceptional. However, there has not yet been a concrete examination on which significance a shift to a knowledge-based economy environmentally has. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects on environment according to a shift to a knowledge-based economy and to find a countermeasure under the awareness of such problems. Anyhow, I hope that the results and the countermeasures from this study can contribute to achieving a shift to an environment-centered and knowledge-based economy. 82 refs., 30 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Lymphatic System in Cardiovascular Medicine. (United States)

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Robciuc, Marius R; Karaman, Sinem; Makinen, Taija; Alitalo, Kari


    The mammalian circulatory system comprises both the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system. In contrast to the blood vascular circulation, the lymphatic system forms a unidirectional transit pathway from the extracellular space to the venous system. It actively regulates tissue fluid homeostasis, absorption of gastrointestinal lipids, and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes to lymphoid organs and on to the systemic circulation. The cardinal manifestation of lymphatic malfunction is lymphedema. Recent research has implicated the lymphatic system in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including obesity and metabolic disease, dyslipidemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Here, we review the most recent advances in the field of lymphatic vascular biology, with a focus on cardiovascular disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Cardiovascular risk in Cushing's syndrome. (United States)

    Arnaldi, Giorgio; Mancini, Tatiana; Polenta, Barbara; Boscaro, Marco


    Chronic cortisol hypersecretion causes central obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, protrombotic state, manifestations which form a metabolic syndrome in all patients with Cushing's syndrome. These associated abnormalities determine an increased cardiovascular risk not only during the active phase of the disease but also long after the "biomedical remission". Clinical management of these patients should be particularly careful in identifying global cardiovascular risk. Considering that remission from hypercortisolism is often difficult to achieve care and control of all cardiovascular risk factors should be one of the primary goals during the follow up of these patients. Extending the indications of the recent consensus on Cushing's syndrome, we suggest to carry out an OGTT to avoid underestimation of diabetes mellitus, an echocardiography and Doppler ultrasonography of the epiaortic vessels in all patients at diagnosis and during follow-up.

  15. Ghrelin and the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Isgaard, Jörgen


    Although ghrelin was initially associated with regulation of appetite, the cardiovascular system has also been recognized as a potentially important target for its effects. Moreover, experimental and a limited number of clinical studies suggest a potential role for ghrelin in the treatment of congestive heart failure. So far, reported cardiovascular effects of growth hormone secretagogues and/or ghrelin include lowering of peripheral resistance, either direct at the vascular level and/or by modulating sympathetic nervous activity. Other observed effects indicate possible improvement of contractility and cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results offer an interesting perspective on the future where further studies aiming at evaluating a role of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin in the treatment of cardiovascular disease are warranted. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Cardiovascular disease and professional activities]. (United States)

    Gamberale, D; Pecora, A; Ardù, M


    Cardiovascular diseases occurrence in the industrial countries is very high and represents one of the major cause of invalidity and mortality. Studies show the close connection between cardiovascular diseases and other risk factors. In Italy heart diseases prevention is one of the main goals of the National Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Coronary disease increased by 40% among shift-workers and those workers exposed to vibrations and microclimate; extra-auditory effects of noise have also proved to be relevant. Reintegration into labour market and work eligibility certificate can be a problem for patients with coronary diseases, after pathological events. A record of the cardiovascular system could be useful for a readmission to work, in particular after acute episodes. The PreSAL service on the basis of the 2009 data provided by qualified doctors did not show professional diseases but the undervalue may be due to the limited use of specific complementary tests.

  17. Cardiovascular risk in rotogravure industry. (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Gianfranco; Vitarelli, Antonio; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Pacchiarotti, Alessandro; Scala, Barbara; Schifano, Maria Pia; Scimitto, Lara; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Tomei, Francesco; Ciarrocca, Manuela


    To verify whether the occupational hazards in the rotogravure industry can be associated with cardiovascular effects. We evaluated cardiovascular parameters and audiometric tests and analyzed noise, solvents, and shift work in 44 exposed and 44 unexposed workers. Unlike unexposed workers, the rotogravure workers showed significant increase of mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) values (P = 0.019; P = 0.003), higher frequency of hypertension (P = 0.002) and electrocardiographic abnormalities (P = 0.0001), significant reduction or no variation of BP response to orthostatism (P = 0.0001), and association between high levels of noise and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0067). Subjects with hearing loss showed high frequency of hypertension and a reduction or no variation of BP response to orthostatism (both P = 0.05). Data obtained suggest that these are the effects on the cardiovascular system of rotogravure workers who are exposed to noise.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Vizir


    Full Text Available In a review article extensively discusses the relationship between sleep duration and cardiovascular diseases. Sleep loss is a common condition in developed countries, with evidence showing that people in Western countries are sleeping on average only 6.8 hour per night, 1.5 hour less than a century ago. Although the effect of sleep deprivation on the human body is not completely unexplained, recent epidemiological studies have revealed relationships between sleep deprivation and arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Increased sympathetic nervous system activity and changes in melatonin secretion are considered as the main pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease in patients with insufficient duration of nighttime sleep. Adequate sleep duration may be important for preventing cardiovascular diseases in modern society.

  19. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S


    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in th