WorldWideScience

Sample records for counterfeit medicine trade

  1. Combating counterfeit medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products: minefields in global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines two spheres of global governance in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to exercise international leadership - combating "counterfeit" medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products. Medicines and tobacco products lie at polar opposite ends of the health spectrum, and are regulated for vastly different reasons and through different tools and approaches. Nevertheless, attempts to govern counterfeit trade in each of these products raise a host of somewhat similar challenges, involving normative and operational conflicts that cut across the crowded intersection of health protection and promotion, intellectual property protection, and activity to combat transnational organized crime. As negotiations of an illicit trade protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enter their final stages, lessons learned from counterfeit medicines governance need to be applied to ensure that the most appropriate governance arrangements are adopted. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. [Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbereau, S

    2006-12-01

    The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world.

  3. [Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of

  4. Understanding and fighting the medicine counterfeit market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dégardin, Klara; Roggo, Yves; Margot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Medicine counterfeiting is a serious worldwide issue, involving networks of manufacture and distribution that are an integral part of industrialized organized crime. Despite the potentially devastating health repercussions involved, legal sanctions are often inappropriate or simply not applied. The difficulty in agreeing on a definition of counterfeiting, the huge profits made by the counterfeiters and the complexity of the market are the other main reasons for the extent of the phenomenon. Above all, international cooperation is needed to thwart the spread of counterfeiting. Moreover effort is urgently required on the legal, enforcement and scientific levels. Pharmaceutical companies and agencies have developed measures to protect the medicines and allow fast and reliable analysis of the suspect products. Several means, essentially based on chromatography and spectroscopy, are now at the disposal of the analysts to enable the distinction between genuine and counterfeit products. However the determination of the components and the use of analytical data for forensic purposes still constitute a challenge. The aim of this review article is therefore to point out the intricacy of medicine counterfeiting so that a better understanding can provide solutions to fight more efficiently against it.

  5. Profiling of counterfeit medicines by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Roggo, Yves; Degardin, Klara; Esseiva, Pierre; Margot, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Counterfeit pharmaceutical products have become a widespread problem in the last decade. Various analytical techniques have been applied to discriminate between genuine and counterfeit products. Among these, Near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy provided promising results. The present study offers a methodology allowing to provide more valuable information for organisations engaged in the fight against counterfeiting of medicines. A database was established by analyzing counterfeits of a particular pharmaceutical product using Near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Unsupervised chemometric techniques (i.e. principal component analysis - PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis - HCA) were implemented to identify the classes within the datasets. Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to determine the number of different chemical profiles within the counterfeits. A comparison with the classes established by NIR and Raman spectroscopy allowed to evaluate the discriminating power provided by these techniques. Supervised classifiers (i.e. k-Nearest Neighbors, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, Probabilistic Neural Networks and Counterpropagation Artificial Neural Networks) were applied on the acquired NIR and Raman spectra and the results were compared to the ones provided by the unsupervised classifiers. The retained strategy for routine applications, founded on the classes identified by NIR and Raman spectroscopy, uses a classification algorithm based on distance measures and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves. The model is able to compare the spectrum of a new counterfeit with that of previously analyzed products and to determine if a new specimen belongs to one of the existing classes, consequently allowing to establish a link with other counterfeits of the database. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Counterfeit Drug Penetration into Global Legitimate Medicine Supply Chains: A Global Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.; York, Peter; Kubic, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Counterfeit medicines are a global public health risk. We assess counterfeit reports involving the legitimate supply chain using 2009–2011 data from the Pharmaceutical Security Institute Counterfeit Incident System (PSI CIS) database that uses both open and nonpublic data sources. Of the 1,510 identified CIS reports involving counterfeits, 27.6% reported China as the source country of the incident/detection. Further, 51.3% were reported as counterfeit but the specific counterfeit subcategory was not known or verifiable. The most prevalent therapeutic category was anti-infectives (21.1%) with most reports originating from health-related government agencies. Geographically, Asian and Latin American regions and, economically, middle-income markets were most represented. A total of 127 (64.8%) of a total of 196 countries had no legitimate supply chain CIS counterfeit reports. Improvements in surveillance, including detection of security breaches, data collection, analysis, and dissemination are urgently needed to address public health needs to combat the global counterfeit medicines trade. PMID:25897059

  7. Headspace-gas chromatographic fingerprints to discriminate and classify counterfeit medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, D; Canfyn, M; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Apers, S; Deconinck, E

    2014-06-01

    Counterfeit medicines are a global threat to public health. These pharmaceuticals are not subjected to quality control and therefore their safety, quality and efficacy cannot be guaranteed. Today, the safety evaluation of counterfeit medicines is mainly based on the identification and quantification of the active substances present. However, the analysis of potential toxic secondary components, like residual solvents, becomes more important. Assessment of residual solvent content and chemometric analysis of fingerprints might be useful in the discrimination between genuine and counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Moreover, the fingerprint approach might also contribute in the evaluation of the health risks different types of counterfeit medicines pose. In this study a number of genuine and counterfeit Viagra(®) and Cialis(®) samples were analyzed for residual solvent content using headspace-GC-MS. The obtained chromatograms were used as fingerprints and analyzed using different chemometric techniques: Principal Component Analysis, Projection Pursuit, Classification and Regression Trees and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy. It was tested whether these techniques can distinguish genuine pharmaceuticals from counterfeit ones and if distinct types of counterfeits could be differentiated based on health risks. This chemometric analysis showed that for both data sets PCA clearly discriminated between genuine and counterfeit drugs, and SIMCA generated the best predictive models. This technique not only resulted in a 100% correct classification rate for the discrimination between genuine and counterfeit medicines, the classification of the counterfeit samples was also superior compared to CART. This study shows that chemometric analysis of headspace-GC impurity fingerprints allows to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit medicines and to differentiate between groups of counterfeit products based on the public health risks they pose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  8. [Several common types of counterfeit and inferior drugs in Chinese medicinal materials market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yimei; Chen, Keli

    2012-04-01

    Though there are many species of counterfeit and inferior drugs of Chinese Medicinal Materials in the market, the means of fabrication is common. According to our investigating and reports in the literature it is found that the counterfeits and inferior drugs exist in 4 styles: counterfeits, reused medicinal materials and their slices which have been extracted by boiling water or ethanol, medicinal materials and their slices which have been added with non-medicinal parts or chemicals, medicinal materials which have no enough growth time or have been reserved for a long time. Through summarizing the styles and their common characteristics of the counterfeits and inferior drugs,it is helpful to raise vigilance and detect them.

  9. Prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines: a cross-sectional survey in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Okumura, Junko; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Akazawa, Manabu; Kimura, Kazuko

    2010-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines in Cambodia, and to determine influential factors. Commonly used anthelminthic medicines were collected from private drug outlets. Medicines were carefully observed including their registration labelling, and their authenticity was investigated with the manufacturers and the Medicines Regulatory Authorities. Samples were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography at the National Health Product Quality Control Centre, Cambodia. Two hundred and three samples of anthelminthics were collected from 137 drug stores. Domestic products constituted 36.9%. Of 196 samples which were verified for registration, 15.8% were not registered. Of 165 samples successfully investigated for their authenticity, 7 (4.2%) were identified as counterfeit. All of these medicines were purchased in open packs or containers, and most of them were foreign manufactured and/or without registration. The results of our survey urge strict implementation of drug registration and vigilance on the availability of unregistered medicines to combat counterfeit medicines in Cambodia.

  10. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin H; Akazawa, Manabu; Dararath, Eav; Kiet, Heng B; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Yoshida, Naoko; Kimura, Kazuko

    2011-11-11

    Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Managing executives of 62 (83.8%) registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7%) defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were.During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates.Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately from their packs/containers and who consider their

  11. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohiuddin H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8% registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7% defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were. During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates. Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately

  12. An exploration of counterfeit medicine surveillance strategies guided by geospatial analysis: lessons learned from counterfeit Avastin detection in the US drug supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Mackey, Tim K

    2014-12-02

    To explore healthcare policy and system improvements that would more proactively respond to future penetration of counterfeit cancer medications in the USA drug supply chain using geospatial analysis. A statistical and geospatial analysis of areas that received notices from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) about the possibility of counterfeit Avastin penetrating the US drug supply chain. Data from FDA warning notices were compared to data from 44 demographic variables available from the US Census Bureau via correlation, means testing and geospatial visualisation. Results were interpreted in light of existing literature in order to recommend improvements to surveillance of counterfeit medicines. This study analysed 791 distinct healthcare provider addresses that received FDA warning notices across 30,431 zip codes in the USA. Statistical outputs were Pearson's correlation coefficients and t values. Geospatial outputs were cartographic visualisations. These data were used to generate the overarching study outcome, which was a recommendation for a strategy for drug safety surveillance congruent with existing literature on counterfeit medication. Zip codes with greater numbers of individuals age 65+ and greater numbers of ethnic white individuals were most correlated with receipt of a counterfeit Avastin notice. Geospatial visualisations designed in conjunction with statistical analysis of demographic variables appeared more capable of suggesting areas and populations that may be at risk for undetected counterfeit Avastin penetration. This study suggests that dual incorporation of statistical and geospatial analysis in surveillance of counterfeit medicine may be helpful in guiding efforts to prevent, detect and visualise counterfeit medicines penetrations in the US drug supply chain and other settings. Importantly, the information generated by these analyses could be utilised to identify at-risk populations associated with demographic characteristics

  13. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics: An interesting tool to discriminate and characterize counterfeit medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, D; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Apers, S; Deconinck, E

    2015-08-10

    Counterfeit medicines pose a huge threat to public health worldwide. High amounts of counterfeit pharmaceuticals enter the European market and therefore detection of these products is essential. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) might be useful for the screening of counterfeit medicines since it is easy to use and little sample preparation is required. Furthermore, this approach might be helpful to customs to obtain a first evaluation of suspected samples. This study proposes a combination of ATR-FTIR and chemometrics to discriminate and classify counterfeit medicines. A sample set, containing 209 samples in total, was analyzed using ATR-FTIR and the obtained spectra were used as fingerprints in the chemometric data-analysis which included Principal Component Analysis (PCA), k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN), Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). First it was verified whether the mentioned techniques are capable to distinguish samples containing different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). PCA showed a clear tendency of discrimination based on the API present; k-NN, CART and SIMCA were capable to create suitable prediction models based on the presence of different APIs. However k-NN performs the least while SIMCA performs the best. Secondly, it was tested whether these three models could be expanded to discriminate between genuine and counterfeit samples as well. k-NN was not able to make the desired discrimination and therefore it was not useful. CART performed better but also this model was less suited. SIMCA, on the other hand, resulted in a model with a 100% correct discrimination between genuine and counterfeit drugs. This study shows that chemometric analysis of ATR-FTIR fingerprints is a valuable tool to discriminate genuine from counterfeit samples and to classify counterfeit medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Medicines counterfeiting is a complex problem: a review of key challenges across the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The paper begins by asking why there is a market for counterfeit medicines, which in effect creates the problem of counterfeiting itself. Contributing factors include supply chain complexity and the lack of whole-systems thinking. These two underpin the author's view that counterfeiting is a complex (i.e. wicked) problem, and that corporate, public policy and regulatory actions need to be mindful of how their actions may be causal. The paper offers a problem-based review of key components of this complexity, viz., the knowledge end-users/consumers have of medicines; whether restrictive information policies may hamper information provision to patients; the internet's direct access to consumers; internet-enabled distribution of unsafe and counterfeit medicines; whether the internet is a parallel and competitive supply chain to legitimate routes; organised crime as an emerging medicines manufacturer and supplier and whether substandard medicines is really the bigger problem. Solutions respect the perceived complexity of the supply chain challenges. The paper identifies the need to avoid technologically-driven solutions, calling for 'technological agnosticism'. Both regulation and public policy need to reflect the dynamic nature of the problem and avoid creating perverse incentives; it may be, for instance, that medicines pricing and reimbursement policies, which affect consumer/patient access may act as market signals to counterfeiters, since this creates a cash market in cheaper drugs.

  15. What Polish hospital healthcare workers and lay persons know about counterfeit medicine products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Wolan, Maja; Januszewicz, Paweł; Mazur, Artur; Fijalek, Zbigniew E

    2012-12-01

    To report on Polish hospital health care workers' and lay persons' knowledge about counterfeit medicine products. Cross-sectional design was used. Two types of questionnaire survey about counterfeit medicine, separate for health care professionals and lay persons were completed by 201 physicians and nurses, and 450 adult Polish residents between October 2008 and January 2009. Physicians and nurses working in hospitals are more aware of counterfeit medicine than lay persons and more often notice the presence of drugs from unknown sources. Nearly 90% of physicians, 80% of nurses, and more than 40% of representatives of the lay persons had heard about the possibility of importing illegal medicine from Ukraine or China. The majority of medical workers does not know the procedure for reporting suspicious medicine and do not warn their patients against purchasing medicine from unknown sources. Increase education of nurses and physicians about counterfeit medicine particularly including the procedure of reporting suspicious medicine from unknown sources. In practice, reinforce a role of nurses and physicians in warning their patients against purchasing medicine from unknown sources and educate them about possible health hazards and life risks.

  16. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Mohiuddin H; Akazawa Manabu; Dararath Eav; Kiet Heng B; Sovannarith Tey; Nivanna Nam; Yoshida Naoko; Kimura Kazuko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8%) registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception o...

  17. International, European and U.S. perspectives on the negotiation and adoption of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.; Fahey, E.; Kanetake, M.

    2012-01-01

    The negotiation and conclusion of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) has generated fierce controversy and political protest around the globe. Its main aim is the improvement of the domestic enforcement of intellectual property (IP) rights. This paper analyzes in detail the secretive

  18. Identification of counterfeit medicines for erectile dysfunction from an illegal supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Sinisa; Milcić, Neven; Sokolić, Milenko; Martinac, Adrijana Ilić

    2010-03-01

    The appearance of counterfeit medicines in supply chains is a global public health problem that may seriously affect patients. Counterfeit drugs do not meet quality standards and do not declare their real composition and/or source for the purposes of fraud. They may be generic or innovative, they may contain genuine constituents in a fake packaging, or wrong ingredients, or inactive ingredients, or an incorrect quantity of the active substance. In Croatia, no cases of counterfeit medicines have been detected so far, but the Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices has received 34 samples of medicines and other products for testing from Zagreb City Police. The samples included medicines for erectile dysfunction: sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil. Twenty-three samples of tablets without marketing authorisation in Croatia were tested with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the declared sildenafil and tadalafil content. Samples labelled 1 (batch T/33), 3 (batch T/33), 5 (batch 4), 6 (batch M0016J), 10 (batch T-070235), 12 (batch T-070544), 15 (batch 314833201), 16 (batch 832718474), and 17 (batch 504830028) containing sildenafil and samples labelled 20 (batch 070356), 21 (batch 05668), and 22 (batch T 378 5) containing tadalafil did not contain the active substance within the acceptable 95 % to 105 % margin of deviation from the declared content. While most samples cannot be described as fake with a reasonable amount of certainty, there is still a suspicion of counterfeit. A correct conclusion can be drawn only with the assistance of the manufacturers and by conducting additional laboratory tests.

  19. Counterfeit medicines: report of a cross-sectional retrospective study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S A R; Darbooy, Sh; Tehrani Banihashemi, S A; Naseri, S M; Dinarvand, R

    2011-03-01

    To gain insight into the pharmaceutical grey market in Iran by reviewing inspection files of the Special Inspectorate Unit, Deputy Ministry for Food and Drugs, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and to define the counterfeit pharmaceutical pattern in Iran. Cross-sectional retrospective study. In total, 382 inspection files of pharmaceutical counterfeit cases between 2007 and 2008 were reviewed. A database was constructed in Microsoft Access, and all cases of counterfeit medicines together with the details recorded in the files were entered. A primary list of all items in all files was produced (n = 7910), and this contained 716 different counterfeit medicines. This article reports the analysis of these 716 items and the outcome. Subsequently, the list of items was further filtered, and a final working list of 100 items was selected for further analysis. Drug samples of the working list were collected and checked against a modified version of the 'Checklist for the visual inspection of medicines to identify suspicious drug products' of the US Pharmacopeia Convention, Inc. and recommended by IMPACT (International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce). Details of items in the working list recorded in the checklist were then entered into the database. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 12.0 and Microsoft Excel. Of the 716 items, 64.5% were supplements, 10.2% were analgesics, 7.8% were hormones and 3.2% were antihistamines. Unnamed items and/or items of unknown origin accounted for 2.4% of the total. Herbal medicines, drugs used in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal system and genito-urinary systems, and drugs used for cardiovascular disease and diabetes represented 1-2% of items, and other drug groups accounted for counterfeit medicines. Drugs used in professional settings accounted for 20% and drugs used in non-professional settings accounted for 15% of the 716 items. Selected items were checked

  20. [Falsified medicines in parallel trade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenfuß, Heide

    2017-09-13

    The number of falsified medicines on the German market has distinctly increased over the past few years. In particular, stolen pharmaceutical products, a form of falsified medicines, have increasingly been introduced into the legal supply chain via parallel trading. The reasons why parallel trading serves as a gateway for falsified medicines are most likely the complex supply chains and routes of transport. It is hardly possible for national authorities to trace the history of a medicinal product that was bought and sold by several intermediaries in different EU member states. In addition, the heterogeneous outward appearance of imported and relabelled pharmaceutical products facilitates the introduction of illegal products onto the market. Official batch release at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut offers the possibility of checking some aspects that might provide an indication of a falsified medicine. In some circumstances, this may allow the identification of falsified medicines before they come onto the German market. However, this control is only possible for biomedicinal products that have not received a waiver regarding official batch release. For improved control of parallel trade, better networking among the EU member states would be beneficial. European-wide regulations, e. g., for disclosure of the complete supply chain, would help to minimise the risks of parallel trading and hinder the marketing of falsified medicines.

  1. 75 FR 79069 - Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for Comments From the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES... addressing counterfeiting and piracy. USTR is requesting written comments from the public on the final text... international cooperation, enforcement practices and legal frameworks for addressing counterfeiting and...

  2. Counterfeit drug demand: perceptions of policy makers and community pharmacists in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadl, Abubakr A; Hassali, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham M

    2013-01-01

    The counterfeit drug trade has become widespread and has developed into a substantial threat to both the public's health and the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this study was to seek insights into the determining factors of counterfeit drug purchases among health policy makers and community pharmacists in a developing country. In-depth qualitative interviews with Sudanese policy makers and community pharmacists were undertaken in 2 Sudanese states, namely Khartoum and Gadaref. A semistructured interview guide was developed by incorporating information from existing literature. A purposive sample of knowledgeable policy makers and community pharmacists was interviewed. Thematic content analysis of the interviews identified 8 major themes: understanding the term "counterfeit drug," presence of counterfeit drugs in the Sudanese market, vulnerability to counterfeit drugs, price-quality inference, awareness of societal consequences of counterfeit drugs, subjective social norms, difference in vulnerability according to demographic characteristics, and education pertaining to counterfeit drugs. Unaffordability of medicines and desperate need were emphasized by both policy makers and community pharmacists as major influencing factors that increased consumers' vulnerability to counterfeit drugs. This study concluded that high prices and the unaffordability of medicines have a major role in increasing vulnerability to counterfeit drugs, in addition to lack of knowledge about counterfeiting and the implications of use of these products. Because very limited studies have been conducted in developing countries to explore perceptions about counterfeit drugs, the present study provides information from which policy makers and key stakeholders in the supply chain can benefit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Anti-counterfeit activities of pharmaceutical companies in Japan: for patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofuda, Ken-ichi; Aragane, Katsumi; Igari, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Kinya; Ito, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Global spread of counterfeit medicines is an imminent threat for the patients' safety. Although major targets of counterfeits are still erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs in the industrialized countries, including Japan, anti-cancer agents and some medicines for metabolic syndromes are also being counterfeited and circulated to the market mainly through the Internet. Due to the global expansion of the business, pharmaceutical companies based in Japan are suffering from the damage of counterfeits, illegal sales including diversion, and thefts, which have never been experienced in the conventional domestic market. We, pharmaceutical companies, must be responsible for the prevention of the prevalence because our mission is to deliver effective and safe medicine to patients. For this end, we are taking necessary actions including, 1. Forestalling counterfeit, falsification and illicit trade: Measures to prevent counterfeiting are taken by introducing anti-counterfeit technologies to the packaging and tablets on a risk basis. It is also important to establish supply chain security on a global scale. 2. Finding out counterfeits and cooperating crackdown: We are conducting market and internet surveillances when high risk products are sold in high risk markets. The outcome of the criminal investigation is reported to authorities and police if necessary. 3. Conducting educational campaign to medical staff or patients: For example, four companies which manufacture and sell ED drug in Japan are collaboratively continuing activities to raise the awareness of the danger of Internet purchase. To deliver effective and safe medicines stably and globally, pharmaceutical companies extend comprehensive measures against counterfeit and illicit trading.

  4. Right to health encompasses right to access essential generic medicines: challenging the 2008 Anti-Counterfeit Act in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleche, Allan; Day, Emma

    2014-12-11

    To what extent has the right to access generic HIV medication been implemented in Kenya for the 1.6 million people living with HIV? How does this relate to the right to health under international and national law? This paper examines a constitutional challenge brought to the High Court of Kenya in 2009 (the "Anti-Counterfeit Case") against the Anti-Counterfeit Act of 2008, which the petitioners, all of whom were living with HIV, argued would affect their ability to access affordable and generic antiretroviral medication. They argued that this would amount to a violation of their right to life, dignity, and health. This case is particularly interesting because the new Kenyan Constitution came into force in 2010, after the case had been filed, and specifically provided for the right to health for all of Kenya's citizens, as well as giving direct effect to all international laws ratified by the Kenyan government. This paper follows the Anti-Counterfeit Case, which includes amendments filed by the petitioners following the new constitutional changes, the arguments by the different parties in the case, and the inappropriateness of counterfeit laws as measures to control substandard and falsified medicine. The case has resulted in the suspension of significant parts of the Anti-Counterfeit Act that would pose a challenge to parallel importation, and to the court issuing a directive that the sections be amended. The judgment is examined in detail, as are the broader implications of this case for other countries in Eastern Africa.

  5. Medicines informal market in Congo, Burundi and Angola: counterfeit and sub-standard antimalarials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertocchi Paola

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of counterfeits and sub-standards in African medicines market is a dramatic problem that causes many deaths each year. The increase of the phenomenon of pharmaceutical counterfeiting is due to the rise of the illegal market and to the impossibility to purchase branded high cost medicines. Methods In this paper the results of a quality control on antimalarial tablet samples purchased in the informal market in Congo, Burundi and Angola are reported. The quality control consisted in the assay of active substance by means of validated liquid chromatographic methods, uniformity of mass determination, disintegration and dissolution tests. Moreover, a general evaluation on label and packaging characteristics was performed. Results The results obtained on thirty antimalarial tablet samples containing chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine showed the presence of different kinds of problems: a general problem concerning the packaging (loose tablets, packaging without Producer name, Producer Country and sometimes without expiry date; low content of active substance (in one sample; different, non-declared, active substance (in one sample; sub-standard technological properties and very low dissolution profiles (in about 50% of samples. This last property could affect the bioavailability and bioequivalence in comparison with branded products and could be related to the use of different excipients in formulation or bad storage conditions. Conclusion This paper evidences that the most common quality problem in the analysed samples appears to be the low dissolution profile. Here it is remarked that the presence of the right active substance in the right quantity is not a sufficient condition for a good quality drug. Dissolution test is not less important in a quality control and often evidences in vitro possible differences in therapeutic efficacy among drugs with the same active content. Dissolution

  6. The global counterfeit drug trade: patient safety and public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2011-11-01

    Counterfeit drugs are a global problem with significant and well-documented consequences for global health and patient safety, including drug resistance and patient deaths. This multibillion-dollar industry does not respect geopolitical borders, and threatens public health in both rich and resource-poor nations alike. The epidemiology of counterfeits is also wide in breadth and scope, including thousands of counterfeit incidents per year, encompassing all types of therapeutic classes, and employing a complex global supply chain network enabling this illegal activity. In addition, information technologies available through the Internet and sales via online pharmacies have allowed the criminal element to thrive in an unregulated environment of anonymity, deception, and lack of adequate enforcement. Though recent global enforcement efforts have led to arrests of online counterfeit sellers, such actions have not stemmed supplies from illegal online sellers or kept up with their creativity in illegally selling their products. To address this issue, we propose a global policy framework utilizing public-private partnership models with centralized surveillance reporting that would enable cooperation and coordination to combat this global health crisis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Medicine authentication technology as a counterfeit medicine-detection tool: a Delphi method study to establish expert opinion on manual medicine authentication technology in secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Bernard; Roberts, Lindsey; Dopson, Sue; Brindley, David; Chapman, Stephen

    2017-05-06

    This study aims to establish expert opinion and potential improvements for the Falsified Medicines Directive mandated medicines authentication technology. A two-round Delphi method study using an online questionnaire. Large National Health Service (NHS) foundation trust teaching hospital. Secondary care pharmacists and accredited checking technicians. Seven-point rating scale answers which reached a consensus of 70-80% with a standard deviation (SD) of technology as quick and user friendly and suggested the inclusion of an audio signal to further support the detection of counterfeit medicines in secondary care (70% consensus, 0.9 SD); other important consensus with a SD of medicines. This paper informs key opinion leaders and decision makers as to the positives and negatives of medicines authentication technology from an operator's perspective and suggests the adjustments which may be required to improve operator compliance and the detection of counterfeit medicines in the secondary care sector. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. An exploration of counterfeit medicine surveillance strategies guided by geospatial analysis: lessons learned from counterfeit Avastin detection in the US drug supply chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Mackey, Tim K

    2014-01-01

    To explore healthcare policy and system improvements that would more proactively respond to future penetration of counterfeit cancer medications in the USA drug supply chain using geospatial analysis...

  9. Determination of counterfeit medicines by Raman spectroscopy: Systematic study based on a large set of model tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Sabine; Neusüß, Christian

    2015-08-10

    In the last decade, counterfeit pharmaceutical products have become a widespread issue for public health. Raman spectroscopy which is easy, non-destructive and information-rich is particularly suitable as screening method for fast characterization of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Combined with chemometric techniques, it provides a powerful tool for the analysis and determination of counterfeit medicines. Here, for the first time, a systematic study of the benefits and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of pharmaceutical samples on a large set of model tablets, varying with respect to chemical and physical properties, was performed. To discriminate between the different mixtures, a combination of dispersive Raman spectroscopy performing in backscattering mode and principal component analysis was used. The discrimination between samples with different coatings, a varying amount of active pharmaceutical ingredients and a diversity of excipients were possible. However, it was not possible to distinguish between variations of the press power, mixing quality and granulation. As a showcase, the change in Raman signals of commercial acetylsalicylic acid effervescent tablets due to five different storage conditions was monitored. It was possible to detect early small chemical changes caused by inappropriate storage conditions. These results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis provides a powerful methodology for the fast and easy characterization of genuine and counterfeit medicines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fake and Counterfeit Drug: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in counterfeit drugs appears to be widespread ... Counterfeit medicinal drugs include those with less or none of the stated ... ranging from antibiotics, through anticancer agents. The type of .... should at least contain the pharmacological name,.

  11. Viewpoint : Counterfeit medicines and substandard medicines: Different problems requiring different solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hoen, Ellen; Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New interest in the 'pandemic' of falsified medicines has resulted in efforts to put in place a treaty on 'medicines crime'. If the goal is to protect the interests of people and public health, an international agreement to ensure that all proven effective and necessary medicines are affordable, ava

  12. Viewpoint: Counterfeit medicines and substandard medicines : Different problems requiring different solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hoen, Ellen; Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New interest in the 'pandemic' of falsified medicines has resulted in efforts to put in place a treaty on 'medicines crime'. If the goal is to protect the interests of people and public health, an international agreement to ensure that all proven effective and necessary medicines are affordable, ava

  13. Dose-to-dose variations with single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements as a potential source of false negatives and inaccurate health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuis, B J; Zwaagstra, M E; Keizers, P H J; de Kaste, D

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we show three examples of how the variability in dose units in single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements may contribute to a false negative screening result and inaccurate health risk assessments. We describe a counterfeit Viagra 100mg blister pack and a box of an instant coffee both containing dose units with and without an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). We also describe a purportedly herbal slimming product with capsules that mutually differed in API and impurities. The adulterated dietary supplements contained sibutramine, benzyl-sibutramine, N-desmethyl-sibutramine (DMS), N,N-didesmethyl-sibutramine (DDMS) and several other related impurities. Counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements are a health risk because their quality is unreliable. Health risks are even greater when such unreliability extends to fundamental differences between dose units in one package. Because dose-to-dose variability for these products is unpredictable, the confidence interval of a sample size is unknown. Consequently, the analyses of a selection of dose units may not be representative for the package. In the worst case, counterfeit or unauthorised medicines are not recognised as such or a health risk is not identified. In order to reduce erroneous results particular care should be taken when analysing a composite of dose units, when finding no API in a dietary supplement and when finding conformity in a suspect counterfeit medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neufeld

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia.

  15. Counterfeit drugs and medical devices in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass BD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Beverley D GlassSchool of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: The World Health Organization has reported that counterfeit medicines potentially make up more than 50% of the global drug market, with a significant proportion of these fake products being encountered in developing countries. This occurrence is attributed to a lack of effective regulation and a weak enforcement capacity existing in these countries, with an increase in this trade resulting from the growing size and sophistication of drug counterfeiters. In addition, due to both cost and lack of availability of medicines, consumers in developing countries are more likely to seek out these inexpensive options. The World Health Organization is mindful of the impact of counterfeit drugs on consumer confidence in health care systems, health professionals, the supply chain, and genuine suppliers of medicines and medical devices. Antibiotics, antituberculosis drugs, and antimalarial and antiretroviral drugs are frequently targeted, with reports of 60% of the anti-infective drugs in Asia and Africa containing active pharmaceutical ingredients outside their pharmacopoeial limits. This has obvious public health implications of increasing drug resistance and negating all the efforts that have already gone into the provision of medicines to treat these life threatening conditions in the developing world. This review, while focusing on counterfeit medicines and medical devices in developing countries, will present information on their impact and how these issues can be addressed by regulation and control of the supply chain using technology appropriate to the developing world. The complexity of the problem will also be highlighted in terms of the definition of counterfeit and substandard medicines, including gray pharmaceuticals. Although this issue presents as a global public health problem, outcomes in developing countries where counterfeit

  16. COUNTERFEIT DRUGS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Surabhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry is under extraordinary strain. Facing the wrath of consumers because of the cost of products, constantly answering the questions of state and federal legislators looking to control health care costs, and losing value in the marketplace, the industry’s hands are more than full. A less discussed but substantial problem impacts all of pharmaceutical industry’s other problems, counterfeiting. The World Health Organization estimates that counterfeit drugs make up about 10 percent of the global medicine market, and more than 25 percent in developing countries. With counterfeit drugs increasingly finding their way into global distribution chains and ultimately into patients' mouths, it is essential that pharmaceutical companies have effective enforcement strategies to combat the manufacture and distribution of counterfeit drugs.

  17. [Counterfeit drugs as a gobal threat to health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Mikov, Momir

    2011-01-01

    According to the World Health Organisation, counterfeit medicines are medicines that are mislabelled deliberately and fraudulently regarding their identity and/or source. All kinds of medicines have been counterfeited, both branded and generic ones. Counterfeit medicines may include products containing correct or wrong ingredients; without active or with insufficiently or over-active ingredients, or with fake packaging. Many sources of information have been explored, including reports from the national medicine regulatory authorities, pharmaceutical companies and literature data. Since the time counterfeit drugs first appeared, they have become more sophisticated and more difficult to be detected. The World Health Organisation estimate is that up to 1% of medicines available in the developed world are likely to be counterfeit. This figure rises to 10% globally, although in some developing countries it is 50%. The World Health Organisation estimate is that 50% of medicines available via the internet are counterfeit. The knowledge about counterfeit drugs should be used to educate students of pharmacy and medicine, health professionals and patients. The most important players in campaign against counterfeit medicines are health professionals. Pharmacists and doctors should stay vigilant and report suspicious products, and consider counterfeits as a possible cause of adverse reactions or therapeutic failure. Patients should inform their pharmacists and doctors if they suspect any irregularity concerning their medication, if they experience side effects or a decrease in beneficial effect. The crucial step in the prevention of counterfeit medicines is to get supplied from reliable sources, i.e. licensed pharmacies.

  18. EDUCATING AND INFORMING THE CONSUMER IN ORDER TO FIGHT COUNTERFEITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIA PASCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Educating the consumer and fighting against the counterfeiting phenomenon are highly important action fields in every developed country because, although there are cases in which counterfeiting is considered a victimless crime and copying is perceived as an act of recognizing true value, this vision does not fit the consequences.The impact of counterfeit products on trade owners, consumers and national economies cannot be minimized; therefore, consumers must be informed about the dangers they face by purchasing a counterfeit product. It must be said that legislation is very strict with counterfeiters.The high counterfeiting level reflects, regardless the consumers’ appetite for trademark products, the counterfeiters’ ability of adapting to market trends and huge financial profits from selling counterfeit goods; the article allows an overall look regarding the counterfeiting issues.

  19. Counterfeit integrated circuits detection and avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    Tehranipoor, Mark (Mohammad); Forte, Domenic

    2015-01-01

    This timely and exhaustive study offers a much-needed examination of the scope and consequences of the electronic counterfeit trade.  The authors describe a variety of shortcomings and vulnerabilities in the electronic component supply chain, which can result in counterfeit integrated circuits (ICs).  Not only does this book provide an assessment of the current counterfeiting problems facing both the public and private sectors, it also offers practical, real-world solutions for combatting this substantial threat.   ·      Helps beginners and practitioners in the field by providing a comprehensive background on the counterfeiting problem; ·      Presents innovative taxonomies for counterfeit types, test methods, and counterfeit defects, which allows for a detailed analysis of counterfeiting and its mitigation; ·      Provides step-by-step solutions for detecting different types of counterfeit ICs; ·      Offers pragmatic and practice-oriented, realistic solutions to counterfeit IC d...

  20. [Counterfeit Medicines in Internet and the Fakeshare European Project: Experiences and Activities in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Matamoros, Daniel; González-Ochando, Nuria; Pecharroman-Arribas, Henar; Fernández-Muelas, Ana; Bentolila-Benchimol, Stella Sandra; IbarraLorente, Manuel

    2016-08-16

    The illicit trafficking of medicines over the Internet is a growing problem that affects public health. Since 2013, the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS) participates in the European project Fakeshare, co-funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Italian Medicines Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA). This project aims to coordinate initiatives against the illegal supply of medicines, including from purchases through websites engaged in illegal activity, to thefts and other diversions of medicines to the illicit trafficking.This paper presents the activities in that area as well as strategies and elaborated materials at the national level. The keys to fight or face the illegal sale of medicines over the internet are coordinated cooperation with all the stakeholders, development of communication campaigns to raise awareness and sensitize consumers, health professionals and industry organizations about the risks of buying medicines on illegal websites, creating databases to share information on thefts and other deviations to the illegal market and disseminate national practices to combat illicit medicines trafficking at European and international levels.

  1. Microbiological contamination in counterfeit and unapproved drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullirsch, Dieter; Bellemare, Julie; Hackl, Andreas; Trottier, Yvon-Louis; Mayrhofer, Andreas; Schindl, Heidemarie; Taillon, Christine; Gartner, Christian; Hottowy, Brigitte; Beck, Gerhard; Gagnon, Jacques

    2014-06-26

    Counterfeit and unapproved medicines are inherently dangerous and can cause patient injury due to ineffectiveness, chemical or biological contamination, or wrong dosage. Growth of the counterfeit medical market in developed countries is mainly attributable to life-style drugs, which are used in the treatment of non-life-threatening and non-painful conditions, such as slimming pills, cosmetic-related pharmaceuticals, and drugs for sexual enhancement. One of the main tasks of health authorities is to identify the exact active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in confiscated drugs, because wrong API compounds, wrong concentrations, and/or the presence of chemical contaminants are the main risks associated with counterfeit medicines. Serious danger may also arise from microbiological contamination. We therefore performed a market surveillance study focused on the microbial burden in counterfeit and unapproved medicines. Counterfeit and unapproved medicines confiscated in Canada and Austria and controls from the legal market were examined for microbial contaminations according to the US and European pharmacopoeia guidelines. The microbiological load of illegal and legitimate samples was statistically compared with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Microbial cultivable contaminations in counterfeit and unapproved phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors were significantly higher than in products from the legal medicines market (p product in Austria (6% of illegal products tested). Our results show that counterfeit and unapproved pharmaceuticals are not manufactured under the same hygienic conditions as legitimate products. The microbiological contamination of illegal medicinal products often exceeds USP and EP limits, representing a potential threat to consumer health.

  2. The development and appraisal of a tool designed to find patients harmed by falsely labelled, falsified (counterfeit) medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anđelković, Marija; Björnsson, Einar; De Bono, Virgilio; Dikić, Nenad; Devue, Katleen; Ferlin, Daniel; Hanževački, Miroslav; Jónsdóttir, Freyja; Shakaryan, Mkrtich; Walser, Sabine

    2017-06-20

    Falsely labelled, falsified (counterfeit) medicines (FFCm's) are produced or distributed illegally and can harm patients. Although the occurrence of FFCm's is increasing in Europe, harm is rarely reported. The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health-Care (EDQM) has therefore coordinated the development and validation of a screening tool. The tool consists of a questionnaire referring to a watch-list of FFCm's identified in Europe, including symptoms of their use and individual risk factors, and a scoring form. To refine the questionnaire and reference method, a pilot-study was performed in 105 self-reported users of watch-list medicines. Subsequently, the tool was validated under "real-life conditions" in 371 patients in 5 ambulatory and in-patient care sites ("sub-studies"). The physicians participating in the study scored the patients and classified their risk of harm as "unlikely" or "probable" (cut-off level: presence of ≥2 of 5 risk factors). They assessed all medical records retrospectively (independent reference method) to validate the risk classification and documented their perception of the tool's value. In 3 ambulatory care sites (180 patients), the tool correctly classified 5 patients as harmed by FFCm's. The positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR-) and the discrimination power were calculated for two cut-off levels: a) 1 site (50 patients): presence of two risk factors (at 10% estimated health care system contamination with FFCm's): LR + 4.9/LR-0, post-test probability: 35%; b) 2 sites (130 patients): presence of three risk factors (at 5% estimated prevalence of use of non-prescribed medicines (FFCm's) by certain risk groups): LR + 9.7/LR-0, post-test probability: 33%. In 2 in-patient care sites (191 patients), no patient was confirmed as harmed by FFCm's. The physicians perceived the tool as valuable for finding harm, and as an information source regarding risk factors. This "decision aid" is a systematic tool

  3. Consumer Adoption of Counterfeit Products in a Developing Country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lede (Madesta)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With an increase in global trade, currently involving almost all countries in the world (expect for a few autarkic ones), there is a growing interest in studying various aspects of trade in counterfeit products. As almost every type of good has been counterfeited

  4. A review of existing and emerging digital technologies to combat the global trade in fake medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2017-05-01

    The globalization of the pharmaceutical supply chain has introduced new challenges, chief among them, fighting the international criminal trade in fake medicines. As the manufacture, supply, and distribution of drugs becomes more complex, so does the need for innovative technology-based solutions to protect patients globally. Areas covered: We conducted a multidisciplinary review of the science/health, information technology, computer science, and general academic literature with the aim of identifying cutting-edge existing and emerging 'digital' solutions to combat fake medicines. Our review identified five distinct categories of technology including mobile, radio frequency identification, advanced computational methods, online verification, and blockchain technology. Expert opinion: Digital fake medicine solutions are unifying platforms that integrate different types of anti-counterfeiting technologies as complementary solutions, improve information sharing and data collection, and are designed to overcome existing barriers of adoption and implementation. Investment in this next generation technology is essential to ensure the future security and integrity of the global drug supply chain.

  5. Counterfeit drugs: analytical techniques for their identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, R; Malet-Martino, M; Gilard, V; Balayssac, S

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, the number of counterfeit drugs has increased dramatically, including not only "lifestyle" products but also vital medicines. Besides the threat to public health, the financial and reputational damage to pharmaceutical companies is substantial. The lack of robust information on the prevalence of fake drugs is an obstacle in the fight against drug counterfeiting. It is generally accepted that approximately 10% of drugs worldwide could be counterfeit, but it is also well known that this number covers very different situations depending on the country, the places where the drugs are purchased, and the definition of what constitutes a counterfeit drug. The chemical analysis of drugs suspected to be fake is a crucial step as counterfeiters are becoming increasingly sophisticated, rendering visual inspection insufficient to distinguish the genuine products from the counterfeit ones. This article critically reviews the recent analytical methods employed to control the quality of drug formulations, using as an example artemisinin derivatives, medicines particularly targeted by counterfeiters. Indeed, a broad panel of techniques have been reported for their analysis, ranging from simple and cheap in-field ones (colorimetry and thin-layer chromatography) to more advanced laboratory methods (mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and vibrational spectroscopies) through chromatographic methods, which remain the most widely used. The conclusion section of the article highlights the questions to be posed before selecting the most appropriate analytical approach.

  6. Pangolins in eastern Nepal: trade and ethno-medicinal importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Bahadur Katuwal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pangolin populations are declining globally due to illicit trade for meat and ethno-medicinal practices. We performed semi-structured interviews to analyze scenario of trade activities and documented the ethno-medicinal importance of pangolins in four districts of eastern Nepal. Out of 106 respondents, 78.3% had seen live pangolins, 90.6% had seen their burrows and 66% respondents speculated their decreasing population. Although 64% of the respondents were aware that pangolin is protected species, 44% of respondents had eaten its meat. We found the trade as an organized network where poachers of one village supply pangolins and its parts to poachers of another village and so on until it reaches the international border. Trade flow was more across the Chinese border via different routes where the prices varied from US$ 500–625/kg or even more. For this illegal trade, poachers provoke unemployed youths especially from ethnic communities. Most people hunt pangolins merely for trade without knowing its exact medicinal value. Some people, however, use meat and scales to supposedly cure gastro-intestinal disease, skin disease, cardiac problem, pregnancy pains, back pain; and also for making rings, bags, jackets, purses and musical instruments. As most pangolin habitats lie outside protected areas, illicit trade is increasing rapidly. We recommend immediate strategic plans, effective monitoring techniques and inter-border cooperation to thwart the trade, and raise awareness of their importance.  

  7. Microbiological contamination in counterfeit and unapproved drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Pullirsch, Dieter; Bellemare, Julie; Hackl, Andreas; Trottier, Yvon-Louis; Mayrhofer, Andreas; Schindl, Heidemarie; Taillon, Christine; Gartner, Christian; Hottowy, Brigitte; Beck, Gerhard; Gagnon, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background Counterfeit and unapproved medicines are inherently dangerous and can cause patient injury due to ineffectiveness, chemical or biological contamination, or wrong dosage. Growth of the counterfeit medical market in developed countries is mainly attributable to life-style drugs, which are used in the treatment of non-life-threatening and non-painful conditions, such as slimming pills, cosmetic-related pharmaceuticals, and drugs for sexual enhancement. One of the main tasks of health ...

  8. TRANSPORT OF COUNTERFEIT GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Babčanová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a current problem of transport of counterfeit goods in the European Union. Counterfeiting has a strong influence on the distribution organizations worldwide because most of counterfeit goods threaten the health and safety of consumers. Counterfeiting is a serious problem in the world economy today. The purpose of this paper is to point out the danger of counterfeiting in connection with the transport of Intellectual Property (IP rights - infringing goods. Background of the paper’s content is based on secondary data research of publicly available sources - international statistics and world reports.

  9. China Customs: a wall to keep counterfeits in?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James; Hurvitz, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes, analyses and evaluates the role and likely impact of using China trade mark and customs law and procedure in the fight against global trade in counterfeited trade mark goods. A fresh look at the geographical source of the global counterfeit industry is well timed amid legi...

  10. Counterfeit analysis strategy illustrated by a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dégardin, Klara; Roggo, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Medicine counterfeiting is a current problem that the whole pharmaceutical field has to deal with. In 2014, counterfeits entered the legitimate supply chain in Europe. Quick and efficient action had to be taken. The aim of this paper is to explain which analytical strategy was chosen to deal with six of the cases concerned and which criteria have to be considered to provide quick and thorough information about the counterfeits. The evaluation of the packaging was performed in a first step, based on a comparison with genuine samples and evaluation of manipulation signs. Chemical methods were then used, consisting of near infrared and infrared spectroscopy, capillary zone electrophoresis and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, in order to authenticate the samples and provide the chemical composition of the confirmed counterfeits. Among the 20 samples analyzed, 17 were confirmed as counterfeits. The counterfeits were the results of the manipulation of genuine samples, and one contained totally counterfeited parts. Several manipulation signs were asserted, like the addition of glue on the boxes and the vials. Genuine stolen goods had been diluted with water, while for an isolated case, a different active ingredient had been introduced in a vial. The analytical data generated were further investigated from a forensic intelligence perspective. Links could be revealed between the analyzed counterfeits, together with some interesting information about the modus operandi of the counterfeiters. The study was performed on a limited number of cases, and therefore encourages chemical and packaging profiling of counterfeits at a bigger scale. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Anti-Counterfeiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyls, Pim; Guajardo, Jorge; Batina, Lejla; Kerins, Tim

    Counterfeiting of goods is becoming a very huge problem for our society. It not only has a global economic impact, but it also poses a serious threat to our global safety and health. Currently, global economic damage across all industries due to the counterfeiting of goods is estimated at over 600 billion annually [2]. In the United States, seizure of counterfeit goods has tripled in the last 5 years, and in Europe, over 100 million pirated and counterfeit goods were seized in 2004. Fake products cost businesses in the United Kingdom approximately 17 billion [2]. In India, 15% of fast-moving consumer goods and 38% of auto parts are counterfeit. Other industries in which many goods are being counterfeit are the toy industry, content and software, cosmetics, publishing, food and beverages, tobacco, apparel, sports goods, cards, and so forth.

  12. Roles for pharmacy in combatting counterfeit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziance, Ronald J

    2008-01-01

    To describe (1) the international scope of counterfeit drugs, (2) international and U.S. anticounterfeiting initiatives, and (3) the enhanced roles and challenges facing pharmaceutical organizations and individual pharmacists to thwart counterfeit drugs. PubMed and Ovid from 1970 to 2008 using the search terms counterfeit drugs, counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and counterfeit medicines, with English as the limiting term. Nonprimary literature sources included the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Web site (www.fda.gov) from 1990 to 2008 using the search term counterfeit drugs, presentations from meetings or workshops attended or accessed via the Internet, and Web sites of professional organizations. Additional resources were identified from personal bibliographies collected by the author and bibliographies of gathered articles. Counterfeit drugs--defined as those containing no active ingredient, an incorrect amount of active ingredients, incorrect ingredient, and/or unapproved labeling and packaging--represent an unquantified problem of international proportions. The existing situation has been facilitated by inconsistent national regulatory oversight, disparate unlinked databases, lack of unified anticounterfeiting actions, and inability to track the distribution of domestically produced or imported drug products between, among, and within nations. In the United States, several important anticounterfeiting initiatives announced by FDA in 2004 have been implemented but the benefits of others, such as electronic tracking of a drug's movement through the U.S. distribution chain to a dispensing pharmacy, will not be realized in the near future. The role of pharmacists as patient educators, prudent purchasers, and detectors of counterfeit drugs can typically be accomplished with minimal added expense or work; however, the impact of electronic tracking on pharmacies' expenses and workflow is unknown. Pharmacists need to be included in efforts to thwart receipt of

  13. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Carlos María

    2006-05-01

    The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines.

  14. Counterfeit drugs in India: significance and impact on pharmacovigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal A. Shah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeit drugs have emerged as a major global problem. This issue has been brought to the centre of the Indian media due to the death of 15 women attending a sterilization camp in Chhattisgarh. India's pharmaceutical industry exports drugs worth 15 billion dollars, which means a high prevalence of counterfeiting in India's drug industry has global repercussions. However, accurate figures on the extent of counterfeit drugs in India are not available. The scientific literature as well as media reports often quotes figures of 10-35%, though studies done by the Indian Government dispute this. Counterfeit drug numbers have been known to be under represented by Governments due to fear of undermining their economy and health systems. On the other hand, rival companies in other countries may have an incentive to over hype India's counterfeit problem to dent India's growing status as the leading global supplier of generic medicines. Lack of clear definitions and differences between laws of countries further complicate reporting. A high prevalence of counterfeit drugs has a large impact on both health and economic indicators. Additionally, counterfeit drugs provide significant challenges to Pharmacovigilance programmes. Hence, here we discuss the significance of use of counterfeit drugs in India and challenges faced by Pharmacovigilance due to the extensive use of counterfeit drugs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2156-2160

  15. The high price of "free" trade: U.S. trade agreements and access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopert, Ruth; Gleeson, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The United States' pursuit of increasingly TRIPS-Plus levels of intellectual property protection for medicines in bilateral and regional trade agreements is well recognized. Less so, however, are U.S. efforts through these agreements to influence and constrain the pharmaceutical coverage programs of its trading partners. Although arguably unsuccessful in the Australia- U.S. Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), the U.S. nevertheless succeeded in its bilateral FTA with South Korea (KORUS) in establishing prescriptive provisions pertaining to the operation of coverage and reimbursement programs for medicines and medical devices, which have the potential to adversely impact future access in that country. More recently, draft texts leaked from the current Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations show that U.S. objectives include not only AUSFTA-Plus and KORUS-Plus IP provisions but also ambitious inroads into the domestic health programs of its TPPA partners. This highlights the apparent conflict between trade goals - pursued through multilateral legal instruments to promote economic "health"- and public health objectives, such as the development of treatments for neglected diseases, the pursuit of efficiency and equity in priority setting, and the procurement of medicines at prices that reflect their therapeutic value and facilitate affordable access. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. Assessing the problem of counterfeit medications in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G; Patel, S; Khan, S

    2012-03-01

    Counterfeit medicines pose an ever-increasing threat to public health, although precise tracking of illegal counterfeit prescription drug activity is difficult. Available data indicate that all types of medications have been targeted. Adverse health effects, including death, have resulted from using counterfeit medications; consumers who self-medicate without appropriate interactions with the healthcare system rarely receive adequate healthcare. The Internet provides a large, convenient route for counterfeiters to reach potential buyers with unregulated, often dangerous, products. The majority of medicines purchased via unverified Internet sites are counterfeit; often, these products lack the purported drug compound or have variable concentrations of active ingredients and sometimes contain dangerous toxins. Although many consumers acknowledge some degree of risk with purchasing medications via the Internet, speed, convenience and cost often prompt these purchases. Counterfeit medications also have been detected in the legitimate supply chain, but represent a significantly smaller proportion of sales than those purchased via the Internet. Pilot programmes in Europe have demonstrated that product verification systems prevent penetration of counterfeit products into the legitimate supply chain. Significant EU legislation, including stronger penalties for counterfeiting, is in development. In the United Kingdom, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) launched an initiative against counterfeit medication. Healthcare professionals should report suspected cases of counterfeit medication to the MHRA, be alert to threats to the medicine supply, and provide practical advice to patients about ordering medications online, including avoiding unregulated Internet pharmacies, and being suspicious of sites offering substantial discounts and prescription-only medication without a prescription. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. On the Counterfeiting Battlefield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Rullani, Francesco

    and reputation. We describe the strategies of the firm and of the counterfeiters in these two contexts, and test our hypotheses using a unique dataset reporting 3333 battles taken by a high-tech firm against more than 2000 counterfeiters in 75 countries over a 6-year period. We find broad support for our...

  18. Micromorphological comparative identification between several Chinese herbal medicines and their counterfeits%几种中药材及其混伪品的微性状对比鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马逾英; 卢晓琳; 翟萌; 杨莹

    2012-01-01

    目的:对当前市场上流通的几种中药材混伪品进行真伪对比鉴别.方法:采用微性状鉴定法,借助解剖镜、扫描仪器进行药材外形、表面、断面等特征的观察,拍摄照片或保存图片.结果:找出了灰毡毛忍冬与细毡毛忍冬、孜然、车前子、菟丝子、白芥子、丹参等中药材与其混伪品微性状特征的主要区别.结论:为相关中药材的真伪鉴别提供了参考依据,并为同类研究提供借鉴.%Objective: To identify comparatively several commercial Chinese herbal medicines and their counterfeits. Method: Hie micromorphological characters were identified. The shape, surface, section and other characters of the medicinal materials were identified by using anatomical lens and scanning apparatus. Pictures were taken and saved. Result: Main micromorphological differences between several Chinese herbal medicine including Lonicera macranthoides, L. similis, Cummum cyminum, Plantago asiatica, Cuscuta chinensis, Sinapis alba, Salvia miltiorrhua and their counterfeits were identified. Conclusion: The reference for the authenticity identification of Chinese herbal medicine and helpful experiences for the research of the same subject were provided.

  19. COUNTERFEIT (FAKE DRUGS & NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO IDENTIFY IT IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gupta*, K. Singhal and A. Pandey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity or source. Counterfeiting apply to both branded and generic product which include products with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients. According to WHO, 25% of medicines consumed in poor countries could be counterfeit or below standard.An estimate suggests that these drugs are a $200 billion industry worldwide. India could be an easy target for counterfeits, as the manufacturing costs is 40% cheaper here as compared to other countries. Deputy drug controller general of India says, counterfeit medicines often resemble the originals in chemical composition, but he thinks the biggest problem is in the packaging. A committee set up by the Indian Ministry of Health has approved a proposal to put 2D bar codes and scratch-off labels on medicines. The user scratches off the cover and tests what is underneath to a free phone number, to find out if a pill is real. Quick Response (QR codes are also being tested. These printed squares are an advanced version of the 2D bar codes. Anyone with a camera-enabled phone and web access can scan the code and be taken instantly to the pharmacy company website to authenticate the drug. The uses of holograms, tracers, traggants and inks, plastic tags, radio frequency identification, mass encryption technology are some other techniques to limit the counterfeiting of drugs.

  20. "For export only" medicines come back to Europe: a RP-LC method for the screening of six glucocorticoids in illegal and counterfeit anti-inflammatory and lightening creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, M C; Lucente, D; Antoniella, E; Bertocchi, P; Muleri, N; Manna, L; Bartolomei, M; Alimonti, S; Valvo, L; Rodomonte, A L

    2010-10-10

    "For export only" anti-inflammatory and lightening creams are medicinal products sold in African countries for their skin whitening action. In the last years, Rapid Alerts from European Medicinal Regulatory Agencies evidenced the presence of a large number of illegal and counterfeit anti-inflammatory products advertised for their whitening action on black skin in the European market. These drugs, containing glucocorticoids, are illegally sold in Europe in unauthorized ethno-cosmetics-shops and mainly bought by immigrants. This paper reports a new RP-LC method for the rapid simultaneous screening of six different active ingredients in anti-inflammatory and whitening products (creams, ointment and suspension): betamethasone dipropionate, dexamethasone, fluocinonide, fluocinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, methyl-prednisolone acetate. The method was developed and validated in view of its possible application in quality control laboratories, mainly those appointed to the control of illegal/counterfeit medicinal products. The associated measurement uncertainty was calculated from validation data. The method was then applied to the analysis of whitening products obtained from the Italian illegal market.

  1. Strategies from the counterfeiting battlefield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Rullani, Francesco

    unexplored. Organizations protect their identity by fighting counterfeiters in their main and ancillary markets, as well as against diffusion of dangerous counterfeit products that can damage their brand and reputation. We describe the strategies of the firm and of the counterfeiters in these two contexts......Organizations experience both costs and benefits when facing counterfeits. Recent research has highlighted the differences in outcome of entry of counterfeits as being dependent on quality uncertainties, pricing, networks and non-price signaling, however, the role of organizations’ identity remains...... the difficulties firms face in protecting their main markets, and their advantages in limiting the diffusion of dangerous counterfeit products. Counterfeits can thereby be understood as a potential source for disruptive identity shifts, which explain the heterogeneous impact from counterfeits....

  2. International trade and determinants of price differentials of insulin medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helble, Matthias; Aizawa, Toshiaki

    2017-02-01

    Empirical studies on pharmaceutical pricing across countries have found evidence that prices vary according to per capita income. These studies are typically based on survey data from a subset of countries and cover only one year. In this paper, we study the international trade and price of insulin by using detailed trade data for 186 importing countries from 1995 to 2013. With almost 12,000 observations, our study constitutes the largest comparative study on pharmaceutical pricing conducted so far. The large dataset allows us to uncover new determinants of price differentials. Our analysis shows that the international trade of insulin increased substantially over this time period, clearly outpacing the increasing prevalence of diabetes. Using the unit values of imports, we also study the determinants of price differentials between countries. Running various panel regressions, we find that the differences in prices across countries can be explained by the following factors: First, corroborating earlier studies, we find that per capita GDP is positively correlated with the unit price of insulin. Second, the price of insulin drugs originating from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries tends to be substantially higher than for those imported from developing countries. Third, more intense competition among suppliers leads to lower insulin prices. Fourth, higher out-of-pocket payments for health care are associated with higher prices. Finally, higher volumes and tariffs seem to result in lower unit prices. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Early modern Goa: Indian trade, transcultural medicine, and the Inquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Malieckal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portugal’s introduction of the Inquisition to India in 1560 placed the lives of Jews, New Christians, and selected others labelled ‘heretics’, in peril. Two such victims were Garcia da Orta, a Portuguese New Christian with a thriving medical practice in Goa, and Gabriel Dellon, a French merchant and physician. In scholarship, Garcia da Orta and Gabriel Dellon’s texts are often examined separately within the contexts of Portuguese and French literature respectively and in terms of medicine and religion in the early modern period. Despite the similarities of their training and experiences, da Orta and Dellon have not previously been studied jointly, as is attempted in this article, which expands upon da Orta and Dellon’s roles in Portuguese India’s international commerce, especially the trade in spices, and the collaborations between Indian and European physicians. Thus, the connection between religion and food is not limited to food’s religious and religio-cultural roles. Food in terms of spices has been at the foundations of power for ethno-religious groups in India, and when agents became detached from the spice trade, their downfalls were imminent, as seen in the histories of Garcia da Orta and Gabriel Dellon.

  4. Forensic pharmacovigilance and substandard or counterfeit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Identification of harm in the form of adverse drug reactions that are caused by counterfeit or other substandard medicinal products by application of standard pharmacovigillance methods of registration, analysis and investigation could be forensic pharmacovigillance. As recent example of this type of forensic pharmacovigilance is the discovery and investigation into the adverse drug reactions caused by contaminated heparin in the USA in 2008 is discussed.

  5. Detection of counterfeit currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D.A.

    1998-05-26

    A method is disclosed of detecting counterfeit currency by contacting the currency to be tested with near infrared beams in the spectrum below 1,250 nanometers, measuring reflectance of the near infrared beams and comparing the reflectance values with those from genuine currency. 18 figs.

  6. Counterfeit Medicines in Socioeconomic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Nuryunarsih Nuryunarsih

    2017-05-01

    Obat-obatan palsu berpotensi mencapai 70% dari pasaran obat internasional dengan proporsi terbanyak ditemukan di negara berkembang. Meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat akan adanya obat-obatan palsu akan secara langsung memengaruhi permintaan produk obat palsu yang akhirnya akan mengurangi kegiatan pemalsuan obat. Akan tetapi, meningkatkan pengetahuan masyarakat akan bahaya obat-obatan palsu tidaklah mudah sebab profesi kesehatan masyarakat harus juga mempertimbangkan keberagaman faktor-faktor sosial, ekonomi dan pendidikan. Laporan ini menelaah artikel jurnal yang ditelaah oleh kelompok seminat, laporan media, laporan resmi pemerintah dan non-pemerintah. Sebanyak 179 artikel (dari 1990 sampai 2014 ditelaah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara indeks pembangunan manusia (IPM dari USA, Jepang, Brasil, Iran, Vietnam, Indonesia, Pakistan dan Nigeria, dan tipe pemalsuan obat. Pencarian elektronik menggunakan pangkalan data seperti Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Google Scholar. Obat-obatan palsu untuk pengobatan ditemukan dalam banyak ragam terutama di negara dengan IPM rendah. Pada saat yang sama, obat-obatan untuk keperluan gaya hidup tidak hanya ditemukan di negara dengan IPM tinggi, akan tetapi juga beredar di negara dengan IPM rendah dan sedang.

  7. Medicinal plant markets and trade in Maputo, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Mogens Pedersen; Falcâo, Mario P.; Olsen, Carsten Smith

    Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo.......Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo....

  8. Trade in hedgehogs (Mammalia: Erinaceidae in Morocco, with an overview of their trade for medicinal purposes throughout Africa and Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Nijman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehogs are traded locally and often in relatively small num--bers throughout Eurasia and Africa.  We here report on the trade in North African Hedgehog Atelerix algirus and to a smaller extent possibly the Desert Hedgehog Paraechinus aethiopicus in Morocco, and provide an overview of the global trade in hedgehogs for medicinal purposes.  In 2013 and 2014 we surveyed 20 Moroccan cities for a total of 48 times.  We recorded 114 hedgehogs (32 alive and 82 skins for sale in 25 shops in 10 cities, with the largest numbers recorded in Casablanca and Marrakesh.  All live hedgehogs were identified as North African Hedgehog but skins could additionally have been of the Desert Hedgehog.  Shops often displayed only single hedgehog skins, but occasionally up to 48 skins, and live individuals were mostly traded singly or in pairs.  Over 80% of the shops selling hedgehogs were herbalists, selling herbs, spices, oils and animal parts, and both skins and live hedgehogs were intended to supply the demand for traditional (‘folk’ medicine.  At a global scale we found an additional 34 reports of trade in 12 or possibly 13 species of hedgehogs from 23 countries; five studies involving three species in China, South Africa and Benin, included data on the frequency and abundance of hedgehogs in trade, whereas the other studies were qualitative in nature.  Market data have limited value in gauging the off-take of hedgehogs from the wild to supply the traditional medicine trade, but we nevertheless urge the continuation of monitoring the trade in hedgehogs in Morocco and indeed elsewhere to ensure it does not become a threat to their survival in the foreseeable future. 

  9. A research on Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) :Its Effects and Solutions in China%《反假冒贸易协定》研究——其影响与中国的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪凤

    2013-01-01

    The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement challenges the international rules multilateral system, in which the protection of intellectual property right goes beyond the scope of TRIPS agreement and forms TRIPS-plus standard, and it will bring great, potential and negative influences on intellectual property right field at the global level including China. China has to take the following suggestions to achieve own benefits: to promote indigenous innovation, try to constrict the negotiation issues on intellectual property right into WTO regime by combining the developing countries and international NGOs, and rebalance the IPR by multilateral system.%《反假冒贸易协定》挑战了国际规则中的多边体制,由于对知识产权的保护超过了TRIPS协议的范围而形成了TRIPS-plus协议,它将对全球知识产权领域造成极大的、潜在的消极影响,中国也概莫能外.要成功应对《反假冒贸易协定》,中国必须在国内加强自主创新经济发展模式的同时,联合发展中国家及非政府组织,力争把知识产权议题纳入WTO框架内,通过多边体制来达到知识产权利益的相对平衡.

  10. Counterfeit and Substandard Antimalarial Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where Do You Find Them? Worldwide prevalence of counterfeit and substandard products is summarized in a Drug Quality Report matrix by the U.S. Pharmacopeia Drug Quality and Information (USP DQI) Program . ... (U.S.) issues regarding counterfeit and poor-quality drugs is provided by the ...

  11. Fashion Counterfeiting: Consumer Behavior Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Wanda K.; Easterling, Cynthia R.

    2008-01-01

    Counterfeiting, which has always been somewhat of a problem in several different industry settings, has recently become an epidemic in the fashion industry. Widespread and seemingly endless counterfeiting of fashion goods is costing the industry millions of dollars in lost profits and tarnishing the image of many luxury brands. This article…

  12. Fashion Counterfeiting: Consumer Behavior Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Wanda K.; Easterling, Cynthia R.

    2008-01-01

    Counterfeiting, which has always been somewhat of a problem in several different industry settings, has recently become an epidemic in the fashion industry. Widespread and seemingly endless counterfeiting of fashion goods is costing the industry millions of dollars in lost profits and tarnishing the image of many luxury brands. This article…

  13. RFID in the pharmaceutical industry: addressing counterfeits with technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years. The technology has matured from its specialized tracking and retail uses to a systemic part of supply chain management in international pharmaceutical production and distribution. Counterfeit drugs, however, remain a significant challenge for governments, pharmaceutical companies, clinicians, and patients and the use of RFID to track these compounds represents an opportunity for development. This paper discusses the medical, technological, and economic factors that support widespread adoption of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry in an effort to prevent counterfeit medicines from harming patients and brand equity.

  14. Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines: International Trade Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-28

    Kelley Lee, “Managing the Pursuit of Health and Wealth: The Key Challenges,” The Lancet , vol. 373 (January 24, 2009), pp. 328-329. 11 National Science...Richard D. Smith, Carlos Correa, and Cecilia Oh, “Trade, TRIPS, and Pharmaceuticals,” The Lancet , vol. 373 (February 21, 2009). 35 Kevin Outterson...and Cecilia Oh, “Trade, TRIPS, and Pharmaceuticals,” The Lancet , vol. 373 (February 21, 2009). Oxfam International, US Bullying on Drug Patents: One

  15. COUNTERFEIT DRUGS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna Surabhi; Nasa Atul; Garg Arun

    2010-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under extraordinary strain. Facing the wrath of consumers because of the cost of products, constantly answering the questions of state and federal legislators looking to control health care costs, and losing value in the marketplace, the industry’s hands are more than full. A less discussed but substantial problem impacts all of pharmaceutical industry’s other problems, counterfeiting. The World Health Organization estimates that counterfeit drugs make up about ...

  16. Counterfeit homeopathic medicinal products: syrups. A simple and rapid LC-ESI-MS method to detect preservatives not declared in label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panusa, Alessia; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2008-08-05

    A rapid and simple LC-ESI-MS method for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of six preservatives in homeopathic syrups has been developed. Counterfeit homeopathic syrups are suspected to contain preservatives that are not declared in label. For this reason a method to ascertain the absence of sorbic and benzoic acids, methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl-parabens, as the most frequently utilised preservatives, has been developed. Analytes were eluted with a linear gradient of acetonitrile-5mM ammonium acetate in 12 min using 2,4-dichlorobenzylalchol as Internal Standard. The HPLC separation was performed on an Eclipse XDB-C18 (2.1 mm x 50 mm-5 microm) column and the ESI-MS detection was performed in negative ion mode. Linearity of the method was studied in the range of 2 pg to 10 ng injected and correlation coefficients r2 > or =0.9992 were obtained. LOD ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 ng mL(-1).

  17. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals with ultraviolet and electrospray-mass spectrometry detection in suspected counterfeit homeopathic medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panusa, Alessia; Multari, Giuseppina; Incarnato, Giampaolo; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2007-03-12

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with both ultraviolet (UV) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection has been developed for the determination of seven pharmaceuticals in counterfeit homeopathic preparations. Naproxen, Ketoprofen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Piroxicam, Nimesulide and Paracetamol were separated by reversed phase chromatography with acetonitrile-water (0.1% acetic acid) mobile phase, and detected by UV at 245 nm and by ESI-MS in negative ionisation mode with the exception of Paracetamol which was detected in positive ionisation mode. Benzoic acid was used as internal standard (IS). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of homeopathic preparations like mother tinctures, solutions, tablets, granules, creams, and suppositories. Linearity was studied with UV detection in the 50-400 microg mL(-1) range and with ESI-MS in the 0.1-50 microg mL(-1) range. Good correlation coefficients were found in both UV and ESI-MS. Detection limits ranged from 0.18 to 41.5 ng in UV and from 0.035 to 1.00 ng in ESI-MS.

  18. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  19. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals: current status and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Albert I; Chaney, Nicole M; Santella, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    To examine the problem of counterfeit drugs and its effects around the world, to consider the likely directions the problem will take, and to propose options for controlling or mitigating the problem. Recently published clinical literature identified through review of articles abstracted at MEDLINE. Search terms were counterfeiting, counterfeit drugs, substandard drugs, fake drugs, world counterfeiting, and counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Further information was abstracted from an array of informational sources, including magazines such as Business Week, newspapers such as the International Herald Tribune, National Public Radio news reports, pharmaceutical company press releases, and information from the World Health Organization. Multiple reviewers were used to retrieve relevant and current data. Relevant data were extracted independently by multiple reviewers. Traditionally, the problem of counterfeit pharmaceuticals has been limited to developing nations in Asia and Africa. Now, drug counterfeiting is rapidly becoming a worldwide concern, and counterfeit drugs are reaching the U.S. market. This article defines the problem of counterfeit drugs in its many forms and discusses the extent of the problem, with particular attention to the respective rates of counterfeiting across the globe and the origins of counterfeit drugs. Technologic advances have worsened the counterfeit drug problem. Because drug counterfeiting is a worldwide concern, worldwide action is needed to combat the problem.

  20. Anti-counterfeit technologies: a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Dipika; Malla, Swathi; Gudala, Kapil; Tiwari, Pramil

    2013-01-01

    Growth of international free trade and inadequate drug regulation have led to the expansion of trade in counterfeit drugs worldwide. Technological protection is seen to be the best way to avoid this problem. Different technologies came into existence like overt, covert, and track and trace technologies. This review emphasises ideal technological characteristics, existing anti-counterfeit technologies, and their adoption in different countries. Developed countries like the USA have implemented RFID while the European trend is towards 2D barcodes. The Indian government is getting sensitised about the extent of the problem and has formulated rules mandating barcodes. Even the pharmaceutical companies have been employing these technologies in order to detain illegitimate drugs in their supply chain.

  1. The Trade in Medicinal Animals in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Silva Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna.

  2. Health and economic consequences of counterfeit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, A

    2009-06-01

    "Counterfeit Drugs Kill" is the slogan the World Health Organization (WHO) uses in its anti-counterfeiting campaign. International organizations, governments of developed and developing countries, and the pharmaceutical industry created the IMPACT initiative (International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce) to take on the thriving illegal industry that makes profits by selling fake drugs. However, before committing resources, policy makers want to assess the burden caused by counterfeit drugs in comparison with other health problems that compete for the limited resources available.

  3. Current Perspective in the International Trade of Medicinal Plants Material: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasisht, Karan; Sharma, Neetika; Karan, Maninder

    2016-01-01

    The recent years have seen an increased interest in medicinal plants together with the therapeutic use of phytochemicals. Medicinal plants are utilized by the industry for the production of extracts, phytopharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals and their use is expected to grow faster than the conventional drugs. The enormous demand of medicinal plant material has resulted in huge trade both at domestic and international levels. The trade data of medicinal plant material with commodity code HS 1211 (SITC.4, code 292.4) and their derived/related products which are traded under different commodity codes has been acquired from COMTRADE, Trade Map, country reports, technical documents etc for the period 2001 to 2014. The data was analyzed using statistical tools to draw conclusions. The significant features of the global trade; the leading source, consumer, import and export countries; and the striking trends are presented. The trade of the ten key countries and the selected important items is also discussed in detail. The conservative figure of trade of medicinal plants materials and their derived/related products including extracts, essential oils, phytopharmaceuticals, gums, spices used in medicine, tannins for pharmaceutical use, ingredients for cosmetics etc. as calculated from the global export data for the year 2014 is estimated at USD 33 billion. The average global export in medicinal plants under HS 1211 for the fourteen year period was USD 1.92 billion for 601,357 tons per annum and for the year 2014 it stood at 702,813 tons valued at USD 3.60 billion. For the studied period, an annual average growth rate (AAGR) of 2.4% in volumes and 9.2% in values of export was observed. Nearly 30% of the global trade is made up by top two countries of the import and export. China and India from Asia; Egypt and Morocco from Africa; Poland, Bulgaria and Albania from Europe; Chile and Peru from South America are important supply sources. The USA, Japan and Europe

  4. Investigation of lead and cadmium in counterfeit cigarettes seized in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; von Lampe, Klaus; Wood, Laura; Kurti, Marin

    2015-07-01

    Information of toxic elements such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in counterfeit cigarettes offers insight on the potential public health impact of consuming counterfeit cigarettes and the technology used by counterfeiters in the illicit cigarette trade. In this study, the concentration of Pb and Cd in twenty-three packs of counterfeit cigarettes seized in the US by various law enforcement agencies were evaluated and compared with their genuine equivalents using microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Both Pb and Cd concentration in counterfeit cigarettes were markedly higher than those in their genuine equivalents, and exhibited greater sample to sample variability. The average Pb and Cd mass fraction values in counterfeit cigarettes were (5.13 ± 2.50) mg/kg (n = 23) and (5.13 ± 1.95) mg/kg (n = 23) respectively, compared with (0.59 ± 0.08) mg/kg (n = 9) and (1.08 ± 0.08) mg/kg (n = 9) respectively in the genuine equivalents. Results suggest that counterfeit cigarettes may impose higher risks to public health. Studying these toxic elements could provide important information regarding the illicit trade, including the level of organization among counterfeiters, who broker between availability of supplies and consumer demand for a cheaper product that is assumed to be genuine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantum Counterfeit Coin Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Iwama, Kazuo; Raymond, Rudy; Teruyama, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    The counterfeit coin problem requires us to find all false coins from a given bunch of coins using a balance scale. We assume that the balance scale gives us only ``balanced'' or ``tilted'' information and that we know the number k of false coins in advance. The balance scale can be modeled by a certain type of oracle and its query complexity is a measure for the cost of weighing algorithms (the number of weighings). In this paper, we study the quantum query complexity for this problem. Let Q(k,N) be the quantum query complexity of finding all k false coins from the N given coins. We show that for any k and N such that k < N/2, Q(k,N)=O(k^{1/4}), contrasting with the classical query complexity, \\Omega(k\\log(N/k)), that depends on N. So our quantum algorithm achieves a quartic speed-up for this problem. We do not have a matching lower bound, but we show some evidence that the upper bound is tight: any algorithm, including our algorithm, that satisfies certain properties needs \\Omega(k^{1/4}) queries.

  6. Identification of species adulteration in traded medicinal plant raw drugs using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithaniyal, Stalin; Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Poovitha, Sundar; Raju, Balaji; Parani, Madasamy

    2017-02-01

    Plants are the major source of therapeutic ingredients in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, species adulteration in traded medicinal plant raw drugs threatens the reliability and safety of CAM. Since morphological features of medicinal plants are often not intact in the raw drugs, DNA barcoding was employed for species identification. Adulteration in 112 traded raw drugs was tested after creating a reference DNA barcode library consisting of 1452 rbcL and matK barcodes from 521 medicinal plant species. Species resolution of this library was 74.4%, 90.2%, and 93.0% for rbcL, matK, and rbcL + matK, respectively. DNA barcoding revealed adulteration in about 20% of the raw drugs, and at least 6% of them were derived from plants with completely different medicinal or toxic properties. Raw drugs in the form of dried roots, powders, and whole plants were found to be more prone to adulteration than rhizomes, fruits, and seeds. Morphological resemblance, co-occurrence, mislabeling, confusing vernacular names, and unauthorized or fraudulent substitutions might have contributed to species adulteration in the raw drugs. Therefore, this library can be routinely used to authenticate traded raw drugs for the benefit of all stakeholders: traders, consumers, and regulatory agencies.

  7. [Results of a survey to evaluate the efficacy of a regional awareness campaign on counterfeit street medicines in Bamako, Mali and Nouakchott, Mauritania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchet-Chosseler, M; Bocoum, O; Camara, M; Abad, B; Yamani, E

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the report is to describe the results of a survey conducted among schoolchildren in Mali and Mauritania to evaluate the efficacy of an awareness campaign (essentially poster-based) on illegal street medicines. Under teacher supervision, a total of 3,182 schoolchildren (n=) completed a written questionnaire. Analysis of responses demonstrated that campaign was effective since 61% of the pupils had seen the posters in pharmacies and 61% had spoken about them with their parents. More than 84% of the pupils had already heard about the dangers associated with illegal medicine. Despite a number of disparities especially with regard to the price and dangers of illegal street medicine, the schoolchildren were knowledgeable about rules of conservation and outlets for purchase of legal medicine. The responses obtained from schoolchildren from Nouakchott and those attending private schools were generally better than those obtained from schoolchildren from Bamako and those attending the public schools.

  8. Context and trade-offs in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehusen, Dean A; Bowman, Marjorie A; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This issue contains several articles that highlight the effect of context and tradeoffs encountered in the practice of family medicine. Some articles demonstrate how context affects the implementation of the patient-centered medical home model, the community risk of a measles outbreak, the rate of complementary and alternative medicine among different generations, and the number of family physicians primarily providing urgent and emergent care in a region. Tradeoffs are explored in articles that look at how electronic medical record use has changed the composition of workload in primary care and how the burgeoning number of clinical guidelines affects the choices made by family physicians. A look at diabetic patients' perceptions of their risk of negative outcomes reveals an interesting pattern of underestimation of the risk of death. Patients with chronic mental disorders are at risk of having significant difficulties in the workplace, which may place a heavy cost on the individual and society. An interesting retrospective study found that it takes a surprising amount of replacement therapy to correct vitamin D deficiency.

  9. [Counterfeit and contraband drugs in Brazil: overview and prospects for preventing their use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Renato Lopes; Lasmar, Marcelo Carvalho

    2014-04-01

    The problem of counterfeit medicines is increasing rapidly, aggravated by globalization and the lure of profit from this illegal activity. Various types of drugs have been counterfeited, posing a serious public health and safety problem. The current article provides an overview of the issue in Brazil and the resulting measures taken by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in collaboration with the Federal Police from 2007 to March 2011. The study analyzed seizures of counterfeit drugs, arrests, and other factors. No professional pharmacist was present in 90% of the establishments were some type of crime occurred (sale of counterfeit drugs and lack of control of narcotics and other drugs). Among the products seized, most were drugs for erectile dysfunction. The study showed the importance of inter-agency collaboration for combatting this type of irregular drug sales.

  10. IdentificationofRhubarbandItsCounterfeitSpecies%大黄及其伪品的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏银贵; 李建; 程培秀

    2013-01-01

    Objective Discriminate and distinguish the rhubarb and its counterfeit species, guarantee the clinical medicines safety and effective. Methods Distinguish the rhubarb from the counterfeit species according to the morphological character and physicochemical characteristics. Result The rhubarb and its counterfeit species are different in either appearance characters or physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion The above methods could be used for distinguishing the genuine and counterfeit of rhubarb.%  目的鉴别大黄真伪,确保临床用药安全、有效。方法通过药材性状和理化特征进行鉴别。结果大黄及其伪品无论在外观性状还是理化反应特征方面都存在较大的差异。结论通过以上方法可以区分正品与伪品。

  11. Contra Davidson on Counterfeiting, Round Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Libertarians and non libertarians alike agree that counterfeiting legitimate money owned by innocent people is illicit.  But what about counterfeiting counterfeit money owned by the guiltless? Davidson and I, both libertarians, take the position that this would be a rights violation; that this would violate the rights of innocent owners of currency, who would be victimized by such fraudulent behavior of counterfeiters, even those who limit themselves to counterfeiting counterfeit funds. But what about counterfeiting counterfeit money owned by those who are guilty of crimes? Davidson (2013 opines, in effect, that there are no such people. The counterfeiter of counterfeit money is thus himself a criminal, she avers. I argue, very much to the contrary, that the relevant population consists mostly of guilty people, and thus they are not in a logical position to object to what would otherwise be considered victimization. As for the few innocents among them, they demonstrate their innocence to a large degree by not objecting to the counterfeiting of counterfeit money. If they do object, and take actions to prevent this practice, they act in a manner incompatible with the libertarian non aggression principle (NAP and thus enter the ranks of the guilty. I find Davidson’s (2013 economic analysis impeccable; her understanding of libertarianism highly problematic.In the interests of full disclosure, I should make it clear that the present paper contains the radical suggestion that we should do away with our established monetary- and financial system. If need be, and this is by no means my first choice, we are entitled to do so by means of massive counterfeiting of established currencies (which is justified by deontological considerations and libertarian principles. Of course, this is illegal in extant nations, and I would not want to be imprisoned for committing a crime. So, for purposes of our discussion, we will be considering only the imaginary

  12. The Challenge of Counterfeit Drugs: A Comprehensive Review on Prevalence, Detection and Preventive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bharat; Baldi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Counterfeit drugs are a worldwide concern. This organized crime has deterrent effect on public health and on pharmaceutical business across the globe. Lack of comprehensive standardized definition of counterfeit drugs with global acceptance, higher benefits of cost ratio and intercomplexity of market and globalized network are the major reasons behind this. Unawareness among the stakeholders lack of intellectual property protection and social-economic factor also resulted in flourished market of fake drugs. Despite of several attempts made by global regulatory agencies, inefficient regulations, lax enforcement of existing legislation and lack of commitment by involved authorities still remain major loopholes, aggravating the serious problem of counterfeiting. Although use of techniques based on interference pattern, encryption, spectroscopy and chromatographic principles by pharmaceutical industries to authenticate genuine products has curtailed the problem to a limited extent. In order to efficiently control the organized crime of medicine counterfeiting, collective efforts of 'National Counterfeit Control Agencies', pharmaceutical industries, law regulatory agencies and public are essential. Strict legal enforcement, applications of comprehensive database, interlinked network and technological advancement are need of the hour. The purpose of this article is to overview all aspects of drug counterfeiting including current status and magnitude, effectiveness and limitation of existing technologies available to counter with particular attention to suggest possible roadmap to overcome the problem through uni-directional and focus global co-operation.

  13. Combating the counterfeits with web portal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S. L.; Ip, W. H.

    2015-10-01

    Due to the globalisation of counterfeiting activities, the penetration of fake products in open market is growing. So far, the technologies to combat counterfeiting are mostly applied to high-value products (e.g. premium wine and branded handbags); however, in the medium- and low-value products' perspective, there is no secure way for consumers to identify whether the purchased items are genuine or not. To address the counterfeiting problems effectively, a platform for identifying authenticated products and promoting anti-counterfeit activities is very important. The aim of this paper is to design and develop an anti-counterfeit platform which includes two functions: providing customers a secure network to ascertain the genuineness of their purchased product and increasing public awareness of the current counterfeit problems and updated anti-counterfeit solutions. By combining these two functions, it enables public to fight against fake and beware of counterfeit. Results of adopting portal technology in anti-counterfeiting show high accuracy in product checking and improved creditability. This reveals that the applicability and advantage of the proposed methodology are satisfactory.

  14. Estudio toxicologico de un inyectable apocrifo conteniendo hierro como principio activo Toxicological study of a counterfeit medicinal product containing iron sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Bezzi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Una mujer embarazada murió luego de la administración parenteral de un preparado de hierro (sorbitol, producto que fue identificado por la Autoridad Sanitaria Argentina como un medicamento apócrifo. Su análisis químico determinó que el contenido de hierro era 3.5 veces mayor al rotulado. Los estudios toxicológicos demostraron que su administración representa un riesgo sanitario y podría ser el causante de la muerte.After the injection of an iron sorbitol preparation a pregnant woman died. Its chemical analysis determined a huge amount of iron (3.5-fold higher than the labeled. Results obtained by toxicological studies show that such medicinal product represents a sanitary risk and probably it could be presumed as the cause of death.

  15. Efficient micropropagation and assessment of genetic fidelity of Boerhaavia diffusa L- High trade medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kapil S; Bhalsing, Sanjivani R

    2015-07-01

    Boerhaavia diffusa L is a medicinal herb with immense pharmaceutical significance. The plant is used by many herbalist, Ayurvedic and pharmaceutical industries for production biopharmaceuticals. It is among the 46 medicinal plant species in high trade sourced mainly from wastelands and generally found in temperate regions of the world. However, the commercial bulk of this plant shows genetic variations which are the main constraint to use this plant as medicinal ingredient and to obtain high value products of pharmaceutical interest from this plant. In this study, we have regenerated the plant of Boerhaavia diffusa L through nodal explants and evaluated genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants of Boerhaavia diffusa L with the help of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The results obtained using RAPD showed monomorphic banding pattern revealing genetic stability among the mother plant and in vitro regenerated plants of Boerhaavia diffusa L.

  16. Poor-Quality and Counterfeit Drugs: A Systematic Assessment of Prevalence and Risks Based on Data Published From 2007 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczwara, Andreas; Dressman, Jennifer

    2017-05-23

    Counterfeit drugs can hurt patients and harm the pharmaceutical industry. In 2006, the International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce expressed a need to generate more and better data to calculate a worldwide prevalence of counterfeiting. This review analyzes field test data that were published in the time frame January 2007 to December 2016, were accessible via Pubmed, and which addressed the prevalence of counterfeit drugs. Based on the 41 studies identified, it is still not possible to make a reliable statement about the prevalence of counterfeit drugs due to the heterogeneity of the results. To make further progress in this area, both the quantity and quality of documented field tests should be increased. Without a differentiated analysis considering therapeutic class, source, and country of counterfeit drugs, it will remain difficult to identify the root causes of market infiltration and useful points of attack to combat them. Studies with high sample power and randomized sampling, packaging inspection, and detailed chemical analysis will be necessary to correctly identify (especially professional) counterfeit samples. The classification system presented in this review should help to calculate not only the prevalence of counterfeit drugs but also the risks to the patient associated with different types of counterfeited medicines. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in the trade in native medicinal plants in Brazilian public markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Maria das Graças Lins; Cosenza, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Flávia Liparini; Vasconcelos, Ariela Silva; Fagg, Christopher William

    2013-08-01

    Plants continue to be an important source of new bioactive substances. Brazil is one of the world's mega-diverse countries, with 20 % of the world's flora. However, the accelerated destruction of botanically rich ecosystems has contributed to a gradual loss of native medicinal species. In previous study, we have observed a fast and intensive change in trade of medicinal plants in an area of Amazon, where human occupation took place. In this study, we surveyed 15 public markets in different parts of Brazil in search of samples of 40 plants used in traditional medicine and present in first edition of Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia (FBRAS), published in 1926. Samples of plants commercialized as the same vernacular name as in Pharmacopoeia were acquired and submitted to analysis for authentication. A total of 252 plant samples were purchased, but the laboratory analyses showed that only one-half of the samples (126, 50.2 %) were confirmed as the same plant species so named in FBRAS. The high number of unauthenticated samples demonstrates a loss of knowledge of the original native species. The proximity of the market from areas in which the plant occurs does not guarantee that trade of false samples occurs. The impact of the commerce of the substitute species on their conservation and in public health is worrying. Strategies are necessary to promote the better use and conservation of this rich heritage offered by Brazilian biodiversity.

  18. Risks to birds traded for African traditional medicine: a quantitative assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne L Williams

    Full Text Available Few regional or continent-wide assessments of bird use for traditional medicine have been attempted anywhere in the world. Africa has the highest known diversity of bird species used for this purpose. This study assesses the vulnerability of 354 bird species used for traditional medicine in 25 African countries, from 205 genera, 70 families, and 25 orders. The orders most represented were Passeriformes (107 species, Falconiformes (45 species, and Coraciiformes (24 species, and the families Accipitridae (37 species, Ardeidae (15 species, and Bucerotidae (12 species. The Barn owl (Tyto alba was the most widely sold species (seven countries. The similarity of avifaunal orders traded is high (analogous to "morphospecies", and using Sørensen's index, which suggests opportunities for a common understanding of cultural factors driving demand. The highest similarity was between bird orders sold in markets of Benin vs. Burkina Faso (90%, but even bird orders sold in two geographically separated countries (Benin vs. South Africa and Nigeria vs. South Africa were 87% and 81% similar, respectively. Rabinowitz's "7 forms of rarity" model, used to group species according to commonness or rarity, indicated that 24% of traded bird species are very common, locally abundant in several habitats, and occur over a large geographical area, but 10% are rare, occur in low numbers in specific habitats, and over a small geographical area. The order with the highest proportion of rare species was the Musophagiformes. An analysis of species mass (as a proxy for size indicated that large and/or conspicuous species tend to be targeted by harvesters for the traditional medicine trade. Furthermore, based on cluster analyses for species groups of similar risk, vultures, hornbills, and other large avifauna, such as bustards, are most threatened by selective harvesting and should be prioritised for conservation action.

  19. IMPACT OF TRADE AND TRIPS ON AFFORDABILITY OF MEDICINE IN TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Jena et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet healthcare demands and costs, Tanzania depends largely on imports and financial aid from foreign countries. Current research analyses the impact of market competition on the cost and availability of medicine in Tanzania. Product approvals granted by Tanzanian drug regulatory authority were analyzed on the basis of exporting countries, molecules and therapeutic categories. The market competition among various countries was analyzed using UN trade statistics database ‘Comtrade’. Our analysis revealed that India offers large number of competing vendors per molecule and has the highest average share in the product approvals granted in all major therapeutic categories. The analysis also reveals that most of the currently used second line therapy molecules that are essential for Tanzania are protected by patents and the country needs to consider utilization of TRIPS flexibilities to improve accessibility and affordability of medicine.

  20. 《反假冒贸易协定》对我国企业商标的影响及对策研究%The Research of Influence and Measures on Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement to the Enterprise Trademark of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭振

    2012-01-01

    2011年,由欧、美、日等知识产权强权国家发起的《反假冒贸易协定》(AC-TA)生效,其矛头直指中国。ACTA的生效对中国的商标制度及涉及商标的进出口贸易都会产生巨大影响,中国在国际商标保护方面将面临更大的压力。研究ACTA对我国企业商标制度的影响并分析应对之策,意义重大。%In 2011,the Europe,the U.S.,Japan and other intellectual property rights great-power launched the anti-counterfeiting trade agreement(ACTA) take effect.The spear points to China.The effective of ACTA to China’s trademark system and involves the import and export of trademark will have great influence.China in international trademark protection will face more pressure.ACTA research to our country enterprise trademark system and the influence of the analysis of policy measures,is of great significance.

  1. THE EMERGENCE OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTERFEIT MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maftei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European market of counterfeit goods has become a subject of increasing concern for businesses, private firms and policymakers. With a growing demand in consumption for this kind of goods, each sector is damaged from the toy industries to the pharmaceuticals industry. This article is aimed to expose the dynamic of the European counterfeiting markets, to highlight the main factors of production, the main providers, the smuggling routes, the overall profit, the main counterfeit products and also to offer a general perspective on the affected European markets.

  2. The use of hyperspectral imaging in the VNIR (400-1000nm) and SWIR range (1000-2500nm) for detecting counterfeit drugs with identical API composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Koprowski, Robert; Marmion, Mathieu; Duda, Piotr; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    The risk of death from taking counterfeit drugs is now greater than the probability of dying from malaria and AIDS combined (at least half a million deaths each year). At the same time, counterfeit medicines are falsified more and more "skillfully". According to WHO about 10% of counterfeit drugs are copies of original products. The methods of hyperspectral imaging and image analysis and processing were used to detect counterfeit drugs. Original Viagra® (Pfizer) and counterfeit tablets were compared. Hyperspectral imaging was used to acquire hyperspectral data cubes from both original and counterfeit tablets in the spectral range of 400-2500nm. Spectral parameters for both the original Viagra® and counterfeit drugs were compared. Grey-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were performed. Hyperspectral analysis of the surface of the original Viagra® and counterfeit tablets demonstrates significant differences in reflectance (maximum difference for 1619.75nm). The GLCM contrast for the falsified drug is on average higher than for the original one 16±4%. GLCM contrast analysis enables to quantify homogeneity of distribution of tablet ingredients and enables to distinguish tablets with identical chemical composition. SWIR (1000-2500nm) hyperspectral imaging has a definite advantage over imaging in VNIR (400-1000nm) - higher wavelength is less sensitive to non-uniform illumination.

  3. Pharmaceutical counterfeiting and the RFID technology intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Arvidson, Cody; Rutsohn, Phil

    2010-07-01

    Both nationally and internationally, pharmaceutical counterfeiting has become a problem that is threatening economic stability and public health. The purpose of the present research study review was to analyze the scope and severity of pharmaceutical counterfeiting and to establish if the implantation of the Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) model can more efficiently be used within the pharmaceutical supply chain to reduce the problem counterfeit drugs impose on public health and international economic stability. Results indicated that implementing the RFID model for tracking drugs at the item level in the pharmaceutical supply chain has potential to alleviate the scope of the counterfeit drug problem. Recommendations for how the pharmaceutical industry may sooner adopt the RFID model are made.

  4. Problems associated with substandard and counterfeit drugs in developing countries: a review article on global implications of counterfeit drugs in the era of antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs in a free market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsimba, Stephen E D

    2008-12-01

    To review the global implications associated with the use of substandard and or counterfeit drugs in developing and may be developed countries. The focus of this review is particularly on antiretroviral (ARVs), antimalarials and other drugs. Review of various literatures through Pub-Med, Medline, Google and Internet search to retrieve and download published materials was done by the author of this review paper. When patients receive a counterfeit medicines, they are subjected to multiple risks. They often suffer more than just an inconvenience; as they become victims of fraud medicines and are all put at risk of adverse effects from unprescribed medicines or substandard ingredients. Additionally, patients may lose confidence in health care professionals including their physician and pharmacist, and potentially modern medicine or the pharmaceutical industry in general. Counterfeit or substandard (poor quality) drugs pose threats to society; not only to the individual in terms of the health side effects experienced, but also to the public in terms of trade relations, economic implications, and the effects on global pandemics. It is vital for suppliers, providers, and patients to be aware of current trends in counterfeiting in order to best prepare for encounters with suspicious products. Furthermore, this is an issue that needs to be continually dealt with on national and international policy levels. Developing countries should try their level best to establish good laboratories for monitoring and checking quality of all pharmaceuticals manufactured locally and those imported or donated to these countries. The Ministries of Health and all stakeholders involved in this issue must ensure that all drugs meet the set or established international standards and national standards. Failure to do so will be to misuse the hard earned forex that is normally borrowed from banks for the procurement and distribution of drugs to its people. Indeed sub-standard medications do more

  5. An inventory of medicinal plants traded on the western boundary of the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Botha

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation estimates that traditional medicine still plays a vital role in the lives of 70-80 of the populations of developing countries. Approximately 20 000 tons of medicinal plants are estimated to be traded in South Africa annually, resulting in considerable pressure on the wild populations from which these plants are harvested. In 1997, a study was initiated to assess the extent of trade in medicinal plants on the western boundary of the Kruger National Park, and to determine local perceptions of the availability and values of these plants. This paper presents an inventory of the species traded, including vendors' and traders' perceptions of current availability of species and consumer demand, as well as price/kg. In Mpumalanga, 176 species were identified (71 of the vernacular names encountered in the market place, representing 69 families. In Northern Province, 70 different species were identified (84 of the ver-nacular names recorded in the markets, representing 40 families. Perceptions of availability of a species varied considerably, often within the same markets. Perceptions of demand tended to be more consistent, although these also sometimes varied. Although monitoring markets is an efficient means of assessing the conservation status of medicinal plants, it is important to select appropriate parameters. Markets often differ from one another, and an understanding of local conditions is crucial. For example, in the medicinal markets on the western boundary of the Kruger National Park, price/kg and market perceptions of availability of species were highly variable and would thus not provide a consistent monitoring parameter. Perceptions of demand provide an indication of current and potential pressure on a species, particularly when combined with the monitoring of species traded, and the introduction of substitutes in the market place. The size of plant parts traded could also provide useful monitoring data. It is

  6. The counterfeit self: the deceptive costs of faking it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I; Ariely, Dan

    2010-05-01

    Although people buy counterfeit products to signal positive traits, we show that wearing counterfeit products makes individuals feel less authentic and increases their likelihood of both behaving dishonestly and judging others as unethical. In four experiments, participants wore purportedly fake or authentically branded sunglasses. Those wearing fake sunglasses cheated more across multiple tasks than did participants wearing authentic sunglasses, both when they believed they had a preference for counterfeits (Experiment 1a) and when they were randomly assigned to wear them (Experiment 1b). Experiment 2 shows that the effects of wearing counterfeit sunglasses extend beyond the self, influencing judgments of other people's unethical behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the feelings of inauthenticity that wearing fake products engenders-what we term the counterfeit self-mediate the impact of counterfeits on unethical behavior. Finally, we show that people do not predict the impact of counterfeits on ethicality; thus, the costs of counterfeits are deceptive.

  7. [Quality of medicines in least developed countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videau, J Y

    2006-12-01

    Due to worsening economic conditions and poor enforcement of existing pharmaceutical and customs regulations, third world countries are faced with a growing threat from counterfeit and substandard medicines. With the expansion of illicit markets in urban areas, the sales of medicines of uncertain quality and origin are increasing. Most victims of this illicit trade are among the world's poorest populations that cannot afford to buy quality drugs through private-sector distribution channels. National pharmaceutical programs promoting universal access to essential generic medicines at reasonable cost are the key to curbing this problem. A system based on strict, rational pharmaceutical purchasing and distribution policies with quality assurance at every level of the supply chain is needed to guarantee that patients receive safe effective high quality healthcare products.

  8. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; Doran, Evan; Henry, David; Drahos, Peter; Searles, Andrew; Pekarsky, Brita; Neville, Warwick

    2005-10-06

    On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora), it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'). It remains uncertain what sort of impacts--if any--the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA') will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC')-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent an important precedent in a global strategy by industry on cost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also be of great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  9. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searles Andrew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora, it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'. It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA' will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC'-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent animportant precedent in a global strategy by industry oncost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also beof great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  10. Smart printing technology for counterfeit deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Peter J.

    1996-03-01

    Smart (intelligent) printing is the creation of useful patterns beyond alphanumerics and graphics immediately obvious to the human eye. It employs smart inks, patterns, surfaces and substrates. Recent proliferation of color copiers, personal computers and scanners has facilitated a tenfold increase in counterfeiting in many countries over the past three years. Banknotes, cheques, academic certificates, art work, visitors passes, venue tickets and many other artifacts have been compromised. Paradoxically, the best counterfeits produced by some foreign governments and organized crime are rarely the main problem. The secret services of many countries use forensic science to great effect in pursuing these fairly readily identified sources of limited number. Bad counterfeits usually made on color copiers or computers, with or without color scanners, are the most difficult to combat because they are made by very large numbers of casual counterfeiters who may never commit crime again. For instance, counterfeit banknotes intercepted by the Bundesbank have been photocopies in a fluctuating range of 50 - 84% of cases in the last four reported years. Cheque and other document fraud is also inflated by these burgeoning bad copies and here we must add amateurish alterations using copiers or scanners. For instance, a better academic degree can mean a better job, an interbank transfer form can be 'raised' in value by enormous amounts. The issuer of a 'bad' counterfeit does not mind that it is usually picked up on a second transferral. They are long gone by then or, with banknotes, they can deny that they issued it. First priority in reversing the upward trend of counterfeiting must not therefore be the creation of better secret features traceable by forensic laboratories over extended periods of time. Rather we need better and more obvious optically unique features, not easily emulated, that can be spotted in the split second when several, say, banknotes are handed over in a

  11. Exposing the illegal trade in cycad species (Cycadophyta: Encephalartos) at two traditional medicine markets in South Africa using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J; Maurin, O; Shiba, S N S; van der Bank, H; Pfab, M; Pilusa, M; Kabongo, R M; van der Bank, M

    2016-09-01

    Species in the cycad genus Encephalartos are listed in CITES Appendix I and as Threatened or Protected Species in terms of South Africa's National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA) of 2004. Despite regulations, illegal plant harvesting for medicinal trade has continued in South Africa and resulted in declines in cycad populations and even complete loss of sub-populations. Encephalartos is traded at traditional medicine markets in South Africa in the form of bark strips and stem sections; thus, determining the species traded presents a major challenge due to a lack of characteristic plant parts. Here, a case study is presented on the use of DNA barcoding to identify cycads sold at the Faraday and Warwick traditional medicine markets in Johannesburg and Durban, respectively. Market samples were sequenced for the core DNA barcodes (rbcLa and matK) as well as two additional regions: nrITS and trnH-psbA. The barcoding database for cycads at the University of Johannesburg was utilized to assign query samples to known species. Three approaches were followed: tree-based, similarity-based, and character-based (BRONX) methods. Market samples identified were Encephalartos ferox (Near Threatened), Encephalartos lebomboensis (Endangered), Encephalartos natalensis (Near Threatened), Encephalartos senticosus (Vulnerable), and Encephalartos villosus (Least Concern). Results from this study are crucial for making appropriate assessments and decisions on how to manage these markets.

  12. Income, Cultural Norms and Purchases of Counterfeits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Lede (Madesta)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe conjecture that individual purchases of counterfeit products could be motivated by income and prices, but that another driver is cultural norms. To put the latter conjecture to an empirical test we make use of the unique situation of Surinamese people who live in Suriname and in the

  13. Counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lon, C T; Tsuyuoka, R; Phanouvong, S; Nivanna, N; Socheat, D; Sokhan, C; Blum, N; Christophel, E M; Smine, A

    2006-11-01

    Counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs can cause death and contribute to the growing malaria drug resistance problem, particularly in Southeast Asia. Since 2003 in Cambodia the quality of antimalarial drugs both in the public and private health sector is regularly monitored in sentinel sites. We surveyed 34% of all 498 known facilities and drug outlets in four provinces. We collected 451 drug samples; 79% of these were not registered at the Cambodia Department of Drugs and Food (DDF). Twenty-seven percent of the samples failed the thin layer chromatography and disintegration tests; all of them were unregistered products. Immediate action against counterfeit drugs was taken by the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) and the DDF. They communicated with the Provincial Health Department about the presence of counterfeit antimalarial drugs through alert letters, a manual, annual malaria conferencing and other training occasions. Television campaigns to alert the population about counterfeit drugs were conducted. Moreover, the NMCP has been promoting the use of good quality antimalarial drugs of a blister co-packaged combination of artesunate and mefloquine in public and private sectors. Appropriate strategies need to be developed and implemented by relevant government agencies and stakeholders to strengthen drug quality assurance and control systems in the country.

  14. Aging, Counterfeiting Configuration Control (AC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-31

    relabeled fake microcircuit chips from overseas - threaten the reliability, safety, and performance of DoD systems. These systems are vulnerable... NASA , Raytheon internal, etc. Aging, Counterfeiting Configuration Control (AC3) Page 13 of 28 are important in determining the alert’s priority

  15. Testing of complementarity of PDA and MS detectors using chromatographic fingerprinting of genuine and counterfeit samples containing sildenafil citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Deborah; Krakowska, Barbara; De Beer, Jacques O; Courselle, Patricia; Daszykowski, Michal; Apers, Sandra; Deconinck, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Counterfeit medicines are a global threat to public health. High amounts enter the European market, which is why characterization of these products is a very important issue. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method were developed for the analysis of genuine Viagra®, generic products of Viagra®, and counterfeit samples in order to obtain different types of fingerprints. These data were included in the chemometric data analysis, aiming to test whether PDA and MS are complementary detection techniques. The MS data comprise both MS1 and MS2 fingerprints; the PDA data consist of fingerprints measured at three different wavelengths, i.e., 254, 270, and 290 nm, and all possible combinations of these wavelengths. First, it was verified if both groups of fingerprints can discriminate between genuine, generic, and counterfeit medicines separately; next, it was studied if the obtained results could be ameliorated by combining both fingerprint types. This data analysis showed that MS1 does not provide suitable classification models since several genuines and generics are classified as counterfeits and vice versa. However, when analyzing the MS1_MS2 data in combination with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), a perfect discrimination was obtained. When only using data measured at 254 nm, good classification models can be obtained by k nearest neighbors (kNN) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), which might be interesting for the characterization of counterfeit drugs in developing countries. However, in general, the combination of PDA and MS data (254 nm_MS1) is preferred due to less classification errors between the genuines/generics and counterfeits compared to PDA and MS data separately.

  16. Counterfeit Electronics Detection Using Image Processing and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadizanjani, Navid; Tehranipoor, Mark; Forte, Domenic

    2017-01-01

    Counterfeiting is an increasing concern for businesses and governments as greater numbers of counterfeit integrated circuits (IC) infiltrate the global market. There is an ongoing effort in experimental and national labs inside the United States to detect and prevent such counterfeits in the most efficient time period. However, there is still a missing piece to automatically detect and properly keep record of detected counterfeit ICs. Here, we introduce a web application database that allows users to share previous examples of counterfeits through an online database and to obtain statistics regarding the prevalence of known defects. We also investigate automated techniques based on image processing and machine learning to detect different physical defects and to determine whether or not an IC is counterfeit.

  17. The trade in African medicinal plants in Matoge-lxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van Tinde; Fundiko, Marie Cakupewa C.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining cultural identity and preference to treat cultural bound ailments with herbal medicine are motivations for migrants to continue using medicinal plants from their home country after moving to Europe and the USA. As it is generally easier to import exotic food than herbal medicine,

  18. The trade in African medicinal plants in Matoge-lxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van Tinde; Fundiko, Marie Cakupewa C.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining cultural identity and preference to treat cultural bound ailments with herbal medicine are motivations for migrants to continue using medicinal plants from their home country after moving to Europe and the USA. As it is generally easier to import exotic food than herbal medicine, migrant

  19. Conspicuous consumption, luxury products and counterfeit market in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Huyen My Pham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fast growth of fashion brands and the popularity of counterfeit goods has posed certain challenges to the existing and new luxury fashion brand players. This study elaborates on the factors driving the market for counterfeit products in the UK. The data collected by means of survey questionnaires from 306 respondents and empirical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics (correlation and multiple regression analysis, have shown that the consumers have a negative attitude towards counterfeit luxury products. However, they showed fewer tendencies to seek for a brand whose counterfeit cannot easily be found and preferred to buy a genuine rather than a counterfeit. In terms of frequency of purchase, reversion to counterfeit has negative impact, unlike the tendency to seek a brand whose counterfeit is hard to find. The overall results show that the attitude and acceptance of counterfeit do not greatly prevail in the market. However, about 27% of respondents demonstrated either a positive or a neutral tendency towards counterfeit products, which could have serious implications for the luxury goods market.

  20. Are you using "gray-market" or counterfeit dental products?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2010-01-01

    .... Here, Christensen discusses the prevalence of gray-market and counterfeit products, manufacturers' concerns about them, the need for communication between the dentist and the staff member ordering...

  1. Characterization of microorganisms isolated from counterfeit toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Jennifer L; Craft, David L

    2012-09-01

    The appearance of potentially counterfeit "Colgate" toothpaste on the American market prompted a criminal investigation by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including the collection of c. 60,000 tubes of toothpaste from retail outlets and product distributors. Microbiological testing was performed based on the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual, which determined the presence and number of bacteria present in the products. Bacteria were isolated from each "Colgate" variety; up to 2 × 10(6) cfu/g were isolated from some of the product units. Using conventional microscopic and biochemical bacterial identification methods, most of the bacteria isolated from these samples were Gram-negative rods of several genera, including Pseudomonas, Serratia, and Klebsiella. Most of the organisms isolated represent opportunistic pathogens, and therefore, counterfeit "Colgate" toothpaste containing high levels of bacteria pose a human health hazard. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord

  3. Random patterns and biometrics for counterfeit deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolk, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working on non-counterfeitable seals, tags, and documents for over fifteen years. During that time, several technologies have been developed that can be applied to deter counterfeiting of identification documents such as ID cards, passports, and possibly credit cards. Two technologies are presented in some detail. The first is reflective particle tagging technology that was developed to help verify treaties limiting the numbers of nuclear weapons that participating parties may possess. This approach uses the random locations and orientations of reflective particles applied to the surface of an item to uniquely identify the item. The resulting tags are secure against even the most determined adversaries. The second technology uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals.

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF COUNTERFEITING FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula - Angela VIDRASCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue addressed in this paper makes a significant contribution to research on the effects that food tampering has at the expense of consumer health. Nowadays quality and food safety that consumers are entitled directly reflects the quality of life. In other words the present subject is of particular importance to the work of the bodies created for the purpose of protecting the health and quality of life of consumers. This study has an important role both in the short and long term through proper understanding of the terms of quality, adulteration and food safety. The essential aim of this article is played understanding and easy identification of counterfeit food. Thus the awareness of counterfeit food products consumers are becoming more aware and responsible on quality of life. Quality will always be one of the most important competitive factors of ensuring health and environmental protection.

  5. Medicines, monopolies and mortars: the chemical laboratory and pharmaceutical trade at the Society of Apothecaries in the eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Anna

    2006-11-01

    In 1672, a laboratory was founded by the Society of Apothecaries at its premises in Blackfriars, London, to manufacture chemical medicines. By exploring the society's motivations for constructing a laboratory and its development during the eighteenth century, this paper examines the roles that chemistry played within the activities of the institution. While the chemistry's primary utility was in drug manufacturing for the society's pharmaceutical trade, through its laboratory, the society used chemistry to develop its corporate and educational aims, thus helping to secure its institutional authority in London's medical marketplace.

  6. Challenging Near InfraRed Spectroscopy discriminating ability for counterfeit pharmaceuticals detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storme-Paris, I. [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Rebiere, H. [Laboratories and Control Department, French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS), 635 rue de la Garenne, 34740 Vendargues (France); Matoga, M. [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Civade, C.; Bonnet, P.-A.; Tissier, M.H. [Laboratories and Control Department, French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS), 635 rue de la Garenne, 34740 Vendargues (France); Chaminade, P., E-mail: pierre.chaminade@u-psud.fr [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2010-01-25

    This study was initiated by the laboratories and control department of the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) as part of the fight against the public health problem of rising counterfeit and imitation medicines. To test the discriminating ability of Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS), worse cases scenarios were first considered for the discrimination of various pharmaceutical final products containing the same Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) with different excipients, such as generics of proprietary medicinal products (PMP). Two generic databases were explored: low active strength hard capsules of Fluoxetine and high strength tablets of Ciprofloxacin. Then 4 other cases involving suspicious samples, counterfeits and imitations products were treated. In all these cases, spectral differences between samples were studied, giving access to API or excipient contents information, and eventually allowing manufacturing site identification. A chemometric background is developed to explain the optimisation methodology, consisting in the choices of appropriate pretreatments, algorithms for data exploratory analyses (unsupervised Principal Component Analysis), and data classification (supervised cluster analysis, and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy). Results demonstrate the high performance of NIRS, highlighting slight differences in formulations, such as 2.5% (w/w) in API strength, 1.0% (w/w) in excipient and even coating variations (<1%, w/w) with identical contents, approaching the theoretical limits of NIRS sensitivity. All the different generic formulations were correctly discriminated and foreign PMP, constituted of formulations slightly different from the calibration ones, were also all discriminated. This publication addresses the ability of NIRS to detect counterfeits and imitations and presents the NIRS as an ideal tool to master the global threat of counterfeit drugs.

  7. Economic analysis of use of counterfeit drugs: health impairment risk of counterfeit phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor taken as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2010-07-01

    The size of the market for counterfeit drugs throughout the world is considerable. Many cases of health impairment due to counterfeits have been reported. The market share of counterfeits in drug markets in developed countries is smaller than that in developing countries. However, the size of the market for counterfeits of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) used as anti-erectile-dysfunction drugs is not small. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the health impairment risk of taking the counterfeit PDE5Is and the convenience of obtaining the counterfeits in Japan, using an economic methodology in order to work out countermeasures for reducing the health impairment risk. Information was obtained by interviewing employees of pharmaceutical and chemical corporations in Japan. The size of the market for counterfeit PDE5Is in Japan was recently estimated to be about 2.5 times larger than that of genuine PDE5Is. The price of the counterfeits in their market is reported to be nearly equal to that of the genuine PDE5Is. An outbreak of severe hypoglycemia among users of counterfeit PDE5Is containing an antidiabetic drug in Singapore was reported in 2008, and seven patients remained comatose as a result of prolonged neuroglycopenia. Four of them subsequently died, so the health impairment risk due to counterfeit PDE5Is should not be ignored. In order to obtain a genuine PDE5I in Japan, a patient must be examined and have a prescription written at a medical institution, and buy it at a dispensing pharmacy. Focusing on the health impairment risk due to counterfeit PDE5Is and the convenience of obtaining the counterfeits in Japan, we analyzed the effects on the prices and quantities of PDE5Is in the market from demand and supply curves, using an economic methodology. From the analysis, it was shown that the health impairment risk due to the counterfeits is underestimated in the market in Japan. Physicians should warn their patients not to buy counterfeit

  8. Diffusion of Original and Counterfeit Products in a Developing Country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Lede (Madesta)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe study the diffusion of original and counterfeit products in three distinct categories in a developing country. The focus is on when their diffusion processes peak, how sales of original and counterfeit products are related and how marketing efforts can influence this process. Using a

  9. 78 FR 35262 - Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts AGENCY... and the private sector regarding the electronic parts detection and avoidance coverage proposed to be... about the requirements for detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts in DoD contracts....

  10. World Trade in Medicinal Plants from Spanish America, 1717–1815

    OpenAIRE

    Gänger, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global ‘spread’ of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum,...

  11. [Medicinal plants in France, between pharmacy and herb trade: historical and legislative aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, H

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013.

  12. Identifying counterfeit cigarette packs using ultraviolet irradiation and light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Marin; He, Yi; von Lampe, Klaus; Li, Yanlei

    2017-01-01

    Develop a method that yields high rates of sensitivity and specificity for determination of counterfeit cigarette packs for three popular brands: Newport, Marlboro ('Red') and Marlboro Gold. Using systematic keyword searches, we identified industry documents from the University of California, San Francisco's Legacy Tobacco Documents Library that describe the use of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and close examination of printing quality to distinguish between counterfeit and genuine cigarette packs. Guided by these documents, we identified six markers for counterfeit cigarettes across three popular brands using counterfeit cigarette packs (N=68) seized by law enforcement agencies in the USA. We assessed the diagnostic test accuracy of these markers and tested it against genuine packs (N=22) using receiver operating characteristic curves analysis. We find that counterfeit cigarette packs fluoresce to long-wave UV irradiation and display poor printing quality. The optimal cut-off value varies among the three brands. For example, counterfeit Newport and Marlboro packaging can be reliably classified with two of six characteristics, while Marlboro Gold requires four. Researchers who conduct littered pack and pack swap studies are urged to include this method to assess the share of counterfeit cigarettes, and compare the result against tobacco industry figures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Raman Barcode for Counterfeit Drug Product Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Latevi S; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-05-03

    Potential infiltration of counterfeit drug products-containing the wrong or no active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-into the bona fide drug supply poses a significant threat to consumers worldwide. Raman spectroscopy offers a rapid, nondestructive avenue to screen a high throughput of samples. Traditional qualitative Raman identification is typically done with spectral correlation methods that compare the spectrum of a reference sample to an unknown. This is often effective for pure materials but is quite challenging when dealing with drug products that contain different formulations of active and inactive ingredients. Typically, reliable identification of drug products using common spectral correlation algorithms can only be made if the specific product under study is present in the library of reference spectra, thereby limiting the scope of products that can be screened. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the Raman barcode for identification of drug products by comparing the known peaks in the API reference spectrum to the peaks present in the finished drug product under study. This method requires the transformation of the Raman spectra of both API and finished drug products into a barcode representation by assigning zero intensity to every spectral frequency except the frequencies that correspond to Raman peaks. By comparing the percentage of nonzero overlap between the expected API barcode and finished drug product barcode, the identity of API present can be confirmed. In this study, 18 approved finished drug products and nine simulated counterfeits were successfully identified with 100% accuracy utilizing this method.

  14. Automatic counterfeit protection system code classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beusekom, Joost; Schreyer, Marco; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Wide availability of cheap high-quality printing techniques make document forgery an easy task that can easily be done by most people using standard computer and printing hardware. To prevent the use of color laser printers or color copiers for counterfeiting e.g. money or other valuable documents, many of these machines print Counterfeit Protection System (CPS) codes on the page. These small yellow dots encode information about the specific printer and allow the questioned document examiner in cooperation with the manufacturers to track down the printer that was used to generate the document. However, the access to the methods to decode the tracking dots pattern is restricted. The exact decoding of a tracking pattern is often not necessary, as tracking the pattern down to the printer class may be enough. In this paper we present a method that detects what CPS pattern class was used in a given document. This can be used to specify the printer class that the document was printed on. Evaluation proved an accuracy of up to 91%.

  15. Three-dimensional quick response code based on inkjet printing of upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles for drug anti-counterfeiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Minli; Lin, Min; Wang, Shurui; Wang, Xuemin; Zhang, Ge; Hong, Yuan; Dong, Yuqing; Jin, Guorui; Xu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Medicine counterfeiting is a serious issue worldwide, involving potentially devastating health repercussions. Advanced anti-counterfeit technology for drugs has therefore aroused intensive interest. However, existing anti-counterfeit technologies are associated with drawbacks such as the high cost, complex fabrication process, sophisticated operation and incapability in authenticating drug ingredients. In this contribution, we developed a smart phone recognition based upconversion fluorescent three-dimensional (3D) quick response (QR) code for tracking and anti-counterfeiting of drugs. We firstly formulated three colored inks incorporating upconversion nanoparticles with RGB (i.e., red, green and blue) emission colors. Using a modified inkjet printer, we printed a series of colors by precisely regulating the overlap of these three inks. Meanwhile, we developed a multilayer printing and splitting technology, which significantly increases the information storage capacity per unit area. As an example, we directly printed the upconversion fluorescent 3D QR code on the surface of drug capsules. The 3D QR code consisted of three different color layers with each layer encoded by information of different aspects of the drug. A smart phone APP was designed to decode the multicolor 3D QR code, providing the authenticity and related information of drugs. The developed technology possesses merits in terms of low cost, ease of operation, high throughput and high information capacity, thus holds great potential for drug anti-counterfeiting.Medicine counterfeiting is a serious issue worldwide, involving potentially devastating health repercussions. Advanced anti-counterfeit technology for drugs has therefore aroused intensive interest. However, existing anti-counterfeit technologies are associated with drawbacks such as the high cost, complex fabrication process, sophisticated operation and incapability in authenticating drug ingredients. In this contribution, we developed a

  16. B Plant/WESF suspect/counterfeit parts identification program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, D.W.

    1996-01-12

    This document describes a suspect/counterfeit parts inspection program required by DOE conducted in accordance with Internal Memo 16710-94-DWM-048, J.A. O`Brien to J. N. Nansen, B Plant Suspect/ Counterfeit Parts Action Plan, dated May 24, 1994. The program included: physical inspection of all spare parts inventories within the plant; screening of installed B Plant/WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) systems for applications where the use and subsequent potential failure of suspect/counterfeit parts could have critical consequences; and a physical inspection based upon this screening.

  17. Addressing Counterfeit Parts in the DoD Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    supply chain and affecting weapon system reliability. OTE data revealed that 39% of companies and organizations participating in the survey encountered counterfeit electronics during the four-year study period. Moreover, the frequency of detected counterfeit incidents was escalating rapidly, rising from 3,868 incidents in 2005 to 9,356 incidents in 2008. These counterfeit incidents included multiple versions of DoD qualified parts and components. Today, the DoD procures systems and products from a large network of global suppliers and manages over four million different

  18. Evaluation of a new handheld instrument for the detection of counterfeit artesunate by visual fluorescence comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Nicola; Tabernero, Patricia; Green, Michael D; Verbois, Leigh; Herrington, James; Sampson, Eric; Satzger, R Duane; Phonlavong, Chindaphone; Thao, Khamxay; Newton, Paul N; Witkowski, Mark R

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need for accurate and inexpensive handheld instruments for the evaluation of medicine quality in the field. A blinded evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the Counterfeit Detection Device 3 (CD-3), developed by the US Food and Drug Administration Forensic Chemistry Center, was conducted in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Two hundred three samples of the oral antimalarial artesunate were compared with authentic products using the CD-3 by a trainer and two trainees. The specificity (95% confidence interval [95% CI]), sensitivity (95% CI), positive predictive value (95% CI), and negative predictive value (95% CI) of the CD-3 for detecting counterfeit (falsified) artesunate were 100% (93.8-100%), 98.4% (93.8-99.7%), 100% (96.2-100%), and 97.4% (90.2-99.6%), respectively. Interobserver agreement for 203 samples of artesunate was 100%. The CD-3 holds promise as a relatively inexpensive and easy to use instrument for field evaluation of medicines, potentially empowering drug inspectors, customs agents, and pharmacists. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Trade in medicines and the public's health: a time series analysis of import disruptions during the 2015 India-Nepal border blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Kaplan, Warren A

    2017-08-22

    Nepal was struck by devastating earthquakes in April-May 2015, followed by the India-Nepal border blockade later that year. We used the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics (UN Comtrade) database to analyse exports of various health commodities from India to Nepal from January 2011-September 2016. We used time-series regressions of trading volume vs. unit price to ask how well Nepal's trading history with India prior to the earthquake and blockade was able to predict unit prices of health commodities imported into Nepal during and after the earthquake and the blockade. Regression residuals were used to quantify the extent to which the blockade impacted the price of healthcare commodities crossing into Nepal. During the blockade period (September 2015-early February 2016), the volume of all retail medicines traded across the India-Nepal border was reduced by 46.5% compared to same months in 2014-2015. For medical dressings, large volumes were exported from India to Nepal during and shortly after the earthquakes (May-June 2015), but decreased soon thereafter. During the earthquake, the difference between observed and predicted values of unit price (residuals) for all commodities show no statistical outliers. However, during the border blockade, Nepal paid USD 22.3 million more for retail medicines than one would have predicted based on its prior trading history with India, enough to provide healthcare to nearly half of Kathmandu's citizens for 1 year. The India-Nepal blockade was a geopolitical natural experiment demonstrating how a land-locked country is vulnerable to the vagaries of its primary trading partner. Although short-lived, the blockade had an immediate impact on traded medicine volumes and prices, and provided a large opportunity cost with implications for public health.

  20. Chemical profile of counterfeit buprenorphine vials seized in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Faryadi, Mansoor; Akhgari, Maryam; Bahmanabadi, Leila

    2007-10-25

    Buprenorphine, commonly known by the trademark Temgesic, is one of the most popular drugs of abuse among the opioid-addicted young individuals in Iran. Temgesic, Bungesic, etc. are the most popular and important illicit opioid drugs in Tehran's illicit drugs black market, and are now among the most widely abused by opioid addicts. Because of this, counterfeiting of this drug has increased in Tehran. In this study, the qualitative analysis of counterfeit buprenorphine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrates the presence of diacetylmorphine, acetylcodeine and pheniramine, as well as the absence of buprenorphine. In conclusion, due to the absence of quality control and difficulties in differentiating counterfeit buprenorphine from genuine products, the use of counterfeit buprenorphine leads the opioid abusers to health risks.

  1. Development of anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena V. Narimanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research is to develop an anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system. The main requirements for this system are formulated, the choice of method of consumer product authentication is substantiated. The scheme of anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system is developed basing on previously proposed method of checking the QR-code integrity and authenticity. The proposed within the system consumer product authentication technology is simple, economical for implementation, does not require the external changes of product packaging, does not affect existing production process. The technology can be recommended for the use to private businesses and government institutions that are interested in the security of their products from counterfeiting, as well as tracking and removing from circulation the counterfeit consumer products.

  2. Is the drugstore safe? Counterfeit diabetes products on the shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, May M

    2009-11-01

    It is no longer possible to identify counterfeit medical products, including medications and devices, by simply checking packaging and labeling. Improvements in technology have made it cheaper and easier to produce fake packaging and labels, making it nearly impossible for consumers and authorities to detect counterfeits without conducting tests on the products themselves, as illustrated by the sale of over one million counterfeit blood glucose test strips sold to unsuspecting U.S. consumers at drugstores in more than 35 states and in other countries around the world in the fall of 2006. The pricier the drugs, the more counterfeiters seek to mimic them to maximize returns, victimizing those patients at highest risk who rely on life-saving medications.

  3. Characterization of counterfeit artesunate antimalarial tablets from southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Krystyn Alter; Newton, Paul N; Green, Michael D; De Veij, Marleen; Vandenabeele, Peter; Pizzanelli, David; Mayxay, Mayfong; Dondorp, Arjen; Fernandez, Facundo M

    2006-11-01

    In southeast Asia, the widespread high prevalence of counterfeits tablets of the vital antimalarial artesunate is of great public health concern. To assess the seriousness of this problem, we quantified the amount of active ingredient present in artesunate tablets by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. This method, in conjunction with analysis of the packaging, classified tablets as genuine, substandard, or fake and validated results of the colorimetric Fast Red TR test. Eight (35%) of 23 fake artesunate samples contained the wrong active ingredients, which were identified as different erythromycins and paracetamol. Raman spectroscopy identified calcium carbonate as an excipient in 9 (39%) of 23 fake samples. Multivariate unsupervised pattern recognition results indicated two major clusters of artesunate counterfeits, those with counterfeit foil stickers and containing calcium carbonate, erythromycin, and paracetamol, and those with counterfeit holograms and containing starch but without evidence of erythromycin or paracetamol.

  4. Avoid Counterfeit Pesticide Products for Dogs and Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is aware of counterfeit pet pesticides designed to look like legitimately registered pesticide products. The information on this page is intended to help consumers avoid unregistered pet products.

  5. Radioactivity of natural medicinal preparations contained extracts from peat mud available in retail trade used externally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Kapała, Jacek; Raciborska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Milewska, Anna; Mnich, Stanisław

    2017-08-01

    In this work were identified and measured the activity of radioactive isotopes present in medicinal preparations from peat mud and estimated the doses obtained from them during therapy. Radioactivity of 22 preparations from peat mud and 20 water samples from water of the North-East region of Poland was studied. The median of the total activity was 24.8 Bq kg(-1). Total maximal isotope activity was observed in the Iwonicka Cube 146 Bq kg(-1) while considerable amounts of isotopes were found in the Kolobrzeska Peat Mud Paste 112 Bq kg(-1). The doses obtained during therapy were within the range of 11 nSv-13 μSv depending on extracts of medicinal preparations from peat mud. The probability that such a small dose would stimulate biological effects is low. However, some clinicians believe that one of the possible therapeutic mechanisms in the treatment of rheumatoid disorders is the induction of immune response by ionising radiation.

  6. Optical forensics for tracing counterfeit recorded media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J.; O'Doherty, Phelim; Luna, Carlos; McCarthy, Sean

    2004-12-01

    We describe an optical forensic method for tracing a CD back to the pressing machine in which it was created, and present a system we have developed which maintains a library of the 'fingerprints' of such machines and can compare sample CDs against this library. In principle, any security feature that is deliberately created can be copied by a counterfeiter. In our forensic method we concentrate on features that arise spontaneously in the manufacturing process. Such features act as a signature or 'fingerprint'. In the case of CDs we show how the moulding process leaves an imprint of an unpolished part of the 'mirror plate' on the CD surface. Using machine vision and pattern-matching, we demonstrate the use of the system to acquire a positive match of a sample against a pre-recorded library entry created using a different CD from the same mould.

  7. Detection of Counterfeit Tequila by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel de la Rosa Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultraviolet (UV light induced fluorescence study to discriminate fake tequila from genuine ones is presented. A portable homemade system based on four light emitting diodes (LEDs from 255 to 405 nm and a miniature spectrometer was used. It has been shown that unlike fake and silver tequila, which produce weak fluorescence signal, genuine mixed, rested, and aged tequilas show high fluorescence emission in the range from 400 to 750 nm. The fluorescence intensity grows with aging in 100% agave tequila. Such fluorescence differences can even be observed with naked eyes. The presented results demonstrate that the fluorescence measurement could be a good method to detect counterfeit tequila.

  8. COUNTERFEITING, A PRECISE TARGET IN A LONG - TIME BATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia PASCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the world is in the full process of evolution based on knowledge. In the new economy that puts anemphasis on the importance the information the smooth progress and capital accumulation, the information requiresaccess to everything that represents it and thus becomes an enabling tool for counterfeit products.But information ensures access to everything it represents and becomes a favored instrument for fraudulentwork of counterfeiting.Counterfeiting already represent a scourge that affects more and more domains of activity, putting in dangernot only economical activities, but also consumer’s health and safety. Among products that are more likely to becounterfeited we can identify alimentary products, drugs, automobiles, IT, electronics and house appliances, music,movies, cigarettes, textiles, cosmetics, toys, games, software etc. After integration in the European Union, Romaniamust follow the rules imposed and to fight against counterfeiting and intellectual theft. The disappearance of frontiersallowed adulterators to bring counterfeited product in most markets that in many situations generated real economicaland social catastrophes through the decline of local industries.In order to reduce substantially the international commerce with counterfeited products and to destroytransnational networks involved in this commerce, a series of measures for protection is needed at national andinternational level.

  9. Impact of Non-Price Factors on Purchase Intention Counterfeits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research purposes to investigation of impact of non-price factors on consumer attitude and purchase intention counterfeits luxury brand. We used a survey with 398 students of Islamic Azad university of central unit was conducted in the Iranian students although self-questionnaire that a questionnaire was developed consisting of previously used scales and also we used the Structural Equation Modeling technique to examine the hypothesized relationships. In addition, we involved AMOS software for analysis. We found that perceived risk and subjective norms factors are most influence on attitude toward counterfeits that they are only impact antecedent’s attitude on behavioral intention. This research limited to only a city (Tehran and just dedicated to students, therefore we cannot generalize to whole consumer society and we have time and money limited. This research offer in-depth understanding from consumer attitude toward counterfeits luxury brands in Iran country and help to marketers that find strategies for preventing of purchasing counterfeit luxury brands. This research performed for first in Iran, focused of demand side`s counterfeits and investigated social and personality influences on attitude toward counterfeits that they are non-price factors.

  10. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of original and counterfeit rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Huseyin; Capar, Ismail Davut; Arslan, Hakan; Akan, Ender

    2014-05-31

    In recent years, with the advances in counterfeiting methods, counterfeit products have reached the dental market. The purpose of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of original and counterfeit rotary root canal instruments. The cyclic fatigue of original and counterfeit ProTaper F2 endodontic instruments was tested (n = 20) in 3 mm radius steel canals with a 60° angle of curvature. The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated, and the data were subjected to the Student's t-test (α = 0.05). The original instruments showed better cyclic fatigue resistance than the counterfeit ones (p counterfeit files. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the counterfeit instruments was very low. As a result, clinicians should be careful not to purchase counterfeit products.

  11. Role of the pharmacist in preventing distribution of counterfeit medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Walter G; Carroll, Wesley A; Kennedy, Daniel; Levine, Donald; Moné, Michael A; Ried, L Douglas; Shepherd, Marv; Yelvigi, Mukund

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of the counterfeit medication problem and recommendations of a joint American Pharmacists Association (APhA) Academy of Pharmaceutical Research and Science and APhA Academy of Pharmacy Practice and Management taskforce. SciFinder and PubMed were searched from 1980 to March 2011 using the following keywords: counterfeit drug product, counterfeit medications, drug product authentication, drug product verification, and track-and-trace. Publications, presentations, and websites of organizations that research the counterfeit medication problem in the United States and other countries were reviewed. A representative from the security division of a pharmaceutical manufacturer and a representative from a supplier of anticounterfeiting technologies gave presentations to the taskforce. The taskforce recommends that pharmacists (1) purchase medications from known, reliable sources; (2) warn patients of the dangers of purchasing medications over the Internet; (3) confirm with distributors that products were purchased from manufacturers or other reliable sources; (4) monitor counterfeit product alerts; (5) examine products for suspicious appearance; (6) work with the pharmaceutical industry, distributors, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to close gaps in the supply chain, especially for drugs in short supply; (7) use scanning technology in the pharmacy as part of a prescription verification process; (8) educate themselves, coworkers, and patients about the risks of counterfeit medications; and (9) report suspicious medications to FDA, the distributor, and the manufacturer. The consequence of a patient receiving a counterfeit medication in the United States could be catastrophic, and pharmacists must play an active role in preventing such an event from occurring.

  12. The music of gold: can gold counterfeited coins be detected by ear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manas, Arnaud

    2015-07-01

    In this paper I investigate whether it is true and to what extent counterfeit coins can be detected by their sound frequency. I describe the different types of counterfeit coins encountered and their respective characteristics. I then use the Kirchoff thin plate theory to model a coin, and confirm the validity of the theory by listening to the tone of genuine and counterfeit coins.

  13. Counterfeit Avastin in India: Punish the Criminals, Not the Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael W; Narayanan, Raja; Gupta, Vishali; Rosenfeld, Philip J; Martin, Daniel F; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2016-10-01

    To report the recent controversy surrounding the intraocular use of bevacizumab in India and its relationship to the broader problems of off-label drug use, medication compounding, and drug counterfeiting. Perspective. Data for this perspective were obtained from several sources. Literature reviews for compounding-related endophthalmitis and drug counterfeiting were performed. Supplemental information was obtained through targeted Google searches for related published manuscripts. First-hand accounts of negotiations between representatives of the Vitreoretinal Society of India (VRSI) and India's Central Drugs Standards Control Organization (CDSCO) were provided by 2 of the authors (R.N., V.G.). In December, 2015, 15 cases of intraocular inflammation following injections of counterfeit bevacizumab occurred in Gujarat, India. CDSCO reacted by prohibiting the use of intraocular bevacizumab throughout the country. Intense negotiations between the VRSI and CDSCO resulted in the permission to use bevacizumab in accordance with new safety guidelines. These include an enhanced informed consent process, the stamping of the Kezzler code on all bevacizumab vials, a real-time digital verification process between the end user and Roche Pharmaceuticals, and mandatory destruction of empty drug vials. Counterfeit bevacizumab has caused outbreaks of sterile and infectious postinjection endophthalmitis in at least 3 countries during the past 5 years and has entered the supply chain in other countries. Physicians and compounding pharmacists need to be aware that international counterfeiters have targeted bevacizumab. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A validated GC-MS method for the determination and quantification of residual solvents in counterfeit tablets and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Canfyn, M; Sacré, P-Y; Baudewyns, S; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2012-11-01

    A fast headspace GC-MS method was developed and validated for the detection and quantification of residual solvents of all three ICH-classes in counterfeit tablets and capsules. The method was validated for 10 solvents, selected based on an initial screening of counterfeit medicinal products. The considered solvents were ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, ethylacetate, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, toluene, dichloromethane and ethylbenzene. The proposed method uses a Phenomenex 624 capillary column (60 m × 0.32 mm; 1.8 μm film thickness) (Phenomenex, Torrance, USA) with an oven temperature program from 60 °C (held for 5 min) to 270 °C at 25 °C/min. 270 °C is held for 10 min. The total run time is 23.4 min. The obtained method was fully validated by applying the "total error" profile. Calibration lines for all components were linear within the studied ranges. The relative bias and the relative standard deviations for all components were smaller than 5%, the β-expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of ±10% and the relative expanded uncertainties were acceptable for all of the considered components. A method was obtained for the screening and quantification of residual solvents in counterfeit tablets and capsules, which will allow a fast screening of these products for the presence of residual solvents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    OpenAIRE

    Searles Andrew; Drahos Peter; Henry David; Doran Evan; Faunce Thomas; Pekarsky Brita; Neville Warwick

    2005-01-01

    Abstract On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora), it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respec...

  16. Research on Source of Online Counterfeit Based on Intellectual Property Institution%基于知识产权制度的网络假货根源研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳超; 吕庆华

    2013-01-01

    互联网技术的成熟促使电子商务成为一种新兴交易方式.电子商务与假冒产品的结合导致了网络假货的产生.知识产权制度为企业品牌提供了制度保障,同时为打击假冒品牌提供了法律依据.知识产权既是网络假货的制度根源,又是治理网络假货的制度基础.治理网络假货必须完善知识产权制度并严肃执法.%The maturity of internet technology prompts electronic commerce to be a new way to trade. The combination of counterfeit and electronic business leads to online counterfeit. Intellectual property institution provides a system guarantee for enterprise brand and a legal basis to fight against the fake brand. The intellectual property institution is not only the system root of online counterfeit, but also the institution foundation to radical online counterfeit problems. It is necessary to perfect the intellectual property institution and strictly execute it in order to radical online counterfeit problem.

  17. Microstructure-Based Counterfeit Detection in Metal Part Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachowicz, Adam; Chaduvula, Siva Chaitanya; Atallah, Mikhail; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2017-08-01

    Counterfeiting in metal part manufacturing has become a major global concern. Although significant effort has been made in detecting the implementation of such counterfeits, modern approaches suffer from high expense during production, invasiveness during manufacture, and unreliability in practice if parts are damaged during use. In this paper, a practical microstructure-based counterfeit detection methodology is proposed, which draws on inherent randomness present in the microstructure as a result of the manufacturing process. An optical Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) protocol is developed which takes a micrograph as input and outputs a compact, unique string representation of the micrograph. The uniqueness of the outputs and their robustness to moderate wear and tear is demonstrated by application of the methodology to brass samples. The protocol is shown to have good discriminatory power even between samples manufactured in the same batch, and runs on the order of several seconds per part on inexpensive machines.

  18. Mechanical characteristics of counterfeit Reciproc instruments: a call for attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, C S; Vieira, V T L; Antunes, H S; De-Deus, G; Elias, C N; Moreira, E J L; Silva, E J N L

    2017-05-04

    To report the main differences seen by direct visual inspection between original and counterfeit Reciproc instruments, together with an evaluation of instrument bending resistance, cyclic fatigue, surface finish, Vickers microhardness and chemical composition. The visual aspects of original Reciproc R25 (VDW, Munich, Germany) and counterfeit Reciproc R25 instruments (claimed to be original, supposedly with dimensions similar to those of Reciproc R25 files, bought at www.mercadolivre.com.br) were evaluated under direct observation, stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The flexibility of original and counterfeit Reciproc R25 was determined via 45° bending tests according to the ISO 3630-1 specification. Instruments were also subjected to cyclic fatigue resistance, measuring the time to fracture in an artificial stainless steel canal with a 60° angle and 5-mm radius of curvature. The fracture surfaces of all fragments were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Roughness of the instruments was quantified using a profilometer, and the microhardness test was carried out using a Vickers hardness tester. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) was also carried out. Results were analysed statistically using the Student's t-test at a significance level of P differences were observed such as ISO colour coding, measurement marks, stopper and morphologic characteristics. Original Reciproc instruments had significantly longer cyclic fatigue life and significantly lower bending resistance than counterfeit Reciproc instruments (P differences in the chemical composition of the instruments (P different raw material. Original Reciproc files outperformed counterfeit instruments in all tests. It is thus important that identification strategies for these counterfeit instruments be developed, thereby preventing their inadvertent use. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. THE STUDY OF UV-PHOTOCHROMIC ANTI-COUNTERFEIT PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoxiuHao; ShuhuiYang; QunceFeng; YuruZhou

    2004-01-01

    The hydrophilicity, dispersity and minuteness of UV(ultraviolet)-photochromic special function materialsand its retention and formation mechanisms in stockwere comprehensively studied, and themechanism of UV-photochromic fiberstudied.retentionwas alsoIn addition, according to the disadvantages of specialfunction materials such as big grain, badhydrophilicity, expensive price and so on, this paperdisplays our effects focused on the developing ofanti-counterfeit pigments slurry system. Moreover,the properties and anti-counterfeit mechanism of thepaper with different special function materials wereresearched by fluorescent spectrum.

  20. THE STUDY OF UV-PHOTOCHROMIC ANTI-COUNTERFEIT PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxiu Hao; Shuhui Yang; Qunce Feng; Yuru Zhou

    2004-01-01

    The hydrophilicity, dispersity and minuteness of UV (ultraviolet)-photochromic special function materials and its retention and formation mechanisms in stock were comprehensively studied, and the retention mechanism of UV-photochromic fiber was also studied.In addition, according to the disadvantages of special function materials such as big grain, bad hydrophilicity, expensive price and so on, this paper displays our effects focused on the developing of anti-counterfeit pigments slurry system. Moreover,the properties and anti-counterfeit mechanism of the paper with different special function materials were researched by fluorescent spectrum.

  1. Encoded cell grating array in anti-counterfeit technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyu Chen; N. K. Bao; Po S. Chung

    2005-01-01

    @@ The dot matrix hologram (DMH) has been widely used in anti-counterfeiting label. With the same technology and cell array configuration, we can encode to the incidence beam. These codes can be some image matrix grating with different grating gap and different grating orientation. When the multi-level phase diffractive grating is etched, the incidence beam on the cell appears as an encoding image. When the encoded grating and DMH are used in the same label synchronously, the technology of multi-encoded grating array enhances the anti-counterfeit ability.

  2. Aspects concerning counterfeiting and piracy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global problem of counterfeiting and piracy has increased in European Union though there are special laws defending Intellectual Properties Rights. The aim of this paper is to point out the aspects on the topic of counterfeiting and piracy inside the European Union Single Market. Analysing the information gathered, we can conclude that there are evident facts of growing and increasingly dangerous phenomena in the European Union, with significant impact on the economic and social sectors. European Commission is the one that identifies strategies and effective practices to help rightful owners protect their Intellectual Property Rights.

  3. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam.

  4. Characterization and identification of suspected counterfeit miltefosine capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorlo, Thomas P C; Eggelte, Teunis A; de Vries, Peter J; Beijnen, Jos H

    2012-03-07

    Recently, it was revealed that generic miltefosine capsules for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, a fatal parasitic disease, were possibly counterfeit products. Here we report on the methods to characterize and identify miltefosine in pharmaceutical products and the procedures that were used to assess the quality of these suspected counterfeit products. Characterization and identification of miltefosine were done with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, a simple, rapid and inexpensive colorimetric test was developed and evaluated for the detection of miltefosine in pharmaceutical products that can be used in the field. The complementary analytical techniques presented here were able to determine qualitatively or (semi-)quantitatively the presence or absence of miltefosine in pharmaceutical preparations and could identify suspected counterfeit miltefosine capsules. This finding of a suspected counterfeit drug intended to treat a neglected disease in a resource-poor country emphasizes the urgent need to develop more simple inexpensive assays to evaluate drug quality for use in the field.

  5. Counterfeiting in performance- and image-enhancing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael R; Ryan, Paul; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce; Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Evans, Peter; Easmon, Sue; Walker, Christopher J; Cowan, David; Kicman, Andrew T

    2009-03-01

    The current drastic escalation in obesity may be contributing to the exponential rise in drugs used for image enhancement. Drugs such as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are perceived as a viable method of achieving a perfect physique. They are also the most widely abused drugs in sport. The Internet has encouraged the abuse of expensive drugs, particularly human growth hormone (hGH), resulting in increased importation for personal use. The substantial increase in this market has opened up avenues for counterfeiting, estimated as a multi-million pound business. The acute adverse effects from contaminated vials may result in a variety of pathologies including communicable diseases. In 2007, in the UK, a series of intramuscular abscesses, requiring surgical treatment, led us to study samples obtained from the underground market. The analysis of 38 parenteral samples and 19 oral samples of tablets was performed by a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) accredited laboratory, in an attempt to establish the extent of available counterfeit products. Fifty-three per cent (20) of the injectable AAS esters and 21% (4) of the oral tablets were counterfeit. Culture and sensitivity revealed the presence of skin commensal organisms, which may have contributed to the development of the abscesses. Users of AAS and hGH for sport, including bodybuilding, are currently risking their health because of counterfeit and poorly controlled products.

  6. Caveat oncologist: clinical findings and consequences of distributing counterfeit erythropoietin in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Zaina P; Norris, Leann; Sartor, Oliver; McKoy, June M; Armstrong, John; Raisch, Dennis W; Garg, Vishvas; Stafkey-Mailey, Dana; Bennett, Charles Lee

    2012-03-01

    Counterfeit pharmaceuticals pose risks domestically. Because of their cost, cancer pharmaceuticals are vulnerable. We review findings from a domestic counterfeiting episode involving erythropoietin and outline anticounterfeiting recommendations for policy makers, patients, and health care professionals. Information was obtained on patients who received counterfeit erythropoietin, its distribution, and criminal investigations into counterfeiting networks. Interview sources included a physician, an attorney, employees of the Florida Department of Health and Human Services and the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Criminal Investigation, manufacturers, and wholesalers. Other sources included the book "Dangerous Doses," LexisNexis (search terms "counterfeit" and "erythropoietin") and the FDA database. Counterfeit product consisted of 2,000 U vials with counterfeit labels denoting 40,000 U. The counterfeiters, in collaboration with a Miami pharmacy, purchased 110,000 erythropoietin 2,000 U vials and affixed counterfeit labels to each vial. Products were then sold via the pharmaceutical "gray market" to wholesalers, then pharmacy chains. Investigations by Florida government officials implicated 17 persons, all of whom were found guilty of trafficking in counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Despite the large size of the operation, the FDA received reports of only 12 patients who had received counterfeit erythropoietin and detailed information for only two individuals. A 17-year-old liver transplant recipient and a 61-year-old patient with breast cancer experienced loss of efficacy after receiving counterfeit erythropoietin. Wider use of FDA anticounterfeit initiatives, limiting pharmaceutical suppliers to reputable distributors, and educating providers and patients about signs of counterfeit drugs can improve the safety of cancer pharmaceuticals.

  7. Counterfeit Electronic Parts Controls in the Department of Defense Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Incidents by Product Resale Value, OCMs (2005-2008). This graph shows the average value of individual counterfeited parts during 2005–2008. Most... counterfeited parts cost $10.00 USD or less. These are small components that are incorporated in the subsystem and system levels of products , and often go...types of counterfeiting that are prevalent for microcircuits. Note the sharp increase in products that are marked as higher grade, and the relatively

  8. Semi-automatic identification of counterfeit offers in online shopping platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Wartner, Christian; Arnold, Patrick; Rahm, Erhard

    2015-01-01

    Product counterfeiting is a serious problem causing the industry estimated losses of billions of dollars every year. With the increasing spread of e-commerce, the number of counterfeit products sold online increased substantially. We propose the adoption of a semi-automatic workflow to identify likely counterfeit offers in online platforms and to present these offers to a domain expert for manual verification. The workflow includes steps to generate search queries for relevant product offers,...

  9. Diffusion of counterfeit drugs in developing countries and stability of galenics stored for months under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratta, Francesca; Germano, Antonio; Brusa, Paola

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the diffusion of counterfeit medicines in developing countries and to verify the stability of galenic dosage forms to determine the stability of galenics prepared and stored in developing countries. We purchased 221 pharmaceutical samples belonging to different therapeutic classes both in authorized and illegal pharmacies and subjected them to European Pharmacopoeia, 7th ed. quality tests. An UV-visible spectrophotometric assay was used to determine the galenics stability under different conditions of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH). A substantial percentage of samples was substandard (52%) and thus had to be considered as counterfeit. Stability tests for galenics showed that the tested dosage forms were stable for 24 months under "standard" (t=25±2°C, RH=50±5%) conditions. Under "accelerated" (t=40±2°C, RH=50±5%) conditions, samples were stable for 3 months provided that they were stored in glass containers. Stability results of samples stored in "accelerated" conditions were similar to those obtained by on site in tropical countries and could so supply precious information on the expected stability of galenics in tropical countries. This study gives useful information about the presence of counterfeit medicinal products in the pharmacies of many developing countries. This should serve as an alarm bell and an input for the production of galenics. We recommend setting up of galenic laboratories in developing countries around the globe.

  10. Vietnamese Attitudes and Behavioural Patterns towards Counterfeit Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Huynh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Vietnamese female consumers’ attitudes towards counterfeit branded products; by investigating the influence of brand image, product involvement and price advantage towards decision-making processes associated with purchasing and ownership. An inductive anti-positivist approach was adopted, employing qualitative methods; drawing from in-depth interviews distilled and synthesized using Word Cloud software, as Geographic Information System (GIS based Spatial Analyses. Findings suggest that Price Advantage plays a determining and predominant role in encouraging consumers’ purchase intention of a counterfeit product. In addition, Brand Image has positive effect on the purchase intention as well; while product involvement plays no significant role in the process. Further observations point to there being paucity of literature that focuses on Vietnamese and ASEAN markets. With this is mind, a new conceptual framework was developed to reflect the nuances of the Vietnamese consumer experience; which it is suggested will be of value to scholars, practitioners and further studies.

  11. Product Piracy Prevention: Product Counterfeit Detection without Security Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Horn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeiting is a challenge to companies, customers and markets all over the world. Besides the economic damage which affects in particular the companies and countries that use advanced production and manufacturing processes based on intensive research and development to produce high quality goods, safety standards are omitted. These standards protect usually the customer from goods which are dangerous or harzardous to health. Product piracy prevention is often followed by the application of RFID tags to supervise supply chains. The lack of robust counterfeit detection methods created a market for artificial security labels which are used to secure the product itself. The specific conditions of production, manufacturing technologies and materials generate specific features, which identify every product uniquely. The innovation of this text is the detection of these features in an automated fashion through the combination of digital sensing and machine learning, rendering the application of artificial security labels obsolete.

  12. Vietnamese Attitudes and Behavioural Patterns towards Counterfeit Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Giang; Wilson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines Vietnamese female consumers' attitudes towards counterfeit branded prod- ucts; by investigating the influence of brand image, product involvement and price advantage towards decision-making processes associated with purchasing and ownership. An inductive anti-positivist approach was adopted, employing qualitative methods; drawing from in-depth interviews distilled and synthesized using Word Cloud software, as Geographic Information System (GIS) based Spatial Analyses. Find...

  13. North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Korean diplomats.15 Counterfeiting of foreign currency is apparently a phenomenon that is not new to the government of North Korea . Seoul’s War...Adventurism: North Korea’s Military-Diplomatic Campaigns,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. XVI, No.2, Fall 2004. Note that the term “Soprano State... Korean National Intelligence Service (NIS) Report to the effect that North Korea forges and circulates U.S. $100 banknotes worth $15 million a year

  14. Destruction of illegal things and devices to contrast the counterfeiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement of goods illegal and counterfeit in the circuit of the economy and the labor market, has put in place of criminal policy internal supranational and a primary need of confiscation and destruction in relation to safety issues transnational linked to all forms of counterfeiting, piracy agro-food to fraud in industrial brands of high fashion et similia: from here the major node of the procedure of destruction of goods illegal and counterfeit subject to seizure and confiscation and respect of guarantees communities of the criminal process, especially in the light of the amendment of art. 260, co. 3 bis and ter, c.p.p. with the d.l. 23-5-2008, n. 92 and subsequent amendments (so-called Safety Package. In line with the criminal policy of ''security'', in l. 23-7-2009, n. 99, the so-called Decree Development, between the ''darrangements for the development and the internationalization of enterprises, as well as in the field of energy'' and  wanted to redesign, with analytical provisions of particular edge, the perimeter of the criminal-law protection ''Dei property rights industrial'' through the introduction of four new hypothesis of offenses of counterfeiting (artt. 473, 474, 474 b and c, 517 b and c, c.p. and related hypothesis of obligatory confiscation (art. 474 bis and 517 ter c.p., with implications concerning the regime differentiated penitentiary (art. 4 bis, co. 1 ter, ord. penit. in relation to the cases of belonging to criminal association aimed to commit new offenses referred to in articles 473-474 c.p. (arts. 416 bis, 6º Co., c.p. and 51, co. 3 bis, c.p.p., as well as the regulatory body containing the so-called ''responsability of administrative entities'', within the meaning of art. 19, d.lg. 8-6-2001, n. 231.

  15. Suspect/Counterfeit Items Information Guide for Subcontractors/Suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmar, Nancy D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-18

    Counterfeiting of industrial and commercial grade items is an international problem that places worker safety, program objectives, expensive equipment, and security at risk. In order to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit Items (S/CI), this information sheet is being made available as a guide to assist in the implementation of S/CI awareness and controls, in conjunction with subcontractor's/supplier's quality assurance programs. When it comes to counterfeit goods, including industrial materials, items, and equipment, no market is immune. Some manufactures have been known to misrepresent their products and intentionally use inferior materials and processes to manufacture substandard items, whose properties can significantly cart from established standards and specifications. These substandard items termed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as S/CI, pose immediate and potential threats to the safety of DOE and contractor workers, the public, and the environment. Failure of certain systems and processes caused by an S/CI could also have national security implications at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nuclear Safety Rules (federal Laws), DOE Orders, and other regulations set forth requirements for DOE contractors to implement effective controls to assure that items and services meet specified requirements. This includes techniques to implement and thereby minimizing the potential threat of entry of S/CI to LANL. As a qualified supplier of goods or services to the LANL, your company will be required to establish and maintain effective controls to prevent the introduction of S/CI to LANL. This will require that your company warrant that all items (including their subassemblies, components, and parts) sold to LANL are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit), new, and unused, and conform to the requirements of the LANL purchase orders/contracts unless otherwise approved in writing to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) contract administrator

  16. Discrimination of Cordyceps Sinensis from the Counterfeit%冬虫夏草与其伪品的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳青; 段军华

    2012-01-01

    目的 鉴别冬虫夏草的真伪,为珍贵药材的真伪鉴别提供参考依据.方法 分别从来源、性状、显微特征、理化性质和紫外吸收光谱鉴别等各方面对冬虫夏草正品及其伪品进行了分析、比较以及鉴别描述.结果 冬虫夏草正品与伪品在来源、性状、显微特征及理化性质等各方面均存在明显差异.结论 临床药学人员通过提高鉴别能力,综合运用各种方法可以鉴别冬虫夏草的真伪,有效减少伪劣冬虫夏草流入市场,以确保人民群众用药安全.%Objective To identify the authenticity of cordyceps sinensis and provide the reference evidence for the discrimination of the precious medicinal material. Methods In term of the source, property, microscopic features, physiochemical properties and UV absorption spectroscopy, the genuine cordyceps sinensis and the counterfeit were identified by the analysis, comparison and description. Results The very apparent differences presented in the source, property, microscopic features, physiochemical properties and the others between the genuine cordyceps sinensis and the counterfeit. Conclusion The clinical pharmaceutical staff may identify the authenticity of cordyceps sinensis by improving the capacity of discrimination and applying systematical methods so that they are able to effectively prevent the counterfeit product from bringing to market and ensure medication safety for the people.

  17. 76 FR 48905 - United States Government Inter-Agency Anti-Counterfeiting Working Group: Request for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Comments Regarding Strategy to Eliminate Counterfeit Products from the United States Government Supply... significant effort to eliminate counterfeit products from the U.S. Government supply chain. In June 2010, Vice... counterfeit products entering the U.S. Government supply chain and for curbing their entry into that supply...

  18. 濒危野生动植物药材非法贸易调查%Survey on Illegal Trade in Endangered Medicinal Species in China’s Traditional Chinese Medicine Wholesale Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹峰; 梦梦; 徐玲; 刘定震

    2015-01-01

    对10个药材市场上的沉香、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉、蛤蚧、乌梢蛇、蕲蛇、金钱白花蛇、玳瑁、熊胆、麝香、虎骨、豹骨、犀牛角、羚羊角和穿山甲片等15种常用或曾用的濒危物种药材进行实地调查,结果表明:对国家明令禁止贸易的濒危物种药材公开摆卖现象并不突出,但其地下交易具有普遍性;虎豹骨和犀牛角的贸易已非常少见,仅0.8%和1.4%的药材经营者声称有售,而且他们都提及了贸易禁令,显示出从业人员较强的保护意识;“中国野生动物经营利用管理专用标识制度”的推行,在一定程度上遏制了标识物种药材的非法贸易;药市上部分濒危物种药材来自境外,走私现象依然存在。针对调查中存在的问题,建议修改和完善相应的法律法规、加大执法能力建设和打击力度、加强贸易和市场的监测、开展公众教育,以遏制药用濒危野生动植物药材的非法贸易。%In this survey,10 Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM)wholesale markets in China were visi-ted and 15 endangered medicinal species were recorded.The species include Aquilaria Spp.,Cordyceps sinensis,Cistanche Spp,Gekko gecko,Zaocys dhumnades,Agkistrodon acutus,Bungarus multicinctus, Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata)shell,Bear (Ursus thibetanus and U.arctos)bile,Musk (Moschus spp.),Tiger(Panthera tigris)bone,Leopard (Panthera pardus,Neofelis nebulosa and Uncia uncia,) bone,Rhino(Rhinoceros spp.)horn,Saiga(Saiga tatarica)horn and Pangolin(Manis spp.)scale.The investigation shows that the open illegal wildlife trade is not serious,however it is still common in black market.Very little tiger bone,leopard bone and rhino horn was found,only 0.8% and 1.4% dealers claimed to have tiger bone and rhino horn for sale,all of them mentioned the 1993 trade ban.The imple-mentation of Special Mark System of China Wildlife Management and Utilization has succeeded in de-creasing the

  19. Trick or Treat? An Examination of Marketing Relationships in a Nondeceptive Counterfeit Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sarah Hong; Nicholson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Who is most responsible for the proliferation of counterfeit goods--the illicit purveyor of such products or the consumer who procures them? This paper seeks to address this question by presenting a behavior analysis of counterfeit marketing firms in China and the interdependent relationships between legitimate retailers, consumers, and the…

  20. Trick or Treat? An Examination of Marketing Relationships in a Nondeceptive Counterfeit Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sarah Hong; Nicholson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Who is most responsible for the proliferation of counterfeit goods--the illicit purveyor of such products or the consumer who procures them? This paper seeks to address this question by presenting a behavior analysis of counterfeit marketing firms in China and the interdependent relationships between legitimate retailers, consumers, and the…

  1. Identification of Counterfeit Alcoholic Beverages Using Cluster Analysis in Principal-Component Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodasevich, M. A.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Gres'ko, M. A.; Dolya, V. M.; Rogovaya, M. V.; Kazberuk, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    A study of 153 brands of commercial vodka products showed that counterfeit samples could be identified by introducing a unified additive at the minimum concentration acceptable for instrumental detection and multivariate analysis of UV-Vis transmission spectra. Counterfeit products were detected with 100% probability by using hierarchical cluster analysis or the C-means method in two-dimensional principal-component space.

  2. 78 FR 28780 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... potential for an impact on small entities in the supply chain of a prime contractor with contracts subject... suspect counterfeit parts from entering the supply chain when procuring electronic parts or end items... counterfeit electronic parts from the supply chain. Legally authorized source means the current design...

  3. Screening suspected counterfeit Viagra and imitations of Viagra with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenbregt, M J; Blok-Tip, L; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Barends, D M; Kaste, D de

    2006-01-01

    We describe a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method for fast-screening Viagra tablets, counterfeit Viagra tablets, and imitations of Viagra. The method can (1) check the homogeneity of a batch; (2) distinguish counterfeits and imitations from authentic Viagra; (3) screen for the presence of silde

  4. 31 CFR 100.19 - Disposition of counterfeit notes and coins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of counterfeit notes and coins. 100.19 Section 100.19 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Other Information § 100.19 Disposition of counterfeit notes and...

  5. Future prospects of luminescent nanomaterial based security inks: from synthesis to anti-counterfeiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Satbir; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Counterfeiting of valuable documents, currency and branded products is a challenging problem that has serious economic, security and health ramifications for governments, businesses and consumers all over the world. It is estimated that counterfeiting represents a multi-billion dollar underground economy with counterfeit products being produced on a large scale every year. Counterfeiting is an increasingly high-tech crime and calls for high-tech solutions to prevent and deter the acts of counterfeiting. The present review briefly outlines and addresses the key challenges in this area, including the above mentioned concerns for anti-counterfeiting applications. This article describes a unique combination of all possible kinds of security ink formulations based on lanthanide doped luminescent nanomaterials, quantum dots (semiconductor and carbon based), metal organic frameworks as well as plasmonic nanomaterials for their possible use in anti-counterfeiting applications. Moreover, in this review, we have briefly discussed and described the historical background of luminescent nanomaterials, basic concepts and detailed synthesis methods along with their characterization. Furthermore, we have also discussed the methods adopted for the fabrication and design of luminescent security inks, various security printing techniques and their anti-counterfeiting applications.

  6. Chromatographic determination of clopidogrel bisulfate; detection and quantification of counterfeit Plavix® tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona E. ElTantawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products is a global problem. Upon using quality-ensuring methods of international pharmacopoeias, additional impurities and the low content of the active pharmaceutical ingredients were detected. In this paper, two chromatographic HPLC and TLC-densitometric methods were proposed as fast and reliable methods for detection and quantitation of counterfeit Plavix® tablets. These tablets were chemically counterfeited by aspirin, its degradate salicylic acid and metronidazole which were separated, besides the active ingredient clopidogrel bisulfate, by the proposed methods. Also, counterfeit was in packaging, strips and tablets’ color and these could be seen by visual inspection compared to original drug. The proposed methods can easily differentiate genuine from counterfeited tablets without need of prior separation. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and applied to eleven batches, also were compared statistically with the reported one.

  7. Characterization of the structure and properties of authentic and counterfeit polypropylene surgical meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M K; Isayeva, I S; Thomas, T M; Lee, A S; Lucas, A D; Witkowski, C N; Hutter, J C

    2006-04-01

    A counterfeit version of the Ethicon Prolene polypropylene mesh was distributed to hospitals and clinics and unintentionally implanted into patients undergoing tension-free hernia repair. On December 19, 2003, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health web notification indicating that the counterfeit mesh was not sterile or safe to use. To develop safety recommendations for patients with the counterfeit mesh implant, we compared the counterfeit's structural, physical, chemical and mechanical properties with polypropylene meshes previously cleared by FDA. The mesh fibers for all the products tested were found to have similar chemical and physical properties. The mechanical properties were directly related to the knitted structure (loop size, repeat distance, fabric tightness) and the porosity. Extracts from the counterfeit mesh passed cytotoxicity screening tests. The FDA further recommended that if the mesh had been inadvertently implanted, then those patients should be monitored as would be the practice for any patient with an implanted surgical mesh.

  8. Counterfeits or Shanzhai? The Role of Face and Brand Consciousness in Luxury Copycat Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Shan, Juan

    2016-08-01

    This study responds to the emergence of the Shanzhai phenomenon in the international marketplace and introduces the Shanzhai phenomenon into the consumer behavior literature by defining it and comparing it with well-known concepts like luxury counterfeits. More specifically, it examines how consumers' face and brand consciousness influence their willingness to buy luxury counterfeits rather than Shanzhai products. The results show that consumers who are more face conscious are more likely to choose luxury counterfeits than Shanzhai products. In addition, consumers' face consciousness elicits a high concern for well-known brands, which also in turn leads to a more favorable attitude toward luxury counterfeits than Shanzhai products. These findings enable researchers to better understand consumers' responses toward both Shanzhai and counterfeit products and help companies that are protecting their original brands to tailor their consumer-directed measures more effectively.

  9. Rapid detection and identification of counterfeit and [corrected] adulterated products of synthetic phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors with an atmospheric solids analysis probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Marian; Skilton, St John; Fujimoto, Gordon; Ellor, Nicholas; Plumb, Robert S

    2010-02-01

    The market success of the three approved synthetic phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction has led to an explosion in counterfeit versions of these drugs. In parallel a large market has developed for herbal products claimed to be natural alternatives to these synthetic drugs. The herbal products are heavily advertised on the internet and are freely available to purchase without prescription. Furthermore, adulteration of these supposed natural medicines is a very common and serious phenomenon. Recent reports have shown that the adulteration has extended to the analogues of the three approved synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors. An Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe (ASAP) was used for the direct analysis of the counterfeit pharmaceuticals and herbal products. Using the ASAP combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) it was possible to detect fraudulent counterfeit tablets. The physical appearance of the pills resembled the pills from the original manufacturer but contained the wrong active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Detecting adulteration for five herbal supplements marketed as natural alternatives to PDE-5 inhibitors was also possible using the ASAP. Three types of adulteration were found in the five samples: adulteration with tadalafil or sildenafil, mixed adulteration (tadalafil and sildenafil), and adulteration with analogues of these drugs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. From AIDS to Free Trade Agreements: Knowledge Activism in Thailand’s Movement for Access to Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Pascale Krikorian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the movement for access to medicines in Thailand, a country that is a privileged site of observation of the new world order of pharmaceuticals and has been at the forefront in many international negotiations on intellectual property. The movement relies on the appropriation of knowledge and expertise about intellectual property laws, which developed in the context of the fight against HIV/AIDS. Treatment activism in Thailand is particularly vigorous and studying it allows us to grasp both the national and transnational dimension of this type of collective action: a global movement that is structured around the notion of "access to medicines," and is in close but rather orthodox relation to medical knowledge. The relations that one can draw between AIDS activism and the movement for access-to-medicines allows one to trace the origins of the latter and helps us understand key features at the core of this movement. But the analysis also shows that, from the outset, the access to medicines movement in Thailand developed through a new form of activism. The notion of knowledge activism is developed in this paper to seize the particularities of the activism at play in Thailand as compared with other forms of collective action relying on the use of knowledge. Knowledge activism is defined not only by the activists’ relation to knowledge–– authoritative and institutionalized knowledge, or lay expertise––but also by the inclusion in the movement of “expert activists” such as doctors, lawyers, or academics, together with “grassroots activists.” Knowledge activism also implies a permanent circulation of knowledge and information between the various categories of actors involved inside, outside and on the fringes of the movement, and results in a hybrid form of collective action that develops beyond the movement and is constantly reconfigured, according to opportunities or pressures.

  11. Insider trading

    OpenAIRE

    Šatanová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is dealing with trading based on nonpublic information (insider trading). It contains development of insider trading regulation and describes specifics of american, czech, japanese and chinese market consodering insider trading. It is focused on regulation, investigation and evidence.

  12. Chemical analysis of counterfeit hepatitis C drug found in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Masada, Sayaka; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Hosoe, Junko; Tokumoto, Hiroko; Maruyama, Takuro; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    2017-07-19

      In January 2017, counterfeits of the hepatitis C drug 'HARVONI(®) Combination Tablets' (HARVONI(®)) were found at a pharmacy chain through unlicensed suppliers in Japan. A total of five lots of counterfeit HARVONI(®) (samples 1-5) bottles were found, and the ingredients of the bottles were all in tablet form. Among them, two differently shaped tablets were present in two of the bottles (categorized as samples 2A, 2B, 4A, and 4B). We analyzed the total of seven samples by high-resolution LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR. In samples 2A, 3 and 4B, sofosbuvir, the active component of another hepatitis C drug, SOVARDI(®) Tablets 400 mg (SOVARDI(®)), was detected. In sample 4A, sofosbuvir and ledipasvir, the active components of HARVONI(®), were found. A direct comparison of the four samples and genuine products showed that three samples (2A, 3, 4B) are apparently SOVARDI(®) and that sample 2A is HARVONI(®). In samples 1 and 5, several vitamins but none of the active compounds usually found in HARVONI(®) (i.e., sofosbuvir and ledipasvir) were detected. Our additional investigation indicates that these two samples are likely to be a commercial vitamin supplement distributed in Japan. Sample 2B, looked entirely different from HARVONI(®) and contained several herbal constitutents (such as ephedrine and glycyrrhizin) that are used in Japanese Kampo formulations. A further analysis indicated that sample 2B is likely to be a Kampo extract tablet of Shoseiryuto which is distributed in Japan. Considering this case, it is important to be vigilant to prevent a recurrence of distribution of counterfeit drugs..

  13. Biodegradable Microparticles for Simultaneous Detection of Counterfeit and Deteriorated Edible Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehor, Ivan; van Vreeswijk, Sophie; Vermonden, Tina; Hennink, Wim E; Kegel, Willem K; Eral, Huseyin Burak

    2017-09-01

    In an era of globalized trade relations where food and pharmaceutical products cross borders effortlessly, consumers face counterfeit and deteriorated products at elevated rates. This paper presents multifunctional, biodegradable hydrogel microparticles that can provide information on the authenticity and the potential deterioration of the tagged food or pharmaceutical formulations. These microparticles integrate spatially patterned authenticity code with two sensors-the first one detects possible presence of pathogenic microbes through monitoring pH while the second one identifies products stored above optimal temperatures via optical monitoring of the microparticle degradation. Particles are synthesized from a biocompatible polymer and a photoinitiator, dextran modified with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate and riboflavin, respectively, using a continuous, high throughput method stop-flow lithography. The proposed synthesis approach also enables crosslinking with visible light bringing about additional flexibility to flow lithography. Model liquid and solid food and pharmaceutical products are successfully labeled with microparticles and the functionality of the sensors in aqueous solutions is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. NIR spectrometry for counterfeit drug detection - A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodionova, O.Y.; Houmøller, Lars P.; Pomerantsev, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Express-methods for detection of counterfeit drugs are of vital necessity. Visual control, dissociating tests or simple color reaction tests reveal only very rough forgeries. The feasibility of information-rich NIR-measurements as an analytical method together with multivariate calibration...... for mathematical data processing for false drugs detection is demonstrated. Also, multivariate hyperspectral image analysis is applied providing additional diagnostic information. Hyperspectral imaging is becoming a useful diagnostic tool for identifying non-homogeneous spatial regions of drug formulation. Two...... types of drugs are used to demonstrate the applicability of these approaches....

  15. Integrated circuit authentication hardware Trojans and counterfeit detection

    CERN Document Server

    Tehranipoor, Mohammad; Zhang, Xuehui

    2013-01-01

    This book describes techniques to verify the authenticity of integrated circuits (ICs). It focuses on hardware Trojan detection and prevention and counterfeit detection and prevention. The authors discuss a variety of detection schemes and design methodologies for improving Trojan detection techniques, as well as various attempts at developing hardware Trojans in IP cores and ICs. While describing existing Trojan detection methods, the authors also analyze their effectiveness in disclosing various types of Trojans, and demonstrate several architecture-level solutions. 

  16. [Counterfeit phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors--growing safety risks for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałek, Zbigniew; Sarna, Katarzyna; Błazewicz, Agata; Marin, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Counterfeit drugs, medical devises and dietary supplements are inherently dangerous and a growing problem. In Europe the growth of the counterfeit medication market is attributable in part to registration of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE-5) used for the erectile dysfunction. "Viagra, Levitra and Cialis belong to this group. It has been estimated that up to 2.5 million men in Europe are exposed to an illicit sildenafil, suggesting that there may be as many illegal as legal users of sildenafil. In Europe a strong trend is observed towards increasingly professional counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra, with regard to the appearance of tablets, capsules and packaging. The professional presentation will deceive potential consumers into assuming these products are legal, efficacious and safe. Globally, increased obstacles for counterfeiters are necessary to combat pharmaceutical counterfeiting, including fines and penalties. The worldwide nature of the counterfeit problem requires proper coordination between countries to ensure an adequate enforcement. We described the usefulness of the time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS-TOF) and the X-ray powder diffraction method (XRPD) for PDE-5 counterfeit screening from the Polish illegal market.

  17. Investigation into classification/sourcing of suspect counterfeit Heptodintrade mark tablets by near infrared chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta B; Wolff, Jean-Claude

    2009-02-02

    Near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) analysis was performed on 55 counterfeit Heptodin tablets obtained from a market survey and an additional 11 authentic Heptodin tablets for comparison. The aim of the study was to investigate whether NIR-CI can be used to detect the counterfeit tablets and to classify/source them so as to understand the possible number of origins to aid investigators and authorities to shut down counterfeiting operations. NIR-CI combined with multivariate analysis is particularly suited to compare chemical and physical properties of samples, since it is a quick and non-destructive method of analysis. Counterfeit tablets were easily distinguished from the authentic ones. Principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering were performed on the data set. The results from both analyses grouped the counterfeit tablets in 13 main groups. The main groups found with both methods were quite consistent. Out of the 55 tablets only 18% contained the correct active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), i.e., the anti-viral drug lamivudine. The remaining 82% of counterfeit tablets contained talc and starch as main excipients. The API containing tablets classified into three main groups, based mainly on the amount of lamivudine present in the tablet. The group which had close to the correct amount of lamivudine sub-classified into three groups. From the analysis carried out, it is likely that the counterfeit tablets originate from as many as 15 different sources.

  18. Dynamics of counterfeit alcohol and tobacco goods in the Tatarstan Republic market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg R. Karatayev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and assess the share of counterfeit products in the total volume of alcohol and tobacco products in the consumer market of Tatarstan Republic which will allow the inspection bodies to deal more effectively to prevent the spreading of counterfeit products. Methods the research proposed in this paper used methods of probability theory and mathematical statistics and the method of sampling analysis of certificates for products in accordance with applicable laws and regulations of Rosstandart. Results basing on a sampling of certificates for products directly from retail outlets analysis of the state alcohol and tobacco consumer market of Tatarstan was carried out. Improper filling of the form of the certificate for products was identified violating all existing norms and laws which are strictly prescribed in technical regulations. On the basis of these violations the validity of certificates for products was assessed and the conclusion was made about the products quality. The share of counterfeit alcohol and tobacco products in the total sales in the consumer market was assessed. The shortcomings of the inspection authorities to detect counterfeit products were identified. Scientific novelty the consumer market was researched basing on the method of sampling using probability theory and mathematical statistics to estimate the share of counterfeit alcohol and tobacco products in the consumer market of Tatarstan. The error sampling for counterfeit products in the consumer market was defined. Practical significance the obtained results will allow the inspection authorities to better and more accurately identify counterfeit goods and to restrict the access of counterfeit alcohol and tobacco products to the consumer market of Tatarstan. It is necessary to strengthen the role of state regulation of commercial activities in the consumer market of Russia to stop the flow of counterfeit alcohol and tobacco products to the consumer

  19. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the

  20. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolhamid ebrahimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the

  1. Morphological and microscopic identification studies of Cordyceps and its counterfeits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-juan Liu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic and microscopic studies were applied to distinguish Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc. and its 5 common counterfeits. Transverse sections of stroma and larvae and surface sections of stroma of C. sinensis, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps barnesii, Cordyceps gracilis, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Cordyceps militaris were examined and their morphological and microscopic features photographed. The main morphological and microscopic features of the 6 species of Cordyceps were basically similar except for certain diagnostic differences. These included macroscopic differences from C. sinensis as follows: the stroma of C. gunnii is stout and rough with sterile bulgy or branched apex; the larvae of C. barnesii has a pair of teeth on the head; the stroma of C. liangshanensi is thread-like; C. gracilis is without stroma; and C. militaris is without larvae. There were also microscopic differences: from C. sinensis as follows: the stroma of C. barnesii is without perithecia; C. gunnii, C. liangshanensis and C. gracilis are without bristles on the larva body. These differences allow C. sinensis and its counterfeits to be easily distinguished.

  2. An Anti-Counterfeiting RFID Privacy Protection Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolan Zhang; Brian King

    2007-01-01

    The privacy problem of many RFID systems has been extensively studied. Yet integrity in RFID has notreceived much attention as regular computer systems. When we evaluate an identification protocol for an RFID system foranti-counterfeiting, it is important to consider integrity issues. Moreover, many RFID systems are accessed by multiple leveltrust parties, which makes comprehensive integrity protection even harder. In this paper, we first propose an integrity modelfor RFID protocols. Then we use the model to analyze the integrity problems in Squealing Euros protocol. Squealing Euroswas proposed by Juels and Pappu for RFID enabled banknotes that will support anti-forgery and lawful tracing yet preserveindividual's privacy. We analyze its integrity, we then discuss the problems that arise and propose some solutions to theseproblems. Then an improved protocol with integrity protection for the law enforcement is constructed, which includes anunforgeable binding between the banknote serial number and the RF ciphertext only readable to law enforcement. This sameprotocol can be applied in many other applications which require a privacy protecting anti-counterfeiting mechanism.

  3. A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Plançon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    . International cross-disciplinary collaborations may be appropriate in the investigation of other serious counterfeit medicine public health problems elsewhere, but strengthening of international collaborations and forensic and drug regulatory authority capacity will be required. PMID:18271620

  4. A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N Newton

    2008-02-01

    -disciplinary collaborations may be appropriate in the investigation of other serious counterfeit medicine public health problems elsewhere, but strengthening of international collaborations and forensic and drug regulatory authority capacity will be required.

  5. Environmental pollen trapped by tobacco leaf as indicators of the provenance of counterfeit cigarette products: a preliminary investigation and test of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Margaret P; Stephens, William E

    2010-05-01

    The global trade in counterfeit tobacco products is increasingly taking market share from legal brands in many parts of the developed world, with attendant adverse economic, health, criminal, and other societal impacts. Knowing the geographical source is central to developing new strategies for curbing this illicit trade, and here, the potential of environmental pollen extracted from manufactured cigarettes is examined. Two samples representing U.S. and Chinese brands were investigated for their pollen content. Results indicate that tobacco leaf very efficiently captures environmental pollen (about 1800 and 12,600 grains per cigarette, respectively) with no detectable self-contamination by the tobacco plant. In both cases, the flora is typical of open space environments, but pollen type counts indicate very different distributions of species. This preliminary investigation indicates that palynology has the potential to constrain geographical source(s) of tobacco, particularly if regionally localized species can be recognized among the pollen.

  6. Stable isotope-labeled excipients for drug product identification and counterfeit detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Linda A; Shah, Punit P; Sharp, Zachary; Atudorei, Viorel; Timmins, Graham S

    2011-01-01

    Counterfeit drug products have become a major problem worldwide and a number of techniques to detect counterfeit products or reduce the potential for counterfeiting have been investigated. This study examined the use of stable isotope-labeled excipients in solid dosage forms as a method to identify drug products and to detect counterfeits. (2)H- and (13)C-glucose were used as model excipients and incorporated in wet granulated formulations at a variety of different isotopic ratios. The ratios of (2)H/(1)H and (13)C/(12)C in each product were then determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated the ability to detect the isotope-labeled glucose in both granules and tablets. It was possible to use the isotope ratios to differentiate between specific batches of granules, demonstrating the potential of this technique for in-product, batch-specific identification.

  7. Recent developments in counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra. A 2005-2006 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhuis BJ; Barends DM; Zwaagstra ME; Kaste D de; Douane Laboratorium; KCF

    2007-01-01

    A strong trend is observed towards increasingly professional counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra, with regard to the appearance of tablets, capsules and packaging. The professional presentation will deceive potential consumers into assuming these products are legal, efficacious

  8. Recent developments in counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra. A 2005-2006 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhuis BJ; Barends DM; Zwaagstra ME; Kaste D de; Douane Laboratorium; KCF

    2007-01-01

    A strong trend is observed towards increasingly professional counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra, with regard to the appearance of tablets, capsules and packaging. The professional presentation will deceive potential consumers into assuming these products are legal, efficacious

  9. Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The work concerns Emission Trading Scheme from perspektive of taxes and accounting. I should show problems with emission trading. The work concerns practical example of trading with emission allowance.

  10. 中医药行业古籍数据库的建设与服务%The Construction and Service of Ancient Books Database in the Trade of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵; 符永驰; 张华敏; 李斌; 王蕊; 孙海舒

    2014-01-01

    The author has investigated and analyzed the current situation of ancient books database in the trade of traditional Chinese medicine, introduced the existing main ancient books database in the trade of traditional Chinese medicine briefly and raised the suggestions on the existing issues in the database construction and ancient TCM books digitization.%对中医药行业古籍数据库的建设现状进行调查和分析,并对现有主要的中医药行业古籍数据库进行简要介绍,针对目前中医古籍数字化和数据库建设存在的问题提出建议。

  11. Implementation Plan for Tank Farm Transition Projects Suspect and Counterfeit Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRUE, R.R.

    2000-03-16

    This plan is designed to provide an appropriate level of confidence that Tank Farm Transition Projects (TFTP) facilities will be evaluated to assess the presence of suspect/counterfeit items. It is intended to identify suspect/counterfeit items that are presently in inventory and provide for the reporting and disposition of those items. Items which have been installed will also receive appropriate evaluation using a graded approach to achieve optimum results balanced against safety considerations and cost effectiveness.

  12. Growth of Scytalidium sp. in a counterfeit bevacizumab bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After drawing a dose from an closed bevacizumab (Avastin bottle, a fungus-like foreign body was observed inside. Samples from the vial were cultured in Sabouraud Emmons media. Growth of multiple light brown colonies with dark pigment was observed after 10 days. The species was identified as Scytalidium sp.Vial, analysis reported that the seal was lacking proper identification measures and that the label, batch number and expiry date did not correspond to a genuine product. Chemical analysis showed no protein, but 3% of polyethylene glycol, citrate and ethanol. Counterfeit bevacizumab is a real situation that poses a significant risk for ophthalmology and oncology patients. The medical community should be aware of this situation in order to enforce adequate preventive measures.

  13. FDA, companies test RFID tracking to prevent drug counterfeiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John S

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. has an apparently growing problem with fake, counterfeit drugs entering the mainstream drug supply, and being fraudulently sold at full price in regular pharmacies and hospitals; some have no active ingredient, or too little, or substitute a cheap drug for an expensive one. The FDA has asked drug manufacturers to develop technology to track all shipments electronically as they move through the distribution chain; currently, RFID (radio frequency identification) is the preferred method for doing so. This article explains what is happening, and why we do not believe that this use of RFID is a privacy threat--though other privacy issues are among the most important questions we face today.

  14. Rapid Color Test Identification System for Screening of Counterfeit Fluoroquinolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The protocol of rapid identification system consists of three chemical color reactions; two group tests for fluoroquinolone class and a compound specific test each for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and sparfloxacin. The group color reactions are based on (a Oxidizing behavior of quinolone and (b Fluorine functional groups, both of which are characteristic of fluoroquinolone class. The compound specific color reactions are developed taking into consideration unique chemical behavior of each compound. The proposed chemical color tests have high selectivity⁄specificity, are ideal for screening purpose. The color of each test was defined by two standard color systems namely CIE lab and Munsell color. A suspected counterfeit tablet of any of the above mentioned drugs can be identified within 10-15 min using this rapid identification system.

  15. Screen-printed nanoparticles as anti-counterfeiting tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Cuerva, Carlos; Zieba, Maciej; Sebastian, Victor; Martínez, Gema; Sese, Javier; Irusta, Silvia; Contamina, Vicente; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaria, Jesus

    2016-03-04

    Metallic nanoparticles with different physical properties have been screen printed as authentication tags on different types of paper. Gold and silver nanoparticles show unique optical signatures, including sharp emission bandwidths and long lifetimes of the printed label, even under accelerated weathering conditions. Magnetic nanoparticles show distinct physical signals that depend on the size of the nanoparticle itself. They were also screen printed on different substrates and their magnetic signals read out using a magnetic pattern recognition sensor and a vibrating sample magnetometer. The novelty of our work lies in the demonstration that the combination of nanomaterials with optical and magnetic properties on the same printed support is possible, and the resulting combined signals can be used to obtain a user-configurable label, providing a high degree of security in anti-counterfeiting applications using simple commercially-available sensors.

  16. The dangers of sexual enhancement supplements and counterfeit drugs to “treat” erectile dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jason; Yafi, Faysal A.; Dorsey, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Counterfeit phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are an increasing problem. Already in widespread use, the market for PDE-5i is steadily growing as the population ages. Counterfeiters are taking advantage of this growing market by developing illicit and counterfeit PDE-5i products. Many factors are contributing to the rapid growth of the illicit market, such as the low risk of prosecution, potentially high financial reward, and ease of distribution via Internet pharmacies. Consumers of illicit PDE-5i often do not realize they are using counterfeit products and placing themselves at an unnecessary health risk. Others seek to bypass the legitimate healthcare system due to either embarrassment of the underlying condition or desire for cheaper alternatives. However, taking illicit PDE-5i may harm consumers directly, as many illicit products contain detrimental contaminants and inaccurate amounts of the active ingredient without the appropriate warnings. Bypassing the legitimate healthcare system also endangers consumers indirectly, as erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with other medical comorbidities that patients should be screened for. Furthermore, PDE-5i can have potentially dangerous interactions with other pharmaceuticals that are rarely warned against with counterfeit PDE-5i. This communication reviews the literature regarding counterfeit PDE-5i, and summarizes both the scope and dangers of the illicit PDE-5i market. PMID:28217446

  17. The dangers of sexual enhancement supplements and counterfeit drugs to "treat" erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jason; Yafi, Faysal A; Dorsey, Philip J; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2017-02-01

    Counterfeit phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are an increasing problem. Already in widespread use, the market for PDE-5i is steadily growing as the population ages. Counterfeiters are taking advantage of this growing market by developing illicit and counterfeit PDE-5i products. Many factors are contributing to the rapid growth of the illicit market, such as the low risk of prosecution, potentially high financial reward, and ease of distribution via Internet pharmacies. Consumers of illicit PDE-5i often do not realize they are using counterfeit products and placing themselves at an unnecessary health risk. Others seek to bypass the legitimate healthcare system due to either embarrassment of the underlying condition or desire for cheaper alternatives. However, taking illicit PDE-5i may harm consumers directly, as many illicit products contain detrimental contaminants and inaccurate amounts of the active ingredient without the appropriate warnings. Bypassing the legitimate healthcare system also endangers consumers indirectly, as erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with other medical comorbidities that patients should be screened for. Furthermore, PDE-5i can have potentially dangerous interactions with other pharmaceuticals that are rarely warned against with counterfeit PDE-5i. This communication reviews the literature regarding counterfeit PDE-5i, and summarizes both the scope and dangers of the illicit PDE-5i market.

  18. Quick Tips for Buying Medicines Over the Internet: A Consumer Safety Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alert: Internet Sales of Laser Products Online Pet Pharmacies Purchasing Pet Drugs Online: Buyer Beware Other Resources State Pharmacy Boards ... Medicines Over the Internet BeSafeRx: Know Your Online Pharmacy Resources for You Protecting ... Counterfeit Medicine Medication Health Fraud For Consumers ...

  19. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  20. Canada and access to medicines in developing countries: intellectual property rights first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2013-09-03

    Canadian reports have recommended that health as a human right must be Canada's overarching global commitment and that the primacy of human rights should be prioritized over other elements of international law including international trade and investment law as it applies to access to pharmaceuticals. This paper uses a series of case reports to examine Canada's commitment to this goal. Specifically it examines cases where improved access has been in conflict with increased intellectual property rights. The 6 cases are: Canada's position when 39 pharmaceutical companies took South Africa to court in 1998 over its legislation to allow parallel importation of patented medicines and to regulate the price of medications; the stance that Canada took in the negotiations around the Doha Declaration in 2001; the passage of Canada's Access to Medicines Regime in 2004 and subsequent attempts to amend the legislation in 2011 and 2012; Canada's involvement in the final declaration at the United Nations High-Level meeting on non-communicable diseases in 2012; Canada's views about the terms in the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement as expressed in 2009; and Canada's 2013 position on the extension of the exemption for least developed countries from having to comply with the terms of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement. In the first case Canada was neutral but in the remaining 5 cases Canada prioritized intellectual property rights over access. This position is consistent with how Canada has acted around domestic issues involving intellectual property rights for pharmaceutical products. Canada has supported strengthened rights despite the fact that their touted benefits have not been realized either domestically or in developing countries. As a result Canada has failed in its humanitarian duty to protect the human right to health in the form of safe and low cost medicines for the people in developing countries.

  1. Consequences of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural bound syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Tessa; Towns, Alexandra; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Quiroz, Diana; van Andel, Tinde

    2014-01-01

    Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS), ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels) and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA) and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.

  2. Consequences of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural bound syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Vossen

    Full Text Available Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS, ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.

  3. Fair Trade

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of fair trade organizations in an oligopolistic setting in which the vertically integrated fair trade firm produces a commodity which is a weak substitute for another commodity. Profit-maximizing oligopolists are vertically disintegrated and produce for both markets and the fair trade firm can charge a premium to consumers due to a "warm glow effect" that depends on the wage paid to fair trade producers. We show that trade integration will unambiguously incr...

  4. Exploring Consumer and Patient Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude Toward Medicinal and Lifestyle Products Purchased From the Internet: A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Sulaf; Thomas, Jordan; Haffar, Mohamed; Osselton, David

    2016-07-18

    In recent years, lifestyle products have emerged to help improve people's physical and mental performance. The Internet plays a major role in the spread of these products. However, the literature has reported issues regarding the authenticity of medicines purchased from the Internet and the impact of counterfeit medicines on public health. Little or no data are available on the authenticity of lifestyle products and actual toxicity associated with their use and misuse. Our aim was to investigate consumer and patient attitudes toward the purchase of lifestyle products from the Internet, their knowledge of product authenticity and toxicity, and their experiences with counterfeit lifestyle products. A Web-based study was performed between May 2014 and May 2015. Uniform collection of data was performed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants were invited worldwide via email, social media, or personal communication to complete the online questionnaire. A total of 320 participants completed the questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire showed that 208 (65.0%) participants purchased lifestyle products from the Internet mainly due to convenience and reduced cost. More than half (55.6%, 178/320) of participants purchased cosmetic products, whereas only a minority purchased medicinal products. Yet, 62.8% (201/320) of participants were aware of the presence of counterfeit lifestyle products from the Internet, and 11.9% (38/320) experienced counterfeit products. In only 0.9% (3/320) of those cases were counterfeit lifestyle products reported to authorities. Moreover, 7.2% (23/320) of the participants experienced adverse effects due to counterfeit lifestyle products. In summary, patients experienced counterfeit lifestyle products that resulted in adverse effects on their health. Although certain adverse effects were reported in this study, counterfeit products were underreported to authorities. Further public awareness campaigns and patient education are

  5. 17 CFR 240.17f-1 - Requirements for reporting and inquiry with respect to missing, lost, counterfeit or stolen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inquiry with respect to missing, lost, counterfeit or stolen securities. 240.17f-1 Section 240.17f-1... and inquiry with respect to missing, lost, counterfeit or stolen securities. (a) Definitions. For... not represented by an instrument and the transfer of which is registered upon books maintained...

  6. 安徽省中药材出口贸易现状与发展对策--以亳州药材为例%Chinese Herbal Medicine Export Trade Situation and Development Strategy of Anhui Province:A Case Study of Bozhou Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晶; 王萍; 侯博

    2014-01-01

    本文首先简要介绍了我国中药行业的出口现状,然后以安徽亳州为例,介绍安徽省中药材产业发展及出口情况,最后分析安徽省中药材出口贸易的优劣势,对中药出口存在的问题提出合理化建议。%This paper briefly describes the status of the export of Chinese herbal medicine industry, then by taking Bozhou in Anhui for example, describes the development and export of Chinese herbal medicine industry in Anhui Province, and finally analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of Anhui medicines export trade and proposes rational proposals for the problems of Chinese herbal medicine export.

  7. Control of Suspect/Counterfeit and Defective Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheriff, Marnelle L.

    2013-09-03

    This procedure implements portions of the requirements of MSC-MP-599, Quality Assurance Program Description. It establishes the Mission Support Alliance (MSA) practices for minimizing the introduction of and identifying, documenting, dispositioning, reporting, controlling, and disposing of suspect/counterfeit and defective items (S/CIs). employees whose work scope relates to Safety Systems (i.e., Safety Class [SC] or Safety Significant [SS] items), non-safety systems and other applications (i.e., General Service [GS]) where engineering has determined that their use could result in a potential safety hazard. MSA implements an effective Quality Assurance (QA) Program providing a comprehensive network of controls and verification providing defense-in-depth by preventing the introduction of S/CIs through the design, procurement, construction, operation, maintenance, and modification of processes. This procedure focuses on those safety systems, and other systems, including critical load paths of lifting equipment, where the introduction of S/CIs would have the greatest potential for creating unsafe conditions.

  8. Perfume fingerprinting by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry: nearly instantaneous typification and counterfeit detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Renato; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Marques, Lygia Azevedo; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2008-11-01

    Perfume counterfeiting is an illegal worldwide practice that involves huge economic losses and potential consumer risk. EASI is a simple, easily performed and rapidly implemented desorption/ionization technique for ambient mass spectrometry (MS). Herein we demonstrate that EASI-MS allows nearly instantaneous perfume typification and counterfeit detection. Samples are simply sprayed onto a glass rod or paper surface and, after a few seconds of ambient drying, a profile of the most polar components of the perfume is acquired. These components provide unique and reproducible chemical signatures for authentic perfume samples. Counterfeiting is readily recognized since the exact set and relative proportions of the more polar chemicals, sometimes at low concentrations, are unknown or hard to reproduce by the counterfeiters and hence very distinct and variable EASI-MS profiles are observed for the counterfeit samples.

  9. Medicinal Moves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is becoming a new source of growth in China-Africa trade LIU Tao never expected that his traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products would be so warmly welcomed at the annual Canton Fair last year.His surprise came after a large number of African businessmen expressed a keen interest in importing the products.That knowledge left a broad smile on his face.

  10. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience.

  11. [Study on macroscopic and microscopic identification of Saposhnikovia divaricata and its counterfeits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-tao; Xu, An-shun; Zhang, Li-xia; Duan, Bao-zhong; Guan, Yan-hong

    2013-12-01

    To provide an identification method for the roots of Saposhnikovia divaricata and its three counterfeits. Macroscopic identification and microscopic identification of root transverse section and powder were carried out to distinguish these four species. For macroscopic characteristics, Saposhnikoviae Radix and its counterfeits can be distinguished by the head of the residual leaf and sections. As for microscopic identification, the feature was not obvious. But there were some differences to distinguish them,such as the number of cork layer, cambium was evident or not, the number of the xylem catheter,the presence or absence of large oil pipe and longitudinal cracks between the part from cortex to xylem. This is a simple and accurate method for distinguish Saposhnikoviae Radix and its counterfeits.

  12. Application of COI barcode sequence for the identification of snake medicine (Zaocys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuping; Guo, Linong; Luo, Huiming; Yuan, Hang; Chen, Shuyun; Zheng, Jian; Lin, Ruichao

    2016-01-01

    Counterfeits in the medicine market make the authentication of snakes used for Chinese medicine a challenge to Chinese drug regulatory control agencies. This paper explores existing methods that can be used to quickly and accurately distinguish Zaocys (Z. dhumnades) from its counterfeits for routine identification of snake meats in food and drug control laboratories. In this research, the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) fragments of 51 samples from 17 species of snakes were amplified using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The inter- and intra-specific variations of COI sequences were analyzed and compared based on Kimura-2-parameter (K-2P) distances; the minimal interspecific K-2P distance was 0.0934, which was bigger than the maximum intraspecific K-2P distance in Z. dhumnades (0.0523), indicating that Zaocys can be separated from its counterfeits. The Neighbor-Joining (N-J) tree of the snakes was constructed and the results show that snakes of the same species cluster with 100% bootstrap values. Since the Zaocys and its counterfeits are of different species, they can be distinguished using the N-J tree method. Another 10 samples of Zaocys from markets and drug stores were identified at the species level, among which 5 samples were proven to be the counterfeits--Ptyas korros.

  13. Evaluation of the residual solvent content of counterfeit tablets and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Canfyn, M; Sacré, P-Y; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2013-01-01

    A group of counterfeit samples of Viagra and Cialis were screened for their residual solvent content and compared to the content of the genuine products. It was observed that all counterfeit samples had higher residual solvent contents compared to the genuine products. A more diverse range of residual solvents was found as well as higher concentrations. In general these concentrations did not exceed the international imposed maximum limits. Only in a few samples the limits were exceeded. A Projection Pursuit analysis revealed clusters of samples with similar residual solvent content, possibly enabling some future perspectives in forensic research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  15. 网络售假侦防措施研究%Investigation and Prevention Measures of Selling Counterfeit on Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芝玮; 蒋广东

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the network, network transactions plays an irreplaceable role in our daily lives. At the same time, due to the imperfect development of information and network technology, network transactions sellers take the advantage of legal loopholes, and sell counterfeit and shoddy goods on the network. This kind of phenomenon, to a large degree, undermined the legitimate rights and interests of online consumers and is harmful to the establishment of a fair, safe, healthy and harmonious online trading environment. We must seriously consider how to solve the problems effectively in order to promote healthy growth and development of online trading market.%随着网络的高速发展,网络交易在我们的日常生活中俞益发挥着不可替代的作用。但与此同时,由于我国在信息化建设以及网络技术等方面还非常的不完善,网络交易中卖家钻着法律漏洞,利用网络销售假冒伪劣商品行为比比皆是。这在很大程度上,损害了网络消费者的合法权益,也不利于建立公平、安全、健康、和谐的网络交易环境。我们必须认真面对如何有效解决利用网络销售假冒伪劣商品这一难题,以促进网络交易市场的健康成长和良性发展。

  16. Trade Tokens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the pursuit of balanced trade with the U.S., China pours it on where it counts A week ahead of Chinese President Hu Jintao's first state visit to the United States, Beijing and Washington reached a series of agreements intended to ease the bilateral trade imbalance, including resuming trade in U.S. beef, increasing Chinese market access to U.S. medical devices, telecom services and express delivery, and cracking down on intellectual property rights infringements.

  17. Trade Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest trading nation,its largest exporter and second largest importer,China wields extensive influence on global trade and the world economy,China's advantages of course lie not only in the stable foreign trade policy decided by the recently held Central Economic Work Conference,but also in the strength and resilience of a broadbased and fast-growing economy.

  18. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  19. NFC based Inspection and Qualification Management (NIQM) System Preventing Counterfeit and Fraudulent Item

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Choong Koo; Kim, Young Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Design, manufacturing, fabrication, transportation and installation of the devices and equipment for nuclear power plants shall be conducted under the thorough quality assurance program for the nuclear safety. However, from late in the 1980s, NRC began to issue a number of communications alerting licenses to issues involving counterfeit and fraudulent items. A number of incidents identified by the NRC in the 1980s and 1990s catalyzed the US nuclear industry to adopt standard precautions to guard against counterfeit items. The purpose of this paper is to develop the NFC (Near Field Communication) based Inspection and Qualification Management(NIQM) system preventing counterfeit and fraudulent items. NFC is one of the latest wireless communication technologies. As a short-range wireless connectivity technology, NFC offers safe-yet simple and intuitive-communication between electronic devices. As described above, NFC technology can be applied to the inspection and qualification management system very effectively to prevent counterfeit and fraudulent items. In addition, NIQM system can use existing data and information through the interface with legacy system.

  20. 75 FR 36062 - Notice of Enforcement Policy Symposium on Combating Counterfeiting in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... 21st Century AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public symposium. SUMMARY: To focus on the United States Government enforcement policy regarding counterfeit goods involving health and safety concerns and the United States Patent and Trademark...

  1. Diffusion of counterfeit medical products in a developing country: Empirical evidence for Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Lede (Madesta)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBased on detailed shipping figures of Suriname’s main harbour in Paramaribo, we estimate the total shipments (in kilograms) of original and counterfeit medical products for 1996-2008 across five product categories. Using various time series techniques, we document that total cumulative

  2. Instrumentation challenges of a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system for currency counterfeit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Vadakke Matham, Murukeshan

    2015-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging allows the intensity of narrow and adjacent spectral bands over a large spectral range to be recorded, giving rich spectral information for each pixel in the imaged region. The spectral characteristics of each point in the imaged region can thus be detected, which is useful for quantification and classification. Hyperspectral imaging has been used in many applications such as remote sensing, quality assessment of agro-food products, biomedical imaging and document counterfeit application. This paper presents a pushbroom spatial-scanning imager, which gives a higher spectral resolution over a broad spectral range. Although a spatial-scanning imager may be slower due to the need to perform mechanical scanning, such a high spectral resolution is especially important in applications where the capability to perform classification is much more important than speed. The application of this system is demonstrated for currency counterfeit detection applications. The high spectral resolution of a pushbroom imager is able to capture fine spectral details of the samples used in this research, providing important information required for classification. Using this technique, the reflectance is acquired from specific regions of a genuine and counterfeit note. The spectra of the same region from both notes are then compared to distinguish and delineate the differences between them. The spectrum acquired from a genuine note can then be used as a reference from which future comparison can be based upon for identifying currency counterfeit and related relevant applications.

  3. Detection of counterfeit electronic components through ambient mass spectrometry and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Kevin P; Caldwell, Jack; Shelley, Jake T; Ray, Steven J; Hieftje, Gary M

    2014-09-21

    In the last several years, illicit electronic components have been discovered in the inventories of several distributors and even installed in commercial and military products. Illicit or counterfeit electronic components include a broad category of devices that can range from the correct unit with a more recent date code to lower-specification or non-working systems with altered names, manufacturers and date codes. Current methodologies for identification of counterfeit electronics rely on visual microscopy by expert users and, while effective, are very time-consuming. Here, a plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization source, the flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) is used to generate a mass-spectral fingerprint from the surface of a variety of discrete electronic integrated circuits (ICs). Chemometric methods, specifically principal component analysis (PCA) and the bootstrapped error-adjusted single-sample technique (BEAST), are used successfully to differentiate between genuine and counterfeit ICs. In addition, chemical and physical surface-removal techniques are explored and suggest which surface-altering techniques were utilized by counterfeiters.

  4. Study on nondestructive discrimination of genuine and counterfeit wild ginsengs using NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q.; Fan, Y.; Peng, Z.; Ding, H.; Gao, H.

    2012-07-01

    A new approach for the nondestructive discrimination between genuine wild ginsengs and the counterfeit ones by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed. Both discriminant analysis and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) were applied to the model establishment for discrimination. Optimal modeling wavelengths were determined based on the anomalous spectral information of counterfeit samples. Through principal component analysis (PCA) of various wild ginseng samples, genuine and counterfeit, the cumulative percentages of variance of the principal components were obtained, serving as a reference for principal component (PC) factor determination. Discriminant analysis achieved an identification ratio of 88.46%. With sample' truth values as its outputs, a three-layer BP-ANN model was built, which yielded a higher discrimination accuracy of 100%. The overall results sufficiently demonstrate that NIRS combined with BP-ANN classification algorithm performs better on ginseng discrimination than discriminant analysis, and can be used as a rapid and nondestructive method for the detection of counterfeit wild ginsengs in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Recent Developments with Degree Mills: Accreditation Mills and Counterfeit Diploma and Transcript Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This article updates developments regarding Diploma Mills, Accreditation Mills, and Counterfeit Diploma & Transcript operations. It will cover identification & prosecution, to new entities now appearing in these growth industries with annual revenues over one billion dollars. This article will address federal and state laws, a new Federal…

  6. Counterfeit and their museums: observation of the aesthetic categories of the pirate consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneus Trindade Barreto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper arises from discussions about consumption and piracy,analyzing the role of counterfeit museums, and their paradoxes in the way they communicating the ambivalences of meaning e types of commercial piracy; based on Lipovetsky’s thought (2004; 2007, the articles illustrates the debate about consumption and piracy with 3 museum cases in Thailand, Italy and France.

  7. Antimalarial medicine diversion: stock-outs and other public health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bate

    2010-09-01

    diversion, such as increased trade in counterfeit, and expired and otherwise substandard medicines.Keywords: artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, Africa, malaria, public sector

  8. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  9. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this instr

  10. Not All Parts Are Created Equal: The Impact Of Counterfeit Parts In The Air Force Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    diminished manufacturing sources, and frequent material shortages. Combine all these factors and you have a target rich environment for...and you have a target rich environment for counterfeiting that will continue to escalate as long as it is profitable.56 Since the enactment 17 of...Science & Business Media , 2013), 8. 4 Ibid., 9. 5 Jacques S., Gansler, William Lucyshyn, and John Rigilano. Addressing Counterfeit Parts in the DoD

  11. Defense Supplier Base: DOD Should Leverage Ongoing Initiatives in Developing Its Program to Mitigate Risk of Counterfeit Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    materials ranging from titanium used in aircraft engine mounts to Kevlar used in body armor plates. The following illustrates the examples of counterfeit...found that they were wired with the wrong material. Upon discovery , the parts were segregated and did not enter the supply stream. Counterfeit...took ownership of them. Body armor DLA procured non- Kevlar material that was misrepresented as Kevlar and discovered the discrepancy during testing

  12. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  13. On technical barriers to trade of traditional Chinese medicine and two weapon of its breaking and construction: standardization and intellectual property%论中医药技术性贸易壁垒及其破除和构建的两大利器:标准化与知识产权

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国锋; 刘平; 李俊德; 武晓冬; 黄龙祥

    2012-01-01

    Technical barriers to trade of traditional Chinese medicine is the most difficult non-tariff barriers to trade to cross among trade of traditional Chinese medicine in China, and its difficult span is determined by its content, form and substance. Precisely because of its present difficulty to cross, it decided that China is not yet presently a strong country in trade of traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, only on the basis of carefully analysing the causes of difficult span of technical barriers to trade of traditional Chinese medicine which China encounters, can we find effective means and countermeasures of breakout and construction of technical barriers to trade of traditional Chinese medicine.%中医药技术性贸易壁垒是我国中医药贸易最难跨越的非关税贸易壁垒,其难跨越是由其内容、形式及其实质所决定的,也正是因其目前难跨越,才决定了我国目前还不是中医药贸易强国.为解决中医药技术性贸易壁垒问题,文章在仔细分析我国遭遇的中医药技术性贸易壁垒难跨越的原因后,重点讨论了有效破除和构建中医药技术性贸易壁垒的有效手段——两大利器:标准化与知识产权和对应之策.

  14. Trade marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  15. Use of thin-layer chromatography to detect counterfeit sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine tablets with the wrong active ingredient in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuluza, Felix; Kigera, Stephen; Jähnke, Richard W O; Heide, Lutz

    2016-04-14

    Substandard and falsified anti-malarial medicines pose a serious threat to public health, especially in low-income countries. Appropriate technologies for drug quality analysis in resource-limited settings are important for the surveillance of the formal and informal drug market. The feasibility of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with different solvent systems was tested using the GPHF Minilab in a study of the quality of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine tablets in Malawi. Twenty eight samples of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine tablets were collected from randomly selected health facilities of four districts of southern Malawi. A mystery shopper approach was used when collecting samples from illegal street vendors, and an overt approach for the other facilities. Samples were subjected to visual inspection, disintegration testing and TLC analysis. 10 samples were further investigated according to the methods of the US Pharmacopeia using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). One sample was found to be falsified, containing a mixture of paracetamol tablets and co-trimoxazole tablets. These had been repackaged into paper strip packs labelled as a brand of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. TLC with different solvent systems readily proved that these tablets did not comply with their declaration, and provided strong evidence for the active pharmaceutical ingredients which were actually contained. Full pharmacopeial analysis by HPLC confirmed the results suggested by TLC for this sample, and showed two further samples to be of substandard quality. Due to the absence of the declared anti-malarial ingredients and due to the presence of other pharmaceutical ingredients, the identified falsified medicine represents a serious health risk for the population. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) using different solvent systems proved to be a powerful method for the identification of this type of counterfeiting, presenting a simple and affordable technology for use in resource-limited settings.

  16. Consequences of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural boud syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, T.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Andel, van T.

    2014-01-01

    Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS), ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the

  17. Consequences of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural boud syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, T.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Andel, van T.

    2014-01-01

    Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS), ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the l

  18. Discrimination of whisky brands and counterfeit identification by UV-Vis spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Angélica Rocha; Talhavini, Márcio; Vieira, Maurício Leite; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; Braga, Jez Willian Batista

    2017-08-15

    The discrimination of whisky brands and counterfeit identification were performed by UV-Vis spectroscopy combined with partial least squares for discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). In the proposed method all spectra were obtained with no sample preparation. The discrimination models were built with the employment of seven whisky brands: Red Label, Black Label, White Horse, Chivas Regal (12years), Ballantine's Finest, Old Parr and Natu Nobilis. The method was validated with an independent test set of authentic samples belonging to the seven selected brands and another eleven brands not included in the training samples. Furthermore, seventy-three counterfeit samples were also used to validate the method. Results showed correct classification rates for genuine and false samples over 98.6% and 93.1%, respectively, indicating that the method can be helpful for the forensic analysis of whisky samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical security and anti-counterfeiting using 3D screen printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W. H.; Yang, W. K.; Cheng, S. H.; Kuo, M. K.; Lee, H. W.; Chang, C. C.; Jeng, G. R.; Liu, C. P.

    2007-04-01

    This work presents a novel method for optical decrypted key production by screen printing technology. The key is mainly used to decrypt encoded information hidden inside documents containing Moire patterns and integral photographic 3D auto-stereoscopic images as a second-line security file. The proposed method can also be applied as an anti-counterfeiting measure in artistic screening. Decryption is performed by matching the correct angle between the decoding key and the document with a text or a simple geometric pattern. This study presents the theoretical analysis and experimental results of the decoded key production by the best parameter combination of Moire pattern size and screen printing elements. Experimental results reveal that the proposed method can be applied in anti-counterfeit document design for the fast and low-cost production of decryption key.

  20. The role of individual characteristics on consumers’ counterfeit purchasing intentions: research in fashion industry

    OpenAIRE

    Turkyilmaz, Ceyda Aysuna; Uslu, Aypar

    2014-01-01

       Counterfeits   are   one   of   the   most   important   threats   for   organizations   that   have  orijinal   brands   as   their   most   valuable   assets.   In   order   to   increase   their   brands’  value,  organizations  make  several  sacrifices  and  ongoing  investments.  However,  the  demand   for   counterfeits   is   rising   all   around   the   world   which   creates   negative  consequences   for   these   organizations.   In   this   context,   knowing   the   factor...

  1. Social power, product conspicuousness, and the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xuemei; Haque, Sadia; Smith, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (1) to achieve a better understanding of the psychological determinants of the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products (LBCP) through exploring the effects of social power; (2) to extend power literature by identifying boundary conditions of the relationship between social power and compensatory consumption identified by Rucker and Galinsky (2008, J. Consum. Res., 35, 257-267) and Rucker and Galinsky (2009, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 45, 549-555). Findings from three experiments demonstrate that social power holds key insights into understanding consumers' purchase propensity for LBCP; product conspicuousness moderates the effects of social power on purchase propensity for status products; these moderation effects are only observed when the status products are LBCP but not genuine products. This article, therefore, contributes to the literature regarding the demand for counterfeits as well as the social power and compensatory consumption literature.

  2. Invisible marking system by extreme ultraviolet radiation: the new frontier for anti-counterfeiting tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, P.; Bollanti, S.; Flora, F.; Mezi, L.; Murra, D.; Torre, A.; Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R. M.; Vincenti, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a marking technology which uses extreme ultraviolet radiation to write invisible patterns on tags based on alkali fluoride thin films. The shape of the pattern is pre-determined by a mask (in the case of contact lithography) or by a suitable mirror (projection lithography). Tags marked using this method offer a much better protection against fakes than currently available anti-counterfeiting techniques. The complexity and cost of this technology can be tailored to the value of the good to be protected, leaving, on the other hand, the specific reading technique straightforward. So far, we have exploited our invisible marking to tag artworks, identity cards, electrical components, and containers of radioactive wastes. Advantages and limits of this technology are discussed in comparison with the anti-counterfeiting systems available in the market.

  3. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products.

  4. Mass spectrometric analysis of innovator, counterfeit, and follow-on recombinant human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haitao; Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Karger, Barry L; Hancock, William S

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a detailed characterization of recombinant human growth hormone that included the identification of the entire sequence with disulfide linkages as well as subtle modifications by a sensitive liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach using the accurate peptide mass (FTICR MS) and sequence assignment (MS/MS measurement). The extent of oxidation, deamidation, and chain cleavages were measured by the ratio of peak areas of the nonmodified peptide vs. the sum of peak area of the nonmodified and modified peptides in the same LC-MS analysis. The subtle but distinct differences were found in the recombinant human growth from the three manufacturers (the follow-on, counterfeit, and the original innovator products). In relative comparison, the follow-on product had the highest degree of oxidation at methionine residues, followed by the counterfeit product, and the original innovator product had the least amount of oxidation at all three sites with the similar oxidation order. In cases, the oxidation order was Met14 > Met125 > Met170. In contrast, the follow-on had the least amount of deamidation at aspargine (Asn149), and the counterfeit had the highest degree of deamidation at this site. For the chain cleavage, the follow-on product had the highest cleavage occurring at T 10 peptide (between Asn99 and Ser100), the counterfeit had the highest cleavage on T4 peptide, (between Glu30 and Phe31), and the original innovator product with the least amount of cleavages on both sites. These subtle but distinct differences are likely because of nonidentical manufacturing, formulation procedures, and storage conditions.

  5. Analysis of Counterfeit Coated Tablets and Multi-Layer Packaging Materials Using Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Taryn L; Lanzarotta, Adam; Sommer, André J

    2016-06-01

    An effective method for detecting and characterizing counterfeit finished dosage forms and packaging materials is described in this study. Using attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging, suspect tablet coating and core formulations as well as multi-layered foil safety seals, bottle labels, and cigarette tear tapes were analyzed and compared directly with those of a stored authentic product. The approach was effective for obtaining molecular information from structures as small as 6 μm.

  6. Four-Dimensional Screening Anti-Counterfeiting Pattern by Inkjet Printed Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Zhang, Huacheng; Su, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2016-10-06

    A four-dimensional screening anti-counterfeiting QR code composed of differently shaped photonic crystal (PC) dots has been fabricated that could display four images depending on different lighting conditions. By controlling the rheology of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), three kinds of PC dots could be sequentially integrated into one pattern using the layer-by-layer printing strategy. The information can be encoded and stored in shapes and read out by the difference in optical properties.

  7. A New Security Paradigm for Anti-Counterfeiting: Guidelines and an Implementation Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Mikko

    Product counterfeitingand piracy continue to plague brand and trademark owners across industry sectors. This chapter analyses the reasons for ineffectiveness of past technical anti-counterfeitingstrategies and formulates managerial guidelines for effective use of RFID in anti-counterfeiting. An implementation roadmap toward secure authentication of products tagged with EPC Gen-2 tags is proposed and possible supply chain locations for product checks are discussed.

  8. Consumer behavior toward counterfeiting: Exploring consumer's purchase intention after design piracy - Case Marimekko

    OpenAIRE

    Kajo, Zinaida

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is based on the Finnish design company Marimekko, and its case about plagiarism accusations, which began on May 2013. The study is cross-sectional. Based on a careful literature examination, the research model was constructed. The role of consumer ?s attitude toward counterfeits, brand trust and affective identification, and their influence on future purchase is examined. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the purchase intention of Marimekko produ...

  9. Medicinal plants traded in the open-air markets in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an overview on their botanical diversity and toxicological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Leitão; Suzana Guimarães Leitão; Viviane Stern da Fonseca-Kruel; Ines Machline Silva; Karine Martins

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used for many years and are the source of new active substances and new drugs of pharmaceutical interest. The popular knowledge contained in the open-air markets is studied through urban ethnobotany, and is a good source of information for ethnobotanical research. In this context, we surveyed the literature on works concerning open-air markets in the State of Rio de Janeiro to gather knowledge of the commercialized plants therein. A literature search resulted in ten...

  10. 假冒伪劣常用药品的外观鉴别分析%Appearance Discriminant Analysis of Counterfeit Drugs Commonly Used

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美菊

    2015-01-01

    药品相比其他商品是一种较为特殊的产品,药品进入市场时需严格保证其质量及对人体用药后的安全性。药品抽检为药品监督管理中一项必不可少的工作程序,药品抽检的准确度可直接影响药品监督管理工作。因此,药品抽检人员需掌握简便、无需仪器分析的鉴别方法,通过药品的外观对其进行鉴别是极为重要的,从而加强基层药品管理员鉴别假冒伪劣药品的能力及经营商、药品质检人员的查假技巧,以提高伪劣药品检出率。%Drugs compared to other commodities is a more special product, when drugs into the market need to strictly maintain its quality and on the human body after administration of security. Drug sampling is an essential working, the accuracy of sampling drugs can directly affect the drug supervision and management. Therefore, drug sampling staff need to master simple identiifcation method without instrumental analysis, by the appearance of the drug is extremely important to identify them, thereby strengthening grass-roots medicines administrator the ability to identify counterfeit drugs and operators, drug quality control personnel charles false tips to improve the detection rate of counterfeit drugs.

  11. Survey of counterfeit melamine tableware available on the market in Thailand, and its migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovarodom, N; Tangmongkollert, P; Jinkarn, T; Chonhenchob, V

    2011-02-01

    A simple measurement of sample density by adopting the principles of buoyancy could help screen counterfeit melamine ware if the density was below 1.50 g cm⁻³. However, samples with a density exceeding 1.50 g cm⁻³ were not necessarily made from melamine formaldehyde. FTIR analysis showed that all counterfeit products were made of urea formaldehyde and coated on the food-contact side with melamine formaldehyde, a tactic probably intended to cover up the true product features. The overall migration of real and counterfeit melamine samples complied with both European Union and Thai regulations, as the exposure layers in both cases were melamine formaldehyde. Formaldehyde migration failed to comply with Thai standards, but this was not the case for European Union standards. However, the results showed a significant inconsistency between individual items of the same brand and between individual exposures of the same test specimen. This indicated the inherent inhomogeneity between individual items, which mainly resulted from the manufacturing process: for instance, insufficient temperature and time to obtain complete polycondensation of monomers. Therefore, it is recommended that constant surveillance be conducted on melamine articles available in the marketplace in terms of quality and safety.

  12. Inkjet Printing Based Mono-layered Photonic Crystal Patterning for Anti-counterfeiting Structural Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyunmoon; Song, Kyungjun; Ha, Dogyeong; Kim, Taesung

    2016-08-01

    Photonic crystal structures can be created to manipulate electromagnetic waves so that many studies have focused on designing photonic band-gaps for various applications including sensors, LEDs, lasers, and optical fibers. Here, we show that mono-layered, self-assembled photonic crystals (SAPCs) fabricated by using an inkjet printer exhibit extremely weak structural colors and multiple colorful holograms so that they can be utilized in anti-counterfeit measures. We demonstrate that SAPC patterns on a white background are covert under daylight, such that pattern detection can be avoided, but they become overt in a simple manner under strong illumination with smartphone flash light and/or on a black background, showing remarkable potential for anti-counterfeit techniques. Besides, we demonstrate that SAPCs yield different RGB histograms that depend on viewing angles and pattern densities, thus enhancing their cryptographic capabilities. Hence, the structural colorations designed by inkjet printers would not only produce optical holograms for the simple authentication of many items and products but also enable a high-secure anti-counterfeit technique.

  13. Medicinal plants traded in the open-air markets in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an overview on their botanical diversity and toxicological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Leitão

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for many years and are the source of new active substances and new drugs of pharmaceutical interest. The popular knowledge contained in the open-air markets is studied through urban ethnobotany, and is a good source of information for ethnobotanical research. In this context, we surveyed the literature on works concerning open-air markets in the State of Rio de Janeiro to gather knowledge of the commercialized plants therein. A literature search resulted in ten studies with 376 listed species, distributed in 94 families and 273 genera. Asteraceae family had the greater representation, followed by Lamiaceae and Fabaceae. Solanum was the most frequent genus. Two hundred and twenty four species could be considered potentially toxic or potentially interact with other drugs/medicines. Eighteen species are referred as "not for use during pregnancy", and 3 "not for use while nursing". These results are a source of concern since in Brazil, as it is worldwide, there is the notion that plants can never be harmful. The results for the Sørensen Coefficient showed greater similarity between works performed in very close study areas. Other studies presented low similarity, mainly because of the difficulty in plant identification or a very specific focus in methodology.

  14. Epidemic Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerner, Lars; Severgnini, Battista

    This paper studies the spread of the Black Death as a proxy for the intensity of medieval trade flows between 1346 and 1351. The Black Death struck most areas of Europe and the wider Mediterranean. Based on a modied version of the gravity model, we estimate the speed (in kilometers per day...

  15. Silver and tin plating as medieval techniques of producing counterfeit coins and their identification by means of micro-XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložek, M.; Trojek, T.

    2017-08-01

    Archaeological surveys and metal detector prospecting yield a great amount of coins from the medieval period. Naturally, some of these are counterfeit which an experienced numismatist can determine without using chemical methods. The production of counterfeit coins in the middle ages took place in castles, caves or other remote areas where waste from this activity can still be found today - copper sheets, technical ceramics and counterfeit coins. Until recently, it has been assumed that medieval counterfeit coins are made by silver-plating copper blanks using an amalgam. However, the performed analyses reveal that there are many more techniques of counterfeiting of coins. Other techniques were based on e.g. tin amalgam plating of the blanks or alloying so-called white metal with silver-like appearance from which the coins were minted. Current chemical analyses indicate that the coins were often tinned by hot dipping with no amalgamation. Micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis has been chosen as a suitable non-destructive method to identify present chemical elements in investigated artifacts and to quantify their concentrations. In addition, a quick technique telltale the plating was applied. This technique utilizes the detected fluorescence ratio Kα/Kβ of copper, which is the main ingredient of a lot of historical metallic materials.

  16. Unsustainable colletion and unfair trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Olsen, Carsten Smith

    2007-01-01

    . The commercial medicinal plant resource base is becoming ever more degraded as a consequence of collection; II. The medicinal plants are an open-access resource; III. Cultivation can contribute to conservation of commercially collected medicinal plant species; and IV. Medicinal plant harvesters are cheated...... and conservation. This has resulted in a large number of publications and development activities, ranging from small NGO projects to new government policies. Through a review of 119 references from Nepal, 4 common assumptions regarding the medicinal plant collection and trade have been identified: I...... in the online version of this article at http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-006-9039-4 and is accessible for authorized users....

  17. The hazard of the counterfeit E 1' signal in quartz to the ESR dating of fault movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Shin; Schwarcz, Henry P.

    We have previously found (Toyoda and Schwarcz, in press) that γ-ray irradiation of granitic quartz produces a distinct ESR signal which overlaps the E 1' centre signal; this signal is removed by a heat treatment at 170°C for 15 min. Here we report the presence of this 'counterfeit' E 1[' signal in irradiated samples from fault gouge taken from the Hayward fault California. The contribution of the counterfeit E 1' signal to the total apparent E 1' centre signal intensity is significant and appears to account for most of the growth of the combined signal with irradiation. The intensity of the 'real' E 1' centre signal rises abruptly between irradiation doses of 300 and 1000 Gy, after removing the contribution of the counterfeit signal by heating.

  18. The economics of counterfeit Avastin: a geospatial and statistical analysis of demographic correlates to FDA warning letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Mackey, Tim K; Stigler, Paula

    2015-07-01

    In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sent warning notices to clinics and medical practitioners that may have purchased or administered counterfeited versions of the angiogenesis cancer drug Avastin Genentech, South San Francisco, California, USA. The purpose of this study was to explore potential differences in demographic, economic, and healthcare coverage characteristics between areas that received these counterfeit warning notices and those that did not receive notices. The aims of this study are to improve future counterfeit drug surveillance and better assess potential risk factors associated with counterfeit cancer drugs. Addresses for warning notices sent to healthcare practitioners were obtained from the FDA and then geocoded using arcgis. Variables chosen for statistical and geospatial analyses were then identified and assessed based on their potential association with Avastin access and affordability. These variables included demographic and economic factors (percent below the poverty line, percent uninsured, and median household income) and healthcare coverage data (percent Medicare enrollees) available from the US Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. All variables were analyzed at the US county level. Our analysis uncovered 401 distinct US counties where the FDA sent at least one counterfeit Avastin warning notice. A hot spot analysis of notices and variables was carried out using arcgis software to identify and visualize risk features with high and low values of clustering. In a multiple logistic regression model reassessing visually observed geospatial associations, the receipt of a notice was not significantly associated with percent uninsured (p = 0.3121), but was significantly associated with percent Medicare enrollees (OR = 0.874 per 10% increase; p = 0.0121), individuals below federal poverty line (OR = 2.990 per 10% increase; p economic and demographic factors are potentially associated with counterfeit Avastin

  19. Predicting Intention to Purchase Counterfeit Products: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shine Pintor S. Patiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to test the ability of an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB to predict purchase intention of counterfeit products. Value consciousness and past behavior are variables that added into the TPB. Three hundred and fifty respondents completed the research questionnaires. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents by email and drop-off/pick-up method. The data then analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM. All Hypothesis were supported. This research also provides the managerial implication and suggestion for future research.

  20. Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC Drugs: Time to Take a Bitter Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Mani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC drugs are an emerging public health concern in India. With one of the huge pharmaceutical sectors in the world, India has a varied prevalence of SSSFC drugs ranging from 0.04% to 34% according to various studies. Apart from severe health consequences, SSSFC drugs also weaken community's trust in the health care system. India is tackling the epidemic of SSSFC drugs through various existing and new regulatory measures. Considering the calamitous consequences of this silent epidemic, it is time to prescribe a bitter pill.

  1. Cooperation Agreement between the European Central Bank and Europol for Combating Euro Counterfeiting. Some Critical Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Birzu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper there has been examined the Agreement between the European Police Office (Europol and the European Central Bank (ECB for preventing and combating euro counterfeiting, focusing on certain provisions which take into account the aim and the exchange of information between the two European institutions. The novelty of this paper relates to the achieved examination, where it is highlighted the importance of European legal instrument and the critical opinions and proposals for improving the agreement. The paper can be useful to academics and practitioners who conduct their activity within this area.

  2. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  3. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  4. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  5. Near-infrared microscopy imaging for quantitative analysis of active component in counterfeit imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Cao, Jinli; Ye, Shengfeng; Duan, Jia; Wu, Lijun; Li, Qianqian; Min, Shungeng

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) imaging systems simultaneously record spectral and spatial information. Near-infrared imaging was applied to the identification of imidacloprid in both artificially mixed samples and commercial formulation in this study. The distributions of technical imidacloprid and additive in the heterogeneous counterfeit were obtained by the relationship imaging (RI) mode. Furthermore a series of samples which consisted of different contents of uniformly distributed imidacloprid were prepared and three data cubes were generated at each content. Extracted spectra from those images were imported to establish the partial least squares model. The model's results were: R2 99.21%, RMSEC 0.0306, RMSECV 0.0183, RMSECV/mean value 0.0348 and RSEP 0.0784. The prediction relative error of commercial formulation is 0.0680, indicating the predicted value was correlated to the real content. Lastly the chemical value reconstruction image of imidacloprid formulation products was calculated by MATLAB program. NIR microscopy imaging manifests herein its potential in qualitatively identifying the active component in counterfeit pesticide and quantifying the active component in scanned image.

  6. Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnaeni,, E-mail: isnaeni@lipi.go.id; Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Building 442, Kawasan Puspiptek, South Tangerang,Banten 15314 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.

  7. Drug-laden 3D biodegradable label using QR code for anti-counterfeiting of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jie; Liu, Ran

    2016-06-01

    Wiping out counterfeit drugs is a great task for public health care around the world. The boost of these drugs makes treatment to become potentially harmful or even lethal. In this paper, biodegradable drug-laden QR code label for anti-counterfeiting of drugs is proposed that can provide the non-fluorescence recognition and high capacity. It is fabricated by the laser cutting to achieve the roughness over different surface which causes the difference in the gray levels on the translucent material the QR code pattern, and the micro mold process to obtain the drug-laden biodegradable label. We screened biomaterials presenting the relevant conditions and further requirements of the package. The drug-laden microlabel is on the surface of the troches or the bottom of the capsule and can be read by a simple smartphone QR code reader application. Labeling the pill directly and decoding the information successfully means more convenient and simple operation with non-fluorescence and high capacity in contrast to the traditional methods.

  8. Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnaeni, Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha

    2016-03-01

    We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.

  9. 31 CFR 100.18 - Counterfeit notes to be marked; “redemption” of notes wrongfully so marked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counterfeit notes to be marked; âredemptionâ of notes wrongfully so marked. 100.18 Section 100.18 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Other Information § 100.18...

  10. Public health concerns for anti-obesity medicines imported for personal use through the internet: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakanishi, Yoko; Yoshida, Naoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Kimura, Kazuko

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the circulation of anti-obesity medicines via the internet and their quality. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Internet pharmacies and pharmaceutical suppliers accessible from Japan. Participants Anti-obesity medicines were purchased using relevant keywords on Japanese Google search engine. Blogs and advertisement-only sites were excluded. Primary and secondary outcome measures The authenticity of the samples was investigated in collaboration with the manufacturers of the samples and medicine regulatory authorities. Quality of the samples was assessed by pharmacopoeial analyses using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results 82 samples were purchased from 36 internet sites. Approximately half of the sites did not mention a physical address, and 45% of the samples did not contain a package insert. A variety of custom declarations were made for the shipments of the samples: personal health items, supplement, medicines, general merchandise, tea and others. Among 82 samples, 52 samples were analysed to check their pharmacopoeial quality. Authenticity responses were received from only five of 20 manufacturing companies. According to the pharmacopoeial analyses and authenticity investigation, three of the samples were identified as counterfeits and did not contain any active ingredients. Two of these samples were confirmed as counterfeits by the manufacturer of the authentic products. The manufacturer of the other sample did not respond to our request for an authenticity check even after several communication attempts. These counterfeit cases have been reported at the rapid alert system of Western Pacific Region of the WHO. Conclusions Many counterfeit and unapproved anti-obesity medicines may be easily bypassing regulatory checks during shipping and are widely circulated through the internet. Regulatory authorities should take measures to prevent these medicines from entering countries to safeguard their citizens. PMID:22581794

  11. The Ningxia Trade Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    High-level forum helps strengthen China-Arab trade and economic cooperation Trade deals were plentiful at the first China-Arab States Economic and Trade Forum last month, with over 190 deals on investment cooperation

  12. PREFACE: Anti-counterfeit Image Analysis Methods (A Special Session of ICSXII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, B.; Fournel, T.

    2007-06-01

    The International Congress for Stereology is dedicated to theoretical and applied aspects of stochastic tools, image analysis and mathematical morphology. A special emphasis on `anti-counterfeit image analysis methods' has been given this year for the XIIth edition (ICSXII). Facing the economic and social threat of counterfeiting, this devoted session presents recent advances and original solutions in the field. A first group of methods are related to marks located either on the product (physical marks) or on the data (hidden information) to be protected. These methods concern laser fs 3D encoding and source separation for machine-readable identification, moiré and `guilloche' engraving for visual verification and watermarking. Machine-readable travel documents are well-suited examples introducing the second group of methods which are related to cryptography. Used in passports for data authentication and identification (of people), cryptography provides some powerful tools. Opto-digital processing allows some efficient implementations described in the papers and promising applications. We would like to thank the reviewers who have contributed to a session of high quality, and the authors for their fine and hard work. We would like to address some special thanks to the invited lecturers, namely Professor Roger Hersch and Dr Isaac Amidror for their survey of moiré methods, Prof. Serge Vaudenay for his survey of existing protocols concerning machine-readable travel documents, and Dr Elisabet Pérez-Cabré for her presentation on optical encryption for multifactor authentication. We also thank Professor Dominique Jeulin, President of the International Society for Stereology, Professor Michel Jourlin, President of the organizing committee of ICSXII, for their help and advice, and Mr Graham Douglas, the Publisher of Journal of Physics: Conference Series at IOP Publishing, for his efficiency. We hope that this collection of papers will be useful as a tool to further

  13. The Identification Of Ginseng and How to Recognize Its counterfeit Species%人参及其伪品的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解兆龙

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. It is the most important TMC which can supplement qi and blood in emergency. It is helpful to recover the qi of primordial,lung,spleen, heart and kidney. It was recorded in Shen Nong's Herbal Classic and ranked as top grade. Ginseng are the roots of Panax Ginseng CAMey,that are recorded in China Pharmacopeia in all versions. The counterfeit spe-cies including:the roots of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb and Phytolacca americana;Physochlaine infundibularis Kuang,Vigna vexillata( L. );Benth. ,Talinum paniculatum( Jacq. );Gaertn. ,Lactuca indica L. and Platyc-odon grandiflorum( Jacq. ). It can be identified by means of morphological identification,microscopical identi-fication etc. They are both effective method for its quality control.%人参为常用中药,既能大补元气、复脉固脱,为拯危就脱要药;又能补肺脾心肾气虚证,为补气要药。人参最早载于《神农本草经》,列为上品。《中华人民共和国药典》历次版本均有收载,其植物来源为五加科植物人参的干燥根。市场上伪品有:商陆科植物商陆或垂序商陆的干燥根、茄科植物华山参的干燥根、豆科植物野豇豆的干燥根、马齿苋科植物锥花土人参的干燥根、菊科植物山窝苣的干燥根、桔梗科植物桔梗的干燥根等。目前,常采用性状鉴别,显微鉴别等方法鉴别其真伪,为人参质量控制提供参考,及时有效地把住质量关。

  14. “Fake product? Why not!” Attitudes toward the consumption of counterfeit goods in CEE as shown on the example of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Kasl Kollmannová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the increasing consumption trend of counterfeit goods in the countries of CEE and on the consequences for the global market. Counterfeiting is not longer typical only for the luxury market, where branding together with genuine source plays a crucial role and the business of top luxury is rising during the crisis. New categories of counterfeit goods are emerging constantly, including electronics and computer parts, pharmaceuticals, even FMCG such as food, beverages or cosmetics. This article presents data from GfK research on attitudes towards counterfeit goods in Slovakia and puts it to the context of other CEE countries. It gives clear managerial implications on how to communicate the importance of originality, benefits for the consumer when consuming original goods and social marketing of ethical consumption.

  15. Monitoring the Quality of Medicines: Results from Africa, Asia, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S.; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M.; Lukulay, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003–2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines. PMID:25897073

  16. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  17. Fingerprint detection on counterfeit US dollar banknotes: the importance of preliminary paper examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoury, Myriam; Cohen, Drorit; Himberg, Kimmo; Qvintus-Leino, Pia; Saari, Terhi; Almog, Joseph

    2004-09-01

    Two seizures of counterfeit 100 US dollar bills related to the same indicative number were submitted for processing of latent fingerprints. On one group of notes, identifiable fingerprints could be detected by the routine application of amino acid reagents. In the second case, this technique gave no results, even on deliberately deposited prints. Fingerprints could be revealed, however, by cyanoacrylate fuming followed by magnetic powder. Comprehensive paper analysis showed that banknotes from both seizures differed remarkably by chemical composition as well as paper macroscopic properties. The difference in surface free energy (related to surface tension) of the banknotes in the two groups seemed to be the major factor responsible for the great variance in fingerprint detectability.

  18. From Redemptive Truth to Infernal Lie: The Counterfeit Emancipation of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we take into consideration Richard Rorty’s study on the decline of redemptive truth as emblematic for postmodern abdication from truth and its practical consequences. The idea of a terminal point in our quest is shared according to this view by religion, philosophy and science alike. Knowledge of human nature and the quest for a solution to its problems would reflect dangerous redemptive thinking. It is only literature that can escape this common dogma of redemptive truth. Our argument is that the actual shift is on truth rather than on redemption, because Rorty endorses his own redemption-recipe through an imaginative emancipation based on literature. We argue that what he offers as alternative to millennia of religion, philosophy and science is nothing but counterfeit redemption.

  19. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsack Latsamy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines in the Lao PDR (Laos. Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS, X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Results Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9% sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68–97% sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8% fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26–115.7 mg/tablet. Conclusion This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention.

  20. Low-cost, high-speed identification of counterfeit antimalarial drugs on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesdjojo, Myra T; Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Dunfield, Elizabeth M; Remcho, Vincent T

    2014-12-01

    With the emergence of artesunate antimalarial counterfeiting in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, we present the production of a rapid, inexpensive and simple colorimetric-based testing kit for the detection of counterfeit artesunate in order to preserve life and prevent the development of multi-drug resistant malaria. The kit works based on paper microfluidics which offer several advantages over conventional microfluidics, and has great potential to generate inexpensive, easy-to-use, rapid and disposable diagnostic devices. Here, we have developed a colorimetric assay that is specific to artesunate and turns yellow upon addition of the sample. The test can be done within minutes, and allows for a semi-quantitative analysis of the artesunate tablets by comparing the developed yellow color on the paper test to a color-coded key chart that comes with the kit. A more accurate and precise analysis is done by utilizing a color analyzer on an iPhone camera that measures the color intensity of the developed color on the paper chip. A digital image of the chip was taken and analyzed by measuring the average gray intensity of the color developed on the paper circle. A plot of the artesunate concentration versus the average gray scale intensity was generated. Results show that the intensity of the yellow color developed on the paper test was consistent and proportional to the amount of artesunate present in the sample. With artesunate concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 20mg/mL, a linear calibration plot was obtained with a detection limit of 0.98 mg/mL.

  1. Enhanced anti-counterfeiting measures for additive manufacturing: coupling lanthanide nanomaterial chemical signatures with blockchain technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Zachary C.; Stephenson, David E.; Christ, Josef F.; Pope, Timothy R.; Arey, Bruce W.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2017-08-18

    The significant rise of additive manufacturing (AM) in recent years is in part due to the open sourced nature of the printing processes and reduced cost and capital barriers relative to traditional manufacturing. However, this democratization of manufacturing spurs an increased demand for producers and end-users to verify the authenticity and quality of individual parts. To this end, we introduce an anti-counterfeiting method composed of first embedding engineered nanomaterials into features of a 3D-printed part followed by non-destructive interrogation of these features to quantify a chemical signature profile. The part specific chemical signature data is then linked to a securitized, distributed, and time-stamped blockchain ledger entry. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, lanthanide-aspartic acid nanoscale coordination polymers (Ln3+- Asp NCs) / poly(lactic) acid (PLA) composites were formulated and transformed into a filament feedstock for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. In the present case, a quick-response (QR) code containing the doped Ln3+-Asp NCs was printed using a dual-extruder FDM printer into pure PLA parts. The QR code provides a searchable reference to an Ethereum-based blockchain entry. The QR code physical features also serve as defined areas to probe the signatures arising from the embedded Ln3+-Asp NCs. Visible fluorescence emission with UV-excitation was quantified in terms of color using a smartphone camera and incorporated into blockchain entries. Ultimately, linking unique chemical signature data to blockchain databases is anticipated to make the costs of counterfeiting AM materials significantly more prohibitive and transactions between those in the supply chain more trustworthy.

  2. [Theoretical and experimental aspects of detection of counterfeit and inferior quality products among pharmaceuticals produced from oilplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, A N; Popkov, V A

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of their own empiric studies, the authors substantiate principle approaches to and criteria of the detection of counterfeit and inferior quality products among pharmaceuticals and biologically active food supplements produced of oilplants with a non-specific composition of fatty acid acylglyceroles. To detect counterfeit and inferior quality products effectively, the authors offer the optimal sequence of procedures including the following steps: organoleptic analysis; measurement of the main compositional and qualitative parameters (density, refractive index, saponification number, acid number, iodine number, oxidability index, percentage of unsaponifiables, and total content of carotenes converting into beta-carotene); theoretical calculation of the composition of fatty acids and glyceroles based on the empiric compositional and qualitative values, including the calculation of average relative molecular mass of the fatty acids, and the proportion of acylglyceroles and glycerin in the objects.

  3. Lithographically encoded polymer microtaggant using high-capacity and error-correctable QR code for anti-counterfeiting of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangkwon; Bae, Hyung Jong; Kim, Junhoi; Shin, Sunghwan; Choi, Sung-Eun; Lee, Sung Hoon; Kwon, Sunghoon; Park, Wook

    2012-11-20

    A QR-coded microtaggant for the anti-counterfeiting of drugs is proposed that can provide high capacity and error-correction capability. It is fabricated lithographically in a microfluidic channel with special consideration of the island patterns in the QR Code. The microtaggant is incorporated in the drug capsule ("on-dose authentication") and can be read by a simple smartphone QR Code reader application when removed from the capsule and washed free of drug.

  4. Is That a Nike? The Purchase of Counterfeit Sporting Goods through the Lens of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Weisheng Chiu; Ho Keat Leng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the consumer behavior related to the purchase of counterfeit sporting goods (CSGs) based on the theory of planned behavior. The results showed that consumers’ attitude, subjective norm, and brand consciousness were predictive of purchase intention, whereas perceived behavioral control had no influence on purchase intention. Moreover, both risk averseness and sport involvement negatively led to consumers’ attitude toward CSGs. The paper ends with a disc...

  5. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental...

  6. Rapid screening of anti-infective drug products for counterfeits using Raman spectral library-based correlation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loethen, Yvette L; Kauffman, John F; Buhse, Lucinda F; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2015-11-07

    A new spectral library-based approach that is capable of screening a diverse set of finished drug products using only an active pharmaceutical ingredient spectral library is described in this paper. This approach obviates the need for a comprehensive drug product library, thereby streamlining the use of spectral library-based tests for anti-counterfeiting efforts, specifically to target finished drug products containing the wrong active ingredient or no active ingredient at all. Both laboratory-based and portable spectrometers are used in the study to demonstrate the usefulness and transferability of the spectral correlation method for field screening. The spectral correlation between the active pharmaceutical ingredient and finished drug product spectra is calculated using both full spectral analysis and targeted spectral regions analysis of six types of antimalarial, antibiotic and antiviral products. The spectral regions were determined using a moving window spectral correlation algorithm, and the use of specific spectral regions is shown to be crucial in screening finished drug products using only the active pharmaceutical ingredient spectrum. This comprehensive screening spectral correlation method is tested on seven different validation samples from different manufacturers as those used to develop the method, as well as simulated counterfeits which were prepared to mimic falsified drugs containing no active ingredient. The spectral correlation method is successful in correctly identifying 100% of the authentic products and simulated counterfeit samples tested.

  7. Are counterfeit or substandard anti-infective products the cause of treatment failure in Papua New Guinea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anita; Strauch, Stefanie; Lauwo, Jackson; Jähnke, Richard W O; Dressman, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    Counterfeit and substandard products present a big challenge to any national plan or policy devised to improve public health. Poor quality drug products are especially a problem in lower income countries where product information and drug regulation enforcement are scant or absent. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of amodiaquine and amoxicillin formulations sold in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and to detect the presence of counterfeit or substandard drugs in circulation, if any. Fourteen samples, collected from five registered pharmacies in Port Moresby, PNG, were subjected to visual inspection, quality control tests, and verification of product authenticity. The quality control tests included weight variation, content uniformity, thin layer chromatography, and dissolution. None of the products complied with all of the evaluation criteria. Two products, one of which was purportedly distributed by a company which proved to be nonexistent, contained no detectable amodiaquine. The present study confirms that counterfeit and substandard amodiaquine and amoxicillin products are finding their way into the distribution chain in Port Moresby, PNG. This quality problem with anti-infective products is of great concern, as it not only exposes patients to poor quality products but also fosters the development of resistant bacterial strains. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. CUE: counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based authentication via oculomotor plant characteristics and complex eye movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Karpov, Alexey; Holland, Corey D.

    2012-06-01

    The widespread use of computers throughout modern society introduces the necessity for usable and counterfeit-resistant authentication methods to ensure secure access to personal resources such as bank accounts, e-mail, and social media. Current authentication methods require tedious memorization of lengthy pass phrases, are often prone to shouldersurfing, and may be easily replicated (either by counterfeiting parts of the human body or by guessing an authentication token based on readily available information). This paper describes preliminary work toward a counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based (CUE) authentication method. CUE does not require any passwords (improving the memorability aspect of the authentication system), and aims to provide high resistance to spoofing and shoulder-surfing by employing the combined biometric capabilities of two behavioral biometric traits: 1) oculomotor plant characteristics (OPC) which represent the internal, non-visible, anatomical structure of the eye; 2) complex eye movement patterns (CEM) which represent the strategies employed by the brain to guide visual attention. Both OPC and CEM are extracted from the eye movement signal provided by an eye tracking system. Preliminary results indicate that the fusion of OPC and CEM traits is capable of providing a 30% reduction in authentication error when compared to the authentication accuracy of individual traits.

  9. 防伪纺织面料的发展%The development of anti-counterfeiting textile fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明程; 李青山; 李君; 洪伟

    2014-01-01

    纺织品是日常必需的消费品,其品牌商标的保护有着重要的现实意义。简述近年来防伪纺织品的发展,介绍一种新型纺织品织造防伪技术,该技术利用提花纱罗绞织技术,在满足面料美观、不影响手感的情况下将特定标志织入织物,提高了面料的艺术附加值、科技含量及防伪水平。%The textile fabric is an essential daily necessity whose brand protection is important and meaningful . The development of anti-counterfeit textiles in recent years was described .A new type of textile weaving anti-counterfeiting technology was introduced .In this technology , the spinning jacquard leno was used to make the specific logo to be woven into the fabric without sacrificing its appearance and handling . The technology added art value of this craft fabric , scientific and technological content as well as anti-counterfeiting level to craft fabric .

  10. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...

  11. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship...

  12. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  13. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  14. Volume, value and floristic diversity of Gabon's medicinal plant markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Towns, A.M.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Guinee, L.; Boer, H.; Andel, van T.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance - African medicinal plant markets offer insight into commercially important species, salient health concerns in the region, and possible conservation priorities. Still, little quantitative data is available on the trade in herbal medicine in Central Africa. The aim of

  15. Volume, value and floristic diversity of Gabon's medicinal plant markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Towns, A.M.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Guinee, L.; Boer, H.; Andel, van T.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance - African medicinal plant markets offer insight into commercially important species, salient health concerns in the region, and possible conservation priorities. Still, little quantitative data is available on the trade in herbal medicine in Central Africa. The aim of

  16. Generic medicines: Perceptions of Physicians in Basrah, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adheed Khalid Sharrad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of cheaper generic medicines is a strategy promotedin many countries to reduce rising health care costs. The aimof this study was to explore factors affecting generic medicineprescribing by physicians in Basrah, Iraq.MethodologyA purposive sample of ten physicians practicing in Basrahwas interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide.ResultsAnalysis of the interviews identified seven major themes:medicine prescribing practice, knowledge of therapeuticequivalency of generic medicine, patients’ acceptance ofgeneric medicine, counterfeit medicine, drug informationsource and effect of drug advertising on medicines choice,brand substitution practice by community pharmacists, and,finally strategies to improve generic medicine usefulness.Participants identified helpful strategies to increase genericprescribing including; physician and patient education ongeneric medicine; persuading physicians about the safety andefficacy of generic medicines; and finally educating seniormedical students on generic prescribing.ConclusionThe data suggest that participants were enthusiasticabout prescribing generic medicines. However physiciansinsist that pharmacists should not be allowed tosubstitute generic drugs without prior approval ofdoctors.

  17. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  18. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  19. The International Trade Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different ...

  20. Influence of Personality Traits on Consumers’ Intention to Buy the Fashion Counterfeits: An Empirical Investigation with Special Reference to Young Consumers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic purpose of this study was to investigate empirically that how young consumers’ intention to buy the counterfeited fashion products is empowered by selected personality traits, such as fashion consciousness, public self-consciousness, ethical obligation and ethical judgment. The research was carried out on a sample of N = 269 respondents of different age groups and gender. Data for this study were collected by using a structured questionnaire containing six tiers, where Section-I contains seven statements using Likert scale, to assay the consumers’ degree of fashion consciousness. Section-II deals with the questions related to the consumers’ degree of public self consciousness. Section-III and IV contains two and three statements respectively to measure the consumers’ degree of ethical obligation and ethical judgment. Two items were used in Section-V to measure the consumers’ intention to buy the fashion counterfeits in the future. Questions related to the consumers’ demographical profile were asked in Section-VI. One-Way ANOVA was employed to test the proposed hypothesis. To determine among which groups the true differences prevail, the Duncan Multiple Range Test was performed. It was disclosed that the young consumers with high level of fashion consciousness and public self consciousness are more interested in buying the counterfeited fashion products. On the ethical grounds, it was divulged that the consumers who think it as an unethical practice to buy the counterfeited products are less likely to buy the counterfeited brands.

  1. 浅谈假冒伪劣元器件的规避方法%Research on how to identify the fake and counterfeit components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田笑; 孙悦; 黄姣英; 高成

    2012-01-01

    针对当前大量假冒元器件被用户错误选用的情况,文中分析了假冒元器件的种类和危害,介绍了DPA的发展情况及其在检查假冒电子元器件中的应用,结合NASA公布的企业发现假冒元器件的途径,对整机设备客户如何规避假冒元器件提出了一些建议,以期对假冒元器件的错误选用起到一定的遏制作用。%Aiming at the situation that a large number of counterfeit components are selected by users, this article analyzes the type and damage of counterfeit components and elaborates the development and application of DPA. In order to resist counterfeit components, some suggestions that how to identify counterfeit components for whole-equipment customers are proposed according to the methods that counterfeit components identification for enterprise noticed by NASA.

  2. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  3. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....

  4. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  5. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  6. Development and validation of an improved HPLC method for the control of potentially counterfeit isometamidium products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, G J; Allanson, A; Mackay, S P; Cannavan, A; Tettey, J N A

    2008-01-07

    Isometamidium, a mixture of related substances of which 8-(3-m-amidinophenyl-2-triazeno)-3-amino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium chloride hydrochloride (M&B4180A) is the principal active component, is the only chemical agent available for prophylaxis of veterinary trypanosomiasis. A method for the simultaneous quantitation of the major constituents M&B4180A, 3-(3-m-amidinophenyl-2-triazeno)-8-amino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium chloride hydrochloride (M&B38897), 7-(m-amidinophenyldiazo)-3,8-diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium chloride hydrochloride (M&B4250) and 3,8-di(3-m-amidinophenyltriazeno)-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium chloride dihydrochloride (M&B4596) is described. The related substances are resolved on a Gemini C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) using a mobile phase composed of a mixture of acetonitrile and 50 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 2.8 (25:75 v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with UV detection at 320 nm. The method is compatible with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and provides a tool for the control of substandard and counterfeit commercial preparations of isometamidium.

  7. Validated spectrophotometric methods for the evaluation of Oseltamivir counterfeit pharmaceutical capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha M. Youssef

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Four rapid, reliable and economical spectrophotometric methods have been established for the quantitative determination of Oseltamivir phosphate (OST without the interference of ascorbic acid (ASC found in some of its counterfeit capsules. The first method involves the use of derivative spectrophotometry with the zero-crossing technique where OST was easily determined using its 1D (Δλ = 3 at 219 nm. The second method is based on a first-order derivative ratio spectrophotometry (1DD, Δλ = 5 where 218 nm was selected for its quantification, while the third method applies a more advanced spectrophotometric method based on the ratio difference spectrophotometry (RD in which the difference in absorbance ratio was measured between 217 and 210 nm. In the fourth method, difference spectrophotometric method (ΔA is applied by subtracting absorbance at 252 from that at 263 nm where the difference in absorbance was zero for ASC. The proposed methods were validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and selectivity. Synthetic mixtures of different proportions and commercial capsules were assayed by the proposed methods and the results revealed good accuracy and repeatability of the developed methods.

  8. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    inequalities that existed between the rich and the poor countries, which impacted ..... dealt with the issue of whether Europe violated the requirement of non ..... International Trade Regime (2005), 20 Berkeley J, Gender L & Just.75, p.126.

  9. Reviews of Counterfeit Luxury Purchase Behavior Research%仿冒奢侈品购买行为的研究综述与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旖旎

    2012-01-01

    介绍了世界范围内仿冒奢侈品消费的现状、仿冒行为可能造成的危害以及正牌奢侈品制造商在应对仿冒行为时所遇到的难题,明确了从需求端研究仿冒奢侈品消费的重要性.在前人已有研究成果的基础上,从计划行为、认知失调等理论的视角分析了仿冒奢侈品购买行为,进而总结了消费者个人特征、产品特征、社会文化背景、情境与情绪四个方面影响仿冒奢侈品购买行为的因素.最后分析了相关领域现有研究的不足,并提出了一些值得注意的未来研究方向.%The worldwide situation of counterfeit luxury goods consumption, the threats that might be caused by counterfeiting and the troubles the genuine luxury manufacturers had when coping with counterfeiting are introduced.The importance of studying the issues of counterfeit luxury goods consumption from the demand end is emphasized.Based on previous researches, the behavior of counterfeit luxury consumption is analyzed in a view of theories such as planned behavior and cognitive dissonance.The influencing factors on counterfeit luxury purchase behavior are summarized in four aspects: consumer characteristics, product characteristics, social context and situational and emotional factors.At last,the limitations of previous studies are pointed out,with some advice for future researches.

  10. An Examination of Income Effect on Consumers’ Ethical Evaluation of Counterfeit Drugs Buying Behaviour: A Cross-Sectional Study in Qatar and Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadl, Abubakr Abdelraouf; Maraghi, Fatima Abdulla; Mohammad, Khadijah Shhab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are limited studies on consumer behaviour toward counterfeit products and the determining factors that motivate willingness to purchase counterfeit items. Aim This study aimed to fill this literature gap through studying differences in individual ethical evaluations of counterfeit drug purchase and whether that ethical evaluation affected by difference in income. It is hypothesized that individuals with lower/higher income make a more/less permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drug purchase. Materials and Methods To empirically test the research assumption, a comparison was made between people who live in the low-income country Sudan and people who live in the high-income country Qatar. The study employed a face-to-face structured interview survey methodology to collect data from 1,170 subjects and the Sudanese and Qatari samples were compared using independent t-test at alpha level of 0.05 employing SPSS version 22.0. Results Sudanese and Qatari individuals were significantly different on all items. Sudanese individuals scored below 3 for all Awareness of Societal Consequences (ASC) items indicating that they make more permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drug purchase. Both groups shared a basic positive moral agreement regarding subjective norm indicating that influence of income is not evident. Conclusion Findings indicate that low-income individuals make more permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drugs purchase when highlighting awareness of societal consequences used as a deterrent tool, while both low and high-income individuals share a basic positive moral agreement when subjective norm dimension is exploited to discourage unethical buying behaviour. PMID:27790465

  11. An Examination of Income Effect on Consumers' Ethical Evaluation of Counterfeit Drugs Buying Behaviour: A Cross-Sectional Study in Qatar and Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadl, Abubakr Abdelraouf; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Maraghi, Fatima Abdulla; Mohammad, Khadijah Shhab

    2016-09-01

    There are limited studies on consumer behaviour toward counterfeit products and the determining factors that motivate willingness to purchase counterfeit items. This study aimed to fill this literature gap through studying differences in individual ethical evaluations of counterfeit drug purchase and whether that ethical evaluation affected by difference in income. It is hypothesized that individuals with lower/higher income make a more/less permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drug purchase. To empirically test the research assumption, a comparison was made between people who live in the low-income country Sudan and people who live in the high-income country Qatar. The study employed a face-to-face structured interview survey methodology to collect data from 1,170 subjects and the Sudanese and Qatari samples were compared using independent t-test at alpha level of 0.05 employing SPSS version 22.0. Sudanese and Qatari individuals were significantly different on all items. Sudanese individuals scored below 3 for all Awareness of Societal Consequences (ASC) items indicating that they make more permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drug purchase. Both groups shared a basic positive moral agreement regarding subjective norm indicating that influence of income is not evident. Findings indicate that low-income individuals make more permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drugs purchase when highlighting awareness of societal consequences used as a deterrent tool, while both low and high-income individuals share a basic positive moral agreement when subjective norm dimension is exploited to discourage unethical buying behaviour.

  12. The fall. Swindle and counterfeiting in German science; Der Suendenfall. Betrug und Faelschung in der deutschen Wissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finetti, M.; Himmelrath, A.

    1999-07-01

    The science in Germany is shocked since summer 1997 by a sensational counterfeiting scandal. Since the extensive manipulations of two famous cancer researchers were brought to light, the whole guild is worried about a good reputation. However the ''affair Herrmann/Brach'' was and is not at all the first Fall in science. Copied, dressed up, faked, and imaginary studies and results have existed time and again in German universities and research centers. They are not only in the most cases the work of criminal culprits, as often claimed, but also the consequences of modern science activity. Big science can also be the breeding ground of swindle and counterfeiting. This edition describes many known and unknown cases and varieties of scientific manipulations in Germany, enlightens the mechanisms of big research centers and scrutinize the safety devices, which have been built up or not after these counterfeiting scandals. [German] Die deutsche Wissenschaft wird seit dem Sommer 1997 von einem spektakulaeren Faelschungsskandal erschuettert. Seit die umfangreichen Manipulationen zweier renommierter Krebsforscher ans Tageslicht kamen, bangt eine ganze Zukunft um ihren guten Ruf. Doch der 'Fall Herrmann/Brach' war und ist keineswegs der erste Suendenfall. Abgeschriebene, geschoente, gefaelschte oder erfundene Studien und Ergebnisse hat es auch an deutschen Hochschulen und Forschungseinrichtungen immer wieder gegeben. Und anders als gern behauptet, waren und sind sie zumeist nicht das Werk krimineller Taeter, sondern die Konsequenz des modernen Wissenschaftsbetriebes. Big Science ist auch der Naehrboden fuer Betrug und Faelschung. Diese DUZ-Edition schildert zahlreiche bekannte und unbekannte Faelle und Spielarten wissenschaftlicher Manipulation in Deutschland, beleuchtet die Mechanismen des Grossforschungsbetriebes und hinterfragt die Schutzvorkehrungen, mit denen die deutsche Wissenschaft auf die juengsten Faelschungsskandale reagiert hat. (orig.)

  13. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    Full Text Available Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR, rhodamine B (RB, and magnetic powder (MP were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85 and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY. Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm. And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm. All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  14. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yajing; Wang, Jianchen; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Weimin; Zhu, Liwei; Zhu, Shuijin; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR), rhodamine B (RB), and magnetic powder (MP) were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85) and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY). Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm). And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm). All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  15. Can bilateral trade agreements help induce free trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Riezman, Raymond Glenn

    1999-01-01

    There has been growing debate about whether bilateral trade agreements are damaging multilateral efforts to eliminate barriers to international trade. This paper develops a model in which trading blocks always charge optimal tariffs and make trade agreements based on strategic considerations. We ask a very simple question. Does the fact that trading blocks can form bilateral trade agreements make Free trade less likely to occur? The answer is that it depends on the size distribution of the tr...

  16. 服装防伪技术研究%Research on anti-counterfeiting technology for clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞林

    2011-01-01

    This paper described the status quo against fake and shoddy products as well as the most commonly used anti-counterfeiting method. Even with the highest anti-counterfeiting technology, the phenomenon of counterfeit products as real causes still cannot be eliminated. It also proposed two-dimensional PDF417 bar codes with the clothing label and trademarks, brand names, performance standards, size, model, sales outlets and other information, which are made with two-dimensional bar code labels. Because the characteristics of the clothing and trademark information stored in the encrypted shuffle through barcode and printed on the clothing label and the counterfeiters do not know the bar code data structure. Even the bar code information can be read out, it still can not identify the correct information to achieve security. Consumers can obtain the relevant information through the mobile phone software (which can be downloaded from the official website of goods), and compare the reading information as well as the information on the label, especially the mark, which can verify the authenticity.%阐述假冒伪劣产品侵害现状和目前常用的防伪方法,即使使用最高的防伪技术仍然不能杜绝假冒产品以假乱真现象的发生.提出了一种带PDF417二维条形码的服装标签的服装防伪方案及实现方法,将服装的特征信息和商标经过混排加密后存储在条码中,并印刷在服装吊牌上,仿冒者因不知道条码中的数据结构,即使读出条码中的信息也不能识读出正确信息,实现防伪.消费者可以通过手机识读软件(可从商品官方网站上下载)拍照获得相关信息,比对识读出信息和标签上的信息,特别是商标,即可辨别真伪.

  17. Is That a Nike? The Purchase of Counterfeit Sporting Goods through the Lens of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Chiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the consumer behavior related to the purchase of counterfeit sporting goods (CSGs based on the theory of planned behavior. The results showed that consumers’ attitude, subjective norm, and brand consciousness were predictive of purchase intention, whereas perceived behavioral control had no influence on purchase intention. Moreover, both risk averseness and sport involvement negatively led to consumers’ attitude toward CSGs. The paper ends with a discussion on the theoretical and practical contributions of this study towards the purchase of CSGs.

  18. Physical profile of counterfeit tablets Viagra® and Cialis®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Scorsatto Ortiz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The profile of tablets containing an active pharmacological ingredient can be obtained using different sets of properties, including physical and chemical aspects. The first measurements carried out on tablets are the physical characteristics also called post-tabletting batch (post-TB characteristics. These data may be valuable to assist in the detection of pharmaceutical product forgery and may also be used in a forensic intelligence perspective when inserted into databases. This work is focused on the physical characteristics of Cialis® and Viagra® tablets seized by the Brazilian Federal Police in the Rio Grande do Sul state. Using the F-test (ANOVA, all samples of counterfeit Viagra® (n = 28 and Cialis® (n = 40 were well distinguished from authentic samples by the following post-TB characteristics: length (major and minor, thickness, and mass. Using the exploratory statistical technique of Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA, tablets with similar physical profiles were grouped. This result may indicate a common illicit production. We observed the validity of using post-TB properties to generate - in a fast and reliable manner and with no sample preparation - a technological profile that joins itself to the other analytical methods assisting in routine forensic detection of counterfeit Viagra® and Cialis®.Perfil para medicamentos na forma farmacêutica comprimidos contendo uma substância ativa pode ser obtido usando diferentes conjuntos de propriedades, incluindo aspectos físicos e químicos. As primeiras medições realizadas em comprimidos são de características físicas, também chamadas características pós-compressão. Tais dados podem ser valiosos para auxiliar na detecção de falsificações de medicamentos e ser utilizados em uma perspectiva de inteligência forense, quando inseridos em bancos de dados. Este trabalho está focado nas características físicas dos comprimidos de Cialis® e Viagra® apreendidos pela Pol

  19. 吴茱萸及其混、伪品的性状鉴定与TLC分析%Trait Identification and TLC Analysis on Mixed and Counterfeit of Evodia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭鹏; 尹杰; 曹学礼; 黄丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To identify the difference between Evodia mix and counterfeit through the identification and TLC analysis, and provide a scientific basis for correct identification of Evodia. Methods:To make clear the significant similarities and differences of 8 kinds of herbs named Evodia by character identification and TLC analysis respectively.Results:The alkaloids all contained Evodiamine,demethylation Evodia alkaline and hydroxyl evodiamine in the Evodia,tigers, sparse hair Evodia,less Wu comelian cherry fruit, spicy smell the tree,the South China Wu cornelian cherry and cornelian cherry Pap NG.But the number of spots were different which could be distinguished. And Hong pepper seeds did not contain these alkaloids. Conclusion:In orde to improve the quality of medicine and ensure the clinical drug safe and effective,we must identify the difference between evodia mix and counterfeit points through correct identification and further development and application for medicinal evodia and evodia resources.%目的:通过对药用吴茱萸的性状鉴定及TLC分析,明确其混、伪品的区别,为正确鉴定吴茱萸提供科学依据.方法:对被称为吴茱萸的8种药材分别进行性状鉴定、TLc分析,明确其显著异同点.结果:除香椒子以外的7种药材均含有吴茱萸碱、去甲基吴茱萸碱及羟基吴茱萸碱3种生物碱,但其斑点数不同,可依此加以区别.结论:明确了吴茱萸及其混、伪品的区别点,为正确鉴定药用吴茱萸并进一步开发应用吴茱萸及其同科药用植物资源,提高药材质量,提供了科学依据,以保证临床用药的安全、有效性.

  20. The Ningxia Trade Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YUZHU; LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Trade deals were plentiful at the first China-Arab States Economic and Trade Forum last month,with over190 deals on investment cooperation totaling 203.56 billion yuan($30.52 billion)signed between China and Arab states and Muslim regions.The forum,held from September 26 to 30 in Yinchuan,capital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,aimed to enhance investment and trade ties between China and Arab states.

  1. Trade Promotion from Neighborhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "If you are considering to trade with companies in Japan or expanding your business to Japan,we are ready to help from the very beginning."You will find this greeting at the first sight on the Chinese website of Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).JETRO has committed itself in delivering highly efficient and quality services to meet the demand of internal and external customs including Japanese companies,hence winning a good reputation in the international trade arena.

  2. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  3. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  4. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  5. INDONESIAN TRADE UNDER CHINA FREE TRADE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the implementation of CAFTA (China-Asean Free Trade Area on the international trade flows across Indonesia, China and the rest of ASEAN using a gravitation model. It finds the evidence that the influence of diversion and creation effects on China are significant, while the influence of both effects on Indonesia are not significant. It also finds that the diversion effect, which leads to a decrease in society’s wealth, is greater than that of the creation effect. As a consequence, the gap across countries involved in the trade agreement is wider. Keywords: CAFTA, gravitation model, diversion effect, creation effectJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15

  6. Self-sufficiency, free trade and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  8. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  9. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  10. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  11. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  12. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  13. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  14. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  15. La falsificación: un delito grave que pasa desapercibido/Counterfeiting: a serious crime that goes unnoticed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Calvani (Italia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La asociación a la delincuencia organizada es en sí misma un “factor de riesgo” para la seguridad de los ciudadanos y para el orden público. La falsificación es una actividad delictiva peligrosa porque, al copiar productos, los falsificadores causan enormes daños al mercado y ponen en grave riesgo a los consumidores. Una de las consecuencias negativas de las economías son el resultado de la pérdida de ventas que sufren los legítimos productores cmoo0 resultado de la pérdida de ventas. Otras de las consecuencias: pérdidas de puestos de trabajo e incluso disminución de las oportunidades de desarrollo e innovación. The association of the organized crime is in itself a "risk factor" for the security of citizens and the public order. Counterfeiting is a dangerous criminal activity because copying products, counterfeiters cause enormous damage to the market and puts consumers at serious risk. One of the negative consequences of economies are the result of the loss of sales suffer lost sales result cmoo0 legitimate producers. Other consequences: losses of jobs and even decrease the opportunities of development and innovation.

  16. Effects of transparent inorganic pigment on spectral properties of spectrum-fingerprint anti-counterfeiting fiber containing rare earths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jishu; GE Mingqiao

    2012-01-01

    Transparent inorganic pigment is the color-filler material for manufacturing spectrum-fingerprint anti-counterfeiting fiber,and has great effects on the emission spectral characteristics of the fiber.In order to explain the change mechanism of the emission spectral characteristics of spectrum-fingerprint anti-counterfeiting fiber and to promote the development of the fiber,several kinds of spectrum-fingerprint fiber samples were prepared by using rare-earth strontium aluminate and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as raw materials and by adding different kinds of transparent inorganic pigments respectively in this research.The effect of transparent inorganic pigment on the spectral characteristics of the fiber was analyzed in detail by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence spectrometer.The results showed that transparent inorganic pigment had no effect on the dispersion state and phase structure of rare-earth luminescent material in spectrum-fingerprint fiber and the microscopic morphology of the fiber.However,transparent inorganic pigment did affect the excitation and emission process of spectrum-fingerprint fiber so as to decrease its excitation and emission efficiency.The change of both the type and content of transparent inorganic pigment exerted great effects on the excitation and emission spectra of the fiber.Therefore,it was a feasible way to control the emission spectrum of spectntm-fmgerprint fiber through changing the type and content of transparent inorganic pigment.

  17. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and developing countries. ... The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  18. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... countries like Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC nations) have emerged as trade .... International Trade and Trade Relations: The Unending Issues ..... that the present media campaign of Nigerians/Nigeria as good.

  19. Free Trade: A Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)

  20. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  1. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  2. A Trade Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s growing trade surplus has become a major concern for some of its major trade partners, such as the United States and the European Union. As the latest statistics from China’s Customs Administration suggest, while the country’s export growth rate fell 1.2 percentage points and that of imports rose 2.4

  3. Bilateralism and free trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Goyal (Sanjeev); S. Joshi

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been a great deal of research on the relative merits of multilateralism and bilateralism and their implications for the nature of the trading regime between countries. In this paper we explore the scope of bilateral free-trade agreements as a foundation for

  4. Informed Option Trading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Jong (Cyriel)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe use a sequential trade model to clarify two mechanisms following the introduction of an option that may lead to increased efficiency in the underlying. On the one hand, market makers learn from trades in the option market and set more accurate prices. On the other hand, the proportion

  5. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  6. A Trade Off?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s trade surplus amounted to $177.5 billion last year, an increase of $75.5 billion or a massive 74 percent over 2005. Trade officials said it is still within a normal range and its upward trend is due to the country’s industrial and macroeconomic s

  7. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital constrain

  8. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  9. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  10. Master of Many Trades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHUA

    2004-01-01

    "My major is business administration. I have also worked in finance andinternational trade and have had my own fashion boutique and restaurant. Iseem born toit from one industry to another," says Fan Jinghui, director of Sino-Canadian Council for the Promotion of International Trade.

  11. Trade Back on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s foreign trade gains momentum but still face suncertainties China is taking up a larger piece’of the global trade pie as its 2009 I exports accounted for almost one’10th of the world total that year. The Ministry of Commerce(MOFCOM)

  12. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals...

  13. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  14. Scale development on consumer behavior toward counterfeit drugs in a developing country: a quantitative study exploiting the tools of an evolving paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadl, Abubakr A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham b Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2013-09-11

    Although desperate need and drug counterfeiting are linked in developing countries, little research has been carried out to address this link, and there is a lack of proper tools and methodology. This study addresses the need for a new methodological approach by developing a scale to aid in understanding the demand side of drug counterfeiting in a developing country. The study presents a quantitative, non-representative survey conducted in Sudan. A face-to-face structured interview survey methodology was employed to collect the data from the general population (people in the street) in two phases: pilot (n = 100) and final survey (n = 1003). Data were analyzed by examining means, variances, squared multiple correlations, item-to-total correlations, and the results of an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis. As an approach to scale purification, internal consistency was examined and improved. The scale was reduced from 44 to 41 items and Cronbach's alpha improved from 0.818 to 0.862. Finally, scale items were assessed. The result was an eleven-factor solution. Convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that the "Consumer Behavior Toward Counterfeit Drugs Scale" is a valid, reliable measure with a solid theoretical base. Ultimately, the study offers public health policymakers a valid measurement tool and, consequently, a new methodological approach with which to build a better understanding of the demand side of counterfeit drugs and to develop more effective strategies to combat the problem.

  15. The trade effects of endogenous preferential trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Larch, Mario; Staub, Kevin E; Winkelmann, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Recent work by Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) establishes an empirical modelling strategy which takes full account of the structural, non-(log-)linear impact of trade barriers on trade in new trade theory models. Structural new trade theory models have never been used to evaluate and quantify the role of endogenous preferential trade agreement (PTA) membership for trade in a way which is consistent with general equilibrium. Apart from this gap, the present paper aims at delivering an empiric...

  16. Uranium and free trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This report was prepared by a working group of the Committee on International Trade in Uranium of the Uranium Institute. The report describes the general benefits of free trade and their relevance in the uranium market, and compares government restrictions on Western world uranium trade with those in other commodity markets. It is not directly concerned with restrictions designed to discourage nuclear weapons proliferation. The Uranium Institute and its members fully support the objective of nuclear non-proliferation. The report takes as given the current non-proliferation regime and focuses on economic and commercial restrictions imposed by governments on international trade in uranium, recognising that governments will always have a special interest in uranium trade owing to its potential weapons use. (author).

  17. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  18. Preferential trade agreements and their role in world trade

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev, Denis

    2006-01-01

    The author investigates the effects of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on bilateral trade flows using a comprehensive database of PTAs in force and a detailed matrix of world trade. He shows that total trade between PTA partners is a poor proxy for preferential trade (trade in tariff lines where preferences are likely to matter): while the former amounted to one-third of global trade in 2000-02, the latter was between one-sixth and one-tenth of world trade. His gravity model estimates in...

  19. Captagon: use and trade in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Imam, Ahmed; Santacroce, Rita; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Chilcott, Robert; Bersani, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Corazza, Ornella

    2017-05-01

    Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East. A multi-staged and multi-lingual literature search was carried out. A list of prespecified keywords was applied across medical and paramedical databases, web and Dark web, search engines, social communication media, electronic commerce websites, media networks, and the Global Public Health Intelligence Network database. The use of Captagon as a stimulant in terrorist settings has been marginally covered in the literature. Data can widely be retrieved from Google and AOL search engines, YouTube, and Amazon e-commerce websites, and to a lesser extent from Alibaba and eBay. On the contrary, Middle Eastern e-commerce websites yielded almost no results. Interestingly, the Dark web generated original data for Captagon e-commerce in the Middle East. Further investigations are needed on the role that psychoactive drugs play in terrorist attacks and civil war zones. Unless a comprehensive methodological strategy, inclusive of unconventional methods of research, is implemented, it will not be feasible to face such a threat to humanity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. TRIPs公約、NAFTA、我國「商標法」有關「仿品進口」邊境管制措施之比較研究 Border Measures Provisions of Counterfeiting: A Comparision Study of TRIPs, NAFTA and Taiwan Trademark Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    易建明 Jiann-Ming Yih

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available 仿品進口「邊境管制措施」為 TRIPs 協定(Agreement on Trade — Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights 簡稱TRIPs)第4 篇(第51 條至第60 條)所規範之範圍,另明文規範相關民事救濟。而我國2003 年「商標法」配合TRIPs 之修改等,主管機關已於2004 年9 月15 日訂定「海關查扣侵害商標權物品實施辦法」。本文就TRIPs、NAFTA、我國商標法有關「仿品」邊境管制措施之比較(區分為權利人的申請和海關依職權主動調查兩類),以作為我國未來與美國洽簽自由貿易協定是否採NAFTA 模式之參考。 (1有關「權利人的申請」邊境管制措施,我國若與美國洽簽自由貿易協定,若採NAFTA 模式,在「海關暫緩放行」的申請等,因大致相同,故無須修改我國「商標法」;至於有關「表面證據」以及表面證據之要件,係英美法之概念,在TRIPs、NAFTA「邊境管制措施」相關規定均強調「表面證據」;而我國2003 年「商標法」第65 條第2 項前段規定:「申請,應以書面為之,並釋明侵害之事實。」 (2另有關「海關依職權主動採取邊境管制措施」部分,我國2003 年「商標法」並未參照TRIPs 第58 條制定相關規範。由於TRIPs 第58 條並非強制性規範,我國未違反TRIPs 之規範。但TRIPs 與NAFTA 均明文規定「海關依職權主動採取邊境管制措施」,我國未來若與美國洽簽FTA 時,若採NAFTA 模式時應修改商標法,參照TRIPs 協定第58 條與NAFTA 第1718 條第11 項,增訂相關條文。 This Article tries to compare the regulations of border measures among TRIPs Agreement, NAFTA and Taiwan Trademark Law. The TRIPs Agreement distinguishes between infringement, for which civil judicial procedures and remedies must be available, and counterfeiting and piracy. In the case of counterfeiting, additional procedures and remedies, including border

  1. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  2. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  3. Trade and Portuguese Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNO CARLOS LEITÃO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript examines the link between trade and migration flows using a gravity model for the period 1995-2007 between Portugal and European Union countries. We also include in our sample the Portuguese speaking countries (PALOPS, i.e., ex-colonies. Globalization drives people to migrate, in some countries, immigration being more pronounced las in Portugal, in last decade, this country receiving foreign residents. This is a new reality to Portuguese economy. For many years, the Portuguese have emigrated to European countries, the United States of America and other countries. Currently, Portugal is witnessing a reverse trend, Brazilian, Cape Verde, Ukrainian and Romanian communities choose Portugal as a destination country. We find evidence that immigration has a positive influence in bilateral trade. We also introduce economic size and regional trade agreements (RTA; these proxies confirming a positive impact of bilateral trade. These results show that the gravity model can explain the pattern of bloc’s trade. Our results also confirm the hypothesis that trade increases if the transport decreases. Classification-JEL:F14,F22Keywords:Trade, Immigration, Gravity model; PortugalJournal:Romanian Journal of EconomicsPages:38-48Volume:31Issue:2(40Year:2010(XXMonth: DecemberFile-URL: http://www.revecon.ro/articles/2010-2/2010-2-2.pdf

  4. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  5. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  6. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  7. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  8. Species Adulteration in the Herbal Trade: Causes, Consequences and Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirama, Ramanujam; Santhosh Kumar, J U; Seethapathy, G S; Newmaster, Steven G; Ragupathy, S; Ganeshaiah, K N; Uma Shaanker, R; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2017-08-01

    The global economy of the international trade of herbal products has been increasing by 15% annually, with the raw material for most herbal products being sourced from South and Southeast Asian countries. In India, of the 8000 species of medicinal plants harvested from the wild, approximately 960 are in the active trade. With increasing international trade in herbal medicinal products, there is also increasing concern about the widespread adulteration and species admixtures in the raw herbal trade. The adverse consequences of such species adulteration on the health and safety of consumers have only recently begun to be recognised and documented. We provide a comprehensive review of the nature and magnitude of species adulteration in the raw herbal trade, and identify the underlying drivers that might lead to such adulteration. We also discuss the possible biological and chemical equivalence of species that are used as adulterants and substitutes, and the consequences thereof to consumer health and safety, and propose a framework for the development of a herbal trade authentication service that can help regulate the herbal trade market.

  9. Reason Analysis and Risk Prevention of Soaring Price of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,the price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials soars continuously,and the resulting price risk increasingly looms large,which has critically affected midstream and downstream industries and peoples’ demand for drug,and imperiled healthy and orderly development of traditional Chinese medicinal industries.Based on the status quo of continuous skyrocketing price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials at present,we winkle out the root cause of soaring price as follows:the supply and demand lose balance;the production costs hike up;there are other factors responsible for soaring price.This paper further analyses the impact of sharp increase in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials on all links of industry chain as follows:the medicinal herb growers never benefit from soaring price;the counterfeiters and forgers in midstream industry increase;the gross profit rate of Chinese medicine enterprises declines.In accordance with the risk arising from abnormal fluctuation in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials,corresponding precautionary measures are put forward as follows:promote the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of value chain;curtail the production and management cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of organization chain;stabilize price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of information chain;reduce transaction cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of logistics chain.

  10. Origin and development of forensic medicine in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Moulana, Ashraf Abdel Reheem; Elsebaay, Elsebaay Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Egyptians are one of the first civilisations to practice the removal and examination of internal organs of humans. Their practices ranged from embalming to faith healing to surgery and autopsy. Modern radiological studies, together with various forensic techniques, allowed scientists unique glimpses of the state of health in Egypt 4000 years ago and discovered one of the earliest applications of autopsy, the main element of forensic medicine practice today. The Egyptian Forensic Medicine Authority handles a relatively large number of cases annually and depends on different assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology unit, DNA laboratory, forensic chemistry laboratory) as well as the Counterfeiting and Forgery unit. Crime scene investigations are performed mainly through the criminal laboratory related to the Ministry of Interior. Forensic Medicine is studied thoroughly in the faculty of medicine (undergraduates), as well as by forensic medical examiners at postgraduate level (diploma, master's and doctorate). This review recommends more scientific cooperation with universities in the field of forensic medicine and related sciences to solve various crimes with meticulous detail. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Trading sulphur emissions in Europe: 'Guided Bilateral Trade'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, S.; Folmer, H.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Hordijk, L.; Ierland, van E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a system of `guided permit trading' is developed for SO2 emissions reduction which considers permit trading as a bilateral and sequential process. This implies that in order to meet the deposition targets at the end of the trading process, not every single trade transaction has to meet

  12. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths...

  13. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  14. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  15. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  16. Chilly Trade Winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Traders brave the ill effects of the global economic crisis in one of China’s largest export centers Hongye Cartons Packing Salesroom in Yiwu sells carton packages just across the street from Yiwu International Trade City,a mam-

  17. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  18. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  19. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  20. Insurance with frequent trading

    OpenAIRE

    José Penalva

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the dynamic management of risk in an economy with discrete time consumption and endowments and continuous trading. I study how agents in such an economy deal with all the risk in the economy and attain their Pareto optimal allocations by trading in a few natural securities: private insurance contracts and a common set of derivatives on the aggregate endowment. The parsimonious nature of the implied securities needed for Pareto optimality suggests that in such contexts comp...

  1. News and Trading Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    indexes or small groups of forex series. Although I use a shorter time period – five years for the work on technical analysis and machine learning, only...I start with practitioner-developed technical analysis constructs, sys- tematically examining their ability to generate trading rules profitable on...a large universe of stocks. Then, I use these technical analysis constructs as the underlying representation for a simple trading rule leaner, with

  2. Trade Back on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is taking up a larger piece of the global trade pie as its 2009 exports accounted for almost one 10th of the world total that year.The Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)released a report on April 27 summarizing foreign trade in 2009 and the first quarter of 2010.MOFCOM also cautioned exporters of international market volatili ties in the next half of 2010.

  3. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  4. FDA-approved biosimilar insulin: good enough for critical care, adulterated, or counterfeit? How can we tell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alan W

    2014-09-01

    If a biosimilar insulin is discovered postmarketing to be subpotent, superpotent, or contaminated or the contents mislabeled, it is an adulterated product and must be quarantined for removal including from a patient's home. Adulterated products could be considered "counterfeit" since they do not meet the original standards established by the FDA. The FDA must establish a method of regularly assaying samples of biosimilar insulin drawn directly from the supply pipeline to help ensure patient safety and evaluate clinical performance. Independent groups without conflict of interest would perform confidential comparison assay. For less than 5 cents per vial/pen, manufacturers could easily support an independent, FDA-recognized, random sample program and create a functional postmarket surveillance system that better protects the public and the manufacturer from undesired outcomes. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Emissions trading: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietenberg, T.H

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Evolution of Emissions Trading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Evolution of Design Features...

  6. Trade Union Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T.

    1982-01-01

    The provision of trade union education is a function of the structure of trade unionism which, in turn, is a function of the structure of collective bargaining. Trade union structure is taken to include size distribution, distribution of power, and objectives of trade unions. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex BN8 5DL,…

  7. 何谓trade paperback?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练小川

    2010-01-01

    在英美出版业,有好几个与trade这个字有关的专业词汇,例如:tradebook,trade publishing,trade paperback。trade book译为“大众图书”,trade publishing自然就译成“大众出版”。

  8. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. The effect of the medicine administration route on health-related quality of life: Results from a time trade-off survey in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in 2 Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Tine Rikke; Emborg, Charlotte; Dahlen, Karianne; Bøgelund, Mette; Carlborg, Andreas

    2016-07-16

    Agitation episodes are common among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Oral and intramuscular administration methods are commonly used in pharmacological treatment of acute agitation. Recently, an innovative inhalation product with loxapine(Adasuve®)has become available for treatment of acute agitation episodes associated with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The objective for the present study was to investigate the impact of the pharmacological treatment's administration methods on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in Denmark and Sweden using a time trade-off (TTO) approach. The TTO methodology was used to examine the HRQoL impact of administration method of pharmacological treatment of acute agitation. Data were collected via an internet-based survey, using an existing panel of respondents with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Respondents considered living with schizophrenia/ bipolar disorder, having one yearly agitation episode treated with inhaler better than living with the same conditions and receiving treatment with tablet or injection. The utility value was 0.762 for inhalable treatment, 0.707 for injection and 0.734 for tablet treatment. Patients' preference for treatment delivery options showed that inhalation was associated with a significant utility gain when compared to injection or tablets. Inhalable loxapine may be a new tool for control of agitation episodes for strengthening the patient provider alliance when taking patient's preference for delivery method into consideration.

  10. Responding to the pandemic of falsified medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Gaurvika M L; Attaran, Amir; Clark, John P; Culzoni, M Julia; Fernandez, Facundo M; Herrington, James E; Kendall, Megan; Newton, Paul N; Breman, Joel G

    2015-06-01

    Over the past decade, the number of countries reporting falsified (fake, spurious/falsely labeled/counterfeit) medicines and the types and quantities of fraudulent drugs being distributed have increased greatly. The obstacles in combatting falsified pharmaceuticals include 1) lack of consensus on definitions, 2) paucity of reliable and scalable technology to detect fakes before they reach patients, 3) poor global and national leadership and accountability systems for combating this scourge, and 4) deficient manufacturing and regulatory challenges, especially in China and India where fake products often originate. The major needs to improve the quality of the world's medicines fall into three main areas: 1) research to develop and compare accurate and affordable tools to identify high-quality drugs at all levels of distribution; 2) an international convention and national legislation to facilitate production and utilization of high-quality drugs and protect all countries from the criminal and the negligent who make, distribute, and sell life-threatening products; and 3) a highly qualified, well-supported international science and public health organization that will establish standards, drug-quality surveillance, and training programs like the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Such leadership would give authoritative guidance for countries in cooperation with national medical regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and international agencies, all of which have an urgent interest and investment in ensuring that patients throughout the world have access to good quality medicines. The organization would also advocate strongly for including targets for achieving good quality medicines in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  12. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  13. New Curbs on Processing Trade for A New Trade Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China recently announced a new policy that seeks to rein in the development of processing trade in restricted commodities, in a bid to optimize the country's exporting structure, put strong curbs on the export of "high-energy-consuming, highpolluting and resource-dependent"products, and discourage the export of commodities with low added value and poor technology content, so as to gradually eliminate trade frictions,and promote trade balance to ease tension caused by the too wide trade surplus. The change is instrumental in upgrading the present processing trade system, transforming the pattern of foreign trade growth mode,and promoting the sustainable development of social economy.

  14. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths......, at the international level, industrial lobbyism was non-significant. Only the 'fossil fuel lobby' played a role. Third, at the national level, one could expect strong political opposition from industry lobbies in case quotas are actually to be distributed at firm level. But trade among countries may benefit industry......, the best 'second-best' solution is argued to be that of trade between governments....

  15. Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Allyson C; Bilyk, Madeleine L; Nordon, Alison; Colquhoun, Gary; Littlejohn, David

    2011-04-01

    Two methods of analysis were developed to permit detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using a novel attenuated total reflectance (ATR) diamond-tipped immersion probe for mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry. The first method allowed determination of the ethanol concentration (35-45% (v/v)) in situ without dilution of the samples; the results obtained compared well with the supplied concentrations (average relative error of 1.2% and 0.8% for univariate and multivariate partial least squares (PLS) calibration, respectively). The second method involved analysis of dried residues of the whisky samples and caramel solutions on the diamond ATR crystal; principal component analysis (PCA) of the spectra was used to classify the samples and investigate the colorant added. Seventeen test whisky samples were successfully categorised as either authentic or counterfeit in a blind study when both MIR methods were used.

  16. Adulterated and Counterfeit Male Enhancement Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements Pose a Real Threat to the Management of Erectile Dysfunction: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAmrawy, Fatema; ElAgouri, Ghada; Elnoweam, Ola; Aboelazayem, Samar; Farouk, ElMohanad; Nounou, Mohamed I

    2016-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction prevalence globally is noticeably high. This is accompanied by an increase in the use of nutraceuticals for male enhancement. However, the global market is invaded by counterfeit and adulterated nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a therapeutic claim. The objective of this article is to review male enhancement nutraceuticals worldwide with respect to claim, adulterants, and safety. The definition of such products is variable across countries. Thus, the registration procedures differ as well. This facilitates the manipulation of the process, which leads to widespread adulterated and counterfeit products without control. The tele-advertisement and Internet pharmacies aided the widespread sale of male enhancement nutraceuticals, unfortunately, the spurious ones. Finally, based on literature, most of these products were found to be adulterated with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and mislabeled as being natural. These products represent a major health hazard for consumers due to lack of clear regulations.

  17. WORLD MERCHANDISE TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the most recent statistical data of the World Trade Organization and some aspects related to the evolution of world merchandise trade, in terms of volume and value, in 2015. The volume of world merchandise trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 while the dollar value of it declined sharply as exports fell 14 per cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from US$ 19 trillion in the previous year. It presents also the contribution of the volume change and of the change in unit values (which account for fluctuations in prices and exchange rates to the value trade growth (in current dollar terms. The discrepancy between trade growth in 2015 in terms of volume and value was mostly attributable to swings in commodity prices and exchange rates The course of economic globalization is also shortly looked on based on some data and considerations of Credit Suisse analysts. Three different scenarios were taken into account in this respect. First one in which globalization continues in the form we know it over the past thirty years, second one in which a multipolar world is a better representation of the state of affairs and third, a scenario in which globalization ends due to the rise of anti-globalization political movements. The second scenario seems to provide a better reflection of reality today, despite the fact that a certain slowdown is observable when taking into account the diminishing growth rate of physical trade, the slower penetration of foreign assets of the developed market companies and signs of reshoring of some business back home. Globalization remains intact in terms of consumption and marketing patterns, while companies seem more reluctant to invest abroad.

  18. Design and Implementation of Anti-Counterfeit System Based on RFID%基于RFID技术的防伪平台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦佳; 卫强; 陈兵

    2012-01-01

    针对商品市场传统防伪手段的缺陷,提出基于射频识别(RFID)技术的防伪机制.该防伪平台利用公钥基础设施技术建立身份认证体系,将数字签名技术应用到电子标签的识别验证中来,设计了防伪流程和验证方法,以此搭建商品防伪追溯模型,并做了模型的安全性分析,最后实现了以酒类为代表的防伪系统.该系统采用Java EE设计开发,以第三方可信防伪平台为基础,支持手机RFID扫描查询、网站查询、短信查询、RFID终端查询等方式,通过商品信息的共享达到防伪验证的目的.%Due to the shortcoming of the traditional anti-counterfeiting means in commercial field, an RFTD-based( Radio frequency 1-dentification) anti-counterfeit mechanism was presented. It realizes an anti-counterfeit system for wine products, which designes a PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) identification system to help trace back the product source , and safety analysis for this model is also included . The security process and verification method are in details. In order to offer convenient and efficient anti-counterfeit services, the manufactures' information is shared with consumers through an reliable Ihird-party platform. The system is written in Java EE, which supports RFID ceiiphone scanning query, website query, SMS query and RHD terminal query ete.

  19. Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Alternative Medicine en Español email Send this article to a ... Dr. Yvonne Ou on Lifestyle Modifications and Glaucoma Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

  20. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  1. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  2. Preliminary Research on Distinction of Common Counterfeit Currency%常见假币形成方式区分方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹积鑫; 于健; 齐凤亮; 秦达; 孙林

    2015-01-01

    认定假币形成方式是鉴别假币的首要任务。本文基于大量实际案件中收缴的假币票样,探究印刷版、打印版和复印版假币的区分方法,进一步通过比对喷墨、激光打印机打印样本,对相应假币的打印机品牌予以推断。采用 VSC6000文检仪和立体显微镜观察,从图文特征、细节差异、墨点形成特征等,解析印刷、彩色打印、彩色复印这三类假币形成方式的差异;通过图文规则程度、色彩搭配等,区分单色印刷和四色印刷;通过墨点大小、堆积形态、墨点间距等特征,区分三类主要彩色喷墨打印机品牌(佳能、惠普、爱普生)的喷墨打印特征,进而推断喷墨打印版假币的具体品牌;通过对彩色激光打印机的跟踪暗码形状分析,区分不同品牌激光打印机,进而推断彩色激光打印版假币的品牌。通过比较,找到了区分印刷、打印、复印版假币的标志性特征,进而区分了单色印刷和四色印刷特征。应用该方法,分别认定了一起假币案件所缴获的假币票样具有爱普生彩色喷墨打印特征;另一起假币案件缴获的假币则具有富士施乐彩色激光打印特征。%Crimes of counterfeiting currency have been getting more complicated in recent years as there are more and more phony money printed by printing presses, laser printers, inkjet printer and the offset. The criminals have been improving the forging techniques by modifying their printing machines, printing ink, and paper in order to replicate the security features of RMB in great detail. Identification of the counterfeiting methods plays a significant role in providing clues for counterfeit crime investigation. In this paper, the counterfeit currency seized from the crime scene was studied together with samples printed by printing press, color printer and color copier. The research was also conducted to detect whether the counterfeits were

  3. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  4. Learning with Trade Unionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooton, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Recommends that the study of trade unions be included in the school curriculum. Argues that learning about relationships between unions and management through interviews, observations, and simulations can enhance the overall approach to teaching about controversial topics. Gives examples of some attempts to do this in schools. (TW)

  5. DISMAYED OVER TRADE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen. That’s the number of China’s actual working days in February, largely due to the Spring Festival. Yet somehow, in such a short working month, exports soared to new highs, causing the trade surplus to boom once again. According to statistics fr

  6. Intra-industry trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntra-industry trade arises if a country simultaneously imports and exports similar types of goods or services. Similarity is identified here by the goods or services being classified in the same “sector”. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that we focus on the sector “cars”. Intra-indus

  7. Slowdown Trade Surplus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo Zhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ According to Ma Kai's economic planning report submitted to the NPC session on March 5th.(Ma Kai is the Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission),the government has listed the slowdown in trade surplus growth and the steady expansion of,external investment as major tasks for 2008.

  8. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  9. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  10. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  11. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    Aryanization is associated with Nazi Germany's policies to exclude Jews in the Germany from the economy in the pre-war years, but I will show it was a global policy from 1937. The utopian goal of international Aryanization was the total removal of Jews who traded with Germany anywhere in the world...

  12. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  13. Blacks and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on two issues: (1) the effect of the presence of trade unionism on the position of black workers in the labor market relative to white workers; and (2) the effect of federal government efforts to increase the position of black workers…

  14. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  15. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness la

  16. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    The longer the time taken for import/export procedures or journey, the more expensive ... , p10 (Last accessed April 2014). 7 Jean-Paul .... environment, product standards, technical barriers to trade etc. in order to lower cost of moving ..... consumer electronics, and auto spare parts. For all other ...

  17. Characteristics of PCR-SSCP and RAPD-HPCE methods for identifying authentication of Penis et testis cervi in Traditional Chinese Medicine based on cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcheng; Gao, Lijun; Qu, Li; Sun, Jingyu; Yuan, Guangxin; Xia, Wei; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    The use of Penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in China. There are abundant species of deer in China, the Penis et testis from species of Cervus Nippon and Cervus elaphusL were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). Identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controlling the herbal products. A modified column chromatography was used to extract mitochondrial DNA of dried deer's testis and penis from sika deer (C. Nippon) and red deer (C. elaphusL) in addition to adulterants and counterfeits. Column chromatography requires for a short time to extract mitochondrial DNA of high purity with little damage of DNA molecules, which provides the primary structure of guarantee for the specific PCR; PCR-SSCP method showed a clear intra-specific difference among patterns of single-chain fragments, and completely differentiate Penis et testis origins from C. Nippon and C. elaphusL. RAPD-HPCE was based on the standard electropherograms to compute a control spectrum curve as similarity reference (R) among different samples. The similarity analysis indicated that there were significant inter-species differences among Penis et testis' adulterant or counterfeits. Both techniques provide a fast, simple, and accurate way to directly identify among inter-species or intra-species of Penis et testis.

  18. Energy trading; Trading de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glachant, J.M. [Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France); Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E. [and others

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  19. The Appeal for Trade Liberalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China takes advantage of APEC summit to encourage action against trade protectionism since the outbreak of the financial crisis last year, top Chinese leaders have been consistent in their appeals for trade and investment

  20. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  1. Cashing In On Free Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) is, of course, not a zero-sum game. Responding to concerns over escalating competition associated with free trade, ASEAN Secretary General Surin Pitsuwan said in a press release issued at

  2. Extracting geography from trade data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuke; Wu, Tianhao; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding international trade is a fundamental problem in economics-one standard approach is via what is commonly called the "gravity equation", which predicts the total amount of trade Fi j between two countries i and j as

  3. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  4. Changes in China's Trade Policy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xi; Zhang Yong

    2010-01-01

    @@ We will steadily develop foreign trade. The main issues are to exploit new markets, adjust the trade structure and promote trade balance", Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao delivered a government work report at the opening meeting of the annual full session of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, which started in Beijing on March 5, declaring a new development path of Chinese foreign trade in 2010.

  5. Do Insider Trading Laws Work?

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    By calculating an estimated measure of undetected insider trading, this paper shows that profits made by informed corporate insiders prior to tender offer announcements increase after the first enforcement of insider trading laws. I analyze the effects of Insider Trading regulation on a sample of 5,099 acquisitions in 56 different countries, and estimate the profits due to insider trading from the abnormal volume in the weeks prior to the announcement, under the assumption that insiders purch...

  6. Public perceptions of the risks, benefits and use of natural remedies, pharmaceutical medicines and personalised medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W; Horne, Rob; Shephard, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    To investigate public perceptions of the benefits, risks and use of a natural remedy, a pharmaceutical medicine and a personalised medicine, tailored to a person's genetic-makeup, to treat illness. In a case-based scenario, groups of participants individually rated the three different treatments of an illness in terms of their perceived benefits, risks and willingness to use, and completed a questionnaire on beliefs about medicines in general. Our study (n=158 adults) revealed a similar perception of a pharmaceutical medicine and a personalised medicine relative to a natural remedy. Contrary to expectation, personalised medicine was rated as no more beneficial and no less risky than a pharmaceutical medicine and was less likely to be used. However, willingness to use each medicine was differentially predicted by general beliefs about medicine. Avoidance of harm predicted willingness to use a natural remedy whereas the beneficial effects of medicines predicted use of a personalised medicine. By contrast, willingness to use a pharmaceutical medicine was predicted by a trade-off between perceived harm, risk of overuse and benefit. Personalised medicine, in the form of a pharmacogenetic approach, has the potential to improve drug efficacy and reduce adverse drug reactions but remains closely allied to public perceptions of pharmaceutical medicine. Nonetheless our data indicate some differentiation with respect to background beliefs on the beneficial effects of personalised medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. LC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of six glucocorticoids in pharmaceutical formulations and counterfeit cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Jessica; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2014-03-01

    A screening method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of six corticosteroids (betamethasone 17-valerate BM 17-V, beclomethasone BC, beclomethasone dipropionate BCDP, methylprednisolone MP, budesonide BD, flunisolide FN) was developed in order to control their illegal use in cosmetic and natural products. Indeed, despite corticosteroids are banned in cosmetics, counterfeit products might be present on the market, representing a health hazard. Therefore, effective analytical methods are required to rapidly screen over the counter products in health care shops for counterfeit corticosteroids. The analytical method involves the employment of a Waters Synergy C18 column (150mm×2.0mm I.D.) by using the following mobile phase: A (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile), B (0.1% formic acid in water) in a linear gradient (from A-B 25:75, v/v to A-B 95:5, v/v in 30min) at the flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The detection was performed with an ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer in positive polarity, total ion current (TIC) and tandem mass modalities for qualitative purpose; single ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantitative analysis on the ESI generated most abundant ion for each steroid. The method was fully validated in terms of precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, recovery, and it was applied to the identification and quantification of corticosteroids in pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetic products. The mean recovery of BM 17-V, BC, BCDP, MP, BD and FN were found to be 101.3, 101.5, 98.8, 98.9, 98.1, 99.0%, respectively. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were comprised in the range 29-95ng/mL. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time this mix of glucocorticoids were simultaneously determined in cosmetic products by using a fully validated method. BMV, in its two isomeric forms BM 17-V and BM 21-V, was found to be illegally present in one cream sample (A) with the total concentration level

  8. How Insiders Traded before Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: U.K. company insiders, such as directors, were legally allowed to trade in the shares of their own companies up until the Companies Act of 1980. We investigate the trading behaviour of directors over the period 1893 to 1907 in the U.K. Although insider trading was profitable, we find relat

  9. A New Way To Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China expands yuan settlement in trade with Russia, while allowing the yuan to trade against the ruble Cross-border trade between China and Russia was bountiful throughout the 1990s as a group of Chinese and Russian dealers,nicknamed the daoye, or profiteers who buy low and sell high, shuttled consumer goods

  10. How Insiders Traded before Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: U.K. company insiders, such as directors, were legally allowed to trade in the shares of their own companies up until the Companies Act of 1980. We investigate the trading behaviour of directors over the period 1893 to 1907 in the U.K. Although insider trading was profitable, we find

  11. The PBS in a globalised world: free trade and reference pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searles, Andrew

    2009-05-01

    In January 2005 Australia implemented the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA). The agreement had placed domestic health policy and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in particular, on the trade negotiating table. At the time Australians were told the PBS would not be undermined, but why was it included in a trade agreement? This article argues that recent reforms to the PBS partially delivered on an issue that the US has compelled its trade negotiators to ensure since 2002: the elimination of reference pricing. In Australia, reference pricing, as used by the PBS, had been credited with obtaining money when buying new medicines.

  12. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  13. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model......’ has spread far beyond the Anglo-Saxon countries and is now commonplace for unions as a way to reach new worker constituencies. Thus, even in ‘institutionally secure’ countries like Germany and the Nordic countries, unions are employing organising strategies while at the same time trying to defend...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...

  14. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  15. Worlds Apart Trading Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...... of the market in long-distance exchange. Accordingly, the analysis conducted demonstrates that an economically highly substantial trade took place between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean in the 1st–6th century CE, altering patterns of consumption and modes of production in India andSouth Arabia as well...... as the Roman Empire.Significantly, it can be documented that this trade was organised at the centres of demand and supply, in Rome and India, respectively, by comparable urban associations, the transport in-between being handled by equally well-organised groups of seagoing merchants.Consequently, this study...

  16. Does trade affect child health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth.

  17. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  18. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  19. Trading Out of Poverty: Some Major Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikić, Mia

    2000-01-01

    What are the ways in which trade (trade liberalisation) may have impact on poverty? This paper looks at some of the findings of the analytical literature on trade-poverty linkages that operate through the impact of trade on income distribution, and through the impact of trade on economic growth. This paper further asks the question whether trade effects on poverty depend on a particular type of trade liberalisation. In particular, it exposes the weaknesses of non-reciprocal trade liberalisati...

  20. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Pardo, Hector; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that prefe...

  1. Tapping Into Trading Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali; Ali

    2011-01-01

    China’s online trading entrepreneurs rush to meet growing demand of netizen shoppers AS the sun rises over the Beijing Zoo area, many would be mistaken in thinking that the animals will be the only ones reacting to the change of light.While most Beijing residents are still asleep,an entire workforce is already on the go,seven days a week.These

  2. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  3. Online Digital Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician Alecu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main options a digital content creator has in order to obtain money by online trading of digital works. There are multiple ways to get paid for the digital products, like licensing, for example, however this article tries to present the most successful business models targeting the online market. The exclusive rights stated by the copyright laws are helping the authors to maximize to potential advantages coming from their digital creations.

  4. Modern Maritime Trade Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    historically established method for conducting maritime trade warfare is Maritime Interdiction Operations ( MIO ). In the context of this paper, the...operating far from friendly shores. Accordingly, this tool would be most useful against nations with less capable navies. An advantage of MIO in...or collateral damage. 6 Large-scale MIO can be resource intensive and time consuming, and the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard have limited ships and

  5. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  6. Ecdysteroid-containing food supplements from Cyanotis arachnoidea on the European market: evidence for spinach product counterfeiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi, Attila; Herke, Ibolya; Lengyel, Katalin; Báthori, Mária; Kele, Zoltán; Simon, András; Tóth, Gábor; Szendrei, Kálmán

    2016-12-01

    Phytoecdysteroids like 20-hydroxyecdysone (“ecdysterone”) can exert a mild, non-hormonal anabolic/adaptogenic activity in mammals, and as such, are frequently used in food supplements. Spinach is well-known for its relatively low ecdysteroid content. Cyanotis arachnoidea, a plant native in China, is among the richest sources of phytoecdysteroids, and extracts of this plant are marketed in tons per year amounts via the internet at highly competitive prices. Here we report the investigation of a series of food supplements produced in Germany and claimed to contain spinach extracts. Twelve ecdysteroids including two new compounds were isolated and utilized as marker compounds. A comparative analysis of the products with Cyanotis and spinach extracts provides evidence that they were manufactured from Cyanotis extracts instead of spinach as stated. Based on the chromatographic fingerprints, 20-hydroxyecdysone 2- and 3-acetate are suggested as diagnostic markers for related quality control. This case appears to represent an unusual type of dietary supplement counterfeiting: undeclared extracts from alternative plants would supposedly ‘guarantee’ product efficacy.

  7. Depth profiling of inks in authentic and counterfeit banknotes by electrospray laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yi-Ying; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Cheng, Chu-Nian; Shiea, Jentaie

    2016-01-01

    Electrospray laser desorption ionization is an ambient ionization technique that generates neutrals via laser desorption and ionizes those neutrals in an electrospray plume and was utilized to characterize inks in different layers of copy paper and banknotes of various currencies. Depth profiling of inks was performed on overlapping color bands on copy paper by repeatedly scanning the line with a pulsed laser beam operated at a fixed energy. The molecules in the ink on a banknote were desorbed by irradiating the banknote surface with a laser beam operated at different energies, with results indicating that different ions were detected at different depths. The analysis of authentic $US100, $100 RMB and $1000 NTD banknotes indicated that ions detected in 'color-shifting' and 'typography' regions were significantly different. Additionally, the abundances of some ions dramatically changed with the depth of the aforementioned regions. This approach was used to distinguish authentic $1000 NTD banknotes from counterfeits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The continental free trade area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    non-tariff barriers, and time in transit costs). Our simulations for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with a selected group of African countries show that this is very much a second-best option, and the inclusion of most of the significant economies in Africa generates the best results. Only in the event......The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series...... of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially...

  9. [Expedition medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  10. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  11. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.

  12. Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-05

    year. Korea and China, along with India, Brazil, South Africa, Turkey, Mexico, and Malaysia , represented the majority of all patent filings from...competition, monopolistic , or anti-competitive practices, it has become increasingly used for its IPR enforcement functions in recent years. Under...needed to balance the threats associated with counterfeit products with the resources that are available.100 In testimony before the Senate Banking

  13. "Who Counterfeited My Viagra?" Probabilistic Item Removal Detection via RFID Tag Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pietro Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We leverage RFID tag cooperation to enforce tampering detection. That is, we provide a set of probabilistic protocols that detect the absence of a tag from a system composed of a set of tags and a reader. Our proposals are able to detect which tag and for how long it has been taken away from the system. The grain of the detection can be tuned with respect to the resources available on the tags. Another merit of our solutions is to provide a proof-of-concept that a small level of cooperation among tags can further extend the range of applications RFID can support, possibly opening new veins of research. The proposed protocols fit the resource constraints of the several classes of RFID available on the market. In particular, the memory requirement ranges from few memory slots to a number of memory slots that is proportional to the number of rounds the presence of a tag is going to be checked. Computation is just one hash per round. This fully fledged set of protocols is thought to trade off the detection grain with the resources on the tag: the finer the item removal detection grain, the more resources a protocol requires. A thorough analysis for the removal detection probability is provided. Finally, extensive simulations support the analytical results, showing the viability of the proposed solutions.

  14. Advancing Public Health on the Changing Global Trade and Investment Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Gleeson, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Concerns regarding the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) have raised awareness about the negative public health impacts of trade and investment agreements. In the past decade, we have learned much about the implications of trade agreements for public health: reduced equity in access to health services; increased flows of unhealthy commodities; limits on access to medicines; and constrained policy space for health. Getting health on the trade agenda continues to prove challenging, despite some progress in moving towards policy coherence. Recent changes in trade and investment agendas highlight an opportunity for public health researchers and practitioners to engage in highly politicized debates about how future economic policy can protect and support equitable public health outcomes. To fulfil this opportunity, public health attention now needs to turn to strengthening policy coherence between trade and health, and identifying how solutions can be implemented. Key strategies include research agendas that address politics and power, and capacity building for both trade and health officials. PMID:28812819

  15. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...... demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show...

  16. [Sport medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  17. Vulnerable Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  18. Four essays in international trade: Trade flows in food products

    OpenAIRE

    Straume, Hans-Martin

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays within the field of international trade economics, as well as an introduction chapter. All four papers are empirical studies of trade flows in food products using transaction data. The first chapter introduces the data used in the papers, and provides a brief review of the general literature. During the last decades, the focus in international economics has shifted from studies of trade flows using aggregated data to studies of firm behavior. Historic...

  19. Bilateral trade agreements and the feasibility of multilateral free trade

    OpenAIRE

    Saggi, Kamal; Yildiz, Halis Murat

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares stable Nash equilibria of two games of trade liberalization. In the FTA game, each country can form an FTA with either one of its trade partners, or both of them, or none of them. By contrast, in the No FTA game, each country must choose either no agreement or free trade. Under symmetry, free trade is uniquely stable under the No FTA game whereas the FTA game also admits a bilateral FTA as an equilibrium. However, there exist patterns of cost asymmetry for which the freedo...

  20. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths...... and weaknesses of the two schemes are compared in a public choice setting which focuses on group size, selective incentives, entrepreneurship and lobbyism from industry. The result is threefold. First, the big countries (due to small group advantages) dominated the Kyoto negotiations. Second...

  1. Bilateral trade agreements and the feasibility of multilateral free trade

    OpenAIRE

    SAGGI, Kamal; Yildiz, Halis Murat

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares stable Nash equilibria of two games of trade liberalization. In the FTA game, each country can form an FTA with either one of its trade partners, or both of them, or none of them. By contrast, in the No FTA game, each country must choose either no agreement or free trade. Under symmetry, free trade is uniquely stable under the No FTA game whereas the FTA game also admits a bilateral FTA as an equilibrium. However, there exist patterns of cost asymmetry for which the freedo...

  2. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  3. Evolution of Trading strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Javier

    2007-03-01

    We attempt to classify the trading strategies of agents in the London Stock Exchange into broad categories. Our study is based on that that identifies the member of the exchange associated with each transaction. Based on the evolution of the inventory (holdings of the stock) as a function of time, we use clustering methods to classify the strategies into several groups. We study how these groups evolve in time and attempt to correlate the membership of the groups with other market properties, such as price volatility.

  4. Trading in Risk Dimensions (TRD)

    CERN Document Server

    Ingber, Lester

    2007-01-01

    Previous work, mostly published, developed two-shell recursive trading systems. An inner-shell of Canonical Momenta Indicators (CMI) is adaptively fit to incoming market data. A parameterized trading-rule outer-shell uses the global optimization code Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) to fit the trading system to historical data. A simple fitting algorithm, usually not requiring ASA, is used for the inner-shell fit. An additional risk-management middle-shell has been added to create a three-shell recursive optimization/sampling/fitting algorithm. Portfolio-level distributions of copula-transformed multivariate distributions (with constituent markets possessing different marginal distributions in returns space) are generated by Monte Carlo samplings. ASA is used to importance-sample weightings of these markets. The core code, Trading in Risk Dimensions (TRD), processes Training and Testing trading systems on historical data, and consistently interacts with RealTime trading platforms at minute resolutions, but ...

  5. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  6. Climate Change Creates Trade Opportunity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge to developing economy like India however it also creates opportunity to grow through climate friendly goods production and new direction of trade. This paper focuses India’s potential export trade in climate friendly goods. The estimated gravity model is defined as the potential trade and potential trade gap is measured as how well a bilateral trade flow performs relative to the mean as predicted by the model. Potential trade gap means that actual trade...

  7. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  8. Fixed Exchange Rates and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Klein; Jay C. Shambaugh

    2004-01-01

    A classic argument for a fixed exchange rate is its promotion of trade. Empirical support for this, however, is mixed. While one branch of research consistently shows a small negative effect of exchange rate volatility on trade, another, more recent, branch presents evidence of a large positive impact of currency unions on trade. This paper helps resolve this disconnect. Our results, which use a new data-based classification of fixed exchange rate regimes, show a large, significant effect of ...

  9. The Decade of Trade Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Nan

    2011-01-01

    IT is a well-known saying that whenever the United States sneezes,the world is sure to catch a cold.However,this analogy now seems more appropriate for the economic might of China.This year marks the 10th anniversary of China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO).The nation has gone from being relatively isolated from international trade standards and regulations,to meeting requirements for full participation in world trade.

  10. Development and validation of HPLC-UV-MS method for the control of four anti-diabetic drugs in suspected counterfeit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiu-mei; An, Ning; Wu, Jian-min; Li, Hui-yi; Zhang, Qi-ming

    2010-03-01

    An HPLC-UV method has been developed for the determination of valibose, miglitol, voglibose and acarbose, the four anti-diabetic drugs. The separation was accomplished successfully by using reversed phase chromatography (Prevail carbohydrate column, 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with a gradient acetonitrile-phosphate buffer solution (pH 8.0) at a wavelength of 210 nm. Furthermore, the method of a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS in positive ionization mode has been established. These two methods were successfully applied to the assay and qualitative detection of four alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in the potential counterfeit anti-diabetic drugs.

  11. Trade Relationship between Oman and Its Major Trading Asian Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalam F. Yahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: No empirical research exists that examines the interdependence of trade between Oman and its five major trading Asian partners (Emirates, Japan, South-Korea, Thailand and Mainland China. This study attempted to fill this gap in the literature by examining the interaction of trade between Oman and its major trading Asian partner. Particularly, this study attempted to answer the very important question that is there any feedback effect of the trade relationship between Oman and its major trading Asian partners. Approach: A simultaneous-equations model with a double-log form was developed and tested in this study in order to achieve its objectives. Results: The model was estimated using the Two Stage Least Square (2SLS procedure of estimation and the main findings of the analysis revealed that the price of oil does not seem to be the major determinant of Omani exports to its major trading partners with exception of Japan. The short-term elasticity of Omani imports from its major trading partners with respect to its income seems to be higher (e.g., ranging from 0.55-2.0 in all cases. Conclusion: This study brought new empirical evidence on the trade interdependence and suggested that there is a significant impact (a feedback effect on the level of GDP of Omani's four major trading partners namely Emirates, Japan and South Korea. Therefore, policy maker in sultanate of Oman should be aware of such interdependence and consider the degree of feedback effect of trade in any economic programming that linked and related to these countries.

  12. Free trade in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outterson, M Kevin

    2004-09-06

    Provisions in the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) may threaten the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), the "gold standard" of such programs worldwide. If Australia postpones passing of the US Free Trade Agreement Implementation Bill in the Senate, there will be opportunity for broader interests in both the United States and Australia to carefully study the agreement. The provisions of AUSFTA relating to the PBS are supposed to promote transparency, but the pharmaceutical manufacturers themselves (who are demanding transparency) do not reveal the content of their submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, or disclose all their financial relationships with researchers and policymakers. In AUSFTA, the "public health" language of affordable prescription drugs is missing and is replaced by language supporting "pharmaceutical innovation". Debate as to whether AUSFTA will force significant changes to the PBS, including higher drug prices, is currently under way in Australia. Perhaps the appropriate target of reforms should be the excessive US drug prices, and not the economically efficient Australian drug prices.

  13. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  14. Market Size, Trade, and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ottaviano, Gianmarco; Melitz, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We develop a monopolistically competitive model of trade with firm heterogeneity—in terms of productivity differences—and endogenous differences in the "toughness" of competition across markets—in terms of the number and average productivity of competing firms. We analyse how these features vary across markets of different size that are not perfectly integrated through trade; we then study the effects of different trade liberalization policies. In our model, market size and trade affect...

  15. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  16. Validated HPLC and Ultra-HPLC Methods for Determination of Dronedarone and Amiodarone Application for Counterfeit Drug Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Elkady, Ehab F; Mowaka, Shereen; Attallah, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Two simple, accurate, and precise chromatographic methods have been developed and validated for the determination of dronedarone (DRO) HCl and amiodarone (AMI) HCl either alone or in binary mixtures due to the possibility of using AMI as a counterfeit of DRO because of its lower price. First, an RP-HPLC method is described for the simultaneous determination of DRO and AMI. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a BDS Hypersil C18 column (150×4.6 mm, 5 μm). Isocratic elution based on potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer with 0.1% triethylamine pH 6-methanol (10+90, v/v) at a flow rate of 2 mL/min with UV detection at 254 nm was performed. The second method is RP ultra-HPLC in which the chromatographic separation was achieved on an AcclaimTM RSLC 120 C18 column (100×2.1 mm, 2.2 μm) using isocratic elution with potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer with 0.1% triethylamine pH 6-methanol (5+95, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 254 nm. Linearity, accuracy, and precision of the two methods were found to be acceptable over the concentration ranges of 5-80 μg/mL for both DRO and AMI. The results were statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance. The optimized methods were validated and proved to be specific, robust, precise, and accurate for the QC of the drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations.

  17. Human Factors in Financial Trading: An Analysis of Trading Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W

    2016-09-01

    This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors-related issues in operational trading incidents. In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors-related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Beyond trade: the expanding scope of the non-trade agenda in trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Milewicz, KM; Hollway, J; Peacock, C; Snidal, D

    2016-01-01

    Increased complexity and density of transnational problems creates unprecedented challenges and opportunities for contemporary international governance. ‘Issue linkage’ is one institutional arrangement through which states address these chang- ing circumstances. In this paper, we examine the widening scope of the non-trade agenda in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Non-trade issues (NTIs) such as human rights, democracy, environment, corruption and labor standards are increasingly l...

  19. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Pardo, Hector; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, we examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with non-members and external tariffs facing non-members. First, we examine the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. We find no evidence that preferential liberalization has led to lower import growth from non-members. Second, we examine the relationship between preferential ta...

  20. COPD Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Treatment & Programs Medications COPD Medications COPD Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... control the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most people with COPD take long-acting medicine ...