WorldWideScience

Sample records for counter nuclear terrorism

  1. Improved Technology To Prevent Nuclear Proliferation And Counter Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J; Yuldashev, B; Labov, S; Knapp, R

    2006-06-12

    As the world moves into the 21st century, the possibility of greater reliance on nuclear energy will impose additional technical requirements to prevent proliferation. In addition to proliferation resistant reactors, a careful examination of the various possible fuel cycles from cradle to grave will provide additional technical and nonproliferation challenges in the areas of conversion, enrichment, transportation, recycling and waste disposal. Radiation detection technology and information management have a prominent role in any future global regime for nonproliferation. As nuclear energy and hence nuclear materials become an increasingly global phenomenon, using local technologies and capabilities facilitate incorporation of enhanced monitoring and detection on the regional level. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation and countering radiological/nuclear terrorism. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, passive detection, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. For example, various gamma ray imaging approaches are being explored to combine spatial resolution with background suppression in order to enhance sensitivity many-fold at reasonable standoff distances and acquisition times. New materials and approaches are being developed in order to provide adequate energy resolution in field use without the necessity for liquid nitrogen. Different detection algorithms enable fissile materials to be distinguished from other radioisotopes.

  2. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article is aimed at those professional scientists and engineers who believe that issues of international peace and security are too important to be left to the politicians. Nuclear Terrorism is a hostile act (or a threat of such an act) involving nuclear materials (fissile or radioactive) performed by a terrorist, a term which covers a wide range of individuals. What they all have in common is that, for some reason they have become motivated to hurt or destroy sections of society which they have come to regard as the enemy; their motivation varies enormously. They also vary enormously in the extent and nature of their technical/scientific education. There are 'PhD terrorists' and 'Peasant terrorists', and they differ greatly in the threat that they represent, and the steps which can appropriately be taken to counter it. The most serious threat comes from the potential ability of terrorists to steal or manufacture nuclear weapons of mass destruction (e.g. capable of causing thousands of deaths). Unless the underlying causes of terrorism can be quickly removed, we have a duty to mankind to make terrorist access to such weapons, and to the nuclear materials which are their essential ingredients, as difficult as possible. Improvements in the arrangements for denying unauthorised access to radioactive material should be made such that the protective measures made are proportionate to the number of Curies at risk and the likelihood of a terrorist initiative. The preventative measures, sadly, need to take account of the possibility that the terrorist will use lethal force to access the material. (author)

  3. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Countering Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apikyan, S.; Diamond, D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this workshop was to identify connections between technology needs and the underlying science and technology, and to establish research strategies that will advanced our ability to counter this form of terrorism. The objectives were met by bringing together international experts familiar with the relevant technologies and policies at a four-day workshop that was held at the Regional Advanced Science and Technology Center (ASTEC), Yerevan, Armenia during October 2005. The many topics covered included: radiation detector development, risk assessment and decision making, decontamination techniques, structural materials resistance to conventional explosives, vulnerability and physical protection of nuclear facilities, security of radiation sources, response to radiological dispersion devices, relevant international and national laws, and non-proliferation

  4. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  5. US-Soviet cooperation in countering nuclear terrorism: the role of risk reduction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, S.; Warner, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Preventing nuclear terrorism should be high on the agenda of US-Soviet relations. Indeed, the specter of nuclear terrorism, more than any other factor originally prompted and has subsequently sustained the author's deep interest in US-Soviet agreements on establishment of US-Soviet Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers and other important risk-reduction measures. Such centers can play an invaluable role in facilitating discussions aimed at forestalling possible contingencies and in providing a mechanism for dampening escalatory dangers that might otherwise result from any future nuclear terrorism incident. In addition to these crucial substantive functions, the centers could serve to reassure anxious publics that the governments they have entrusted with command authority over tens of thousands of nuclear devices are giving the highest priority to reducing the risk that any of them will ever be used, whether by design or by accident. Nuclear risk Reduction Centers are an idea whose time has come

  6. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  7. Advanced Neutron Detection Methods: new Tools for Countering Nuclear Terrorism (412th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Acts of terrorism have become almost daily occurrences in the international news. Yet one of the most feared types of terrorism - nuclear terrorism - has not yet happened. One important way of preventing nuclear terrorism is to safeguard nuclear materials, and many people worldwide work continuously to achieve that goal. A second, vital defense is being developed: greatly improved methods of detecting material that a nuclear terrorist would need so that timely discovery of the material could become more probable. Special nuclear materials can emit neutrons, either spontaneously or when excited by a source of high-energy gamma rays, such as an electron accelerator. Traditional neutron detectors can sense these neutrons, but not the direction from which the neutrons come, or their energy. The odds against finding smuggled nuclear materials using conventional detectors are great. However, innovative designs of detectors are producing images that show the locations and even the shapes of man-made neutron sources, which stand out against the uniform background produced by cosmic rays. With the new detectors, finding needles in haystacks - or smuggled nuclear materials in a huge container among thousands of others in a busy port - suddenly becomes possible.

  8. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia

  9. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  10. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, Vuthy, E-mail: vuthy.khun@gmail.com; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  11. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  12. Israel's Counter-Terrorism Strategy and its Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jerry D

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Israeli counter-terrorism strategy and its effectiveness. Because of ongoing suicide attacks from Palestinian and other terrorist organizations, Israel will continue to have an aggressive counter-terrorism strategy...

  13. Statement at UN Secretary General's High-Level Meeting on Countering Nuclear Terrorism, 28 September 2012, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Secretary-General, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, I would like to begin by thanking you, Secretary-General, for taking the initiative to convene this important conference. The threat of nuclear terrorism has not diminished. Although much progress has been made in recent years in countering it, more needs to be done. Primary responsibility for ensuring nuclear security lies with national governments, but international cooperation is vital. The importance of the IAEA's role in helping countries to improve nuclear security has been recognised by the United Nations General Assembly, most recently in resolution 65/74 on preventing the acquisition by terrorists of radioactive sources. Our central role reflects the Agency's extensive membership, our mandate, our unique technical expertise and our long experience of providing specialist, practical guidance to countries. No other organization offers these advantages. Heads of state and government recognised the Agency's role at the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul in March this year. Last week, the IAEA General Conference - the annual gathering of our 155 Member States - adopted a resolution in which it reaffirmed t he central role of the Agency in ensuring coordination of international activities in the field of nuclear security, while avoiding duplication and overlap . To put it simply, our work focuses on helping to minimize the risk of nuclear and other radioactive material falling into the hands of terrorists, or of nuclear facilities being subjected to malicious acts. The IAEA has established internationally accepted guidance that is used as a benchmark for nuclear security. We help countries to apply this guidance through expert peer review missions, specialist training and human resource development programmes. The Agency helps countries to put laws and regulatory infrastructure in place to protect nuclear and other radioactive material. We provide guidance to States on how to implement their

  14. Nuclear terrorism and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Sauver, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Unlike conventional terrorist violence, bona-fide nuclear terrorism is a self-publicizing phenomenon. It is a public event by the very scope of its impact. Apocalyptic and catastrophically destructive, a nuclear explosion is the ideal instrument of mass terror. Rational nuclear insurgents would not inform authorities that a nuclear device is about to be detonated. Advance warning of an impending nuclear explosion would reduce the maximum potential effectiveness of any response to such an event

  15. The Department of Homeland Security’s Approach to Countering Nuclear Terrorism through Detection and Technical Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huban A. Gowadia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To combat the threat of nuclear terrorism, the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO was established within the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to focus efforts on developing and enhancing radiological and nuclear detection and national technical nuclear forensics capabilities. With respect to nuclear detection, we at DNDO, in concert with interagency partners, are developing and enhancing a multi-faceted, layered, defense-in-depth framework to make prohibitively difficult the importation, possession, storage, development, transportation, or use of nuclear or other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. In furtherance of this framework, we conduct research and development on detection and forensics technologies, characterize system performance, acquire and deploy detection systems, and support operational partners with the development of programs to effectively perform detection operations. To support the U.S. Government’s (USG attribution process, we focus on improving the readiness of the overarching USG forensic capabilities; advancing the technical capabilities to perform forensic analyses on pre-detonation nuclear and other radioactive materials; and building and sustaining an expertise pipeline for nuclear forensic scientists. These efforts, coupled with the work of interagency partners, will advance USG capabilities to detect and interdict a nuclear threat and hold accountable those who are responsible for such actions.

  16. Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological and nuclear terrorism is widely considered as a major if not ultimate terrorist threat for modern societies. Highly industrialized countries could be extremely sensitive to terrorist aggressions of this kind. Nuclear terrorism is often associated with nuclear proliferation. Strictly speaking, nuclear proliferation deals with the spread of nuclear weapons into states which doesn't posses them. But proliferation can also be understood as the spread of radioactive material or even nuclear explosives into the hands of non-state organizations, such as sub national terrorist or criminal organizations as well as any kind of extreme groups for sabotage, blackmail or any other destabilization or destruction purposes. New driving factors for nuclear terrorism which 'help' terrorists are: the consequence of the break down of the Soviet Union and 'easy' radioactive smuggling and black market. What is 'New terrorism'? In analyzing the treat, one has to start by posing several crucial questions such as 'do such groups or individuals have the skill to complete their aim'? 'Who are these groups and individuals', 'how they can be categorized', 'what is their motivation'? If analysis of the 'new terrorism' is one side of the coin, the other is just as daunting. Who, what, when, where and how would be targeted by 'new terrorism'? Although there are existing different reasons (religious and political/social), mainly the target is civilian population. In many instances the aim is to exert either political or economic pressure on authorities or both. Police, ambulance - first call response teams - local, regional and national authorities have a hard task still ahead of them. The upside is that industrialized nations have acknowledged the need to reassess where we are and what the risk is. The bottom line has to be 'who is likely to want to resort to such methods and what the likelihood of them succeeding would be. (author)

  17. BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM: THE NOTION, ESSENCE AND MAIN AREAS OF COUNTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sarankina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article issued theoretical and practice problems of combating terrorism in current conditions, in particular, analyzes the concept of bio-terrorism as a form of terrorism, we investigate its nature, characteristics, and also referred to the major directions of countering.

  18. Lessons from History for Counter- Terrorism Strategic Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, H.J.; Reed, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC) Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of

  19. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  20. Planning for countering nuclear terrorism. Chapter 1. Motivation and redirection: rationale and achievements in the russian closed nuclear cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, G.

    2006-01-01

    The non-proliferation rationale and achievements of the collaboration between the UK and Russia for a personnel redirection programme in the Closed Nuclear Cities is described. A framework for the interaction between demand and supply dimensions of proliferation threats is developed to show how redirection programmes to enable WMD (weapons of mass destruction) specialists move into civilian activities reduce these same threats. Early results from the UK-Russia Closed Nuclear Cities Partnership are presented and compared with the parallel US funded Nuclear Cities Initiative and similar local economic development measures

  1. Potential for nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1977-05-01

    The question of whether or not terrorists will ''go nuclear'' is discussed. It is possible, although there is no historical evidence that any criminal or terrorist group ever made any attempt to acquire nuclear material for use in an explosive or dispersal device. In terms of intentions, psychotics are potential nuclear terrorists, but in terms of capabilities, they are the farthest away from being able to acquire a nuclear weapon. The history of nuclear incidents in the U.S. and abroad is reviewed. As the nuclear industry expands, the number of low-level incidents (bomb threats, pilferage, etc.) will increase also, but not necessarily escalate to more serious incidents. Terrorists may ''go nuclear'' solely for the publicity value; nuclear hoaxes may be attenpted. Nuclear terrorism seems more attractive as a threat than as an action. But the nature of the threat may change in the future, and the danger of imitation of a successful nuclear terrorist act is pointed out

  2. Nuclear Terrorism and its Confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Barody, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The whole world first knew nuclear terrorism during the second world war through the use of excessive violence that to terror exercised by one country against another, as was carried out by USA when it exploded two nuclear bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki t the end of the war. there are numerous types of nuclear terrorism that can be performed by individuals or organized groups for achieving political or social objectives. the definition of the term t errorism i s correlated with u sing means capable of creating a case of public dnger . that property exists in all types of direct or indirect nuclear terrorism . the present study is divided into two chapters. Chapter one deals with nuclear terrorism and consists of two sections , the first deals with the identification of the nature of nuclear terrorism an the second deals with organize nuclear terrorism on the international level. Chapter two deals with the confrontation of nuclear terrorism in two sections. the first deals with the role of the state in combating against nuclear terrorism nd the second deals with combating against nuclear terrorism on the international level. while internally it is confronted through promulgation of legislations that deal with the protection against nuclear terrorism as well as the national legal instruments for protection of nuclear materials and installation and combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, confrontation of nuclear terrorism on the international level is carried out through the promulgation of international convention such as that on suppression of actions of nuclear terrorism which shall be opened for signature on sept.14 -2005 according to the recommendation the general assembly of the united nations in its 59 t h session

  3. A Fear Management Approach to Counter-Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinka Veldhuis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Spreading fear is the essence of terrorism. Terrorists exploit fear by terrorising the target audience into concessions. Understanding how feelings of fear influence the way people feel, think and act is therefore an important starting point to explore how individuals and societies can learn how to cope with fear of terrorism. In this Policy Brief, Research Fellows Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Dr. Tinka Veldhuis explore the dynamics of fear in response to terrorism, and emphasise the importance of integrating initiatives to manage fear of terrorism and reduce its negative consequences into overarching counter-terrorism strategies. It argues that societies can benefit greatly from promoting resilience and a fear management approach to counter-terrorism.

  4. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  5. Advancing against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.

    2006-01-01

    Meeting a day before the summit, Bush and Putin announced a new Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism; a plan for multiple, multilateral guaranteed suppliers of nuclear fuel to States that forgo building their own enrichment plants; and a Civil Nuclear Agreement that will lift restrictions on cooperation between the two countries in developing peaceful nuclear power. Each of these initiatives provides a framework for dozens of specific actions that can measurably reduce the risk of terrorists acquiring a nuclear weapon. The significance of the Global Initiative against Nuclear Terrorism lies not only in its substance but in Russia's visible joint ownership of the Initiative. After years in which Washington lectured Moscow about this threat, Putin's joint leadership in securing nuclear material worldwide should give added impetus to this undertaking inside Russia as well. Globally, this initiative calls for work plans in five arenas: prevention, detection, disruption, mitigation of consequences after an attack, and strengthening domestic laws and export controls against future A.Q. Khans. The guaranteed nuclear fuel supply tightens the noose around Iran as it seeks to exploit a loophole in the global Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. By guaranteeing States that six separate international suppliers will provide backup guarantees against interruption of supply for any reason other that breech of commitments under the NPT, this proposal eliminates Iran's excuse for Natanz-the enrichment plant it is rushing to finish today. This system for supply will be subject to the supervision by the IAEA, which will also have nuclear fuel reserves that allow it to be a supplier of last resort. The Civil Nuclear Agreement will allow joint research on next-generation, proliferation-proof reactors, including technologies where Russian science is the best in the world. It will permit sale to Russia of US technologies that can improve the safety and efficiency of Russian nuclear

  6. Considering threats of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan consisted of three physical protection areas separated into limited access area, protected area with disposition of riot police riding in special guard vehicle, and inner area. Drilling of measures to protect against terrorism had been conducted based on design basis threat (DBT) and effectiveness of anti-terrorism measures corresponding with updated DBT had been evaluated by the inspection. Since nuclear power station had been target of terrorism using bomb, aircraft or military operation in overseas countries, anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan should be paid more attention so as to overcome their weakness supported by Government's commitments like United States. (T. Tanaka)

  7. The universal legal framework against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehr, W.

    2007-01-01

    After the events of September 11, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1373 (2001) which has been called the 'Counter-Terrorism Code' of the world, because it creates legal obligations for all 192 Member States of the United Nations. UN Security Council Resolutions 1373 (2001), 1540 (2004) and 1735 (2006) as well as a defined set of 13 global treaties constitute the universal legal framework against terrorism which must be implemented in a manner consistent with international human rights obligations. Basically, these 13 treaties as well as Resolution 1373 are international criminal law instruments. Within this universal legal framework, the framework against nuclear terrorism is constituted by Resolution 1540, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) which entered into force in 1987, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings which is in force since 2001. These three legal instruments will be supplemented by the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, an amendment to the CPPNM and two Protocols amending the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, once these instruments, all of which were adopted in 2005, enter into force. The Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) assists countries which are in need of legislative assistance for the drafting of appropriate counter-terrorism laws that duly take into account the obligations contained in Resolution 1373, the United Nations sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban as well as in the 13 universal conventions for the prevention and the suppression of terrorism, including the CPPNM and the new International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. UNODC/TPB has also

  8. Catching Seriously Bad Dudes: US Counter-terrorism strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardyová, Alžběta

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 7-8 (2008), s. 34-38 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/07/1395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : terrorism * counter- terrorism * US * 9/11 Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/156_socioweb_7_08.pdf

  9. Lessons from History for Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroro J. Ingram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of interrelated macro-, mezzo- and micro-level considerations for maximizing the efficacy of not just a strategic communications campaign but message design. Historical examples are drawn upon to illustrate their practical application. The Policy Brief concludes by analysing four key strategic-policy principles arguing that a counter-terrorism strategic communications campaign is more likely to be successful if it is based on the cumulative effects of a multidimensional messaging strategy.

  10. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  11. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  12. Why Communication and Performance are Key in Countering Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Research Fellow Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf emphasises the importance of effective communication and performance in the fight against terrorism and the fear it aims to induce. Essentially, terrorists and states are conducting “influence warfare”, a battle to convince and persuade the different target audiences to rally behind them. In this battle of perceptions, the different government agencies need to be aware of the often implicit and unwittingly produced “stories” they tell to counter those narrated by the terrorists. It is crucial to take in consideration the fact that combating terrorism is a form of communication, as much as terrorism is itself.

  13. Nuclear terrorism: Facts and fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The study tries to assess the risk of nuclear terrorism in the light of recent developments in the area of nuclear weapons proliferation, and to develop suggestions of how to cope with existing challenges. First of all the term of ''nuclear terrorism'' is defined and differentiated from other forms of nuclear crimes. In a second step the attempt is made to compile the findings and assessments of the past on the problem of nuclear terrorism. Since, as a rule, a threat potential is composed of 'intentions' and 'capabilities', a third part is dedicated to terrorist intentions and studies the degree of probability of terrorists considering nuclear weapons an appropriate means for their aims. In connection with 'capabilities' it is scrutinized whether terrorist groups will be able at all to procure, design or initiate nuclear warheads. This leads to the question as to which consequences result from nuclear safety shortcomings - in particular in Russia - with a view to nuclear terrorism. Based on the preceding considerations, several proposals for coping with the danger of nuclear terrorism are made. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.; Brown, O. F.; Vanden Borre, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  15. Management of the Extreme Events: Countering International Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Cristian Barna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the terrorism attacks of September 11, 2001, there is recognition by both the public and private sectors that one needs to rethink our strategy for dealing with these low probability but extreme consequence events. September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States raised numerous questions related to counter-terrorism, foreign policy, as well as national security in the United States and abroad. They also raised the fundamental question of who should pay for losses due to terrorism.The question of who should pay for terrorism risk prevention and sustainable coverage within a country is likely to be seen first as a matter of collective responsibility that each country has to consider – a societal choice

  16. Conflict and complexity countering terrorism, insurgency, ethnic and regional violence

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Minai, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Complexity science affords a number of novel tools for examining terrorism, particularly network analysis and NK-Boolean fitness landscapes as well as other tools drawn from non-linear dynamical systems modeling. This book follows the methodologies of complex adaptive systems research in their application to addressing the problems of terrorism, specifically terrorist networks, their structure and various methods of mapping and interdicting them as well as exploring the complex landscape of network-centric and irregular warfare. A variety of new models and approaches are presented here, including Dynamic Network Analysis, DIME/PMESII models, percolation models and emergent models of insurgency. In addition, the analysis is informed by practical experience, with analytical and policy guidance from authors who have served within the U.S. Department of Defense, the British Ministry of Defence as well as those who have served in a civilian capacity as advisors on terrorism and counter-terrorism.

  17. Nuclear Law: A Key Against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the legal instruments in the war against nuclear terrorism. Control of radioactive sources. Elements of Nuclear Law: Definition: it is the body of special legislation that regulates the pacific uses of nuclear energy and the conduct of the persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials and ionizing radiation . Objective: to provide a legal framework in order to protect individuals , property and the environment against the harmful effects of the use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation. Principles of nuclear energy legislation: safety principle, exclusively operator responsibility, authorization, independence of the regulatory body, inspections and enforcement, nuclear damage compensation, international cooperation. National regulatory infrastructure. Establishment of special law in Emergency Preparedness for nuclear or radiological disaster. IAEA Conventions. Transportation of nuclear material. IAEA regulations on radioactive material. Compensation for nuclear damage. Nuclear safety, security and terrorism. International and domestic instruments. Anti terrorism acts. International agreements on Safety Cooperation. (Author)

  18. Prevent: A Fragmented Counter-Terrorism Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    ethnicity, religion, class, gender , language, accent, dress, political ideology or any combination of these factors may serve to delineate the sub...against another. Lack of parity in resourcing compounds the issue of a community that is securitize in nature. Complex adaptive systems theory... Parity in emphasis would not only garnish a greater level of community trust for all forms of terrorism, but it would deemphasize the need of the current

  19. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  20. Nuclear timer/counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuthayavanich, S.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis represents the development of a Timer/COUNTER compatible to the standard Nuclear Instrument Module Specifications. The unit exhibits high accuracy, light weight and ease of maintenance. The unit also has a built-in precision discriminator to discriminate unwanted signals that may cause interference in counting. With line frequency time base the timer can be preset in steps from 0.1 sec. to 9 x 10 5 min. The counter with six digits miniature display and an overflow output has a maximum counting rate of 10 MHz. The accumulated counting data can be transferred to a teletype or printer for hard copy printout with the aid of ORTEC 777 Line Printer or 432 A Print-out Control or any print out interface with input compatible to the print output of the Timer/Counter. Owing to its NIM compatibility the unit is directly powered by the NIM power supply

  1. Counter-Terrorism, Technology and Transparency: Reconsidering State Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirine Eijkman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Discussion Paper, Dr. Quirine Eijkman discusses the use of surveillance, storage of personal information, biometrics, satellite technology and other forms of ICT technology used in the fight against terrorism. Although technology is a powerful tool to fight terrorism, it is also a means for increasing social control by the state. Henceforth, there is a risk that panoptic surveillance – where the few view the many – could develop. Therefore accountability in relation to use of technological counter-terrorism measures such as smart surveillance cameras, biometric devices or the tracking of personal data is discussed in this article. The extra powers that both public authorities and private companies gain through new (surveillance technologies should be counterbalanced. In this context the role of the state, because of its monopoly to use force and its duty to protect the rule of law, is crucial. By reconsidering how to enforce accountability by the state, the effects of technological counter-terrorism measures could be checked and balanced.

  2. Against acts of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Act on the International Convention of the United Nations of April 13, 2005 on Combating Acts of Nuclear Terrorism was promulgated in the German Federal Gazette and entered into force one day later. The Convention expresses the deep concern about the worldwide escalation of all kinds and manifestations of acts of terrorism. What was true in April 2005 (the year the UN convention was adopted) is even more true today. At the same time, however, the Convention recognizes the right of all nations to develop and use nuclear power for peaceful purposes, acknowledging their justified interest in the possible benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. As the Convention was signed in German still during the term of office of the Red-Green government, this passage is a remarkable acceptance of the realities of the world and past peaceful uses of nuclear power in Germany. Whether or not the convention will become an effective instrument to be used against acts of nuclear terrorism and threats depends on its entering into force after deposition of 22 ratification documents, and on as many states as possible acceding to it. Irrespective of these aspects, action in the spirit of the Convention should be taken now, criminal law should be adapted, and international cooperation should be improved and strengthened. (orig.)

  3. Technical considerations in nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velardo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is an evil application of nuclear energy, in the same way that chemical and biological terrorism could be considered as the evil side of chemistry and biology. This paper presents two effects of nuclear terrorism. First, dirty bombs or radioactive bombs or radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), and second, crude atom bombs or improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The paper analyses as well the probabilities of an attack, its biological effects and nuclear risk. Experiments carried out so far indicate that the lethal effects produced by RDDs are likely the same that the effects produced by the chemical explosive used in the bomb. These type of bombs are rather bounded to generate panic and have implicit a high cost of decontamination. It will be described the measures to be adopted. INDs will be also considered. Uranium INDs by gun-method are more feasible to be made. They can be disassembled and their components transported to the target place. Plutonium INDs by the implosion-method are complex and required high precision technology. Their disassembly is very difficult

  4. Swot analysis of using aerostats for surveillance in counter terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin

    2013-06-01

    In today's conjuncture, the terrorist activities are the most compelling issue for the defence forces in maintaining homeland security. Especially, the terrorist elements that penetrate the homeland may give harm. This harm can be minimized by preventing the terrorist penetrations from homeland borders. In counter terrorism, having Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capability and using this capability by twenty four hours is deterrence for the terrorist groups. Aerostats emerge as the ideal platform which can provide this capability. Aerostats are unmanned and aerodynamically shaped balloons that are stayed in the air, fixed to the ground by steel cable(s). The aerostat is made of a large fabric envelope that is filled with nonflammable helium gas, which provides the lifting force. The cables also serve to supply the electrical power to the aerostat systems, and for data relay between the aerostat and the ground station. Aerostats are different from the other manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) because of aerostats' capabilities such as cost effectiveness, long endurance and high resolution image transmission. Especially having uninterrupted image transmission and surveillance capabilities is important to be advantageous in counter terrorism. In this article, a short definition of terrorism has been given and then the importance of ensuring the homeland border security has been emphasized in counter terrorism. In addition, the questions of "what are the technical capabilities, the usage areas and the purposes of aerostats?" will be introduced as a result of literature review. Finally the strengths and weaknesses of aerostats, opportunities and threats for the near future will be introduced by using "SWOT" analysis method.

  5. IAEA Nuclear Security Programme Combating Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA Plans of activities include, General Conference in September 2001 which reviewed activities relevant to preventing nuclear terrorism and proposed master plan. The Board of Governors approved new Nuclear Security Plan for the next four years. Three activity areas are; - needs assessment, analysis and coordination, prevention and detection and response.

  6. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  7. Deterring and Dissuading Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Klein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While nuclear deterrence theory may be well-suited to dealing with nuclear-armed states, its suitability for deterring nuclear terrorism has frequently been questioned since 9/11. While terrorist organizations do not necessarily act uniformly or according to the same underlying beliefs, many of the most aggressive organizations are motivated by an ideology that embraces martyrdom and an apocalyptic vision.1 This ideology may be based on religion or a desire to overthrow a government. Consequently, terrorists motivated by ideology who intend to use a stolen or improvised nuclear device against the United States or its interests may not care about the resulting military repercussions following a nuclear attack. In such a scenario, some strategists think a terrorist organization's leadership may prove "undeterrable" by traditional military means. Nevertheless, deterrence is still a critical element in U.S. national strategy to prevent a nuclear attack. Furthermore, deterrence combined with dissuasion works to reduce the likelihood of nuclear terrorism being used against the United States, while also mitigating the consequences should such an act actually occur.

  8. Is counter-terrorism policy evidence-based? What works, what harms, and what is unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Cynthia; Kennedy, Leslie W; Sherley, Alison

    2008-02-01

    Is counter-terrorism policy evidence-based? What works, what harms, and what is unknown. One of the central concerns surrounding counter-terrorism interventions today, given the attention and money spent on them, is whether such interventions are effective. To explore this issue, we conducted a general review of terrorism literature as well as a Campbell systematic review on counter-terrorism strategies. In this article, we summarize some of our findings from these works. Overall, we found an almost complete absence of evaluation research on counter-terrorism strategies and conclude that counter-terrorism policy is not evidence-based. The findings of this review emphasise the need for government leaders, policy makers, researchers, and funding agencies to include and insist on evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs in their agendas.

  9. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  10. International safeguards and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moglewer, S.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides a critical review of the effectiveness of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards against potential acts of nuclear terrorism. The author argues that IAEA safeguards should be made applicable to deterring diversions of nuclear materials from civil to weapons purposes by subnational groups as well as by nations. Both technical and institutional factors are considered, and suggestions for organizational restructuring and further technical development are made. Awareness of the necessity for effective preventive measures is emphasized, and possible directions for further effort are suggested

  11. Discussing Terrorism: A Pupil-Inspired Guide to UK Counter-Terrorism Policy Implementation in Religious Education Classrooms in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartermaine, Angela

    2016-01-01

    My research into pupils' perceptions of terrorism and current UK counter-terrorism policy highlights the need for more detailed and accurate discussions about the implementation of the educational aims, in particular those laid out by the Prevent Strategy. Religious education (RE) in England is affected by these aims, specifically the challenging…

  12. A nuclear proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear proportional counter comprising in a bulb filled with a low-pressure gas, a wire forming an anode and a cathode, characterized in that said cathode is constituted by two plane plates parallel to each other and to the anode wire, and in that two branches of a circuit are connected to the anode wire end-portions, each branch comprising a pre-amplifier, a measuring circuit consisting of a differentiator-integrator-differentiator amplifier and a zero detector, one of the branches comprising an adjustable delay circuit, both branches jointly attacking a conversion circuit for converting the pulse duration into amplitudes said conversion circuit being followed by a multi-channel analyzer, contingently provided with a recorder [fr

  13. Security Guards and Counter-terrorism: Tourism and Gaps in Terrorism Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Howie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terrorism preparedness exists. I argue that protecting tourism destinations is only possible if consideration is given the effectiveness of security guards and understanding that their well-being will impact upon their ability to deliver security. I want to draw attention to the often ignored social role of security guards. On 9/11, 42 security guards died whilst helping save the lives of thousands. They performed their jobs admirably, despite being low-paid, under-appreciated workers. In this paper I explore the social role of security guards in the context of tourism security. By drawing on representations of security guards in popular culture and reports on the state of the security guard industry. I argue that the lack of attention on the quality and well-being of guards is a significant black-spot in tourism security and terrorism preparedness.

  14. Towards a Theory of Fear Management in the Counter-Terrorism Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bakker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 9/11, the state of the art in counter-terrorism research, counter-terorism measures and counter-terrorism impacts has taken off. Nevertheless, countering terrorism as a branch of fear management is still a discipline to be developed. In this Research Paper, authors Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf attempt to lessen this gap. The Paper identifies and analyses governmental approaches to managing fear in relation to terrorist incidents. It is a stocktaking approach, offering a preliminary oversight of some central aspects and pointers on the way forward when constructing and testing such a theory.

  15. Training Post-9/11 Police Officers with a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training Model: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…

  16. Global Risk of Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Diez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim population worldwide, al-Qaida's new objective is "to kill 4 million Americans–2 million of them children." As political scientist Graham Allison notes, this could be achieved with either 1,334 attacks similar in magnitude to those of 9/11, or one nuclear bomb.Building a nuclear program is an arduous task that requires tacit knowledge, the recruitment of nuclear scientists, engineers, and machinists, and the resources and time to obtain nuclear materials and components. While it is unlikely that terrorist organizations have the capacity to develop full-fledged programs in the near term, terrorist development and acquisition of nuclear weapons remains a long-term threat that requires international action.

  17. Potential for nuclear terrorism: a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because there has never been an incident of nuclear terrorism, the author is reduced to informed speculation. The past cannot be used to extrapolate into the future. For terrorists as for nations, the domain of nuclear attack represents are unprecedented quantum leap, one that groups think carefully about. Terrorists will consider many factors, including the public climate, because they are not psychotics operating in a vacuum (though groups may include psychotic individuals). Rather, they are people involved in a reciprocal political and psychological relationship with the rest of the world. In reaching some assessment of the potential for nuclear terrorism, there is an immense number of variables to deal with, beginning with the many types of terrorists and terrorism, including nuclear. They can, however, look at individual terrorist groups - a their compositions, capabilities, motivations, and modus operandi - and reach some conclusions. The author first looks at the possible forms nuclear terrorism might take and at the severity of the consequences. A strict distinction must be made between nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the means (for example, a nuclear device) and nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the target (for example, nuclear power stations), or where they are both such as a nuclear weapon thrown at a nuclear power station. 2 tables

  18. The Need for a United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Coordinator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Stoffer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The case for a high level United Nations (UN Counter-Terrorism Coordinator position within the UN system has become increasingly urgent in 2013. This need has diluted some Member State reticence to creating a new Assistant Secretary-General position that would supervise and manage the existing counter-terrorism structures in the UN system. A Coordinator would have a basic responsibility to keep track of all of the activities of many formal inter-governmental organisations operating at the international, regional and sub-regional level and would also work closely with national counter-terrorism focal points. In this Policy Brief, Dr. Howard Stoffer reviews the debate among Security Council and Fifth Committee members about the efficacy of establishing a senior UN Global Counter-Terrorism Coordinator. He argues that the creation of such a position could lead to a restructuring of the UN counter-terrorism architecture as well as its funding within the UN budget and among donors. The position would eventually make the UN overall counter-terrorism effort, under the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, a stronger, more effective and more efficient process with measurable impact on the ground among Member States.

  19. IAEA Director General welcomes landmark convention to combat nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the adoption of an International convention against nuclear terrorism. 'This is a landmark achievement which will bolster global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism,' Dr. ElBaradei said. 'It will be a key part of international efforts to prevent terrorists from gaining access to nuclear weapons'. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the convention, The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, on 13 April 2005. The Convention strengthens the global legal framework to counter terrorist threats. Based on a proposal by the Russian Federation in 1998, the Convention focuses on criminal offences related to nuclear terrorism and covers a broad range of possible targets, including nuclear reactors as well as nuclear material and radioactive substances. Under its provisions, alleged offenders - for example any individual or group that unlawfully and intentionally possesses or uses radioactive material with the intent to cause harm - must be either extradited or prosecuted. States are also encouraged to cooperate with each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings. The Convention further requires that any seized nuclear or radiological material be held in accordance with IAEA safeguards, and handled in keeping with the IAEA's health, safety and physical protection standards. Dr. ElBaradei also recalled that the Agency is in the process of amending the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, in order to broaden its scope, and in so doing, strengthen the current legal framework for securing nuclear material against illicit uses. A conference will be held from 4 to 8 July in Vienna to consider and adopt the amendments. The Convention opens for signature in September this year. Dr ElBaradei urged all States to 'sign and ratify the Convention without delay so nuclear terrorism will have no chance'. (IAEA)

  20. The IAEA Nuclear Security Programme Combating Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Discusses the four threats of nuclear terrorism,which are theft of a nuclear weapon, theft of material to make an improvised nuclear explosive device,theft of other radioactive material for an Radiological dispersal device and sabotage of a facility or transport. The IAEA Nuclear Security programme combating Nuclear Terrorism therefore adopts a comprehensive approach. The programme addresses the need to cover nuclear and other radioactive materials, nuclear facilities and transports, non-nuclear, medical and industrial applications of sources

  1. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nass, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  2. Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    This Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism is submitted to the United States Congress as required by the 1994 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) (as amended...

  3. Boundaries of the Battlefield: A Critical Look at the Legal Paradigms and Rules in Countering Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dorsey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research Paper is a detailed report from the two-day symposium entitled The Boundaries of the Battlefield: A Critical Look at the Legal Paradigms and Rules in Countering Terrorism, which was convened in The Hague in January 2013. The conference covered a range of issues that are relevant in debates about using force in counter-terrorism operations against non-state actors. Specifically, this Paper elaborates on a number of key questions raised during the conference; these relate to the temporal and geographical limitations of armed conflict, the interplay between international humanitarian law and international human rights law, as well as the use of drones, the law enforcement approach to counter-terrorism and the possible need for a new framework for countering terrorism. The authors, Jessica Dorsey and Dr. Christophe Paulussen, supplement participants’ debates with detailed background information and theoretical discussions.

  4. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  5. Reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The March 2005 'International conference on nuclear security, global directions for the future' noted that nuclear terrorism is one of the greatest threats to society. Eminent members of a multi-national panel stated that there is no one principal activity to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism and that a combination of activities is required. This paper seeks to identify those activities by analyzing the elements that comprise the risk of nuclear terrorism. For the purpose of the analysis, risk is the product of the probability of a terrorist attack (A p ), the success of a terrorist act (S p ) and the consequence (C) of the attack: R=A p * S p * C. The paper examines each of these three elements of risk with the objective of identifying what we are doing and what else we could be doing to reduce risk. It takes into consideration some historic catastrophes, examines how they might have been prevented or their consequences reduced, and if there are lessons that are applicable to reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism. The paper demonstrates that we have concentrated on only one of the three elements of risk and offer suggestions for diminishing the risk of nuclear terrorism by addressing all the elements. (author)

  6. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  7. Terrorism and anti-terror legislation - the terrorised legislator? A comparison of counter-terrorism legislation and its implications on human rights in the legal systems of the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oehmichen, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with the history of terrorism and counter-terrorism legislation, focussing on the legislation in the UK, Spain, Germany and France, in the last 30 years, and analysing its compatibility with national and European human rights standards.

  8. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  9. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak

    2014-01-01

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  10. Systems Approach to Terrorism: Countering the Terrorist Training Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    37 Albert Bandura , “Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement” in Origins of Terrorism ed. Walter Reich, (Washington D.C.: Woodrow...52 Albert Bandura , “Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement” in Origins of Terrorism ed. Walter Reich (Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center...Hitler?” in Mass Hate: the Global Rise of Genocide and Terror (New York , London: Plennium Press), p.165 55 Albert Bandura p.45 56 Ibid. 32 As

  11. The Development of a United Nations Counter-Terrorism Policy: A pragmatic approach to the problem of a definition of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Turney-Harris, Latasha

    2014-01-01

    The primary object of this thesis is to propose a pragmatic solution to the legitimacy problems associated with the absence of a definition of Terrorism within United Nations Counter Terrorism Policy. It contends that the attempts to draft such a definition within the Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism have now come to a political standstill and are unlikely to result in a strong legal definition of terrorism. Any outcome is likely to be a political compromise in nature. This thesis therefore ...

  12. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials; Eskalation des Terrors? Ueber das Anschlagsrisiko mit chemischen, biologischen, radiologischen und nuklearen Waffen oder Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nass, Jens

    2010-07-01

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  13. Psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyankov, I.

    2009-01-01

    The psychological consequences caused by eventual nuclear terrorist act are believed to be some of the most: serious. in this article are presented the issues concerning psychological effects as psychological suffering, alteration of risk estimation, changes of individual and social behavior, etc. The most common psychological consequences as a result of the most popular large-scale nuclear accidents in Chernobyl, TMI (USA), Goiania (Brazil) are described. Some of the main factors, such as sex, age, health status, social status and etc, are analyzed. These factors determine the expression of psychological reactions provoked by nuclear accidents or eventual act of nuclear terrorism. In addition, the main precautions to cope with psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism are listed

  14. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  15. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  16. Nuclear terrorism and legal protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad-zada, Z.; Aliev, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: For the last years the terrorism has significantly changed. If 20-30 years ago terrorists would kidnap famous politicians or hijack planes, but at this stage they switched to massive destruction of innocent people. Now the problem of struggle against nuclear terrorism becomes very actual problem. The nuclear terrorism is meant as an opportunity of accomplishment of act of terrorism with use of the nuclear weapon, or accomplishment of explosions on atomic power stations and other objects of an atomic energy. Threats to nuclear objects become more and more often and appreciable. In the world there were some similar cases of threat to nuclear objects from the part of terrorists, and also cases of use by terrorists of nuclear, chemical and bacteriological substances. These cases testify to real threat of use by terrorists of the weapon of mass destruction. It is natural, that accomplishment of acts of terrorism on these objects can lead to ecological catastrophe and can put an irreparable loss to an environment and process of social development. Up to the middle of sixtieth years of twentieth century protection of an environment was not put forward as an independent political problem, and its scientific substantiation has not been developed enough as a diversified, complex, global problem. Only dynamical development in seventieth - eightieth years of scientific bases of global problems has allowed to allocate the rules of law concerning to protection of an environment, into special group. International legal protection of ecology was precisely allocated now in system of the general international law as independent, specific sphere of regulation. The principle of inadmissibility of radioactive pollution of environment covers both military, and peace area of use of nuclear power. Formation and the statement of this special principle of International law of the Environment takes place in two ways - contractual and usual, with observance by the states of

  17. Intelligence and the prevention of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper first defines intelligence and nuclear terrorism and analyzes the nature of the problem from both a specifically US and a more generally Western viewpoint. As used here, intelligence refers broadly to the collection and reporting of information, the production of assessments, and the presentation of judgments by intelligence specialists who work for public and national security authorities. Intelligence encompasses the entire range of investigative and reporting activities at all levels of government - from local police units to allied military commands - that could contribute to the discovery and disarming of nuclear terrorists. Nuclear terrorism, in contrast, refers only to credible threats or acts of extreme violence by forces outside the direct control of any state through false threats or actual use of a nuclear bomb. This definition excludes other highly menacing or damaging activities involving nuclear materials, facilities, weapons, or phobias such as poisoning the air or water supplies with radioactive substances; stealing nuclear materials, sabotaging nuclear powerplants, occupying a facility or seizing a vehicle with nuclear weapons, or inflaming public fears in the event of a nuclear accident. These events can be extremely frightening, as in the case of public reactions throughout Europe to the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. However, their potential destructiveness and exploitability by terrorists do not match the threat of nuclear explosion

  18. Characterising the UK Terrorist Threat: The Problem with Non-Violent Ideology as a Focus for Counter-Terrorism and Terrorism as the product of ‘Vulnerability’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richards

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat in the UK has been characterised, arguing that they both challenge conventional academic wisdom as to how terrorism should be conceptualised. While such conventional wisdom should always be open to challenge, and policymaking perspectives are different to those of academics, these two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat has been perceived in the UK merit scrutiny, especially as counter-terrorism strategies have been premised on them. They are: i the contemporary and explicit concern with ‘extremist’ but 'non-violent' ideas that are said to be ‘conducive’ to terrorism as a focus for a counter-terrorism response and ii the notion that terrorism has increasingly been seen as the product of ‘vulnerability’. The first, and the main focus of this article, appears to challenge the widely held view within terrorism studies that, when defining terrorism, reference to the cause or the perpetrator is unhelpful because terrorism should first and foremost (and more objectively be seen as a particular 'method' of violence that has been used by a wide variety of actors, regardless of the ideology or the belief systems of its perpetrators. The second aspect – the impetus towards viewing terrorism as the product of vulnerability or individual fallibility - arguably implies a diminished capacity for rational behaviour, which challenges a further commonly held view within terrorism studies: that terrorism entails the use of calculated and rational acts of violence.

  19. Calculating the new global nuclear terrorism threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA on 29 October to 2 November at an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. Although terrorists have never used a nuclear weapon, reports that some terrorist groups, particularly al-Qaeda, have attempted to acquire nuclear material is a cause of great concern. According to the IAEA, since 1993, there have been 175 cases of trafficking in nuclear material and 201 cases of trafficking in other radioactive sources (medical, industrial). However, only 18 of these cases have actually involved small amounts of highly enriched uranium or plutonium, the material needed to produce a nuclear bomb. IAEA experts judge the quantities involved to be insufficient to construct a nuclear explosive device. The IAEA experts have evaluated the risks for nuclear terrorism in these three categories: Nuclear facilities; Nuclear Material; Radioactive Sources. The IAEA is proposing a number of new initiatives, including strengthening border monitoring, helping States search for and dispose of orphan sources and strengthening the capabilities of the IAEA Emergency Response Centre to react to radiological emergencies following a terrorist attack. In the short term, the IAEA estimates that at least $30-$50 million annually will be needed to strengthen and expand its programs to meet this terrorist threat

  20. Why Communication and Performance are Key in Countering Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this Research paper, ICCT – The Hague Research Fellow Beatrice de Graaf emphasises the importance of effective communication and performance in the fight against terrorism and the fear it aims to induce. Essentially, terrorists and states are conducting ‘influence warfare’, a battle to convince

  1. Implications of Promulgation of the New Constitution on Counter-Terrorism and other Security Tradecrafts

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Conversation on Human Rights, Security and Counter-Terrorism Lecture byDr. Nyagudi Musandu Nyagudi – Forensic Criminologist and Security Analyst.Advanced Corporate Security Management Workshop by Fidelity Security Ltd, 17thAugust, 2011 at the Biblica Guest HouseConference Facility, Nairobi, Kenya.  

  2. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse

  3. HOW THE WAR WAS ‘ONE’: COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM AND THE SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF COUNTER-TERRORISM IN CANADA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Amanda Jacoby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current global “war on terror” highlights a fundamental quandary for all liberal democracies seeking to counter the violent extremism of their own citizens while maintaining civic rights and freedoms. This challenge accompanies a transformation in international conflict from inter-state war and superpower rivalry, to homegrown terrorism, radicalization-to-violence, Internet propaganda, and targeting and recruitment of vulnerable persons. These new threats shift the battlefield, as traditionally defined, to the home front, as extremist violence is nurtured by and perpetrated within public spaces, such as schools, places of religious worship, civil society and the home. Today, violence emanates from within liberal democratic society and its extremist motivations bypass the very institutions that would otherwise support civic rights, freedoms and multiculturalism. As such, attempts to counter extremist violence must appeal to the political, social, cultural, religious and familial aspects of human behavior alongside a parallel shift in efforts to keep citizens safe within their own social spaces. In recent years, Canada has been introduced to home grown and lone individual terrorism with the cases of attack against armed forces personnel in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Ottawa in 2014. This article identifies the social dimensions of counter-terrorism in the Canadian context, a propitious case by which to evaluate different approaches to countering violent extremism. Canadian initiatives - simultaneously proliferating and in their infancy – raise a host of questions about counter-terrorism in liberal democratic countries. For example, why do individuals radicalize-to-violence in rights-based and multicultural societies? How and when can the liberal democratic state best temper the radicalization process in ways that are effective and procedurally just? What state-society balance works best to counter radicalized viewpoints? Who are the

  4. Use of CLYC spectrometer in counter-terrorism applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, H.; Smith, M. B.; Koslowsky, M. R.; Andrews, H. R.

    2015-05-01

    A new scintillator crystal, now known as CLYC (Cs2LiYCl6:Ce), has been under development for over 15 years (1). It was primarily of interest for radiation detection applications because of its good energy resolution for gamma rays (terrorism scenarios where neutrons may be involved. The relative importance of the fast neutron response of CLYC, compared to the thermal and gamma-ray response, will be discussed for these scenarios.

  5. IAEA to hold special session on nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA this week for an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. The Special Session, which will bring together experts on nuclear terrorism from around the world, will deal with the following issues: The Psychology of terrorism; Intelligence, police and border protection; Guarding nuclear reactors and material from terrorists and thieves; The threat of nuclear terrorism: Nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices; The threat of nuclear terrorism: Intentional dispersal of radioactive material - Sabotage of fixed installations or transport systems; The Legal Framework: Treaties and Conventions, Laws; Regulations and Codes of Practice; IAEA Nuclear Security and Safety Programmes

  6. Nuclear terrorism: after the Washington summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In this note, the author comments the issues addressed by the 2016 Nuclear Safety Summit (NSS) of Washington, and the content of its final statement. He notices that the scope of addressed topics has evolved since the first summits (issues related to highly enriched uranium and to plutonium), that not only technological but also political and diplomatic issues are taken into account, and that GNOs are always more involved. The author briefly comments some aspects of the content of the final statement: threat of nuclear terrorism, improvement of nuclear safety since 2010, recall of the three main pillars of the non proliferation Treaty (non proliferation, disarmament, specific uses of nuclear energy), implementation of nuclear safety under at the own responsibility and duty of countries possessing nuclear materials. Finally, the author discusses how the NSS process will go on, and evokes remaining questions regarding the existence of an actual international constraining regime, and financial and functional issues

  7. The Origin of the United Nations "Global Counter-Terrorism System"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Messmer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explica los orígenes de sistema global antiterrorista de las Naciones Unidas. Nosotros argüimos que tres factores determinan las características de un sistema descentralizado y de estados centralizados. El primero es la reacción de la ONU contra los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001. El segundo factor es la cada vez mayor relevancia de las redes de gobierno transnacional. La tercera fuerza son los intereses y los asuntos del Consejo de Seguridad permanente, que últimamente determina la arquitectura del sistema.9/11, United Nations, Security Council, transnacional governance networks,counter-terrorism system.___________________________ABSTRACT:This article explains the origins of the United Nations’ global counter-terrorism system. We argue that three factors shaped the system’s decentralized and state-centered characteristics. The first is the UN’s reactions to terrorism prior to the attacks of 11 September 2001. The second factor is the growing relevance of transnational governance networks. The third force is the interests and concerns of the Security Council’s permanent representative interests, which ultimately shaped the system’s architecture.Keywords: 9/11; United Nations; Security Council; transnacional governance networks; counter-terrorism system

  8. International arrangements against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, G.

    1987-01-01

    International efforts to show the spread of nuclear weapons have created an international norm of nonproliferation, backed by a variety of enforcement mechanisms. Together they are often referred to as the nonproliferation regime. This regime is reviewed, starting with the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty. The centerpiece of the regime, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), signed in 1968, now has 135 parties, including most of the advanced industrial nuclear countries. Results of the 1985 NPT Review Conference are briefly discussed; the 86 NPT parties that attended reaffirmed the treaty's value, pledged continued support for the IAEA safeguards system, and called upon nonsigners to renounce nuclear weapons and accept IAEA safeguards. A section is devoted to the physical protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and weapons. Finally, recommendations are presented to improve international arrangements against nuclear terrorists

  9. Preliminary assessment on the differences of nuclear terrorism convention from the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material and amendment to the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midiana Ariethia; Muhamad Ilman A A; Mas Pungky Hendrawijaya

    2011-01-01

    The threat of acts of nuclear terrorism in all its forms and manifestations create the urgent need to enhance international cooperation between countries in designing and following practical and effective measures for the prevention of acts of terrorism and to counter and punish its offenders. Several United Nations Security Council Resolutions, such as UNSCR Number 1373 (2001), and UNSCR Number 1540 (2005), and the result of Nuclear Security Summit in 2010 that encourage the member countries of IAEA to ratify nuclear conventions as soon as possible, are the reasons that the Indonesian Government planning on ratifying The International Convention for The Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (Nuclear Terrorism Convention). Nuclear Terrorism Convention is one of the 16 (sixteen) international instruments that must be ratified by the member countries of IAEA. Of the 16 (sixteen) international instruments, 3 (three) conventions are related to nuclear; Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, dan Nuclear Terrorism Convention. This paper presents the preliminary assessment on the differences of Nuclear Terrorism Convention to The Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Amendment to The Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This assessment is important due to the plan of the Indonesian Government to ratify the Nuclear Terrorism Convention. The result of this assessment could be used by BAPETEN in the ratification process of the Nuclear Terrorism Convention. The method used in this assessment is references assessment. (author)

  10. Correlation of Concepts "Extremism" and "Terrorism" in Countering the Financing of Terrorism and Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisagatova, Diana B.; Kemelbekov, Saken T.; Smagulova, Diana A.; Kozhamberdiyeva, Aigul S.

    2016-01-01

    The main threats to world order are terrorist and extremist activities. On the world stage, countries unite into a coalition with the aim to increase the efficiency of the fight against terrorism. At the local level, the terrorist threat is fought by the security services. In order to prevent global human victims, which may arise as a result of…

  11. “Counterterrorism Bookshelf” – 23 Books on Terrorism & Counter-terrorism Related Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sinai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This column consists of two parts: capsule reviews of ten books recently published on terrorism and counterterrorism-related topics, and - continuing the series begun in the previous column of highlighting books by significant publishers (listed in alphabetical order - capsule reviews of 13 important books published by CRC Press. 

  12. Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1990-01-01

    The NPT should prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, as a contribution to the worldpeace. This aim is also threatened today by the nuclear actions of states and subnational groups. Such actions have occured in the past and are expected in the future. States and specific terrorist groups are able to acquire specific nuclear material by theft and to assault nuclear plants and transport. The main constraint, the deficit of motivation, could be dropped in the future for many reasons. Therefore nuclear terrorism is a 'real threat to civilization' and its probability is increasing. (orig.) [de

  13. Producing 'internal suspect bodies': divisive effects of UK counter-terrorism measures on Muslim communities in Leeds and Bradford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Madeline-Sophie

    2018-04-06

    Research on UK government counter-terrorism measures has claimed that Muslims are treated as a 'suspect community'. However, there is limited research exploring the divisive effects that membership of a 'suspect community' has on relations within Muslim communities. Drawing from interviews with British Muslims living in Leeds or Bradford, I address this gap by explicating how co-option of Muslim community members to counter extremism fractures relations within Muslim communities. I reveal how community members internalize fears of state targeting which precipitates internal disciplinary measures. I contribute the category of 'internal suspect body' which is materialized through two intersecting conditions within preventative counter-terrorism: the suspected extremist for Muslims to look out for and suspected informer who might report fellow Muslims. I argue that the suspect community operates through a network of relations by which terrors of counter-terrorism are reproduced within Muslim communities with divisive effects. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  14. Military Force and Culture Change: Systems, Narratives, and the Social Transmission of Behavior in Counter-Terrorism Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casebeer, William D

    2006-01-01

    .... In particular, this thesis explores the narrative and storytelling dimensions of culture, offering a theory of story that can be used to drive innovative counter-terrorism strategies and structure...

  15. The Race Against Nuclear Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    franchised version of the nuclear “Wal-Mart” cannot be discounted. Yet, if we are 49 Christopher Clary. “Dr...much emphasis on the Pakistani scientist, other potential “ franchised ” proliferators may be operating and continuing where A.Q. Khan left off...behavior. In brief, Aum Shinrikyo’s decision to attack civilians on a Japanese subway reflects an organization in a desperate fight for survival

  16. Review of decontamination technologies for chemical counter-terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, K.; Boudreau, L.; Hornof, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Fingas, M.F.; Gamble, R.L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    The two categories of chemical agents that could be used in acts of chemical terrorism are conventional chemical warfare agents and commercial toxic chemicals. Industrial chemicals are easier to access than warfare agents, and must therefore be considered when evaluating decontamination techniques. This study involved a search of public-domain documents to identify decontamination technologies including: physical/mechanical treatment or removal; chemical treatment; and, biological methods including natural degradation and attenuation. The technologies were analyzed with reference to their effectiveness for specific groups of chemical agents, state of development, availability and costs. Results indicate that there are many decontamination methods available, both developed and under development, that work effectively for most agents. The two most common decontamination methods are oxidation and alkali hydrolysis followed by dehalogenation. Technology limitations and gaps were also identified, suggesting a need for more research to further the development of promising processes. 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Towards a European Position on Armed Drones and Targeted Killing: Surveying EU Counter-Terrorism Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dorsey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Jessica Dorsey and Dr. Christophe Paulussen gauge the extent to which European Union Member States share the position of the United States on armed drones and targeted killings. In doing so, it aims to assist in distilling a common EU position on the use of armed drones and a legal framework for counter-terrorism-related uses of force.

  18. Counter-terrorism and the protection of civilians: Armed non-state actors

    OpenAIRE

    Munive, Jairo; Somer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recent events in the Middle East present the latest and undoubtedly not the last challenge to international engagement with armed non-state actors. Over the last many years international humanitarian law has increasingly regulated the behaviour of armed non-state actors with regard to the protection of civilians. At the same time, counter-terror measures have increasingly addressed such conduct, as well as controlled the extent to which other actors may interact with armed non-state actors. Y...

  19. Indonesia’s Way To Counter Terrorism 2002—2009: Lesson Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism emerged as serious security problem in Indonesia since a network of terrorist group rocked this country, started from the Bali bombing (2002 followed by other consecutive bombings, such as, J. W. Marriott Hotel bombing (2003, the Australian Embassy bombing (2004, and the Ritz Carlton Hotel bombing (2009. This article attempts to examine the ways in which the government responded towards the problem. What sort of policies did the Indonesian government take to respond to terrorism during the 2002—2009 period? This study uses a qualitative research method. The data used in this research are derived from official documents, direct interviews with government officials and the secondary sources (books and journals on terrorism and counterterrorism. This article shows that the government adopted the legal approach or law-enforcement (“hard approach” by issuing the anti-terrorism law as a legal framework and by reorganizing the police force to strengthen its counter-terrorist capability. It also adopted an “ideological” approach (soft approach to battle religious extremism. This sort of approach is mainly aimed at defusing and neutralizing the religious extremism of terrorist groups and preventing it from spreading into the wider community. This article shows that the government has used effectively both approaches in destroying problem of terrorism in Indonesia.

  20. Nuclear and radiological terrorism: continuing education article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2013-06-01

    Terrorism involving radioactive materials includes improvised nuclear devices, radiation exposure devices, contamination of food sources, radiation dispersal devices, or an attack on a nuclear power plant or a facility/vehicle that houses radioactive materials. Ionizing radiation removes electrons from atoms and changes the valence of the electrons enabling chemical reactions with elements that normally do not occur. Ionizing radiation includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, and neutron radiation. The effects of radiation consist of stochastic and deterministic effects. Cancer is the typical example of a stochastic effect of radiation. Deterministic effects include acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The hallmarks of ARS are damage to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic tissue, and in severe cases the neurovascular structures. Radiation produces psychological effects in addition to physiological effects. Radioisotopes relevant to terrorism include titrium, americium 241, cesium 137, cobalt 60, iodine 131, plutonium 238, califormium 252, iridium 192, uranium 235, and strontium 90. Medications used for treating a radiation exposure include antiemetics, colony-stimulating factors, antibiotics, electrolytes, potassium iodine, and chelating agents.

  1. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  2. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Strategies in a Globalised World : alternative perceptiveness of terrorist emergence theory and policing strategies confrontation with human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkas, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and development in technology have advanced terrorism to reach a broader target audience. Especially focussing at the international co-operation strategies and combined social networks, terrorist activities have an direct- and indirect effect on private households, international commerce and local governments. Security institutions and state organisations use various combinations of counter- terrorism measures, that are mostly social-, political-, or financial in nature. Neverth...

  3. Characterising the UK Terrorist Threat: The Problem with Non-Violent Ideology as a Focus for Counter-Terrorism and Terrorism as the product of ‘Vulnerability’

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Richards

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat in the UK has been characterised, arguing that they both challenge conventional academic wisdom as to how terrorism should be conceptualised. While such conventional wisdom should always be open to challenge, and policymaking perspectives are different to those of academics, these two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat has been perceived in the UK merit scrutiny, especially as counter-terrorism stra...

  4. Protection against nuclear terrorism: the IAEA response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: As a result of the events of 11 September 2001, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) identified possible threats from acts of nuclear terrorism. A report to the Board of Governors in November 2001 summarized the IAEA's ongoing work in areas relevant to the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of such acts and outlined proposals for a number of new and/or enhanced activities. Four main threats were addressed: theft of a nuclear weapon; acquisition of nuclear material; acquisition of other radioactive material; and violent acts against nuclear facilities. These proposals have been further refined and the new plan was approved in principle at the March 2002 board meeting. In the beginning, implementation will be dependent on member state contributions to a voluntary fund. Proposed new or enhanced activities are grouped into eight areas: I. Physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities; II. Detection of malicious activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; III. State systems for nuclear material accountancy and control; IV. Security of radioactive material other than nuclear material; V. Assessment of safety/security related vulnerability of nuclear facilities; VI. Response to malicious acts, or threats thereof; VII. Adherence to and implementation of international agreements, guidelines and recommendations; VIII. Nuclear security co-ordination and information management. After an overview, this paper focuses on activity area IV, which deals with the radiological terrorism issues involving radioactive sources. A strategy for evaluation of the IAEA's role is presented, covering an analysis of the likely threats and possible scenarios. This leads to an assessment of the most desirable sources from a terrorist's viewpoint. The strategy then examines how terrorists might acquire such sources and attempts to determine the best ways to prevent their acquisition. Further activities are proposed to prevent the use

  5. Counter-Productive Counter-Terrorism. How is the dysfunctional discourse of Prevent failing to restrain radicalisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Powell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores why the Prevent strand of the UK Government’s counter-terrorism strategy, CONTEST, is failing to achieve success in reducing radicalisation of young Muslims. By refusing to engage with extremists, and denying ‘extreme’ ideas a platform for expression, this paper will explain how the importance of cultural-linguistic epistemologies, and their role in extremism, has been overlooked. Rather than striving to understand how socio-political factors influence one’s reading of religious doctrines or interpretation of ideology, Prevent understands ideology to be the core radicalising agent, used by influential figures who can exploit the grievances of the vulnerable. The problematic repercussions of this will be addressed throughout, highlighting the various, and extensive, criticisms that Prevent has faced from academics, practitioners and commentators – primarily that it is counter-productive. The importance of the post-9/11 neoconservative paradigm in underpinning Prevent will be explained, but a Neo-Weberian approach, as a better lens through which to understand radicalisation, will be proposed, to ultimately trump the simplistic, yet currently dominant, ‘Conveyor Belt’ theory. Based on this, recommendations are made for an improved Prevent, rooted in the notion that radicalisation, extremism, or terrorism cannot be prevented, without knowing the motives, the views, and the assumptions of the radicals, the extremists, and those vulnerable to engaging with them.

  6. The national drill for deterrence and fighting nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioflan, Constantin

    2006-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) in cooperation with the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) organized the 'National Drill for Deterrence and Fighting the Nuclear Terrorism' which took place on May 10, 2006 in Cheile Rasnoavei, Brasov county, Romania. This event continues the activities undertaken by CNCAN, in its capacity of a national center ensuring the nuclear safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials as well as for preventing and fighting against illicit traffic with radioactive nuclear materials and deterring the terrorist actions menacing the security and nuclear safety of the nation. The drill consisted in simulating a terrorist attack against a shipment of nuclear fuel (made available by the Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti). It was a good opportunity for testing the reacting and organizing technical capacity of the national institutions committed with physical protection in emergency situations generated by terrorist actions. The objectives of the drill was the deployment of a counter-terrorist intervention in case of a terrorist attack intending to hijack a special expedition of dangerous materials. Hostages were seized and the demand was issued for clearing the traffic up to the national boundary. The anti-terrorist brigade (SRI) organized an ambush on the route of displacement in order to capture and annihilate the terrorist unit and re-establishing the legal order. CNCAN participated in this drill with its mobile intervention unit which is a team of experts correspondingly equipped with specific instruments for detecting the nuclear materials, special equipment for communication and locating as well as with two marked vehicles. The SRI employed a number higher than 80 officers and military technicians from anti-terrorist brigade, constituted in negotiators, storming squads, paratroopers, pyrotechnic experts, communication technicians. PUMA and Alouette helicopters for launching air attacks were employed

  7. The radiobiology of nuclear and radiological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulder, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The events of the last several years have focused attention on the possibility of nuclear (radiological) terrorism, and on the implications of such terrorist threats for radiation biology and for radiation accident preparedness. This review will discuss the consequences of exposure to radiation doses in the 1-12 Sv range, as doses in this range pose a risk of acute effects, but are potentially survivable. The consequences of exposures of limited tissue volumes to doses above 12 Sv have been researched because of applicability to cancer therapy, while exposure to doses below 1 Sv has been researched because of nuclear fallout and space exploration issues. Except for research aimed at protection of members of the armed forces, the intervening dose range has received relatively little attention. Currently we have only a limited clinical ability to deal with the consequences of radiation exposures in this range, but focused research on radiation biodosimetry and pharmacological treatments for radiation injuries could rapidly expand such capabilities. This review will also discuss the potential weaknesses in most of the current programs for dealing with radiation accidents or nuclear terrorism. These weaknesses include: the absence of widespread radiation biodosimetry capabilities, lack of robust radiation detection equipment by many first responders, lack of clinical development of radiation protection and treatment strategies, and lack of training in radiation medicine by most health care and disaster response personnel. If a major radiation accident or terrorist event occurs, this lack of preparation will be compounded by widespread public fear of 'radiation'. Copyright (2003) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  8. Guarding EU-wide Counter-terrorism Policing: The Struggle for Sound Parliamentary Scrutiny of Europol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hillebrand

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, DC (2001, Madrid (2004 and London (2005, the European Union (EU has stepped up its efforts to develop new instruments and reinforce existing ones to fight terrorism jointly. One of the key aspects of the EU-wide fight against terrorism and serious crime is the facilitation and enforcement of information and intelligence exchange among law enforcement authorities and, to a limited extent, security and intelligence services. This article examines how far the EU’s commitment to democracy, accountability and transparency is actually fulfilled with respect to its efforts at fighting terrorism by drawing on the example of the activities of the European Police Office (Europol. Taking the European Parliament (EP and National Parliaments (NPs, but also inter-parliamentary forums, into account, the article analyses how, and to what extent, mechanisms of democratic accountability and, in particular, parliamentary scrutiny are in place to hold EU-wide counter-terrorism actors, such as Europol, to account. This is a particularly timely question given that Europol’s parliamentary scrutiny procedures are currently subject to considerable changes due to the change in its legal mandate as of 1 January 2010 and the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty.

  9. The Use of Force in Modern Counter-Terrorism: International Legal and Political Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Sergeevna Gromoglasova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent practice of the use of military force in extraterritorial counter-terrorist operations. It argues that nowadays we're witnessing a new stage in the 'war on terror' that's still going on. Although the most of the modern counter-terrorist operations like, for example, the US-led coalition against ISIL in Iraq are being conducted at the request of the affected government, the major risks of expanding and misuse of the right on individual or collective self-defense enshrined in the UN Charter are still present. This can be illustrated by reference to the US air strikes on ISIL in Syria that have been undertaken without consent of Syrian government. But the challenges emerging from 'failed states' and rise of new more radical and militant terrorist movements (ISIL, Ash-Shabaab, Boko Haram and others change the perceptions of legality of extraterritorial counter-terrorist force. The approach which reaffirms responsibility of the state for suppressing terrorist groups operating from within its territory seems to become more and more acceptable. Accordingly, if the state can't suppress terrorist activity it should accept the counter-terrorist intervention on its territory. Nevertheless, jus in bello norms (first of all international humanitarian law remain stringent legal framework for actual use of counter-terrorist military force. The paper concludes that overall political legitimacy of the modern military counter-terrorist operations should be accessed in terms of their humanitarian impact and consequences.

  10. Combating nuclear terrorism in India: preventive nuclear forensic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghav, N.K.; Lad, J.S.; Deshmukh, A.V.; Jagtap, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is constant threat to India by many terrorist organization and neighboring country. These organizations are directly or indirectly aided with nuclear material by terrorism supporting country. Such organization has a significant potential source for acquiring nuclear and other radioactive material. Possibility of leakage is widely feared because of the deteriorating law and order condition, great spur of nuclear proliferation after the cold war and disintegration of USSR. Terrorist could gain access to Nuclear and radioactive material and smuggle to India through porous borders. Preventive forensic approach in screening and searching nuclear and radioactive material will play cardinal role to prevent nuclear disaster happening in India. Future plans could be extracted from terrorists through their narco-tests, brain fingerprinting and a data base on this could be prepared, which could later be used to help prevent any attacks. In present paper authors strongly recommend setting up Preventive Forensic Units in India so that any internal or external nuclear attack could be aborted. (author)

  11. Applications of noble gas radiation detectors to counter-terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, Peter E.; Forman, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Radiation detectors are essential tools in the detection, analysis and disposition of potential terrorist devices containing hazardous radioactive and/or fissionable materials. For applications where stand-off distance and source shielding are limiting factors, large detectors have advantages over small ones. The ability to distinguish between Special Nuclear Materials and false-positive signals from natural or man-made benign sources is also important. Ionization chambers containing compressed noble gases, notably xenon and helium-3, can be scaled up to very large sizes, improving the solid angle for acceptance of radiation from a distant source. Gamma spectrometers using Xe have a factor of three better energy resolution than NaI scintillators, allowing better discrimination between radioisotopes. Xenon detectors can be constructed so as to have extremely low leakage currents, enabling them to operate for long periods of time on batteries or solar cells. They are not sensitive to fluctuations in ambient temperature, and are therefore suitable for deployment in outdoor locations. Position-sensitive 3He chambers have been built as large as 3000 cm2, and with spatial resolution of less than 1 mm. Combined with coded apertures made of cadmium, they can be used to create images of thermal neutron sources. The natural background of spallation neutrons from cosmic rays generates a very low count rate, so this instrument could be quite effective at identifying a man-made source, such as a spontaneous fission source (Pu) in contact with a moderator (high explosive)

  12. Clandestine nuclear trade and the threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear netherworld may ultimately contribute to the danger of nuclear terrorism in at least three ways. First, as national governments exploit this underground market and nuclear weapons spread to additional states, the possibility that terrorists will gain access to them will grow. Such weapons in nuclear threshold countries are likely to be more vulnerable to terrorist seizure than they are in today's more advanced nuclear weapons states. Second, terrorist groups might seek to exploit the nuclear gray market themselves, using the same subterfuges that national governments use. Although in today's nuclear netherworld, subnational groups cannot obtain nuclear arms or nuclear weapons material and cannot hope to build the complex installations needed to produce the latter, they might be able to engage in a form of barter with sympathetic emerging nuclear states (for example, offering raw materials or needed nuclear hardware in return for nuclear weapons material. Finally, there is always the risk that nuclear arms or nuclear weapon materials will someday become available on the nuclear black market. There is evidence indicating that terrorist organizations might well be interested in acquiring such items. Understanding underground nuclear commerce in its current form is essential to prevent such future dangers

  13. Differentiating the threat of radiological/nuclear terrorism: Motivations and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, J M [Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Full text: Reviewing the spectrum of terrorist groups in terms of motivation, incentives and constraints, for nearly all groups, nuclear terrorism could be highly counter-productive. The constraints are particularly severe for large-scale mass casualty terrorism for groups that are concerned with their constituents--social revolutionary and nationalist separatist terrorists--although discriminate low level attacks are possible. Right-wing extremists, including individuals who are members of the right-wing virtual community of hatred, represent a distinct danger for low level discriminate attacks against their targets. Religious fundamentalist terrorist groups represent a particular threat, because they are not trying to influence the West but to expel Western modernizing influences. Moreover, they believe that their acts of violence are given sacred significance. The severe constraints against catastrophic terrorism for most groups argues for continuing to protect against the greatest danger - conventional terrorism - and to devote significantly increased resources to monitoring more closely the groups at greatest risk for nuclear terrorism. (author)

  14. Mandating doctors to attend counter-terrorism workshops is medically unethical

    OpenAIRE

    Summerfield, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This is a brief exploration of the ethical issues raised for psychiatrists, and for universities, schools and wider society, by the demand that they attend mandatory training as part of the UK government's Prevent counter-terrorism strategy. The silence on this matter to date on the part of the General Medical Council, medical Royal Colleges, and the British Medical Association is a failure of ethical leadership. There is also a civil liberties issue, reminiscent of the McCarthyism of 1950s U...

  15. Low yield nuclear weapons and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, S.

    1999-01-01

    It is unlikely that anybody would imagine the route to a nuclear-weapon-free world as a straight and unimpeded one. At the moment, there is a fading interest in the possibility of the concerted bilateral reduction of the US and Russian nuclear weapon stockpiles. The reason is evident: these powers demonstrate quite different approaches to two large political campaigns initiated in American political circles, namely NATO expansion to the East, and the attack on Anti-Ballistic-Missile (ABM) Treaty. Russia considers these initiatives as provocative in content and high-handed in the form. The West argues that Russian response is unjustified and insists on the peaceful nature of its plans?

  16. The Effective Governance Gap in EU Counter-Terrorism and Stabilisation Policy for Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Hogendoorn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades, the EU and other donors have spent billions of euros to rebuild the Somali state and, more recently, to counter the rise of the violent Islamist group Al Shabaab. But Somalia remains a weak, if not “failed state”, and progress is nowhere near commensurate with international support. This is because donors failed to generate enough Somali political will to reform dysfunctional and corrupt administrations that undermine their programmes, as well as counter-terrorism and stabilisation goals. To be more effective, the EU needs to become more adept at understanding local political dynamics as well as better at employing carrots and sticks to nudge Somali leaders to support governance reform and better administration. Otherwise, its expensive technical assistance and training programmes may have only temporary and limited impact.

  17. Calibration of nuclear medicine gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.; Spasic-Jokic, V.; Jovanovic, M.; Vranjes, S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: morlic@vin.bg.ac.yu; Orlic, M.)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the practical problem of nuclear medicine gamma counters calibration has been solved by using dose calibrators CRC-15R with standard error ±5%. The samples from technetium generators have been measured both by dose calibrators CRC-15R and gamma counter ICN Gamma 3.33 taking into account decay correction. Only the linear part of the curve has practical meaning. The advantage of this procedure satisfies the requirements from international standards: the calibration of sources used for medical exposure be traceable to a standard dosimetry laboratory and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine procedures be calibrated in terms of activity of the radiopharmaceutical to be administered. (author)

  18. Countering money laundering and terrorism financing: can the resultant intrusion into the right of privacy by the law be justified?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruff, Adam Michael

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines whether anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing (AML/CTF) law strikes the right balance between the need to counter money laundering and terrorism financing (ML/TF) and the need to preserve the right of privacy. To do this, the thesis examines both the effectiveness of AML/CTF law and the scope of the right of privacy. The thesis reviews the history of AML/CTF law, including attempts to estimate the size of the money laundering problem, and assesses the ...

  19. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  20. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  1. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  2. Risk communication and radiological/nuclear terrorism: a strategic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Steven M

    2011-11-01

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication is a crucial element in radiological/nuclear terrorism preparedness. Whereas in the past, communication and information issues were sometimes viewed as secondary in comparison with technical concerns, today the need to improve risk communication, public information, and emergency messaging is seen as a high priority. The process of improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication can be conceptualized as occurring in four overlapping phases. The first phase involves the recognition that communication and information issues will be pivotal in shaping how a radiological/nuclear terrorism incident unfolds and in determining its outcome. This recognition has helped shape the second phase, in which various research initiatives have been undertaken to provide an empirical basis for improved communication. In the third and most recent phase, government agencies, professional organizations and others have worked to translate research findings into better messages and informational materials. Like the first and second phases, the third phase is still unfolding. The fourth phase in risk communication for radiological/nuclear terrorism-a mature phase-is only now just beginning. Central to this phase is a developing understanding that for radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication to be fully effective, it must go beyond crafting better messages and materials (as essential as that may be). This emerging fourth phase seeks to anchor radiological/nuclear communication in a broader approach: one that actively engages and partners with the public. In this article, each of the four stages is discussed, and future directions for improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication are explored.

  3. Simple probabilistic method for relative risk evaluation of nuclear terrorism events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songbai; Wu Jun

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the event-tree and probability analysis methods, a probabilistic method of nuclear terrorism risk was built, and the risk of terrorism events was analyzed. With the statistical data for and hypothetical data for relative events, the relative probabilities of the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events were obtained, as well as the relative risks of these four kinds of nuclear terrorism events were calculated by using this probabilistic method. The illustrated case show that the descending sequence of damages from the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events for single event is as following: nuclear explosive and improvised nuclear explosive, nuclear facility attacked, and 'dirty bomb'. Under the hypothetical condition, the descending sequence of possibilities for the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events is as following: 'dirty bomb', nuclear facility attacked, improvised nuclear explosive and nuclear explosive, but the descending sequence of risks is as following: 'dirty bomb', improvised nuclear explosive, nuclear facility attacked, and nuclear explosive . (authors)

  4. The threat of nuclear terrorism: Assessment and preventive action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the light of the events of 11 September, the General Conference requested the IAEA Director General to review thoroughly the activities and programmes of the Agency with a view to strengthening the Agency's work relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. That review is ongoing and the results will be presented in March to the Board of Governors, including proposals for revisions and updates on relevant programmes. It is underlined that preventing nuclear terrorism requires cooperation between States and with international organizations. The problem must be addressed in a comprehensive manner. The international community should therefore strive for strong, comprehensive, internationally accepted security systems

  5. The national nuclear material tracking system. A Korea's countermeasure against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Since nuclear terrorism has been identified as a real threat, the Korean government has earnestly developed elementary technologies and sub-systems for establishing an integrated defensive system against nuclear terrorism, which is based on the concept of defense-in-depth. This paper introduces the gist and implications of the studies that have been conducted in building the national nuclear material tracking system for preventing and intercepting the illicit trafficking and transporting of nuclear material in Korea. (orig.)

  6. The national nuclear material tracking system. A Korea's countermeasure against nuclear terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Since nuclear terrorism has been identified as a real threat, the Korean government has earnestly developed elementary technologies and sub-systems for establishing an integrated defensive system against nuclear terrorism, which is based on the concept of defense-in-depth. This paper introduces the gist and implications of the studies that have been conducted in building the national nuclear material tracking system for preventing and intercepting the illicit trafficking and transporting of nuclear material in Korea. (orig.)

  7. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to caution measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2001-12-01

    In this work are analysed the different cases of terrorism attacks, the potential sources of risks, such reprocessing plants, nuclear power plants, every facility where is stored radioactive material. The vulnerability of these facilities is also evoked. Some solutions are recommended but more specially, further thought needs to be given to that kind of problems. (N.C.)

  8. Center for Strategic Leadership, Issue Paper, January 2004, Volume 02-04. Addressing Transnational Threats in Southeast Asia: Environmental Security and Counter Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butts, Kent

    2004-01-01

    The United States-Republic of the Philippines strategic partnership was broadened when representatives of the two countries co-hosted the December Counter Terrorism Conference held in Manila from 3-5 December 2003...

  9. Preventing nuclear terrorism: the report and papers of the International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, P.; Alexander, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism, formed in 1985 under the Nuclear Control Institute, commissioned 26 studies and produced an extensive report on the problem and prevention of nuclear terrorism, Part I of this book is the full report, and part II contains the individual studies under two section: (A) Defining the Threat (8 studies); and (B) Strategies for Dealing with the Threat (18 studies). Detailed recommendations are made, in many of the studies, for better protection of nuclear weapons, materials, and facilities; greater cooperation among national intelligence agencies; tighter controls on nuclear transfers; more effective arms control initiatives; and emergency management programs. A separate abstract was prepared for the report and each of the 26 studies

  10. Terrorism Research Centres: 100 Institutes, Programs and Organisations in the Field of Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism, Radicalisation and Asymmetric Warfare Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Freedman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Who is doing research – academic and otherwise – on terrorism? The field of terrorism research is broad and ever-expanding. Governments sponsor intelligence-driven analytical research agencies. Commercial intelligence firms like Jane’s, sell their research to corporate and governmental clients. There are think tanks likeRAND, which work closely with government agencies. An increasing number of universities house terrorism research centres, the oldest one being the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews. Then there are virtual networks, such as the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI, that try to create synergies between a wide array of researchers and topics.

  11. Center for Civil-Military Relations Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program

    OpenAIRE

    Shemella, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The advent of more deadly forms of terrorism has challenged all governments to craft responses that stop terrorism while strengthening democracy – and without breeding more terrorism. The era of new terrorism is fraught with paradoxes and dilemmas that require decision-makers to develop a thorough understanding of the threats they face, as well as a comprehensive appreciation for the tools available to them for developing effective responses. No single government can respond effec...

  12. Against acts of nuclear terrorism; Gegen nuklearterroristische Handlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2007-12-15

    The Act on the International Convention of the United Nations of April 13, 2005 on Combating Acts of Nuclear Terrorism was promulgated in the German Federal Gazette and entered into force one day later. The Convention expresses the deep concern about the worldwide escalation of all kinds and manifestations of acts of terrorism. What was true in April 2005 (the year the UN convention was adopted) is even more true today. At the same time, however, the Convention recognizes the right of all nations to develop and use nuclear power for peaceful purposes, acknowledging their justified interest in the possible benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. As the Convention was signed in German still during the term of office of the Red-Green government, this passage is a remarkable acceptance of the realities of the world and past peaceful uses of nuclear power in Germany. Whether or not the convention will become an effective instrument to be used against acts of nuclear terrorism and threats depends on its entering into force after deposition of 22 ratification documents, and on as many states as possible acceding to it. Irrespective of these aspects, action in the spirit of the Convention should be taken now, criminal law should be adapted, and international cooperation should be improved and strengthened. (orig.)

  13. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-01-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected

  14. In front of a new challenge: nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation sources utilising either radioactive materials or radiation generators have been widely used throughout the world in medicine, research, industry and education for decades. There are both, legal and governmental responsibilities in respect of the safe use of ionising radiation sources, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material. The attacks of 11 September 2001 brought a new dimension to the actions against terrorism. There are not enough legal instruments to control this phenomenon. Potential threat: acquisition of a nuclear weapon, acquisition of nuclear material to construct a nuclear weapon or to cause a radiological hazard, violent acts against nuclear facilities to cause a radiological hazard, acquisition of other radioactive materials to construct a dirty bomb to cause a radiological hazard. 'The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material', IAEA, 1980 obliges Parties to apply established levels of physical protection to nuclear material used for peaceful purposes in international transport. It also requires Parties to criminalize under their respective laws various acts such as theft, illegal acquisition, possession and use, and to establish jurisdiction over those offences to enable the prosecution or extradition of alleged offenders. This is the only international legal instrument in the area of physical protection. Conclusion: At present the threat is not only of a nuclear accident but of a nuclear terrorism attack which could affect any country in the world and the lack of effective legal instruments to respond to that situation. It shows the need for the international community to work together in order to reinforce coordinated and integrated nuclear security and safeguards measures. States shall create appropriated regulatory infrastructures to ensure that the radioactive sources are appropriately regulated and adequately secured at all times. Stronger and

  15. Prospects for nuclear terrorism: psychological motivations and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    In considering the implications of psychological understandings to the specific case of nuclear terrorism, it is emphasized that distorted decision making does not equate to totally irrational decision making. In certain circumstances, however, the distorted individual and group decision-making psychology could influence the group toward a high-risk option such as nuclear terrorism. For terrorists operating within their own national boundaries, a terrorist act producing mass casualties would generally be counterproductive. For groups acting across national boundaries, however, this constraint does not apply to nearly the same degree. Although the opprobrium of the West will be a constraint for some, it will not be equally so for all terrorist groups. The degree of disincentive will relate in particular to the major audience of influence. Also, there are the terrorist losers who are being shunted aside and losing the recognition they seek. Such a group could justify a terrorist spectacular in order to regain influence on the basis of a what have we got to lose rationale. In thinking about the possibility of nuclear terrorism, it is important to distinguish between the actual detonation of a device and the use of a device for extortion and influence. The constraints against the latter are significantly reduced in contrast to acts producing mass casualties. The constraints are even more reduced in the case of the plausible nuclear hoax, an option that can be expected to become more frequent

  16. Nuclear safety shall face the challenge given by terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mengzhuo

    2003-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is a large economic department that has an important bearing on the national economy and the people's livelihood as well as the science and technology progress, and it can lead to grave radioactive pollution for environment after being destroyed, thus it must be an important objective that terrorism hatches a raid. To combat and forestall terrorism well are new requirements to nuclear safety raised by the international and national situation progress. On the bases of internal and external whole relations, the severe damage to NPPs and the theory of grave radioactive pollution to environment can be caused by sabotage are discussed, and then put forward the proposals about the graded protective measures. (author)

  17. On the future of civilian plutonium: An assessment of technological impediments to nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avedon, Roger Edmond

    This dissertation addresses the value of developing diversion- and theft-resistant nuclear power technology, given uncertain future demand for nuclear power, and uncertain risks of nuclear terrorism and of proliferation from the reprocessing of civilian plutonium. The methodology comprises four elements: Economics. An economic growth model coupled with market penetration effects for plutonium and for the hypothetical new technology provides a range of estimates for future nuclear demand. A flow model accounts for the longevity of capital assets (nuclear plants) over time. Terrorism. The commercial nuclear fuel cycle may provide a source of fissile material for terrorists seeking to construct a crude nuclear device. An option value model is used to estimate the effects of the hypothetical new technology on reducing the probability of theft. A game theoretic model is used to explore the deterrence value of physical security and then to draw conclusions about how learning on the part of terrorists or security forces might affect the theft estimate. The principal uncertainties in the theft model can be updated using Bayesian techniques as new data emerge. Proliferation. Access to fissile material is the principal technical impediment to a state's acquisition of nuclear weapons. A game theoretic model is used to determine the circumstances under which a state may proliferate via diversion. The model shows that the hypothetical new technology will have little value for counter-proliferation if diversion is not a preferred proliferation method. A technology policy analysis of the choice of proliferation method establishes that diversion is unlikely to be used because it has no constituency among the important parties to the decision, namely the political leadership, the scientific establishment, and the military. Value. The decision whether to develop a diversion- and theft-resistant fuel cycle depends on the perceived value of avoiding nuclear terrorism and proliferation

  18. Emergency management and the nuclear terrorism threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVito, D.A.; Suiter, L.

    1987-01-01

    Counterterrorism is not the province of the emergency manager. Generally law enforcement has that role. Instead, the emergency manager's role is crisis management; the responsibility is to be the focal point for the chief executive officer (mayor, governor, or national executive) regarding the protection of the population. Managers must be able to gather and synthesize sufficient information, rapidly and accurately, on which to base sound decisions. To do so, they must have a highly efficient, coordinated emergency management organization in place at the state and local levels of government, and there must be a workable plan for emergency operations that integrates all public safety forces into an effective response to all types of emergencies. A major goal of emergency management is to ensure that government is in control and that the public perceives that the system is working. All states have an emergency management organization at the state level, as do most counties and large cities. However, some states and local governments, particularly those that have nuclear power plants within their borders, are better staffed, equipped, and trained than others to deal with nuclear incidents. States with nuclear facilities have an emergency management organization, an emergency plan, and adequate communications, equipment, and trained personnel to handle a nuclear accident or incident at a plant. 21 references

  19. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism; Globalt initiativ for aa hindre nukleaer terrorisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  20. IAEA outlines measures to enhance protection against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Mr. ElBaradei, head of the IAEA presented a report today to the Agency's Board of Governors, outlining plans for substantially expanding and strengthening IAEA programmes relevant to improving nuclear security. The report addresses the IAEA's response to the following threats from acts of nuclear terrorism by a subnational group: acquisition of a nuclear weapon; acquisition of nuclear material to construct a nuclear weapon or to cause a radiological hazard; acquisition of other radioactive materials to cause a radiological hazard; and violent acts against nuclear facilities to cause a radiological hazard. The report puts a price tag on its proposed programme upgrades at $30-50 million per year, representing an initial 10-15% increase in the IAEA's overall resources. Additionally, Mr. ElBaradei said the IAEA's budget is currently underfeed by about $40 million due to a budgetary policy over many years of 'zero real growth', and called on Member States to provide the resources required to cope with the newly emerging threat. 'In addition to the resources required for urgent international assistance,' Mr. ElBaradei said, 'the necessary global upgrades to meet the full range of possible threats would be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars and would have to be carried out by individual States and through bilateral and multilateral assistance'. The IAEA would play a coordinating role in delivering this assistance.If States provide adequate funding, Mr. ElBaradei predicts that the enhanced and additional activities proposed in his report should lead over time to a powerful national and international security framework for nuclear facilities and material. The Summary of Report on 'Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism' presented to the IAEA Board of Governors on 30.11.2001 is attached

  1. The threat of nuclear terrorism: Nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, Morten Bremer

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Conventional weaponry and tactics are likely to remain the primary terrorist means for a definitive majority of sub-national groups. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device. However, recent developments in international terrorism may point in the direction of future terrorist uses of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear devices. Some terrorist groups with a high international profile have showed disturbing interests in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities. As the 'terrorist nuclear weapon standards' are likely to be lower than the strict requirements for traditional state nuclear weapons, technical barriers should not be considered sufficient to avoid future nuclear terrorist violence. Preventing any extremist group from achieving their goals of large-scale nuclear killing is likely best done by preventing the access to fissile materials through state compliances to rigorous standards of Material Protection, Control and Accountability (MPC and A). (author)

  2. What Can the United States Learn from India to Counter Terrorism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Latimer, William

    2004-01-01

    Terrorism is the principal threat to global and national security in the post-11 September world, Facing terrorist threats at home and abroad, the United States has declared counterterrorism its top priority...

  3. Setting the agenda of a counter-terrorism strategic policy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ferone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a functional model to fight terrorism from macro perspective through a “Strategic Policy Model” (SPM. The focus on legal order within the practices of Sociology of Law and Criminology is pivotal in order to reframe terrorism within a viable SPM. In “The Counterterrorism Handbook”, written by Bolz, Dudonis, and Schulz (2005, terrorism, at its very basic level, is defined as “an action that the urban guerrilla must execute with the greatest cold bloodedness, calmness and decision”. They further go on to provide a more scholarly definition: “the calculated use of violence to attain goals which are political, religious or ideological in nature. Terrorism involves a criminal act that is often symbolic in nature and intended to influence an audience beyond the immediate victims”.

  4. Terrorism and Organized Crime: The Alliance of Tomorrow? How to Counter a Possible Future Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morbach, Gernot

    1998-01-01

    .... With the probability of large scale, high intensity conflicts decreasing during the l990s, terrorism and transnational organized crime --each in itself-- constitute an increasing and serious threat...

  5. Gamma-neutron pagers make revolution in combating nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavrov, A.; Kagan, L.; Antonovski, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: After the events of September 11, 2001 it became quite evident that to combat terrorism, nuclear terrorism including, comprehensive measures able to prevent acts of terrorism are required. One of the important factors that ensure solving this task is technical means that allow early detection of tolls of terrorism. All the aforesaid is especially true for means of detection of radioactive materials. One of the most effective and convenient instruments designed for detection of radioactive materials, including nuclear materials, are gamma-neutron pagers that are instruments of the new generation developed in the last year. These pagers are sensitive, small and rugged monitors designed for detection of special nuclear materials and other radioactive materials by their gamma and/or neutron radiation. This detection is based on a comparison of the radiation intensity of an object and a background. These instruments will immediately inform an individual about the presence of a radioactive source by audible, visual, or vibration alarm. They are easy-to-operate instruments and a user does not need to be an expert in nuclear physics or radiation protection. A pager may be worn in pocket or on a belt ensuring the radiation protection of an individual. This instrument operates in automatic mode during a labor shift. It is provided with a non-volatile memory to store information about a history of operation: date and time when an instrument is turned on/off; the time and radiation levels, gamma and/or neutron, that exceed the alarm threshold; the current values of the count rate, etc. This information can be transmitted to a PC. These instruments can be used as the first level alarming devices at sites where installation of fixed monitors is impossible or inexpedient. Pagers are relatively inexpensive, sensitive and small instruments. Therefore it is advised that each person involved in control of goods transportation, vehicles and people uses such instruments. A

  6. Radiation protection for population in case of nuclear weapon terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun

    2004-01-01

    A radiation disaster was predicted in case of 1 kt nuclear weapon terrorism on the surface. Despite small size, serious radiation exposure became clear in a range more than 10 km that can't be by an aerial explosion. This kind of exposure comes from radioactive fallout of fission products, not from direct nuclear radiation. This spreads to a lee area. More than 1,000,000 population receive a serious dose including fatal dose if the nuclear disaster occurs in Tokyo is expected. If adequate radiation protection applies to the population, 70% of victim may be saved. A method to be effective as this kind of protection is escape from a danger zone by the subway after more than one hour sheltering in a concrete building. (author)

  7. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  8. Cyber security in nuclear industry – Analytic study from the terror incident in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyo Sung; Woo, Tae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cyber terrorism in NPPs of South Korea shows the study motivations. • Analyses of the cyber terrorism in NPPs are investigated. • Designed solutions for the cyber terrorism in NPPs are discussed. • South Korean case is considered as the cyber terrorism in NPPs. - Abstract: The cyber terrorism for nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated for the analytic study following the South Korean case on December 2014. There are several possible cyber terror attacks in which the twelve cases are studied for the nuclear terror cases including the computer hacking and data stealing. The defense-in-depth concept is compared for cyber terrorism, which was imported from the physical terror analysis. The conventional three conditions of the physical protection system (PPS) are modified as prevention, detection, and response. The six cases are introduced for the solutions of the facility against the possible cyber terrorism in NPPs. The computer hacking methods and related solutions are analyzed for the applications in the nuclear industry. The nuclear security in the NPPs could be an extremely serious condition and the remedies are very important in the safe plant operations. In addition, the quantitative modeling study is performed.

  9. Radiation Detection System for Prevention of Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Jang, Sung-Sun; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Jung-Soo

    2007-01-01

    After the September 11 terrorist attack, the threat of a potential for a radiological or nuclear terrorist attack became more apparent. The threats relating to radiological or nuclear materials include a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), an Improved Nuclear Device (IND) or a State Nuclear Device (such as a Soviet manufactured suitcase nuclear weapon). For more effective countermeasures against the disaster, multilayer protection concept - prevention of smuggling of radioactive or nuclear material into our country through seaports or airports, detection and prevention of the threat materials in transit on a road, and prevention of their entry into a target building - is recommended. Due to different surrounding circumstances of where detection system is deployed, different types of radiation detection systems are required. There have been no studies on characteristics of detection equipment required under Korean specific conditions. This paper provides information on technical requirements of radiation detection system to achieve multi-layer countermeasures for the purpose of protecting the public and environment against radiological and nuclear terrorism

  10. Terrorism in Indo-Pak nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Issue of terrorism, militancy and nuclear security of South Asia evokes a lot of concern not only to South-Asians but also to the larger world. The most difficult problem in relations between India and Pakistan since partition in August 1947 has been their dispute over Kashmir. A summary of root cause analysis has been presented in the paper. Nuclear terrorism, should it emerge, could prove the final destruction of sanity in South Asia. Widespread availability of radioactive materials worldwide makes threat of radiological terrorism plausible. Terrorist groups are trying to strangulate and talibanize Pakistan, sucking it into vortex of failed states, nuclear banana republics with their praetorian culture, and a whole new category of 'North Koreas' in the central Asian region. This would be highly unstable, as these rabid adventurous states would pose extreme risks to the neighboring states in the future. Two case studies have been presented in the paper, estimating horrifying future of the unfolding story, with visions of a nuclear attack on energy sectors at Mumbai in India, and Karachi in Pakistan; may be a crude bomb or a radiological dispersal devices. The statistical consequences of the strike are horrifying to say the least. Methodology of preventing such a happening has been worked out with deep analysis of society and bringing out remedial measures. Methodology of conflict management has been discussed at length. With suggestive organization, its relevance modus operandi, role and limitations. There is a great need to think rationally, indeed, compassionately and charitably. The resumption of serious, high-level dialogue provides an opening for Indian and Pakistani leaders to depart from scripts that reduce room for diplomatic manoeuvre. Given the multiplicity of targets and terrorist scenarios, India and Pakistan need to be persuaded that nuclear weapons make the world a more dangerous, not a safer, place and to take a step back and realize that

  11. Federal Bureau of Investigation's use of nuclear forensics in combating illicit trafficking and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaysak, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This presentation outlines the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) role, responsibility and use of nuclear forensics analysis in combating illicit trafficking and nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics is defined and approached from a law enforcement perspective using the objectives of anticipation, prevention, attribution and prosecution in a court of law. A sustained, systematic and integrated approach is discussed utilizing established standard operating procedures and protocols between the law enforcement and scientific establishments as well as the challenges that still exist. (author)

  12. Calibrating Fundamental British Values: How Head Teachers Are Approaching Appraisal in the Light of the Teachers' Standards 2012, Prevent and the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Lynn; Bryan, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    In requiring that teachers should "not undermine fundamental British values (FBV)," a phrase originally articulated in the Home Office counter-terrorism document, Prevent, the Teachers' Standards has brought into focus the nature of teacher professionalism. Teachers in England are now required to promote FBV within and outside school,…

  13. Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B R; Dillon, M B

    2009-01-21

    Despite hundreds of above-ground nuclear tests and data gathered from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the effects of a ground-level, low-yield nuclear detonation in a modern urban environment are still the subject of considerable scientific debate. Extensive review of nuclear weapon effects studies and discussions with nuclear weapon effects experts from various federal agencies, national laboratories, and technical organizations have identified key issues and bounded some of the unknowns required to support response planning for a low-yield, ground-level nuclear detonation in a modern U.S. city. This study, which is focused primarily upon the hazards posed by radioactive fallout, used detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional (3-D) meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including extensive global Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations. This 3-D modeling system provides detailed simulations that account for complex meteorology and terrain effects. The results of initial modeling and analysis were presented to federal, state, and local working groups to obtain critical, broad-based review and feedback on strategy and messaging. This effort involved a diverse set of communities, including New York City, National Capitol Regions, Charlotte, Houston, Portland, and Los Angeles. The largest potential for reducing casualties during the post-detonation response phase comes from reducing exposure to fallout radiation. This can be accomplished through early, adequate sheltering followed by informed, delayed evacuation.B The response challenges to a nuclear detonation must be solved through multiple approaches of public education, planning, and rapid response actions. Because the successful response will require extensive coordination of a large number of organizations, supplemented by

  14. Nuclear Terrorism: US Policies to Reduce the Threat of Nuclear Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finlay, Brian D

    2008-01-01

    The study below acknowledges that the US government has taken important steps to prevent nuclear proliferation and to detect and interdict the international transfer of potentially dangerous nuclear materials...

  15. International convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowitsch-Prevor, O.

    2005-01-01

    The Preamble, composed of 13 paragraphs and drafted in the usual style of a General Assembly resolution, is aimed at placing the convention in a number of relevant contexts. First, the convention is linked to the issue of the maintenance of international peace and security through a reference to the purposes of the United Nations under Article 1 of the Charter. Next, it is presented as being a further step in the decisions, measures and instruments developed by the United Nations over the past ten years with the common objective of eliminating international terrorism in all its forms. Lastly, the convention is placed in its specific nuclear context through a number of references. In its third paragraph, the Preamble contains a reference to the principle recognizing 'the right of all states to develop and apply nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and their legitimate interests in the potential benefits to be derived from the peaceful application of nuclear energy'. This paragraph is identical to the first paragraph of the Preamble of the CPPNM, and the same principle is stated again in the first paragraph of the Preamble of the Amendment to the CPPNM, and constitutes a kind of general statement in favour of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and technology, without explicit reservations concerning non-proliferation, the safety and security of nuclear facilities or the management of radioactive waste. A draft amendment presented by the United States delegation in the final phase of work that suggested adding the phrase 'while recognizing that the goals of peaceful utilisation should not be used as a cover for proliferation' to the sentence cited above, was apparently not retained. Next, the Preamble mentions the 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, and in the tenth paragraph the threat that 'acts of nuclear terrorism may result in the gravest consequences and may pose a threat to international peace and security'. Paragraph 11 of the

  16. European nuclear safeguards and terrorism: a personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacchia, E.

    1987-01-01

    This analysis is divided into two parts that, in the authors view, deal with two fundamentally different types of terrorism: national and state sponsored. The information is drawn from his experience and recollections of data and events. In terms of potential access to nuclear and chemical materials, the most dangerous possibility is the state-sponsored terrorist group, and it poses a difficult situation. The sponsor state may or may not be a member of the NPT and may or may not have accepted IAEA safeguards. Even if it had accepted them, given the technical and political limitations on the agency's activities, it is almost impossible for the IAEA to guarantee that illegal transfers do not occur

  17. The political-legal nexus in EU counter-terrorism: an assessment of the two-track influences between the EU and the UN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    In the construction of the European Union’s counter-terrorism legal system, United Nations instruments and principles enter in the EU law sphere and pave the way for further developments both due to its legal force and to its role as agents of socialisation of security norms. At the same time......, as this article demonstrates, the principles of EU constitutionalism, fundamental pillars in the EU’s legal system, have been the sources of judicial decisions that ultimately impacted on the standards of fundamental rights protection in the UN framework. This article investigates the mutual influences between...... of counter-terrorism and EU´s characteristics as an external security actor, the findings of the research conducted here can be seen as counter-intuitive, enabling new discussions on the EU’s security actorness....

  18. In search of a missing link: Nuclear terrorism and nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, F.

    1998-01-01

    There is a common assumption that because of the development of a nuclear smuggling (NS) generated by the disintegration of the Soviet Union, nuclear terrorism (NT) becomes a clear and present danger. But the analysis of the trends in smuggling as well as the current and foreseeable strategies of terrorist organizations suggest that the two phenomena have little chance to connect. Nevertheless it is necessary to understand why there is so much concern about such a possibility. (author)

  19. Synthesis of the PhD thesis "Anti-money laundering and counter terrorism financing management"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Popa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As a whole, this PhD thesis follows three research lines, namely: (1 the conceptual line - concerns the definition of the money laundering and terrorism financing phenomenon, the processes, mechanisms, stages and instruments of the laundering of illegally obtained fund; (2 the estimative line aimed at measuring the size of money laundering phenomenon, the economic, social and security effects and consequences; (3 the line of an awareness of the need to prevent and fight against the effects arising from money laundering processes, the national and international efforts taken until present nation- and worldwide and the future measures required to diminish the consequences of this scourge.

  20. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  1. From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: modeling the evolution of Colombia's counter-insurgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Catherine M; Sokolowski, John A

    2009-03-01

    Strategic and tactical planning for military intervention needs revision as the causes, methods, and means of conflict have evolved. Counter-insurgent engagement is one such intervention that governments, militaries, and non-governmental organizations seek to better understand. Modeling insurgencies is an acceptable means to gain insight into the various characteristics of asymmetric warfare to proffer prescriptive resolutions for mitigating their effects. Colombia's insurgency poses the challenge of assessing population behavior in a non-traditional revolutionary climate. Factors prevalent in traditional insurgency are not applicable in Colombia, specifically between the years 1993 and 2001 with the democratization of the drug cartels. The catastrophic events of September 11th reverberated in Colombia resulting in a new policy and strategy to the waging the counter-insurgency there. This research introduces a structured methodology to modeling the Colombian counter-insurgency incorporating qualitative assessment, mathematical representation, and a System Dynamics approach to represent the effects of the policy change.

  2. The nuclear and radiological terrorism events and the strategy to combat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shanqiang

    2004-01-01

    The super-terrorism using large-scale antipersonnel weapons has become one real threat for the contemporary international society to face. The radioactive materials releasing from the nuclear and radiological terrorism events will cause the personnel dead and injured with mental state dismay, which break national official business, people life, society stability and economy development, and give mankind social result in endanger with large affect and have been concerned by the people all over the world. This paper analyzes the possible pattern and harmfulness of the nuclear and radiological terrorism events, at the same time puts forward the strategy to combat them according to their three categories and typical scenes. (author)

  3. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  4. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. United Nations 2005: International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is a 2005 United Nations treaty designed to criminalize acts of nuclear terrorism and to promote police and judicial cooperation to prevent, investigate and punish those acts. As of September 2016, the convention has 115 signatories and 106 state parties, including the nuclear powers China, France, India, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Convention covers a broad range of acts and possible targets, including nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors; covers threats and attempts to commit such crimes or to participate in them, as an accomplice; stipulates that offenders shall be either extradited or prosecuted; encourages States to cooperate in preventing terrorist attacks by sharing information and assisting each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings; and, deals with both crisis situations, assisting States to solve the situations and post-crisis situations by rendering nuclear material safe through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  5. Responding to nuclear terrorism. Chapter 3. Combating radiological terrorism - A multi-faceted challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Yaar, I.

    2006-01-01

    In the twentieth century, radioactive sources have become extensively used in everyday life. These sources, in the hand of terror organizations, can become a threat to the security of civilized nations, causing severe disruption to normal life. On of the main challenges of the civilized world is to keep ahead of the terrorist organizations and take appropriate preventive measures in order to prevent and reduce to minimum the impact of their actions. In order to succeed, a joint and comprehensive effort has to be undertaken to address the scientific, technological, organizational, sociological, psychological and educational aspects of the radiological terrorism threat. In this paper, some of the main activities required for preventing radiological terror events, and the way in which a modular response plan can be prepared are discussed

  6. Nuclear terrorism - an unavoidable companion of nuclear fission?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1989-01-01

    Comparing the security measures provided for with regard to nuclear weapons or to the nuclear inventory of the civilian fuel cycle, it is shown that there are significantly lower standards applied to the storage, processing, and transport of the radioactive fuel material. The difference becomes most obvious when looking at the planning horizons of those responsible for the security measures. The NATO institutions establish their system of security measures on the basis of a dynamical 'threat analysis' reaching far into the future. In the civilian sector, risk analyses and the deduced security measures are well lagging behind the development of realistic risk scenarios. This makes life easier for the operators of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, who otherwise would be obliged to continuously backfit their installations. The cost advantage on the operator's part, however, is obtained at the expense of security. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    protect our homeland. Protect our economic vitality through enhanced security of the U.S. transportation sector. Work with foreign counterparts...34,597 garments. Since FY09, the Joint Service Aircrew Mask-Rotary Wing (JSAM-RW), Mask Protection Unit-6/P ( MPU -6/P) Apache attack helicopter...the political, economic , cultural, and other security issues related to counterproliferation. Counter Proliferation. Encourage CP professionals

  8. The role of nuclear forensics in the prevention of acts of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: States continue to report cases of illicit trafficking that involve nuclear material and other radioactive materials. Over the past decade a total of about 500 cases have been confirmed by States Points of Contact, another 300 remains unconfirmed. Most of the confirmed cases have a criminal dimension, even if not for known terrorist purposes. Much can be learned from the analysis of reported cases: What specifically could the material have been used for? Where was the material obtained, in stock, scrap or waste? Was the small quantity seized only a sample of a much more significant quantity? These and many other questions can be answered through detailed technical characterization of seized material samples. The scientific methods used for this purpose is normally referred to as nuclear forensics, an indispensable tool for use in law enforcement investigations of nuclear trafficking. The events of 11 September 2001 was a wake-up call for the need to protect against nuclear terrorism. In response to a resolution by the IAEA General Conference, the IAEA Director General has reviewed thoroughly the Agency's activities and programmes with a view of strengthening the protection against acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. A set of specific proposals for the protection against nuclear terrorism, a plan of action, was approved, in principle, by the IAEA Board of Governors in March 2002. While the plan emphasizes prevention, it also recognizes that measures are required to detect and respond to malicious acts involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The combating of illicit nuclear trafficking remains important in the plan of action. The implementation of the plan will be funded through Member States extra-budgetary contributions. The Agency has adopted an integrated approach to the protection against nuclear terrorism. This brings together Agency activities concerned with physical protection of nuclear material and

  9. IAEA Board of Governors approves IAEA action plan to combat nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA Board of Governors today approved in principal an action plan designed to upgrade worldwide protection against acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. In approving the plan, the Board has recognized that the first line of defense against nuclear terrorism is the strong physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. 'National measures for protecting nuclear material and facilities are uneven in their substance and application,' the IAEA says. 'There is wide recognition that the international physical protection regime needs to be strengthened.'

  10. Nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency emphasises that security strategies can no longer be effective based solely on the concept of national boundaries. The article describes the security problems which have grown along with the development of 'internationalism' and the author defines the need for cooperation, assistance, regional and international networks to combat the threat quoting the IAEA's nuclear security plan as an example of how this may be achieved. In stressing the urgency Dr ElBaradei concludes: 'May it not ultimately be said of our civilisation that we created the inventions that led to our own demise'. (author)

  11. Nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ElBaradei, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-01-15

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency emphasises that security strategies can no longer be effective based solely on the concept of national boundaries. The article describes the security problems which have grown along with the development of 'internationalism' and the author defines the need for cooperation, assistance, regional and international networks to combat the threat quoting the IAEA's nuclear security plan as an example of how this may be achieved. In stressing the urgency Dr ElBaradei concludes: 'May it not ultimately be said of our civilisation that we created the inventions that led to our own demise'. (author)

  12. Non-disruptive tactics of suppression are superior in countering terrorism, insurgency, and financial panics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A

    2011-04-13

    Suppressing damaging aggregate behaviors such as insurgency, terrorism, and financial panics are important tasks of the state. Each outcome of these aggregate behaviors is an emergent property of a system in which each individual's action depends on a subset of others' actions, given by each individual's network of interactions. Yet there are few explicit comparisons of strategies for suppression, and none that fully incorporate the interdependence of individual behavior. Here I show that suppression tactics that do not require the removal of individuals from networks of interactions are nearly always more effective than those that do. I find using simulation analysis of a general model of interdependent behavior that the degree to which such less disruptive suppression tactics are superior to more disruptive ones increases in the propensity of individuals to engage in the behavior in question. Thus, hearts-and-minds approaches are generally more effective than force in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency, and partial insurance is usually a better tactic than gag rules in quelling financial panics. Differences between suppression tactics are greater when individual incentives to support terrorist or insurgent groups, or susceptibilities to financial panic, are higher. These conclusions have utility for policy-makers seeking to end bloody conflicts and prevent financial panics. As the model also applies to mass protest, its conclusions provide insight as well into the likely effects of different suppression strategies undertaken by authoritarian regimes seeking to hold on to power in the face of mass movements seeking to end them.

  13. Relationship between Security and Human Rights in Counter-Terrorism: A Case of Introducing Body Scanners in Civil Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prezelj Iztok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in security environment after the end of Cold War and 9/11 have strongly affected our security concepts and paradigms. In the field of counter-terrorism, a serious conceptual and practical debate on the relationship between security and human rights and freedoms has begun. The goal of this paper is to reflect on this complex relationship at the conceptual level and introduce the empirical debate on this relationship in the field of civil aviation (case of introducing body scanners. The paper’s results show that the concept of human security usefully integrates the care for human rights and security of individuals. The debate on the potential introduction of body scanners on the European airports was actually a debate on the ways of providing individual human security on the airports with simultaneous concern for other human rights. The output of this debate was a compromise: body scanners can be used at the discretion of individual airports and member states, but are not an obligatory measure on all European airports.

  14. Non-disruptive tactics of suppression are superior in countering terrorism, insurgency, and financial panics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Siegel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suppressing damaging aggregate behaviors such as insurgency, terrorism, and financial panics are important tasks of the state. Each outcome of these aggregate behaviors is an emergent property of a system in which each individual's action depends on a subset of others' actions, given by each individual's network of interactions. Yet there are few explicit comparisons of strategies for suppression, and none that fully incorporate the interdependence of individual behavior. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here I show that suppression tactics that do not require the removal of individuals from networks of interactions are nearly always more effective than those that do. I find using simulation analysis of a general model of interdependent behavior that the degree to which such less disruptive suppression tactics are superior to more disruptive ones increases in the propensity of individuals to engage in the behavior in question. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, hearts-and-minds approaches are generally more effective than force in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency, and partial insurance is usually a better tactic than gag rules in quelling financial panics. Differences between suppression tactics are greater when individual incentives to support terrorist or insurgent groups, or susceptibilities to financial panic, are higher. These conclusions have utility for policy-makers seeking to end bloody conflicts and prevent financial panics. As the model also applies to mass protest, its conclusions provide insight as well into the likely effects of different suppression strategies undertaken by authoritarian regimes seeking to hold on to power in the face of mass movements seeking to end them.

  15. Treaties against nuclear terrorism. The global legal framework can make a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Two international treaties, one being drafted and the other already on the books, specifically address nuclear terrorism. The first Treaty known as the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was adopted in 1980 under auspices of the IAEA. The second Treaty for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is being drafted as part of the UN global campaign against terrorism. Both could require that specific measures be taken worldwide to protect and secure nuclear facilities from terrorist attack and sabotage. But neither one does. Efforts to include such requirements, before the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, have not borne fruit. Now, in the wake of lessons learned, is the time to revive and support them

  16. Public views on multiple dimensions of security: nuclear weapons, terrorism, energy, and the environment: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  17. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  18. TOWARDS THE INVESTIGATION OF USING SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR COUNTER TERRORISM IN WEST AFRICA: CASE STUDY OF BOKO HARAM IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. OLAJIDE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an investigative review of social network analysis (SNA to counter terrorism is presented. Various measures used for predicting key players of terrorist networks are discussed. The methods used for the survey is based on the existing research work that was carried out on counter terrorism of insurgency, for example, 9/11 (2001 attack in the United States. The research papers have shown that the SNA is one of the most efficient and effective methods for understanding terrorist networks. For example, the National security agency has been mapping phone calls ever since the 9/11 event and through this research work, United States have been able to uncover so many hidden terrorist and criminal groups. This paper provides an avenue for a suggestive idea that the Nigerian government can make use of SNA technique by phone mapping. This is based on the fact that Nigeria can combat terrorism in the nation. The Nigerian government can emulate phone mapping technique as Boko Haram terrorists are within the country and they actually make use of phone calls. The government only needs to collaborate with the telecommunication and network providers companies in Nigeria to track down these terrorists. Using SNA to understand/discover terrorist networks in the region is novel.

  19. The evolution of legal approaches to controlling nuclear and radiological weapons and combating the threat of nuclear terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbach, J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter traces the evolution of international law related to the weaponization of nuclear and other radioactive materials, focusing in particular on the law pertaining to preventing acts of nuclear terrorism. International efforts to control atomic energy have evolved substantially since the

  20. Liability for damage resulting from acts of the nuclear and radiological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, J.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is defined as an attack on a nuclear installation serving peaceful uses (such as a nuclear power plant) or non-peaceful uses. Radiological terrorism, which may be more likely, is defined as an action which doesn't trigger a nuclear reaction but gives rise to the release of radioactivity. The aim of this paper is to analyze the existing legal framework covering such situations. The relevant provisions of the Vienna and Paris Conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage, which represent a legal framework for nuclear liability at the international level, are discussed. The focus is on the identification of the the liable subject, including definition of the scope and nature of its liability. (author)

  1. Cooperative international arrangements: prevention of nuclear terrorism and the extradition and prosecution of terrorists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    In considering the problems associated with prosecuting and punishing nuclear terrorists, it is noted that nuclear terrorism per se is not currently a crime under international law. To be sure, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material would probably cover any act of nuclear terrorism that involved nuclear material used for peaceful purposes. However, nuclear material used for military purposes or military nuclear reactors is outside the scope of the convention. US legislation implementing the convention goes beyond its terms in this respect and covers crimes involving nuclear material for nonpeaceful purposes if the offense is committed within US territorial, special maritime, special territorial, or special aircraft jurisdiction or if the offense is committed by nationals of the US. The author feels an effort should be made, under the auspices of the United Nations, to conclude a convention that would define nuclear terrorism, declare it a crime under international law, and obligate state parties to extradite or prosecute those who commit the crime. Such a convention would fill the large gap in the coverage of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

  2. Consequences of Regional Scale Nuclear Conflicts and Acts of Individual Nuclear Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Robock, A.; Bardeen, C.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2006-12-01

    The number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986. However, the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races, and for a significant expansion in the number of nuclear weapons states. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build weapons if they so desire. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in "megacities", which are ideal targets for nuclear weapons. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as high-yield weapons, if they are targeted at city centers. A single low-yield nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in major historical conflicts. A regional war between the smallest current nuclear states involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II (WW-II), or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Portions of megacities attacked with nuclear devices or exposed to fallout of long-lived isotopes, through armed conflict or terrorism, would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war might induce significant climatic and ozone anomalies on global scales. While there are many uncertainties in the issues we discuss here, the major uncertainties are the type and scale of conflict that might occur. Each of these potential hazards deserves careful analysis by governments worldwide advised by a broad section of the world scientific community, as well as widespread

  3. Government of the Republic of the Philippines - Moro Islamic Liberation Front Peace Talks: A Bold Move to Counter Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amarille, Roland C

    2006-01-01

    .... There is an urgent need for these talks to succeed. A successful settlement between the two groups will bring peace and economic progress to the country, and contain terrorism in Southeast Asia...

  4. American security perspectives: public views on energy, environment, nuclear weapons and terrorism: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from matching national surveys of the US general public on US energy and environmental security administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2008. Key areas of investigation include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alter-native sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include evolving perspectives on global climate change and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options. We also report findings from an Internet survey of the general public conducted in mid-2008 that investigates assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism.

  5. Social networking-based simulations for nuclear security: Strategy assessment following nuclear cyber terror on South Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Kwak, Sang Man

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cyber terror modeling is made by the social networking algorithm. • This is applicable by the social networking service (SNS). • Security of nuclear industry could be controlled by the network theory. • Newly developed complex algorithm can be introduced. • Simplified graphics show the operator easily. - Abstract: Nuclear energy has been studied for the secure power productions, which is based on the simulation study following the incident of nuclear cyber terror attack on South Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). The social networking is used for the terror incident modeling and its prevention strategies. The nuclear industry could be investigated in the aspect of minimizing the dangerous situations caused by possible terror attacks which are considered by the society oriented connectivity among the related people or groups. The social networking circle by system dynamics diagram (SNCSD) is constructed, where the configuration of a model social networking example by system dynamics (SD) is applied. From A to H regions, the values are obtained by the random numbers incorporated with the designed algorithms. The results show the comparative values of terror possibilities which are based on the proposed social networking algorithm. It is possible to prepare for potential terrorism in the nuclear industry

  6. Countering Putins Nuclear-Backed Aggression with a Continuous Nuclear-Capable Bomber Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    comprehensive strategy to counter Putin in Europe. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nuclear Deterrence , Continuous Bomber Presence, NATO, Russia, Europe, B-52, B-2 16...conventional deterrence , such as Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systems, to be moved into eastern areas in order to destroy Russian nuclear missiles after... deterrent is achieved when the enemy believes one has both the will and the capability (or credibility) to use the nuclear weapons. 28 While the U.S

  7. Nuclear terrorism risk analysis using game theory. Case study of sea transportation of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Eri; Tanaka, Satoru; Choi, Jor-Shan

    2010-01-01

    While considerable attention and resources have been directed towards improving nuclear security in Japan in response to the threat of nuclear terrorism, the transport of nuclear material raises concern by the public as indicated in the recent return of MOX fuel from Europe. This concern cannot be adequately addressed by the government through communications with the public because of the confidential nature of such transport. Also, it remains a challenge for adequately assessing the nuclear terrorism risk because many key parameters associated with such assessment cannot be derived from statistical data and reflect actors' intentions unlike assessment on natural disasters. This study proposes an assessment methodology which introduces game theory to deduce the correlations between those key parameters and can be used to analyze the nuclear terrorism risk, both quantitatively and qualitatively for the civilian use of nuclear power. Risk will be calculated by Monte Carlo methods based on probability distributions set for actors' utilities. A case-study of transporting the MOX fuel by sea is also included. (author)

  8. Terrorism and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In addressing the General Assembly at the opening of its debate on international terrorism (1 to 5 October 2001), the Secretary-General warned that a single attack involving a nuclear or biological weapon could kill millions. While the world was unable to prevent the II September attacks, there is much we can do to help prevent future terrorist acts carried out with weapons of mass destruction, he emphasized, calling for redoubled efforts to implement key treaties relating to those arms, closer cooperation among international organizations dealing with them, and tighter national legislation covering the exports of goods and technologies used in their production. Many representatives from all countries and all regions echoed the Secretary-General's sentiment during the debate. The general conclusion was that all countries could be affected in some form or another by such a fearful proposition, and all countries must work together to prevent it. To gain a greater understanding of the increased threat of international terrorism today, the Department for Disarmament Affairs sponsored a panel of high-level experts to discuss terrorism and its relationship to disarmament. Two leading experts from the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, Professor Wilkinson and Dr. Gunaratna, put the attacks on the United States in an historical perspective, present some of the repercussions of the unprecedented scope of the attacks and give their views on how international institutions and agreements can assist in combating future acts of this kind. Mr Vladimir P Salov of the Russian Federation addresses the suppression of financing of terrorism and how Russia works towards that end. The IAEA has been trying for almost 50 years to safeguard nuclear materials from diversions to nuclear-weapon users and, in recent years, working more intensively on physical protection of nuclear material. Dr Nilsson's presentation

  9. Terrorism. January 1980-March 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Mar 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning political, psychological, and sociological studies of international and domestic terrorism, including activities in the Middle East, Europe, and North and South America. Terrorism and counter measures with respect to diplomacy, intelligence, law enforcement, military operations, and security systems are considered. Nuclear materials management regarding terrorist activities is also included. (Contains 196 citations with title list and subject index.)

  10. Nuclear counter effect and pi-e misidentification

    CERN Document Server

    Zürcher, D

    2000-01-01

    The e sup+-/pi sup+- discrimination within the CMS(1) ECAL is investigated using GEANT simulations and the 1998 test beam results. If one takes into account the energy left in the ECAL crystals alone (i.e. without read-out effects), the probability that a pi sup+- leaves more than 95% of its initial energy decreases from about 0.01% for 10 GeV to about 0.001% for 50 GeV. The Nuclear Counter Effect within the Avalanche Photo-Diodes (APD) enhances the probability of an electron misidentification. With the expected value of this effect (approx 100 MeV), this probability appears then to be between 0.2% and 0.01% for initial momenta varying, respectively, between 5 and 50 GeV. Important consequences of the pion-electron misidentification could appear in the form of new possible backgrounds for physics channels.

  11. Nuclear security towards the adequate answers to the new challenge of nuclear and radiological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The globalization phenomenon and the process of regional integration have generated new and defiant characteristics in the criminal activation, the one that has acquired growing trans national dimension. After September 11, 2001 it should to have bigger international initiative to reinforce the safety of materials and facilities in the entire world and to apply the international recommendations for to assure that all the nuclear materials of not used bombs are registered and secure of sabotage. Thousands of radioactive sources exist in the world. Possibility that the terrorists use radioactive sources as attack instruments since its are more easily available and its are more easy too to obtain in comparison with the uranium or plutonium classified for weapons. Dirty bomb. Effects of the Radiations. The Goiania accident. 'Orphans' sources Illicit traffic of radioactive material. Security. Measures of Physical Protection. Security of the radioactive sources. Role of the IAEA and other international organisms and regional CAN-MERCOSUR. Nuclear security and Legal frame. International and national instruments against the nuclear and radiological terrorism. Study from a proposal to Pan-American level to make in front of the problem. (Author)

  12. Introduction to Special Edition (of the Journal of Nuclear Materials Management) on Reducing the Threat from Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2007-01-01

    Introductory article for special edition of the JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT outlining the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division. In particular the International Nuclear and Radiological Security Standing Committee and its initial focus covering four topical areas--Radiological Threat Reduction, Nuclear Smuggling and Illicit Trafficking, Countering Nuclear Terrorism, and Radiological Terrorism Consequence Management

  13. The United Nations and counter-terrorism after September 11:towards an assessment of the impact and prospects of counter-terror 'spill-over' into international criminal justice cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The paper focuses on the recent role of the United Nations (UN) after the attacks of 11 September 2001 in improving the effectiveness and commitment of states to counterterrorism through the development of domestic legislation, policy and practice. The post- Cold War context provided a facilitative environment for the UN Security Council enabling ad hoc or case-by-case responses to acts of terrorism during the 1990s. However, the paper argues that the intervention of the Security Council in t...

  14. IAEA Director General addresses efforts to protect against nuclear terrorism before UN General Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Director General of the IAEA, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, said October 22 in New York that the September 11 attacks on the United States had been a 'wake-up call' to everyone that more can and must be done to bolster security as an integral part of the management of national nuclear programmes. In support of that effort, he had already initiated a thorough review of all IAEA activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. 'The Agency is engaged in a variety of activities relevant to combating nuclear terrorism -- including programmes to ensure physical security, to help prevent and respond to illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources, to promote the safety of nuclear facilities, to safeguard nuclear material against non-peaceful uses, and to respond to emergencies', he said. Each of these programmes was being reviewed in-depth to identify additional measures that need to be taken in the light of recent events. In particular, expanding the scope and reach of many of the Agency's security and safety services was being considered. Also, existing conventions and guidelines, including the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, would be examined to ensure that they were comprehensive and effective, and efforts would be redoubled to ensure their universal application. The full text of the Director General's speech is available on the IAEA Web site www.iaea.org/worldatom/Press/Statements

  15. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons; Armes de terreur. Debarrasser le monde des armes nucleaires, biologiques et chimiques - Commission sur les armes de destruction massive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-07-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  16. From illicit trafficking to nuclear terrorism? - The role of nuclear forensics science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.; Cromboom, O.; Daures, P.; Janssens, W.; Koch, L.; Mayer, K.; Ray, I.

    2002-01-01

    The events of 11th September 2001 have reminded us of the importance of taking preventive action in the field of nuclear terrorism as well as measures to mitigate the effects after such an attack. We have seen in the last 10 years the emergence of a new and potentially hazardous form of smuggling: that of nuclear and radioactive materials. The threat of terrorist activities involving nuclear materials has now become a matter of concern as well. Dispersion of such materials over urban areas, their introduction in the food chain or drinking water system are examples of currently perceived risks to our modern societies. Following its early involvement in a large number of cases of illicit trafficking and environmental issues the Institute for Transuranium Elements has developed a new discipline to support Member State authorities to combat illicit trafficking and dealing with criminal environmental issues: nuclear forensic science. The principal aims of research in this field at ITU are: (1) To maintain and develop further investigative techniques for identifying the nature of seized materials, to assess the immediate danger, to locate the original source of the material and, as far as possible, the route it has taken, and to give an opinion on the probable intended use of the material; (2) To foster close contacts with law enforcement agencies -- Europol, Interpol, World Customs Organisation and national police forces -- and to develop techniques to optimise collaboration between standard forensic techniques and the special requirements of the nuclear scientist; (3) To develop and implement a programme of assistance for applicant countries in combating illicit trafficking within their own borders. This involves giving advice, training operators and officials in the detection of illicit materials and the supply of appropriate equipment, such as radiation detectors; (4) To maintain and update an extensive database on commercial nuclear materials -- a separate section

  17. National system for prevention of nuclear and radiological terrorism in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.; Klevinskas, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Minimization of the threat posed by nuclear and radiological terrorism and mitigation of its impact is one of the most important tasks for any state. Prevention of the diversion of nuclear and radioactive material is related with a number of measures, which include physical protection of nuclear industry, preparedness for investigation of the appropriate incidents and accidents, emergency preparedness. All these issues are closely related with radiation protection. Physical protection of nuclear facility is defined by Lithuanian legislation as a system of organizational, legal and technical measures aimed at protecting nuclear equipment, nuclear and radioactive material from their illegal possession or seizure and from an unauthorized entry into the area of a nuclear facility. Responsibilities and organizational measures in this respect are clearly stated by the legislation, which is the basis for protection related procedures. Requirements for physical protection of nuclear facilities were developed shortly after the Vienna Convention was ratified. They are permanently improved taking into account all the related recent developments. Though the most important object for physical protection in Lithuanian is Ignalina NPP, the physical protection measures were also introduced at the Maisiagala radioactive waste repository. Experience shows that physical protection should be used in connection with other measures. One of them is capability for detection and analysis of radioactive and nuclear material. All the detected sources in Lithuanian are analyzed in situ, some of them - in laboratory. Consequences on society of a terrorist attack might be mitigated by emergency preparedness. One of the most important elements of it is the raising of public awareness. The paper discusses both the system of physical protection and provides other issues related with prevention of nuclear and radiological terrorism in Lithuania with emphasis of radiation protection

  18. The necessary and the unacceptable: nuclear power plants, terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copel, E.

    1991-01-01

    In this book, the author gives the reasons for while ecology and economics constrain our communities to call at the nuclear energy for producing electricity. He gave understand the intolerable feature of catastrophic reactor accident such Chernobylsk. With a sum of examples he permits to better understand the real threats and propose measures for reducing the dangers [fr

  19. Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-FY2020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s second core mission is reducing global nuclear dangers by preventing the acquisition of nuclear weapons or weapons-usable materials, countering efforts to acquire such weapons or materials, and responding to nuclear or radiological incidents. In 2015, NNSA reorganized its nonproliferation activities based on core competencies and realigned its counterterrorism and counterproliferation functions to more efficiently address both current and emerging threats and challenges. The reorganization accompanied the March 2015 release of the first ever Prevent, Counter, and Respond – A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats. This report, which NNSA will update annually, highlights key nuclear threat trends and describes NNSA’s integrated threat reduction strategy.

  20. American perspectives on security : energy, environment, nuclear weapons, and terrorism : 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Silva, Carol L. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2011-03-01

    We report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2010 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public perceptions shaping the context for debate about a comprehensive national energy policy, and what levels of importance are assigned to various prospective energy technologies. Additionally, we investigate how public views on global climate change are evolving, how the public assesses the risks and benefits of nuclear energy, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and public trust in sources of scientific and technical information. We also report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2010 on public views of the relevance of US nuclear weapons today, support for strategic arms control, and assessments of the potential for nuclear abolition. Additionally, we analyze evolving public views of the threat of terrorism, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and tolerance for intrusive antiterror policies. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  1. American perspectives on security: energy, environment, nuclear weapons, and terrorism: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.

    2011-01-01

    We report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2010 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public perceptions shaping the context for debate about a comprehensive national energy policy, and what levels of importance are assigned to various prospective energy technologies. Additionally, we investigate how public views on global climate change are evolving, how the public assesses the risks and benefits of nuclear energy, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and public trust in sources of scientific and technical information. We also report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2010 on public views of the relevance of US nuclear weapons today, support for strategic arms control, and assessments of the potential for nuclear abolition. Additionally, we analyze evolving public views of the threat of terrorism, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and tolerance for intrusive antiterror policies. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  2. Nuclear Terrorism: Assessing the Threat, Developing a Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    milling facilities to crush the ore and extract the uranium concentrate, a process that yields what is often called yellowcake. The yellowcake would then...issued by the Baker-Cutler Task Force described the threat, “In a worst-case scenario, a nuclear engineer graduate with a grapefruit -sized lump of HEU...stealing spent power reactor fuel or fresh (unirradiated) MOX fuel, both of which would need to have their plutonium chemically extracted . While separating

  3. Counter Narco-Terrorism Program Building Force Capacity of Guatemalan Kaibiles Assisted by the United States Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ultimately the United States. Due to its geographical , and multiple international borders, including access to both Atlantic and Pacific littorals...therefore achieving freedom of movement causing further instability throughout the region. Because of that reason , United States has the Counter-Narco

  4. Counter-Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ..., with little or no warning. Success in defending our nation, our military forces, and partners and allies depends on how effectively we apply air, space, and cyberspace power to counter this threat...

  5. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  6. A Study on Current Status of Detection Technology and Establishment of National Detection Regime against Nuclear/Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung Woo; Jang, Sung Soon; Lee, Joung Hoon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2009-01-01

    Since 1990s, some events - detection of a dirty bomb in a Russian nation park in 1995, 9/11 terrorist attack to WTC in 2001, discovery of Al-Qaeda's experimentation to build a dirty bomb in 2003 etc - have showed that nuclear or radiological terrorism relating to radioactive materials (hereinafter 'radioactive materials' is referred to as 'nuclear material, nuclear spent fuel and radioactive source') is not incredible but serious and credible threat. Thus, to respond to the new threat, the international community has not only strengthened security and physical protection of radioactive materials but also established prevention of and response to illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. In this regard, our government has enacted or revised the national regulatory framework with a view to improving security of radioactive materials and joined the international convention or agreement to meet this international trend. For the purpose of prevention of nuclear/radiological terrorism, this paper reviews physical characteristics of nuclear material and existing detection instruments used for prevention of illicit trafficking. Finally, national detection regime against nuclear/radiological terrorism based on paths of the smuggled radioactive materials to terrorist's target building/area, national topography and road networks, and defence-in-depth concept is suggested in this paper. This study should contribute to protect people's health, safety and environment from nuclear/radiological terrorism

  7. Understanding Terrorism from an Economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, Tanushree

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism has emerged as a major threat to the contemporary society. Nation States are reliant on their counter-terrorism laws for checking terrorism and deterring terrorists. To understand the effectiveness of these counter terrorism laws, it is important to first understand the behaviour of terrorists, so as to comprehend what actions can dissuade terrorist’s behaviour and decision to propagate violence. This paper will first look at behaviour of terrorist in decision making from an economi...

  8. Nuclear terrorism: Identifying and combating the risks. International conference on nuclear security, 16 March 2005, London, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    Security strategies, for many centuries, have been based on boundaries: the strategic placement of cities and borders to take advantage of natural barriers; defences that relied on walls, trenches and armadas; and the use of ethnic, religious or other groupings to distinguish friend from foe. In the 20th Century, the advent of airplanes, submarines and ballistic missiles began to undermine this approach to security by enabling the remote delivery of destruction on a scale previously not envisioned. But the change that has altered the international security landscape the most drastically is, in fact, globalization. The global community has become interdependent, with the constant movement of people, ideas and goods. Many aspects of modern life, communication, the global marketplace and, most recently, the rise in international terrorism - clearly indicate that our understanding of and approaches to national and international security must be adjusted, in keeping with new realities. This statement discusses: Nuclear Security and the Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism, IAEA Nuclear Security Plan of Activities founded on measures to guard against thefts of nuclear and other radioactive material and to protect related facilities against malicious acts; cooperation with other organizations and efforts

  9. Medical and policy considerations for nuclear and radiation accidents, incidents and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. The United States has the medical capacity to respond to a limited nuclear or radiation accident or incident but an effective medical response to a catastrophic nuclear event is impossible. Dealing effectively with nuclear and radiation accidents or incidents requires diverse strategies, including policy decisions, public education, and medical preparedness. I review medical consequences of exposures to ionizing radiations, likely concomitant injuries and potential medical intervention. These data should help haematologists and other healthcare professionals understand the principles of medical consequences of nuclear terrorism. However, the best strategy is prevention.

  10. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... terrors or other family members Lead to safety concerns or injury Result in daytime symptoms of excessive sleepiness or problems functioning Continue beyond the teen years or start in adulthood Causes Sleep terrors ...

  11. Cooperation Among Nations: Understanding the Counter Nuclear Smuggling Network In Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Belarus Moldova GICNT DOE GMS Belgium Montenegro IAEA DOS EXBS Bosnia and Herzegovina Netherlands Interpol DOS NSOI Bulgaria Norway NATO EU CBRN COE...that the terror cell intended to kidnap the researcher or members of his family in order to gain access to the nuclear plant .102 Had the terrorists...IS in Syria. Boughalab worked at the Doel power plant for three years before joining IS and was ultimately killed in 2014.103 Although Boughalab was

  12. Nuclear terrorism: How real is the threat? Keynote address/session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: 1. The paper will be based on Open Source materials and focus mainly on non-state actors such as terrorist, criminal, guerrilla and other, including religious, groups. 2. It will discuss the trafficking of highly enriched nuclear materials and less radioactive materials in the post-Cold war period, focusing on the smuggling from the former Soviet Union and from former Warsaw Pact countries. 3. The capabilities of terrorist and other groups in acquiring, handling and delivering nuclear and radiological materials will be addressed. 4. The intentions of various groups to use such weapons are explored and the goals they might pursue will be analysed. 5. Forecasts about the future will be made, based on the incident database of the Terrorism Prevention Branch and other databases and on scenarios which are currently discussed. (author)

  13. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking

  14. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. It remains an association of active practitioners of nuclear forensics underwritten by funding from sponsoring countries and organizations. While the primary mission of the ITWG continues to be advancing the science and techniques of nuclear forensics and sharing technical and information resources to combat nuclear trafficking, recently the ITWG has focused on improvements to its organization and outreach. Central is the establishment of guidelines for best practices in nuclear forensics, conducting international exercises, promoting research and development, communicating with external organizations, providing a point-of-contact for nuclear forensics assistance, and providing mutual assistance in nuclear forensics investigations. By its very nature nuclear trafficking is a transboundary problem; nuclear materials

  15. EXTREMUS - the German solution for act of terrorism - non-nuclear risks coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbrucker, D.

    2004-01-01

    As a consequence of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the withdraw of reinsurance capacity worldwide for terrorism coverage under material damage policies EXTREMUS was founded on September 2nd, 2002 by the German insurance industry (shareholders are 16 (re) insurance groups operating in the country). EXTREMUS offers a maximum limit per insured of Euro 1,5 bn. and enjoys a warranty of the German Government to cover accumulation losses in xs of Euro 2.0 bn. up to Euro 10 bn. EXTREMUS only intervenes for policies exceeding Euro 25 mio. due to a self obligation of the primary market to maintain full coverage for smaller risks. Due to the demand of reinsurers losses caused by a b c weapons are excluded. Coverage is not available for nuclear power plants. The paper aims to deals with these issues in more details.(author)

  16. Development of mobile radiation detection system against nuclear terrorism in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Chang, Sung-Soon; Yoo, Ho-Sik

    2011-01-01

    A fixed radiation portal monitors (RPM) deployed at border, seaport, airport or key traffic checkpoints has played an important role in preventing the illicit trafficking and transport of nuclear and radioactive materials. However, the RPM usually is large and heavy and can't easily be moved to a different location. An intelligent terrorist may also circumvent the fixed RPM to avoid being detected. These reasons motivate us to develop a mobile radiation detection system. The objective of this paper is to report our experience on developing the mobile radiation detection system for the search and detection of nuclear and radioactive materials during road transport. Measurements were performed at various speeds and distances between the radioactive isotope (RI) transporting car and the measurement car. Results of our measurements and the detection limits of the system is described in this paper. The mobile radiation detection system developed should contribute to defending public's health and safety and the environment against nuclear and radiological terrorism by detecting nuclear or radioactive material hidden illegally in a vehicle. (author)

  17. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Niemeyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. (author)

  18. Network Science for Deterrence: Sheathing the Sword of the Terrorism/Nuclear Horseman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Kathleen

    2010-03-01

    After 9/11, network analysis became popular as a way to connect and disconnect the dots. It was heralded as the new science with intrinsic value for understanding and breaking up terrorist groups, insurgencies and hostile foreign governments. The limit of the initially forwarded approach was that it focused on only the social network -- who talked to whom. However ,the networks of war, terror or nuclear or cyber, are complex networks composed of people, organizations, resources, and capabilities connected in a geo-temporal web that constrains and enables activities that are ``hidden'' in the web of everyday life. Identifying these networks requires extraction and fusion of information from cyber-mediated realms resulting in a network map of the hostile groups and their relations to the populations in which they are embedded. These data are at best a sample, albeit a very large sample, replete with missing and incomplete data. Geo-temporal considerations in addition to information loss and error called into question the value of traditional network approaches. In this talk, a new approaches and associated technologies that integrate scientific advances in machine learning, network statistics, and the social and organizational science with traditional graph theoretic approaches to social networks are presented. Then, examples, of how these technologies can be used as part of a deterrence strategy are described. Examples related to terrorism and groups such as al-Qaida and Hamas, cyber and nuclear deterrence are described. By taking this meta-network approach, embracing the complexity and simultaneously examining not just one network, but the connections among networks, it is possible to identify emergent leaders, locate changes in activities, and forecast the potential impact of various interventions. Key challenges, such as data-streaming and deception, that need to be addressed scientifically are referenced.

  19. Terrorism, the Internet and the Social Media Advantage: Exploring how terrorist organizations exploit aspects of the internet, social media and how these same platforms could be used to counter-violent extremism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bertram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The deeply engrained nature of social media in modern life have provided ease of access to information and speed of use within almost every aspect of a person’s life. These same benefit are also available to terrorists and their organizations. The same technology that allows for a globalized world to interact without regard for distance or physical location is also utilized, exploited and adapted to by terrorist organizations to conduct operations, reach candidates and ensure organizational longevity. This article takes the position of observer of these advancements with the end goal of informing counter-violent extremism strategists of the advances that terrorist groups have already made in digital technology; and where the priority of intervention strategies should be aimed. Further, this is intended to guide policy makers to embrace and utilize digital technologies as a mechanism to carry counter-radicalization and counter-violent extremism interventions through the same digital potential and reach the same audiences as terrorist organizations. What appears strongly apparent is that social media will not abate from its intrinsic position graphed into daily life. This means that counter-terrorism, counter-radicalization and counter-violent extremism strategies must take up the same technology in order to effectively discredit and nullify extremist groups – a digital problem needs a digital solution.

  20. Recent Movement, Issues and Some Counter plans in Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Lee, J. K.; Cho, C. S.; Lee, C. C.; Park, C. O.

    2007-01-01

    There is no doubt 'Nuclear Energy' is the only source that can ensure the world's steady development in the foreseeable future. Nowadays is definitely what is called 'renaissance of nuclear.' As energy demand and economy increase, and global climate warms, the trend of nuclear dependency will be accelerated further. With 30 reactors being built around the world today, another 35 or more planned to come online during the next 10 years, and over two hundred further back in the pipeline, the global nuclear industry is clearly going forward strongly. Countries are seeking to replace old reactors as well as expand capacity, and an additional 25 countries are either considering or have already decided to make nuclear energy part of their power generation capacity. On the other hand, as current movement of world nuclear field, Korea has faced to one of the most important times since introducing nuclear power. Twenty nuclear power plants are run in Korea i.e. sixteen PWRs and four PHWRs now, and the capability of nuclear power production has been ranked world number six. In spite of this grand appearance, however, the influencing power on world nuclear society is not well matched to its status since it does not have a special hidden card which can appeal and impact on international community. In the era of nuclear renaissance, paradoxically, Korea is not in the situations of optimistic or pessimistic view. Now let's As energy demand and economy increase, and global climate warms, the trend of nuclear dependency will be accelerated further. With 30 reactors being built around the world today, another 35 or more planned to come online during the next 10 years, and over two hundred further back in the pipeline, the global nuclear industry is clearly going forward strongly. Countries are seeking to replace old reactors as well as expand capacity, and an additional 25 countries are either considering or have already decided to make nuclear energy part of their power generation

  1. Adult Public Education for Nuclear Terrorism: An Analysis of Cold War and War on Terror Preparedness Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear terrorist threat is far greater today than ever before, but the United States is unprepared to respond to the aftermath of a nuclear attack, whether perpetrated by rogue nuclear countries or the terrorist groups they support. Following the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND), citizens, not government personnel, become the…

  2. The global initiative against the nuclear terrorism; La iniciativa global contra el terrorismo nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lossada Torres-Quevedo, A.

    2008-07-01

    The magnitude of the terrorist attacks of September 11 and subsequent attacks in Madrid, London, Bali and Iraq have been cause for condemnation and have forced the international community to make a concerted effort to prevent this kind of attack. Moreover, the risk that Al Qaeda could get hold of weapons of mass destruction has led to the inclusion of non-proliferation as a key element of the strategies to combat terrorism and to the launch of several initiative to prevent the possibility of these types of weapons or their precursors from falling into the hands of terrorist groups and to adequately manage the consequences. (Author)

  3. Addressing the psychosocial and communication challenges posed by radiological/nuclear terrorism: key developments since NCRP Report No. 138.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Steven M

    2005-11-01

    One of the most innovative aspects of NCRP Report No. 138 (Management of Terrorist Incidents Involving Radioactive Material) was the high priority it accorded to psychosocial and communication issues. While previous discussions of radiological and nuclear terrorism had occasionally referred to these topics, NCRP Report No. 138 was the first report of its kind to recognize the profound challenges posed by these issues and to place them at the heart of preparedness and response efforts. In the years since the report's release, a host of important developments have taken place in relation to psychosocial and communication issues. This paper reviews key changes and advances in five broad areas: (1) training exercises, (2) policy and guidance development, (3) findings on hospital and clinician needs, (4) survey research on public perceptions of radiological terrorism, and (5) risk communication for radiological and nuclear terrorism situations. The article concludes with a discussion of continuing psychosocial and communication challenges, including critical areas needing further attention as the nation moves to meet the threat of terrorism involving radioactive materials.

  4. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?; Quel avenir pour la contre-proliferation nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M.

    2010-07-15

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  5. French regulations for countering external violent forces affecting nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupraz, B.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the general principles underlying nuclear safety regulations to counter external violent forces to which plants can be exposed. It then examines the statutory directives concerning external violences connected with human activities or originating from natural phenomena. 3 refs [fr

  6. National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the system of nuclear terrorism counteractions at Kazakhstan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.; Azarov, V.A.; Silayev, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    authorities and reduction of their power and capabilities, a general threat of terrorist acts at companies using nuclear and radiation technologies has increased. In addition, due to its geographical position, the Republic of Kazakhstan is a transit state between Europe and Asia. That is why, numerous cases of transit shipment and sale attempts of nuclear materials from other states including the former SU republics were recorded here (e.g., fuel elements from Chernobyl NPP). The above demonstrates an unprejudiced necessity of arranging an efficient counteraction system against nuclear terrorism in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The current Kazakhstan system of nuclear and radioactive materials control does not meet the present-day requirements. Its efficiency and capabilities should obviously be increased. This will allow avoiding considerable losses by existing economical figures and potential political losses in the international relations. After collapse of the Soviet Union, major nuclear research institutions and branches left at the territory of independent Kazakhstan were consolidated into a uniform organization: the Republican State Enterprise National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. At present, four institutions are functioning under the aegis of the Center. By this time, many directions of the Center activity are related or contribute to potential nuclear terrorism counteractions. Among the wide range of these activities, the major ones are worth mentioning, both performed and in process: The project on elimination of the last nuclear device at the former Semipalatinsk Test-Site territory; The projects on weapons of mass destruction infrastructure elimination. In particular, projects related to closure and permanent sealing of defense tunnels used and prepared for nuclear weapon testing; The project on irreversible shut-down and decommissioning with following long-term conservation of BN-350 fast power reactor in Aktau; The project on the high plutonium

  7. Nuclear collisions in measurements of the cosmic ray charge spectrum with a counter telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstam, S.

    1975-06-01

    The importance of nuclear collisions of cosmic ray particles in a counter detector telescope is studied by simple Monte Carlo techniques. The interest concentrates on the charge region just below iron and the calculations are restricted to fully relativistic cosmic rays. It is found that it is difficult to avoid a blurring in the charge spectrum from nuclear collisions leading to considerable systematic errors in some abundance ratios. (Auth.)

  8. Implementation of nuclear material surveillance system based on the digital video capture card and counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Song, Dae Yong; Ko, Won Il; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, the implementation techniques of nuclear material surveillance system based on the digital video capture board and digital counter was described. The surveillance system that is to be developed is consist of CCD cameras, neutron monitors, and PC for data acquisition. To develop the system, the properties of the PCI based capture board and counter was investigated, and the characteristics of related SDK library was summarized. This report could be used for the developers who want to develop the surveillance system for various experimental environments based on the DVR and sensors using Borland C++ Builder

  9. The fight against international terrorism and changes in the U.S. nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Marrero Rocha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the the fight against international terrorism, as a new organising principle in U.S. foreign policy and security policy, has conditioned and modified the American conception of and strategy for combatting nuclear arms proliferation. On the one hand, it analyses the concepts of “axis of evil” or “rogue states” as instruments of automatic and forced connection between international terrorism and nuclear armsproliferating states. On the other hand, it also deals with the changes in American nonproliferation and disarmament strategy, characterised by a distrust towards international cooperation and a clear preference for using means of a unilateral nature, which challenge, and even scorn, international institutions and the rules of international law in this area.

  10. Front end of the nuclear fuel cycle: options to reduce the risks of terrorism and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, E.V.C.; Hoenig, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors' assessment of the prospects for advanced front end technologies and fuel assurances becoming effective mechanisms for achieving nonproliferation and antiterrorism objectives is relatively pessimistic unless they are integrated with back end accommodations such as the return of spent fuel. They recommend that further examination of front end assurances be linked to that accommodation. To be sure, certain real technological improvements may postpone the day when commercial use of nuclear explosive fuels, with all their attendant terrorism and proliferation risks, is justified. Indeed, improvements in LWRs, using well-understood technology combined with advanced enrichment techniques, could reduce uranium requirements up to 45% at the beginning of the next century and up to 30% a decade earlier, provided the economic and security incentives are present. On the institutional side, existing supply conditions put little pressure on importing countries to seek long-term supply assurances. Moreover, the political obstacles to creating new international institutions or arrangements are exceedingly difficult to overcome, especially without a heightened consciousness of the growing risks of civilian explosive nuclear materials and the political will to make these risks a high priority. 2 tables

  11. Design of nuclear pulse shaped circuit based on proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qianqian; Cheng Yi; Tuo Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Use the self-developed proportional to sample gas tritium in environment and make the measurement. For this detector, a kind of pulse shape circuit based on second order active low pass filtering circuit realized filtering and shaping nuclear pulse by high-speed operational amplifier, with less stages that has been approved for filter Gaussian wave. Use Multisim 10.0 to simulate the different parameters of the filter circuit. The simulation result was consistent with the theoretical results. The experiments proved the feasibility of this circuit, and at the same time provided a convenient and reliable method for analysis and optimization of the nuclear pulse waveform in order for discriminating by MCA. (authors)

  12. Commercial Satellite Imagery Analysis for Countering Nuclear Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, David; Burkhard, Sarah; Lach, Allison

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution commercial satellite imagery from a growing number of private satellite companies allows nongovernmental analysts to better understand secret or opaque nuclear programs of countries in unstable or tense regions, called proliferant states. They include North Korea, Iran, India, Pakistan, and Israel. By using imagery to make these countries’ aims and capabilities more transparent, nongovernmental groups like the Institute for Science and International Security have affected the policies of governments and the course of public debate. Satellite imagery work has also strengthened the efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency, thereby helping this key international agency build its case to mount inspections of suspect sites and activities. This work has improved assessments of the nuclear capabilities of proliferant states. Several case studies provide insight into the use of commercial satellite imagery as a key tool to educate policy makers and affect policy.

  13. Which future for the nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2004-01-01

    After a recall of the permanent data about proliferation and of the safeguards implemented by the international community, the author demonstrates that proliferation has moved towards Asia where a real 'black market' has been created. Then he analyzes the consequences of this change on the future of nuclear deterrent. Finally, he expresses his nostalgia in front of this drift and worries about the future uselessness of the means devoted to this 'pacifying' strategy. (J.S.)

  14. The nuclear weapon non-proliferation treaty and terrorism: the consequences of 11 september 2001 on the treaty review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbellot du Repaire, G.

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of the terrorism makes the future uncertain, in such a context, the objective of universality of the Ntp and the construction of a comprehensive regime for protecting nuclear materials, technologies, sites, weapon and information may be postponed indefinitely or, on the contrary, become achievable. Should the latter be the case, this would be an unprecedented contribution to consolidating the international security system. Events could overtake political procrastination.But the price to pay risks being a high one. (N.C.)

  15. Environmental terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirschky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental terrorism is described as the deliberate use or threat of use of physical, chemical, nuclear, or bacteriological agents in the commission of a terrorist act; an act in which either the agent is delivered to a target population by use of an environmental medium (such as air, water, or soil) or the agent is used to render a natural resource unsuitable for a desired use. Among the recommendations for safeguarding against environmental terrorism are: changes in reporting requirements for chemical inventories and sensitive information such as security measures; development of effective emergency response plans; development of a public relations program to be implemented after an incident in which the goal of the terrorist is to discredit a particular company; and protection from liability for terrorist acts

  16. A new international convention against terrorism: the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Full text in French, English and Spanish. Introduction to the main elements of the convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, Jean-Paul; )

    2005-01-01

    The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is a 2005 United Nations treaty designed to criminalize acts of nuclear terrorism and to promote police and judicial cooperation to prevent, investigate and punish those acts. As of September 2016, the convention has 115 signatories and 106 state parties, including the nuclear powers China, France, India, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Convention covers a broad range of acts and possible targets, including nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors; covers threats and attempts to commit such crimes or to participate in them, as an accomplice; stipulates that offenders shall be either extradited or prosecuted; encourages States to cooperate in preventing terrorist attacks by sharing information and assisting each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings; and, deals with both crisis situations, assisting States to solve the situations and post-crisis situations by rendering nuclear material safe through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  17. In What Ways Has US Security Cooperation Programs Been Effective in Helping Kenya to Build Partnership Capacity to Counter Transnational Terrorism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henneke, Jason C

    2007-01-01

    .... In addition to host-nation capacity building, the cooperation of all agencies within the U.S. Government (USG) is required for a coordinated and effective approach to the Global War on Terrorism...

  18. Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming; La physique expliquee a notre futur president - Nucleaire, terrorisme, rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard A.

    2011-04-26

    This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

  19. Some major challenges: Nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear arms control and nuclear terrorism. Vienna, 29 October 2001. Statement to the symposium on international safeguards: Verification and nuclear material security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    The main topics dealt with the ensuring of an effective, universal and adequately financed system for the verification of nuclear non-proliferation, namely as follows: Effectiveness of the system; Participation in the system ; Financing of the system; Making Progress in Nuclear Arms Control; Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism. In the Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) for 2000, the Agency was able to conclude that for all 140 states with safeguards agreements in place the nuclear material and other items placed under safeguards remained in peaceful nuclear activities or were otherwise adequately accounted for. The Agency currently safeguards over 900 facilities in 70 countries on a regular safeguards budget of approximately US $80 million per year. Turning to the major recent challenge, protection against nuclear terrorism, the IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The recent attacks in the United States were, however, a wake-up call to all that more can and must be done. In the week immediately following the tragedy, the IAEA General Conference adopted a resolution which requested a thorough review of Agency activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of nuclear terrorism

  20. Atmospheric effects and societal consequences of regional scale nuclear conflicts and acts of individual nuclear terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Robock, A.; Bardeen, C.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2007-04-01

    We assess the potential damage and smoke production associated with the detonation of small nuclear weapons in modern megacities. While the number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986, the number of nuclear weapons states is increasing and the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build substantial arsenals of low-yield (Hiroshima-sized) explosives. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in megacities, which might be targeted in a nuclear conflict. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as previously estimated in analyses for full scale nuclear wars using high-yield weapons, if the small weapons are targeted at city centers. A single "small" nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in the major historical conflicts of many countries. We analyze the likely outcome of a regional nuclear exchange involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). We find that such an exchange could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II, or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Megacities exposed to atmospheric fallout of long-lived radionuclides would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Our analysis shows that smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war would rise into the upper troposphere due to pyro-convection. Robock et al. (2007) show that the smoke would subsequently rise deep into the stratosphere due

  1. Who Did It? Using International Forensics to Detect and Deter Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, W H; Smith, H P

    2006-08-28

    On February 2, the ''New York Times'' reported that the Pentagon has formed a nuclear forensics team tasked with identifying the terrorist attackers should the United States be hit with a nuclear bomb. Adapting nuclear technology to the forensics of exploded nuclear weapons is an old but rapidly evolving field. It dates back to at least 1949, when analysis of airborne debris, retrieved at high altitude off the coast of China, convinced President Harry Truman that the Soviet Union had exploded a nuclear device on the steppes of central Asia. The technology is neither new nor has it been particularly secret, but the formation of a national nuclear forensics team was newsworthy and a useful development. An international team, however, would be even better. Although Washington has naturally focused on preventing a nuclear terrorism attack in the United States, a U.S. city is not necessarily the most likely target for nuclear terrorists. It is doubtful that a terrorist organization would be able to acquire a U.S. nuclear device and even more doubtful that it would acquire one on U.S. soil. Accordingly, if a terrorist organization does get its hands on a fission device, it is likely that it will do so on foreign territory. At that point, the terrorists will have an enormously valuable political weapon in their hands and will be loath to risk losing that asset. Given the risks associated with getting the device into the United States, the rational choice would be to deploy the device abroad against much softer targets. For Islamist terrorists, a major ''Christian'' capital such as London, Rome, or Moscow might offer a more suitable target. Among these, Moscow perhaps presents the most compelling case for international cooperation on post-detonation nuclear forensics. Russia has the largest stockpile of poorly secured nuclear devices in the world. It also has porous borders and poor internal security, and it continues to be a

  2. Efforts of Uzbekistan to prevent nuclear terrorism and smuggling of radioactive and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrenko, V.D.; Karimov, Yu.N.; Podkovirin, A.I.; Shipilov, N.N.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Fazylov, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Uzbekistan is located on the cross-roads from the north-Russia, Western Europe-to the south-Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and others. The appearance of terrorist organizations urged some Asian countries to make the nuclear weapons, the making the task of stopping the transportation of nuclear materials and technologies from the north (from countries possessing nuclear weapon) to the south (to countries desiring to have weapons and its components) a reality. To resolve this problem, on the main transportation routes, 'Yantar' stationary radiation monitors of Russian production were installed, and development and production of monitors of our own make was started. This paper covers these works as well as those on preventing possible terrorist attacks on nuclear objects of Uzbekistan

  3. Nuclear energy: from scientist mobilisation to the rise of counter-expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu, Sezin

    2006-01-01

    The management of nuclear energy in France was restricted until the mid 1970's to a small circle of government experts. Within the scientific community criticism against nuclear power mostly targeted nuclear weapons while the sphere of civil nuclear energy remained unchallenged. The launch of the French nuclear programme in 1974 led to the first protest against civil nuclear power and its management within the scientific community. The mobilisation of thousands of researchers against the programme, initially through a petition, the so-called 'Appeal of the 400', then through the creation of an association, the 'Group of Scientists for Information on Nuclear Energy (GSIEN)', beside reflecting a rupture in the relations with science, progress and decision-making processes in the nuclear field, also expressed in the following decades the appropriation of critical knowledge on nuclear risks by the actors of non-governmental organisations. The criticism raised by scientists in 1975 therefore underlies two major shifts between the 1950's to 1990's in collective action vis-a-vis nuclear risk: from the mobilisation of 'distinguished scientists' against the atom bomb in the 1950's and 1960's (Joliot, Russell, Einstein, Rostand) to the politicisation of nuclear power by 'critical scientists' in the post-May 1968 period (GSIEN) and finally, after the Chernobyl accident, to the rise of associations of counter-expertise on nuclear energy (creation of expert NGOs such as the Commission for Independent Research and Information on Radioactivity-CRIIRAD and the Association for the Control of Radioactivity in the West-ACRO). This paper examines the crucial role that the community of physicists has played in transforming the relations between scientists, science, expertise and society

  4. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  5. Counter Action Procedure Generation in an Emergency Situation of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofuku, A.

    2018-02-01

    Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident revealed various weak points in the design and operation of nuclear power plants at the time although there were many resilient activities made by the plant staff under difficult work environment. In order to reinforce the measures to make nuclear power plants more resilient, improvement of hardware and improvement of education and training of nuclear personnel are considered. In addition, considering the advancement of computer technology and artificial intelligence, it is a promising way to develop software tools to support the activities of plant staff.This paper focuses on the software tools to support the operations by human operators and introduces a concept of an intelligent operator support system that is called as co-operator. This paper also describes a counter operation generation technique the authors are studying as a core component of the co-operator.

  6. Development of a software for predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Lijuan; Chen Bo; Zhuo Weihai; Lu Shuyu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a new software system that can directly display the predicted results on an electronic map, in order to get a directly perceived understanding of the affected areas of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas. Methods: Three scenarios of events including spreading radioactive materials, dirty bomb attack, and explosion or arson attacks on the radiation facilities were assumed. Gaussian diffusion model was employed to predict the spread and deposition of radioactive pollutants, and both the internal and external doses were estimated for the representative person by using the corresponding dose conversion factors. Through integration of the computing system and Mapinfo geographic information system (GIS), the predicted results were visually displayed on the electronic maps of a city. Results: The new software system could visually display the predicted results on the electronic map of a city, and the predicted results were consistent with those calculated by the similar software Hotspot®. The deviation between this system and Hotspot was less than 0.2 km for predicted isoplethic curves of dose rate downwind. Conclusions: The newly developed software system is of the practical value in predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas. (authors)

  7. Promoting nuclear security: What the IAEA is doing. The Agency is implementing a comprehensive programme aimed at stemming the threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The threat to public safety and security posed by some form of nuclear terrorism is not new. But in the wake of recent highly organized terrorist attacks in Kenya, Tanzania, the US, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Morocco and numerous other nations, the international community has come to recognize that new and stronger measures must be taken to protect against and prepare for a diverse range of terrorist scenarios. Given the multiplicity of targets and scenarios for terrorists, States must consider a comprehensive approach to combating nuclear terrorism. Among the key priorities: Adequate physical protection of all nuclear materials, radioactive materials and facilities plus transport systems; Proper regulatory control of nuclear and radioactive material; Effective detection and interdiction of illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials; Integration of nuclear safety and security systems for maximum benefits; and Readiness for implementing emergency response plans. The IAEA is assisting its Member States with these challenges in many ways. Through well-established activities, the Agency has been heavily involved in providing assistance and technical support to States in all these areas. The IAEA has established several advisory services to help Member States to assess the effectiveness and the need for improvement of their national physical oversight systems. The IAEA provides peer reviews in related areas such as regulatory or control infrastructures, and also supplies expert technical advice on the required upgrades. Several of these specialized services aim directly at protecting against terrorist threats. The International Nuclear Security Advisory Service is a new initiative that is providing specialized services promoting enhanced nuclear security. The International SSAC Advisory Service (ISSAS) is another new initiative providing advice to Member States in strengthening their SSAC. The IAEA also offers the EPREV (Emergency Preparedness REView

  8. Nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism. 8 November 2004, Sydney, Australia, Asia-Pacific Nuclear Safeguards and Security Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2004-01-01

    Today, the focus of the world is on nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism in Asia and the Pacific, and this address is presenting the perspectives on the challenges IAEA faces, and how the IAEA is working to strengthen nuclear security and the nuclear non-proliferation regime. But one would emphasize at the outset that, while much of our work must begin locally and regionally, we must not forget to think globally, because ultimately the existence of a nuclear threat anywhere is a threat everywhere, and as a global community, we will win or lose this battle together. This presentation, discusses cooperation, assistance, regional and international networks, and the importance of learning from each other. In effect, the focal subject is 'security culture', a mindset that, while providing the impetus for local and regional action, thinks globally and is fully capable of extending across borders. Sixty years ago, on a day in August, the dawn of the Nuclear Age in Asia left nearly a quarter of a million people dead, with two devices considered crude by modern standards. For six decades, we have managed to avoid a repeat of that event, but remain haunted by the prospect. It is my firm belief that we cannot move out from under the shadow of Hiroshima and Nagasaki until we are ready to make that move collectively, and build a system of security that transcends borders, that focuses on the equal value of every human life, and in which nuclear weapons have no place. May it not ultimately be said of our civilization that we created the inventions that led to our own demise

  9. The 'war on terror"and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The thesis analyses international law and practice in relation to terrorism and counter-terrorism in the post 9/11 environment. It finds terrorism to be a term of acute and wide-ranging political significance yet one which is not defined under generally accepted treaty or customary international

  10. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  11. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  12. Counter radicalization development assistance

    OpenAIRE

    van Hippel, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews current research and practice and recommends strategies for development agencies working in the Arab and Muslim world. It builds on the basic assumption that the realization of the Millennium Development Goals will be vital to reduce support for terrorism in the long term. Within this overall framework, emphasis is placed on particular programs that could be specifically applied to counter radicalization.

  13. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to caution measures; La menace du terrorisme nucleaire: de l'analyse aux mesures de precaution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2001-12-15

    In this work are analysed the different cases of terrorism attacks, the potential sources of risks, such reprocessing plants, nuclear power plants, every facility where is stored radioactive material. The vulnerability of these facilities is also evoked. Some solutions are recommended but more specially, further thought needs to be given to that kind of problems. (N.C.)

  14. MUSE observations of the counter-rotating nuclear ring in NGC 7742

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Sarzi, Marc; Knapen, Johan H.; Coccato, Lodovico; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; de Zeeuw, Tim

    2018-04-01

    Aims: We present results from MUSE observations of the nearly face-on disk galaxy NGC 7742. This galaxy hosts a spectacular nuclear ring of enhanced star formation, which is unusual in that it is hosted by a non-barred galaxy, and because this star formation is most likely fuelled by externally accreted gas that counter-rotates with respect to its main stellar body. Methods: We used the MUSE data to derive the star-formation history (SFH) and accurately measure the stellar and ionized-gas kinematics of NGC 7742 in its nuclear, bulge, ring, and disk regions. Results: We have mapped the previously known gas counter-rotation well outside the ring region and deduce the presence of a slightly warped inner disk, which is inclined at approximately 6° compared to the outer disk. The gas-disk inclination is well constrained from the kinematics; the derived inclination 13.7° ± 0.4° agrees well with that derived from photometry and from what one expects using the inverse Tully-Fisher relation. We find a prolonged SFH in the ring with stellar populations as old as 2-3 Gyr and an indication that the star formation triggered by the minor merger event was delayed in the disk compared to the ring. There are two separate stellar components: an old population that counter-rotates with the gas, and a young one, concentrated to the ring, that co-rotates with the gas. We recover the kinematics of the old stars from a two-component fit, and show that combining the old and young stellar populations results in the erroneous average velocity of nearly zero found from a one-component fit. Conclusions: The spatial resolution and field of view of MUSE allow us to establish the kinematics and SFH of the nuclear ring in NGC 7742. We show further evidence that this ring has its origin in a minor merger event, possibly 2-3 Gyr ago. Data used for the flux and kinematic maps (Figs. 1 and 3-5) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or

  15. Countering Putin’s Nuclear Backed Aggression with a Continuous Nuclear Capable Bomber Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    bribery and propaganda to instigate protesting within the populace and thus destabilize Ukraine. 16 Russia was very careful to legally qualify any...proved again that Putin is willing to use different tactics to secure their buffer zone. Though the aggression into the Ukraine was called “an act of...Credible Nuclear Deterrent.” Air and Space Journal. (Fall, 2010 ). 29 Pifer, Steven. “Obama’s Faltering Nuclear Legacy: The 3 Rs.” The Washington

  16. Religiosity and reactions to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; LaFree, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Although many of the world's most serious outbreaks of conflict and violence center on religion, social science research has had relatively little to say about religion's unique role in shaping individuals' attitudes about these events. In this paper we investigate whether Americans' religious beliefs play a central role in shaping attitudes toward the continuing threat of terrorism and their willingness to assist officials in countering these perceived threats. Our analysis of an original data collection of almost 1600 Americans shows that more religious respondents are more likely to express concerns about terrorism. However, this relationship is mediated by their level of conservatism. We also find that more religious respondents are more likely to claim that they will assist government officials in countering terrorism. This relationship remained even after accounting for conservatism, and people's general willingness to help police solve crimes like breaking and entering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Disposition of Concern: An Exploration into the Affects of the Power-Knowledge Dynamics Uncovered during Research into Pupils' Perceptions of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartermaine, Angela

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, counter-terrorism measures have become incorporated into the UK education system, with the latest 2015 "Counter-Terrorism and Security Act" expanding on previous government policy by making it mandatory for schools to be actively involved with counter-terrorism measures [Clause 21, H.M. Government 2015.…

  18. Uzbekistan - nonproliferation and continuous activities on countering nuclear materials and other radioactive sources illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrenko, V.D.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Shipilov, N.N.; Karimov, Yu.N.; Fazilov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Countering illicit trafficking of nuclear weapon and its components is an important task in the modern world. For this reason, at the borders and customs points the control of transportation is to be conducted in order to determine radioactive and fissile materials in them. This report presents the results of works performed in the period of 2001 - 2005 years on the program for development of radiation monitors and equipping the Uzbekistan border customs points with them, in order to fight the smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials. The Republic of Uzbekistan is located on the transit transportation crossroad, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Western Europe - to the North, and Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and others - to the South. Therefore, this program is important for saving peace in the world and fighting any attempts to create nuclear weapon in the region. The radiation monitoring equipment is installed at the border customs points through which the transportation enters the Uzbekistan and at the Tashkent International Airport where passengers arrive by air. Also, the customs points are equipped through which the transportation quits for South and international passenger depart. The radiation portal monitors are designed by CIS Aspect (Dubna, Moscow region), however, we develop our own portal monitoring system which can be produced after certification. The Institute of Nuclear Physics provides the technical expertise that includes installation, calibration, maintenance, and secondary alarm response; mobile response units are being developed to rapidly and accurately identify seized material and recommend handling procedures. At present we are accumulating information on the alarm from the Yantar - type radiation monitor at the customs check-points and examining characteristics of the system to improve the results of our research

  19. Against CBRN terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Although CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear) terrorism has seldom happened in recent terrorist attacks, a large number of victims would appear leading to disastrous situation if it arises. This paper discussed what CBRN terrorism is, why terrorists are interested in these weapons, and how to deal with these cases, with reference to the lessons learnt from the Tokyo subway sarin event, which occurred in Japan. It also outlined the features of CBRN terrorism and protective measures against it. CBRN terrorism is the terror activity using unusual weapons and agents such as chemicals, biological agents, radioactive substances, and nuclear weapons. As the reasons why terrorists are interested in CBRN weapons, there are such factors that raw materials are easy to obtain, manufacturing is not difficult, weapons are easy to transport, and indiscriminate and mass slaughter is possible when used. From the lessons from the Tokyo subway sarin event, the Tokyo Fire Department has been engaging in the following items: (1) strengthening knowledge and skills, (2) introduction of detection equipment, (3) construction and strengthening of decontamination system, (4) collaboration among firefighting - police - SDF - medical institutions, and (5) enhancing and strengthening organizational structure. Although protective measures vary depending on the type of chemical agent, biological agent, etc., it is important to prepare in daily life for detoxification, decontamination, evacuation, etc. (A.O.)

  20. Defining Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Notes the lack of a concise meaning for the word terrorism. Develops a working definition which states that terrorism is the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or the threat of violence in the attainment of political objectives. (JDH)

  1. Social Sciences Support to Military Personnel Engaged in Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism Operations (Soutien en sciences sociales apporte au personnel militaire engage dans des operations de contre-insurrection et de contre-terrorisme)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    no PTSD (r = .14). If one looks at sub-scales – Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), anxiety, MS scale, we can measure the interrelation with PTSD...Vladislav Shamrey (RUS) 11:00 Discussion 11:30 Coffee Break 12:00 Discussion 12:30 Lunch 2:00 Building Resilience in Civilian Populations...Valery Krasnov (RUS) 2:30 Why Cultural Awareness is Vital to Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Campaigns – Tone Danielsen (NOR) 3:00 Coffee 3:30 Discussion

  2. Countermeasure for terrorism-new field of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Changqing

    2003-01-01

    The workers on radiation protection have been confronted with a new task-countering terrorism. The description and level of various threats threats, the potential consequences and occurrence probability of different nuclear and radiation attack events, and the responses to these threats (crisis and consequence) are introduced at two levels. At the level of crisis management, some approaches to mitigation, the works done by International Atomic Energy Agency and the tendency in United States are also presented. At the level of consequence management, the essential practices submitted by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements of America are listed. Finally the domest ic progress in this area is introduced too. (authors)

  3. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism in the post-9/11 world

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2016-01-01

    This book fills a clear gap in the literature for a technically-focused book covering nuclear proliferation and related issues post-9/11. Using a concept-led approach which serves a broad readership, it provides detailed overview of nuclear weapons, nuclear proliferation and international nuclear policy. The author addresses topics including offensive and defensive missile systems, command and control, verification, weapon effects, and nuclear testing. A chronology of nuclear arms is presented including detailed discussion of the Cold War, proliferation, and arms control treaties. The book is tailored to courses on nuclear proliferation, and the general reader will also find it a fascinating introduction to the science and strategy behind international nuclear policy in the modern era. “Finally, a spritely, accessible overview of the nuclear world in historical context from someone who has both seen it from the U.S. State Department and Congressional policy trenches and taught it for 43 years. A gift to bot...

  4. From Communities of Interest to Communities of Practice: The Role and Impact of Professional Development in Nuclear Security Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew; Hobbs, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, nuclear security has gained prominence on the international security agenda. Driven by post 9/11 anxieties and the politicization of fears regarding nuclear terrorism, concerns in this area have spawned a wealth of initiatives, which seek to counter this threat. Principal among these have been efforts to promote nuclear security…

  5. FATF in Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Slavikovna Melkumyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the FATF specific approach to the problem of terrorism financing. The FATF essence, content of the activity and influence levers are also analyzed within the article. It is shown that the FATF has reviewed the problem of terrorism financing in the broadest perspective, having engaged simultaneously and consistently mechanisms for combating money laundering and terrorism financing. The Task Force has greatly contributed to building of the world counter-terrorism financing system through forming the legal and institutional basis as well as through interaction with all the possible participants and actors of world politics in this area. Moreover, the FATF has succeeded in geographical expansion of the FATF influence from the original 16 to187 jurisdictions by promotion of FATF-style regional bodies establishment. Particular attention is drawn to the unique features of the FATF Recommendations in comparison with the earlier issued sources of international law, which define the international counter-terrorism financing regime. The author believes that one of the advantages of the FATF as an institute within the counter-terrorism financing system among others is the informal status of the FATF, which provides its flexibility and high ability to respond quickly and in a timely manner to evolving nature of money laundering and terrorism financing as well as emerging threats.

  6. Communication dated 23 June 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America with regard to Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism Plenary Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 23 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America transmitting the 16 June 2009 message from President Barack Obama to the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) Plenary Meeting held in the Hague on 16-17 June 2009. As requested in that communication, the abovementioned message is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  7. Measuring variation of indoor radon concentration using bare nuclear tracks detectors, scintillation counters and surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, I.; Mahat, R.H.; Amin, Y.M.

    1996-01-01

    Bare LRI 15 nuclear track detectors , scintillators counter and surface barrier detectors were used to measured the indoor radon concentration in various location within two rooms. Spatial variation of the radon concentration is caused by positioning of the door, windows, furniture, cracks in the building and also distances from floor, wall and ceiling. It is found that the change in temperature are causing radon concentration to increase at certain time of the day

  8. Spectral Analysis Method of Plastic Scintillator-based Radiation Detector against Nuclear/Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Jang, Sung Soon; Kim, Jung-Soo; Yoon, Wan-Ki

    2008-01-01

    In these days, the threats relating to nuclear or radioactive materials have become a matter of internationally increased grave concern. A plastic scintillation detector in radiation portal monitoring (RPM) application has been used to detect radioactive sources in steel scrap entering reprocessing facilities, and to detect illicit transport of radioactive material across border ports-of-entry. The detection systems for RPM application usually are large and can not easily be moved to a different location. For some situations, an inconspicuous and mobile system for the radioactive or nuclear material during road transport is needed. The mobile radiation detection system has employed a NaI- based radiation detector to detect and identify the material hidden in vehicle. There are some operational constraints - short measuring time, weak activity due to heavy shield of illegal source, long distance - of inspection system in such nuclear security applications. Due to these constraints, large area sensor is required to maximize its sensitivity. Large NaI material, however, is extremely expensive. In designing a radiation detector for prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear or radioactive materials, the trade-off should be carefully optimized between performance and cost in order to achieve cost-effective inspection system. For the cost-effective mobile radiation detection system, this paper describes new spectral analysis method to use the crude spectroscopic information available from a plastic detector to discriminate other man-made radiation source from NORM

  9. Assessment of nuclear medicine capabilities in responding to a radiological terrorism event. Technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodilka, R.Z. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Schulich School of Medicine, London, Ontario (Canada); Wilkinson, D

    2006-09-15

    Substantial effort has been placed into enhancing federal capabilities for responding to a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attack. However, little emphasis has been placed on including the local-level medical responders in these efforts. In effecting response to a radiological incident, potentially useful resources to access are health care professionals with training in matters of ionizing radiation, namely: nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and technologists. In this report, we focus on Nuclear Medicine expertise in Canada, and place this expertise into the context of assisting with a radiological terrorist incident. Nuclear Medicine expertise, along with its supporting infrastructure has already been deployed in proportion to the distribution of the civilian population. Given the expectations that the civilian population places in these health care professionals, their immediate access to specialized equipment, and the delay between a radiological terrorist incident and the arrival of federal expert capabilities, it is likely that these health care professionals will play important roles in emergency response. These roles will likely be: identifying the nature of the incident, triage, decontamination, coordinating with First Responders, and communicating with the media. Acknowledging the potential value of these professionals in responding to a radiological terrorist incident, steps should be taken to enlist their support and integrate them into a coherent national strategy. (author)

  10. Assessment of nuclear medicine capabilities in responding to a radiological terrorism event. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodilka, R.Z.; Wilkinson, D.

    2006-09-01

    Substantial effort has been placed into enhancing federal capabilities for responding to a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attack. However, little emphasis has been placed on including the local-level medical responders in these efforts. In effecting response to a radiological incident, potentially useful resources to access are health care professionals with training in matters of ionizing radiation, namely: nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and technologists. In this report, we focus on Nuclear Medicine expertise in Canada, and place this expertise into the context of assisting with a radiological terrorist incident. Nuclear Medicine expertise, along with its supporting infrastructure has already been deployed in proportion to the distribution of the civilian population. Given the expectations that the civilian population places in these health care professionals, their immediate access to specialized equipment, and the delay between a radiological terrorist incident and the arrival of federal expert capabilities, it is likely that these health care professionals will play important roles in emergency response. These roles will likely be: identifying the nature of the incident, triage, decontamination, coordinating with First Responders, and communicating with the media. Acknowledging the potential value of these professionals in responding to a radiological terrorist incident, steps should be taken to enlist their support and integrate them into a coherent national strategy. (author)

  11. Dynamism and the erosion of procedural safeguards in international governance of terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Ali (Nathanael)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Contemporary international governance of terrorism reflects a conceptualisation of terrorism as a global public problem that both affects and needs to be responded to by all sectors of global society. Consequently, counter-terrorism has taken the form of proactive risk

  12. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    ), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...

  13. Education, Globalization, and the State in the Age of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Education plays an important role in challenging, combating and in understanding terrorism in its different forms, whether as counter-terrorism or as a form of human rights education. Just as education has played a significant role in the process of nation-building, so education also plays a strong role in the process of empire, globalization and…

  14. Reducing the Threat of Nuclear Terrorism- A Report Card on the Obama Administration’s Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    using methods that did not require HEU and the recovery of roughly 750 radioisotope thermoelectric...Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE ...December 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING THE THREAT OF NUCLEAR TERRORISM—A REPORT CARD ON

  15. Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Braverman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1 pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2 prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3 utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4 distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5 education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6 continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7 support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD, the world’s leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15–30 mg or 1–2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental to consider these critical recommendations.

  16. Protecting the source. Securing nuclear material and strong radiation sources. New threats of terrorism are prompting the need for swift action to better secure nuclear material and strong radiation sources. Are measures already in place enough? The Stanford-Salzburg initiative suggests not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.; Bunn, G.

    2003-01-01

    At a time of growing concern over threats of terrorism, the security of nuclear and radioactive material is an urgent and serious issue. Working with a range of partners, the IAEA has put into place a multi-faceted Action Plan to help countries upgrade their capabilities. But more needs to be done to counter new types of threats. One particular area that needs to be strengthened is the physical protection of nuclear and radioactive material. The attacks of 11 September 2001 opened our eyes to i he urgent need to strengthen national physical protection (PP) practices for nuclear and other radioactive material. The principle that highly radioactive material will protect itself does not apply to the newest generation of terrorists. Existing PP systems were not designed to deal with the threat of suicidal terrorists commanding the numbers, skills, training, and resources available to those who carried out the attacks in the US. Moreover, because there are no mandatory international standards for domestic PP systems for nuclear or radioactive material, protection measures vary greatly from country to country. The IAEA recommended standards (Inference/225/Rev. 4) were not designed with the new terrorist threats in mind and national practices often fall short of even these recommendations. The result is inadequate protection against the new form of terrorism. Few argue the point that national physical protection practices for nuclear and other radioactive material need to be strengthened. This article summarizes a Stanford-Salzburg plan developed by experts from Stanford University's Center for International Security and Cooperation, (USA) and revised at the EU-Physical Protection NUMAT Conference in September 2002 in Salzburg, Austria. It includes six recommended elements to consider in addition to what the IAEA is now doing to improve PP practices around the world: Establish a global list of physical protection priorities; Create a multilateral security cooperation

  17. Improbable Success: Risk Communication and the Terrorism Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    never aspired to be anything more than a bureaucratic construct partnered with the media. It has taken years to fully understand the unintended...terrorism plan. http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/rwpattach.nsf/ VAP /(3273BD3F76A7A5DEDA E36942A54D7D90)~National+Counter-Terrorism+Plan+- +Alert+System...Australian Government National Security. (2009a). National Counter-Terrorism Alert System Fact Sheet. http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/rwpattach.nsf/ VAP

  18. Challenges for effective counter-terrorism communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse; Parker, David; Pearce, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Growing concerns about small-scale, low sophistication terrorist attacks, and the difficulties they present for security services, make public coproduction of security increasingly necessary. Communication to ensure that the public(s) is aware of the role they can play will be central to this....... This article, based on interviews with 30 expert practitioners, explores challenges associated with communication designed to prevent radicalisation, interdict attack planning and mitigate the impacts of a terrorist attack in the UK and Denmark. The interplay between these challenges and the contemporary...... terrorist context are analysed, highlighting that new, or adapted, communications and approaches may be necessary....

  19. A Network Design Approach to Countering Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    2003). More and more scale-free networks have been discovered. How can such diverse systems have the same architecture and properties? Part of the...Rabei Ousmane Sayed Ahmed (a.k.a. the Egyptian ) convinced the group to pursuit jihad at home, where they had the material resources to act (Atran, 2010

  20. International Police Cooperation on Countering Transnational Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    contemporary and predicted terrorist threats.199 In relation to TE-SAT, the monitoring and analysis of open source intelligence ( OSINT ) has been proven...Identification File of Customs Investigations)179 that increase the accuracy and completeness of the criminal intelligence gathered from other sources .180...Trend Report (TE-SAT). These reports are unclassified documents prepared based on the information gathered from MS, open sources , and other EU

  1. Response to nuclear and radiological terrorism - the viewpoint from the security forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A threat of a malevolent act may be deemed to exist when information has been received that terrorists, criminals or other persons intend to: manufacture, use, transport, dispose radioactive materials in order to hide the nature of material; perpetrate a deliberate act to irradiate a person or persons; perpetrate a deliberate act to contaminate food or water supplies with radioactive materials; create and deploy a radiation dispersal device; perpetrate a deliberate act to contaminate a site or the environment with radioactive materials; or mount a sabotage attack upon a nuclear facility aimed at causing an uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. Security forces will be involved in all aspects of the response: at the scene, to lead, to control the crime scene and preserve evidence; at the hospitals, to identify and manage witnesses who may assist in the ensuing investigation, and to protect emergency medical personnel if perpetrators are part of the casualties; and at the regional and national coordination level, to manage the overall criminal investigation; to take under physical protection the seized materials. Law enforcement response: key considerations to all police (security and investigating) personnel at the scene of a terrorist act will include the following: do not approach the scene without proper radiological support; be aware of the possible presence of other radiological hazards; the radiological team will seek the removal of safety hazards. Work with that team to minimize hazards while not compromising the investigation. Minimize traffic through the scene: this will help reduce the spread of radioactive contamination, if present; people present at the scene need to be held for questioning. However, they will also have fears due to the presence of radiation. Work with the radiological team to minimize radiological hazards and fears while not compromising the investigation procedure. (author)

  2. Nr 703 - Report made on the behalf of the Foreign affairs Commission on the bill project adopted by the Senate authorizing the ratification of the International Convention for the Repression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, and Appendix: text of the Foreign affairs Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameline, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This report first explains that the threat of nuclear terrorism requires a resolute action by the international community. It evokes the various forms nuclear terrorism can have: misappropriation of nuclear weapons, fabrication of nuclear explosive devices, use of radiological bombs, or malevolent acts against nuclear installations or against nuclear material transports. It gives an overview of the various international initiatives regarding this issue: resolutions 1540 and 1977 by the UNO Security Council, G8 global partnership, the global initiative to combat nuclear terrorism (GICNT), and the action of the IAEA in the field of prevention and detection. Then, the report addresses the content of the International Convention for the Repression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, briefly discusses the main obligations for member states (repression aspects, international cooperation, prevention aspects) and the follow-up of its application (opportunities given by the Convention, assessment performed by the IAEA)

  3. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...

  4. Legislating for Terrorism: The Philippines’ Human Security Act 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E. Eadie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2007 the Philippine Senate passed the Human Security Act (HSA otherwise known as Republic Act No. 9372: An Act to Secure the State and Protect our People From Terrorism. Philippine Senate Minority Leader Aquilino Q. Pimentel Jr. was heavily involved in the final drafting of the HSA. He gave it its final name shortly before the Senate Chamber passed it into law. Previously the Act had been known by various titles including ‘An Act to Deter and Punish Acts of Terrorism and for Other Purposes’ (Senate Bill No. 2137 and ‘An Act to Define and Punish the Crime of Terrorism, the Crime of Conspiracy to Commit Terrorism, and the Crime of Proposal to Commit Terrorism, and for Other Purposes (Senate Bill No. 2187. Thus the Human Security Act exists as an instrument of counter terrorism as opposed to human security policy.

  5. Nuclear energy, about the necessity of counter-powers. Interview with Michele Rivasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    In an interview, the founder of the Crii-Rad (an independent research commission for information on radioactivity) explains why she created this commission after Chernobyl and the way public information was organised, indicates difficulties faced while creating the Crii-Rad and the relationships with the nuclear lobby. She also indicates the various bodies and associations which have been created and emulated the Crii-Rad, evokes the Crii-Rad financial resources. She notices the strong relationships between the nuclear lobby and a majority of members of the Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Choices, and comments the implications of this fact on the way elected representatives take their decisions. She assesses the influence the Crii-Rad had on official communication on nuclear issues. Then, she addresses the issue of nuclear wastes, the choice of sites, the opinion of the population which could be favourable only because the people make their living from this activity. She outlines the role of the military nuclear sector and that it is an opaque one. She states that nuclear is obsolete, that the waste issue has not been solved, and that nuclear fission still creates new radioactive materials and thus raises problems. She outlines that it will always be more difficult to build a nuclear power plant, that the concept of public interest is not relevant for nuclear energy. She finally briefly evokes alternate solutions such as gas which indeed produces CO_2 but much less than transports

  6. Insurability of Terrorism Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbruecker, D.

    2006-01-01

    Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)

  7. Development of a detector-counter for teaching purposes in nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Fabio E. da; Hamada, Margarida M.; Pereira, Maria Conceicao C. Pereira; Mesquita, Carlos H.

    2000-01-01

    A detector system constituted of a monochannel analyzer with digital counter, amplifier, charge sensitive preamplifier and CsI(Tl) scintillator detector coupled to photodiode PIN was developed to gamma radiation detection. The crystal was grown by Bridgman Method. The crystal luminescence spectra has good match with the photodiode efficiency spectrum. The combination CsI(Tl)- photodiode made at possible to obtain a compact and rugged detector, insensitive to magnetic fields and may be operated at low voltages. This detector system has a baseline for 1 MeV and 2 MeV selected by the use, with two discriminators (inferior and superior) for advancements 10 or 20 KeV division. The system showed good energy linearity in the range from 122 to 1440 KeV. (author)

  8. Realization of nuclear aggregates detector integrated into 4Π counter at S.I.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezkratt, R.

    1992-06-01

    A new cluster detector composed of ionization chambers and thin plastic scintillation, has been developed as part of the large 4 PI counter of SIS/ESR, in order to explore central collisions of high energy heavy ions. In the first part are reported the definition, description, theoretical and experimental studies and installation on site of this detector. Its expected response has been investigated with the use of GEANT simulation program. Results are presented and discussed in second part. The efficiency of the track reconstruction with plastic wall has been tested. The excitation function measurement of Au+Au system at 100, 150, 250, 400, 600 and 800 A MeV has been realized. The purpose of the last part is the presentation of the first data acquisition. The cluster gauging and the algorithm development of trajectory reconstitution between the cluster detector and plastic scintillator wall are also presented

  9. Nuclear electronic components of surface contamination monitor based on multi-electrode proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Zhang Yong; Han Shuping; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear electronic components applying in Portal Monitor and Hands and Feet Surface Contamination Monitor were based on modern integrated circuit are introduced. The detailed points in circuit design and manufacturing technique are analyzed

  10. Action to counter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials in the northern region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reistad, O.; Maerli, M.

    1998-01-01

    Norway has not traditionally maintained any defence against smuggling of nuclear material. The 1993/94 report to Parliament on nuclear activities in areas adjacent to Norway mentioned the risk of such smuggling in the context of non-proliferation. In the light of this perceived risk a contact group was established with representatives from the Norwegian customs administration, police, armed forces and National Protection Authority. The group today has responsibility for the introduction of countermeasures against nuclear material smuggling in Norway. Another measure was establishment of Norwegian measurement facilities to combat smuggling of nuclear material. There arrangements are based on three lines of defence. The first will typically be the individual officer, the second, the special staff deployed following warnings or other indicators of smuggling, and the third would be any laboratory examination of specimens carried out in Norway or abroad

  11. Radiological and nuclear terrorism: within the framework of a re-thought planning system, specific tools are complementary to the general purpose instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekaert, E.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, France engaged in the revision of its emergency planning system in order to improve its answer to a major crisis in the field of civil defence and protection. On one side, the Vigipirate, which deals with vigilance and prevention and the response plan of the Pirate family, and particularly Piratom, which is intended to answer the radiological or nuclear terrorist events, are specific and up-to-date tools to deal with the issues of hyper-terrorism. On the other side, the new ORSEC system, the last evolution of one of the main pillars of the global public protection against risks and threats of all kinds, provides the modern methods of emergency planning which allow to consider in the most pragmatic way the response to the risks and threats of our modern world. This coherent planning system establishes the general framework for the action of the responders including medical resources. (author)

  12. Needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuzo

    1977-01-01

    Needle counter had been devised by Geiger about 60 years ago before the present GM counter appeared. It is suitable for the detection of weak radiation because it is limited in effective volume, if the background due to mainly cosmic ray is proportional to the effective volume of the counter. Recently the very low β detector having a needle counter as the main detector has been developed. It showed highly excellent performance in the measurements of small area samples, about ten times sensitive as compared with other detectors. The counter is installed in the very low radiation measuring well at Nokogiriyama, Chiba Prefecture, using a NaI scintillator as its guard counter. D. H. Wilkinson first treated a gas amplification counter theoretically and quantitatively. The authors have obtained good results in the comparison with the experiments of the counter using a generalized form of Wilkinson theory. The findings obtained through this study seem to be applicable to the electrode arrangement which is important for the counter design. It was found that the excellent rise time of induced pulses in a gas amplification counter was achieved in larger amplification factor and smaller convolution effect. In the detection of charged particles with small obstructing capability such as γ ray, faster rise time and higher pulses can be obtained with needle counters than wire counters. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Which future for the nuclear counter-proliferation?; Quel avenir pour la contre-proliferation nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M

    2004-10-01

    After a recall of the permanent data about proliferation and of the safeguards implemented by the international community, the author demonstrates that proliferation has moved towards Asia where a real 'black market' has been created. Then he analyzes the consequences of this change on the future of nuclear deterrent. Finally, he expresses his nostalgia in front of this drift and worries about the future uselessness of the means devoted to this 'pacifying' strategy. (J.S.)

  14. How to fight terrorism? Political and strategic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vad, Erich

    2018-04-01

    "Fighting terrorism is like eating soup with a fork" (Shimon Peres). Peres's quote symbolically captures the key problem of countering terrorism. 9/11 proved to be a hallmark in the global perception of modern terrorism. The following questions form the framework of the present essay: What is the essence of modern terrorism? How did it develop during the past two decades? Who are the key players within the terror framework? What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately with the global phenomenon of terrorism? Are there any solutions (short-, medium-, long-term) to terrorism? If yes, where do we have to look for them? The underlying essay provides a strategic overview of antiterrorism policy that is based on the author's years-long experience as a high-level expert and advisor within the security policy framework. For this reason, citations are expressly not included. The key target audience comprises laypersons interested in the phenomenon of global terrorism and its social interplay.

  15. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  16. Youth, terrorism and education: Britain’s Prevent programme

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated ‘Prevent’, a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which Prevent has approached young Muslims and their educational institutions. The article argues that, rather than trust in broader and non-stigmatising processes of...

  17. Comparing Civilian Support for Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srobana Bhattacharya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is an extreme form of political violence, that is inherently abhorrent in nature. Yet, it continues to attain enough support to continue and survive. The recent proliferation of Islamic State and its ever increasing domestic and international civilian support base urges immediate attention to this question. While most research holds that provision of public goods by terrorist groups is the primary cause for high levels of civilian support, I argue that, terrorist groups are more interested in resource extraction rather than resource provision. Additionally, these studies pay scant attention to existing resource structure, especially territorial and political control to explain terrorist-civilian interaction. This paper emphasizes the bi-directional nature of this interaction – a. perception of civilians by the terrorist group and b. terrorist group’s perception of the civilians. To analyze levels of civilian support for terrorism, I compare fifteen terrorist groups using qualitative comparative analysis and show how territory, political competition, ethnicity, target selection and organizational structure combine to explain conditions that lead terrorist groups to include or exclude civilian population for support. Based on the variance in support networks of terrorist groups, counter-terrorism policies should also differ. High civilian support indicates the need to use non-military methods to decrease the appeal of terrorist groups. However, terrorist groups with more diffused and multiple support structures need more collaborative and coercive measures to intercept all the possible links to the main group.

  18. Terrorism and Investigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Mustofa

    2005-01-01

    This paper discussed that, for successful implementation of the strategies in investigating terrorism, besides requiring professional skilled investigators, there are some additional requirements that need to be fulfilled. Effective and long term prevention of terrorism should be directed towards producing good social welfare and to minimize every condition that may be conducive to the emergence of terrorism, such as discrimination and marginalization.

  19. Understanding Contemporary Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of terrorism as it exists today and examines progress that has been made toward understanding its dimensions. Suggests how this subject can be explored in the classroom. Dispels misconceptions about terrorism by defining the term, and examines some causes of terrorism and strategies employed by terrorists. (KO)

  20. Terrorism as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Warren; Rainey, Daniel

    Terrorism has become not merely a political act, but a carefully designed and rhetorically sophisticated attempt at communication. What role should the communication scholar play in the investigation of terrorism? Specifically, there are six areas within which the communication scholar may actively contribute to an understanding of terrorism as…

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of lung counting efficiency using a whole-body counter at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongming, L.; Shuhai, J.; Houwen, L.

    2016-01-01

    In order to routinely evaluate workers' internal exposure due to intake of radionuclides, a whole-body counter (WBC) at the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. (TQNPC) is used. Counting would typically occur immediately after a confirmed or suspected inhalation exposure. The counting geometry would differ as a result of the height of the individual being counted, which would result in over- or underestimated intake(s). In this study, Monte Carlo simulation was applied to evaluate the counting efficiency when performing a lung count using the WBC at the TQNPC. In order to validate the simulated efficiencies for lung counting, the WBC was benchmarked for various lung positions using a 137 Cs source. The results show that the simulated efficiencies are fairly consistent with the measured ones for 137 Cs, with a relative error of 0.289%. For a lung organ simulation, the discrepancy between the calibration phantom and the Chinese reference adult person (170 cm) was within 6% for peak energies ranging from 59.5 keV to 2000 keV. The relative errors vary from 4.63% to 8.41% depending on the person's height and photon energy. Therefore, the simulation technique is effective and practical for lung counting, which is difficult to calibrate using a physical phantom. (authors)

  2. The development of a specialized in-vivo body counter for radiation monitoring in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The design, construction, calibration and testing of a prototype mobile counting system to measure natural uranium in the lungs of workers in the nuclear fuel industry is described. The measurement method is based on the detection of gamma rays emitted during the decay of the daughters of uranium. The mobile facility consisted of a shadow shield and phoswich detector system mounted in a medium-sized trunk. Care was taken to ensure undistorted visual and verbal contact between the subject and the operator. Tests were made to optimize the location and thickness of the lead shielding. A single axle truck was insulated and a heater was installed for winter operation. There was sufficient room in the box to include a change room and waiting area as well as the shadow shield and electronics rack. An extensive series of test measurements was made at a number of locations. Control group studies of males were carried out and a model was developed which correctly predicted the subject background in the uranium region of the gamma spectrum when no uranium was present. The mobile counter was calibrated using the Rando Phantom. On a field trip to Bancroft In February 1981 the shadow shield configuration was shown to provide adequate background reduction for accurate uranium-in-lung measurements. With repeated measurements, changes in an individual's lung burden as small as 2 mg uranium could be detected. The minimum detectable amount of uranium on the basis of one measurement was 5.4 mg

  3. Global Media and Public Affairs Communications in a New Era of Defense: The War Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tasista, Michele

    2002-01-01

    The Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and subsequent conflict in Afghanistan culminated a 30-year escalation of terrorism and efforts to counter it, an undeclared war that has unfolded principally on the information battlefield...

  4. Crisis Response Interoperability System: Enabling Multi-National and Multi-Agency Defence Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Jean; Dessureault, Dany; Letourneau, Francois

    2004-01-01

    We live in an increasingly interconnected, complex and often dangerous world, and recent events have moved the issues of anti- and counter-terrorism, national/public security, and collective emergency...

  5. Redefining the Global War on Terrorism: Developing a Clear Picture of a Fuzzy Objective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Payne, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    This paper will argue that the development and implementation of a counter-insurgency strategy that fully integrates all elements of national power is critical to success in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT...

  6. Nuclear radiation detector. Realization and study of the G.M. counters with halogens, the multiples anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhavat, A.

    1975-01-01

    A substantial improvement of the halogene GEIGER-MULLER counters properties has been carried out by the research of new anode forms. This amelioration has been revealed by the comparison of the new counters with the classical ones, absolutely identical as to their size and production. The anodes alone are different

  7. Nuclear accident dosimetry: the calibration of Geiger-Mueller and 2π proportional counters for sulphur and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Reading, A.H.

    1981-10-01

    A reference, 2π precision counter was set up at Harwell and absolutely calibrated for the measurement of sulphur discs ( 32 P) and gold foils ( 198 Au) used in the UK personnel criticality dosimeter. Sample sulphur discs and gold foils were irradiated in the GLEEP reactor at Harwell, counted in the 2π counter, and their activities absolutely assayed by the National Physical Laboratory. The 2π counter was then used to intercalibrate the GM counters used routinely for the assessment of the criticality dosimeter. The mean measured efficiencies of the GM counters were found to be for 32 P in sulphur discs within +- 4%, and for gold ( 198 Au) within +- 6% of the values given by previous calibrations. (author)

  8. Modern Approaches to the Establishment of National Geoinformation Systems as a Means of Combating Nuclear Terrorism and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navumenka, M.; Ivasechko, A.

    2015-01-01

    The report deals with the approaches to the establishment of National geoinformation systems as a means of combating nuclear terrorism and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (hereinafter National geoinformation systems), which represent the integration of already existing and brand-new hardware and software into a single system for illicit trafficking control. It illustrates the model of transition from current operation system, which is based on engagement of different resources used by governmental agencies, to network solutions enabling to automatize and optimize the process of radiation control, to organize on-line radiological information exchange, thus, enhancing efficiency of reacting on illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials. The report also describes operational algorithm of National geoinformation systems and experience of implementation of modern radiological network based equipment, which enables to indicate location, to take measurements and transfer results to the remote expert centre on-line using different data transmission means. Web-application of National geoinformation systems enables to automatize processing of radiological information, which is transferred from different users to a single server, to display the location on the map, to maintain the database of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials, and to exchange information between concerned member-states and IAEA contact points. In general, the suggested system combines new possibilities, which allow to integrate a number of devices into a single network, to display radiological data with GPS-location marks, to give access to the experts for estimating the results of the radiological measurements, to manage the actions of different users from a single remote expert centre and, if necessary, to render on-line expert assistance. The described in the report National geoinformation system has been adopted by a number of users, has turned

  9. Terrorism Bookshelf: Top 150 Books on Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sinai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist rebellions, in all their configurations, constitute first order national security threats facing the international community. This was especially the case following September 2001, when al Qaida demonstrated that it had world class ambitions to inflict catastrophic damages on its adversaries. Although substantially degraded militarily and geographically dispersed since then, al-Qaida, its affiliates and allies around the world continue to wage their insurgencies, whether localized or transnational. Of great concern is that not only have they succeeded in embedding themselves with terrorist networks that are spearheading internal conflicts in weak and failed states, such as in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen, but as an ideological movement they have been able to radicalize new generations of adherents around the world using cyberspace, including social media. 

  10. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  11. COUNTERING RADICALISATION ACROSS EUROPE – THE PIONEERING ISDEP PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozila Kana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changing landscape of the global terrorism threat coupled with increasing concern about home grown extremism means that the need to tackle the root causes of radicalisation across the European Union has never been greater. The pathway to violent extremism and terrorism is, however, undeniably complex. Frontline practitioners working with those vulnerable to radicalisation need to have the right tools to allow them to recognise, respond to and challenge ideologies and narratives associated with any form of terrorism. A pioneering EU Commission funded project is the first of its kind designed to offer consistency around, and increase awareness of, counter radicalisation specifically for frontline practitioners. Improving Security by Democratic Participation (ISDEP is a two year programme based on the EU Commission’s Prevent strand of the Counter Terrorism Strategy. Training themes focus on helping practitioners to identify the influences and vulnerabilities that shape an individual’s thought processes towards violent extremism.

  12. Crossing the Rubicon: making a case for refining the classification of Jihadist Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Hand, Robert Wayne

    2012-01-01

    This paper posits that our current understanding of Jihadist Terrorism as a monolithic sub-type of Political Terrorism is flawed and that as a result our governments counter this threat with inappropriately-adapted methods. The author argues: (A) There is a sub-type of Jihadist Terrorism that is more consistent with Walter’s ‘Military Terrorism’ or Feldman and Hinojosa’s ‘Guerrilla Warfare’ than within the typology of Political Terrorism; (B) The author-proposed sub-type of ‘War Terrorism’ s...

  13. Homegrown terrorism; the known unknown

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkkainen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Homegrown terrorism has attracted significant attention following the 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. Homegrown terrorism is usually thought to be a new phenomenon, with few observed events, and inherently distinct from transnational terrorism or the old domestic terrorism in Europe. However, little research has so far examined the alleged distinctiveness of homegrown terrorism empirically. I argue that homegrown terrorism shares many similarities with domestic and international terrori...

  14. Crossing the Rubicon: Making a Case for Refining the Classification of Jihadist Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wayne Hand

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper posits that our current understanding of Jihadist Terrorism as a monolithic sub-type of Political Terrorism is flawed and that as a result our governments counter this threat with inappropriately-adapted methods.  The author argues: (A There is a 'sub-type' of Jihadist Terrorism that is more consistent with Walter’s ‘Military Terrorism’ or Feldman and Hinojosa’s ‘Guerrilla Warfare’ than within the typology of Political Terrorism; (B The author-proposed sub-type of ‘War Terrorism’ should be accepted, examined, defined, and established; and (C Establishing the author’s sub-type will allow western democracies to devise better counter-terrorism strategies while protecting the civil liberties of their citizens.

  15. Introduction to Teaching About Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Provides an historical and conceptual framework for understanding contemporary terrorism. Includes quotations from government officials, syndicated columnists, and scholars regarding terrorism and its effects on society. (JDH)

  16. Definitions of Cyber Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The phrase cyber terror appeared for the first time in the mid-eighties. According to several sources, Barry C. Collin, a senior person research fellow of the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, defined cyber terror at that time as “the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism”—an

  17. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  18. Latin America: Terrorism Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2005-01-01

    .... In its annual report on worldwide terrorism, the State Department highlights threats in Colombia, Peru, and the tri-border region of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. The State Department also has designated four terrorist groups (three in Colombia and one in Peru) as Foreign Terrorist Organizations, and Cuba has been listed as a state sponsor of terrorism since 1982.

  19. Terrorism and financial supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, Anatoli van der

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective,

  20. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  1. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  2. Nuclear terrorism / Ядерный терроризм / Terorizam nuklearnim sredstvima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Z. Rutić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has analyzed different manifestations of terrorism with nuclear weapons and ionizing radiation as a special kind of terrorism. Possibilities that terrorist groups come into possession of nuclear weapons and apply them for terrorist purposes have been analysed. The forms and methods of terrorist activities with nuclear means have been given as well. It has been concluded that nuclear terrorism includes various forms of threats, including not only nuclear weapons but also the sources of ionizing radiation used for terrorist purposes. It has been also shown that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA and the countries signatories of the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons and other international treaties seek to be an insurmountable obstacle to terrorist organizations aiming at the purchase of nuclear materials and equipment necessary for the construction of nuclear weapons. / В статье представлен обзор различных проявлений ядерного терроризма и терроризма с применением йонизирующего облучения, как особой формы терроризма. Проведен анализ возможностей доступа террористических группировок к ядерному оружию и его применения в терактах. В статье описаны формы и методы борьбы с терроризмом и защиты от действия ядерного оружия. Сделаны выводы, что ядерный терроризм представляет разные формы угроз, связанных не только от ядерного оружия, но и от источников йонизируещего облучения. В заключении представлена деятельность Международного

  3. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Terrorism as Media Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Proving that terrorism should be seen as a media event (as defined by Dayan and Katzafter 9/11 and treated accordingly. We have turned to the work of Dayan and Katz and GeorgeGerbner’s for a definition of media events and of violence in the mass media. This paper is ahermeneutical interpretation of the concept of terrorism and its relation to communication. We haveput forward a better understanding of the complex concept of terrorism and its definitions in the massmedia context. Terrorism nowadays should always be defined within its inherent relation with themedia. The article is the first to define terrorism as media evenit in Dayan and Katz’s terms.

  5. Containing Terrorism: A Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Zahedzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategic interplay between counterterror measures and terror activity is complex. Herein, we propose a dynamic model to depict this interaction. The model generates stylized prognoses: (i under conditions of inefficient counterterror measures, terror groups enjoy longer period of activity but only if recruitment into terror groups remains low; high recruitment shortens the period of terror activity (ii highly efficient counterterror measures effectively contain terror activity, but only if recruitment remains low. Thus, highly efficient counterterror measures can effectively contain terrorism if recruitment remains restrained. We conclude that the trajectory of the dynamics between counterterror measures and terror activity is heavily altered by recruitment.

  6. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-10-25

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  7. Report made on the behalf of the Commission of foreign affairs, defence and armed forces on the bill project authorizing the ratification of the international convention for the repression of acts of nuclear terrorism - Nr 215

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintat, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    In a first part, this report recalls that the terrorist threat has already been addressed by texts which have been negotiated within the United Nations. It describes how the content of the convention has been elaborated while taking into account existing conventions related to nuclear issues. It outlines that this text is the fruit of the efforts made by a special committee created by the U N, and by the Lyons-Rome group within the G8. The second part comments how this convention is based on other conventions already ratified by France, notably the conventions of 1980 and 1997 on the physical protection of nuclear material. It outlines the important progress contained by this convention regarding incriminations of acts of nuclear terrorism and their crackdown

  8. How to communicate with the public about chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear terrorism: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G James; Chowdhury, Alexander K; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-12-01

    A deliberate attack involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) material has the potential to cause substantial fear among the public. This presents problems for communicators, who will need to provide information quickly after an attack while ensuring that their messages are easily understood and likely to be attended to by members of the public. Identifying in advance what people would want to know, where they would get information from, and how messages should be presented might allow communicators to ensure that their messages have the best chance of having their desired effect. In this review, we identified all peer-reviewed studies that have assessed communication strategies or information needs using hypothetical CBRN scenarios or in actual CBRN incidents. We identified 33 relevant studies. Their results support existing psychological models of why people engage in health protective behaviors, with information about the severity of the incident, the likelihood of being exposed, the efficacy and costs or risks of recommended behaviors, and the ability of individuals to perform recommended behaviors being sought by the public. Trust plays a crucial role in ensuring that people attend to messages. Finally, while a large variety of spokespeople and sources were identified as being turned to in the event of an incident, the use of multiple information sources was also common, affirming the importance of communicating a consistent message through multiple channels. Further research is required to extend these predominantly US-based findings to other countries and to confirm the findings of research using hypothetical scenarios.

  9. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrișan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological, toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that certain organizations, groups or terrorist or extremist sections would get someWeapons of Mass Destruction Systems. Actually, the 11th of September tragedy proves that megaterrorismrepresents the premeditated destruction, the lack of negotiations, of a tactical goal that wasto be accomplished by means of a threat. The mega-terrorism actors do not intend to get themselvesknown to the public, do not require anything, do not see the threat as means or device to reach theirpurpose. The 21 st century mega-terrorism simple logic is materialized in the systemic destroying ofthe enemy, no longer representing a political power or a government, but an entire ‘disobeying’,‘corrupted’, ‘unfaithful’ population indifferent to the mega-terrorist actors’ desires. New dimensionagainst mega-terrorism determines not only a rethinking of how to combat it, but also the realizationof a conceptual legal framework and measures established to materialize the political decision.

  10. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you tried. A night terror is a sleep disruption that seems similar to a nightmare , but is ... to: reduce your child's stress create a bedtime routine that's simple and relaxing make sure your child ...

  11. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  12. Nightmares and Night Terrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... able to tell you what happened in the dream and why it was scary. Your child may have trouble going back to sleep. Your child might have the same dream again on other nights. What are night terrors? ...

  13. Night Terrors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Feferman, Irv

    1988-01-01

    Night terrors are a bizarre sleep disorder that affects young children. The child partially awakes during the night agitated, afraid and terrified, and cannot be consoled. These events, which may be related to emotional turmoil, are self-limiting. Psychiatric evaluation is indicated in certain cases, and drug therapy is almost never necessary. Parents should be reassured that night terrors are not dangerous and do not reflect any serious pathology.

  14. Long life boron-lined proportional counters fitted to the start-up range of the nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauphin, G.; Duchene, J.

    1983-03-01

    CEA has been engaged in a research and development program in technical cooperation with RTC, to improve the life time of the boron lined proportional counters used for PWR's start up. The present report is a synthesis of these works. The processes by which the discrimination curves show a shift in count rate versus the neutron fluences are described and, the possible ways to get improved performances and the tests performed on the different prototypes are presented. Analysis of the results is given [fr

  15. Bargaining Theory and Building Strategies for Countering Armed Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    actions previously labeled counter-insurgency, -terrorism, -drug, or - gang operations; irregular, unconventional, small guerilla, asymmetrical, or 4th...field of wheat, which, without regard to the individual stalk , may be mown down more or less efficiently depending on the quality of the scythe; it

  16. Nr 215 - Report made on the behalf of the Foreign affairs, defence and armed forces Commission on the bill project authorizing the approval of the International Convention for the Repression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintat, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This report first recalls that the suppression of terrorist threat has already been the object of several texts negotiated under the aegis of UNO, that the current convention has been elaborated by taking existing conventions related to nuclear into account, and that this convention is the result of efforts made by the special committee created by the UNO and the G8 'Lyon-Rome' group. In a second part, the author shows that this text is based on conventions already ratified by France. As shown in a table containing the convention articles and the associated obligations for states after ratification, this agreement contains important progresses in terms of incriminations of acts of nuclear terrorism and their suppression

  17. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  18. Roots of terrorism: a reassessment after September 11th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political, sociological and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 11th, Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes. If 9/11 was caused by US Middle East policies, the response must involve a review of these policies. If it is a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes will be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment, which need to be clearly identified, are critical in any counterterrorism strategy. So we must understand the reasons for terrorism and, in particular, for the attacks of September 11th.T his paper will look at the question of the roots of terrorism and then look to the specific case of 911 and its aftermath, with a special view to the impact of globalization.

  19. Socioconomic nature of terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Petrovich Chichkanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the theoretical and methodological foundations of investigation of the  socioeconomic nature of terrorism are considered. Hypothesis of research is the existence of methodological criteria of territory classification on the basis of external and internal terrorism. On the basis of the analysis of theoretical works of national and foreign authors, normative documents of state and international level the genesis of approaches to the understanding of the essence of modern terrorism, its contents, the subject-object relations and manifestation forms is received. As the result, according to the authors’ definition “terrorism” is understood as an ideology connected with deliberate violence or threats against the civilian population or property to influence on the government or the interstate organizations. In the work, the factors of development and spreading of terrorism in the Russian Federation’s regions are allocated and quantitatively proved. Weight parameters of the specified factors are determined. The methodological differentiation of the specified factors on factors of terrorism external (attacks from the outside and an internal form (distribution and realization of radical ideas within the region in the territory is the distinctive feature of the conducted research. During the research, the cluster analysis of a region is carried out to distribute of Russia’s regions according to the typological characteristic of the region of internal and external terrorism. The obtained data are verified in accordance with empirical data, the hypothesis of the existence of methodological criteria of the region classification on the basis of external and internal terrorism is proved.

  20. Counter-Narratives and the Unrehearsed Stories Counter-Terrorists Unwittingly Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments produce both deliberate and involuntary (and less conscious narratives when countering terrorism. The thesis of this article is that such unintended messages can be much more powerful and consequential than is realized; in fact, they can completely contradict the intended official 'counter-narrative'. To substantiate this hypothesis, the author looks at the experience of the German Federal Republic in the 1970s and beyond when state and society were confronted with the Red Army Faction (RAF and similar left-wing "revolutionaries" like those of the 2nd of June Movement or the Red Zora.

  1. The Concept of (Global Terrorism and Conspiracy Theory as Media Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Radulović

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the urgency and growing interest in a subject, there is no unifying definition of terrorism. A large number of studies could be seen as integral part of ‘counter-terrorism’ strategies- as set of practices to prevent and defeat terrorism. Lisa Stampnitzky’s research looked into the discourse of terrorism experts and argued that the concept of terrorism is a social construct, thus revealing further structure that facilitated it. Aim of this paper is to compare the concept of terrorism as media discourse- a form of legitimate expert interpretation, with conspiracy theory as a form of illegitimate, para-institutional form of interpretation. Noting the commonplaces of the two: defined as an afterthought, both being designated and not self-described notions, featuring a plot that precedes the event- this paper will look at these discourses, the way they relate to (and intersect each other, and try to trace their manifestations.

  2. Terrorism Risk Insurance: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webel, Baird

    2005-01-01

    .... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...

  3. Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and the Copycat Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    that an increase in anti-terrorism makes it more likely that cells will plan small rather than large attacks. Furthermore, we see that an increase in anti-terrorism can make a terrorist attack more likely. Analyzing the problem of optimal anti-terrorism we see that the introduction of a copycat effect rationalizes...... an increase in the level of anti-terrorism after a large attack. Using this result we show how the copycat effect changes the dynamic pattern of terrorism attacks and what the long run consequences are...

  4. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nalbandov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  5. Terrorism, Hegel, Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkwan Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available My essay begins by analyzing how Hegel and Honneth’s theory of recognition would seem to lend support to insurgent terrorists’ struggle for the right to self-determination. Insurgent terrorism often looks like a concretization of what Honneth calls the moral protest of the oppressed launched against the dominating powers. Insurgent terrorism also bears affinity to the politics of recognition in the sense that it challenges the legitimacy and authority of the forces owned by the state, and seeks to gain public recognition instead for the legitimacy of their own cause. Precisely because what matters uppermost to terrorists is the gaining of recognition for their cause as just, terrorists are eager to seize the mass media as a means of spreading their ideas. My essay will end, however, by pointing out major differences between insurgent terrorism on the one hand, and Hegel and Honneth on the other.

  6. Terrorism and financial supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli van der Krans

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective, proportional and mutually harmonious. Now that many regulations in this field have been established by intra-national bodies, it is important to examine how these regulations are further elaborated in the respective national systems. This article gives a broad overview of legislative initiatives of the UN, USA, FATF, EU and Council of Europe. The Netherlands for numerous reasons serves as a legal example. It is concluded that measures taken or proposed to avoid or at least reduce the financing of terrorism are quite effective to prevent abuse of the financial system. On the other hand, these measures increase the risk of underground or illegal financing, which is even more difficult to control.

  7. Terrorism, Trust and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    How does terrorism affect social trust and tourism? The rising number of terrorist attacks in Western Europe has caused safety problems not only for local citizens but also for tourists. In fact, terrorists challenge the formal violence monopoly of the state thus creating a sense of anarchy...... and distrust. Social trust is about trusting strangers, so when less predictable behaviour occurs in, a given country, people become more careful as they tend to trust most other people less. An interesting case for future research is Scandinavia as the level of terrorism is still low and, at the same time......, Scandinavia can record most social trust in the world meaning a competitive advantage when attracting tourists. Arguably, a double dividend is created from fighting terrorism, namely more social trust accumulated and more tourists attracted. Future research should therefore try to further test our model...

  8. Boko Haram: Developing New Strategies to Combat Terrorism in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    terrorism and counter- 17 insurgency, established a canine -handling section to boost its forensic capabilities, and reorganized units and formations on...geography and Islamic practices such as resistance to Western education, family planning, and medical vaccinations , and traditional lifestyles such as...the casualties were Boko Haram members. 55 December 24, 2010 triple bomb blasts in Jos, Plateau State. The figure does not include the over 100

  9. Preventing Lone Wolf Terrorism: some CT Approaches Addressed

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Bakker; Beatrice de Graaf

    2011-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furtherm...

  10. Terror and Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    Currently, terrorism provokes a widespread feeling of insecurity and global reactions to the terrorist attacks. This is not simply because it poses a substantial threat to society and to the lives of individual citizens. The relatively rare incidents of terrorism cause emotional overreaction...... because they challenge and intensify the contract that supersaturates today's society.In the welfare society one can observe the existence of a diffuse but widespread social contract, which has become the single most cohesive element in the social fabric. According the terms of this contract, we agree...

  11. The Politics of Terrorism: Power, Legitimacy, and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Couto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and juxtaposes discourses about terrorism, violence, and political leadership. It presents generalizations about terrorism—a form of political violence by, for, and against the state—and politics and violence based on the theories of Max Weber and Hannah Arendt. The stark contrasts drawn from these theories include power as non-violent strength (Arendt versus power as violence-dependent (Weber and the struggle for legitimacy between different agents (states and individuals as well as terrorism by, for, and against the state. This reframing of power leads to judging a lack of power where there is violence, and the presence of power where one observes non-violence. An examination of political and criminal violence leads to questions about deliberate and purposeful violence, indirect and structural violence that has political consequences, and their relationship to terrorism. It expands the application of terrorism to include indirect structural violence by indicating its relationship to direct violence, not only in traditionally-viewed terrorist action but in the ignored terror of, for example, inner cities. Terrorism has many forms by many actors. To synthesize the results of these lines of reasoning leads to a conclusion with considerable implications for politics and for political leadership. The politics of terrorism suggest a central counter-terrorist approach: de-politicizing the violence of terrorists whenever possible and using the authority and power of the state to institutionalize it as criminal violence. This, in turn, also means politicizing other forms of violence, such as capital punishment, and their indirect and structural forms, such as the inner city.

  12. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  13. Countering violent extremism via de-securitisation on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Warrington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a civil society actor on Twitter entering a securitized discourse on terrorism illustrates the transformative theoretical potential that emerges from new forms of communication online. Through a qualitative analysis of tweets from the Average Mohamed profile, the potential to change a negative narrative of violent extremism operating within a securitised discourse of Islamic terrorism, is discussed in an online context. The arguments forming from this analysis offers a new approach to studying online counter narratives by linking a theoretical framework of securitisation and de-securitisation to recent political efforts Countering Violent Extremism (CVE and Preventing Violent Extremism (PVE. Through the inclusion of a civil society Twitter account as an illustrative case, this paper explores how social media can challenge existing assumptions of who can be a de-securitising actor within security theory by blurring the lines between political and societal sectors in a securitised threat from Islamic terrorism. If and how a civil society actor can loosen the dichotomous discursive relationship between Self/Other relations within a contemporary discourse on terrorism becomes relevant for a theoretical discussion by presenting an argument suggesting that online CVE polices are more effective within the sphere of ‘normal’ politics rather than within the realm of securitization. This theoretical perspective offers an analytical framework including a wide range of actors involved in counter narratives policies which is useful for further CVE research.

  14. Who Prepares for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Linda B.; Mileti, Dennis S.; Kano, Megumi; Wood, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness (NSDEP) examined whether households in the United States have engaged in proactive preparedness and avoidance activities since September 11, 2001, and whether the activities reported were done because of terrorism, natural disasters, other reasons, or any combination of reasons. Reported…

  15. Militarized Maneuver Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    striking the heart of the Indian tourism market and creating a siege in the Taj Mahal, it was certain to create a theater of terror. A drama played out... sport facilities, malls, movie theaters, and more. Grossman argues that American society has put forth enormous effort preparing and preventing harm to

  16. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2018-04-01

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender, education and terrorism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-65 ISSN 1759-5673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08090 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international terrorism * women's education * public opinion Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  18. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  19. Pathological responses to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bryant, Richard; Marmar, Charles; Zohar, Joseph

    2005-10-01

    Many important gains have been made in understanding PTSD and other responses to trauma as a result of neuroscience-based observations. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge that currently impede our ability to predict those who will develop pathologic responses. Such knowledge is essential for developing appropriate strategies for mounting a mental health response in the aftermath of terrorism and for facilitating the recovery of individuals and society. This paper reviews clinical and biological studies that have led to an identification of pathologic responses following psychological trauma, including terrorism, and highlights areas of future-research. It is important to not only determine risk factors for the development of short- and long-term mental health responses to terrorism, but also apply these risk factors to the prediction of such responses on an individual level. It is also critical to consider the full spectrum of responses to terrorism, as well as the interplay between biological and psychological variables that contribute to these responses. Finally, it is essential to remove the barriers to collecting data in the aftermath of trauma by creating a culture of education in which the academic community can communicate to the public what is and is not known so that survivors of trauma and terrorism will understand the value of their participation in research to the generation of useful knowledge, and by maintaining the acquisition of knowledge as a priority for the government and those involved in the immediate delivery of services in the aftermath of large-scale disaster or trauma.

  20. Terrorism in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  1. Terrorist threats of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozsef Solymosi; Jozser Ronaky; Zoltan Levai; Arpad Vincze; Laszlo Foldi

    2004-01-01

    More than one year has passed since the terrible terrorist attacks against the United States. The tragic event fundamentally restructured our security policy approach and made requirements of countering terrorism a top priority of the 21st century. In one year a lot of studies were published and the majority of them analyses primarily the beginnings of terrorism then focus on the interrelations of causes and consequences of the attacks against the WTC. In most of the cases the authors can only put their questions most of which have remained unanswered to date. Meanwhile, in a short while after the attacks the secret assessments of threat levels of potential targets and areas were also prepared. One of the high priority fields is the issue of nuclear, biological, and chemical security, in short NBC-security. Here and now we focus on component N, that is the assessment techniques of nuclear security in short, without aiming at completeness. Our definite objective is to make non-expert readers understand - and present a concrete example as it is done in risk analysis - the real danger-level of nuclear facilities and especially the terrorist threat. Our objective is not to give tips to terrorists but to provide them with deterring arguments and at the same time calm worried people. In our communique we give an overview of international practice of nuclear antiterrorism and of preventive nuclear protection in Hungary. (author)

  2. Non Proliferation of Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang S Irawan

    2004-01-01

    Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons is the international community's efforts to maintain the security of the world, in order to prevent the spread of nuclear technology and the use of nuclear weapons, promoting cooperation for the use of nuclear peaceful purposes, build mutual trust (Confidence Building Measures) as well as to achieve the ultimate goal of disarmament overall (General and Complete Disarmament). Addressing the post-WTC tragedy, 11 September 2001, the Indonesian government should set up a National Measures (National Action Plan), among others formed the National Security Council and NBC Counter Proliferation Unit, or the National Authority for Nuclear Treaty, preparing national legislation, to prevent the abuse nuclear materials for terrorist acts, prevent Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear materials, developed a National Preparedness and Emergency Response Management in the event of a nuclear accident or attack by the use of nuclear terrorism. Importance of a National Action Plan meant the existence of a national commitment in the context of compliance with treaties and conventions which have been ratified relating to safety, security, safeguards towards a general and complete disarmament, to safeguard national security and maintain peace (safeguards) international

  3. 163 COUNTER-TERRORISM IN THE GREATER HORN OF AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-07-11

    Jul 11, 2010 ... location in the Horn is strategic. Yet, it is land-locked and .... The insurgents adapted Middle East style suicide bombings. At least one person ... 2002 in Mombasa However, Kenyan security agencies believe that Fazul is alive and is ... In June 2006 IGAD regional ministers ratified a Kenya-led travel ban on.

  4. Countering Terrorism Through Control of Pakistan’s Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Military Deception MQM Muthahida Qaumi Movement NADRA National Database and Registration Authority NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NDMA ...data of all the crimes and hazards (data of National Disaster Management Authority— NDMA ). The concept should follow the U.S. model of intelligence

  5. Building surface decontamination for chemical counter-terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, S.; Thouin, G.; Kuang, W. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Volchek, K.; Fingas, M.; Li, K. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

    2006-07-01

    A test method to compare and evaluate surface decontamination methods for buildings affected by chemical attacks was developed. Decontamination techniques generally depend on the nature and quantity of the weapon agent, the type of construction material and the location. Cleanup methods can be either physical, chemical or biological. This paper addressed chemical decontamination methods which use reactants to change the molecular structure of the contaminant. Peroxycarboxylic and peroxyacetic acids (PAA) are being used increasingly for both disinfection and environmental protection. In this study, 4 materials were chosen to represent common building materials. Samples were spiked with 10 mg of pesticides such as malathion and diazinon. Decontamination agents included the commercial decontamination agent CASCAD prepared in liquid form, a chemical preparation of PAA, and reagent grade peroxypropionic acid (PPA). The newly developed surface decontamination procedure can evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different chemical decontamination agents. The procedures were used on porous ceiling tile and carpet as well as on non-porous floor tile and painted steel surfaces. Rinse water was collected and analyzed in order to determine if decontamination was a result of chemical destruction or mechanical removal. The extraction efficiencies were found to be acceptable for all materials, with the exception of the highly porous ceiling tile. The extraction of diazinon from all surfaces was less efficient than the extraction of malathion. Results suggest that the performance of decontamination agents can be improved by repeated application of the decontamination agent, along with greater volumes and a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. It was also suggested that breakdown methods and wastewater treatment procedures should be developed because hazardous byproducts were detected in many samples. 18 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  6. Social Appropriateness in EU Counter-Terrorism Law and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    versus justice equation, on the issues of privacy and data protection, and on the broader respect for fundamental rights more generally. In this process, the legitimacy and the social appropriateness of some of these measures have been questioned, both at the societal level and before or by European...

  7. Another Approach to Counter-Terrorism: Terrorists with Guilty Consciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    146. See also Lawrence Kohlberg , “Stages and Aging in Moral Development—Some Speculations,” The Gerontologist 13, no. 4 (1973), 497–502; Sandor Rado...Apr., 2000): 417– 431. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1131999. Kohlberg , Lawrence. “Stages and Aging in Moral Development—Some Speculations.” The

  8. Storytelling and Terrorism: Towards a Comprehensive Counter-Narrative Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    audience to recall; hence, memorable events should form the skeleton of a story). 3) Aristotle is better than nothing.Considerations of ethos , logos ...what is the ethos of the speaker/deliverer?, (2) what is the logos of the message being delivered?, and (3) does the message contain appropriate...appeals to pathos ? Consideration of ethos would emphasize the need for us to establish credible channels of communication, fronted by actors who have

  9. Saudi Counter-Terrorism Strategy: Identifying and Applying Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    spread of illiteracy and low cultural level. 9 3. There is no economic class whether poor or rich without terrorists, but it is noted that the...Global Rise of Religious Violence (Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2000) 9. 10 S.K. Malik, Quranic Concept of War (Delhi, India : Adam

  10. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingshott, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  11. Terror.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    En stor del af terrorens formål er at skabe frygt. Frygt for gentagelse af terror handlinger og dermed opnåelsen af en psykologisk effekt på mennesker eller grupper af mennesker med henblik på at ændre deres holdninger eller adfærd. Et af de primære midler til at opnå denne psykologiske effekt er......, udover terror handlingerne selv, propaganda som opfølgning på terrorhandlinger for at forøge effekten af disse. Eller propaganda som slet og ret har til formål at skabe frygt og usikkerhed. Traditionelt set har meget af spredningen af terrorpropaganda beroet på, at medierne omtalte terrorhandlingerne og...

  12. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  13. Distributed performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  14. Chechen Female Suicide Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Farhana Ali describes terrorism against an occupier as an attempt to achieve freedom from tyranny.66 Recruiters encourage women to resist for a...fringe phenomenon and insurgents are all around you.’”71 O’Rourke also acknowledges the freedom and relaxed inspection women are afforded.72 Bloom and...lives as Moscow controlled the land and people. Suspicious of Islam and of religion in general, the Soviets forbade its practice, fearing expansion.110

  15. Chinas Response to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    regulations regarding terrorism and related activities (e.g., the 2006 Anti- Money iv Laundering Law), most notably the 2015 Counterterrorism... Money Laundering ASEAN Association for Southeast Asian Nations CASS Chinese Academy of Social Sciences CCP Chinese Communist Party CICIR China...the Financing of Terrorism” in 2006, and passed a new law governing money laundering in an effort to restrict access to funds available to terrorists

  16. Psychology of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    and logistic support. 160. Kfir, N. (2002). Understanding suicidal terror through humanistic and existential psychology. C. E. Stout (Ed), The...anomie or for an existential vacuum, which may drive other individuals to drifting or to entering the drug culture. - To understand the differences...any group of prisoners is by definition ‘survivalist’, yet that of the Red Brigades has evolved through three phases ‘social’, ‘ existential ’ and

  17. Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-30

    Terrorism, Outraged World Seeks an Answer." U. News and World Report, September 18, 1972, p. 16. Arendt , Hannah . Crisis of the Republic. N. Y., Harcourt...Brace Jovanovich, 1972. Arendt , Hannah , On Violence. N. Y. Harcourt, Brace and World, 1970. Arendt , Hannah . On Revolutions. N. Y., Viking Press, 1965... Arendt , Hannah . "Reflections on Violence." Journal of International Affairs, 23:1, 1969. "Are the Skies Really Friendly?" Proposed Theories of Relief for

  18. Terrorism in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos Hernandez, Dora H; Church, Adam L

    2003-01-01

    Two major domestic terrorist groups have plagued Peru over the past 20 years, the Sendero Luminoso or "Shining Path" (SL) and the Revolutionary Movement Túpac Amaru (MRTA). On 28 August 2003, the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission reported that an estimated 69,280 persons were killed in the internal conflict in Peru from 1980 to 2000. Most of the victims were farmers (56%), most attacks occurred in rural settings (79%), and the SL was responsible for most of the deaths (54%). Aggressive anti-terrorism efforts by police and military during this period, often at the expense of basic human rights, also contributed to this large burden of terrorism on Peru. During the 1990s, terrorist attacks in Peru had spread to its urban areas. On 17 December 1996, 22 members of MRTA took over the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima, holding 72 hostages until the grounds were stormed by Peruvian special forces on 23 April 1997. Until recently, emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events in Peru were largely underdeveloped. In the last five years, Peru has taken two key steps towards developing a mature emergency response system, with the establishment of the country's first emergency medicine residency training program and the construction of the first dedicated trauma center in Lima.

  19. Intelligence, Global Terrorism and Higher Education: Neutralising Threats or Alienating Allies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Tania; Johnson, David

    2016-01-01

    The British Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 appears to have drawn universities into the security apparatus of the state. Academics and administrators have been compelled to comply with measures aimed at monitoring the activities of mostly Islamic student societies. While it is not inconceivable that universities are exploited as sites for…

  20. Ideology, Utopia and Islam on Campus: How to Free Speech a Little from Its Own Terrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2017-01-01

    A dominant narrative on many British campuses is "Prevent," which is part of the government's counter-terror policy, an ideology based on fear. Muslims, in particular, are considered to be at risk of radicalisation on campus, and being under suspicion makes them self-censor. Additionally, the no-platforming student lobby creates a…

  1. The Dilemma of Porous Borders: Uganda’s Experience in Combating Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-10

    burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA...that laxity in immigration control, poor remuneration , and corruption among security officials at border stations complicates the challenge of porous...Special Branch was disbanded and PATU placed under a newly created Directorate of Counter Terrorism. Since then, a

  2. Combating Transnational Terrorism in the East African Region: The Role of the African Union Mission in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    independence of others.”36 In addition, the new strand of transnational security threats such as terrorism and natural calamities transcends the...256 Ibid., 60. 257 Isabella Sankey, “Liberty’s Response to Home Office Consultations on the Prevent Strand of UK Counter Terrorism Strategy,” 2010, 3...within the Ethnic Somali Population of the United States: An Argument for Applying Best Practices for Stemming Youth Gang Recruitment and Initiation

  3. Engaging Civil Society in Countering Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper Dr. Bibi van Ginkel takes an in depth look at how multi-lateral institutions, engage with civil society to counter violent extremism. Dr. van Ginkel argues that civil society can play a crucial role in preventing and countering violent extremism in numerous ways – by working on development programs, through their work in conflict transformation, in providing a platform to raise political grievances and to facilitate dialogue, or through their work in empowering victims and survivors of terrorism. The Paper finds that over the last decade there has been a more intensive coordination of activities between the UN and other multi-lateral organisations and civil society but the question remains whether the implementation as well as the drafting of these policies will live up to their potential effectiveness. This Paper gauges how effective these measures have been and what more there is to do. The final section concludes with a series of policy recommendations.

  4. War on Terror: Fantasy and Fiction Behind the Mythology of Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Fatih A. Abdel Salam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentary evidence shows that the series of financial crackdowns initiated since 9/11 have had virtually no impact on terrorism. This is because these efforts are based on a fundamental misconception on how terrorism works. The financial warriors’ predisposition to stereotypes about “Arabs and their money” allowed unsubstantiated rumours–such as Bin Laden’s personal fortune of $300 million–to become established as facts. This study exposes the extent to which Washington policymakers simply transposed the template for the war on drugs on to the war on terror, despite the fact that terrorism is not a profit–driven enterprise. The collateral damage inflicted on organisations like Al-Barakaat, the Somali remittance network, wrongly accused of channeling money to the terrorists, and others are counter-productive as they dent the image of the US in the Muslim world.

  5. The War Against Terror and Transatlantic Information Sharing: Spillovers of Privacy or Spillovers of Security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tzanou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The EU-US Passenger Name Record (PNR agreement has been among the most controversial instruments in the fight against terrorism that the EU negotiated with the US after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The agreement has been heavily criticised for its implications regarding fundamental rights, in particular the rights to privacy and data protection. Nevertheless, the EU has put forward plans to develop its own PNR programme. The present article aims to examine the new dynamics concerning privacy that arise from the transatlantic fight against terrorism. It argues that, while attempts for the development of a transatlantic privacy protection framework have been made, ‘spillovers’ of security, taking the form of internalisation of external counter-terrorism measures, are prevalent in the era of the war against terror.

  6. Plea and counter-plea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The bulk of papers written during the hearing 'Plea and counter-plea', the so-called 'Gorleben hearing', which was held from 28th March until 3rd April 1979, comprises ca. 4,200 pages. It consists of the written comments put forward by the critics of nuclear energy, the minutes of the hearing as well as the supplementary statements of the counter-critics. This report is trying to confront those essential objections made by the critics which put in doubt the feasibility of a fuel-cycle centre with regard to safety engineering with the facts which are considered correct from the view of the DWK. The oral and written explanations of the counter-critics are particularly referred to in this debate. (orig./HP) [de

  7. A Taxonomy of Terror - About the Effect of Different Kinds of Terror on Risk Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein

    2016-01-01

    Terrorism is an increasing problem; still, research systematically investigating the impact of varying kinds of terrorism is scarce. The present investigation uses hypothetical scenarios to look at effects of diverging sorts of terrorism on risk perceptions in a student- and a tourist sample. Two characteristics of terrorism were varied systematically: frequency (whether terrorism hits a destination where terrorism is frequent or infrequent) and degree of organization (whether terrorism is co...

  8. Counter terrorism functions to enhance critical infrastructure resilience against CBRNe terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, I.M.; Gaasbeek, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches in critical infrastructure protection use long lists of items that fail to give its user a structured answer to the state of protection of its object. The functionality approach uses different terrorist functions to structure the threat (which are to have intent, to scout, to

  9. "Counterterrorism Bookshelf" – Eight Books on Terrorism & Counter-terrorism Related Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sinai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available by Joshua Sinai  Note: This column consists of capsule reviews. Future columns will continue to review books by publishers such as Palgrave Macmillan, Routledge, Springer, Stanford University Press, and the University of Chicago Press.

  10. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  11. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly

  12. Cerenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kostoulas, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Thun, R.

    1977-01-01

    The Cherenkov counter described for use at Isabelle is a threshold counter in which light is focussed on phototubes. The counter is applicable in large-angle, small-aperture magnetic spectrometers for measurement of particle yields at large p/sub T/. Three of these counters will provide complete π-K-p separation in the range of 7-20 GeV/c. Other Cherenkov counters are discussed and a bibliography of relevant literature on the counters utilizing photoionization is included

  13. Broad Energy Range Neutron Spectroscopy using a Liquid Scintillator and a Proportional Counter: Application to a Neutron Spectrum Similar to that from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J

    2015-09-11

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n) 3 He and D(d,n) 3 He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9 Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  14. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  15. Preventing Lone Wolf Terrorism: some CT Approaches Addressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bakker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furthermore, almost all lone operators do display a degree of commitment to, and identification with, extremist movements – providing leads for preventing new rounds of radicalization within this potential group of sympathizers or followers. With the apparent increase of Islamist lone wolf terrorism and fears for right-wing extremists wanting to follow the example of the Norwegian mass murderer A.B. Breivik, new questions need to be posed, addressing the role of virtual communities with which lone operators identify themselves. 

  16. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  17. 31 CFR 594.311 - Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism. 594.311 Section 594.311... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.311 Terrorism. The term terrorism means an activity that: (a) Involves a violent act or an act...

  18. Modern terrorism: concept and approach analysis

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIKA ALEXANDER VIKTOROVICH

    2015-01-01

    The problem of modern terrorism as an image of counterculture environment is considered. The analysis of concepts and approaches of foreign and native authors, specialists of terrorism problem research was conducted. Separate features of the modern terrorism are considered and emphasized. The author drew conceptual conclusions on the basis of dialectical approach to modern terrorism counterculture phenomenon research.

  19. CEDAR counter (internal part)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Here on the mounting bench. The counter is a differential Cerenkov, corrected for chromaticity, able to differentiate pions from kaons up to 350 GeV. Counters of this type were used in all SPS hadron beams.

  20. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  1. The roots of terrorism: A reassessment after September 11th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    The brutal terrorist attacks of September 11th, the anthrax attacks that followed and growing knowledge of al Qaeda's pursuit of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons have not only intensified concerns about terrorism but also created doubts about our understanding of terrorism. These attacks were in many ways unprecedented, and ultimately raise the question of the roots or causes of terrorism. Historically and today, there have been divergent views on this question, which reflect philosophical, religious, political and other differences. These differences are not merely academic, as they can affect our understanding of both the threat and of responses to terrorism in the aftermath of September 1 1 th. Terrorism is too complex and diverse a phenomenon to speak easily of causes. But we may be able to discern the causes of specific acts. Our response to 9/11 and other acts of terrorism will be affected by our understanding of their causes, as well as by possible political requirements to address widespread perceptions of causes. If 9/11 was caused by Islamic radicalism, the near-term response must be to ensure the terrorists are defeated and pose no fiuther danger. In the longer term, education is critical. If the attacks were caused by US Middle East policies, the response should involve a review of those policies. This may or may not result in changes to policy, public diplomacy, etc. If the attacks were a backlash against globalization, the response must address the realities underlying anti-globalization sentiments. Addressing causes (real and perceived) will not in any case end terrorism, and addressing the wrong causes can be counterproductive. Actions to reduce those conditions that create support for terrorism and aid its recruitment effort are critical to any counterterrorism strategy. For this reason alone, we must do everything possible to understand the reasons terrorism may be undertaken, including the attacks of September 1 1 th. This paper will

  2. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  3. Violation of human rights to combat terrorism.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    LL.B. No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. The lack of agreement on a definition of terrorism has been a major obstacle to meaningful international countermeasures to combat terrorism. There are 12 International Conventions related to terrorism and an explicit definition is still missing. Many states have tried to define terrorism and none of these definitions has been implemented, either by the United Nations or these states. There are many International Convent...

  4. Racionalidad del terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauquillo, Julián

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary terrorism is not an ancestral, irrational, oriental, phenomenon. Nor is it a fanatical reaction of the religions that vindicate a backward society as against the developed societies of the first world. The terrorism of today is a thoroughly modern phenomenon: one of the worst monstrosities of modern society, supplied with rational planning of objectives. A captious interpretation of the Islamic religion endows terrorism with a universal projection among the multitudinous audience of the discontented with the might of that diffuse power that we know as the developed Western world. Al Qaeda does not hesitate to present its war against the West as «a war without quarter» lasting until the infidel Christians are eliminated and the world is subjugated to Islam In the meantime, in a similar conflictive sense, the theoretical campaign of Samuel Huntington across the entire planet responds with a paradigmatic post-cold war, capable of inflaming the international conflict, in a sense no less belligerent with the Anti-Occident than that employed by the radical Imams. As has been pointed out by Amartya Sen, to give priority in this way to the religious identity, the response of the West to international terrorism in calling it «islamic terrorism» is very clumsy, as it magnifies the importance of the religious authorities in detriment to governmental ways and means in the solving of problems.

    El terrorismo contemporáneo no es un fenómeno ancestral, irracional y oriental. Tampoco es una reacción fanática de las religiones que reivindican una sociedad atrasada frente a las sociedades desarrolladas del primer mundo. El terrorismo actual es un fenómeno plenamente moderno: uno de los peores engendros de la sociedad moderna, dotado de una planificación racional de objetivos. Una interpretación capciosa de la religión islámica dota al terrorismo de una proyección universal entre la numerosa audiencia de descontentos con el poder

  5. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and...: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism...

  6. MEANS OF CHEMICAL RECONNAISSANCE AND CONTROL IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CBRN TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan VIČAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear terrorism (CBRN terrorism is a special form of terrorism known for its extraordinary efficiency as superterrorism or ultra-terrorism. Detection and identification of the presence of hazardous chemical toxic substances is very difficult and can be achieved only by using advanced detection and monitoring instruments and devices that are currently only in the equipment of units of the Fire and Rescue Service of the Czech Republic and some units of the chemical troops of the Czech Army. Instigators of chemical terrorism count on the surprise factor, as well as on the difficulty and great delay in detecting the presence of hazardous chemical toxic substances. Therefore, for early warning of the population and minimization of consequences of a terrorist attack with the use of hazardous chemicals, the ability of early detection and subsequent identification is very important.

  7. Conception of transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors, which meets the requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'kaev, R.I.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Semenov, A.G.; Sergeyev, V.M.; Orlov, V.K.; Shatalov, V.V.; Gotovchikov, V.T.; Seredenko, V.A.; Haire, Jonathan M.; Forsberg, C.W.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to the problem of creation of a new generation of multi-purpose universal transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of power reactors, which meets all requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism. Meeting all IAEA requirements in terms of safety both in normal operation conditions and accidents, as well as increased stability of transport cask (TC) with SNF under the conditions of beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism has been achieved in the design of multi-purpose universal TC due to the use of DU (depleted uranium) in it. At that, it is suggested to use DU in TC, which acts as effective gamma shield and constructional material in the form of both metallic depleted uranium and metal-ceramic mixture (cermet), based on stainless or carbon steel and DU dioxide. The metal in the cermet is chosen to optimize cask performance. The use of DU in the design of multi-purpose universal TC enables getting maximum load of the container for spent nuclear fuel when meeting IAEA requirements in terms of safety and providing increased stability of the container with SNF under conditions of beyond-design-basis accident and acts of terrorism

  8. Conception of transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors, which meets the requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' kaev, R.I.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation); Semenov, A.G.; Sergeyev, V.M.; Orlov, V.K. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, V.V.; Gotovchikov, V.T.; Seredenko, V.A. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Haire, Jonathan M.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The report is devoted to the problem of creation of a new generation of multi-purpose universal transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of power reactors, which meets all requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism. Meeting all IAEA requirements in terms of safety both in normal operation conditions and accidents, as well as increased stability of transport cask (TC) with SNF under the conditions of beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism has been achieved in the design of multi-purpose universal TC due to the use of DU (depleted uranium) in it. At that, it is suggested to use DU in TC, which acts as effective gamma shield and constructional material in the form of both metallic depleted uranium and metal-ceramic mixture (cermet), based on stainless or carbon steel and DU dioxide. The metal in the cermet is chosen to optimize cask performance. The use of DU in the design of multi-purpose universal TC enables getting maximum load of the container for spent nuclear fuel when meeting IAEA requirements in terms of safety and providing increased stability of the container with SNF under conditions of beyond-design-basis accident and acts of terrorism.

  9. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  10. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  11. Measures against radiation disaster/terrorism and radiation emergency medical assistance team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Takako; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The probability of occurrence of radiological terrorism and disaster in Japan is not low. For this reason, preparations for coping with the occurrence of radiological terrorism should be an urgent issue. This paper describes the radiation medical system and the threat of radiological terrorism and disaster in Japan, and introduces the Radiation Emergency Medical Assistance Team (REMAT), one of the radiation accident/disaster response organizations at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Radiation exposure medical systems in Japan are constructed only in the location of nuclear facilities and adjacent prefectures. These medical systems have been developed only for the purpose of medical correspondence at the time of nuclear disaster, but preparations are not made by assuming measures against radiological terrorism. REMAT of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences is obligated to dispatch persons to the requesting prefecture to support radiation medical care in case of nuclear disaster or radiation accident. The designation of nuclear disaster orientated hospitals in each region, and the training of nuclear disaster medical staffing team were also started, but preparations are not enough. In addition to enhancing and strengthening experts, specialized agencies, and special forces dealing with radiological terrorism, it is essential to improve regional disaster management capacity and terrorism handling capacity. (A.O.)

  12. The International Legal Framework for Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    recommendations and guidance documents. The legislative history and overview of the salient provisions of the binding and non-binding instruments will increase the understanding of the evolving legal framework governing nuclear security and counter-terrorism, thereby assisting States, intergovernmental organizations and other stakeholders in the implementation of their provisions at the national, regional and international level

  13. The law enforcement approach to combating terrorism : an analysis of US policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, William C.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the US policy for combating terrorism from 1988 to 2000 using five case studies; the bombing of Pan Am flight 103, the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the bombing of the US barracks in Saudi Arabia in 1996, the bombings of two US embassies in Africa in 1998 and the bombing of the USS Cole in 2000. The thesis begins by outlining the minimum requirements for a counter-terrorism policy. They are; that a po...

  14. Talking about terrorism: Q and A with Jessica Stern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism remains a potent threat. We have known for some time that terrorist groups have been seeking weapons of mass destruction. There are various ways that terrorists could use nuclear and other radioactive materials: they could acquire a nuclear weapon from a nuclear State; they could acquire the necessary fissile material and produce a weapon on their own, creating an improvised nuclear device; they could attack a nuclear power plant; or they could create a radiation dispersal device, a so-called dirty bomb. The first possibility would be the most devastating, but it is also probably the least likely. Stealing a bomb would be difficult because of the generally high security of facilities where nuclear weapons are stored. And a State that gave nuclear weapons to terrorists would have to seriously consider the probability that the source of the bomb could be identified, so retaliation against the State would be likely. In this regard, the revelation that terrorist groups were carrying out reconnaissance missions at Russian nuclear-weapon storage sites in 2001 was troubling; but the terrorists' efforts quickly became known to security personnel. The second possibility-the risk that terrorists will acquire nuclear-weapons usable materials-must be taken extremely seriously, especially in light of revelations about meetings between Pakistani nuclear scientists and al Qaeda, and about a clandestine effort to export nuclear technology run by the Khan network. Terrorists' dispersal of radioactive materials - either by attacking a nuclear plant or disseminating those materials with a home-made device-is the most likely scenario. Still, it is important to keep the threat in perspective. Dirty bombs are far more frightening than lethal. The article provides responses of Jessica Stern on questions about how big a threat nuclear terrorism is, how to minimize the risks of nuclear terrorism, the behaviour of states to combat the roots and reach of nuclear terrorism

  15. Report on the trainings for terrorism. Document on present state of affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kimio; Saito, Toru; Hukumoto, Masahiro

    2001-12-01

    A series of attacks on America by terrorism on September 11, 2001 gave us a terrible shock. Two types of training against the act of terrorism had been held in Tokai Works of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to grasp the present situation of JNC Tokai Works and improve the countermeasure against the terrorism. The first training was for the incendiarism and the second one was for the injury. Consequently the revealed points to be improved were the followings. (1) Keeping a sense of crisis. The countermeasure against terrorism should be instructed and trained to realize the sense of crisis, that is, uncertainty of the time and the kind of terrorism. (2) Organization of the structure against the terrorism. The structure for the contingency should to organized to strengthen the guard structure by forming the pursuit team, the guard team and so on constituted by JNC's staff members. (3) Preparation of equipments against the terrorism. The coloring ball, club, two-pronged weapon, shield, knifeproof vest and so on should be provided the guards of to strengthen the countermeasure before the police's arrival. (4) Preparation and announcement of manuals. The manuals against terrorism for the ordinary stuff members should be prepared and used in the training to make the ordinary stuff's countermeasure more effective. (author)

  16. Paramilitary Terrorism: A Neglected Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tallen, Jr, George W

    2007-01-01

    Fixation upon WMD terrorism, reinforced by the recurring need to manage the consequences of other manmade or natural disasters, has conditioned the homeland security community to focus upon prevention...

  17. The Newsworthiness of International Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, Gabriel; Brosius, Hans-Bernd

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the newsworthiness of international terrorism. Relates the concept of deviance as a predictor of newsworthiness to the specific attributes of terrorist events and their impact on media selection (coverage or no coverage) and prominence of coverage. (SR)

  18. Cyber-Terrorism: Modem Mayhem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    .... The arrival of the information age has created a new menace cyber terrorism. This threat recognizes no boundaries, requires minimal resources to mount an attack, and leaves no human footprint at ground zero...

  19. The counter-terrorist campus: Securitisation theory and university securitisation – Three Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Gearon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With intensified threats to global security from international terrorism, universities have become a focus for security concerns and marked as locus of special interest for the monitoring of extremism and counter-terrorism efforts by intelligence agencies worldwide. Drawing on initiatives in the United Kingdom and United States, I re-frame three – covert, overt and covert–overt – intersections of education, security and intelligence studies as a theoretical milieu by which to understand such counter-terrorism efforts. Against the backdrop of new legislative guidance for universities in an era of global terrorism and counter-terrorism efforts by security and intelligence agencies and their Governments, and through a review of Open-Source security/intelligence concerning universities in the United Kingdom and the United States, I show how this interstitial (covert, overt and covert– overt complexity can be further understood by the overarching relationship between securitisation theory and university securitisation. An emergent securitised concept of university life is important because de facto it will potentially effect radical change upon the nature and purposes of the university itself. A current-day situation replete with anxiety and uncertainty, the article frames not only a sharply contested and still unfolding political agenda for universities but a challenge to the very nature and purposes of the university in the face of a potentially existential threat. Terrorism and counterterrorism, as manifest today, may well thus be altering the aims and purposes of the university in ways we as yet do not fully know or understand. This article advances that knowledge and understanding through a theoretical conceptualisation: the counter-terrorist campus.

  20. Overview of DOE-NE Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadasivan, Pratap

    2012-01-01

    Research objectives are: (1) Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; (2) Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy; (3) Develop Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycles; and (4) Understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The goal is to enable the use of risk information to inform NE R and D program planning. The PTRA program supports DOE-NE's goal of using risk information to inform R and D program planning. The FY12 PTRA program is focused on terrorism risk. The program includes a mix of innovative methods that support the general practice of risk assessments, and selected applications.

  1. Multimode pulse counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanzon, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A pulse counter with code conversion is described. The counter is based on the integrated circuits of direct-counting devices of medium integration. The counter ensures various modes of pulse counting depending on the logical control signals: reversible, two-channel summing, one-channel summing binary, summing with ''storage'' signal code fixation without interrupting pulse counting. Arrangement of the suggested structure as a microcircuit of medium integration might contribute to reduction in the counter type nomenclature in digital families of widely used integrated circuits

  2. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``GTSR'') and the Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``TSR'') to expand the scope of...

  3. When terrorism works: success and failure across different targets and goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Krause

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When does terrorism work? The debate over terrorism’s effectiveness has almost entirely focused on changes in state policy, but that is rarely the attacker’s main objective or the tactic’s most significant impact. This article presents a multi-level framework for assessing the effectiveness of terrorism that includes all three types of effectiveness that are explicit in its definition: the use of violence and the creation of fear (tactical by an organisation seeking to survive and strengthen itself (organisational in order to achieve political goals (strategic. The analysis sets out the key conditions under which terrorism can kill off or spread ideas, polarise societies, strengthen or destroy organisations, and instill fear in individuals, as well as situations in which success in one area complements or runs counter to achievements in another.

  4. Biotypologies of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pugliese

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP document, ‘Training Keys #581: Suicide (Homicide Bombers: Part 1,’ is designed to assist law enforcement authorities in the pre-emptive capture of prospective suicide bombers. In this essay, Pugliese focuses on the training key to examine the manner in which essentialised biotypologies are mobilised and reproduced within the context of the so-called ‘war on terror.’ The use of biotypologies by both the military and law enforcement agencies reproduces a disciplinary biopolitical regime premised on normative conceptualisations of race, gender and bodily behaviour. Pugliese discusses these regimes in the context of the US Department of Defense and its advocacy of ‘identity dominance’ through the development of new technologies such as gait signature biometrics. Situated in this context, he shows how biotypologies of targeted subjects are instrumental in fomenting cultural panics concerning the Arab and/or Muslim and/or figure ‘of Middle Eastern appearance’.

  5. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do.

  6. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do

  7. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  8. Bringing the State Back into Terrorism Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeley, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Orthodox terrorism studies tend to focus on the activities of illiberal nonstate actors against the liberal democratic states in the North. It thus excludes state terrorism, which is one of a number of repressive tools that great powers from the North have used extensively in the global South in\\ud the service of foreign policy objectives. I establish the reasons for the absence of state terrorism from orthodox accounts of terrorism and argue that critical–normative approaches could help to o...

  9. Defining and Distinguishing Traditional and Religious Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    The article of record may be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23296151.2016.1239978 thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from tr...

  10. Mass Media and Terrorism: Deconstructing the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Prayudi, Prayudi

    2008-01-01

    Issue of terrorism came to surface in this early twenty first century through a number ofacts violence that have killed hundreds and injured thousands of people. At the same time, theseevents have been dominated the mass media contents. Principally, mass media and issue ofterrorism are inseparable. This paper examines the relationship between mass media and terrorism.It is done through the deconstruction of the concept of terrorism and how terrorism isunderstood as a communicational process. ...

  11. Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.; Minkoua N., Jules R.; Asongu, Ndemaze; Tchamyou, Nina P.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of policy harmonization in the fight against terrorism in 53 African countries with data for the period 1980-2012. Four terrorism variables are used, namely: domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism dynamics. The empirical evidence is based on absolute beta catch-up and sigma convergence estimation techniques. There is substantial absence of catch-up. The lowest rate of convergence in terrorism is in landlocked countries for regressions pertaining to unclear terrorism (3.43% per annum for 174.9 years) while the highest rate of convergence is in upper-middle-income countries in domestic terrorism regressions (15.33% per annum for 39.13 years). After comparing results from the two estimation techniques, it is apparent that in the contemporary era, countries with low levels of terrorism are not catching-up their counterparts with high levels of terrorism. As a policy implication, whereas some common policies may be feasibly adopted for the fight against terrorism, the findings based on the last periodic phase (2004-2012) are indicative that country-specific policies would better pay-off in the fight against terrorism than blanket common policies. Some suggestions of measures in fighting transnational terrorism have been discussed in the light of an anticipated surge in cross-national terrorism incidences in the coming years.

  12. Countering Radicalisation of Muslim Community Opinions on the EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores selected factors influencing the process of radicalisation leading to the use of political violence and terror by the Muslim minorities living in the European Union member states. Internal and external catalysts conditioning this process and methods of their analysis have been presented. The second section examines various counter-radicalisation and de-radicalisation efforts of the EU. The authors analysed the multidimensional European Union policy in the area of counteracting radicalisation for empowering the population and member states in preventing the radicalisation and recruitment to terrorism and emphasising the role of social partners and local authorities. Also, the promotion of good practices for combating radicalisation, developed under the auspices of the multidisciplinary Radicalisation Awareness Network (RAN is presented.

  13. The Longue Duree: Indonesia’s Response to the Threat of Jihadist Terrorism 1998-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Kunkler and Alfred Stepan (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 2013), 127. 82 Andrew T. H. Tan , “Counter-terrorism in Southeast Asia Post-9/11,” in...chart=overtime&ob=GTDID&o d=desc#results-table. 88 Andrew Tan , “The Persistence of Armed Muslim Rebellion in Southeast Asia: Implications after...Counterinsurgency in Modern War, ed. Scott Nicholas Romaniuk and Stewart Tristan Webb (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2016), 127. 114 Arabinda Acharya

  14. The Dilemma of Combating Terrorism in Democratizing States: A Case Study of the Republic of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    systems, the Uganda Police Force underwent through reforms and created a new Directorate of Counter-Terrorism (CT) with Aviation, Tourism , and Crime...Paul Wilkinson,113. 178 Edward Anyoli and Farooq Kasule, “July 2010 Bomb Suspects Face Trail ,” New Vision Newspaper, November 11th 2011. 66...been noted in the way suspected terrorist trails have been handled in these 180 U.S. Department of State Bureau of Counterterrorism, “Chapter 2. Country

  15. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); Han, Soorim [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  16. Nuclear Materials Diversion Safety and the Long-term Future of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2002-01-01

    Primarily due to irresponsible cold war politics of nuclear weapon countries nuclear proliferation situation is little short of getting out of control. In addition to five nominal nuclear weapon countries there are at present at least three more nuclear weapon countries and several countries with nuclear weapon potential. Non-proliferation treaty (NPT), signed in 1970, has been recognized by most non-nuclear weapon countries as unjust and ineffective. After the initial, deliberate, nuclear weapon developments of five nominal nuclear weapon countries, subsequent paths to nuclear weapons have been preceded by nominal peaceful use of nuclear energy. Uranium enrichment installations as well as reprocessing installations in non-nuclear weapon countries are the weakest spots of fuel cycle for diversion of nuclear materials either by governments or by illicit groups. An energy scenario, which would, by the end of century, replace the large part of fossil fuels use through extension of present nuclear practices, would mean very large increase in a number of such installations, with corresponding increase of the probability of diversion of nuclear materials. Such future is not acceptable from the point of view of proliferation safety. Recent events make it clear, that it cannot be accepted from the requirements of nuclear terrorism safety either. Nuclear community should put it clearly to their respective governments that the time has come to put general interest before the supposed national interest, by placing all enrichment and reprocessing installations under full international control. Such internationalization has a chance to be accepted by non-nuclear weapon countries, only in case should it apply to nuclear weapon countries as well, without exception. Recent terrorist acts, however horrible they were, are child,s play compared with possible acts of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear energy can be made proliferation safe and diversion of nuclear materials safe, and provide

  17. New fuel for terror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelan, B.

    1994-01-01

    The first symptoms of the nuclear plague are spreading into Europe. After years of scares and false alarms, bomb-grade material on offer turned out to be fraudulent. German police have in the past four months uncovered four cases of smuggled nuclear material that could actually be used to make an atomic bombs. The former Soviet arsenal is leaking into the Est igniting fears of a new brand of nuclear horror. This article expose the facts and try to answer some of the obvious questions: who are the sellers? who are the buyers? and who can control it?. ills

  18. Presettable up-down CAMAC counter for 24 bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.; Meyer, U.; Weidhase, F.

    1976-01-01

    A module containing a presettable binary up-down CAMAC counter for 24 bit is described. The use of dataway is discussed. As an example for application in nuclear physics, control of beam position by the up-down counter is illustrated

  19. Filling Terrorism Gaps: VEOs, Evaluating Databases, and Applying Risk Terrain Modeling to Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Ross F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-29

    This paper aims to address three issues: the lack of literature differentiating terrorism and violent extremist organizations (VEOs), terrorism incident databases, and the applicability of Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) to terrorism. Current open source literature and publicly available government sources do not differentiate between terrorism and VEOs; furthermore, they fail to define them. Addressing the lack of a comprehensive comparison of existing terrorism data sources, a matrix comparing a dozen terrorism databases is constructed, providing insight toward the array of data available. RTM, a method for spatial risk analysis at a micro level, has some applicability to terrorism research, particularly for studies looking at risk indicators of terrorism. Leveraging attack data from multiple databases, combined with RTM, offers one avenue for closing existing research gaps in terrorism literature.

  20. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Gregg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  1. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results. PMID:28232755

  2. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  3. Nuclear violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid in the past decade or so to the characteristics of terrorists and their apparent goals and objectives, capabilities, and evolving strategy and tactics with respect to nuclear terrorism. In contrast, little has been said about the procedural aspects of nuclear terrorism, and even less about the way in which such endeavors can fail. This latter omission is important because it bears directly on the ability to evaluate credibly the potential for nuclear terrorism. Here, the author addresses the requirements inherent in acquiring a nuclear explosive capability by three routes: separation of plutonium from irradiated light or heavy water reactor (LWR or HWR) fuel, processing, or use of separated fissile material, and theft of a nuclear weapon. In addition, he deals with other potential acts of nuclear terrorism: sabotage of power reactors, uranium enrichment facilities and spent nuclear fuel in transport, and dispersal of radioactive materials, in particular, plutonium. He specifically does not look at the design or production of a nuclear weapon. Finally, the discussion here assumes that the terrorist is subnational; that is, a nation is not involved. Also, the discussion of subnational participation does not address the possibility of collusion with insiders

  4. Preventing radiological terrorism - opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Maegon E.

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Radiological Security (ORS), within the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, enhances global security by preventing high activity radioactive materials from use in acts of terrorism. This is a challenging task considering that high activity radiological materials are ubiquitous, constantly moving and mostly found in operational civil facilities. The implementation of the ORS mission is based on a three pillar strategy - protect, remove and reduce. ORS works both domestically and internationally with government authorities, law enforcement, and businesses to protect radioactive sources used for vital medical, research, and commercial purposes, remove and dispose of disused radioactive sources, and reduce the global reliance on radioactive sources through the promotion of viable non-isotopic alternative technologies. ORS has active engagement in all 50 States and in over 80 countries. This presentation will provide an overview of ORS protect, remove, and reduce strategy, as well as security challenges and opportunities

  5. Numerical model of thyroid counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuchta Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a numerical model of spectrometric thyroid counter, which is used for the measurements of internal contamination by in vivo method. The modeled detector is used for a routine internal exposure monitoring procedure in the Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory of National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ. This procedure may also be used for monitoring of occupationally exposed nuclear medicine personnel. The developed model was prepared using Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2011 ver. 2b.6 Apr-14 and FLAIR ver. 1.2-5 interface. It contains a scintillation NaI(Tl detector, the collimator and the thyroid water phantom with a reference source of iodine 131I. The geometry of the model was designed and a gamma energy spectrum of iodine 131I deposited in the detector was calculated.

  6. Counter-cryptanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R. Canetti; J.A. Garay

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce \\emph{counter-cryptanalysis} as a new paradigm for strengthening weak cryptographic primitives against cryptanalytic attacks. Redesigning a weak primitive to more strongly resist cryptanalytic techniques will unavoidably break backwards compatibility. Instead,

  7. A Neutron Rem Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Braun, J

    1964-01-15

    A neutron detector is described which measures the neutron dose rate in rem/h independently of the energy of the neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV. The detector consists of a BF{sub 3} proportional counter surrounded by a shield made of polyethylene and boron plastic that gives the appropriate amount of moderation and absorption to the impinging neutrons to obtain rem response. Two different versions have been developed. One model can utilize standard BF{sub 3} counters and is suitable for use in installed monitors around reactors and accelerators and the other model is specially designed for use in a portable survey instrument. The neutron rem counter for portable instruments has a sensitivity of 2.4 cps/mrem/h and is essentially nondirectional in response. With correct bias setting the counter is insensitive to gamma exposure up to 200 r/h from Co-60.

  8. US-French nuclear cooperation: its past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Tertrais, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    It is now a matter of public record that France and the United States conducted in-depth cooperation on ballistic missiles and, later, on nuclear weapons safety and security starting with the Nixon and Pompidou Administrations. The existence of a deep France-US strategic nuclear cooperation exists as a historical counter-narrative to the notion of France as a fully independent nuclear power, but also as a reluctant US strategic partner. Today, both countries conceive of their interests globally, and share similar outlooks regarding strategic challenges from countries such as Russia, China, Pakistan, Iran and North Korea. The United States and France have worked particularly closely in the P5+1 context to reach a diplomatic solution to Iran's growing nuclear capabilities. As permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, they are key partners on crisis management, regarding Libya, Syria, or Ukraine. Cooperation on counter-terrorism has been stepped up since the events of January 2015 in France. The two countries cooperate closely in Sahel and in Iraq. This short briefing provides new information on past nuclear cooperation and seeks to address the following question: given the existence of deep US-UK and UK-French nuclear ties, would enhanced US-French cooperation - the 'third side of the triangle' - be useful either strategically, in terms of enhancing the stability of deterrence, or financially? (authors)

  9. Miserere. Aesthetics of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Incampo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available I say: “Oh, what a beautiful surrealist picture!” With quite precise awareness: this páthos, these emotions of mine do not stem from our common sense. An aesthetic judgment is founded on an immediate subjective intuition: an emotion or a free feeling of a single subject towards an object. A universal sense, possibly. Some judgments of ours in ethics and in law are no different from our perceptions in front of art. It would be the same for a hypothetical sentence of the judge that concluded with these words: “I acquit Arsenio Lupin because of his magnificent handlebar moustache like that of Guy de Maupassant”. Everyone would think intuitively that it is an unfair sentence. Is there aesthetics of terror? The case that the article intends to examine is that of the famous kidnapping and murder of the Italian statesman Aldo Moro by the “Brigate Rosse” [Red Brigades] (1978. The method used here consists in studying the image of the kidnapping as iconic documentation of reality, and, above all, as an ethical-legal judgment about the terrorist crime. Moro was photographed during his kidnapping. There are at least two pictures. Both constitute an extraordinary source for a judgment on the basis of an image. In both of them, Aldo Moro is pictured in front of a Red Brigades banner during the captivity. In what sense do these pictures document an aesthetic judgment concerning the “case Moro”? The answer can be found in a remarkable iconic coincidence of these pictures with a masterpiece by Georges Rouault (Paris 1871-1958 devoted to the theme of the “Ecce Homo”. The Gospel in the “Ecce Homo” scene (John: 19, 4-5 narrates how Pontius Pilate wanted to arouse the compassion of the people with a scourging and the exposure of Jesus to the crowd. The plate under consideration is entitled “Qui ne se grime pas?” [Who does not have a painted face?] and is a key work in Rouault’s suite of prints Miserere, dated for 1923.

  10. A dynamical model of terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Udwadia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a dynamical model of terrorism. We consider the population in a given region as being made up of three primary components: terrorists, those susceptible to both terrorist and pacifist propaganda, and nonsusceptibles, or pacifists. The dynamical behavior of these three populations is studied using a model that incorporates the effects of both direct military/police intervention to reduce the terrorist population, and nonviolent, persuasive intervention to influence the susceptibles to become pacifists. The paper proposes a new paradigm for studying terrorism, and looks at the long-term dynamical evolution in time of these three population components when such interventions are carried out. Many important features—some intuitive, others not nearly so—of the nature of terrorism emerge from the dynamical model proposed, and they lead to several important policy implications for the management of terrorism. The different circumstances in which nonviolent intervention and/or military/police intervention may be beneficial, and the specific conditions under which each mode of intervention, or a combination of both, may be useful, are obtained. The novelty of the model presented herein is that it deals with the time evolution of terrorist activity. It appears to be one of the few models that can be tested, evaluated, and improved upon, through the use of actual field data.

  11. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Anderton; John Carter

    2004-01-01

    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, while basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.

  12. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Charles H.; Carter, John R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, and basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.…

  13. Terrorism and its centuries challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Drogu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to portray how to better understand the epistemic differences of terminology used for terrorism and how people’s lives have been and are still affected by this undefined violence. By collecting some diary information from 20people about their perception about terrorism attaches we will analyze some of overall countries and Saudi Arabia’s commitment in fighting this century’s challenge. Fighting radical religious beliefs in the Kingdom is an immense challenge. The true Islamic faith is in large contrast to those individuals and entities whose actions are centered on the intentional misrepresentation or the degradation of the teachings of Islam. The base of this data will indicate the progress within Saudi Arabia, its position in the world prospect and its impact in society since it remains a robust construction even now days, even thought, a lot has been done. The first signs provided in this analysis start with the beginning of the new century, when a strong attack happened just days before it began. Some important indicators such as terrorism founding, or money charities caused many changes in Saudi Arabia as a leading power, in the war against terrorism in Middle East.

  14. The nuclear deterrence in questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascallon, P.; Paris, H.

    2006-03-01

    Facing the actuality (60. birthday of Hiroshima, the Iran and south Korea atomic ambitions, the United Nations convention against the nuclear terrorism...) the authors wonder about the french nuclear deterrence. (A.L.B.)

  15. Terrorism and the Press: A Study of the War on Terrorism, Islamophobia, and Al Jazeera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the subject of terrorism neglected in Taiwan and discusses the role of news media in reporting terrorism. Based on a literature review and in-depth interview, this research looks to restore the fact of reporting on 911 and terrorism from Al Jazeera and surveys the intense relationship with U.S. This paper argues to rethink Islamophobia and terrorism by exploring the different definitions of terrorism between the West and Middle East. Arab journalists need to report on terrorism and face the danger from it.

  16. Proposal of secure camera-based radiation warning system for nuclear detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Imoto, Daisuke; Hirabayashi, Manato; Kuroki, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    Counter-terrorisms against radiological and nuclear threat are significant issues toward Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games. In terms of cost benefit, it is not easy to build a warning system for nuclear detection to prevent a Dirty Bomb attack (dispersion of radioactive materials using a conventional explosive) or a Silent Source attack (hidden radioactive materials) from occurring. We propose a nuclear detection system using the installed secure cameras. We describe a method to estimate radiation dose from noise pattern in CCD images caused by radiation. Some dosimeters under neutron and gamma-ray irradiations (0.1mSv-100mSv) were taken in CCD video camera. We confirmed amount of noise in CCD images increased in radiation exposure. The radiation detection using CMOS in secure cameras or cell phones has been implemented. However, in this presentation, we propose a warning system including neutron detection to search shielded nuclear materials or radiation exposure devices using criticality. (author)

  17. Health implications of radiological terrorism: Perspectives from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagby Moti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available September 11 th events taught us, members of the medical community, that we need to prepared for the worst. Nuclear terror is no longer science fiction. Radiological weapons of mass terror come in three flavors: The first one is nuclear. Since 1992, there have been six known cases of highly enriched uranium or plutonium being intercepted by authorities as it passed in or out of the former Soviet Union. Constructing a nuclear fission weapon requires high-level expertise, substantial facilities, and lots of money. All three of which would be difficult, although not impossible, for a terrorist group to pull off without state support. However, terrorists could carry out potential mass destruction without sophisticated weaponry by targeting nuclear facilities using conventional bombs or hijacked aircrafts. Terror attacks could also carry out mass panic and radioactive contamination of people and environment by dispersal of radioactive materials with or without the use of conventional explosive devices. Most medical and para-medical personnel are not familiar with CBRN terror and radiation casualties. To lessen the impact of those potential attacks and provide care for the greatest number of potential survivors, the community as a whole - and the medical community in particular - must acquire the knowledge of the various signs and symptoms of exposure to irradiation and radioactive contamination as well as have a planned response once such an attack has occurred. Based on knowledge of radiation hazards, medical emergency planers should analyze the risks of each scenario, offer feasible solutions and translate them into internationally accepted plans that would be simple to carry out once such an attack took place. The planned response should be questioned and tested by drills. Those drills should check the triage, evacuation routes, decontamination posts, evacuation centers and receiving hospitals. It is crucial that the drill will consist of

  18. Trading Justice for Security? UN Anti-Terrorism, Due Process Rights, and the Role of the Judiciary: Lessons for policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Draghici, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this policy paper is to highlight the role\\ud of the judiciary in reconciling counter-terrorism strategies\\ud with human rights standards. Indeed, judicial assent\\ud to the excesses of policy-makers risks deepening the\\ud human rights crisis caused by the fight against apocalyptic\\ud terrorism. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001\\ud terrorist attacks against the United States, the political\\ud climate has been dominated by security concerns. The\\ud United States has invo...

  19. Scintillation counter based radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Hyun

    2009-02-01

    environmental radiation. The operation mechanism is quite simple. First step is scintillation in scintillator. Second step is conversion from photon to charge in photodiode. Third step is signal amplification in charge amplifier. Fourth step is pulse shaping for discrimination in shaping amp. Fifth step is reduction of noise pulse in discriminator. Final step is pulse counting in counter. This new radiation detection system can give reliable radiation dose data as low cost. So we can supply this new radiation dosimeter to the area near radiation and nuclear facilities. I will hope this new radiation dosimeter can contribute to the public acceptance on radiation use and nuclear facilities

  20. 78 FR 16698 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and... notice is also soliciting comments concerning the Information Collection Request, Chemical Facility Anti...

  1. Radiological terrorism: problems of prevention and minimization of consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, Leonid; Arutyunyan, Rafael; Pavlovski, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a review of the key factors defining the extent of potential hazard caused by ionizing radiation sources for the purpose of radiological terrorism and the key areas of activities in the field of counteractions and minimization of possible consequences of such acts. The importance of carrying out system analysis of the practical experience of response to radiation accidents and elimination of their consequences is emphasized. The need to develop scientific approaches, methods and software to realistically analyze possible scenarios and predict the scale of consequences of the acts of terrorism involving radioactive materials is pointed out. The importance of improvement of radioactive materials accounting, control and monitoring systems, especially in non-nuclear areas, as well as improvement of the legal and regulatory framework governing all aspects of radiation source application in the national economy is of particular importance. (author)

  2. Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    HV6430 .B55T36 2006) Schweitzer , Yoram. Female Suicide Bombers: Dying for Equality? Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University, Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies...Mauroni, Albert J. "The Future of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Defense." Joint Force Quarterly, no. 44 (1st Quarter 2007): 74-78...http://www.ndu.edu/inss/Press/ jfq_pages/editions/i44/24.pdf Mauroni, Albert J. "The New Threat of Unconventional Warfare." Joint Force Quarterly, no

  3. The potentialities of terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    The potential hazard of terrorists obtaining plutonium and building a nuclear device is examined within the perspective of other terrorist activities. Various sources are quoted on the possibility of a terrorist group having the resources, including skilled personnel, to build a bomb. The potential damage engendered by such a device is hypothesized to be less than that of many other terrorist actions which could be easily accomplished. Other activities, poison or nerve gas, gasoline dropped on a football stadium, destruction of a large dam, poisoning food or water supply and armed action against a tanker carrying liquefied natural gas, are cited as examples of terrorist incidents more devastating than building a crude plutonium bomb. Resistance to blackmail strategies is seen as the only reliable way to thwart their activities in the long run. Although plutonium must be guarded carefully, it is demonstrated as being far from the only or most devastating means of blackmail. It is concluded that the threat of terrorist activities is being used by anti-nuclear groups to support emotionally based dislike of nuclear power. (J.T.A.)

  4. Current Issues Concerning Korea’s Anti-Terrorism Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. Laitin, David. Hegemony and Culture : Politics and Religious Change Among the Yoruba . Chicago...such improvements might take. Definitions Terrorism: Definitions of terrorism differ among nations and organizations, because the social and cultural

  5. Approaches to Political Violence and Terrorism in former Yugoslavia

    OpenAIRE

    Bieber, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Discusses political violence and terrorism in Yugoslavia caused by ethnic nationalism in the 1990s. Kinds of political conflict; Comparison of political violence with war and terrorism in Yugoslavia; Concept of terrorism and its presence in Southeastern Europe.

  6. Dismantling Terrorism: Developing Actionable Solutions for Today's Plague of Violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Frances K

    2007-01-01

    .... The bibliography is divided into the following sections: causes and origins of terrorism, geographical distribution of terrorist groups, terrorist financing, terrorist groups and networks, the psychology of terrorism, prevention of terrorism, remedies...

  7. How terrorism news reports increase prejudice against outgroups: A terror management account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.; Bushman, B.J.; Bezemer, M.D.; Kerkhof, P.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies tested predictions derived from terror management theory (TMT) about the effects of terrorism news on prejudice. Exposure to terrorism news should confront receivers with thoughts about their own death, which, in turn, should increase prejudice toward outgroup members. Non-Muslim

  8. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  9. International terrorism in the age of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Ece

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the concept of terrorism in the age of globalization. Terrorism, which has been motivated by ideological, religious and national reasons, has added to its concern issues like inequality, injustice, dissatisfaction and antiglobalist movements, due to development and technology in the world. In order to clarify this shift in the policy, the concepts of terrorism and globalization are first explained as distinct issues...

  10. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  11. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-01-01

    The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the ext...

  12. A social-cognitive perspective of terrorism risk perception and individual response in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E C; Lemyre, Louise

    2009-09-01

    The volume of research on terrorism has increased since the events of September 11, 2001. However, efforts to develop a contextualized model incorporating cognitive, social-contextual, and affective factors as predictors of individual responses to this threat have been limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a series of hypotheses drawn from such a model that was generated from a series of interviews with members of the Canadian public. Data of a national survey on perceived chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) terrorism threat and preparedness were analyzed. Results demonstrated that worry and behavioral responses to terrorism, such as individual preparedness, information seeking, and avoidance behaviors, were each a function of cognitive and social-contextual factors. As an affective response, worry about terrorism independently contributed to the prediction of behavioral responses above and beyond cognitive and social-contextual factors, and partially mediated the relationships of some of these factors with behavioral responses. Perceived coping efficacy emerged as the cognitive factor associated with the most favorable response to terrorism. Hence, findings highlight the importance of fostering a sense of coping efficacy to the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving individual preparedness for terrorism.

  13. An efficient anticoincidence counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This scintillation counter (about 25 cm diameter) was prepared at CERN for an experiment at the Saclay 600 MeV electron linac studying molecular processes originated in liquid hydrogen by muons. The counter is meant to surround the target and detect charged particles emerging from the hydrogen. The experiment was a CERN-Saclay collaboration which used the linac so as to take advantage of the time structure of the electron beam(see CERN Courier Sep 1977 and J. Bardin et al. Phys. Lett. B104 (1981) 320)

  14. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  15. Obamas Fortsatte Krig mod Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    2013-01-01

    Kronikken argumenterer for at den type overvågningsskandaler som er fulgt i kølvandet på Edward Snowdens afsløringer blot er et symptom på den nye fase af krigen mod terror som Obama administrationen har ønsket at føre USA ind i. Den nye fase vil være præget af mere efterretningsvirksomhed snarere...

  16. Technology Against Terrorism: Structuring Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    nesses (e.g., Ford, Coca - Cola , American Airlines, " Destruction of Pan American Flight 103 over American Express, Holiday Inn, Citibank, ChaseDesruin...network, involving links between many clandestine, undeclared war. governments. Cases in which a consortium of gov- State sponsorship refers to the...Syria has setup centers constitutes concrete and convincing evidence of in Syria itself, in Lebanon’s Beka’a Valley (which is sponsorship of terrorism.𔄁

  17. National Counterterrorism Center: 2007 Report on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...." While NCTC keeps statistics on the annual number of incidents of "terrorism," its ability to track the specific groups responsible for each attack involving killings, kidnappings, and injuries...

  18. The failure of international action against terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Progress on the so-called 'War on Terrorism' is slow. There is no agreed definition of terrorism and no consistent government policy in respect of it. Consideration of terrorism ignores the role of some governments in what could be regarded as terrorist activity, often with the connivance of others for reasons of political expediency. The special case of suicide terrorism is discussed in detail. It is concluded that the world is now exposed to a new form of warfare, and that even with new military thinking this could continue for perhaps decades to come.

  19. Terrorism: some philosophical and ethical dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov, Trajce; Unsal, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Philosophers weren`t thinking a lot about terrorism before the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001. Or even when they were thinking the main concern was how to deal with terrorism. But after this attack terrorism was high on the philosophical agenda mainly manifested as an ethical problem. The key concern was: can terrorism be morally justified? That is the issue we are dealing in this paper too. But, the answer of this question largely depends on the treatment of t...

  20. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ASPECTS OF DEALING WITH THE CONTEMPORARY TERRORISM THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Poposka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent challenges in international security posed by two terrorist organizations, Al Qaeda and ISIS, have highlighted an urgent domestic and foreign policy challenge. Terrorism has been, for more than a decade, top headline in the world media, and the cost of terrorist activities is expressed in numerous human lives and enormous material damage. Yet to date, international organizations and governments have not been successful in the attempt to find a common definition or uniform approach. Up to now, the approaches towards terrorist activities differ from case to case. There is no single legal regime to deal with terrorist activities, and the legal regime is what gives the answer and the framework for the counter-terrorist activities of the security forces, in order to be able to deal with the threat. This paper will attempt to answer at least some of the dilemmas.

  1. Terrorism. January 1970-September 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning political, psychological, and sociological studies of international and domestic terrorism, including activities in the Middle East, Europe, and North and South America. Terrorism and countermeasures with respect to diplomacy, intelligence, law enforcement, military operations, and security systems are considered. Nuclear materials management regarding terrorist activities is also included. (This updated bibliography contains 188 citations, 21 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported. (U.S.)

  3. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported

  4. Whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, G A; Kosterev, V V

    1975-01-24

    A counter for detecting radiation of a man (CRM) is described, which consists of two measuring converters and a recording device. In order to obtain data on spatial distribution of a gamma-radiating nuclide studied, a fixed collimator and a mobile coder made of separate slit elements are placed between the measuring converters and an object investigated.

  5. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  6. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  7. Terrorism and the Press: A Study of the War on Terrorism, Islamophobia, and Al Jazeera

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Chen Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the subject of terrorism neglected in Taiwan and discusses the role of news media in reporting terrorism. Based on a literature review and in-depth interview, this research looks to restore the fact of reporting on 911 and terrorism from Al Jazeera and surveys the intense relationship with U.S. This paper argues to rethink Islamophobia and terrorism by exploring the different definitions of terrorism between the West and Middle East. Arab journalists need to report on te...

  8. Design of multifunction anti-terrorism robotic system based on police dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bo; Liu, Suju; Xu, Jun; Li, Dongjie

    2007-11-01

    Aimed at some typical constraints of police dogs and robots used in the areas of reconnaissance and counterterrorism currently, the multifunction anti-terrorism robotic system based on police dog has been introduced. The system is made up of two parts: portable commanding device and police dog robotic system. The portable commanding device consists of power supply module, microprocessor module, LCD display module, wireless data receiving and dispatching module and commanding module, which implements the remote control to the police dogs and takes real time monitor to the video and images. The police dog robotic system consists of microprocessor module, micro video module, wireless data transmission module, power supply module and offence weapon module, which real time collects and transmits video and image data of the counter-terrorism sites, and gives military attack based on commands. The system combines police dogs' biological intelligence with micro robot. Not only does it avoid the complexity of general anti-terrorism robots' mechanical structure and the control algorithm, but it also widens the working scope of police dog, which meets the requirements of anti-terrorism in the new era.

  9. It’s About the Group, Not God: Social Causes and Cures for Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mink

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay challenges assumptions about the root causes of jihadist terrorism that prioritize political, religious, or economic factors. Drawing on the author’s anecdotal experience interviewing hundreds of accused jihadist terrorists, along with survey data collected from subject matter experts in countering violent extremism (CVE, the essay offers an interpretation for terrorism’s causes and cures that emphasizes social factors. Contrary to narratives popular in the U.S. – both in media and government circles – the lure of terrorism is not a result of political marginalization, economic disadvantage, or even religious indoctrination. It is foremost a sociological phenomenon, created by individuals who seek the insulating security of group identity and affiliation. The real reason why people are drawn to join terrorist groups is the innate need for camaraderie, identity, and a sense of belonging – the pursuit of social satisfaction, not the expression of political or economic frustration, much less the fulfilment of a religious imperative. CVE research that exclusively focuses on the political, economic, or religious causes of terrorism will, at best, over-appraise their significance, and, at worst, distract policymakers from understanding more influential motivators and responding to them accordingly. New directions for research lie in further exploring the sociological underpinnings of jihadist terrorism, as well as validating the effectiveness of social-centred CVE policies already in place.

  10. Proportional counter end effects eliminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekins, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved gas-filled proportional counter which includes a resistor network connected between the anode and cathode at the ends of the counter in order to eliminate ''end effects'' is described. 3 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  11. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. ... medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. Taking OTC medicines still has risks. Some interact ...

  12. The Politics of Terror: Rereading "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Courtney B.

    2004-01-01

    This article claims that J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series, with its use of magic, frightening storylines, and character ambiguity is beneficial to children who are dealing with issues related to terror and terrorism. The author explains that the scenarios presented in Rowling's series teach children strategies for coping with both physical…

  13. War on Terror - war on democracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak......En sammenlignende analyse af dokumentarfilm fra USA, England og Danmark som har behandlet krigen mod terror og krigene i Afghanistan og Irak...

  14. Dirty hands : Government torture and terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daxecker, U.

    2017-01-01

    Existing research suggests that the use of harsh repression can exacerbate the incidence and duration of terrorism. Micro- and macro-level analyses have shown that coercive government responses to terrorism can radicalize sympathizers, increase recruitment, and undermine community support for

  15. Terrorism and poverty: double trouble for macroeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates poverty and terrorism as allies in hindering economic growth in African countries. This study uses data for 22 African countries from 1970 to 2013 i.e. 44 years. Data for terrorism, poverty and national income is taken from GTD and WDI. Panel cointegration techniques of dynamic fixed effect, mean ...

  16. Anti-Romani Terrorism in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareš Miroslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods. Focusing on events in both Western and Eastern Europe, the article analyses and compares the most significant terrorist acts against the Roma of recent years. It concludes that anti-Romani terrorism is heterogeneous in terms of tactics, strategies, and ideological justification, yet can usually be subsumed into the broadly conceived category of far-right terrorism. The variety of attacks suggests that terrorist acts are an offshoot of the broad spectrum of anti-Romani activity, and are influenced by contemporary trends in inter-ethnic violence.

  17. Analysing Terrorism from a Systems Thinking Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schoenenberger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.

  18. NRC Response to an Act or Threat of Terrorism at an NRC-Licensed Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank Congel

    2000-01-01

    The mandated response to a threat or act of terrorism at a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility was examined through a tabletop exercise in May 2000 and a limited field exercise in August 2000. This paper describes some of the new issues addressed and lessons learned from those exercises

  19. Bush will tour Illionois lab working to fight terrorism Argonne develops chemical detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "A chemical sensor that detects cyanide gas, a biochip that can determine the presence of anthrax, and a portable device that finds concealed nuclear materials are among the items scientists at Argonne National Laboratory are working on to combat terrorism" (1/2 page).

  20. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...