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Sample records for cotton seed oil

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation Doses on Some Chemical Characteristics of Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Cotton Seeds c.v. Giza 85 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were exposed to gamma irradiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy to improve some chemical characteristics of cotton seed oil i.e. saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, gossypol and βsitosterol that were bound oil. The presented study showed that, the saturated fatty acids; lauric, palmitic and stearic increased when the cotton seeds were exposed to gamma irradiation doses of 0.5 up to 1.5 kGy, On the other hand, arachidic acid content decreased in all the irradiated treatments compared with untreated cotton seed. The unsaturated fatty acid oleic was increased in irradiated cotton seed samples compared with untreated one, while linoleic, the major unsaturated fatty acid decreased in irradiated cotton seed oil than untreated seeds. Gossypol and βsitosterol, bound oil, in irradiated cotton seeds increased gradually with gamma irradiated doses compared with untreated control samples

  2. Seed prepare for oil content determination by NMR method in six cotton varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondim-Tomaz, Rose Marry Araujo; Erismann, Norma de Magalhaes; Sabino, Nelson Paulieri; Kondo, Julio Isao; Cia, Edivaldo; Azzini, Anisio; Soave, Daise

    1998-01-01

    Three comparative methods (chemical seed-delinting with sulphuric acid solution, flaming and seed with linter) to prepare cotton seeds for oil determination by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique were considered. The chemical treatment with sulphuric acid was the best as long the linter interference was eliminated. The seed oil contents were determined by the NMR method in six cotton varieties from the national variety test. The IAPAR (Instituto Agronomico do Parana) 71 PR3 and IAC (Instituto Agronomico de Campinas) 20 varieties presented the highest oil content followed by the CNPA 7H, CS 50, IAC 22 and CNPA Precoce 2. (author)

  3. Genetic variation and heritability for cotton seed, fiber and oil traits in gossypium hirsutum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.U.; Farhatullah; Batool, S.; Makhdoom, K.; Marwat, K.B.; Hassan, G.; Ahmad, W.; Khan, H.U.

    2010-01-01

    The research work pertaining to the study of genetic variability, heritability, genetic gain and correlation for cottonseed, fiber and cottonseed oil % in Gossypium hirsutum cultivars was conducted during 2005 at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Analysis of variance manifested highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits except seeds per locule. Genetic potential range of eight cotton cultivars for different parameters was recorded i.e. seeds locule-1 (6.33 to 6.60), seeds boll-1 (26.10 to 28.47), seed index (8.61 to 9.69 g), lint index (5.35 to 6.05 g), lint % (35.17 to 38.13 %), seed cotton yield (1200 to 2450 kg ha/sup -1/) and cottonseed oil % (27.52 to 30.15%). Genetic variances were found almost greater than the environmental variances for all the traits except seeds locule-1 and seed index. High broad sense heritability and selection response were also formulated for seeds boll-1 (0.67, 0.84), seed index (0.77, 0.47 g), lint index (0.96, 0.33 g), lint % (0.96, 1.66 %), seed cotton yield (0.98, 643.16 kg) and cottonseed oil % (0.87, 1.28 %), respectively. Correlation of yield with other traits was found positive for majority of traits except seeds locule-1 and cotton seed oil %. Seed cotton yield is our ultimate goal in growing cotton besides lint %. Highest seed cotton yield was recorded in CIM-499 followed by CIM-473, CIM-496 and CIM-506 and were also found as the second and third top scoring genotypes for seeds per boll, seed index, lint % and cottonseed oil %. Cultivar SLH-279 performed better for lint index, lint % and oil %. This type of correlation is rarely found and ultra desirable by the cotton breeders and a little genetic gain in seed and lint traits, and oil content is a great accomplishment. (author)

  4. Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cotton seed oil and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Okechukwu Onukwuli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced through transesterification of refined cotton seed oil with methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH as a catalyst using batch mode. The physicochemical properties of cotton seed oil and biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine was characterized through ASTM standards for fuel tests. The functional groups of the biodiesel were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of key parameters like reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst concentration and methanol/oil molar ratio were determined using batch mode. These process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The significance of the different process parameters and their combined effects on the transesterification efficiency were established through a full factorial central composite design. The results obtained are in good agreement with published data for other vegetable oil biodiesel as well as various international standards for biodiesel fuel. An optimum yield of 96% was achieved with optimal conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 55 °C; time, 60 min; and catalyst concentration, 0.6%. This investigation has shown that cotton seed oil from Nigeria can be used to produce biodiesel.

  5. Bleaching of Neutral Cotton Seed Oil Using Organic Activated Carbon in a Batch System: Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba Chetima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the processing of cotton and neem seeds to obtain oil for diverse uses, enormous quantities of seed husk are generated as waste, which when not properly disposed of, poses environmental problems. One way of reducing this waste is to use it for the production of activated carbon (AC for its multiple applications. In this work, activated carbon was produced from cotton and neem seed husks by carbonization followed by acid activation. The prepared ACs were characterized for its porosity and surface properties as well as for its ability to bleach neutral cotton seed oil. The prepared ACs are very efficient in the decoloration process, as they removed about 96–98% of the pigments compared to 98.4% removal with commercial bleaching earth. Temperature had a pronounced effect on the bleaching of neutral cotton seed oil. Maximum adsorption was observed at 60 °C for a contact time of 45 min. The adsorption kinetics were modelled by the intra-particle and the pseudo-second order equations while the adsorption isotherms followed the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. It is concluded that the organic ACs are efficient in pigment removal from neutral cotton seed oil and therefore are potential bleaching agents for the vegetable oil industry.

  6. Nitrogen, potassium and plant growth retardant effects on oil content and quality of cotton seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkassas, A. R.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field experiment was to investigate the effect of nitrogen, potassium and a plant growth retardant (PGR on seed yield and protein and oil content of an Egyptian cotton cultivar (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Treatments consisted of: soil application of N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 in the form ammonium nitrate, foliar application of potassium (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 as potassium sulfate and foliar application of mepiquat chloride (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g active ingredient ha-1 on seed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of Egyptian cotton cultivar “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense. After applying the higher N-rate, foliar application of potassium and plant growth retardant MC significantly increased seed yield and the content of seed protein and oil, seed oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter and total unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic. In contrast, oil acid and saponification value as well as total saturated fatty acids were decreased by foliar application of potassium and MC. The seed oil content was decreased with soil application of N.El objetivo de los experimentos de campo fue investigar el efecto del nitrogeno, potasio y retardantes del crecimiento de plantas sobre el contenido en proteínas y aceite de una semilla de algodón cultivada en Egipto (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación en suelo de N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 en forma de nitrato amónico, aplicación foliar de K (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 como sulfato potásico y aplicación foliar de cloruro de m mepiquat (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g de ingrediente activo ha-1 sobre un cultivar de algodón «Giza 86» (Gossypium barbadense. La aplicación de la cantidad más elevada de N, unida a la aplicación de potasio y del retardador MC, aumentó significativamente el rendimiento en semilla, así como el contenido en proteinas y en aceite. Respecto al aceite, aumentó el índice de refracción, la fracci

  7. Biodiesel production from waste cotton seed oil using low cost catalyst: Engine performance and emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duple Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid methyl esters from waste cotton seed oil through transesterification was reported. The GC–MS analysis of WCCO oil was studied and the major fatty acids were found to be palmitic acid (27.76% and linoleic acid (42.84%. The molecular weight of the oil was 881.039 g/mol. A maximum yield of 92% biodiesel was reported when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading rate were 60 °C, 50 min, 12:1 and 3% (wt.%, respectively. The calcined egg shell catalyst was prepared and characterized. Partial purification of the fatty acid methyl esters was proposed for increasing the purity of the biodiesel and better engine performance. The flash point and the fire point of the biodiesel were found to be 128 °C and 136 °C, respectively. The Brake thermal efficiency of WCCO B10 biodiesel was 26.04% for maximum load, specific fuel consumption for diesel was 0.32 kg/kW h at maximum load. The use of biodiesel blends showed a reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions and a marginal increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions improved emission characteristics.

  8. Effect of Refining Processes on Magnitude and Nature of Malathion and Carbofuran Residues in Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.; Mahdy, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton seeds obtained from 14 C-carbofuran or 14 C-malathion-treated plants contained 0.25% and 0.11% of the originally applied radioactivity, respectively. The concentration of malathion residues in oil, methanol soluble and in the seed cake amounted to 0.94, 2.6 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. Commercial processing procedures led to a gradual decrease in the total amount of 14 C-residues in oils with aged residues as well as in oil fortified with the radiolabelled insecticides. The refined oil contained only about 20% of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residue in processed oil contained malathion, malathion monocarboxylic acid and alpha-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithio)-propionic acid. The concentration of 14 C-carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil, methanol extract and cake was 1.7, 12.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The main residues in the oil were carbofuran and its phenol. The methanol solubles contained conjugated metabolites, which upon hydrolysis gave 3-hydroxy-carbofuran as a major product. Refinement reduced the residue in oil to 0.26 ppm. The residue in refined oil contained carbofuran and carbofuran phenol as main constituents together with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxy- and 3-keto carbofuran

  9. Effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of Beech (Fagus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مریم قربانی

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of beech according to EN113 and ASTM-D1037 standards respectively. The heat treatment with raw cotton seed oil was carried out in the cylinder at the temperatures of 130 and 170oC for 30 and 60 minutes. Oil uptake, density, volumetric swelling, water absorption and weight loss exposed to decay were measured. Oil uptake at 30 and 60 min were determined 10.5 and 13.3 Kg/cm3 respectively. Oil-heat treated samples at 30min and 130°C indicated the maximum density with 87.7% increase. According to results, oil-heat treatment improved water repellency and dimensional stability. Water absorption in 130°C and 60 minutes decreased 76% in comparison with control. Decay resistance of oil soaked samples for 60minutes was 80.2% more than control samples. Oil-heat treatment compared with oil treatment improved decay resistance, this effect was significant at 30 min. The temperature rise of oil–heat treatment at 30 minutes improved decay resistance, but the improvement under same level of temperature with increase time was not significant.

  10. Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-lwayzy, Saddam H; Yusaf, Talal; Jensen, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

  11. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals determine the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a two-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines. Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source to seed (sink. This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for

  12. RNA interference of GhPEPC2 enhanced seed oil accumulation and salt tolerance in Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yumei; Cui, Yupeng; Liu, Zhengjie; Hua, Jinping

    2018-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) mainly produces oxaloacetic acid for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we reported that GhPEPC2 silencing with PEPC2-RNAi vector could regulate oil and protein accumulation in cottonseeds. In GhPEPC2 transgenic plants, PEPCase activities in immature embryos were significantly reduced, and the oil content in seed kernel was increased 7.3 percentages, whereas total proteins decreased 5.65 percentages. Compared to wild type, agronomical traits of transgenic plant were obviously unaffected. Furthermore, gene expression profile of GhPEPC2 transgenic seeds were investigated using RNA-seq, most lipid synthesis related genes were up-regulated, but amino acid metabolic related genes were down-regulated. In addition, the GhPEPC2 transgenic cotton seedlings were stressed using sodium salts at seedling stage, and the salt tolerance was significantly enhanced. Our observations of GhPEPC2 in cotton would shade light on understanding the regulation of oil content, protein accumulation and salt tolerance enhancement in other plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  14. Seed prepare for oil content determination by NMR method in six cotton varieties; Preparo de sementes para determinacao do teor de oleo pelo metodo de RMN em seis variedades de algodoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim-Tomaz, Rose Marry Araujo; Erismann, Norma de Magalhaes; Sabino, Nelson Paulieri; Kondo, Julio Isao; Cia, Edivaldo; Azzini, Anisio [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Algodao e Fibrosas Diversas]. E-mail: gondim@cec.iac.br; Soave, Daise [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Genetica, Biologia Molecular e Fitoquimica

    1998-07-01

    Three comparative methods (chemical seed-delinting with sulphuric acid solution, flaming and seed with linter) to prepare cotton seeds for oil determination by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique were considered. The chemical treatment with sulphuric acid was the best as long the linter interference was eliminated. The seed oil contents were determined by the NMR method in six cotton varieties from the national variety test. The IAPAR (Instituto Agronomico do Parana) 71 PR3 and IAC (Instituto Agronomico de Campinas) 20 varieties presented the highest oil content followed by the CNPA 7H, CS 50, IAC 22 and CNPA Precoce 2. (author)

  15. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  16. Research within the coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, oil, feed and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.

    1981-06-01

    14 C-methyl and 14 C-ring-labelled carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methyl carbamate) were used to study the fate and magnitude of the insecticide in the plant and cotton seed products. Under conditions of actual agricultural practice, 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 mg/kg of 14 C-residues were found in the seed, crude oil and cake respectively. In oil, the residue was resolved into 4 compounds, 2 identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues from the soil did not exceed 0.3 mg/kg after the first week and declined to 0.1 mg/kg after 5 weeks. Parallel experiments were conducted under field conditions using 14 C-phenyl leptophos (4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl methyl phenyl phosphorothioate). Leptophos residues were determined in the cotton seed products during 1975, 1976 and 1977, with mean values for leptophos residues in the cotton seed, crude oil and cake of 0.26, 1.10 and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively. Experiments with non-labelled monocrotophos [3-(dimethoxy phosphinyloxy)-N-methyl cis-crotonamide] gave residues of 0.30, 1.56 and 0.02 mg/kg in the seed, crude oil and cake, respectively. Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined by a colorimetric method. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. Storage of corn oil for one year had essentially no effect on the concentration of carbaryl residues under laboratory conditions (presumably similar to regular storage conditions). An overall effect of simulated commercial processing procedures (saponification, deodorization and winterization) gave a loss of 70% of the original carbaryl in the oil. Commercial cooking procedures for national popular dishes resulted in near-complete elimination of carbaryl residues (up to 98%). Frying onions and potatoes in carbaryl-spiked corn oil for 3 min. up to 210 0 C resulted in 55-60% loss of the residue

  17. Biosorption of eriochrome black t and astrazon fggl blue using almond and cotton seed oil cake biomass in a batch mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safa, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the present research study, the biosorption of Eriochrome Black T (EBT) and Astrazon FGGL blue (A-FGGL) onto novel biomasses Almond (Prunus dulcis) oil cake and Cotton seed oil cake respectively was investigated in the batch mode using different process parameters like pH, particle size, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature. Maximum biosorption capacity was observed at pH 3 for EBT onto almond oil cake and pH2 for Astrazon FGGL blue onto cotton seed oil cake.The biosorption capacity was efficient at the smallest particle size of biosorbent. The amount of dye sorbed (mg/g) decreased with the decrease in biosorbent dose and increased with increase in initial dye concentration and temperature. Optimum contact time for equilibrium to achieve was found to be 120 and 180 minutes for EBT and A-FGGL blue, respectively. The Langmuir isotherm model was best fitted to experimental data. The biosorption followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model suggesting a chemisorption mechanism. The positive value of deltaH showed the endothermic nature of the process. In this research, the influence of electrolytes, heavy metals and surfactants on the removal of dyes was also examined. (author)

  18. Evaluating cotton seed gland initiation by microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands and helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. However, gossypol is toxic to many animals, so the seed is used mainly in cattle feed, as ruminants are tolerant to the effects of gossypol. In order to develop strat...

  19. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  20. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION... Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31 following...

  1. Zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Rakhimova, M.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.; Nikolaeva, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Present article is devoted to zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds. The influence of zinc coordination compounds with physiologically active ligands on germinative energy and seed germination of cotton was studied. The biogical activity and effectiveness of zinc comprising coordination compounds at application them for humidification of cotton seeds was studied as well.

  2. Cotton for removal of aquatic oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, H.W.; Fedler, C.B.; Heintz, C.E.; Nash, P.T.; Carr, D.L.; Lu, M.

    1992-01-01

    Raw cotton has considerable potential for selective removal of spilled oil and oil products from surface waters, since the natural waxes on the raw cotton make it preferentially oil wet. This potential was recognized in the early seventies at Texas Tech University. More recently other research workers have considered cotton as an adsorbent for spilled oil. The adsorbent market is now dominated by synthetic materials, such as air-blown polypropylene fiber, inorganic clays, and recycled paper and paper products. This paper further examines the potential of cotton in relation to these other adsorbents. Emphasis is placed on the potential for complete biodegradation of oil-soaked cotton adsorbents as a means avoiding the expense for incineration and/or the long-term environmental risk associated with placing the used adsorbents in landfills

  3. Co-solvents transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel: Effects of reaction conditions on quality of fatty acids methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassan, Y.; Kumar, N.; Bugaje, I.M.; Pali, H.S.; Kathkar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using co-solvent systems reduce reaction time by 60%. • Only small volume of co-solvent is required to improve the process. • Greater than 90% yields were obtained within the first 10 min. • Physico-chemical and fuel properties of FAMEs were within standard limits. • Acetone was found to be the best co-solvent for the transesterification. - Abstract: Solvent Technology, is gaining the interest of researchers in improving transesterification process recently. Transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel using different mixtures of methanol with Diethyl Ether (DEE), Dichlorobenzene (CBN) or Acetone (ACT) co-solvent systems was conducted. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as the catalyst all through. The reaction conditions optimized include; the molar ratio of co-solvent in methanol, reaction temperature and time. The catalyst concentration was also optimized. The optimization was based on the percentage yields of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs) produced. In addition, the effects of co-solvent systems on physico-chemical properties (Acid value and fatty acids composition) and fuel properties (viscosity, density and calorific value) were investigated as well. The result obtained, indicated 10% (v/v) addition of co-solvents CBN and ACT in methanol was the optimal volume. The optimal reaction temperature was 55 ° 0 C for 10 min when the catalyst concentration of 0.75% (w/w) weight of oil was used. Fuel properties were within the acceptable limit of ASTM and not significantly affected by the co-solvent systems except for the calorific value. It was concluded that the addition of co-solvent reduced the reaction time and improved some fuel properties of the biodiesel produced

  4. Carbaryl and monocrotophos residues in cottonseed products. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, F.E.

    1981-03-01

    Cotton plants of Deltapine variety were treated with carbaryl (naphthyl-1- 14 C), (6.7 mg/plant) three times at two week intervals. Seeds were collected at maturity and 14 C-residues were determined in the oil and cake by standard procedures. 14 C-carbaryl and/or metabolite residues were 0.42 and 0.15 mg/kg in the crude oil and cake respectively. Parallel studies were conducted with spectrophotometric techniques using p-nitrobenzene diazonium fluoborate as chromogenic agent. Applications were made three times at a rate of 14 mg/plant. Residues in the crude oil and cake were found to be 0.83 and 0.04 mg/kg respectively. The higher residue level in the oil - compared to the radiometric technique - probably relates to higher application rates. Cotton plants of Deltapine variety were treated with (N-methyl- 14 C) monocrotophos (0.09 mg/plant) three times at two week intervals, as recommended for agricultural practice. Seeds were collected at maturity and standard procedures for extraction, clean-up and paper and thin-layer chromatography were adopted for the ultimate determination of residues in seed, oil and cake. Parallel experiments, using spectrophotometric techniques, were made for comparison. 14 C-residues of monocrotophos and/or metabolites in cottonseed, crude oil and cake were found to be 0.06, 0.12 and 0.05 mg/kg respectively. Corresponding data obtained by non-nuclear techniques were 0.18, 0.42 and 0.15 mg/kg respectively. The discrepancy between the two sets of results may be related to different rates of application: 0.3 mg and 0.09 mg/plant for non-nuclear and radiometric techniques respectively. Among the major metabolites identified in the cottonseed were dimethyl phosphate and O-desmethyl monocrotophos. N-demethylated monocrotophos and sugar conjugates were also identified

  5. Oil seed marketing prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  6. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on fatty acids of tomato seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Raouf, M.S.; Morad, M.M.; Rady, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Since gamma irradiation of tomatoes is investigated as a tool for increasing tomato shelf-lefe, in this study the tomato seed oil produced from irradiated tomatoes was compared with that produced from industrial tomato seeds and with cotton seeds. Fatty acid contents of tomato seed oil, produced from industrial tomato seed waste and from tomato seeds (Variety Ace), were found nearly the same as in the edible cotton seed oil. Hence, both tomato seed oils may be considered as an additional source of essential fatty acids especially linoleic. Gamma irradiation doses ranged from 50-200 Krad had no significant effect on total saturated and total unsaturated fatty acids. 200 Krad led to significant increases in lenolic acid on the account of insignificant decrease in palmatic acid. Essentail and non essential amino acids of tomato seed meal seem to be equivalent to these of cotton seed meal. This suggests the possible use of tomato seed meal in animal feeding

  8. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  9. Bio-oil production from cotton stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jilu; Yi Weiming; Wang Nana

    2008-01-01

    Cotton stalk was fast pyrolyzed at temperatures between 480 deg. C and 530 deg. C in a fluidized bed, and the main product of bio-oil is obtained. The experimental result shows that the highest bio-oil yield of 55 wt% was obtained at 510 deg. C for cotton stalk. The chemical composition of the bio-oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS, and its heat value, stability, miscibility and corrosion characteristics were determined. These results showed that the bio-oil obtained can be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel can be refined to be used by vehicles. Furthermore, the energy performance of the pyrolysis process was analyzed. In the pyrolysis system used in our experiment, some improvements to former pyrolysis systems are done. Two screw feeders were used to prevent jamming the feeding system, and the condenser is equipped with some nozzles and a heat exchanger to cool quickly the cleaned hot gas into bio-oil

  10. Effects of the irradiation in seeds of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Ana Leticia; Arthur, Paula Bergamin; Arthur, Valter; Franco, Camilo Flamorion de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The experiment aimed to verify if seeds of cotton of variety FiberMax FM 993, irradiated with the doses of 0 (test); 25; 50; 75; 100 Gy can induce the production increase in cotton culture. For all treatments with irradiation, was used a source of cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. After the irradiation, the seeds were planted in the experimental field of the Department of Plant Production ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba-SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and 60 g of seed were used for each repetition, the rows were 5m and the spacing of 0.90m, using randomized blocks and rows of edging. After planting the final height and productivity were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in the Tukey test at 5% level of probability. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the dose of 50Gy was the one that induced a greater production of cotton. (author)

  11. Effects of the irradiation in seeds of cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ana Leticia [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula Bergamin; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Franco, Camilo Flamorion de Oliveira [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA/EMEPA), João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The experiment aimed to verify if seeds of cotton of variety FiberMax FM 993, irradiated with the doses of 0 (test); 25; 50; 75; 100 Gy can induce the production increase in cotton culture. For all treatments with irradiation, was used a source of cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. After the irradiation, the seeds were planted in the experimental field of the Department of Plant Production ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba-SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and 60 g of seed were used for each repetition, the rows were 5m and the spacing of 0.90m, using randomized blocks and rows of edging. After planting the final height and productivity were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in the Tukey test at 5% level of probability. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the dose of 50Gy was the one that induced a greater production of cotton. (author)

  12. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  13. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  14. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  15. Effect of low doses gamma irradiation of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Khalifa, Kh.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments and then large scale application of irradiated cotton seeds (C.V. Aleppo-40) were carried out during three seasons (1986, 1987 and 1988) for field experiment at ACSAD Station in Dier-Ezzor and 1988, 1989 and 1990 for large scale application at Euphrate's Basin, Al-Ghab and Salamia, farmers farms. The above areas were selected as they represent major cotton production areas in Syria. The aims of the experiments were to study the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy on cotton yield and to look for the optimum dose of gamma irradiation to obtain best results. The results show that, there were positive effect (P<0.95) for doses 5-30 Gy in increasing cotton yield. The highest increase was at dose of 10 Gy. which as 19.5% higher than control. For the large scale application using 10 Gy the increase in cotton yield varied from 10-39% compared to control. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  16. Gamma radiation of cotton seeds pre-planting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyamov, M-K.; Atadzhanov, M.; Narimov, S.

    1977-01-01

    The study of pre-planting irradiation of the cotton plant seeds with gamma rays is summed up. It is for the first time that for the industrial grades stimulating doses for preplanting gamma irradiation of seeds have been offered depending on the power of a radiation source, time before planting, reproduction and the site of origin of seeds. In the Tashkent area doses stimulating the growth, development, and productivity of the cotton plant G. hirsutum L. for seeds, resting in the dry condition are 0.5-2 krad by Co 60 gamma-rays. The early maturing kinds of the type C-4727 should be irradiated with slightly lowered doses (0.5-1 krad) while the usual types of the kind 108-F require doses nearer to 2 krad. Time from irradiation of the seed to planting influences not only the character of changes in the plants, but also heredity. Study during the vegetation period shows that at a dose of 1 krad a much earlier maturity (by 2 days) is observed for irradiation 10 days before planting. Irradiation 20 days before planting shows considerable delay in maturing and productivity as compared to controls

  17. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  18. PRICING OF BT COTTON SEEDS IN INDIA: THE DEBATE BEHIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchal ARORA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the state government of Andhra Pradesh reduced the Bt cotton seed prices from Indian Rs1600 to Rs750 in order to make the technology affordable and accessible to small and marginal farmers in the state and also to prevent the monopolistic market structure in the seed market. The drastic reduction in seed prices, on the other hand could affect the profitability of seed providing companies and curb their incentives to innovate in future. Recent literature has also examined the impact of price controls on diffusion of technology, revenue and profitability of seed providers. It suggests that price controls have positively impacted the diffusion of technology in India, and were also successful in increasing the revenue of seed providers in the short run. However, the impact of price controls on profitability would depend on cost conditions. In the light of the above discussion, this article attempts to discuss the debate behind price controls and draws certain policy implications pertaining to pricing of Bt seeds, which has an international policy relevance.

  19. Seed Size And Physiological Quality Of Three Cultivars Of Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cesar Lopes Filho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important crops, both in the national context and worldwide. Being that, its fiber, constitutes an important raw material for the textile industry. The process of improving cottonseeds, favoured cultivars with smaller seeds. The goal of this work was to evaluate three cultivars of cottonseeds with different sizes through vigour tests. The work was developed in the seeds laboratory and the post-harvest Laboratory of plant products of the Instituto Federal Goiano – Campus Rio Verde. Cottonseeds of 3 cultivars were used (FiberMax 913 GLT, FiberMax 910 and DeltaPine 1648 B2RF, obtained in the crop of 2014 in the city of Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with eight replications of 50 seeds. Determinations of moisture content and weight of a hundred seeds, germination test and germination velocity index, emergency test, and emergency speed index, electrical conductivity and accelerated aging were conducted. The dimensions of the size of the seeds (length, width and thickness were also determined, with the aid of digital caliper, and the weight of the seeds, with the aid of a balance of precision of resolution 0, 001g. The data was subjected to analysis of variance and the averages compared to the Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no clear relationship between the size of the seed and its physiological performance in assessed cultivars/batches, making it necessary more studies that can prove that type of association.

  20. Identification of candidate genes from the SAD gene family in cotton for determination of cottonseed oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Ding, Jian; Guo, Wangzhen

    2017-02-01

    Cotton is an economically important crop grown for natural fiber and seed oil production. Cottonseed oil ranks third after soybean oil and colza oil in terms of edible oilseed tonnage worldwide. The fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil determines its industrial application and nutritional values. However, little progress has been made in understanding cottonseed oil biogenesis. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), the only known enzyme to convert saturated fatty acids into unsaturated fatty acids in plants, plays key roles in determining the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil. In this study, we identified 9, 9, 18 and 19 SAD genes in the genomes of four sequenced cotton species: diploid Gossypium raimondii (D 5 ), G. arboreum (A 2 ), tetraploid G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 (AD 1 ) and G. barbadense cv. Xinhai21 (AD 2 ), respectively. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that cotton SADs can be classified into two classes. Expression patterns showed developmental and spatial regulation of SADs in cotton. GhSAD2 and GhSAD4 were preferentially expressed in developing ovules 20-35 days post-anthesis, and significantly different expression patterns were found between high-oil and low-oil cotton cultivars, implying these two genes could be involved in cottonseed oil biogenesis. Association analysis further confirmed that GhSAD4-At expression was closely related to the oleic acid (O) content, linoleic acid (L) content and O/L value in cottonseed, implying GhSAD4 plays an important role in cottonseed oil composition. This study brings new perspectives for integrated genome-wide identification of SADs in cotton and provides references for the genetic improvement of cottonseed oil.

  1. Vegetative growth response of cotton plants due to growth regulator supply via seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vitor Ferrari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global cotton industry is distinguished by its numerous industrial uses of the plume as well as by high production costs. Excessive vegetative growth can interfere negatively with productivity, and thus, applying growth regulators is essential for the development of the cotton culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and yield of the cotton cultivar FMT 701 with the application of mepiquat chloride to seeds and leaves. The experimental design used a randomized block design with four replications, arranged in bands.The treatments consisted of mepiquat chloride rates (MC (0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g a.i. kg-1 of seeds applied directly to the cotton seeds and MC management by foliar spray using a 250 mL ha-1 rates that was administered under the following conditions: divided into four applications (35, 45, 55 and 65 days after emergence; as a single application at 70 days; and without the application of the product. The mepiquat chloride applied to cotton seeds controls the initial plant height and stem diameter, while foliar application reduces the height of the plants. After application to seed, foliar spraying MC promotes increase mass of 20 bolls, however no direct influence amount bolls per plant and yield of cotton seed. Higher cotton seed yield was obtained with a rate of 3.4 g a.i. MC kg-1 seeds.

  2. Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in edible oil seeds and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Ten papers were presented in which chemical pollution due to insecticides was examined in edible oil seeds and their products. They include hexachlorocyclohexane residues in groundnut; carbaryl in groundnut; maize and cotton seed products, and in lactating goats; propoxur in cocoa beans; and leptophos residues in cotton seed and its products and in lactating goats. Eight of these papers constitute separate INIS entries. Egypt, Ghana, India, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, and the Sudan participated under the coordinated research programme. The progress of the programme is reviewed, and problems and priorities for future development of the programme are identified. A number of recommendations are addressed to the Joint FAO/IAEA Secretariat

  3. A new flavonol glycoside from glandless cotton seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqin Yuan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside, namely quercetin 3-O-[α-d-apiofuranosyl(1–5-β-d-apiofuranosyl(1–2]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1–6-β-d-glucopyranoside (1, was isolated from glandless cotton seeds together with the known compounds quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1–2-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1–6]-β-d-glucopyranoside (manghaslin, 2, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-apiofruranosyl(1–2-β-d-glucopyranoside (3 and kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1–6-β-d-glucopyranoside (4. It is interesting that the tetrasaccharide fragment of 1 contained both a β-apiosyl and an unusual α-apiosyl group.

  4. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  5. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  6. Biodiesel and biohydrogen production from cotton-seed cake in biorefinery concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Pasias, S.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Papayannakos, N.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel production from cotton-seed cake (CSC) and the pretreatment of the remaining biomass for dark fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. The direct conversion to biodiesel with alkali free fatty acids neutralization pretreatment and alkali transesterification resulted in a

  7. Overcoming dormancy in seeds of cotton-silk tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotton-silk tree Ceiba glaziovii (kuntze k. Schu belongs to family Bombacaceas and is locally known as barriguda. It is widely used in landscaping and reforestation, neverdeless seed dormancy affects reproduction in this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods to overcome dormancy in the germination process. Treatments included mechanical scarification with 85-grit sandpaper, chemical scarification with concentrated sulfuric acid for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, physical scarification with hot water at 60°, 70°, 80°and 90° C for one minute, imbibition in distilled water for 24, 48 and 72 hours, oven heating at 65° C for 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, and a control treatment. Each treatment included four replicates of 25 seeds, using a completely randomized experimental design, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test at the 5% probability level. Assessed parameters included emergence percentage, emergence rate index, dry matter and length of plants. The most recommended treatments were mechanical scarification, immersion in sulfuric acid for 5, 10 and 15 minutes and immersion in distilled water for 48 hours.

  8. A note on self heating and spontaneous combustion of stored sunflower seed cake and cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nazir, S. M. A.; Babikir, I. H.; Shakak, M. A. S.; Sulieman, I. A.; Medani, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower seed cake and cotton seed warehouses combusted spontaneously and burnt in August and November 2009, respectively, in Khartoum North industrial area. The objective of this study was to determine some of the reasons for self-heating and spontaneous combustion. Representative sample from the two warehouses were collected. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, paecilomyces sp., Rhizopus oryzae, Absidia sp. were isolated at 37°C. Bacillus thuringiensis was isolated at 37°C and B. pantothenticus, B. circulans, B. licheniformis, B. sphaericus, B. badius, Escherichia coli and klebsiella sp. were isolated at 60°C. A decrease in soil, fiber and phosphorus and increase in free fatty acids and protein contents were detected.(Author)

  9. Quantitate gossypol enantiomers in cotton flower petals and seed using capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a compound that occurs in the cotton plant and in leaves it protects the plant from insect herbivory. The compound also occurs in the seed. In this tissue it renders the seed toxic to non-ruminant animals. However, gossypol exists as a mixture of enantiomers referred to as (+)-gossypo...

  10. Influence of mutagens on enzymes of germinating seeds of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthusamy, A.; Jayabalan, N.; Juliana, B.

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the enzymes amylases, protease and phosphatases were studied in cotton during germination. The seeds were treated with 100-500 Gy of gamma rays, 10-50 mM of EMS, CA and SA in two cultivated varieties viz.. MCU 5 and MCU 11. Activity pattern of amylases, protease and phosphatases in treated seeds were significantly altered from controls. The alteration were positively correlated with increasing dose/concentration of mutagens up to 300 Gy of gamma rays and 30 mM of EMS, CA and SA. The present study pave the ways to discuss the importance of the enzymes and mutagens in germination of cotton seeds. (author)

  11. Clomazone selectivity in cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hiroko Inoue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study objective was to evaluate the selectivity of pre-emergence applications the herbicide clomazone cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate. The 4 x 2 factorial arrangement was adopted (4 seed treatment methods and 2 clomazone dosages, distributed in a randomized block design with 4 repetitions. In treatments where dietholate and zinc acetate were applied, rates of 0.4 kg ha-1 and 8 ml per kg of seeds were used respectively. The clomazone rates used refer to 0.8 and 1.0 kg ha- 1. The cotton cultivar used was the Fiber Max 966 LL. Independent of treatment, all seeds were treated with tiametoxam insecticide and fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M fungicide at rates of 2.24 and 0.08 + 0.03 g per kg of seed, respectively, to control pests early and limit losses caused by pathogens in germination and seedling emergence. Dietholate and zinc acetate treatment had greater initial effect on cotton plants at 21, 30 and 45 days after application. In phytointoxication symptoms were observed for treatment with dietholate and zinc acetate during the evaluation periods. Seeds treated with dietholate, dietholate and zinc acetate or zinc acetate alone provided a higher number of bolls and seed cotton production compared to the control.

  12. Radiotracer studies on the fate and transformation of pesticide residues in the environment and food chains. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.

    1980-10-01

    The magnitude and fate of some pesticide chemicals in Korean foods were studied with particular reference to oil-bearing crops and related products. Application of the chemicals was made under conditions of actual agricultural practice. Analytical methodologies included nuclear activation, gas chromatographic, spectrophotometric and radiotracer techniques. Residues of benzene hexachloride, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and DDT found in refined vegetable oil samples were below or within the tolerance limits set by international organizations and as such, these are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. Also, residues of the herbicides nitrogen, alachlor and butachlor applied to oil-bearing crops were not detected in the seeds. Studies on 14 C-BHC residues in rice revealed that polishing and washing play an important role in removing a considerable portion of the residue. Data on the arsenic-containing neoasozine residues suggest that the products consumed by the human (grain and oil) contained residues below the tolerance limit and are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. On the other hand, relatively high arsenic concentrations (2.2 mg/kg) were found in the cake (serving as animal feed) and should be carefully evaluated in the light of toxicological data

  13. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai, Nguyen To; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  14. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Nguyen To, E-mail: hoaito@pvu.edu.vn; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  15. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Aydin, Kadir [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2008-04-15

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  16. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Ali; Guerue, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran; Aydin, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  17. The influence of supplements of cotton seed cake on the utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A juidicious use of the protein concentrate for optimum feed intake and feed utilization makes the 50% CSC supplementation more desireable. A 50% cotton seed cake supplementation of the sorghum glume is recommended as suitable in the dry season feeding of the goat. Key words: Goat, sorghum glume, crop residue, ...

  18. Seed protein electrophoresis for identification of fine fibre cotton line in Gossypium hirsutum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Guoqiang; Lv Tiexin; Su Xuehe; Liu Xiaoyong; Wu Defang; Zhu Doubei

    2003-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis was conducted to test seed ethanol resolvable protein in cotton. 13 lines were used, including a fine fibre cotton line (98301) in G. hirsutum L., 4 varieties in G. barbadense L. and 8 varieties in G. hirsutum L.. In results of the 98301 line, Zhongmiansuo 12 and Shiyuan 321, no different protein electro-phoresis band pattern was shown among different seeds belong to the same variety, respectively. In comparison among the 98301 seeds sampled from seven different growth sets in Shandong province, their protein band patterns were the same. On the gel plate, three special bands were distinctive to all the varieties in G. hirsutum L. and other three special bands were distinctive to all the varieties in G. barbadense L.. The three characteristic bands of G. hirsutum L. appeared in the protein band pattern of the 98301 line. It showed that the seed protein composition of the line was inclined to G. hirsutum L. mainly. And, a characteristic band of G. Barbadense L. in the band pattern of the 98301 line proved that the fine fibre cotton line derived from a hybrid between G. barbadense and G. hirsutum L.. The 98301 line was easily distinguished from other varieties in G. hirsutum L. by its distinctive band, i.e. band No.1, and another island cotton band, i.e. band No.10

  19. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton textiles for water-oil separation based on drop-coating route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu; Wang, Shuliang; Li, Jian

    2013-08-14

    In the present study, we are so excited to report a simple drop-coating method for fabricating the superhydrophobic cotton textiles which can remove the water in oil (or the oil in water). It is confirmed that the superhydrophobic composite thin film containing modified-ZnO nanoparticles and polystyren (PS) has been successfully fabricated on the cotton textiles surface by a single-step procedure, and the superhydrophobic cotton textiles displays an excellent property in water-oil separation which is rarely put forward and studied. The static water contact angle on the superhydrophobic cotton sample surface arranges from 153° to 155°, and stays almost the same after exposure to ambient air or immersion in the corrosive liquids and oil, indicating the considerable range of potential applications for the superhydrophobic cotton textiles fabricated by this simple method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Electronic Technologies to Manage Seed Cotton Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most U.S. farmers and ginners still use paper tags to identify cotton modules along with a large number painted on the side of traditional modules. The gin typically assigns tags for the modules. When the gin gets the module, the paper tag is removed and the information is manually entered into a s...

  1. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  2. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  3. Optimization of acid-activated bentonites on bleaching of cotton oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacin, O.; Sayan, E.; Kirali, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Bentonites are commonly used adsorbent on bleaching cotton oil to produce edible oil products. Bleaching capacities of neutralized cotton oil were investigated with acid-activated Arguvan and Kursunlu bentonites. Two models for acid activation of the bentonites were developed by using a full factorial experimental design and central composite design. The parameters used to develop these models were contact time, solid to liquid ratio, acid concentration and moisture of bentonite. By using a constrained optimization program, the maximum bleaching capacities of neutralized cotton oil were determined as 99.99% and 48.5% for Arguvan and Kursunlu, respectively. Optimum results showed that Turkish bentonites (especially Arguvan bentonite) have high bleaching ability and they can be used efficiently to bleach neutralized cotton oil by considering the favorable volume weight, capacity of oil adsorbed and filtration rate. (author)

  4. Laboratory microwave measurement of the moisture content in seed cotton and ginned cotton fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The timely and accurate measurement of cotton fiber moisture content is important, but the measurement is often performed by laborious, time-consuming laboratory oven drying methods. Microwave technology for measuring fiber moisture content directly (not for drying only) offers potential advantages...

  5. Seed oil content and selected qualitative parameters of oils from grape seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Mašán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (Oleum vitis viniferae represents promising plant oil, which is used mainly in gastronomy and for pharmaceutical purposes as well as for various technical applications. In this paper, there were examined oil contents and oil quality properties of seeds taken from 8 grape cultivars. Oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 11.5% (Dornfelder to 17.5% (Riesling. The results showed a dependence between the length of the growing season for individual varie-ties and the total content of oil in seeds. Fatty acid concentrations in the evaluated oil samples were in various ranges, while the highest values were determined in linoleic acid 70.10 to 71.55%, oleic acid 15.61 to 17.14%, palmitic acid 6.87 to 8.18% and stearic acid 3.16 to 3.90%. Saturated fatty acid values were lower than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all oil samples. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil ranged between 88.6 - 89.21%. Thanks to its content, grape seed oil can be considered as a food supplement improving the nutri-tional value of the human diet.

  6. Kinetics of the inhibition of cotton seeds germination by lucerne saponins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaim, U.; Birk, Y.; Dovrat, A.; Berman, T.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of inhibition of cotton-seed germination by lucerne saponins depends upon the period of pre-immersion in the saponin solution prior to germination. After 5 hr of pre-immersion in a 0.5% lucerne saponin solution, a 40% drop in germination was noted. The respiration rate decreased after 3hr of pre-immersion. The diffusion of oxygen through the membranes of seeds pre-immersed in saponins also decreased with an increasing pre-immersion time. Inhibition of germination was irreversible after pre-immersion in saponins for 6 hr or more. The effect of saponins does not appear to be biochemically specific because the germination and respiration rates of the cotton seeds which were immersed in aqueous solutions of anionic, nonionic or cationic commercial surfactants were similarly inhibited. (auth.)

  7. Effect of farm yard manure and nitrogen application on seed cotton yield under arid climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of farm yard manure and green manuring is well established for better crop production. The availability of farm yard manure is becoming difficult due to mechanized farming. An experiment was conducted with farm yard manure application in less quantity i.e. 5000 kg per hectare through fermenter with irrigation water as concentrated solution of farm yard manure. Four levels of nitrogen i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha were applied through soil to Cotton crop planted on bed-furrows. Two years average results indicated that application of FYM at the rate of 5 metric ton per hectare through fermenter with 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN/ha through soil increased seed cotton by 7 percent, on over all average basis of all fertilizer levels, as compared with no farm yard manure application. There was 6 percent increase with first 50 kgN/ha in the presence of FYM where as 100 kgN/ha gave 15% increase in seed cotton yield over no nitrogen application. It indicated that the efficiency of nitrogen at the rate of 100 kg/ha in the presence of farm yard manure was increased. There was 7, 15 and 20 percent increase in seed cotton with 50, 100 and 150 kgN/ha over no nitrogen on over all average basis of farm yard manure variables. Benefit cost ratio was more with FYM application alone.(author)

  8. Structural changes of cotton seeds due to fast neurons-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osiris, W G [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of irradiation with different fast neutron fluences in the range 10{sub 5}- 10{sub 8} n/cm{sup 2} were studied on one egyptian cotton seeds (Dandara, Giza 31). Both pre-and post-irradiated seeds were implanted and the effects of fast neutrons on the first generation were investigated through the use of: X-ray fluorescence analysis, infrared spectral,combustion technique, analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy. The changes in cellulose and heme cellulose contents in the seeds relative to the unirradiated one were also detected. From the obtained results,it was found that significant structural changes are indicated which may be attributed to the variation in the internal mechanisms that occurred by the radiation effect on thr structure of seeds. In conclusion, irradiation with fast neutrons may cause genetic changes in seeds. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  10. Various rates of k and Na influence growth, seed cotton yield and ionic ratio of two cotton varieties in soil culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, L.; Maqsood, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton is generally grown on alkaline calcareous soils in arid and semi-arid areas of the country. Sodium can interact with other earth cations like K, Ca and Mg. Therefore, a pot study was conducted to investigate the growth, yield and ionic response of two cotton varieties. Four levels of K and Na were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in mg/kg were adjusted as, 105+37.5, 135+30 135+37.5 and 105+30 (control). Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Application of K and Na increased seed cotton yield and boll weight significantly (p<0.01). Both varieties varied non-significantly with respect to K:Na ratio in leaf. The beneficial effects of Na with K application over control on seed cotton yield and boll weight were greater in NIBGE-2 than in MNH-786. Increase in seed cotton yield was attributed to maximum boll weight of both varieties. Significant negative correlation (r= -0.89, - 0.76, n= 4) was found between K:Na ratio and K use efficiency in shoot of NIBGE-2 and MNH-786, respectively. (author)

  11. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  12. Comparative antioxidative properties of selected seed oils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číž, Milan; Gorinstein, S.; Lojek, Antonín; Martin-Belloso, A.; Leontowich, H.; Trakhtenberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 36, Suppl. 1 (2002), s. 64-65 ISSN 1071-5762. [European Research on Functional Effects of Dietary Antioxidants: Benefits and Risks. Cambridge, 25.09.02-28.09.02] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB6004204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : antioxidants * polyphenols * seed oils Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.523, year: 2002

  13. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  14. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition of annual halophyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suaeda acuminata produces two morphologically distinct types of seeds on the same plant. This study was conducted to compare oil content and fatty acid composition of the two seed morphs. Though oil characteristics between dimorphic seeds showed statistically significant difference, these differences were relatively ...

  15. Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil Linn ( Euphor Biaceae ): Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was obvious that J. curcas seed oil is a volatile oil. It was also observed that tragacanth formed more stable primary emulsions than acacia gum. It was concluded that Jatropha curcas seed oil has significant contraceptive activity and it could be formulated into stable oral emulsion at doses not exceeding 0.5g/kg. Nig.

  16. Activation of Arabidopsis seed hair development by cotton fiber-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Guan

    Full Text Available Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1 that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2, a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0 activated fiber-like hair production in 4-6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ∼8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ∼10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular.

  17. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5 wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (author)

  18. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janat, M; Khalifa, K [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O.Box 6091, Damasucs, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    A two years field experiment 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0,5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0,60, 100, 140 and kg P{sub 2} O{sub 5}/ha. Irradiation doses and P. Fertilizer levels arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the subplots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting. Soil test for P revealed that enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. 8 tabs.

  19. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Khalifa, K.

    1995-07-01

    A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

  20. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  1. Toxicity to cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis of a trypsin inhibitor from chickpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de P G Gomes, Angélica; Dias, Simoni C; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Furtado, José R; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Franco, Octávio L

    2005-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural commodity, which is attacked by several pests such as the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. Adult A. grandis feed on fruits and leaf petioles, reducing drastically the crop production. The predominance of boll weevil digestive serine proteinases has motivated inhibitor screenings in order to discover new ones with the capability to reduce the digestion process. The present study describes a novel proteinase inhibitor from chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) and its effects against A. grandis. This inhibitor, named CaTI, was purified by using affinity Red-Sepharose Cl-6B chromatography, followed by reversed-phase HPLC (Vydac C18-TP). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses, showed a unique monomeric protein with a mass of 12,877 Da. Purified CaTI showed significant inhibitory activity against larval cotton boll weevil serine proteinases (78%) and against bovine pancreatic trypsin (73%), when analyzed by fluorimetric assays. Although the molecular mass of CaTI corresponded to alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitors masses, no inhibitory activity against insect and mammalian alpha-amylases was observed. In order to observe CaTI in vivo effects, an inhibitor rich fraction was added to an artificial diet at different concentrations. At 1.5% (w/w), CaTI caused severe development delay, several deformities and a mortality rate of approximately 45%. These results suggested that CaTI could be useful in the production of transgenic cotton plants with enhanced resistance toward cotton boll weevil.

  2. Synthesis biolubricant from rubber seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Tran Dong; Tuyen, Dang Thi Hong; Viet, Tran Tan

    2017-09-01

    The objective was biolubricant preparation from rubber seed oil (RSO) using polymerization reactor with/without catalyst in batch reactor. Before become reactant in polymerization reaction, a non-edible rubber seed oil was converted into methyl ester by esterification/tranesterification reaction with methanol and acid/base catalyst. The polymerization reaction parameters investigated were reaction time, temperature and weight ratio (catalyst with feed), and their effect on the bio lubricant formation. The result show significant conversion of methyl ester to bio lubricant in the temperature reaction of 160°C, reaction time of 2h min and ratio of super acid catalyst (tetrafluoroboric acid-sHBF4) of 3 %w/w. The resulting products were confirmed by GC-MS, FTIR spectroscopy and also analyzed for the viscosity. The best viscosity value of RSOFAME polymer was 110.6 cSt when the condition polymerization reaction were 160 °C, reaction time 3h, 6 wt% mass ratio of oil:catalyst.

  3. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 106 cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v microcapsules increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications.

  4. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-03-28

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  5. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni Salni; Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Hanifa Marisa Hanifa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  6. Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni, Salni; Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati; Hanifa, Hanifa Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  7. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Seed and Seed Oil of the Potentially Medicinal Plant Ziziphus oenoplia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Joseph, Kadanthottu Sebastian; Madiwal, Abhishek; Gerald, Dinesh Rajen; Badiger, Mahananda; Kolkar, Lakshmi; Hiremath, Reshma

    2017-11-02

    The proximate composition of seeds, physicochemical characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of Ziziphus oenoplia seed oil were determined in this study. The seeds possessed low moisture (4.54%) and high carbohydrate (42.96%) and protein content (40%), making the seed oil suitable for storage and consumption. The saponification value (197.80) of the seed oil makes it a promising source for the soap and shampoo industry. The iodine and saponification values are comparable to those of major edible seed oils such as groundnut and soybean. The high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (53.41%), especially oleic acid (53.38%), present in the oil makes it a better source for a low-fat diet and may reduce the risk of various heart-related diseases.

  8. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salni Salni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester. Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level, Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level and Lahat District (627 m above sea level. The results showed that the weight of the flour, the water content and ash content in the local rubber seeds larger than the superior rubber seed for all altitude, but oil content a large in the superior rubber seeds. The major of fatty acids in the rubber seed oil in all types and altitude are a linoleic acid with a different percentage except local rubber seed oil from Lahat district with the large percentage of octadecanoic acid. Free fatty acids in the oil from the superior seeds rubber of 13.897-15.494 % large than local rubber seed oil was found 9.786-10.399 % for all altitude. By esterification process using sulfuric acid catalyst, Free Fatty Acid (FFA can be reduced to ≤ 2 %. The methyl ester made from the transesterification process of rubber seed oil after esterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Analysis of methyl esters includes cetane index, flash point, kinematic viscosity, carbon residue, density, moisture content, water and sediment content and distillation compared with SNI 7182 and ASTM 6751-02.  The result indicated that the quality of methyl ester from superior rubber seed oil in the Banyuasin and Prabumulih district better than another methyl ester. The types of rubber seed altitude affect the characteristics of the seed, oil and methyl ester  but the altitude are not significantly different. Keywords: rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel Article History: Received March 21st 2017; Received in

  9. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  10. Fatty Acid Profile and Bioactivity from Annona hypoglauca Seeds Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants from Annona (Annonaceae) genus are present in tropical regions, where they have economic and medicinal potential. Information on the fatty acids profile and bioactivity from seed oil of Annona species are incipient. The objective of this work was to investigate Annona hypoglauca seeds oil in terms of its yield, ...

  11. Effects of Telfairia Occidentalis Seed Oil on Female Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.T Shittu

    Summary: The effects of T. occidentalis seed oil on some female reproductive indices were investigated in Wistar rats. The study was ... analysis of fluted pumpkin seed oil showed that it is ..... Akang, E., Oremosu, A. A., Dosumo, O. O., Noronhe, ... Current diabetes reports. ... reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans.

  12. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on oil yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of radish seeds. Methods: Radish seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE).

  13. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE). The yield, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and oxidative ...

  14. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  15. Extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola, 38.30% for melon and ...

  16. QUALITY OF HEMP SEED OIL DEPENDING ON ITS OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Staruch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is probably one of the oldest field crops used in nutrition, but also for the production of fibres for clothes, ropes or canvas. Cannabis sativa is one of the most spread species of cannabis which belongs to family Cannabinaceae. The seeds are important part of cannabis sativa, which contains high part of lipids and proteins. It provides also valuable essential fatty acids, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals. Due to low content of THC is possible to produce valuable oil from seeds, which is used in cosmetic and food industry. The aim of this work was to evaluate composition of hemp seeds from one harvest, observe and compare quality of parameters both cold pressed hemp seed oil and hemp seed oil by CO2 extraction. Both oils are comparable in composition of fatty acids which follow from results of analyses. Also contents of sterols and moisture are similar in both oils. The saponification value is similar in both oils, conformable to as a iodine value. Also were found dissimilarities in colours, phospholipides, unsaponifiable matter, acid value and peroxide value. The cold pressed hemp seed oil contained lower values of unsaponifiable matter, colours and higher concentration of phospholipides and lower acid value. It is caused by influence of CO2. The oxidation stability of cold pressed hemp seed oil was four times higher than oil by CO2 extraction. doi:10.5219/32 

  17. Exploration of Shorea robusta (Sal seeds, kernels and its oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kumar C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of Shorea robusta seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel were investigated in the present work. The physico-chemical composition of sal oil was also analyzed. The physico-mechanical properties and proximate composition of seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel at three moisture contents of 9.50% (w.b, 9.54% (w.b, and 12.14% (w.b, respectively, were studied. The results show that the moisture content of the kernel was highest as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The sphericity of the kernel was closer to that of a sphere as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The hardness of the seed with wing (32.32, N/mm and seed without wing (42.49, N/mm was lower than the kernels (72.14, N/mm. The proximate composition such as moisture, protein, carbohydrates, oil, crude fiber, and ash content were also determined. The kernel (30.20%, w/w contains higher oil percentage as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The scientific data from this work are important for designing of equipment and processes for post-harvest value addition of sal seeds.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  19. Seed-specific overexpression of AtFAX1 increases seed oil content in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yinshuai; Lv, Xueyan; Xie, Guilan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-02

    Biosynthesis of plant seed oil is accomplished through the coordinate action of multiple enzymes in multiple subcellular compartments. Fatty acid (FA) has to be transported from plastid to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for TAG synthesis. However, the role of plastid FA transportation during seed oil accumulation has not been evaluated. AtFAX1 (Arabidopsis fatty acid export1) mediated the FA export from plastid. In this study, we overexpressed AtFAX1 under the control of a seed specific promoter in Arabidopsis. The resultant overexpression lines (OEs) produced seeds which contained 21-33% more oil and 24-30% more protein per seed than those of the wild type (WT). The increased oil content was probably because of the enhanced FA and TAG synthetic activity. The seed size and weight were both increased accordingly. In addition, the seed number per silique and silique number per plant had no changes in transgenic plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated that seed specific overexpression of AtFAX1 could promote oil accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds and manipulating FA transportation is a feasible strategy for increasing the seed oil content. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be

  1. 3rd stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  2. 2nd stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  3. 1st stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  4. INDUCING RESISTANCE IN COTTON AGAINST COLLETOTRICHUM GOSSYPII VAR. CEPHALOSPORIOIDES WITH ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, baccharis (Baccharis trimera, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, basil (Ocimum basilicum and eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora in inducing resistance in cotton plants against C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. The inductive effect of the essential oils was evaluated in plants growing in pots in the environment, which were treated with 1% essential oil at 47 days of age. 24 hours after elicitor treatment the plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.5 x 105 conidia mL-1 of C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Five evaluations were performed disease and calculated the area under the disease progress curve. All essential oils showed potential for inducing resistance against cotton C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides.

  5. Comparison of cotton square and boll damage and resulting lint and seed loss caused by verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retention of bolls and squares (referred to as fruit retention), boll damage, and resulting cotton lint and seed weight loss were assessed when two (2010) and three (2011) age classes of sympodial fruiting branches with different ages of squares and bolls where exposed to verde plant bug, Creontiade...

  6. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  7. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  8. Chemical Modification of Waste Cotton Linters for Oil Spill Cleanup Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debapriya; Umrigar, Keval

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of use of waste cotton linters as oil sorbents by chemical modification such as acetylation and cyanoethylation was studied. The acetylation process was carried out in presence of acetic anhydride using either H2SO4 or HClO4 as catalyst. The acetylation treatment time was 30, 60 and 120 min and treatment temperature was room temperature, 50 and 70 °C. For cyanoethylation, the waste cotton linters were pre-treated with 2, 5 and 10% NaOH. The treatment temperature for cyanoethylation was room temperature, 50 and 70 °C and treatment time was 30, 60 and 120 min. Both the chemical modification processes were optimized on the basis of oil absorption capacity of the chemically modified cotton fibre with the help of MATLAB software. The modified samples were tested for its oleophilicity in terms of oil absorption capacity, oil retention capacity, oil recovery capacity, reusability of sample and water uptake and buoyancy as oil sorbent. Chemically modified fibres were characterized by Fourier transform infra red spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope and degree of substitutions.

  9. Extraction and analysis of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil | Shivani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, extraction of Jatropha oil from seeds was optimized using organic solvents. The effects of parameters on the oil extraction namely type of organic solvents and different techniques were also investigated to optimize the processing conditions for achieving maximum oil yield. The acid value and antioxidant ...

  10. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length.

  11. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garavaglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  12. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  13. Development and efficacy assessments of tea seed oil makeup remover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; Pmakeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Seed Quality and Combination Fungicide-Trichoderma spp. Seed Treatments on Pre- and Postemergence Damping-Off in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Good quality seeds of cotton cultivars often escaped pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae, and they were resistant to postemergence damping-off incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Poor quality seeds, however, were highly susceptible to both phases of seedling disease and required seed treatment in order to survive. Pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae could be controlled by seed treatment with biocontrol preparations of a number of Trichoderma spp., but these treatments were much less effective in controlling postemergence disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Postemergence seedling disease can be controlled by fungicides, but they were much less effective in controlling the pre-emergence phase of the disease. Combination seed treatments of poor quality cotton seeds with fungicides and Trichoderma spp. preparations, followed by planting in pathogen-infested soil, indicated that this technique will control both phases of seedling disease. Seed treatment with either the fungicides or the biocontrol agents alone did not achieve this goal. The optimum combination treatment for disease control was that of chloroneb plus Trichoderma spp., followed by chloroneb plus metalaxyl (Deltacoat AD) plus T. virens strain G-6.

  15. Antitumor activity of Annona squamosa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Yayun; Shi, Yeye; Ma, Chengyao; Wang, Xunan; Li, Yue; Miao, Yunjie; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2016-12-04

    Custard apple (Annona squamosa Linn.) is an edible tropical fruit, and its seeds have been used to treat "malignant sore" (cancer) and other usage as insecticide. A comparison of extraction processes, chemical composition analysis and antitumor activity of A. squamosa seed oil (ASO) were investigated. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were established by comparing percolation, soxhlet, ultrasonic and SFE-CO 2 extraction methods. The chemical composition of fatty acid and content of total annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) of ASO was investigated by GC-MS and colorimetric assay, and anti-tumor activity of ASO was tested using H 22 xenografts bearing mice. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were obtained as follows: using soxhlet extraction method with extraction solvent of petroleum ether, temperature of 80°C, and extraction time of 90min. Under these conditions, the yield of ASO was 22.65%. GC-MS analysis results showed that the main chemical compositions of fatty acid of ASO were palmitic acid (9.92%), linoleic acid (20.49%), oleic acid (56.50%) and stearic acid (9.14%). The total ACGs content in ASO was 41.00mg/g. ASO inhibited the growth of H 22 tumor cells in mice with a maximum inhibitory rate of 53.54% by oral administration. Furthermore, it was found that ASO exerted an antitumor effect via decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6), janus kinase (Jak) and phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription (p-Stat3) expression. The results demonstrated that ASO suppressed the H 22 solid tumor development may due to its main chemical constituents unsaturated fatty acid and ACGs via IL-6/Jak/Stat3 pathway. ASO may be a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraction and analysis of tea (Camellia sinensis) seed oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMONDI-GUYA

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... spectrophotometer (Model JENWAY6705, multi-cell changer) against a blank ... All the tea seed oil extracts were golden yellow in color and liquid at .... respectively, the two being products of oxidative rancidity. (Chindo et al.

  17. Production of Biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. Seed Oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    catalysts for the transesterification of Parinari polyandra seeds oil and the results .... reduction in free fatty acids. .... Development and Characterization of Biodiesel from Shea Nut ... comparative review of biodiesel production from Jatropha.

  18. Crioconservação de sementes de algodão Crioconservation of cotton seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do S. Rocha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se objetivou avaliar a crioconservação de sementes de algodão. Inicialmente se determinou o teor de água limite para a crioconservação (TALC; para esta determinação as sementes foram imersas em nitrogênio líquido durante cinco dias e, após este período, foram descongeladas e submetidas ao teste de germinação e vigor. O delineamento estatístico empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado com arranjo fatorial. Utilizou-se um lote de sementes com teor de água limite previamente determinado para as diferentes cultivares, a partir do qual se procedeu ao seu armazenamento em nitrogênio líquido e no vapor do nitrogênio. O delineamento experimental usado nesta etapa foi o inteiramente casualizado, em parcela subdividida no tempo. Em cada período de armazenamento as sementes foram submetidas a testes de germinação e vigor e de acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: o TALC, durante 5 dias para a crioconservação das quatro cultivares, considerando-se a germinação dessas cultivares, encontra-se entre 6 e 8% e, quanto ao vigor das sementes, o TALC foi de 6%; sementes das diferentes cultivares podem ser crioconservadas em banco de germoplasma, nas duas temperaturas; a crioconservação aumenta o percentual de germinação e vigor das sementes de algodão, em virtude dessa temperatura promover quebra de dormência pela ação do frio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the crioconservation of cotton seed. At first, the water limit content for the crioconservation (TALC was determined. For this determination, the seeds were immerse in liquid nitrogen during five days and after this period they were unfrozen and submitted to germination and vigor test. The statistical design used was completely randomized with the factorial. A portion of seeds was used with water limit content previously determinated for the different cultivars, since this has proceeded the storage in liquid nitrogen and in nitrogen vapor

  19. Hypolipidemic effect of seed oil of noni (Morinda citrifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Diana C; Jiménez, Fabiola E; Garduño, Leticia; López, V Eric; Cruz, M Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia, has been reported to posses different biological activities and almost all parts of this have been studied phytochemically. However there are few studies on the seeds of fruit. The objective of present study was investigated the effect to Noni Seed Oil (NSO) on serum lipid levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic induced mice. We find that administration of noni oil causes a reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both models. However hypolipidemic effect is higher when hyperlipidemia is presented.

  20. Antioxidant and cytotoxicity effects of seed oils from edible fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Olubunmi Atolani; Joshua Omere; C.A. Otuechere; A. Adewuyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose a natural remedy for the some acute diseases the fatty acids profile, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potentials of seed oils from natural sources have been examined. Methods: The fatty acids profile of seed oils from sweet orange, grape, lime and watermelon obtained by soxhlet extraction were trans-esterified and examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay were examined and compared with ga...

  1. The preservative potentials of sweet orange seed oil on leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange seed oil was extracted using the steam distillation method. The fungi isolated from the leather samples were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus nigricans and Alternaria sp. However, the fungal species vary from person to person. The orange seed ...

  2. Performance characteristics of rubber seed oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Qin, M.; Wu, J.; Chen, B. S.

    2018-01-01

    The lubricity, ignition quality, oxidative stability, low temperature flow property and elastomeric compatibility of rubber seed oil biodiesel(RSM) were evaluated and compared with conventional petro-diesel. The results indicated that RSM and its blends with petro-diesel possessed outstanding lubricity manifested by sharp decrease in wear scar diameters in the high-frequency reciprocating rig(HFRR) testing. They also provided acceptable flammability and cold flow property,although the cetane numbers (CN) and cold filter plugging points(CFPP) of biodiesel blends slightly decreased with increasing contents of petro-diesel. However, RSM proved to be very susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures during prolonged oxidation durations, characterized by increased peroxide values, viscosity, acid values and isooctane insolubles. The oxidation stability of RSM could be significantly improved by antioxidants such as BD100, a phenol antioxidant produced by Ciba corporation. Furthermore, RSM provided poor compatibility with some elastomeric rubbers such as polyacrylate, nitrile-butadiene and chloroprene, but was well compatible with the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene elastomer.

  3. Seed Treatment Combined with a Spot Application of Clothianidin Granules Prolongs the Efficacy of Controlling Piercing-Sucking Insect Pests in Cotton Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqun; Zhao, Yunhe; Wang, Yao; Li, Beixing; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Xuefeng; Mu, Wei

    2017-09-13

    Seed treatments can directly protect cotton from early season piercing-sucking insect Aphis gossypii Glover but hardly provide long-term protection against Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür). Therefore, the efficacy of clothianidin seed treatments combined with spot applications of clothianidin granules at the bud stage of cotton was evaluated to control piercing-sucking pests during the entire cotton growing season. Clothianidin seed treatments (at the rate of 4 g ai/kg seed) combined with a clothianidin granular treatment (even at low rate of 0.9 kg ai/ha) at the bud stage can effectively suppress A. gossypii and A. lucorum infestations throughout the seedling and blooming stages after planting and can improve cotton yield. The spot application of clothianidin granules also reduced the population densities of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). The dynamic changes of clothianidin residues demonstrated that the control efficacy of clothianidin against A. gossypii and A. lucorum might be related to the residues of this neonicotinoid in cotton leaves. This pest management practice provided long-term protection against cotton piercing-sucking pests for the entire growing season of cotton plants and could supplement the short-term control efficiency of clothianidin used as a seed treatment.

  4. Characterization of oils from Duranta repens leaf and seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agomuo Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the chemical composition of unpopular sources of edible oils has become paramount to supplement the usage of widely known vegetable oils. In this study, the gas chromatographic quantification of fatty acids and phytochemicals was carried out, and the physicochemical and micronutrient composition of Duranta repens leaf and seed oil were evaluated using standard methods. The leaf oils contained significantly higher (p  oleic > myristic > stearic > capric > linoleic > lauric > palmitoleic for the seed oil, while for the leaf oil linoleic > palmitoleic > oleic > stearic > palmitic > myristic > capric > lauric > myristoleic. The major phytochemical constituents of the seed oils were catechin (68.12 ug/ml, saponin (44.03 ug/ml, rutin (32.89 ug/ml, linamarin (22.66 ug/ml and tannins (19.62 ug/ml, while kaempherol (84.05 ug/ml, rutin (62.26 ug/ml and saponins (45.63 ug/ml were mostly predominant in the leaf oil. Spartein, anthocyanins and phytates were among the least phytochemicals in composition, for both samples. These chemical properties evaluated, suggest that Duranta repens seed oil is more suitable for industrial and therapeutic purposes.

  5. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reazai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3% is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3% and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4% are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil.

  6. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  7. Multifunctional properties of cotton fabrics coated with in situ synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles capped with date seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Shaarawy, S; Hebeish, A A

    2018-02-01

    In situ formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) was studied within the framework of several factors. variables examined include (i) innovation of a new capping agent; (ii) nature of the cotton fabric related to its processing; (iii) formation of Zinc hydroxide (Zn(OH) 2 ) due to reduction of zinc acetate with sodium hydroxide (iv) treatment of the differently processed cotton fabrics with (Zn(OH) 2 ) functionalized dispersion as per the exhaustion method, (v) further treatment of the cotton fabrics with (Zn(OH) 2 ) dispersion according to the pad-dry-cure method and (Vi) conversion of (Zn(OH) 2 ) to ZnO-NPs during the curing step in the latter method. Results depict that the incorporation of the bio-extract obtained from date seed waste works effectively as capping material which stabilize ZnO-NPs. Mercerized bleached cotton fabric proves to be a better candidate than mercerized loomstate cotton fabric in conferring sustainable bactericidal and UV blocking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Small scale industrial application of rubber seed oil in soap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil, which was extracted from the rubber seed using the mechanical pressing method, was of high acid value, that is, the free fatty acid content is high and the oil is not edible, with an average saponification value. Its pH was slightly basic which makes it suitable for use in soap manufacture. It was, therefore, used as a ...

  9. Quality characterization of Niger seed oil ( Guizotia Abyssinica Cass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to find out cholesterol and total free fatty acid content in Niger seed oil which is the most available edible oil in Ethiopia. Acid value, peroxide value, saponification value and cholesterol content were determined. The analysis performed using Liebermann-Burchard ...

  10. Physicochemical characterisation of hexanic seed oil extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nyakudya, Trevor

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... Erlwanger4, Mazuru B. Gundidza5, Michael L. Magwa6 and Perkin Muredzi7 ... possess several physiological side effects, hence the .... Physical and chemical properties of S. molle seed oil ..... composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on ... cultivars (Linum usitatissimum L.). Gen.

  11. Physicochemical characterisation of hexanic seed oil extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical characterisation of oil extracts from Schinus molle seeds collected in South Africa was performed. The oils were extracted in hexane, physicochemical parameters determined and lipids profiled by gas chromatography, in order to determine its potential for use in industry, ethnomedicine and its ...

  12. Physico-chemical characteristics of Mesua ferrea seed oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in the oils were separated and amounted to be (27.40-29.11 %) and (65.85- 68.31 %), respectively, depending upon the areas from where the seeds were collected. GLC analysis of the oil indicated the presence of palmitic acid (10.87%), linoleic acid (13.68%), oleic acid ...

  13. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... Oil of irradiated thevetia seeds was extracted with different solvents. The effect of irradiation dosages on the extracted oils was studied by comparing the TLC chromatography of irradiated seed oil with that of non-radiated seeds. Saponification values were also compared. Key words: Thevetia seed, ...

  14. Variability in seed traits, oil content and genetic diversity in local and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variability in seed traits, oil content and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. according to rainfall gradient in Senegal are hereby reported and discussed. Seed oil variability ranged from 58.61% in Sudanian zone to 46.94% in Sahelian zone. Seed oil content and seed thickness were correlated to rainfall with a correlation ...

  15. Influence of levels of nitrogen and management on seed cotton yield and 15N recovery by cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulmozhiselvan, K.; Govindaswamy, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cotton var.MCU.5 showed varied response to N levels under different management practices. Higher yields were associated at 60-80 kg N ha -1 under combined application of urea, FYM and azospirillum. Whereas urea alone registered higher yield at 100-120 kg N ha -1 , high 15 N recovery (35.84%) was found to be associated with urea + FYM combination. (author)

  16. Fatty acid, tocopherol and squalene contents of Rosaceae seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-12-01

    The aim of current study is to establish the composition of these seeds belong to Rosaceae family with respect to fatty acid, tocopherol and squalene content. The oil contents of seeds varied between 3.49 (Cotoneaster bullatus) to 46.15 g/100 g (Prunus tenella). The main fatty acids of seed oils were oleic (6.50 - 67.11 %), linoleic (22.08 - 68.62 %) and 20:1n-7 (0.10 - 61.59 %). As observed, the oils of seed were rich in linoleic and oleic acids. Total tocopherol contents ranged between 7.06 mg/100 g (Prunus tenella) to 165.74 mg/100 g (Potentilla glandulosa ssp. pseudorupestris). The major tocopherols were γ-tocopherol, ranging from 2.08 mg/100 g to 106.01 mg/100 g; α-tocopherol ranging from 2.86 mg100 g to 74.26 mg/100 g and δ-tocopherol ranging used in this experiment were found between 0.02 mg/100 g (Alchemilla caucasica) to o.29 mg/100 g (Cotoneaster simonsii). These results show that Rosaceae seed oils can be a potential saurce of valuable oil which might be useful for the evaluation of dietary information in important food crops and other industrial applications.

  17. EXTRACTION OF OIL SEED PIN (Citrullus vulgaris BY LEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Londoño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of seed oil initially consisted in physicochemical study of the seed, in order to meet their nutritional content by performing various analyzes as moisture, ash, fat, phosphorus, proteins and carbohydrates. Then we proceeded with oil extraction equipment using solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet using hexane as a solvent using the factorial design of the type 23. After, the crude oil was characterized and refined by the methodology of COVENIN norms, where the oil presented potential properties to elaborate soap in the cosmetic industry. Finally, a lipid profile was obtained by a gas chromatographic, the results showed highly unsaturated fatty acid contents (linoleic and oleic that gives it the potential to be applied as a capable oil with excellent properties and quality to human consume.

  18. Eucalyptus oil-loaded microcapsules grafted to cotton fabrics for acaricidal effect against Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Ran

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop acaricidal cotton fabrics grafted with eucalyptus oil-loaded microcapsules (EOMCs) produced from green resources. EOMCs showed a broad size distribution between 0.5 and 6.5 μm, and had the average diameter 1.8 μm. EOMCs exhibited nonporous spherical shapes and individually remained on cotton fibres. Through AATCC mortality tests against house dust mites (HDMs) (Dermatophagoides farinae), the treated cotton fabric containing EOMCs resulted in 98.7% mortality. Acaricidal efficiency was due to the large amount of oxygenated monoterpene, 1,8-eucalyptol (75.8%) and hydroxylated monoterpenes such as α-terpineol (3.6%), terpinen-4-ol (0.4%) and linalool (0.3%) found in eucalyptus oil. These compounds are effective in enhancing penetration into HDMs. EOMCs produced from safe and natural sources can serve as a replacement for synthetic acaricides in controlling the population of HDM, leading to positive impacts on the human health and environment.

  19. Profiling and quantification of phenolic compounds in Camellia seed oils: Natural tea polyphenols in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Qiumei; Del Mar Contreras, María; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    In Asia, tea seed oils (seed oils from Camellia oleifera, C. chekiangoleosa, and C. sinensis) are used in edible, medicinal, and cosmetic applications. However, these oils differ in their fatty acid contents, and there is little known about their phenolic compounds. Here we analyzed the phenolic compounds of seed oils from three species gathered from 15 regions of China. Twenty-four phenolic compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including benzoic acids (6), cinnamic acids (6), a hydroxyphenylacetic acid, flavanols (4), flavonols (3), flavones (2), and dihydroflavonoids (2). Some of these phenolic compounds had not previously been reported from C. sinensis (20), C. oleifera (15), and C. chekiangoleosa (24) seed oils. Quantification was done by HPLC-QqQ-MS using 24 chemical standards. The total concentrations in the studied samples ranged from 20.56 to 88.56μg/g. Phenolic acids were the most abundant class, accounting for 76.2-90.4%, with benzoic acid, found at up to 18.87μg/g. The concentration of catechins, typical of tea polyphenols, ranged between 2.1% and 9.7%, while the other flavonoids varied from 4.2% to 17.8%. Although the cultivation region affected the phenolic composition of the Camellia seed oils, in our hierarchical clustering analysis, the samples clustered according to species. The phenolic composition of the seed oils from C. oleifera and C. chekiangoelosa were similar. We found that the phenolic categories in Camellia seed oils were similar to tea polyphenols, thereby identifying a source of liposoluble tea polyphenols and potentially accounting for some of the reported activities of these oils. In addition, this work provides basic data that allows distinction of various Camellia seed oils, as well as improvements to be made in their quality standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diqiu LIU; Xianlong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned and analyzed. On the other hand, identification of stress response genes expressed in cotton was performed by other research groups. The major stress factors were studied including the wilt pathogens Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxy-sporum f. sp. vasinfectum, bacterial blight, root-knot nematode, drought, and salt stress. What is more, a few genes related to the biosynthesis of gossypol, other sesquiterpene phytoalexins and the major seed oil fatty acids were isolated from cotton. In the present review, we focused on the major advances in cotton gene cloning and expression profiling in the recent years.

  1. Performance of cotton crop grown under surface irrigation and drip fertigation. I. seed cotton yield, dry matter production, and lint properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Somi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Drip fertigation is a key factor in modern irrigated agriculture, where water and fertilizers are the most expensive inputs for this irrigation method. Drip fertigation experiments were carried out a Hama, north of Syria (Tezeen's Irrigation Research Station), for four consecutive years 1995 - 1998. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutim L.) variety Aleppo 33/1 was planted after unfertilized maize in order to deplete as much as possible the available N and reduce the field variability on the corresponding experimental units and irrigated thereafter. Treatments consisted of two irrigation methods (Surface irrigation and drip fertigation) and five N rates within drip fertigated cotton, including the control (N 0 = 0, N 1 = 60, N 2 = 120, N 3 = 180, N 4 240 kg N ha -1 ). The N fertilizer treatment for surface irrigated cotton was 180 kg N ha -1 in accordance with the recommended rate of ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. The experimental design was randomized block design with six replicates. Fertigation resulted in large water saving, and highly improved field water-use efficiency. Further, increasing N application rates under drip fertigation increased dry matter yield. The principal benefit of drip fertigation was the achievement of higher field water-use efficiencies, which were increased more than three-fold for both dry matter and seed cotton yield, relative to surface irrigation. The highest water-use efficiencies were obtained with the addition of 180 and 240 kg N ha -1 in 1995 and 1996 and 120 kg N ha -1 in 1997 and 1998. Dry matter production and partitioning among different plant parts at physiological maturity stage varied due to N input and irrigation methods. The overall dry matter distribution among different plant structures for drip fertigated-treatments was: Stems, 20.3 - 21.3%; leaves 26.3 - 28.7%; and fruiting forms, 50 - 53.2%. For the surface-irrigated treatment, the partitioning was stems, 23.1%; leaves, 28.3%; and fruiting form, 48.6%. The

  2. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E M K; Sleem, Amany A; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Shaffie, Nermeen; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2012-02-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, the effects of treatment with pumpkin seed oil on hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (50 mg /kg/day) in rats were studied and compared with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Pumpkin seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg), amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) was given once daily orally for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood glutathione, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity were measured. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. L-NAME administration resulted in a significant increase in BP starting from the second week. Pumpkin seed oil or amlodipine treatment significantly reduced the elevation in BP by L-NAME and normalized the L-NAME-induced ECG changes-namely, prolongation of the RR interval, increased P wave duration, and ST elevation. Both treatments significantly decreased the elevated levels of MDA and reversed the decreased levels of NO metabolites to near normal values compared with the L-NAME-treated group. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal (but not L-NAME-treated) rats. Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO.

  3. Chemical composition and functional characterisation of commercial pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Stancher, Bruno; Cateni, Francesca; Zacchigna, Marina

    2013-03-30

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common product in Slovenia, Hungary and Austria and is considered a preventive agent for various pathologies, particularly prostate diseases. These properties are related to its high content of carotenoids and liposoluble vitamins. In this study the carotenoid (lutein and zeaxanthin), vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) and fatty acid contents of 12 samples of commercial pumpkin seed oil were investigated together with the composition of the volatile fraction resulting from the roasting process. The aromatic profile obtained from the commercial samples was directly related to the intensity of the roasting process of the crushed pumpkin seeds. The roasting temperature played a crucial role in the concentrations of volatile substances originating from Strecker degradation, lipid peroxidation and Maillard reaction. The findings suggest that high-temperature roasting leads to the production of an oil with intense aromatic characteristics, while mild conditions, generally employed to obtain an oil with professed therapeutic characteristics, lead to a product with minor characteristic pumpkin seed oil aroma. The nutraceutical properties of the product are confirmed by the high content of α- and γ-tocopherol and carotenoids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis, as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg, total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg, α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal to 70.2% (Pera-rio. According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  5. comparison of antimicrobial activity of seed oil of garlic and moringa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    seed oil, while alkaloid and tannins were observed in seed oil of garlic. Furthermore, the ... purpose or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs. About 80% ... pathogens and parasites, adverse effects of chemical drugs, increasing ...

  6. Robust and durable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics for oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Xu, Xianghui; Guo, Fang; Zhu, Xiaotao; Men, Xuehu; Ge, Bo

    2013-08-14

    By introducing the incorporation of polyaniline and fluorinated alkyl silane to the cotton fabric via a facile vapor phase deposition process, the fabric surface possessed superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 156° and superoleophilicity with the oil contact angle of 0°. The as-prepared fabric can be applied as effective materials for the separation of water and oil mixture with separation efficiency as high as 97.8%. Compared with other materials for oil/water separation, the reported process was simple, time-saving, and repeatable for at least 30 times. Moreover, the obtained fabric kept stable superhydrophobicity and high separation efficiency under extreme environment conditions of high temperature, high humidity, strong acidic or alkaline solutions, and mechanical forces. Therefore, this reported fabric has the advantages of scalable fabrication, high separation efficiency, stable recyclability, and excellent durability, exhibiting the strong potential for industrial production.

  7. Effect of Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol blended cotton seed methyl ester fuelled automotive diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. Senthil; Raj, R. Thundil Karuppa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of di-tertiary butyl peroxide on ethanol blended biodiesel is investigated. • Cetane enhanced ethanol up to 10% can be blended with cotton seed biodiesel. • Nitrogen oxides emissions are lower for cetane enhanced ethanol biodiesels. • Performance characteristics of cetane improved ethanol biodiesels are reasonable. • Cetane enhanced ethanol blended biodiesel is an promising renewable energy source. - Abstract: An experimental study is carried out to examine and analyze the influence of Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide in bioethanol diesel blends on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics in a single cylinder, 4-stroke, naturally aspirated, automotive diesel engine for variable speed at full load conditions. Esterified cotton seed oil of 5% by volume is emulsified with 95% pure diesel to get the base fuel (BE0) for the experiments. Bioethanol diesel blends are produced from base fuel by adding 5% and 10% pure ethanol on a volumetric basis to obtain BE5 and BE10 respectively. The bioethanol fuels are low in Cetane number and hence Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide a Cetane enhancer is added by 0.4% by volume to produce BE5CN0.4% and BE10CN0.4% emulsions respectively. It is found from the experiments carried out, that an inverse trend exists between brake thermal efficiency and percentage of ethanol in base fuel. This is due to the lower calorific value of ethanol and an improvement in brake thermal efficiency is observed with ignition improver added blends. The presence of Cetane improver significantly reduced oxides of nitrogen and unburned hydro carbon emissions for overall engine speed and carbon monoxide emissions for low to medium speed range.

  8. Salvia macrosiphon seeds and seed oil: pharmacognostic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Wild Sage(Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. known as “Marvak” in Persian is one of the polymorphic and abundant plants of Lamiaceae. The plants whole seeds usually soaked or boiled in hot water are widely used for inflammatory ailments in folk medicine. Documents have shown that there is scant information on the chemical constituents of this plant seeds. The current study was carried out to assess the phytochemical constituents of Salvia macrosiphon seeds as well as anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The seed oil extracted via a Soxhlet extractor was subjected to pharmacognostic assays using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of fatty acids and sterols as well as evaluation of the possible anti-inflammatory activities in rats. Results: Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash values were determined as 51.67±7.53, 10.00±0.02 and 30.01±5.01 mg/g, respectively. HPTLC assessment revealed the presence of different steroids, triterpenes and fatty acids. Amount of sterols in oil was found 2.44, 24.92 and 4.60 mg/g for esterified β-sitosterol, free β-sitosterol and free stigmasterol, respectively. The α-linolenic acid (77.69±6.10% was the principal fatty acid. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the seed oil showed low activity in the early phase of formalin test; however, could not significantly inhibit the neutrophil-induced damage by reducing MPO activity in the paws of the rat. Conclusion: The seed oil did not exhibit satisfactory effects on acute inflammation in this study but considering the rich phytosterols content, the seed and its oil can be introduced as useful dietary supplements.

  9. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Çetin, Emine

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α- tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los contenidos de nutrientes y antioxidantes de extractos de aceite de orujo y pepita de uva de los principales cultivares de uva de Turquía, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede y Emir. El material procedente del orujo y las semillas, seco y pulverizado, se extrajo con hexano. Los resultados mostraron que la concentración de aceite de las semillas osciló entre 12,35 y 16,00 % mientras que en el aceite de orujo la concentración varió entre 5,47 y 8,66%. Los aceites de orujo y pepita de uva eran ricos en ácido oleico y linoleico y su grado de instauraci

  10. Development of a prototype sensor to detect plastic contamination in seed cotton at the gin

    Science.gov (United States)

    US cotton is considered to have some of the lowest levels of contamination in the world. That reputation is expected by foreign and domestic mills. Despite this reputation, U.S. spinners have recently experienced some serious contamination issues with US cotton. Of particular concern are plastic con...

  11. Characteristics, Composition and Oxidative Stability of Lannea microcarpa Seed and Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bazongo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%, crude oil (64.90%, protein (21.14%, total carbohydrate (10.85% and moisture (3.24%. Physicochemical properties of the oil were: refractive index, 1.473; melting point, 22.60°C; saponification value, 194.23 mg of KOH/g of oil; iodine value, 61.33 g of I2/100 g of oil; acid value, 1.21 mg of KOH/g of oil; peroxide value, 1.48 meq of O2/kg of oil and oxidative stability index, 43.20 h. Oleic (43.45%, palmitic (34.45%, linoleic (11.20% and stearic (8.35% acids were the most dominant fatty acids. Triacylglycerols with equivalent carbon number (ECN 48 and ECN 46 were dominant (46.96% and 37.31%, respectively. The major triacylglycerol constituents were palmitoyl diolein (POO (21.23%, followed by dipalmitoyl olein (POP (16.47%, palmitoyl linoleyl olein (PLO (12.03%, dipalmitoyl linolein (PLP (10.85% and dioleoyl linolein (LOO (9.30%. The total polyphenol and tocopherol contents were 1.39 mg GAE g−1 DW and 578.56 ppm, respectively. γ-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (437.23 ppm. These analytical results indicated that the L. microcarpa seed oil could be used as a frying oil and in the cosmetic industry.

  12. Characteristics and composition of cucumis melo seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, S.; Batool, F.; Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive characterization study was carried out on Cucumis melo seed oil, in order to evaluate its suitability as an edible vegetable oil. The oil was extracted by sohxlet apparatus using n-hexane as solvent that produced a yield of 47.33% (w/w). The oil was found to have light yellow colour and an agreeable odour, showing density up to 0.728 g/cm/sup 3/. The values of refractive index, iodine number and saponification number came out to be 1.466 (at 25 deg. C), 135.6 g/100 g and 301.6 mg KOH/100 g, respectively. GC-analysis gave total unsaturation content of 64.9% with linolenic acid (C18:3) being the predominant showing a proportion of 43.4%, followed by heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) with 23.1% and palmitic acid (C16:0) with 8.7%. The physicochemical properties of this oil are highly comparable to those of soybean and sunflower oils. Therefore, the test melon seed-oil could be developed into different commercial products to serve as an alternate vegetable oil in region like Pakistan, where this melon grows abundantly. (author)

  13. An Experimental Study on the Diesel Engine Performance with Rape Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeong Og

    2002-02-01

    A four cycle diesel engine performance test was performed with four kinds of oils such as rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil, activated clay rape seed oil and light oil. The experiment was conducted at full load condition with constant injection time of the engine and the test oil temperature was maintained at 70±2 .deg. C. 1. The torque and the horsepower with rape seed fuel is increased about 10% compare with light seed oil at full load condition of the engine. High viscosity of the rape makes oil films in the combustor which leads to higher compression ratio and explosion. The results of the high viscosity make higher torque of the engine. The brake specific fuel consumption of the rape seed fuel increased 8%∼10% than that of the light oil. This effect could be the difference of heating value between the two kinds of oil. 2. The emission of the smoke gas was decreased 29%, 38% and 52% compare with light oil in rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil and activated clay rape respectively due to the low volatility and high viscosity of the soot. The NOx emission with rape seed oil is twice larger than that of the light oil at full load condition. The reason is that the fuel temperature increment effects on the combustor temperature and it makes thermal NOx of the engine. 3. The test engine could be started over 40 .deg. C of the rape seed oil. Engine inspection results shows that the soot adherence amount of the cylinder head piston head is higher in following order; activated clay rape seed oil > effective micro-organism rape seed oil > rape seed oil > light oil

  14. Comparative Analysis of Biodiesels from Calabash and Rubber Seeds Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Awulu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils depend on the inherent properties of the oil-producing seeds. The purpose of this study is to investigate the physicochemical properties of biodiesels extracted from calabash and rubber seeds oils, as well as their combined oil mixtures with a view to ascertaining the most suitable for biodiesel production. Calabash and rubber seeds oils were separately extracted through the use of a mechanical press with periodic addition of water. Biodiesels were produced from each category of the oils by transesterification of the free fatty acid (FFA with alcohol under the influence of a catalyst in batch process. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesels were investigated and comparatively analysed. The results obtained indicated an average of 1.40 wt% FFA for biodiesel produced from the purified calabash oil, which has a specific gravity of 0.920, pH of 5.93, flash point of 116 0C, fire point of 138 0C, cloud point of 70 0C, pour point of -4 0C, moisture content of 0.82 wt% and specific heat capacity of 5301 J/kgK. Conversely, the results obtained for biodiesel produced from the purified rubber oil showed an average of 33.66 wt% FFA, specific gravity of 0.885, pH of 5.51, flash point of 145 0C, fire point of 170 0C, cloud point of 10 0C, pour point of 4 0C, moisture content of 1.30 wt% and specific heat capacity of 9317 J/kgK. However, results obtained for biodiesel produced from the combined oil mixtures indicated an average of 19.77 wt% FFA content, specific gravity of 0.904, API gravity of 25.036, pH value of 5.73, flash point of 157 0C, Fire point of 180 0C, cloud point of 9 0C, pour point of 5 0C, moisture content of 0.93 wt% and specific heat capacity of 6051 J/kgK. Biodiesel produced from calabash seed oil is superior in quality to rubber seed oil, particularly in terms of its low FFA and moisture contents.

  15. Effects of seed preparation and oil pressing on milkweed (Asclepias spp.) protein functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of seed cooking and oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins were determined to identify potential value-added uses for the meal. Milkweed seeds were flaked and then cooked in the seed conditioner at 82°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. Oil was extracted by scre...

  16. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judicaël Thomas Ouilly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C, 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C, 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%, lutein (80%, and β-sitosterol (93% were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications.

  17. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil of irradiated thevetia seeds was extracted with different solvents. The effect of irradiation dosages on the extracted oils was studied by comparing the TLC chromatography of irradiated seed oil with that of non-radiated seeds. Saponification values were also compared.

  18. Thai jute seed oil: a potential polyunsaturated fatty acid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitree Suttajit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined lipid and fatty acid compositions of different varieties of jute (Po-kra-jao, Corchorus olitorius L. seed grown in Thailand. Four different jute seeds (Nonn-Soong, Keaw-Yai, Cuba and Khonkaen harvested from northeastern Thailand were ground, their lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v, and lipid composition was determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GLC with standard methods. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in jute seed oil, ranging from 70% to 74%, and other two minor components were phytosterol (12% to 28% and diacylglycerol (0% to 9%. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates, was approximately 2: 3: 4. Most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was linoleic acid (18:2n-6, accounting for 40-67% of total fatty acid. Nonn-Soong had the highest amount of PUFA (67.7%, followed by Khonkaen (44.53%, Keaw-Yai (41.14%, and Cuba (40.19%. Another PUFA found was α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, accounting for about 1% of total fatty acid. The results indicated that jute seed oil was a potential edible PUFA source. The oils obtained from different kinds of jute seeds had significantly different lipid and fatty acid compositions.

  19. Nigella seed oil as alternative to avilamycin antibiotic in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to study the effect of nigella seed oil as an alternative to the antibiotic, avilamycin, on growth, digestibility, muscle fatty acid profile and some physiological parameters in broiler chickens. Fifty four chicks at 15 d of age (average weight, 320 ± 3 g) were divided into a control group and two treatment ...

  20. Effects of Moringa oleifera seed oil supplemented diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) day old chicks comprising of two broiler genotypes (Arbor Acre and Ross 308) were fed to graded levels (0%, 4.5%, 5% and 5.5%) of Moringa oleifera Seed Oil (MOSO) to investigate its effect on their performance. The experiment was conducted for 35 days and the chickens were fed ad ...

  1. Pomegranate seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acids reduces in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) on gas and methane (CH4) production, ruminal fermentation and microbial populations under in vitro conditions. Three treatments consisting of a control diet containing 10 mg tallow (CON); the control diet with 5 mg ...

  2. Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars of Cajanus cajan in Nigeria. BA Iwalokun, OJ Adeyemi, TI Adeleke, EO Abayomi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 50-60. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. The Effects of Dehulling on Physicochemical Properties of Seed Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil yield from dehulled seeds was significantly higher (31−35.1%) than the yield from ... in dark containers (wrapped with aluminium foil) and stored at 4°C to allow .... High refractive preliminary confirms the availability of differences in fatty.

  4. Extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim seed oil reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. seed oil (EZSO) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. Methods: Following feeding with HFD for 30 days, hyperlipidemic hamsters were intragastrically treated with EZSO for 60 days. Serum levels of ...

  5. Disinfection studies of Nahar (Mesua ferrea) seed kernel oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... with a k value of -0.040. Key words: Nahar (Mesua ferrea) seed kernel oil, extraction, gum Arabic, disinfection, kinetics. INTRODUCTION. Disinfection plays a key role in the reclamation and reuse of wastewater for eliminating infectious diseases, this, in part, augments domestic water supply and decreases ...

  6. Chemical investigation of Nigella sativa L. seed oil produced in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Gharby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin or black seeds are widely used in traditional Islamic medicine and for culinary purposes worldwide. Nigella seed oil is becoming popular in and out of the Islamic world. Composition of Nigella seed oil is known to be location-dependent. We investigated the composition of Nigella seed oil prepared by solvent- or cold press-extraction of Nigella seeds grown in Morocco. Oil extraction yield was 37% and 27% when solvent or cold press extraction methods were used, respectively. In terms of oil major components, composition of Nigella seed oil from Morocco is similar to that from other Mediterranean countries known for their Nigella seed-oil quality.

  7. Fatty Acid And Essential Oil Compositions Of The Seed Oil Of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid and essential oil compositions of the seed oil of Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis and A. squamosa were investigated by GC and GC/MS spectra. About eleven fatty acids were identified of which oleic, gondoic, palmitic and stearic acids predominated in each sample, and others ...

  8. Physicochemical Properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumat Salimon; Rozaini Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Jatropha curcas oil was extracted using n-hexane as solvent in the Soxhlet extraction method. The physicochemical properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas oil were evaluated. The result showed that the Jatropha seeds consist of 60% (dry w/ w) crude oil. The physicochemical properties showed that the seed oil contained low moisture level of 0.02±0.01%, acid value (1.50±0.07%), iodine value (91.70±1.44 mg/ g), peroxide value (0.66±0.04 miliequivalence/ kg) and saponification value of 208.5±0.47 mg/ g respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid (46.00±0.19%) appears as dominant fatty acid in seed oil followed by linoleic acid (31.96±0.19%) and palmitic acid (13.89±0.06%). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that the dominant triacylglycerols present were PLL (22.00%), POP(16.48%), 000(16.48%), 00L(16.23%) and OLL(13.00%). (author)

  9. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

  10. Combined effect of soil amendment with oil cakes and seed priming in the control of root rot fungi of leguminous and non-leguminous crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Dawar, S.; Tariq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Organic amendments of soil help in proper aeration, rising of temperature and water holding capacity which results in better uptake of nutrients with root system gets extensive establishment. In this study, effects of soil amendment with oil seed cakes including mustard (Brassica campestris L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) and black seed (Nigella sativa L.) cakes at the rate of 0.1 and 1% w/w and priming of seeds with Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) leaves extracts and microbial antagonists (Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium melilotii) was observed on the growth of plants and in the suppression of root infecting fungi. The results obtained showed that combined effect of bio-priming of seeds with T. harzianum spore suspension and amendment of soil with mustard cake at the rate of 1% was found to be most effective for the growth of leguminous and non-leguminous crop plants (peanut, chickpea, okra and sunflower) and for the reduction of root infecting fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium spp followed by R. meliloti primed seeds in combination with cotton, almond and black seed cakes amendment respectively as compared to control (non treated seeds and soil). (author)

  11. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  12. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S. [P.G. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pawate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations. (author)

  13. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations

  14. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  15. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L. cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalchat, Jean Claude

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were petroselinic (59.35%, linoleic (11,82%, palmitic (10.01% and stearic (2.41% acids. Mineral contents (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Sr, V and Zn of seeds were also determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The seeds were found to be rich in protein, fiber and ash. The essential oil and edible oil compositions of carrot seeds from Konya were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oil yields of essential and edible oil from carrot seeds were established as 0.83% and 7.84%, respectively. The major constituents of seed essential oil were carotol (66.78%, daucene (8.74%, (Z,Z--farnesene (5.86%, germacrene D (2.34%, trans--bergamotene (2.41% and -selinene (2.20%. Whereas, carotol (30.55%, daucol (12.60% and copaenol (0.62% were the important components of edible carrot seed oil. However, the dominant component of both oils was carotol.Se determinó la composición química y las propiedades físicas de las semillas de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. obtenidas en Konya, Turquía, con objeto de investigar usos potenciales de las mismas. Se determinó la humedad, el peso, el contenido proteico, en aceite, en fibra, en ceniza, en ceniza insoluble en ácido clorhídrico, los carbohidratos totales, y el rendimiento de la obtención de aceite esencial a partir de 1000 semillas maduras. Asimismo se determinó la densidad relativa, el índice de refracci

  16. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP......, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748...

  17. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  18. Synthesis and properties of cross-linked polymers from epoxidized rubber seed oil and triethylenetetramine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2015-01-01

    A series of epoxidized oils were prepared from rubber seed, soybean, jatropha, palm, and coconut oils. The epoxy content varied from 0.03 to 7.4 wt %, in accordance with the degree of unsaturation of the oils (lowest for coconut, highest for rubber seed oil). Bulk polymerization/curing of the

  19. Oil characteristics and fatty acid profile of seeds from three varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil characteristics and fatty acid profile of seeds from three varieties of date palm ... of oils, as indicators of the quality and safety, and oxidative status of edible oils, ... industry, these data suggest that the potential applications of date seed oil for ...

  20. EVALUATION OFAMATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR OIL EXTRACTION FROM OLEAGINOUS SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Toscano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical extraction from seeds represents an important process in the production of vegetable oils. The efficiency of this step can have an effect on the economic convenience of the entire production chain of vegetable oils. However, the mechanical presses used for extraction are designed following criteria based more on the experience and intuition of the operators than on rigorous analyses of the physical principles involved in the process. In this study we have tested the possibility of applying a mathematical model that reproduces oil extraction from seeds, on a laboratory type of continuous press. In other words, we have compared the results of our mathematical model with those obtained from real extractions with mechanical presses on sunflower seeds. Our model is based on determining the main operating parameters of mechanical extraction, such as temperature, pressure and compression time, and on the knowledge of some physical characteristics of the solid matrix of the seeds. The results obtained are interesting because they include the role of operating parameters involved in extraction while the application of the mathematical model studied here allows, although with potential for improvement, a mathematical instrument to be developed for optimising the sizing and the operating conditions of mechanical presses.

  1. Study for the degumming pretreatment of rubber seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Zhang, X.; Souliyathai, D.; Yang, S. P.; Wang, Q.

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of the aviation industry, appearing of the aviation carbon tax and the increasingly serious environmental problems have forced the world to research the development of renewable bio-aviation fuel. Renewable biological aviation fuel contains phosphorus that could reduce the synthesis of noble metal catalysts such as Pd, Pt activity. In order to get low content of phosphorus in degummed oil of non-edible vegetable oil, in this paper, with rubber seed oil as raw material, making the experiment of single factor at the influence of temperature, stirring speed, adding amount of monoethanolamine (MEA) and water amount. The experimental results show that the added amount of MEA is 2.5% in the weight of oil, and temperature is 60°C, while the amount of added water is 2% in the weight of oil, reaction time is 40 min, and stirring speed is 200 r/min. Under these conditions, the phosphorus content of rubber seed oil can be reduced to below 3 mg/kg, degumming rate is 91.37%, and the degumming effects are obvious, which also provides some foundation for follow-up studies.

  2. GC Analyses of Salvia Seeds as Valuable Essential Oil Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Taârit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of seeds of Salvia verbenaca, Salvia officinalis, and Salvia sclarea were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The oil yields (w/w were 0.050, 0.047, and 0.045% in S. verbenaca, S. sclarea, and S. officinalis, respectively. Seventy-five compounds were identified. The essential oil composition of S. verbenaca seeds showed that over 57% of the detected compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes followed by sesquiterpenes (24.04% and labdane type diterpenes (5.61%. The main essential oil constituents were camphor (38.94%, caryophyllene oxide (7.28%, and 13-epi-manool (5.61%, while those of essential oil of S. officinalis were α-thujone (14.77%, camphor (13.08%, and 1,8-cineole (6.66%. In samples of S. sclarea, essential oil consists mainly of linalool (24.25%, α-thujene (7.48%, linalyl acetate (6.90%, germacrene-D (5.88%, bicyclogermacrene (4.29%, and α-copaene (4.08%. This variability leads to a large range of naturally occurring volatile compounds with valuable industrial and pharmaceutical outlets.

  3. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: II. QTL and genes that increase oil concentration without decreasing protein or with increased seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed oil is the primary global source of edible oil and a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, increasing the relative oil concentration in soybean is desirable; however, that goal is complex due to the quantitative nature of the oil concentration trait and possible effects on major agronomic traits such as seed yield or protein concentration. The objectives of the present study were to study the relationship between seed oil concentration and important agronomic and seed quality traits, including seed yield, 100-seed weight, protein concentration, plant height, and days to maturity, and to identify oil quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are co-localized with the traits evaluated. A population of 203 F4:6 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between moderately high oil soybean genotypes OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, was developed and grown across multiple environments in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. Among the 11 QTL associated with seed oil concentration in the population, which were detected using either single-factor ANOVA or multiple QTL mapping methods, the number of QTL that were co-localized with other important traits QTL were six for protein concentration, four for seed yield, two for 100-seed weight, one for days to maturity, and one for plant height. The oil-beneficial allele of the QTL tagged by marker Sat_020 was positively associated with seed protein concentration. The oil favorable alleles of markers Satt001 and GmDGAT2B were positively correlated with seed yield. In addition, significant two-way epistatic interactions, where one of the interacting markers was solely associated with seed oil concentration, were identified for the selected traits in this study. The number of significant epistatic interactions was seven for yield, four for days to maturity, two for 100-seed weight, one for protein concentration, and one for plant height. The identified molecular

  4. Seed treatments with essential oils protect radish seedlings against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Klein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of seedlings of economic crops is often reduced if there is not a steady supply of water. Essential oils (EO from plants are increasingly used instead of synthetic chemicals to protect plant and animal products against biotic and abiotic stresses. We investigated priming radish seeds by soaking or by matriconditioning with synthetic or natural compounds as a means of inducing resistance to drought stress, thus maintaining crop yield. Priming radish seeds for two hours in solutions of essential oils (EO thymol and carvacrol derived from Origanum syriacum, with “oregano natural product” (ONP; a solution of the residue remaining after EO extraction, or with the gibberellin synthesis inhibitor trinexapac ethyl (TE, was much more effective in inducing drought resistance than was matriconditioning with the same compounds in sawdust for two days. The latter treatment induced considerable fungal and bacterial infection in treated seeds if the substrate-matrix was not heat-treated beforehand. The increase in specific leaf area in plants from treated seeds was mostly consistent with an increase in leaf water content. Seed treatments with EO, ONP, and especially TE led to a three-fold increase in radish seedling survival compared with water-treated controls, when 21 day-old seedlings were irrigated after 6 days of drought. Under drought conditions, seedlings from treated seeds had a 2–3-fold increase in relative water content increased 2–3-fold, while membrane permeability decreased 20–50-fold as a result of the treatments. However, the physical benefits of the treatments often did not correlate with treatment-induced increases in physiological parameters such as pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin, pigment ratios (chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid/chlorophyll, or antioxidant activity. Seed treatments with biostimulants can be as effective as treatments with synthetic compounds in inducing drought resistance in seedlings.

  5. Relationship Between Piercing-Sucking Insect Control and Internal Lint and Seed Rot in Southeastern Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Enrique G; Bell, Alois A; Greene, Jeremy K; Roberts, Phillip M; Bacheler, Jack S; Marois, James J; Wright, David L; Esquivel, Jesus F; Nichols, Robert L; Duke, Sara

    2015-08-01

    In 1999, crop consultants scouting for stink bugs (Hemiptera spp.) in South Carolina discovered a formerly unobserved seed rot of cotton that caused yield losses ranging from 10 to 15% in certain fields. The disease has subsequently been reported in fields throughout the southeastern Cotton Belt. Externally, diseased bolls appeared undamaged; internally, green fruit contain pink to dark brown, damp, deformed lint, and necrotic seeds. In greenhouse experiments, we demonstrated transmission of the opportunistic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Here, green bolls were sampled from stink bug management plots (insecticide protected or nontreated) from four South Atlantic coast states (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) to determine disease incidence in the field and its association with piercing-sucking insects feeding. A logistic regression analysis of the boll damage data revealed that disease was 24 times more likely to occur (P = 0.004) in bolls collected from plots in Florida, where evidence of pest pressure was highest, than in bolls harvested in NC with the lowest detected insect pressure. Fruit from plots treated with insecticide, a treatment which reduced transmission agent numbers, were 4 times less likely to be diseased than bolls from unprotected sites (P = 0.002). Overall, punctured bolls were 125 times more likely to also have disease symptoms than nonpunctured bolls, irrespective of whether or not plots were protected with insecticides (P = 0.0001). Much of the damage to cotton bolls that is commonly attributed to stink bug feeding is likely the resulting effect of vectored pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Variations in seed protein content of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant lines by in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Annamalai; Jayabalan, Narayanasamy

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the influence of gamma irradiation (GR), ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA) treatment on yield and protein content of selected mutant lines of cotton. Seeds of MCU 5 and MCU 11 were exposed to gamma rays (GR), ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA). Lower dose of gamma irradiation (100-500 Gy), 10-50 mM EMS and SA at lower concentration effectively influences in improving the yield and protein content. Significant increase in yield (258.9 g plant(-1)) and protein content (18.63 mg g(-1) d. wt.) as compared to parental lines was noted in M2 generations. During the subsequent field trials, number of mutant lines varied morphologically in terms of yield as well as biochemical characters such as protein. The selected mutant lines were bred true to their characters in M3 and M4 generations. The significant increase in protein content and profiles of the mutant lines with range of 10.21-18.63 mg g(-1). The SDS-PAGE analysis of mutant lines revealed 9 distinct bands of different intensities with range of 26-81 kDa. The difference in intensity of bands was more (41, 50 and 58 kDa) in the mutant lines obtained from in vitro mutation than in vivo mutation. Significance of such stimulation in protein content correlated with yielding ability of the mutant lines of cotton in terms of seed weight per plant. The results confirm that in cotton it is possible to enhance the both yield and biochemical characters by in vivo and in vitro mutagenic treatments.

  7. Roasting pumpkin seeds and changes in the composition and oxidative stability of cold-pressed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyk, Marianna; Siger, Aleksander; Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is valuable oil for its distinctive taste and aroma, as well as supposed health- promoting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate how roasting pumpkin seeds influences the physicochemical properties of cold-pressed oils. The fatty acid composition, content of phytosterols, carotenoids and tocopherols, oxidative stability and colour were determined in oils after cold pressing and storage for 3 months using GC-FID, GCxGC-ToFMS, HPLC, Rancimat and spectrophotometric methods. The results of this study indicate that the seed-roasting and storage process have no effect on the fatty acid composition of pumpkin seed oils, but does affect phytosterols and tocopherols. The carotenoid content decreased after storage. The colour of the roasted oil was darker and changed significantly during storage. Pumpkin oil obtained from roasted seeds shows better physicochemical properties and oxidative stability than oil from unroasted seeds.

  8. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based

  9. Jatropha curcas seed oil as a viable source for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, F.; Jamil, A.; Bhatti, H.N.; Rashid, U.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the utility of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed oil for bio diesel production. The preliminarily evaluated Jatropha oil was transmethylated under optimized set of reaction conditions: methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1), sodium methoxide catalyst concentration (1.00%), temperature (65 deg. C) and mixing intensity (600 rpm) providing 94.00% yield of Jatropha oil methyl esters (JOMEs)/biodiesel. The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis showed that JOMEs mainly comprised of six fatty acids: linoleic (49.75%), stearic (16.80%), oleic (13.00%), palmitic (12.15%), arachidic (5.01%) and gadoleic (2.00%) acids. 1H-NMR spectrum of JOMEs was also recorded. The thermal stability of the JOMEs produced was assessed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced were found to be within the standards specifications of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  10. Oil sorption and retention capacities of thermally-bonded hybrid nonwovens prepared from cotton, kapok, milkweed and polypropylene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, G; Praba Karan, C; Das, Dipayan

    2018-08-01

    This work reports on a series of thermally-bonded, hybrid and oil-sorbent nonwovens developed from binary and tertiary mixing of cotton, kapok, and three varieties of milkweed fibers (Asclepias Syriaca, Calotropis Procera and Calotropis Gigantea) and polypropylene fibers. The physical and chemical properties of the fibers were investigated to examine their oleophilic character. It was observed that all the fiber surfaces were covered with natural wax. Further, kapok and milkweed fibers were found to have less cell wall thickness and high void ratio. Oil sorption and retention characteristics of these fibers were studied in loose fibrous form as well as in structured assembly form (thermally-bonded nonwovens) using high density oil and diesel oil. The effects of fiber diameter, fiber cross-sectional shape, fiber surface area and porosity on the oil sorption behavior were discussed. An excellent and a selective oil sorption behavior of milkweed fibers (Calotropis Procera and Calotropis Gigantea) blended with cotton and polypropylene fibers were observed. The maximum oil sorption capacity of the developed thermal bonded nonwoven was 40.16 g/g for high density (HD) oil and 23.00 g/g for diesel oil. Further, a high porosity combined with high surface area played a major role in deciding the oil sorption and retention characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  12. A novel VIGS method by agroinoculation of cotton seeds and application for elucidating functions of GhBI-1 in salt-stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxia; Wang, Furong; Zhang, Chuanyun; Zhang, Junhao; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guodong; Zhao, Yanxiu; Hao, Fushun; Zhang, Jun

    2018-06-04

    A VIGS method by agroinoculation of cotton seeds was developed for gene silencing in young seedlings and roots, and applied in functional analysis of GhBI-1 in response to salt stress. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been widely used to investigate the functions of genes expressed in mature leaves, but not yet in young seedlings or roots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Here, we developed a simple and effective VIGS method for silencing genes in young cotton seedlings and roots by soaking naked seeds in Agrobacterium cultures carrying tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-VIGS vectors. When the naked seeds were soaked in Agrobacterium cultures with an OD600 of 1.5 for 90 min, it was optimal for silencing genes effectively in young seedlings as clear photo-bleaching phenotype in the newly emerging leaves of pTRV:GhCLA1 seedlings were observed at 12-14 days post inoculation. Silencing of GhPGF (cotton pigment gland formation) by this method resulted in a 90% decrease in transcript abundances of the gene in roots at the early development stage. We further used the tool to investigate function of GhBI-1 (cotton Bax inhibitor-1) gene in response to salt stress and demonstrated that GhBI-1 might play a protective role under salt stress by suppressing stress-induced cell death in cotton. Our results showed that the newly established VIGS method is a powerful tool for elucidating functions of genes in cotton, especially the genes expressed in young seedlings and roots.

  13. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti.Methods: Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae.Result: Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri had the lowest LC50 value (200.79ppm, while musambi (C. sinensis var musambi had the highest LC50 value (457.30ppm after 24 h of exposure.Conclusion: Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. ae­gypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine opera­tional feasibility.

  14. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  15. The Nutritive value of mulberry leaves (Morus Alba) and partial replacement of cotton seed in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, C.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pham, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo digestibility of mulberry leaves (Morus alba) and the effects of the partial replacement of cotton seed with fresh mulberry leaf in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle was investigated. For the in vivo digestibility trial, twenty castrated rams of Phanrang breed (a

  16. Study of volatile oil component of petal and herbal and extraction of seed oil in Borage by Cold Press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esfandiar Hassani Moghadam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a few reported about the volatile oil component of petal, herbal and component of seed oil of borage. This research worked carried out for analysis and identification the volatile oil in herbals, petals, and seed oil compositions of Borago officinalis L. in Lorestan province. Material and methods: Extraction of essential oil from petals carried out using steam distillation by Clevenger apparatus. The new SPME-GC/MS method is used for extraction and identification of volatile oil compounds in the herbal of borage. The oil of the seeds was extracted using a Cold-press method. The identification of chemical composition of extracted oil was carried out by GC/MS apparatus. Results: In petals of Borage only Carvacerol component, and in the herbal of Borage three components Carvacrol, Bisabolone oxide and 2-Phenylethyl benzoate, extracted and identified respectively. In the seed oil of borage 16 different components were separated and identified. The following components had the highest amount in seed oil: Hexadecane, N, N-dimethylethanolamine, Beta-d-glycoside, 3, 6-glucurono-methyl, Benzaldehde, 4-methyl 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran, Hexadecanoic acid, Heptanoic acid, Gamma butyrolactone and Ethyl octadec-9-enoate are the major components respectively. These components contain 63.4% of all components in borage seed oil and the 7 residual components only 9.5% all of the components in borage seed oil. Also one unknown (27.1% component identified. Conclusion: Using result obtained from this research the volatile oil a few amounts of the borage chemical composition. The results show that the seed oil of this species can be used for medicinal preparation. Cold Press method was found to be rapid and simple for identification of seeds oil components.

  17. Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study on tobacco seed oil methyl ester as a fuel in diesel engines. In this study, potential tobacco seed production throughout the world, the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. The produced tobacco seed oil methyl ester was characterized by exposing its major properties. The effects of tobacco seed oil methyl ester addition to diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (Author)

  18. physical, chemical, technological and biological properties of some mutant oil seeds induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to evaluated sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds induced by gamma rays, as plant breeding unit, plant research department, radioisotope application division, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority Inshas. the obtained results indicate the following : chemical composition of mutant seeds: the radiation mutation caused a significant increase in both oil and ash content total carbohydrates showed a significant decreased in sesame seeds. radiation mutation induced significant increase in oil and protein content of sunflower and safflower seeds. while the total carbohydrate showed a significant decrease. physiochemical properties of oils extracted mutant seeds: the radiation mutation had no real effect on the refractive index and A.V of oils extracted from control and mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds. while it caused a slight increase in red color and P.V. of sesame oil, the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of mutant sesame oil was not alter upon radiation mutation, but it induced a slight decrease in TBA of mutant sunflower and safflower oils. the unsaponifiable matter percentage of oils extracted from mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds were slightly increased by radiation mutation .radiation mutation of seeds had no real effect on the total SFA and USFA of sesame oil. however, radiation mutation induced a remarkable changes in fatty acid profiles of sunflower and safflower oil as total SFA decreased, while USFA increased. Uric acid was only detected in oil extracted from mutant sunflower seeds

  19. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  20. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the

  1. Evaluation of essential oils in health and physiological quality of Schinus molle seeds and seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Cardoso Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon nardus and Eucalyptus globules essential oils, in sanitary and physiological quality of Schinus molle L. seeds and seedlings. The seeds were treated with essential oils at concentrations of 10%, on 1 μL g-1, 20%, on 2 μL g-1, 30% , on 3 μL g-1 and control. After treatments, seeds were evaluated by sanity test, using filter paper method (“blotter test” and by germination test, where the seeds were placed between vermiculite substrate. For counts, sprouted and dead seeds were considered. Shoot length, root, total height and stem diameter were measured for seedlings evaluation. The use of citronella and mint essential oils reduced the incidence of different pathogens in S. molle seeds. Mint essential oil at 20% and 30% were effective to promote seeds germination. Eucalyptus essential oil in any concentration was efficient to increase seedlings growth.

  2. Characterization of seed oils from fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, C S; Mun, S P

    2008-05-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, and triacylglyceride (TAG) composition of seed oils from fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) fruits and traditional Bokbunja wine processing waste were determined in this study. Oil contents of the fresh seeds and the seeds from wine processing waste were similar, accounting for about 18% of dry weight. The free fatty acid (FFA) content between the two seed oils was significantly different (0.50% for fresh seed oil and 73.14% for wine seed oil). Iodine, conjugated diene, saponification values, and unsaponifiable matter were very similar in the oil samples, but the specific extinction coefficients at 232 and 270 nm of wine seed oil were higher than those of fresh seed oil. Linoleic (C18:2, 50.45-53.18%, L) and linolenic (C18:3, 29.36-33.25%, Ln) acids were the dominant FAs in the two seed oils, whereas oleic (C18:1, 7.32-8.04%, O), palmitic (C16:0, 1.55-1.65%, P), and stearic (C18:0, 0.65-0.68%, S) acids were the minor FAs. LLL, OLL, LLLn, OOL, LLnLn, and OOO were the abundant TAGs, representing >90% of the oils.

  3. Study of fuel properties of rubber seed oil based biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Junaid; Yusup, Suzana; Bokhari, Awais; Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This article presents the comparative studies of the fuel properties of rubber seed oil based biodiesel. • The design expert has been adopted for the optimization of the process variables. • The FTIR, cold flow properties and oxidation stability are the findings of present study. • All the fuel properties met the standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. • Present study reveals that rubber seed oil as a non-edible source potentially contributes for esters production. - Abstract: The scarcity of the fossil fuel, environmental pollution and food crisis are the world’s major issues in current era. Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel fuel, environment friendly and biodegradable and is produced from either edible or non-edible oils. In this study, a non-edible rubber seed oil (RSO) with high free fatty acid (FFA) content of 45% were used for the production of biodiesel. The process comprises of two steps. The first step is the acid esterification to reduce the FFA value and the second step is the base transesterification. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used for parametric optimization of the two stage processes i.e. acid esterification and base transesterification. The yield of biodiesel was analyzed using gas chromatography. The FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) spectrum was also determined to confirm the conversion of fatty acid to methyl esters. The fuel properties were analyzed according to the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 and were compared with the previous finding of researchers. All analyzed properties fulfilled the biodiesel standard criteria

  4. In-situ Alkaline Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Jatropha Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Novizar; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Setyaningsih, Dwi; Yuliani, Sri; Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar; Salimon, Jumat; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2014-01-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by direct in situ alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides (TG) in Jatropha curcas seeds was examined. The experimental results showed that the amount of Jatropha curcas seed oil dissolved in methanol was approximately 83% of the total oil and the conversion of this oil could achieve 98% under the following conditions: less than 2% moisture content in Jatropha curcas seed flours, 0.3–0.335 mm particle size, 0.08 mol/L NaOH co...

  5. Protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against genotoxicity induced by azathioprine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Elfiky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin is a leafy green vegetable; it belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Pumpkin seed oil supplementation can prevent changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of azathioprine. Oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment of azathioprine was effective in the reduction of the frequencies of Mn-PCEs, decreased the DNA fragmentation, total sperm abnormalities and significantly increased sperm count, percentage of PCEs, and enhanced the ratio of PCEs to NCEs. However, random amplified polymorphism of DNA (RAPD showed distinct differences in animal groups intoxicated with azathioprine before and after pumpkin seed oil treatment, which reflected a DNA protective effect of pumpkin seed oil. Depletion of glutathione content in the testis was also observed in azathioprine treated mice, which was improved by an oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment with azathioprine.

  6. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  7. Protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against genotoxicity induced by azathioprine

    OpenAIRE

    Elfiky, S.A.; Elelaimy, I.A.; Hassan, A.M.; Ibrahim, H.M.; Elsayad, R.I.

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin is a leafy green vegetable; it belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Pumpkin seed oil supplementation can prevent changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of azathioprine. Oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment of azathioprine was effective in the reduction of the frequencies of Mn-PCEs, decreased the DNA fragmentation, total ...

  8. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Nutrient Composition, Anti-nutritional Factors, In vitro Digestibility and Ruminal Degradation of Whole Cotton Seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, S.W.; Son, H.Y.; Kim, W.; Son, Y.S.; Oh, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    Whole cotton seed (WCS) has become one of the major feed ingredients in TMR for dairy cattle in Korea, and WCS for feed use is mostly imported from abroad. Since this genetically modified oil seed is usually fed to the animal in raw state, its germination ability, if last long, often causes concerns about ecological disturbances. In the process of looking for effective conditions to remove germination ability of WCS this study had the objectives to evaluate the nutritional effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 8, 10 and 12 kGy on changes in nutrient contents, anti-nutritional factors, in vitro digestibility and ruminal degradability. No significant differences were found in proximate analysis of nutrients between raw WCS and gamma irradiated one. Glycine and threonine contents significantly increased when the WCS was exposed to gamma ray as compared to untreated WCS(p0.05). As for fatty acid composition, no significant differences were observed with the irradiation treatment. Free gossypol in WCS was decreased(p0.05) by gamma irradiation treatment. Of the 3 different levels of gamma irradiation, a dose of 12kGy was found to be the most effective in reducing free gossypol concentration. Results obtained from in situ experiment indicated that gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy significantly(p0.05) lowered rumen degradability of both dry matter and crude protein as compared with raw WCS. However, there were no significant differences in rapidly degradable and potentially degradable fractions of crude protein due to 10kGy gamma irradiation. Overall, this study show that gamma irradiation at a dose of 10kGy is the optimum condition for removing germination ability of WCS, and could improve nutritive value for the ruminant with respect to the decrease in both ruminal protein degradability and gossypol content of WCS

  9. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  10. Triacylglycerols in some underutilised tropical seed oils 1. Systematic studies of ten oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Adebowale, Y.A.; Nicholson, G.

    2002-05-01

    Triacylglycerols composition of ten lesser known and underutilised tropical seed oils have been determined. The seed oils include Monodora tenuifolia, Monodora myristica, Colocynthis citrullus, Cyperus esculentus, Cucumeropsis edulis, Andenopus breviflorus, Telfairia occidentalis, Blighia sapida, Antiaris africana and Sesame indicum. In the Moreaceae family (M. tenuifolia, M. myristica) the dominant triacylglycerol are OPO/POO, LLO, OOL, and OOO. They accounted for over 60% of the total triacylglycerol content in the oils. In the Cyperaceae family (C. esculentus), OPP/POO, POL and OOO accounted for over 80% of the total triacylglycerol content. In the Cucurbitaceae family, SSP was the dominant triacylglycerol specie in A. breviflorus, while OPO/POO and OOO were the dominant species in C. citrullus and C. edulis. Blighia sapida recorded a different distribution of triacylglycerols composition. PLL occurred at the highest concentration, while other high molecular weight triacylglycerols were also identified in the oil. They include, SSA, OSA, LSA, OAA and LLA. Analysis of A. antiaris oil showed a different pattern in the distribution of the triacylglycerols. LaLaM, MMLa and LaLaLa accounted for about 80% of the total triacylglycerols. This result reflected the fatty acid composition of the oil. Lauric acid (C12:0) and Myristic acid (C14:0) accounted for 71.5% of the total fatty acid. The possible use of the oils as cocoa butter equivalents CBEs and cocoa butter substitutes CBSs are discussed. (author)

  11. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  12. Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, A.; Glante, F.; Schlueter, C.; Golz, C.; Noeh, I.; Reinhard, G.; Hoepfner, U.; Satorius, R.; Benndorf, R.; Bluemel, H.; Schaerer, B.; Rodt, S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to answer the following central question: Is the environmental pollution burden resulting from the cultivation of rape and the use of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester to be rated less severe than that of the manufacture and use of diesel fuel, and should, therefore, farmland be used in Germany to grow rape for rape seed oil or rape methyl ester production as a substitute for diesel fuel? Firstly, the extent is investigated to which rape seed oil or rape methyl ester can contribute to cuts in emissions of climate-relevant trace gases as compared to diesel fuel from crude oil. Secondly, the environmental impact and hazards associated with the cultivation, transport and manufacture of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester (again as compared to diesel fuel) are investigated. The data analysed relate to the entire life cycle. (orig./UWA) [de

  13. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  14. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowd, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, the seeds of seven Tilia species (lime or linden trees were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extraction of the seed oil with hexane, the glycerides were trans-methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography on two polar stationary phases. All of the seed oils analyzed were composed primarily of linoleic acid (49-60% with lesser amounts of oleic (16-22% and palmitic (8-10% acids. The usual secondary components were also found. In addition, cyclopropenoid acids (i.e., sterculic and malvalic acids were present at levels between 6 and 17%. In all samples, the level of malvalic acid was approximately twice the level of sterculic acid, indicating that considerable a-oxidation of sterculic acid had occurred in these seeds. Two additional a-oxidation products, 8-heptadecenoic acid and 8,11-heptadecadienoic acid were also detected. Combined, the level of these fatty acids was between 1.3 and 2.3%, roughly comparable to the levels of these acids recently reported in the seed oil of Thespesia populnea.Como parte de un estudio sobre la composición de aceites derivados de semillas de plantas Malvaceae, las semillas de siete especies de Tilia (árboles de tilia o lima fueron evaluadas con respecto a sus perfiles de ácidos grasos. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de Germplasm Research Information Network así como de varias fuentes comerciales. Tras la extracción del aceite con hexano, los glicéridos fueron trans-metilados y analizados por cromatografía de gases con dos fases polares estacionarias. Todos los aceites extraidos de las semillas analizados estaban compuestos principalmente de ácido linoleico (49-60% y, en cantidades más bajas de ácido oleico (16-22% y palmítico (8-10%. Otros componentes secundarios típicos también fueron encontrados. Además, los

  15. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB. Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS. Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  16. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  17. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  18. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin-Man; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-04-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean ( Glycine max ) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351 , encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1 , BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2 , 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III , DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1 , and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean ( Glycine soja ) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation inwhich the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production iscommonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate masstransfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA whichmay reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonificationhas been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to producecavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system forimproving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was usedunder constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound canreduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describecorrelation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 –7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  20. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkah Fajar Tamtomo Kiono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available roduction of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation in which the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production is commonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate mass transfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA which may reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonification has been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to produce cavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system for improving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was used under constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound can reduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describe correlation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 – 7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2 ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  1. Facile way in fabricating a cotton fabric membrane for switchable oil/water separation and water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubin; Feng, Ziliang; He, Yi; Fan, Yi; Ma, Jing; Yin, Xiangying

    2018-05-01

    With dopamine and NiFe2O4 particles, a novel modified cotton fabric (PDA-NiFe2O4@CF) was prepared by one-pot method. Surface morphology, composition of the PDA-NiFe2O4@CF were investigated with SEM, EDX, XRD and FT-IR, respectively. According to the results, the cotton fiber surface was well coated with NiFe2O4 particles. Subsequently, wetting behavior of the modified cotton fabric was determined. The PDA-NiFe2O4@CF is superamphiphilic in air, and a dual lyophobic behavior was indicated with an oil contact angle (OCA) of 153° under water and a water contact angle (WCA) of 145° under oil. The rough micro-nano scale surface structure and high-surface-energy compositions of the PDA-NiFe2O4@CF makes the surface to be easily covered by one medium and enables it to repel other unmixable medium simultaneously. Therefore, water-oil mixtures can be separated on demand. Besides, with the unusual dual lyophobic surface of PDA-NiFe2O4@CF, both two types of emulsions were separated by gravity driven. On the other hand, it was also found that the as-prepared PDA-NiFe2O4@CF had good adsorption performance for methylene blue.

  2. Unique occurrence of unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of Aegle marmelos Corre: Screening the rich source of seed oil for bio-energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagi, Kariyappa S.; Munnolli, Ravindra S.; Hosamani, Kallappa M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to characterize, isolate and elucidate the structure of unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of Aegle marmelos Corre. Further, this nonedible seed oil is screened for its bio-diesel or industrial feedstock property. The Aegle marmelos Corre seeds yielded 49.0% oil. The seed oil contains 12.5% of 12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid (ricinoleic acid) along with other normal fatty acids. The identification and characterization was supported by FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, MS, GC analysis and chemical degradation technique. A good agreement is seen between the calculated and experimental results of iodine value (IV) and saponification value (SV). The prominent parameters of bio-diesel such as cetane number (CN), lower heating value (LHV) and higher heating value (HHV) are deployed to envisage the quality of oil for use as bio-diesel. This seed oil is nonedible and is found to be the alternative feed stock for the production of bio-diesel since it convenes the major specifications of bio-diesel. The bio-diesel property of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of this seed oil is compared with other bio-diesels.

  3. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  4. Transesterified milkweed (Asclepias) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Alan Holser; Rogers Harry-O' Kurua [United States Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL (United States). Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Utilization Research

    2006-10-15

    The methyl and ethyl esters of milkweed (Asclepias) seed oil were prepared and compared to soybean esters in laboratory tests to determine biodiesel fuel performance properties. The pour points of the methyl and ethyl milkweed esters measured -6{sup o}C and -10{sup o}C, respectively, which is consistent with the high levels of unsaturation characteristic of milkweed seed oil. The oxidative stabilities measured by OSI at 100{sup o}C were between 0.8 and 4.1 h for all samples tested. The kinematic viscosities determined at 40{sup o}C by ASTM D 445 averaged 4.9 mm{sup 2}/s for milkweed methyl esters and 4.2 mm{sup 2}/s for soybean methyl esters. Lubricity values determined by ASTM D 6079 at 60{sup o}C were comparable to the corresponding soybean esters with average ball wear scar values of 118 {mu}m for milkweed methyl esters and 200 {mu}m for milkweed ethyl esters.

  5. Yellow passion fruit seed oil (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa: physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Roberta Malacrida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition -physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol compositions and total phenolic compounds -and evaluate the radical-scavenging activity of crude oil extracted from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa seeds, aiming to use the agro-industrial by-products. The oil seed extraction was performed by Soxhlet method and the oil yield from the seeds was 30.39%. The oil showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (87.59%, including mainly linoleic (73.14% and oleic (13.83% acids, tocopherol (499.30 mg/kg and phenolic compounds (1,314.13 mg GAE/kg. The physico-chemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oil showed significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, the potential utilization of the passion fruit seed oil as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries could be favorable.

  6. Review of the cotton market in Pakistan and its future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Tassawar Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is the world’s 4th largest producer of cotton. Cultivation along the Indus River extends across nearly 3 million hectares and serves as the backbone of the economy. Despite this importance, information on the cotton sector in Pakistan, in particular with regard to cotton oils, is scanty and not available from a single source. This review seeks to remedy that gap. Though cultivated mainly for fiber, its kernel seed oil is also used as an edible vegetable oil and accounts for a large share of the local oil industry; per capita consumption of edible oils is nearly 14 kg, which is much higher than consumption in countries at similar levels of economic development. Pakistan fulfills 17.7% of its demand for edible oils through cottonseed oil. Total demand for this purpose in 2029–30 is estimated at 5.36 million tons of which local production will be 1.98 million tons. Genetically modified (Bt cotton was introduced in Pakistan in 2010 to control three deleterious lepidopterous insects; it now accounts for more than 85% of the cotton cultivated. There is good scope for organic cotton production in Pakistan, especially in non-traditional cotton growing areas where there is less insect pressure. High temperature and water scarcity associated with climate change are a major concern, since current cultivation takes place in areas that already experience extremely high temperatures.

  7. Extraction and the Fatty Acid Profile of Rosa acicularis Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huanan; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Ruchun; Zhang, Lu; Yu, Dianyu; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2017-12-01

    Rosa acicularis seed oil was extracted from Rosa acicularis seeds by the ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic method using cellulase and protease. Based on a single experiment, Plackett-Burman design was applied to ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of wild rose seed oil. The effects of enzyme amount, hydrolysis temperature and initial pH on total extraction rate of wild rose seed oil was studied by using Box-Behnken optimize methodology. Chemical characteristics of a sample of Rosa acicularis seeds and Rosa acicularis seed oil were characterized in this work. The tocopherol content was 200.6±0.3 mg/100 g oil. The Rosa acicularis seed oil was rich in linoleic acid (56.5%) and oleic acid (34.2%). The saturated fatty acids included palmitic acid (4%) and stearic acid (2.9%). The major fatty acids in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol in Rosa acicularis oil were linoleic acid (60.6%), oleic acid (33.6%) and linolenic acid (3.2%). According to the 1,3-random-2-random hypothesis, the dominant triacylglycerols were LLL (18%), LLnL (1%), LLP (2%), LOL (10%), LLSt (1.2%), PLP (0.2%), LLnP (0.1%), LLnO (0.6%) and LOP (1.1%). This work could be useful for developing applications for Rosa acicularis seed oil.

  8. Biorefinery methods for separation of protein and oil fractions from rubber seed kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani, R.; Ratnaningsih, E.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Biorefinery of rubber seeds can generate additional income for farmers, who already grow rubber trees for latex production. The aim of this study was to find the best method for protein and oil production from rubber seed kernel, with focus on protein recovery. Different pre-treatments and oil

  9. Volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of Catimbium latilabre (Ridl.) Holtt. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of C. latilabre from Vietnam were analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and GC/MS. More than 55 components were present in the seed oil, of which the major ones were b-caryophyllene (25.8%), camphor (11.2%), caryophyllene oxide (5.7%),

  10. Comparative study of the chemical composition and mineral element content of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Ibironke Adetolu

    2008-07-01

    A comparative study of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds, both of Moraceae family, was carried out to establish their chemical compositions and evaluate their mineral element content in order to investigate the possibility of using them for human and or animal consumption and also to examine if there is a relationship between the properties of these seeds. A. heterophyllus and T. africana are rich in protein; their protein contents are higher than those from high protein animal sources such as beef and marine fishes. Both seeds have high carbohydrate content and could act as source of energy for animals if included in their diets. The oil contents of the seeds are 11.39% and 18.54% for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively. The oils are consistently liquid at room temperature. The results of the physicochemical properties of the two seeds are comparable to those of conventional oil seeds such as groundnut and palm kernel oils and could be useful for nutritional and industrial purposes. The seeds were found to be good sources of mineral elements. The result revealed potassium to be the prevalent mineral elements which are 2470.00 ppm and 1680.00 ppm for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively followed by sodium, magnesium and then calcium. They also contain reasonable quantity of iron, in particular A. heterophyllus 148.50 ppm.

  11. Some physical and chemical properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. seed and fatty acid composition of seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem GÖLÜKÇÜ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible part and leaves of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. are used as food or medicine to control some diseases because of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-hepatotoxic, antiviral, antiulcerogenic and larvicidal effects. Although fruits have considerable amount of seeds, they have not received much attention. In this study, some physical and chemical properties of the seed and also fatty acid composition of seed oil were determined. Oil content of the sample was determined by soxhlet apparatus as 26.10% in dried sample. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS and seven fatty acids were identified and their ratios were determined in this seed oil. The main fatty acid was determined as α-eleostearic (45.60%. The other fatty acids were palmitic (3.69%, stearic (28.00%, oleic (12.45%, linoleic (8.90%, arachidic (0.71% and gadoleic acids (0.65%.

  12. Analysing seed systems performance: the case of oil palm in Bénin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpo, E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: Bénin, genetic quality, growth dynamics, innovation, institutions, multistakeholders

    process, oil palm, perennials, physiological quality, pot size, seed quality, seed

    systems, smallholders, social learning.

    The seed supply system used by smallholder

  13. Molecular regulation and genetic improvement of seed oil content in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HUA,Jing LIU,Hanzhong WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important oil crop and a potential bioenergy crop, Brassica napus L. is becoming a model plant for basic research on seed lipid biosynthesis as well as seed oil content, which has always been the key breeding objective. In this review, we present current progress in understanding of the regulation of oil content in B. napus, including genetics, biosynthesis pathway, transcriptional regulation, maternal effects and QTL analysis. Furthermore, the history of breeding for high oil content in B. napus is summarized and the progress in breeding ultra-high oil content lines is described. Finally, prospects for breeding high oil content B. napus cultivars are outlined.

  14. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Francesco; Straccia, Maria C; Paolucci, Marina; Fasulo, Gabriella; Boscaino, Floriana; Volpe, Maria G

    2016-03-30

    Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health. The aim of this work was to compare the physico-chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punicagranatum), sweet cherry (Prunusavium) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oils obtained by solvent extraction. High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils, while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) along to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UV-A and UV-B ranges. Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion. Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Mechanical and thermal properties of sisal fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakare, I.O.; Okieimen, F.E.; Pavithran, C.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Brahmakumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of high-performance composite materials from locally sourced and renewable materials was investigated. Rubber seed oil polyurethane resin synthesized using rubber seed monoglyceride derived from glycerolysis of the oil was used as matrix in the composite samples. Rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composite reinforced with unidirectional sisal fibers were prepared and characterized. Results showed that the properties of unidirectional fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites gave good thermal and mechanical properties. Also, the values of tensile strengths and flexural moduli of the polyurethane composites were more than tenfold and about twofold higher than un-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane. The improved thermal stability and the scanning electron micrographs of the fracture surface of the composites were attributed to good fiber-matrix interaction. These results indicate that high-performance 'all natural products' composite materials can be developed from resources that are readily available locally.

  16. Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

  17. Determination of oil in seeds by a wide line NMR instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, Aurel

    1983-01-01

    The oil content of sunflower, rape and soybean seeds was determined by a wide line NMR instrument. Using various model systems the following conclusions were drawn: the sensitivity of the instrument is much higher for the oil content of the seeds than for their water content. This observation can be interpreted in terms of the longer relaxation time of the water protons. The quantitative determination of the oil content of the seeds can be done with a high accuracy provided that the calibration curve for the respective oil is available and the signal of the solid state components of the seeds is corrected. If the water content of the seeds is reduced below 5 per cent, the oil content values obtained by NMR and extraction techniques are in agreement within the experimental error. (author)

  18. Valorization of Waste Obtained from Oil Extraction in Moringa Oleifera Seeds: Coagulation of Reactive Dyes in Textile Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaseca, Mercè; López-Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2014-09-12

    Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%-75% of seeds weight) which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. This waste constitutes a natural coagulant which was demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of industrial reactive dyestuff effluents, characterized by alkaline pH, high NaCl content and hydrolyzed dyes. The coagulation yield increased at high NaCl concentration, whereas the pH did not show any significant effect on dye removal. Moringa oleifera showed better results for dye removal than the conventional treatment of coagulation-flocculation with FeCl₃ and polyelectrolyte. Treated water can be reused in new dyeing processes of cotton fabrics with high quality results.

  19. Valorization of Waste Obtained from Oil Extraction in Moringa Oleifera Seeds: Coagulation of Reactive Dyes in Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Vilaseca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%–75% of seeds weight which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. This waste constitutes a natural coagulant which was demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of industrial reactive dyestuff effluents, characterized by alkaline pH, high NaCl content and hydrolyzed dyes. The coagulation yield increased at high NaCl concentration, whereas the pH did not show any significant effect on dye removal. Moringa oleifera showed better results for dye removal than the conventional treatment of coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 and polyelectrolyte. Treated water can be reused in new dyeing processes of cotton fabrics with high quality results.

  20. Action of. gamma. -radiation on the pH- and heat-stability of phenylalanine-tRNA-synthetases of cotton seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakuziev, T U [AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Inst. Biokhimii

    1977-01-01

    Action of temperature and pH on the activity of phenyl-alanine-tRNA-synthetases has been studied in two-day-old cotton seedlings grown from irradiated (25 and 50 kR) seeds. High thermolability and increased pH sensitivity were exhibited by enzymes E/sub 1/ and, particularly, E/sub 2/ of irradiated organisms as compared to those of the controls.

  1. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  2. Superoleophobic cotton textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leng, B.; Shao, Z.; With, de G.; Ming, W.

    2009-01-01

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we

  3. Using the candidate gene approach for detecting genes underlying seed oil concentration and yield in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-07-01

    Increasing the oil concentration in soybean seeds has been given more attention in recent years because of demand for both edible oil and biodiesel production. Oil concentration in soybean is a complex quantitative trait regulated by many genes as well as environmental conditions. To identify genes governing seed oil concentration in soybean, 16 putative candidate genes of three important gene families (GPAT: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, DGAT: acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and PDAT: phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase) involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathways were selected and their sequences retrieved from the soybean database ( http://www.phytozome.net/soybean ). Three sequence mutations were discovered in either coding or noncoding regions of three DGAT soybean isoforms when comparing the parents of a 203 recombinant inbreed line (RIL) population; OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe. The RIL population was used to study the effects of these mutations on seed oil concentration and other important agronomic and seed composition traits, including seed yield and protein concentration across three field locations in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. An insertion/deletion (indel) mutation in the GmDGAT2B gene in OAC Wallace was significantly associated with reduced seed oil concentration across three environments and reduced seed yield at Woodstock in 2010. A mutation in the 3' untranslated (3'UTR) region of GmDGAT2C was associated with seed yield at Woodstock in 2009. A mutation in the intronic region of GmDGAR1B was associated with seed yield and protein concentration at Ottawa in 2010. The genes identified in this study had minor effects on either seed yield or oil concentration, which was in agreement with the quantitative nature of the traits. However, the novel gene-specific markers designed in the present study can be used in soybean breeding for marker-assisted selection aimed at increasing seed yield and oil

  4. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary ...

  5. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  6. Constituents of the seed and fruit peel oils of Alpinia breviligulata Gagnep. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The chem. compn. of the seed and fruit peel oils of A. breviligulata was examd. by GC and GC/MS. More than 20 and 30 constituent were found to be present in the seed and fruit peel oils resp. The main compds., accounting for 79.9 and 41.4% of the resp. oils, were (E,E)-farnesol (65.0%), geranyl

  7. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance to Oxidation of Moringa peregrina Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Chinou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined.

  8. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  9. Studies on the Paint Forming Properties of Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes Edulis) Seed Oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Otaigbe, J.O.E; Oriji, O.G; Ekerenam, G.E

    2016-01-01

    Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) seed oils were investigated for their suitability as base materials for oil paint production. Soxhlet extraction of the oils from the powdered seeds using n-hexane gave 3.63% and 10.40% yields for Avocado and African Pear respectively. Proximate analysis and chemical characterization of the seed oils were carried out using standard procedures according to the American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS) and the American Society for Testing ...

  10. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcha Janporn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa Linn (TC is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil.

  11. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  12. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  13. Composition of the seed oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhury, S.N.; Ahmed, R.Z.; Kanjilal, P.B.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    The essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (Bishop's weed, Ajowan) seeds was isolated by hydrodistillation. The oil, obtained in 1.2% yield, was analyzed by high resolution GC and GC/MS, and 99.8% of the compounds were identified. The principal oil constituents were carvone (46.2%),

  14. Studies on repellent activity of seed oils alone and in combination on mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh, Y; Savitri, P; Kaushik, R; Singh, N P

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: seed oils, their mixture and combination of seed oils with three carrier oils viz. olive, mustard and coconut oil. Different formulations of each oil were tested at the concentrations of 1% and 5% on human baits. Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. Results showed that 5% formulation of the Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils, mixed in 1:1 ratio exhibited highest percentage repellency of 85%, protection time of 300 min and bite rate of 6%. 5% concentration of A. indica and P. pinnata seed oil in mustard oil base offered 86.36% and 85% protection respectively with total protection time of 230 and 240 min respectively. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. These formulations are very promising for topical use (> 5 hrs complete protection) and are comparable to the protection provided by advanced Odomos mosquito repellent cream available commercially and thus are recommended for field trial.

  15. Chemical characterization and oxidative stability of seeds and oil of sesame grown in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gharby

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to determine the characteristic features of the oil content and composition of nutrients of sesame seeds grown in Morocco. Characteristic features of the seed oil revealed a high degree of unsaturation and as determined by gas chromatography reported herein, the major unsaturated fatty acids were linoleic acid (46.9% followed by oleic acid (37.4%, while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (9.1%. Sesame seed oil was also found to be rich in tocopherols with a predominance of γ-tocopherol (90.5%. The phytosterol marker β-sitosterol accounted for 59.9% of total sterols contained in sesame seed oil. This oil, therefore, has a potential for its use in human nutrition or industrial applications. Compositional analysis revealed that the sesame seeds contained considerable amounts of protein (22% and high amounts of lipids (52%. Nutrient information reported herein illustrates the benefits to public health for consumers of these plant seeds. In terms of oil, sesame seed oil may be considered as a valuable source for new multi-purpose products as industrial, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical uses.

  16. Hydroprocessing of rubber seed oil to renewable fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tan Viet; Phung, Minh Tri

    2017-09-01

    Hydroprocessing of rubber seed oil (RSO) with various types of alumina-silica support catalyst was conducted at 400°C and a hydrogen partial pressure of 3.0 MPa in 3 hours. The effects of the alumina-silica and metal doping on alumina-silica on the conversion, and distribution of oil fraction products (initial boiling point (IBP) to 80°C, from 80-200°C, from 200-360°C and higher than 360°C boiling point) were investigated. Compared to the results obtained when using Mo@Al2O3-SiO2, hydroprocessing of RSO resulted in a higher conversion and much higher yield of the light fraction (BP <230°C). Both alumina-silica catalysts led to an improved conversion as well as a higher light fraction yield. Results show that hydroprocessing of RSO with metal doping on alumina-silica support was more efficient than that only Al2O3-SiO2.

  17. Analysis of components and study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in apple seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping; Li, Kai-Xiong

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the comprehensive utilization of major by-products in apple-juice processing, the components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in two species apple seeds, Fuji and New Red Star, were investigated. The Soxhlet extracted oil content of apple seeds raged from 20.69 to 24.32 g/100 g. The protein, fiber and ash contents were found to be 38.85-49.55 g/100 g, 3.92-4.32 g/100 g and 4.31-5.20 g/100 g, respectively; the extracted oils exhibited an iodine value of 94.14-101.15 g I/100 g oil; refractive index (40 degrees C) was 1.465-1.466; density (25 degrees C) was 0.902-0.903 mg/ml; saponification value was 179.01-197.25 mg KOH/g oil; and the acid value was 4.036-4.323 mg KOH/g oil. The apple seed oils mainly consisted of linoleic acid (50.7-51.4 g/100 g) and oleic acid (37.49-38.55 g/100 g). Other prominent fatty acids were palmitic acid (6.51-6.60 g/100 g), stearic acid (1.75-1.96 g/100 g) and arachidic acid (1.49-1.54 g/100 g). Apple seed oil was proven to possess interesting properties, emerging from its chemical composition and from the evaluation of its in vitro biological activities. The apple seed oil was almost completely active against bacteria, mildews were less sensitive to apple seed oil than yeasts, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of apple seed oil ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml. The observed biological activities showed that the oil had a good potential for use in the food industry and pharmacy.

  18. Characterization of crude and purified pumpkin seed oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaknis, John

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil from hulled pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita Maxima was extracted with hot petroleum ether, and then it was degummed, neutralized and bleached, consecutively Physical and chemical characteristics of crude and purified oils were determined. Density, refractive index, viscosity and peroxide value were not affected by purification, while decreases in acidity, colour, unsaponifiable, E1%1cm 232, and oxidative stability, and increases in smoke point and E1%1cm 270 were observed. Purification did not affect the fatty acid and sterol profiles. GLC analysis for the fatty acid composition of the seed oil showed that the predominant unsaturates were linoleic (42% and oleic (38%, while the major saturates were palmitic (12,7% and stearic (6%. Only α-tocopherol was detected at a level of 126 mg/kg, which reduced to 78 mg/kg after purification. The main sterols of pumpkin seed oil unsaponifiable were Δ7.22,25 -stigmastatrien-3β-ol, α-spinasterol, Δ7,25_stigmastadienol and Δ7-avenasterol, followed by stigmasterol, 24-methylcholest-7-enol and Δ7-stigmastenol, and also trace to minor amounts of cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, sitostanol, Δ5-avenasterol, erythrodiol and uvaol were found.

    Aceite de semillas de calabaza descascarada (Cucurbita pepo YCucurbita maxima fue extraído con éter de petróleo caliente, y luego desgomado, neutralizado y decolorado consecutivamente. Las características físicas y químicas de aceites crudo y purificado fueron determinadas. La densidad, el índice de refracción, la viscosidad y el índice de peróxido no se afectaron por la purificación, mientras que se observó una disminución en la acidez, color, insaponificable, E1%1cm 232, y estabilidad oxidativa, y un aumento en el punto de humo y de E1%1cm270. La purificaci

  19. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Plants in Sandy Soil 2- Seed production, oil content, oil constituents and heavy metals in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R. A.; Abo-El-Seoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil on fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.) productivity. In this regards, four rates of sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60 and 80 ton/ha) in addition to the mineral fertilizer treatment (control). Sandy soil amended with sewage sludge showed a promising effect on fennel seed yield. A linear gradual increase in seeds yield was observed as the sludge application rate increases. Seeds production increased by 41% to 308% over the control at 80 t /ha application rate, for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge treatments, respectively. Irradiated sewage sludge treatments showed higher fennel seed yield than non-irradiated sewage sludge treatments.Volatile oil percent exhibited no observable variation due to the use of sewage sludge. A few and limited fluctuations could be observed. However, total oil content (cc/plot) increased due to the increase in seeds yield. The magnitude of increase in volatile oil production in response to the sewage sludge application was parallel to the increase in seeds yield. The GLC measurements of the fennel volatile oil reveal that, the t-anethole is the predominant fraction. However, fenchone was detected in relatively moderate concentration. The applied sewage sludge treatment induced some variations in fennel volatile oil constituents. The t.anethole is relatively higher in volatile oil obtained from plants grown on sandy soil fertilized with non-irradiated sewage sludge than the one fertilized with irradiated sewage sludge or chemical fertilizer. In the meantime, the obtained increase in t.anethole was accompanied by a decline in fenchone content. Seeds heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were determined. Under all sludge application rates iron and zinc concentrations were in the normal plant concentration range whereas, Cd concentrations were traces.

  20. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  1. Physicochemical characterisation and radical-scavenging activity of Cucurbitaceae seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Neuza; da Silva, Ana Carolina; Malacrida, Cassia Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Oils extracted from Cucurbitaceae seeds were characterised for their fatty acid and tocopherol compositions. In addition, some physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic contents and the radical-scavenging activities were determined. Oil content amounted to 23.9% and 27.1% in melon and watermelon seeds, respectively. Physicochemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oils showed significant antioxidant activities. Fatty acid composition showed total unsaturated fatty acid content of 85.2-83.5%, with linoleic acid being the dominant fatty acid (62.4-72.5%), followed by oleic acid (10.8-22.7%) and palmitic acid (9.2-9.8%). The oils, especially watermelon seed oil, showed high total tocopherol and phenolic contents. The γ-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in both oils representing 90.9 and 95.6% of the total tocopherols in melon and watermelon seed oils, respectively. The potential utilisation of melon and watermelon seed oils as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries appears to be favourable.

  2. Physico-Chemical Properties of the Oils and Fat from Crotalaria cleomifolia Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Wini Mazlan; Ikram Muhd Said

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of C. cleomifolia (locally known as kacang hantu) collected along Simpang Pulai - Berinchang Road, Cameron Highlands, was defatted with hexane and the resulting oil was analysed for their physico-chemical properties. The percentage yield of the oil was calculated as 5.3 %. The acid value (1.2 %), iodine value (85), peroxide value (0.6), saponification value (192.0) and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 %) were determined to assess the quality of the oil. The physico-chemical characterisation showed that C. cleomifolia seeds oil is unsaturated semi-drying oil, with high saponification and acidic values. The fatty acid composition of C. cleomifolia seed oil was determined by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ToF). The seed oil of C. cleomifolia contained linoleic acid (57.59 %) and palmitic acid (5.07 %), the most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, respectively. The polyunsaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) in C. cleomifolia seed oil determined by reverse phase High performance Liquid Chromatography; contained as PLL (18.04 %) followed by POL + SLL (11.92 %), OOL (7.04 %) and PLLn (6.31 %). The melting and cooling point of the oil were 16.22 degree Celsius and -33.54 degree Celsius, respectively. (author)

  3. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Hu

    Full Text Available With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt. was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0 and myristate (C14:0 were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0, from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  4. Efficacy of oral iodized peanut oil is greater than that of iodized poppy seed oil among Indonesian schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Untoro, J.; Schultink, J.W.; West, C.E.; Gross, R.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Oral iodized poppy seed oil is an appropriate measure for controlling iodine deficiency in areas where iodized salt is not yet available. However, a more effective and cheaper iodized oil preparation is needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of iodized

  5. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment. ((c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  6. Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis Seed and Cone Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 - 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 - 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC 50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC 50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Penha Patrícia Cabral; Silva, Denise Maria de Lima E; Assis, Cristiane Fernandes de; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Damasceno, Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity) and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid) and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g), associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%). It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g), especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g) remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed.

  8. Effects of microwave roasting on the yield and composition of cold pressed orange seed oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydeniz Güneşer, B.; Yilmaz, E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to valorize orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds, which are generated as waste. This study presents data about raw orange seed, the meal gained after cold pressing, and characterization data of the cold pressed seed oils. Furthermore, the effects of microwave roasting of the seds compared to regular roasting (control) were determined. The oil yield of orange seed cold pressing was around 52.93–62.99%. After cold pressing, 13.57–17.97% oil remained in the meal together with 20.68–25.61% protein. Hence, pressed meals could be valorized for different purposes. Except for turbidity, the color b* value, free acidity, the p-anisidine value and antioxidant capacity, there was no significant difference between the two oil samples for the measured physicochemical properties. Six different fatty acids were quantified and the major fatty acids were linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids. The fatty acid composition of the orange seed oil can be accepted as nutritionally balanced. Among the fifteen sterols quantified, β-sitosterol was dominant (around 77–78%). Likewise, the α-tocopherol content of the samples was not significantly different. The thermal onset and peak temperatures, and enthalpies for crystallization and melting were also reported. This study showed that good quality orange seed oils can be produced by cold pressing, and the oils could be used in food and non-food applications. [es

  9. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.

  10. Organic Oils as Seed Treatments for Soybeans to Inhibit Fungal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Burgett, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Producing organic crops has become essential to satisfy the desires of the end consumer. To completely fulfill this task and meet the requirements of the National Organic Program in the U.S., the seeds planted must be organic. Seeds succumb to fungal infections without seed treatments. Organic seed treatments are not common. The purpose of this study is to test the ability of three organic oils (tea tree, coconut, and lemon) to act as organic seed treatments to inhibit fungal growth on soybea...

  11. Effect of powdered castor oil seed ( Ricinus communis L.) on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of powdered castor oil seed ( Ricinus communis L.) on some internal organs of ... distribution tables, mean, mode and percentages were used for the analysis. ... development agencies and provision of training by relevant stakeholders to ...

  12. Two Novel Non-Conventional Seed Oil Extracts with Antioxidant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The physicochemical characteristics of oil of the plant seeds were ... agar dilution method. .... Total phenols were quantified by Folin- ..... compounds by HPLC/UV and GC-MS. J Food ... flavonoids, coumarins, steroids and some other.

  13. Effect of rosemary extract and TBHQ on the stability of radish seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongling, Z.; Yancheng, G.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of rosemary extract (RE) and tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) on the storage stability of radish seed oil were studied according to the change of the acid value, peroxide value, tocopherol and sulforaphene in radish seed oil. The results showed that under conditions of accelerated oxidation by (60+-1) degree C, the storage stability of the radish seed oil with antioxidants could be significantly improved, among which TBHQ was better than RE. Besides, RE and TBHQ had a synergistic effect on antioxidation. The compound of 0.01% RE and 0.01% TBHQ had a better antioxidation effect than 0.07% RE and 0.02% TBHQ respectively, which recommended it can be a suitable antioxidant of radish seed oil. (author)

  14. Optimization of castor seed oil extraction process using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Mosquera-Artamonov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of the oil extraction yield from castor seed using three different seed conditions: whole, minced and bare endosperm. Taguchi design was used to determine the contribution of the following parameters: seed condition, seed load in the extractor, temperature, and pressure. It was proved that it is necessary to introduce the whole seed and that the presence of the pericarp increases the extraction yield. The contribution of the control factors has an extraction yield limit. After determining which factors contributed to the process, these were left at their optimum levels aiming to reduce the control factors to only two. The complete analysis was done using a surface response methodology giving the best parameter for temperature and pressure that allows a better yielding mechanical extraction. The oil extraction yield can be kept up to 35% of the seed.

  15. Protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yan; Ji, Yue; Wang, Yaqing; Dong, Ke; Kong, Xiangqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7.5 Gy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the measurement of apoptotic cells and proteins, inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Seabuckthorn oil pretreatment increased the post-radiation survival rate and reduced the damage area of the small intestine villi. Both the pulp and seed oil treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell numbers and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Seabuckthorn oil downregulated the mRNA level of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Both the pulp and seed oils elevated the level of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) are the predominant components of pulp oil and seed oil, respectively. Pretreatment with PLA and ALA increased the post-radiation survival time. In conclusion, seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils protect against mouse intestinal injury from high-dose radiation by reducing cell apoptosis and inflammation. ALA and PLA are promising natural radiation countermeasure candidates.

  16. Immediate analysis of the oil content of seeds by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, K Z; Costa, V E.U.; Seidl, P R; Campos, M P.A.; Colnago, L A [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Quimica

    1981-11-01

    The carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CMR) spectra of a series of Brazilian oilseeds was registered. The main constituents of the oils are identified and signals for each carbon atom are assigned. Chemical shifts are estimated for the free fatty acids and compared to those observed from the seeds, with good results. Besides being non-destructive, the RMC method proves to be fast and is useful in the determination of the principal components of the oil fraction of different types of seeds.

  17. Optimization of Mechanical Expression of Castor Seeds Oil (Ricinus communis using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Olaoye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the processing parameters of Castor seed on its oil yield was investigated. The castor seeds were passed through drying, crushing and separation into seeds and shells. These processing conditions were further succeeded by seed roasting and subsequent mechanical expression of the roasted nut by means of screw press in the course of its preparation for oil expression. Seed samples were conditioned by adding calculated amount of distilled water to obtain different moisture levels from the initial moisture content of the seeds. Samples were roasted at the temperatures of 83.18, 90.00, 100.00, 110.00 and 116.82°C, over periods of 6.59, 10.00, 15.00, 20.00 and 23.41min, seed moisture content of 6.32, 7.00, 8.00, 9.00 and 9.68 % wb, respectively and the oil was expressed using a screw roaster-expeller. Optimization of the oil expression process was achieved by applying Central Composite Rotatable Design of Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for oil yield within the experimental range of the studied variables were 7%, 110°C and 20 min; moisture content, roasting temperature and roasting duration respectively. These values of the optimum process conditions were used to predict optimum value of oil yield to be 25.77%. A second-order model was obtained to predict oil yield as a function of moisture content, heating temperature and duration. Thus the result from this research work has established the optimal conditions for mechanical extraction of oil from castor seed. Closed agreement between experimental and predicted yield was obtained.

  18. An experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco seeds are a by product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, unlike tobacco leaves, tobacco seeds are not collected from fields and are not commercial products. However, tobacco seeds contain significant amounts of oil. Although tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil, it can be utilized for biodiesel production as a new renewable alternative diesel engine fuel. In this study, an experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester was performed at full and partial loads. The results showed that the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester to the diesel fuel reduced CO and SO 2 emissions while causing slightly higher NO x emissions. Meanwhile, it was found that the power and the efficiency increased slightly with the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester. (Author)

  19. Changes in the sterol compositions of milk thistle oil (Silybium marianum L.) during seed maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrabi, S.; Curtis, S.; Hayet, F.; Mayer, P.M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the total lipid content and sterol compositions were determined during the development of milk thistle seeds. The oil content increased to a maximum value of 36±1.7% and then declined to reach a value of 30.5±0.9% at full maturity. The sterol content of milk thistle seeds was affected by the ripening degree of the seeds. At the early stages of seed maturation, Δ7 -stigmastenol was the most abundant sterol followed by β-sitosterol. However, at full maturity, β-sitosterol was the most predominant sterol (46.50±0.8%). As the seed developed, campesterol and stigmasterol amounts increased, while Δ7 -avenasterol content decreased. It can be concluded that milk thistle seed oil has a characteristic sterol pattern comparable to the ones elucidated for olive oil and corn oil. The extracted oil from milk thistle seeds is rich in phytosterols and could be used in foodpreparation and human nutrition. (Author)

  20. Effect of processing conditions on oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviara, N A; Musa, W B; Owolarafe, O K; Ogunsina, B S; Oluwole, F A

    2015-07-01

    Seed oil expression is an important economic venture in rural Nigeria. The traditional techniques of carrying out the operation is not only energy sapping and time consuming but also wasteful. In order to reduce the tedium involved in the expression of oil from moringa oleifera seed and develop efficient equipment for carrying out the operation, the oil point pressure of the seed was determined under different processing conditions using a laboratory press. The processing conditions employed were moisture content (4.78, 6.00, 8.00 and 10.00 % wet basis), heating temperature (50, 70, 85 and 100 °C) and heating time (15, 20, 25 and 30 min). Results showed that the oil point pressure increased with increase in seed moisture content, but decreased with increase in heating temperature and heating time within the above ranges. Highest oil point pressure value of 1.1239 MPa was obtained at the processing conditions of 10.00 % moisture content, 50 °C heating temperature and 15 min heating time. The lowest oil point pressure obtained was 0.3164 MPa and it occurred at the moisture content of 4.78 %, heating temperature of 100 °C and heating time of 30 min. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that all the processing variables and their interactions had significant effect on the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed at 1 % level of significance. This was further demonstrated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Tukey's test and Duncan's Multiple Range Analysis successfully separated the means and a multiple regression equation was used to express the relationship existing between the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed and its moisture content, processing temperature, heating time and their interactions. The model yielded coefficients that enabled the oil point pressure of the seed to be predicted with very high coefficient of determination.

  1. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  2. Characterization of Barnyard Millet Starch Films Containing Borage Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Luyen Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, barnyard millet starch (BMS was used to prepare edible films. Antioxidant activity was conferred to the BMS film by incorporating borage seed oil (BO. The physical, optical, and thermal properties as well as antioxidant activities of the films were evaluated. The incorporation of BO into the BMS films decreased the tensile strength from 9.46 to 4.69 MPa and increased the elongation at break of the films from 82.49% to 103.87%. Water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the BMS films decreased with increasing BO concentration, whereas Hunter b value and opacity increased, L and a values of the films decreased. The BMS films containing BO exhibited antioxidant activity that increased proportionally with increased BO concentration. In particular, the BMS film with 1.0% BO exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and light barrier properties among the BMS films. Therefore, the BMS films with added BO can be used as an antioxidant packaging material.

  3. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ajmal; Fazal Rahman; Muhammad Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g).Co...

  4. Evaluation of Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stability of Some Waste Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Uluata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds (TPC and oxidative stability of cherry seed (SCO, sweet cherry seed (SCSO, mulberry seed (MSO and plum seed oil (PSO were determined. Oleic acid was determined as primary fatty acid (42.9-67.3%, and followed by linoleic acid (23.4-41.8% for SCO, SCSO and PSO. Linoleic acid was determined as primary fatty acid in MSO. γ-tocopherol was determined the main and highest tocopherol isomers varied from 579.9 to 605 mg/kg oil in SCO, SCSO and PSO, whereas δ-tocopherol was determined main tocopherol isomer with 1354mg/kg oil value in MSO. Plum seed oil (PSO was the highest antioxidant activity values in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assays. There was no significant differences in lipid hydroperoxide and TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation among SCO, SCSO and MSO. PSO had the highest induction period (15.1 h, followed by MSO (1.4 h, SCSO (1.5 h, SCO(1.3 h. PSO was oxidatively more stable than the other oil samples. This research shows that these waste seed oils have high antioxidant capacity and tocopherol content, so they could be used in food industry.

  5. Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina Pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Montesano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as “Berrettina” (Cucurbita maxima L., was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn-positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively. The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ7,22,25-stigmastatrienol, Δ7,25-stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%. The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.

  6. Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina) Pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Domenico; Blasi, Francesca; Simonetti, Maria Stella; Santini, Antonello; Cossignani, Lina

    2018-03-01

    Pumpkin ( Cucurbita spp.) has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as "Berrettina" ( Cucurbita maxima L.), was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG) was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn -positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively) in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively). The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ 7,22,25 -stigmastatrienol, Δ 7,25 -stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%). The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.

  7. Preparation of novel cotton fabric composites with pH controlled switchable wettability for efficient water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wu, Jianning; Meng, Guihua; Wang, Yixi; Liu, Zhiyong; Guo, Xuhong

    2018-06-01

    The wetting materials with the ability of controllable oil/water separation have drawn more and more public attention. In this article, the novel cotton fabric (CF) with pH controlled wettability transition was designed by a simple, environmentally friendly coating copolymer/SiO2 nanoparticles, poly(heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate- co-3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate- co-2-vinilpiridine) (PHDFDMA- co-PTMSPMA- co-P2VP). Furthermore, the structures and morphologies of coated CF were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), NMR, GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The coated CF exhibits switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity via adjusting pH value. When the coated CF is placed in the neutral aqueous (pH = 7.0), it is superhydrophobic in the air and superoleophilic. It allows oil to go through but blocking water. However, in acidic aqueous environment (pH = 3.0), it turns superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic, which allows water to penetrate but blocking oil. Therefore, the coated CF could be applied to separate oil/water mixtures, ternary oil/water/water mixtures continuously and different surfactant stabilized emulsions (oil-in-water, water-in-oil) and displays the superior separation capacity for oil-water mixtures with a high efficiency of 99.8%. Moreover, the cycling tests demonstrate that the coated CF possesses excellent recyclability and durability. Such an eminent, controllable water/oil permeation feature makes coated CF could be selected as an ideal candidate for oil/water separation.

  8. Biosorption studies on waste cotton seed for cationic dyes sequestration: equilibrium and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarajasekar, N.; Baskar, R.; Ragu, T.; Sarika, K.; Preethi, N.; Radhika, T.

    2017-07-01

    The immature Gossypium hirsutum seeds—an agricultural waste was converted into a novel adsorbent and its effectiveness for cationic dyes removal was discussed in this study. Characterization revealed that sulfuric acid activated waste Gossypium hirsutum seed (WGSAB) contains surface area 496 m2 g-1. The ability of WGSAB to adsorb basic red 2 (BR2) and basic violet 3 (BV3) from aqueous solutions has been studied. Batch adsorption studies were carried out at different initial dye concentrations (100-300 mg l-1), contact time (1-5 h), pH (2-12) and temperature (293-323 K) to understand the adsorption mechanism. Adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich and Toth adsorption isotherms. Equilibrium data of the adsorption process fitted very well to the Toth model for both dyes. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 66.69 mg g-1 for BV3 and 50.11 mg g-1 for BR2 at optimum conditions. The near unity value of Toth isotherm constant (BR2: 0.999 and BV3: 1.0) indicates that WGSAB surface is heterogeneous in nature. The maximum adsorption capacity predicted by Toth isotherm of BV3 (66.699 mg g-1) is higher than BR2 (50.310 mg g-1). The kinetic investigation revealed that the BR2 and BV3 were chemisorbed on WGSAB surface following Avrami fractional order kinetics. Further, the fractional order and rate constant values are almost similar for every concentration in both the dyes. The thermodynamic parameters such as Δ H 0, Δ S 0 and Δ G 0 were evaluated. The dye adsorption process was found to be spontaneous and endothermic for the two dyes. Regeneration of WGSAB exhausted by the two dyes could be possible via acetic acid as elutant.

  9. DIETARY BLACK CUMIN (NIGELLA SATIVA SEED OIL AFFECTS SERUM LIPIDS IN CHICKEN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Hodžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed on 40 chicken broilers of Cobb provenience to investigate the effect of dietary black cumin seed oil on some blood biochemical parameters in chicken broilers. 40 chicken broilers who were included in the 42 days lasting experiment were divided into two groups, each one of 20 individuals. Group K was the control – with no added oil in feed mixture and the second group P was the experimental one – chickens were fed with 0,025 g of p.o. administered black cumin seed oil. Feed and water supplies were ad libitum. Microclimate conditions (light, temperature and airflow were maintained according to the technological procedure. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein of all animals from both groups at age of 25, 32 and 39 days. The following blood serum biochemical parameters were determined: total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, albumen and calcium. Dietary black cumin seed oil significantly (P<0.05 affected serum lipid components, particularly total lipids, but not albumen and calcium in chicken broilers. Possible reason for these findings could be dietary fat component as well as fatty-acid composition of added black cumin seed oil. Key words: black cumin seed oil, chicken broilers, blood serum biochemical parameters, fatty acid composition of oil

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of Cumin Seed Oil Nanoemulsion Stabilized by Sodium Caseinate- Guar Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Farshi 1, Mahnaz Tabibiazar 2 * , Marjan Ghorbani 3, Hamed Hamishehkar 3

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to prepare the sodium caseinate- guar gum stabilized nanoemulsion of cumin seed oil (Cumminum cyminum using ultrasonication method. Meanwhile, the effect of nanoemulsification on the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the cumin seed oil was evaluated. Method: The effect of concentration of sodium casienate and guar gum was investigated on droplet size, thermal and oxidative stability of cumin seed oil nanoemulsion using TBARS and z-average measurements, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging and iron reducing power measurements. The biocompatibility and the cytotoxicity of the cumin seed oil nanoemulsion were evaluated by MTT assay test and compared with cumin seed oil and cumin seed oil free-nanoemulsion. Results: GC–MS analysis indicated 15 compounds in the cumin seed oil. The nanoemulsions were stabilized by sodium caseinate-guar gum complex. The minimum and stable droplets (155 ± 8 nm of nanoemulsion were formulated when the concentration of essential oil in oil phase was 30 % (w/w. DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron reducing power and cytotoxicity of nanoemulsified cumin seed oil were significantly higher than cumin seed oil (p<0.05 Conclusion: In this study, cumin seed oil nanoemulsion was prepared and stabilized by sodium caseinate- guar gum. The aforementioned nanoemulsion had good stability even after 60 days storage at 4ºC. Antioxidant and cytotoxicity of cumin seed oil were increased by nanoemulsification. It can be concluded that cumin seed oil nanoemulsion has the potential to use as natural preservative and anticancer product in food industry.

  11. Heterologous expression of two GPATs from Jatropha curcas alters seed oil levels in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aparna; Khan, Kasim; Niranjan, Abhishek; Kumar, Vinod; Sane, Vidhu A

    2017-10-01

    Oils and fats are stored in endosperm during seed development in the form of triacylglycerols. Three acyltransferases: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) are involved in the storage lipid biosynthesis and catalyze the stepwise acylation of glycerol backbone. In this study two members of GPAT gene family (JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2) from Jatropha seeds were identified and characterized. Sequence analysis suggested that JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 are homologous to Arabidopsis acyltransferase-1 (ATS1) and AtGPAT9 respectively. The sub-cellular localization studies of these two GPATs showed that JcGPAT1 localizes into plastid whereas JcGPAT2 localizes in to endoplasmic reticulum. JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 expressed throughout the seed development with higher expression in fully matured seed compared to immature seed. The transcript levels of JcGPAT2 were higher in comparison to JcGPAT1 in different developmental stages of seed. Over-expression of JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 under constitutive and seed specific promoters in Arabidopsis thaliana increased total oil content. Transgenic seeds of JcGPAT2-OE lines accumulated 43-60% more oil than control seeds whereas seeds of Arabidopsis lines over-expressing plastidial GPAT lead to only 13-20% increase in oil content. Functional characterization of GPAT homologues of Jatropha in Arabidopsis suggested that these are involved in oil biosynthesis but might have specific roles in Jatropha. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  13. Gamma radiation effects on crude oil yield of some soybean seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the crude oil yield of eight different varieties of soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds ... the health advantages of soybeans in both in vivo and in vitro experiments [2]. Therefore, plant breeding has gained importance especially soybean plants. ..... Ionizing radiation might affect the quality of oils.

  14. Liquid Soap Production with Blends Of Rubber Seed Oil (RSO) And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of liquid detergent using locally sourced palm fruit bunch (Elaeis Guineesis) waste saponier has been investigated. An optimum blend ratio of rubber seed oil to palm kernel oil RSO:PKO 20:80 being constituent elements used for the production of the soap; was obtained using the Duncan Multiple Range ...

  15. Effect of growing location on seed oil composition in the cultivated peanut germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A particularly important component of seed oils is the content of oleic acid as this fatty acid has several health benefits and contributes to increased oil stability, i.e. longer shelf life. We measured 8846 available accessions of the USDA peanut germplasm collection to gauge the range of variatio...

  16. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from Melanolepis multiglandulosa (alim) seed oil and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufficient supply of feedstock oils is a major issue facing biodiesel in order to increase the still limited amounts available. In this work, the fatty acid methyl esters, also known as biodiesel, of the seed oil of Melanolepsi multiglandulosa, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, were prepared and...

  17. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  18. Nutraceutical Importance of Sesame Seed and Oil: A Review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sesame seed is widely used in food and nutraceutical industries in many countries because of its high oil, protein and antioxidant contents. Sesame oil contains sesamin, sesamolin and sesaminol lignan fractions, which are known to play an important role in its oxidative stability and antioxidative activity. It is widely known ...

  19. Solubilization of tea seed oil in a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Deng

    Full Text Available Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.. The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase ( 45% water along the dilution line.

  20. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  1. Production of biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. seed oil using bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two agricultural residues, cocoa pod ash (CPA) and rice husk ash (RHA), were investigated as bio-based catalysts for the transesterification of Parinari polyandra seeds oil and the results obtained using these bio-based catalysts were compared with potassium hydroxide which is a conventional catalyst. Oil was extracted ...

  2. Biological response of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, towards combination of seed and leaf extracts from red gum Eucalyptus Camaldulensis and/or gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shall, S.S.A.; Alm El Din, M.M.S.; Hazaa, M.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The biological response of the F1 progeny of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Bosid.), (from males irradiated as parental pupae with 75 and 125 Gy gamma radiation) to seed or leaf extracts of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis plant were studied. The fecundity, fertility, and mating potency of F1 adults were employed as assess for response. Analysis of variance indicated that, different treatments with gamma irradiation and/or plant extracts, at most mating crosses and most interactions between all of them, showed significant role in decreasing the fecundity and fertility of F1 adults. In general, the combined treatments of seed or leaf extracts with gamma irradiation. as dependent factors regardless other factors, decreased the emergence of adults compared to the control or single treatments of either seed extract or gamma irradiation. As well, combination treatments of radiation and seed extract decreased significantly the fecundity of moths compared to control or irradiation treatment alone. On the other hand, the combination treatments of either seed or leaf extracts did not have any significant difference in the number of mating per female, as compared to control, while irradiation treatments decreased the number of mating compared to vontrol. The effects of most possible probabilities of interaction between doses, crosses and treatments on reproduction were estimated and discussed and also the effects on development of F1 progeny were included

  3. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm, the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII, and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP. The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars.

  4. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yongling; Yu, Weiwu; Hänninen, Heikki; Song, Lili; Du, Xuhua; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Jiasheng

    2018-01-01

    Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm), the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII), and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP). The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b)) and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars. PMID:29375592

  5. Comparison of Moringa Oleifera seeds oil characterization produced chemically and mechanically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eman, N. A.; Muhamad, K. N. S.

    2016-06-01

    It is established that virtually every part of the Moringa oleifera tree (leaves, stem, bark, root, flowers, seeds, and seeds oil) are beneficial in some way with great benefits to human being. The tree is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals. All Moringa oleifera food products have a very high nutritional value. They are eaten directly as food, as supplements, and as seasonings as well as fodder for animals. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of seeds particle size on oil extraction using chemical method (solvent extraction). Also, to compare Moringa oleifera seeds oil properties which are produced chemically (solvent extraction) and mechanically (mechanical press). The Moringa oleifera seeds were grinded, sieved, and the oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction technique with n-Hexane using three different size of sample (2mm, 1mm, and 500μm). The average oil yield was 36.1%, 40.80%, and 41.5% for 2mm, 1mm, and 500μm particle size, respectively. The properties of Moringa oleifera seeds oil were: density of 873 kg/m3, and 880 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity of 42.2mm2/s and 9.12mm2/s for the mechanical and chemical method, respectively. pH, cloud point and pour point were same for oil produced with both methods which is 6, 18°C and 12°C, respectively. For the fatty acids, the oleic acid is present with high percentage of 75.39%, and 73.60% from chemical and mechanical method, respectively. Other fatty acids are present as well in both samples which are (Gadoleic acid, Behenic acid, Palmitic acid) which are with lower percentage of 2.54%, 5.83%, and 5.73%, respectively in chemical method oil, while they present as 2.40%, 6.73%, and 6.04%, respectively in mechanical method oil. In conclusion, the results showed that both methods can produce oil with high quality. Moringa oleifera seeds oil appear to be an acceptable good source for oil rich in oleic acid which is equal to olive oil quality, that can be consumed in Malaysia where the olive oil

  6. Enzymatic lipophilization of epicatechin with free fatty acids and its effect on antioxidative capacity in crude camellia seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sa-Sa; Luo, Shui-Zhong; Zheng, Zhi; Zhao, Yan-Yan; Pang, Min; Jiang, Shao-Tong

    2017-02-01

    Crude camellia seed oil is rich in free fatty acids, which must be removed to produce an oil of acceptable quality. In the present study, we reduced the free fatty acid content of crude camellia seed oil by lipophilization of epicatechin with these free fatty acids in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), and this may enhance the oxidative stability of the oil at the same time. The acid value of crude camellia seed oil reduced from 3.7 to 2.5 mgKOH g -1 after lipophilization. Gas chomatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that epicatechin oleate and epicatechin palmitate were synthesized in the lipophilized oil. The peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values during heating of the lipophilized oil were much lower than that of the crude oil and commercially available camellia seed oil, suggesting that lipophilized epicatechin derivatives could help enhance the oxidative stability of edible oil. The enzymatic process to lipophilize epicatechin with the free fatty acids in crude camellia seed oil described in the present study could decrease the acid value to meet the quality standards for commercial camellia seed oil and, at the same time, obtain a new edible camellia seed oil product with good oxidative stability. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA.

  8. Characterization of Acanthosicyos horridus and Citrullus lanatus seed oils: two melon seed oils from Namibia used in food and cosmetics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikhyoussef, Natascha; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha; Böck, Ronnie; de Koning, Charles; Cheikhyoussef, Ahmad; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2017-10-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and 1 H NMR profiles of Citrullus lanatus and Acanthosicyos horridus melon seed oils were determined and compared among different extraction methods (cold pressing, traditional, and Soxhlet). The oil content was 40.2 ± 3.45 and 37.8 ± 7.26% for C. lanatus and A. horridus , respectively. Significant differences ( p  yield, physicochemical characteristics, tocopherol, and fatty acid composition have the potential to replace or improve major commercial vegetable oils and to be used for various applications in the food industry and nutritive medicines.

  9. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on the Fertilization Potency of Rat's Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Fallahzadeh, Ali Reza; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Pomegranate has been taken great scientific attention in recent years due to its health benefits. Pomegranate seed oil is a rich source of 9-cis, and 11-trans conjugate linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary pomegranate seed oil on the fertilization potency of rat's sperm. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group, which served as the control group, received 1 mL of corn oil for seven weeks. Groups II, III, IV served as the experimental groups received 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of pomegranate seed oil, for the same period of time respectively. After seven weeks, all of the rats were sacrificed, and their epididymis sperm was collected and added to IVF medium (T6) containing metaphase II oocytes. Almost 21 oocytes had been removed from every female rat oviduct. In this medium, oocyte fertilization, cleavage rates, and embryo development into blastocysts, were evaluated by inverted microscopy. Levels of LD50 in the oral route in male rats were more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Our data showed that the rates of fertilization, cleavage and embryo development into blastocysts were higher in the groups that had received 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of pomegranate seed oil. This study demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil had a positive effect on the fertilization potency of male rats. These beneficial effects may be useful in assisted reproductive technology.

  10. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Oil accumulation in soybean seeds grown in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonardo Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The soybean seed presents around 20% of oil and 40% of protein. These levels, during the filling of the seeds, can be influenced by environmental conditions, where are produced changes on its biochemistry composition. The higher temperatures promote the accumulation of protein, and the moderate temperatures favor the oil accumulation. Under in vivo growing conditions the control of these factors is difficult. The in vitro procedure can help the research, because the seed can be isolated from the mother plant in controlled environment. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the oil content of BRS184 and BRS282in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo procedure, occurred in the greenhouse, with 3plantsper potand seed collectionin R8, and in vitro procedure, developed in the laboratory, where the immature seeds were taken from the mother plant in R5 stage, cultured with a liquid culture medium containing 20 mM, 40 mM and 60 mM glutamine, with a constant agitation, during eight days at 25 ± 0.2 °C, and sucrose concentration of 204.5 mM. After the in vitro cultivation time for, the fresh weight gain of the seeds was evaluated, and after both experiments, was determined by the oil content for cultivation in R5, and R8. The accumulation of oil in soybean seeds presents a complex interaction, ranging between the genotype and the environmental conditions, under in vivo and in vitro cultivation. There is a positive correlation between production and oil content in seeds.

  12. Antidiabetic Activity and Chemical Composition of Sanbai Melon Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haili; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Ya; Qiu, Pengcheng; Li, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many fruits and herbs had been used in Traditional Chinese Medicines for treating diabetes mellitus (DM); however, scientific and accurate evidences regarding their efficacy and possible mechanisms were largely unknown. Sanbai melon seed oil (SMSO) was used in folk medicine in treating DM, but there is no literature about these effects. The present study was aimed at confirming the treatment effects of SMSO in type 1 DM. Methods Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg body weight. After diabetes induction, mice were treated with SMSO at dose of 1 g/kg, 2 g/kg, and 4 g/kg. Drugs were given by gavage administration once a day continuously for 28 days. At the end of treatment, several biochemical parameters and molecular mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays, ELISA, and Western blotting. The chemical compositions of SMSO were also tested. Results SMSO treatment significantly improved the symptoms of weight loss, polydipsia, reduced FBG level, increased plasma insulin levels, reduced plasma lipids levels, and protected islet injury. The results also showed that SMSO mitigated oxidative stress and alleviated the liver and renal injury in diabetes mice. SMSO also protected islet cells from apoptotic damage by suppressing ER mediated and mitochondrial dependent apoptotic pathways. Further constituent analysis results showed that SMSO had rich natural resources which had beneficial effects on DM. Conclusions This study showed that SMSO had excellent antidiabetes effect and provided scientific basis for the use of SMSO as the functional ingredients production and dietary supplements production in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:29853958

  13. In vitro antioxidant activities of extract and oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed against sunflower oil autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyam, K L; Teh, Y N; Tan, C P; Kamariah, L

    2012-08-01

    In order to overcome the stability problems of oils and fats, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) have widespread use as food additives in many countries. Recent reports reveal that these compounds may be implicated in many health risks, including cancer and carcinogenesis. Hence, there is a move towards the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin to replace these synthetic antioxidants. In this study, roselle seed oil (RSO) and extract (RSE) were mixed with sunflower oil, respectively to monitor degradation rate and investigate antioxidant activity during accelerated storage. The antioxidant activity was found to stabilise sunflower oil of various samples and in the order of RSE>RSO>tocopherol>sunflower oil. The total percentage increased after 5 days of storage period in free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). Total oxidation value (TOx) of sunflower oil supplemented with 1500 ppm RSE was 33.3%, 47.7%, 14.5%, and 45.5%, respectively. While the total percentage increased under different analysis methods, sunflower oil supplemented with 5% RSO was 17.2%, 60.4%, 36.2% and 59.0% in the order of FFA, PV, AV and TOTOX. Both RSO and RSE were found to be more effective in stabilisation of sunflower oil compared to tocopherol. Total phenolic content of RSE was 46.40 +/- 1.51 mg GAE/100g of oil while RSO was 12.51 +/- 0.15 mg GAE/ 100g of oil. The data indicates that roselle seed oil and seed extract are rich in phenolics and antioxidant activities and may be a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  14. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  15. Genotypic and environmental effects on cottonseed oil, nitrogen, and gossypol contents in eighteen years Regional High Quality tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of environmental influence on seed traits is critical for genetic improvement of seed quality in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The objective of this study was to analyze the relative contribution of environment and genotype (G) for seed oil, nitrogen (N), and gossypol content...

  16. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (ptocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (ptocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars.

  17. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  18. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN CARNAÚBA SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WELLINSON GADÊLHA GUIMARÃES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the composition of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds of carnaúba ( Copernicia prunifera (Miller H. E. Moore, an important palm species native to Northeastern Brazil. After extracting the crude oil, the physico - chemical characteristics (density, refraction index, pH, acidity and saponi- fication index were registered and the chemical composition of the fatty acids was determined by gas chroma- tography (GC - FID. The predominance of saturated fatty acids does not make carnaúba seed oil a promising alternative for the food industry, and the small yield obtained (approx. 5% may constitute a limiting factor for commercial exploitation, but carnauba seed oil could potentially be used in the production of biofuels, cosmet- ics and detergents.

  19. FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil and quantum models of fatty acids triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, K. V.; Antonova, E. M.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Dvoretskiy, K. N.; Grechukhina, O. N.; Vasilyeva, L. M.; Rybakov, A. V.; Likhter, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    FT-IR spectra of grape seed oil and glycerol were registered in the 650-4000 cm-1 range. Molecular models of glycerol and some fatty acids that compose the oil under study - linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids - as well as their triglycerides were developed within B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional model. A vibrating FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil was modeled on the basis of calculated values of vibrating wave numbers and IR intensities of the fatty acids triglycerides and with regard to their percentage. Triglyceride spectral bands that were formed by glycerol linkage vibrations were revealed. It was identified that triglycerol linkage has a small impact on the structure of fatty acids and, consequently, on vibrating wave numbers. The conducted molecular modeling became a basis for theoretical interpretation on 10 experimentally observed absorption bands in FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil.

  20. Isolation and physico-chemical characterization of Butea parviflora seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaki, S.S.; Jabeen, T.; Reddy, J.R.C.; Ram Mohan, M.; Anjaneyulu, E.; Prasad, R.B.N.; Rao, B.V.S.K

    2016-01-01

    The seeds of Butea parviflora were investigated for oil extraction and the oil was studied for complete physico-chemical properties. The fatty acid profile of the seed oil showed oleic acid (18:1) at 27.5%, linoleic acid (18:2) at 26.4%, palmitic acid (16:0) at 16.1% and behenic acid (22:0) at 14.1% as the major fatty acids. The physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil were studied for parameters such as free fatty acids (0.71%), iodine value (76.2 g/100g), peroxide value (5.95 ppm), saponification value (177.32 mg KOH/g), unsaponifiable matter (0.82%), phosphorous content (197 ppm), triglyceride analysis, tocols, specific gravity and refractive index following standard procedures. [es

  1. Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddeeg, Azhari; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-12-01

    Seinat seed oil was blended with peanut oil for the enhancement of stability and chemical characteristics of the blend. The physicochemical properties (relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value) of seinat seed and peanut oil blends in ratios 95:5, 85:15, 30:70 and 50:50 proportions were evaluated, as well as oxidative stability index, deferential scanning calorimetric (DSC) characteristics and tocopherols content. Results of oil blend showed that there was no negative effect by the addition of seinat seed oil to peanut oil and also had decreased percentages of all saturated fatty acids except stearic acid, conversely, increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. As for the sensory evaluation, the panelist results showed that seinat seed oil blends had no significant differences (p blending of seinat seed oil with peanut oil had also increased the stability and tocopherols content. As Sudan is the first producer of seinat oil, blending of seinat seed oil with traditional oil like quality, and may decrease the consumption of other expensive edible oils.

  2. Chemical Composition of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Seed Oil from Six Saudi Arabian Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imeddedine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Rashid, Umer; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    This investigation aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of seed oils from 6 date palm (Phoenix. dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhi, Khalas, Manifi, Rezeiz, Sulaj, and Sukkari) growing in Saudi Arabia and to compare them with conventional palm olein. The mean oil content of the seeds was about 7%. Oleic acid (48.67%) was the main fatty acid, followed by lauric acid (17.26%), stearic acid (10.74%), palmitic acid (9.88%), and linolenic acid (8.13%). The mean value for free fatty acids content was 0.5%. The P. dactylifera seed oil also exhibited a mean tocol content of 70.75 mg/100 g. α-Tocotrienol was the most abundant isomer (30.19%), followed by γ-tocopherol (23.61%), γ-tocotrienol (19.07%), and α-tocopherol (17.52%). The oils showed high thermal and oxidative stabilities. The findings indicate that date seed oil has the potential to be used in the food industry as an abundant alternative to palm olein. This study showed that date seed had great nutritional value due to which it can be used for food applications especially as frying or cooking oil. In addition, date oil has also potential to be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical practices as well. The extraction of oil from Phoenix dactylifera seed on large scale can create positive socioeconomic benefits especially for rural communities and could also assist to resolve the environmental issues generated by excess date production in large scale date-producing countries such as Saudi Arabia. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Extraction of Lepidium apetalum Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Extracted Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchong Tang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM with a central composite design (CCD. Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum seed oil by SFE-CO2 (about 36.3% was obtained when SFE-CO2 extraction was carried out under the optimal conditions of 30.0 MPa of pressure, 70 °C of temperature, 120 min of extraction time and 25.95 L/h of flow rate. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of four fatty acids in Lepidium apetalum seed oil, with a high content (91.0% of unsaturated fatty acid. The anti-oxidant activity of the oil was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and 2,2′-azino- bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS test. Lepidium apetalum seed oil possessed a notable concentration-dependent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 1.00 and 3.75 mg/mL, respectively.

  4. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  5. Abies Concolor Seeds and Cones as New Source of Essential Oils-Composition and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-11-02

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, of essential oils from seeds and cones of Abies concolor was studied by chromatographic (GC) and spectroscopic methods (mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance), leading to the determination of 98 compounds. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The dominant volatiles of seed essential oil were: limonene (47 g/100 g, almost pure levorotary form) and α-pinene (40 g/100 g), while α-pinene (58 g/100 g), sabinene (11 g/100 g), and β-pinene (4.5 g/100 g) were the predominant components of the cone oil. The seed and cone essential oils exhibited mild antibacterial activity, and the MIC ranged from 26 to 30 μL/mL against all of the tested bacterial standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . The cytotoxic studies have demonstrated that tested essential oils were cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells at concentrations much lower than the MIC. The essential oils from A. concolor seeds and cones had no toxic effect on human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells, when added to the cells at a low concentration (0-0.075 μL/mL) and (0-1.0 μL/mL), respectively, and cultured for 24 h.

  6. Experimental determination of hydrogen content of oil extract from jatropha seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, I.O.; Jonah, S.A.; Omede, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal neutron technique was used for the determination of hydrogen content of oil extract from Jatropha seeds. The experimental arrangement consists of a source holder, Am-Be neutron source embedded in paraffin wax and 3 He detector was used to measure reflection coefficient as a function of hydrogen content of various hydrocarbon materials used as calibration standards. The hydrogen content which is an important property of fuel oils was determined for jatropha oil and jatropha-synthetic diesel using their measured values of neutron reflection coefficients and calibration data. The result obtained showed that the hydrogen content of Jatropha oil exceeds that of the synthetic diesel, thus indicating its suitability as a fuel oil for powering diesel engines. The results obtained also indicated that hydrogen content of jatropha-synthetic diesel mixture increases as the volumetric concentration of jatropha oil in the mixture increases, indicating that jatropha oil can serve as a suitable additive to synthetic diesel oil.

  7. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  8. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Maeng, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmetto oil (group C, 320 mg/day) or pumpkin seed oil plus saw palmetto oil (group D, each 320 mg/day). International prostate symptom score, quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate were measured. In groups B, C and D, the international prostate symptom score were reduced by 3 months. Quality of life score was improved after 6 months in group D, while those of groups B and C were improved after 3 months, compared to the baseline value. Serum prostate specific antigen was reduced only in group D after 3 months, but no difference was observed in prostate volume in all treatment groups. Maximal urinary flow rate were gradually improved in groups B and C, with statistical significance after 6 months in group B and after 12 months in group C. None of the parameters were significantly improved by combined treatment with pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil. From these results, it is suggested that administrations of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be effective as complementary and alternative medicine treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  9. Seed-specific RNAi in safflower generates a superhigh oleic oil with extended oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Craig C; Okada, Shoko; Taylor, Matthew C; Menon, Amratha; Mathew, Anu; Cullerne, Darren; Stephen, Stuart J; Allen, Robert S; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Liu, Qing; Oakeshott, John G; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2018-03-06

    Vegetable oils extracted from oilseeds are an important component of foods, but are also used in a range of high value oleochemical applications. Despite being biodegradable, nontoxic and renewable current plant oils suffer from the presence of residual polyunsaturated fatty acids that are prone to free radical formation that limit their oxidative stability, and consequently shelf life and functionality. Many decades of plant breeding have been successful in raising the oleic content to ~90%, but have come at the expense of overall field performance, including poor yields. Here, we engineer superhigh oleic (SHO) safflower producing a seed oil with 93% oleic generated from seed produced in multisite field trials spanning five generations. SHO safflower oil is the result of seed-specific hairpin-based RNA interference of two safflower lipid biosynthetic genes, FAD2.2 and FATB, producing seed oil containing less than 1.5% polyunsaturates and only 4% saturates but with no impact on lipid profiles of leaves and roots. Transgenic SHO events were compared to non-GM safflower in multisite trial plots with a wide range of growing season conditions, which showed no evidence of impact on seed yield. The oxidative stability of the field-grown SHO oil produced from various sites was 50 h at 110°C compared to 13 h for conventional ~80% oleic safflower oils. SHO safflower produces a uniquely stable vegetable oil across different field conditions that can provide the scale of production that is required for meeting the global demands for high stability oils in food and the oleochemical industry. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2013-02-01

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA isolation from plant seeds is a prerequisite for many seed specific gene expression studies and DNA is necessary in marker-assisted selection and other genetic studies. We describe a modified method to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissue and have been successful with several oil seeds including peanut, soybean, sunflower, canola, and oil radish. An additional LiCl precipitation step was added to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissues. High quality nucleic acids were observed based on A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios above 2.0 and distinct bands on gel-electrophoresis. RNA was shown to be suitable for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on actin or 60S ribosomal primer amplification and DNA was shown to have a single band on gel-electrophoresis analysis. This result shows that RNA and DNA isolated using this method can be appropriate for molecular studies in peanut and other oil containing seeds.

  11. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

  12. Black seed oil ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T-cell proliferation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Yang, Xudong; Raza Asim, M B; Sun, Qingzhu; Han, Yan; Zhang, Fujun; Cao, Yongxiao; Lu, Shemin

    2009-02-01

    The black seeds, from the Ranunculaceae family, have been traditionally used by various cultures as a natural remedy for several ailments. In this study, we examined the effect of black seed oil as an immunomodulator in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation. Rats sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged intranasally with ovalbumin to induce an allergic inflammatory response were compared to ovalbumin-sensitized, intranasally ovalbumin-exposed rats pretreated with intraperitoneally administered black seed oil and to control rats. The levels of IgE, IgG1 and ova-specific T-cell proliferation in spleen were measured by ELISA. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The intraperitoneal administration of black seed oil inhibited the Th2 type immune response in rats by preventing inflammatory cell infiltration and pathological lesions in the lungs. It significantly decreased the nitric oxide production in BALF, total serum IgE, IgG1 and OVA-specific IgG1 along with IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression. Black seed oil treatment resulted in decreased T-cell response evident by lesser delayed type hypersensitivity and lower T-cell proliferation in spleen. In conclusion, black seed oil exhibited a significant reduction in all the markers of allergic inflammation mainly by inhibiting the delayed type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. The data suggests that inhibition of T-cell response may be responsible for immunomodulatory effect of black seed oil in the rat model of allergic airway inflammation.

  13. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition of annual halophyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 1State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of. Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China. 2Graduate University of ... of S. acuminata: brown with soft coarse seed coat and black with rigid smooth seed coat (Ding et al., 2010). Brown and black ...

  14. Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. MOHAMMED

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay. The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value and iodine value for both crude and refined castor oil produced, were within the ASTM standard specifications. In fact the iodine value obtained (84.8 for the refined oil indicates that the oil could certainly be used as lubricant, hydraulic break fluid and protecting coatings. The oil was modified via sulphation method to produce Turkey – red oil that was tested on wooden material, paper and cloth. The test revealed that the Turkey – red oil produced is suitable to be used as a good dying agent and polish.

  15. Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Physicochemical Evaluation of Oil from Hevea brasiliensis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn C. Creencia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis is exploited mainly for latex in view of its economic importance. However, one of its auxiliary products, the rubber seed, does not find any major applications, and hence, even the natural production of seeds itself remains underutilized. In this study, microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction is used as a green alternative to extract the oil from seeds at a reaction time of 90 min and microwave power of 300 W. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the processing conditions, including drying time, temperature, solid–solvent ratio, and extraction solvent, on the yield of rubber seed oil. Moreover, the microwave-assisted aqueous extraction (MAAE under acidic conditions is also investigated. Based on the results, n-hexane gave the best yield at an optimized 1:20 seed–hexane ratio at 72 °C compared with the conventional Soxhlet method and the acidic MAAE. Furthermore, the chemical characteristics of the oil showed a high value of free fatty acids (% FFA (1.15–7.61% and an iodine value (IV that ranges from 100–150. As a semi-drying oil, rubber seed oil (RSO can be used as an ingredient for surface coating and in the formulation of products where the presence of unsaturation is important.

  16. Seed oil triglyceride profiling of thirty-two hybrid grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Fabiola; Seraglia, Roberta; Molin, Laura; Traldi, Pietro; De Rosso, Mirko; Panighel, Annarita; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Gardiman, Massimo; Giust, Mirella; Flamini, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Triglyceride profile of seed oil samples from 32 hybrid grape varieties not studied before was investigated. A new method for the analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) has been developed based on the direct infusion in the electrospray ionization (ESI) source and employing tetrahydrofuran/methanol/water (85:10:5 v|v|v) as solvent; the formation of [M + Na](+) ions in high yield has been observed. TAGs were identified by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and the matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization and time-of-flight profile of samples was determined. Six were the principal TAGs identified in seed oil: trilinolein (LLL) was the most abundant (43%), followed by dilinoleoyl-oleoylglycerol (LOL, 23%), and dilinoleoyl-palmitoylglycerol (LPL, 15%). Compounds present in lower concentration were LSL and LOO (11%), LOP (6%), and LSP (2%). Compared with seed oils produced from V. Vinifera grapes, some significant differences in the relative abundances of TAGs were found, in particular hybrid grape seed oils showed higher LOL and lower LPL content, respectively. Among the samples studied, a particularly high content of LLL (rich in unsaturated fatty acids) was found in seed oils from two red varieties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Allelopatic effects of some medicinal plant essential oils on plant seeds germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI SHOKOUHIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of essential oils from some medicinal plants on seed germination was studied with the aim of assessing their potential use as bioherbicides. The experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Seeds of 3 summer crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa, pepper (Piper longum and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum were exposed to essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and anise (Pimpinella anisum at 3 different concentrations (25 and 50% diluted and undiluted. Treated seeds were grown in a growth chamber at 25°C for 5 days. The number of germinated seeds in each Petri dish was daily counted. After five days seed germination percentage (Ge was calculated. Biplot analysis was performed using genotype plus genotype environment interaction (GGE method. Results showed that the allelopathic effect on Ge was varied among studied plants, which was mainly due to i differences in the composition of the studied essential oils and ii different allelopathic effects of the studied essential oils on Ge. Accordingly, compared to the individual use, combining several essential oils would have a greater inhibitory effect on Ge of weeds.

  18. Oil quality of passion fruit seeds subjected to a pulp-waste purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Alvarenga Regis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit seeds must be clean and dry before the extraction processing to obtain high-quality oil for edible and cosmetic purposes. This research studies the viability of a cleaning process of seeds by evaluating the oil quality. The research examined 2 maturation stages of the fruit and one purification process of the seeds, compared to the control. The oil quality was evaluated by fatty acid composition, acidity, peroxide value and oxidative stability. The pulp waste suffered a thermal treatment in an alkaline water solution at 60°C for 10min and was further purified in an experimental decanter. In the control treatment, the pulp waste was processed using only water at ambient conditions. The passion fruit seeds were totally cleaned by the thermal/chemical treatment, allowing a faster drying (less than 50% of the drying time of the seeds and a bit higher yield of oil extraction (proportionally around 7.7%, without changes in quality of the oil

  19. Oil on the water: Government regulation of a carcinogen in the twentieth-century Lancashire cotton spinning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In the Lancashire cotton textile industry, mule spinners were prone to a chronic and sometimes fatal skin cancer (often affecting the groin). The disease had reached epidemic proportions by the 1920s, which necessitated action by the government, employers, and trade unions. In contrast to previous accounts, this article focuses on the government's reaction to mule spinners' cancer. Using official records in the National Archives, the slow introduction of health and safety measures by the government is explored in detail. Although obstructionism by the employers played a key role, one of the reasons for government inaction was the ambiguity of scientific research on engineering oils. On the other hand, prolonged scientific research suited a government policy that was framed around self regulation - a policy that had proved largely ineffective by the 1950s.

  20. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Monodora myristica seed oil | Odoh | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil is colourless, bitter with nice smell and the density is 0.789 g/ml. The oil had antimicrobial activity of the oil against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus among the tested organism and can be incorporated into cream as antimicrobial agent and as a perfume. Key words: Monodora ...

  2. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, SCE oil had the best oxidative stability, and highest contents of vitamin ... that consumption of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has positive ... rate of liquid CO2 was 35 L/h. The oil in the .... amounts of toxic solvents to extract plant oils.

  3. Investigating 'Egusi' (citrullus colocynthis l.) seed oil as potential biodiesel feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giwa, S.; Adam, N. M. [Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA)/Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, L. Ch. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia); Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel's acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 {sup o}C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME) yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm{sup 2}/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study. (author)

  4. Investigating “Egusi” (Citrullus Colocynthis L. Seed Oil as Potential Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Giwa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel’s acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 °C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm2/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study.

  5. Evaluation of Clausena pentaphylla (Roxb.) DC oil as a fungitoxicant against storage mycoflora of pigeon pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, Nijendra N

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of 30 essential oils against four dominant fungi Aspergillus flavus Link., A. niger van Tieghem, A. ochraceus Wilhelm and A. terreus Thom of stored pigeon pea seeds at a concentration of 0.36 µL mL(-1). Various fungitoxic properties, such as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration and fungitoxic spectrum, of the most potent oil were determined. The efficacy of the most potent oil in preservation of pigeon pea seeds for 6 months was also carried out by storing 1 kg of seeds in the oil vapour. Clausena pentaphylla and Citrus limon oils were more effective against all the fungi tested, which exhibited 100% per cent mycelial inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. pentaphylla oil was determined as 0.07 µL mL(-1) against all the test fungi and was found to be more toxic than Citrus limon oil. C. pentaphylla oil exhibited a broad range of fungitoxicity against 16 other storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. C. pentaphylla oil significantly protected 1 kg seeds of pigeon pea from fungal deterioration and was superior to synthetic fumigants. The oil did not show any phytotoxicity and the protein content of the seeds was significantly retained for up to 6 months of storage. Thus, C. pentaphylla oil may be used as an effective fumigant in the ecofriendly management of storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of Emulsification Method and Particle Size on the Rate of in vivo Oral Bioavailability of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ai Mun; Tan, Chin Ping; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2018-05-26

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 have been shown to have higher bioaccessibility of vitamin E and total phenolic content than nonemulsified kenaf seed oil in the previous in vitro gastrointestinal digestion study. However, its oral bioavailability was unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of in vivo oral bioavailability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions in comparison with nonemulsified kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed oil macroemulsions during the 180 min of gastrointestinal digestion. Kenaf seed oil macroemulsions were produced by using conventional method. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had shown improvement in the rate of absorption. At 180 min of digestion time, the total α-tocopherol bioavailability of kenaf seed oil nanoemulsions was increased by 1.7- and 1.4-fold, compared to kenaf seed oil and macroemulsion, respectively. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions were stable in considerably wide range of pH (>5 and oil-in-water nanoemulsions had provided a delivery system to encapsulate the kenaf seed oil, as well as enhanced the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of kenaf seed oil. Therefore, kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions exhibit a great potential application in nutraceutical fields. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Extraction and Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Rosigold Mango (Mangifera indica Seed Kernel Oil for Bioresin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sadiq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research report on extraction and assessment of physicochemical properties of Rosigold mango kernel oil. This is with a view to using the oil for bioresin production so as to mitigate some of the problems associated with petrochemical resins currently used for bulk of composite production activities. The seeds of the mango were identified and collected from the wastes discarded by marketers and consumers in Bauchi town. The Oil was obtained using soxhlet extraction with n-Hexane as solvent. The oil was characterized for yield, relative density, free fatty acid value, acid value, iodine value, and saponification value. Mean values of the characteristic parameters were: oil yield 19.6%, relative density 0.874 g/cm3, free fatty acid value 3.09 mg NaOH/g oil, acid value 6.18 mg KOH/g oil, iodine value 60.7 mg iodine/100 g oil and saponification value 143.6 mg KOH/ g oil. Analysis and comparison of these results with the physicochemical properties of palm oil, Soya bean oil and Hemp seed oil respectively, revealed that the iodine value of Rosigold mango seed kernel oil is higher than palm oil, but lower than Soya bean and Hemp seed oils respectively. Bioresin production is heavily dependent on the degree of unsaturation of the oil which is reflected by the iodine value. However, the overall results suggested that Rosigold mango seed kernel oil is suitable for bioresin production since the minimum iodine bench mark for renewable oil suitable for bioresin production is 50 mg iodine/100 g oil. The extracted oil has an added advantage in that the source (mango seed is a waste material that is readily available, affordable and sustainable in Nigeria and many other countries.

  8. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komada�s selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  9. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komadas selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  10. Studies on carotenoids and oxidative stability of winter squash seed and soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy, H. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash seed and soybean oils were extracted with commercial hexane. Carotenoids and other pigments m the oils were studied using spectrophotometric and thin layer chromatographic analysis. Three types of pigments were identified: carotenoids. mainly lutein and β-carotene, chlorophyll and some unidentified pigments. Carotenoids content were 70, 60, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed oil, and 80, 65, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached soybean oil respectively. Stability was evaluated for crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed and soybean oils and an 1:1 admixture. Mixing winter squash seed oil with soybean oil increased the stability of soybean oil. Crude oil showed greater stability than refined and bleached oils.

    Se han extraído con hexano comercial aceites de semilla de calabaza y de soja. Usando análisis espectrofotométrico y cromatografía en capa fina se han estudiado en estos aceites tres tipos de pigmentos: carotenoides, principalmente luteína y β-caroteno, clorofilas y otros no identificados. Los contenidos en carotenoides fueron 70, 60, 0 ppm en aceite de semilla de calabaza de invierno crudo, refinado y decolorado, y 80, 65, 0 ppm en aceite de soja crudo, refinado y decolorado respectivamente. Se ha evaluado la estabilidad de aceites de semilla de calabaza de invierno, soja y una mezcla 1:1 de ambos, en sus estados crudo, refinado y decolorado. La mezcla de semilla de calabaza de invierno con aceite de soja aumentó la estabilidad de este último. El aceite crudo mostró una mayor estabilidad que los aceites refinados y decolorados.

  11. Effect of seed quality on oxidative stability of cold-pressed sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the storage time, content of the husk and impurities in the seed mass on the oxidative stability of the cold pressed sunflower oil. The oxidative stability of oil was analyzed by the RSM (Response Surface Methodology, where the response value (output of the model was the content of oxidation products measured via specific absorbance at 232 nm for conjugated dienes and 270 nm for conjugated trienes. Analyses were performed on the fresh oil samples and oil samples tempered under the Schaal-Oven’s test conditions (96 h at 63±2ºC. It was concluded that the seed storage time had significant impact on the primary (A1%232nm and secondary (A1%270nm oil oxidation products, both before (b1-p<0,001; b1-p=0,021 and after (b1-p=0,048; b1-p=0,033 the heating of oil. The content of impurities and husks in the seeds used for pressing also had an influence of the conjugated dienes and trienes contents in both, fresh and heated oil samples. However, their impact was not statistically significant. Interaction of seed storage time, the content of impurities and husks also exert some effect on the values of these quality parameters in the fresh oil as well as in the oil after the heat treatment, even though their influence is not significant. The obtained results have shown that the cold pressed sunflower oil had a good oxidative stability at temperatures up to 63±2ºC.

  12. Biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Zeynab; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Harrison, Mark D.; Kusumo, Fitranto; Mazaheri, Hoora; Ilham, Zul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Need for alternative energy has led to explore new feedstock. • Ocimum basilicum seeds oil was used as biodiesel feedstock. • Biodiesel was produced via lipase-catalyzed transesterification by Novozym. • Artificial neural network with genetic algorithm modelling was employed. - Abstract: The increasing global demand for fuel, limited fossil fuel resources, and increasing concern about the upturn in gaseous CO_2 emissions are the key drivers of research and development into sources of renewable liquid transport fuels, such as biodiesel. In the present work, we demonstrate biodiesel production from Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) seed oil by lipase-catalyzed transesterification. Sweet basil seeds contain 22% oil on a dry weight basis. Artificial neural network with genetic algorithm modelling was used to optimize reaction. Temperature, catalyst concentration, time, and methanol to oil molar ratio were the input factors in the optimization study, while fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was the key model output. FAME composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The optimized transesterification process resulted in a 94.58% FAME yield after reaction at 47 °C for 68 h in the presence of 6% w/w catalyst and a methanol to oil ratio of 10:1. The viscosity, density, calorific value, pour point, and cloud point of the biodiesel derived from sweet basil seed oil conformed to the EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standard specifications. The antioxidant stability of the biodiesel did not meet these specifications but could be improved via the addition of antioxidant.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich seed of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Raquel C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, oil-rich plants are the main source of biodiesel products. Because concerns have been voiced about the impact of oil-crop cultivation on the price of food commodities, the interest in oil plants not used for food production and amenable to cultivation on non-agricultural land has soared. As a non-food, drought-resistant and oil-rich crop, Jatropha curcas L. fulfils many of the requirements for biofuel production. Results We have generated 13,249 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing and germinating Jatropha seeds. This strategy allowed us to detect most known genes related to lipid synthesis and degradation. We have also identified ESTs coding for proteins that may be involved in the toxicity of Jatropha seeds. Another unexpected finding is the high number of ESTs containing transposable element-related sequences in the developing seed library (800 when contrasted with those found in the germinating seed library (80. Conclusions The sequences generated in this work represent a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in public databases. These results can be used to produce genetically improved varieties of Jatropha with increased oil yields, different oil compositions and better agronomic characteristics.

  14. Production and characterization of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Leichang; Zhang, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil content of HM seed was 71.65 wt%. The HM biodiesel yield was 95.46 wt%. • HM biodiesel satisfied ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards, with the exception of OS. • The transportation safety and cold flow properties of HM biodiesel were excellent. • After treatment with 400 ppm TBHQ, the OS of HM biodiesel satisfied EN 14214. - Abstract: Using inexpensive and high-quality oil feedstock is an effective means to produce low-cost biodiesel. This work investigated the production and fuel properties of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa (HM). The oil content of HM seed was 71.65 wt%, which is much higher than that of many potential oil plants. With traditional base-catalyzed transesterification, biodiesel was readily prepared from HM seed oil. The biodiesel yield was 95.46 wt% from HM seed oil. Biodiesel derived from HM met all ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications, except for oxidative stability (OS). The OS specifications of the two biodiesel standards were met after treatment of HM biodiesel with 400 ppm tertbutyl hydroquinone. The biodiesel exhibited excellent transportation safety and cold flow properties, with flash point of 153 °C, pour point of −9 °C, and cold filter plugging point of −7 °C

  15. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical Co2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaneyulu, B.; Satyannarayana, S.; Kanjilal, S.; Siddaiah, V.; Prasanna Rani, K.N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (Co2) extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar), temperature (50–70 °C) and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1). The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1) extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1). Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1) was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1). The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil. [es

  16. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anjaneyulu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar, temperature (50–70 °C and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1. The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1 extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1 was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1. The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil.

  17. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  18. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.

  20. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  1. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  2. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  3. Phenolic profile and effect of growing area on Pistacia lentiscus seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezni, Faten; Slama, Awatef; Ksouri, Riadh; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Khaldi, Abdelhamid

    2018-08-15

    In this investigation, we aimed to study, for the first time, the phenolic composition of Pistacia lentiscus seed oils from different growing areas. Extraction of the phenolic fraction from oils was done by methanol/water. Phenolic profiles were determined using chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-DAD/MSD) and its quantification was done using an internal standard which is unidentified in the studied oil (syringic acid). Forty phenolic compounds were quantified and only eighteen of them were identified. The eight studied oils showed different phenolic profiles. The total phenols amount varied from 538.03 mg/kg oil in Jbel Masour oils to 4260.57 mg/kg oil in oils from Kef Erraai. The highest amount of secoiridoids was reached by Bouchoucha oil containing 366.71 mg/kg oil of Oleuropein aglycon. Oils from Kef Erraai locality contained the highest concentrations in flavonols (377.44 mg/kg oil) and in phenolic acids (2762.67 mg/kg oil). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ajmal, M.; Rehman, F.; Ayaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  5. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  6. Repellent Action of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Oil Cream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    hemorrahagic fever (DHF) and filariasis, are serious public health problems in tropical ... mosquito bites is one of the main strategies to control or minimize incidence .... The neem seed kernel yields an acrid bitter greenish yellow to brown fixed.

  7. Genetic analysis among selected vernonia lines through seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Vernonia (Vernonia galamensis) is a new potential industrial oilseed crop. The seeds .... Syferkuil, the university of Limpopo's experimental farm. The farm ... ionisation gas chromatograph, with a fused silica capillary column,.

  8. Pilot study of the efficacy and safety of lettuce seed oil in patients with sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot1, Sherine Helmy2, Kamal Fawal31Green Clinic Research Center, 2Pharco Pharmaceutical Company, 3Mamorah Psychiatric Hospital, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Lactuca sativa (garden lettuce is a popular salad herb. It has been in use in folk medicine since ancient times as both an appetite stimulant and as an aid to sleep. L. sativa seed oil (Sedan® has demonstrated a pronounced sedative effect and potentiated the hypnotic effect of barbiturates in animal models. It also exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effects of L. sativa in patients suffering from insomnia.Methods: Sixty patients suffering from insomnia with or without anxiety were randomized to receive capsules containing L. sativa seed oil 1000 mg (n = 30 or placebo (n = 30. All patients were asked to complete a verbal questionnaire before the start of the trial and 1 week after starting treatment.Results: Improvements in the modified State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Sleep rating scale scores were significantly greater in patients receiving L. sativa seed oil compared with those on placebo (P < 0.05. No side effects were found to be attributable to L. sativa seed oil at the given dosage.Conclusion: L. sativa seed oil was found to be a useful sleeping aid and may be a hazard-free line of treatment, especially in geriatric patients suffering from mild-to-moderate forms of anxiety and sleeping difficulties.Keywords: Lactuca sativa seed oil, insomnia, sleeping disorder, anxiety

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Genotoxic Assessment of Crabwood (Andiroba, Carapa guianensis Aublet Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Araujo-Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Carapa guianensis (Aublet, a tree from the Meliaceae family commonly known as andiroba, is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine because of its multiple curative properties against fever and rheumatism and as an anti-inflammatory agent, antibacterial agent, and insect repellant. Since there is no consensus on the best way to obtain the C. guianensis oil and due to its ethnomedicinal properties, the aim of the present research was to evaluate the chemical composition, free-radical scavenging activity, and mutagenic and genotoxicity properties of three C. guianensis oils obtained by different extraction methods. The phenolic contents were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Oil 1 was obtained by pressing the dried seeds at room temperature; oil 2 was obtained by autoclaving, drying, and pressing; oil 3 was obtained by Soxhlet extraction at 30–60°C using petroleum ether. The oil from each process presented differential yields, physicochemical properties, and phenolic contents. Oil 1 showed a higher scavenging activity against the DPPH radical when compared to oils 2 and 3, suggesting a significant antioxidant activity. All oils were shown to be cytotoxic to bacteria and to CHO-K1 and RAW264.7 cells. At noncytotoxic concentrations, oil 2 presented mutagenicity to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and induced micronuclei in both cell types. Under the same conditions, oil 3 also induced micronucleus formation. However, the present data demonstrated that oil 1, extracted without using high temperatures, was the safest for use as compared to the other two oils, not showing mutagenicity or micronucleus induction.

  10. Formulation, Characterization and Properties of Hemp Seed Oil and Its Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikulcová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The formulation, characterization, and anticipated antibacterial properties of hemp seed oil and its emulsions were investigated. The oil obtained from the seeds of Cannabis sativa L. in refined and unrefined form was characterized using iodine, saponification, acid values, and gas chromatography, and was employed for the preparation of stable oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsions were prepared using pairs of non-ionic surfactants (Tween, Span. The effects of the emulsification method (spontaneous emulsification vs. high-intensity stirring, hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB, type and concentration of surfactant, and oil type on the size and distribution of the emulsion particles were investigated. It was found that the ability to form stable emulsions with small, initial particle sizes is primarily dependent on the given method of preparation and the HLB value. The most efficient method of emulsification that afforded the best emulsions with the smallest particles (151 ± 1 nm comprised the high-energy method, and emulsions stable over the long-term were observed at HBL 9 with 10 wt % concentration of surfactants. Under high-intensity emulsification, refined and unrefined oils performed similarly. The oils as well as their emulsions were tested against the growth of selected bacteria using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The antibacterial effect of hemp seed oil was documented against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus. The formulated emulsions did not exhibit the antibacterial activity that had been anticipated.

  11. Moringa oleifera Seeds and Oil: Characteristics and Uses for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2016-12-20

    Moringa oleifera seeds are a promising resource for food and non-food applications, due to their content of monounsaturated fatty acids with a high monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) ratio, sterols and tocopherols, as well as proteins rich in sulfated amino acids. The rapid growth of Moringa trees in subtropical and tropical areas, even under conditions of prolonged drought, makes this plant a reliable resource to enhance the nutritional status of local populations and, if rationalized cultivation practices are exploited, their economy, given that a biodiesel fuel could be produced from a source not in competition with human food crops. Despite the relatively diffuse use of Moringa seeds and their oil in traditional medicine, no pharmacological activity study has been conducted on humans. Some encouraging evidence, however, justifies new efforts to obtain clear and definitive information on the benefits to human health arising from seed consumption. A critical review of literature data concerning the composition of Moringa oil has set in motion a plan for future investigations. Such investigations, using the seeds and oil, will focus on cultivation conditions to improve plant production, and will study the health effects on human consumers of Moringa seeds and their oil.

  12. Nutritional quality of the seed oil in thirteen Asphodeline species (Xanthorrhoeaceae) from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengin, G.; Aktumsek, A.; Giron-Calle, J.; Vioque, J.; Megias, C.

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the seed oil from 13 Turkish Asphodeline species was analyzed. The seed oil content ranged between 0.9% and 4.6%, and included 26 different fatty acids from C12:0 to C22:5. The most abundant saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were C16:0 (5.7% to 23.7% of their total fatty acid content), C18:1ω9 (11.3% to 30.3%), and C18:2ω6 (49.2% to 66.1%). A. tenuior subsp. tenuiflora, which had the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids, also had the best fatty acid profile from a nutritional point of view. Asphodeline seed oil composition was similar to that of local, related vegetables such as onion seeds. Asphodeline species, which are most frequently grown to use the leaves in salads, may also be a good source of seed oil with good nutritional properties. Results of a cluster analysis using data on the fatty acid composition are consistent with the taxonomic classification of genus Asphodeline. [es

  13. Oil content and fatty acids composition of poppy seeds cultivated in two localities of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lančaričová Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acids profile, acid and saponification values of poppy seeds grown on two localities of the Slovak Republic were evaluated in the study. Statistically significant effects of locality, genotype and their interaction (P < 0.05 for numerous descriptors were proved by non-parametric tests. Results confirmed that variation in the analysed parameters was influenced by the colour of seeds. Ochre variety Redy contained the highest oil level in both localities (49.9 and 52.4% and linoleic acid level (74.3 and 71.6%. White-seeded Racek and Albín had the highest acid value (2.8 and 2.4% of free fatty acids and grey-seeded Malsar and blue-seeded Maratón contained the highest saponification value. Buddha, a high-morphine poppy variety, differed significantly in all monitored parameters. High negative interrelation between linoleic and oleic acids levels was observed. Oil content was positively correlated with linoleic acid and negatively with oleic acid. Weather conditions at the end of vegetation influenced the accumulation of oil and essential linoleic acid.

  14. Vernonia DGATs can complement the disrupted oil and protein metabolism in epoxygenase-expressing soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Tateno, Mizuki; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Hildebrand, David F

    2012-01-01

    Plant oils can be useful chemical feedstocks such as a source of epoxy fatty acids. High seed-specific expression of a Stokesia laevis epoxygenase (SlEPX) in soybeans only results in 3-7% epoxide levels. SlEPX-transgenic soybean seeds also exhibited other phenotypic alterations, such as altered seed fatty acid profiles, reduced oil accumulation, and variable protein levels. SlEPX-transgenic seeds showed a 2-5% reduction in total oil content and protein levels of 30.9-51.4%. To address these pleiotrophic effects of SlEPX expression on other traits, transgenic soybeans were developed to co-express SlEPX and DGAT (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) genes (VgDGAT1 & 2) isolated from Vernonia galamensis, a high accumulator of epoxy fatty acids. These side effects of SlEPX expression were largely overcome in the DGAT co-expressing soybeans. Total oil and protein contents were restored to the levels in non-transgenic soybeans, indicating that both VgDGAT1 and VgDGAT2 could complement the disrupted phenotypes caused by over-expression of an epoxygenase in soybean seeds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Kita, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties, and provide characteristics, of the oil obtained from the seeds of 12 pumpkin varieties belonging to the species Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita pepo L. Another objective was to establish which of the two extracting agents, ethanol or methanol, is more effective. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties examined differ in chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The seeds of the cultivars belonging to the species C. maxima are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids than are the cultivars of the species C. pepo. In the seed oil, unsaturated acids are dominant (oleic and linoleic), and their proportion depends on the pumpkin variety. The highest content of unsaturated acids has been measured in the oil extracted from the seeds of the cultivar, Jet F1 (C. pepo). Antioxidant activity analysis has produced the following findings. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties that belong to the species C. pepo exhibit better antioxidant properties, regardless of the extraction solvent used. 50% ethanol is more efficient than 80% methanol when used as an extracting agent. The antioxidant activity values obtained with 50% ethanol are higher than those achieved with 80% methanol. Owing to the considerable differences in composition among the fatty acids examined, it is possible to choose the desired pumpkin variety for the intended use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immediate analysis of the oil content of seeds by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, K.Z.; Costa, V.E.U.; Seidl, P.R.; Campos, M.P.A.; Colnago, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CMR) spectra of a series of Brazilian oilseeds was registered. The main constituents of the oils are identified and signals for each carbon atom are assigned. Chemical shifts are estimated for the free fatty acids and compared to those observed from the seeds, with good results. Besides being non-destructive, the RMC method proves to be fast and is useful in the determination of the principal components of the oil fraction of different types of seeds. (Author) [pt

  17. Chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile of butterfly tree seed oil (Bauhinia purpurea L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetjipto, H.; Riyanto, C. A.; Victoria, T.

    2018-04-01

    Butterfly tree (Kachnar) in Indonesia is only used as ornamental plants in garden, park, and roadsides. The seed of Butterfly tree was extracted with n-hexane and physicochemical properties were determined based on Standard Nasional Indonesia (SNI) 01-3555-1998 while the oil chemical composition was determined using GC-MS. The result showed that yield of the oil as 57.33±1.14 % (w/w) and the chemical characteristic of seed oil include acid value (13.7.8±0.23 mg KOH/g) saponification value (153.32±1.85 mg KOH/g), peroxide value (43.51±0.57. mg KOH/g). The butterfly tree seed oil showed that linoleic acid (28.11 %), palmitic acid (29.2%), oleic acid (19.82%) and stearic acid (10.7.4 %) were the main fatty acids in the crude seed oils. Minor amounts of neophytadiena and arachidic acid were also identified.

  18. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, Irene O. C. M.; van Diepen, Janna A.; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Westbroek, Irene; Keizer, Hiskias; Gambelli, Luisa; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Zondag, Gerben C. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oil (PUA) was fed for 12weeks to

  19. Beauty in Baobab: a pilot study of the safety and efficacy of Adansonia digitata seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baatile M. Komane

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently there has been a renewed impetus in the search for novel ingredients to be used in the cosmetic industry and Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae seed oil has received high interest. In this study, a commercial Baobab seed oil sample was characterised (fatty acid content using GCxGC-ToF-MS and a pilot study on the safety and efficacy of the seed oil was performed. The safety and efficacy of Baobab seed oil after topical application was determined using healthy adult female caucasian participants (n = 20. A 2× magnifying lamp was used for visual analysis, while for monitoring and evaluation of the irritancy level, transepidermal water loss (TEWL and hydration level of the skin, Chromameter®, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments, respectively, were used. In addition, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments were used to assess occlusive effects. Thirteen methyl esters were identified using GCxGC-ToF-MS. The major fatty acids included 36.0% linoleic acid, 25.1% oleic acid and 28.8% palmitic acid with 10.1% constituting trace fatty acids. The irritancy of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS in the patch test differed significantly compared to both de-ionised water (p < 0.001 and Baobab seed oil (p < 0.001 but the difference between the irritancy of Baobab seed oil and de-ionised water was not significant (p = 0.850. The moisture efficacy test indicated a reduced TEWL (p = 0.048 and an improved capacitance moisture retention (p < 0.001 for all the test products (Baobab oil, liquid paraffin, Vaseline® intensive care lotion and Vaseline®. The occlusivity wipe-off test indicated an increased moisture hydration (p < 0.001 and decreased TEWL particularly when Baobab oil was applied. Baobab possesses hydrating, moisturising and occlusive properties when topically applied to the skin. Baobab seed oil could be a valuable functional ingredient for cosmeceutical applications.

  20. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fractionation of hairless canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) into starch, protein, and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann; Gray, Danielle

    2010-06-09

    Canary seed is an important specialty crop in Canada. The current market for this true cereal (i.e., belonging to the family Poaceae as wheat) is limited to feed for caged birds. However, canary seed holds a promise for many food and industrial applications based on its composition. Three wet milling procedures based on ethanol (E), water (W), and alkaline (A) extractions used in different order were investigated to determine extraction efficiency and purity of starch, protein, oil, and fiber separated from hairless canary seed, a variety developed for human consumption. Highest extraction efficiencies were obtained when canary seed was defatted with ethanol and then extracted with alkali and water (EAW process). Using this process, approximately 92% pure starch, 75% pure protein, and oil were recovered from canary seed groats. The highest purity of protein, however, was obtained when canary seed was fractionated by the EWA process, that is, defatted and then extracted with water followed by alkali. Fiber component separated prior to alkaline extraction contained high amounts of nonfiber components as indicated by its yield. The EAW extraction process seems to be more promising in canary seed fractionation based on recovery and purity of components.

  2. Policosanol composition, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil at different seed maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Saoussem; Ferchichi, Azza; Bacheli, Asma; Fellah, Hayet

    2018-04-16

    Several anti-arthritic drugs and synthetic antioxidants have wide pharmaceutical uses and are often associated with various side effects on the human health. Dietary seed oils and their minor components like policosanol may offer an effective alternative treatment for arthritic and oxidative-stress related diseases. The biological effects of seed oils were affected by different parameters such as the stage of seed maturity. Hence, this study seeks to determine the policosanol content, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil extracted at various stages of seed maturation. Milk thistle oil samples were extracted from seeds collected at three maturation stages (immature, intermediate, and mature). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the extracted oils. The anti-arthritic activity of oil samples was evaluated with bovine serum protein denaturation and egg albumin denaturation methods. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine the policosanol profile. Policosanol profile, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle oil were influenced by the seed maturity stages. The oil extracted from the immature seeds had the highest total policosanol content (987.68 mg/kg of oil) and displayed the maximum antiradical activity (96.42% and 90.35% for DPPH test and ABTS assay, respectively). Nine aliphatic alcohols were identified in the milk thistle oil. The dominant poliosanol in the mature seed oil was octacosanol (75.44%), while triacontanol was the major compound (40.25%) in the immature seed oil. Additionally, the maximum inhibition of bovine serum protein denaturation (92.53%) and egg albumin denaturation (86.36%) were observed in immature seed oil as compared to mature seed oil. A high correlation was found between the total

  3. New sources of soybean seed meal and oil composition traits identified through TILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilyeu Kristin D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques are available to study gene function, but many are less than ideal for soybean. Reverse genetics, a relatively new approach, can be utilized to identify novel mutations in candidate genes; this technique has not produced an allelic variant with a confirmed phenotype in soybean. Soybean raffinose synthase genes and microsomal omega-6 fatty acid desaturase genes were screened for novel alleles in mutagenized soybean populations. Results Four mutations in independent lines were identified in the raffinose synthase gene RS2; two mutations resulted in amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed oligosaccharide phenotype. The resulting phenotype was an increase in seed sucrose levels as well as a decrease in both raffinose and stachyose seed oligosaccharide levels. Three mutations in independent lines were identified in the omega-6 fatty acid desaturase gene FAD2-1A; all three mutations resulted in missense amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed fatty acid profile that led to an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid in the seed oil. Conclusion The oligosaccharide phenotype controlled by the novel RS2 allele is similar to previously observed seed oligosaccharide phenotypes in RS2 mutant (PI 200508 allele-containing lines. Due to the anti-nutritional characteristics of raffinose and stachyose, this represents a positive change in seed composition. The fatty acid phenotype controlled by the novel FAD2-1A allele controls an increase in oleic acid in the seed oil, a phenotype also observed in a line previously characterized to have a null allele of the FAD2-1A gene. Molecular marker assays were developed to reliably detect the inheritance of the mutant alleles and can be used in efficient breeding for these desired seed phenotypes. Our results serve as the first demonstration of the identification of soybean mutants controlling seed phenotypes discovered through the

  4. Physicochemical characterization of Quassia undulata seed oil for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... peroxide value (6.756). The values obtained from Q. undulata were uniquely different from common vegetable oils but with a superior combination of properties to suit a promising industrial process such as biodiesel production. Keywords: Quassia undulata, physicochemical properties, vegetable oil, biodiesel production ...

  5. Relative efficacy of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on hyperuricaemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Wang, Yao-Horng; Chiou, Hue-Ying; Lai, Shan-Hu; Yang, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Diets that ameliorate the adverse effects of uric acid (UA) on renal damage deserve attention. The effects of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on various serum parameters and renal histology were investigated on hyperuricaemic rats. Male Wistar rats administered with oxonic acid and UA to induce hyperuricaemia were fed with casein or soya protein plus palm- or safflower-seed oil-supplemented diets. Normal rats and hyperuricaemic rats with or without allopurinol treatment (150 mg/l in drinking water) were fed with casein plus maize oil-supplemented diets. After 8 weeks, allopurinol treatment and soya protein plus safflower-seed oil-supplemented diet significantly decreased serum UA in hyperuricaemic rats (one-way ANOVA; P soya protein and casein attenuated hyperuricaemia-induced decreases in serum albumin and insulin, respectively (two-way ANOVA; P soya protein significantly decreased renal NO and nitrotyrosine and palm oil significantly decreased renal nitrotyrosine, TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma and increased renal transforming growth factor-beta. Casein with safflower-seed oil significantly attenuated renal tubulointerstitial nephritis, crystals and fibrosis. Comparing casein v. soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil, the results support that casein with safflower-seed oil may be effective in attenuating hyperuricaemia-associated renal damage, while soya protein with safflower-seed oil may be beneficial in lowering serum UA and TAG.

  6. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  7. Lipid composition of seed oils of different pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cultivars from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Fernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. is an ancient fruit tree traditionally cultivated in the Near and Middle East. Presently, its most important growing regions include Afghanistan, Iran, Israel, USA, Italy and Spain, the latter country the largest European exporter. The pomegranate fruit can be divided into several anatomical compartments: outside peel, inside peel, and arils (pulp and seeds, the last part being usually used for consumption as is or for juice, jams and jellies production. Even though pomegranate seeds are an industrial by-product, recent reports have highlighted their potential use as a source of oil with beneficial chemical attributes. Therefore, the main objective of the present work was to characterize the seed oil of nine European pomegranate varieties, collected in Spain, for their fatty acid and vitamin E compositions. All seed lipid fractions consisted mainly of punicic acid (c9,t11,c13 C-18:3, ranging between 77.3% and 83.6% of total fatty acids, followed by small amounts of linoleic acid (C18:2n6, oleic acid (C18:1n9 and palmitic acid (C16:0. Regarding vitamin E composition, α-, γ-, δ-tocopherols were found in all pomegranate seed oils, but mainly γ-tocopherol, with total tocopherols ranging from 174.5 to 627.3 mg/100g oil.The richness of these pomegranate varieties seed oils in punicic acid, a conjugated linolenic acid with interesting anti-carcinogenic activity, and the elevated amount of tocopherols on the extracted lipids, of technological and nutritional relevance, make this by-product interesting for further exploitation.

  8. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Broznić, Dalibor; Jurešić, Gordana Čanadi; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step proces...

  10. COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL STABILITY PROPERTIES OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL NANOEMULSION DOSAGE FORMS WITH LONG-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE AND MEDIUM-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE AS THE OIL PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartanti Yuliani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate seed oil has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemo preventive activities. Pomegranate seed oil is lipophilic substance suitable to be prepared in emulsion dosage forms. Long-chain triglyceride (LCT and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT are commonly used as oil phase in emulsion dosage forms. This research aimed to compare the use of LCT and MCT in the Nano emulsion formula of pomegranate seed oil dosage forms. Formulation of pomegranate seed oil Nano emulsion was conducted using high energy emulsification. Parameters observed were pH, Nano emulsion type, percent transmittance, viscosity, turbidity, and droplet size before and after 3 cycles of freeze-thaw. The result showed that there was no significant difference between physical properties of pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with LCT as oil phase and pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with MCT as oil phase. Moreover, physical stability of pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with LCT as oil phase was better than pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with MCT as oil phase.

  11. Characterization of constituents, quality and stability of pomegranate seed oil (Punica granatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Louise Pereira de MELO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to characterize pomegranate seed oil and evaluate its quality and stability parameters against those of linseed oil. The profile of fatty acids and phytosterols and the content of tocopherols were analyzed by gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The quality of both oils was assessed as recommended by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS and stability was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, β-carotene bleaching (coupled oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid and Rancimat® assays. While α-linolenic acid (52% was the most abundant fatty acid in linseed oil (LO, punicic acid (55% was highest in pomegranate seed oil (PSO. Tocopherols and phytosterols (175 and 539 mg/100 g, respectively were greater in PSO than in LO (51 and 328 mg/100 g, respectively. Both oils met quality standards. The β-carotene bleaching and the DPPH assays showed greater oxidative stability for PSO than for LO. The Rancimat® method, on the other hand, indicated low stability for both oils.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and oil contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdomo, Felipe A.; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A.; Herrera, G.; Vasco-Leal, José F.; Mosquera-Artamonov, José D.; Millan-Malo, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous study and characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and its respective extracted oil. Several physical–chemical properties were measured in order to know moisture, total lipid content, fiber content, starch presence, morphology, acidity, free fatty acid profile, ricinoleic acid content, viscosity and crude oil density. Three different methodologies were implemented for the oil extraction in each variety (extraction with chemical solvents and mechanical compression heated and non-heated). The yield percentage of the oil extraction was evaluated as well as the extraction method influence over the oil's nature. -- Highlights: ► We characterized seven different Castor seeds and oils from semi deserted region. ► We evaluate the performance of three different methods to obtain Castor Oils. ► It was found that the density and fatty acid profile depend on the method of extraction. ► According to x-ray diffraction experiments no crystalline compounds were found in the defatted mass. ► The viscosity of the Castor Oils was strongly influence by the extractive method

  13. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  14. Development of a method and technology for obtaining vegetable oil from safflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is designed and engineered compact line for processing grain safflower, which used the equipment of the increased efficiency, implementing progressive processes with application of modern physical methods of treatment. This line includes bucket Elevator (Noria, a receiving hopper , the air-sieve separator , intermediate tank, Trier (osgoodby and qualitronic, stone-dividing machine and separator for separation of Caucalis lappula, screw conveyor, intermediate bunker, peeler, oil press machines, the device for the deposition of oil (the sump, pump, frame filter. The process of collapse in the grinding pilot plant, in which the destruction of the epithelial layer of the shell is due to the fact that the compression stress in the impact zone exceeds the limit of elastic deformation of the shell of the grain. Conducted sieve analysis, which was studied granulometric composition fed to the compression of the particles of safflower seed , in this case to characterize the granulometric composition of the raw material, consisting of particles of irregular shape, used the concept of equivalent diameter. As a result of the experiments was the dependence of the equivalent particle diameter from the diameter of the sieve. Since the degree of extraction of safflower seed are hugely influenced by the moisture source of the product, was therefore carried out experimental studies of compaction with different moisture content of the seeds , and with the addition of Luz-Ki. From the analysis of graphic dependences were established a range of optimum moisture safflower seed 8,5--10%, providing the lowest residual oil content and hence the greatest yield of oil. Also managed to significantly increase the efficiency of extraction of oil by adding safflower seed pre-milled husks, which allowed to obtain cake with a residual oil content of 12% when you multiply pre-pressing and to 6% at the final extraction

  15. Antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil during a forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Ko, Hsiang-Kai; Huang, Brian E T-G; Chu, Yan-Hwa; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder may become one of the major leading causes of disease burden by 2030 according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, the discovery of antidepressive foods is attractive and could have considerable impacts worldwide. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil on adult male rats subjected to a forced swimming test (FST). Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were housed and fed various diets, including soybean oil-rich, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich diets for 6 weeks. After the dietary intervention, animals were tested using an FST and were sacrificed after the test. We analyzed the fatty acid profiles of red blood cells (RBCs) and the brain prefrontal cortex (PFC). Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin, and dopamine in the PFC were also determined. After the FST, the imipramine, EPA-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich groups showed significant shorter immobility time and longer struggling time than the control group (p < 0.05). Levels of BDNF in the P. frutescens seed oil-rich group and levels of serotonin in the EPA-rich group were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the control group. Moreover, the BDNF concentration in the PFC was significantly positively correlated with the struggling time. However, there were no significant differences in dopamine levels between the intervention groups and the control group. In conclusion, a P. frutescens seed oil-rich diet exhibited antidepressant-like properties through modulation of fatty acid profiles and BDNF expression in the brain during an FST.

  16. Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Latex Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against Dominant Seed-Borne Storage Fungi of Some Oil Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Manoorkar V B; Mandge S V; B D Gachande

    2015-01-01

    In present study, aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) was tested for their antifungal activity against dominant storage seed-borne fungi of some oil seeds such as groundnut, soybean, sunflower and mustard. The antifungal effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against ten seed-borne dominant fungi viz., Cuvularia lunata, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asperg...

  17. The effects of process technology on the physicochemical properties of peony seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, J.; Zhang, F.; Thakur, K.; Shi, J.J.; Zhang, J.G.; Faisal, S.; Wei, Z.J.

    2017-01-01

    Peony seed oils (PSOs) were prepared using supercritical CO2 (SC) and compared with soxhlet extraction (SE) and mechanical screw press extraction (SPE) methods. The fatty acid compositions of the oils were determined, and the physicochemical properties of the oils, including free radical-scavenging activity, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, thermal and rheological properties were evaluated. The unsaturated fatty acids in the SE oils were higher than SC and SPE oils due to the higher percentage of olefinic, allylic methylene and allylic methine protons in the SE oils. The SPE oils also displayed the highest DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging activity at the tested concentrations. However, the SE oils showed stronger inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes under in vitro conditions when compared with the other oil samples. The three oils had similar melting and crystalline point due to similar contents of fatty acids (FAs). The SC oils had a lower Ea than the others. [es

  18. Effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on the N-fertilizer use efficiency, lint properties and seed cotton yield using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Khalifa, Kh

    2001-12-01

    Field experiment was carried out at Der El-Hajar research station during 1998 growing season to evaluate the effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on N-recovery, seed cotton yield and lint properties using 15 N isotope dilution technique. Aleppo 40 variety was tested, irrigation scheduling was set up at 80% of field capacity. Phosphorus fertilizer was applied as TSP 46% before planting at a rate of 180 kg/ha. N fertilizer was applied as urea (46%) in four different applications follows: one application 180 kg N/ha before planting (T1), two split application 180 (90 + 90) kg N/ha (T2), three equally split applications 180 (60 + 60 + 60) kg N/ha (T3), and four equally split applications 180 (45 + 45 + 45 + 45) kg N/ha (T4). Labeled N-fertilizer (5.09 a.e%) was also applied as urea 46% to the subplots (1.0 m 2 each) of the corresponding treatments. All agricultural practices were carried out as the common practices locally employed. Soil samples were analyzed for CEC, ph, EC, OM, total N, available P, and CaCO 3 as outlined by our laboratory standard procedure. Plant samples were collected at physiological maturity and analyzed for 15 N enrichment to assess N recovery. Lint samples were analyzed for lint properties. the results showed no significant effect of the nitrogen fertilizer time course application on the tested parameters such as dry matter production, seed cotton yield, N uptake and lint properties. on the other hand the T2, T3 and T4 treatments where shown to have a positive significant response toward time course application relative to T1 treatment. (authors)

  19. Response surface methodology based optimization of diesel–n-butanol –cotton oil ternary blend ratios to improve engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanlı, Alpaslan; Yüksel, Bedri; İleri, Erol; Deniz Karaoglan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • RSM based optimization for optimum blend ratio of diesel fuel, n-butanol and cotton oil was done. • 65.5 vol.% diesel fuel, 23.1 vol.% n-butanol and 11.4 vol.% cotton oil (DnBC) was determined. • DnBC decreased brake torque, brake power, BTE and BMEP, while increased BSFC. • DnBC decreased NO x , CO and HC emissions. - Abstract: Many studies declare that 20% biodiesel is the optimum concentration for biodiesel–diesel fuel blends to improve performance. The present work focuses on finding diesel fuel, n-butanol, and cotton oil optimum blend ratios for diesel engine applications by using the response surface method (RSM). Experimental test fuels were prepared by choosing 7 different concentrations, where phase decomposition did not occur in the phase diagram of −10 °C. Experiments were carried out at full load conditions and the constant speed (2200 rpm) of maximum brake torque to determine engine performance and emission parameters. According to the test results of the engine, optimization was done by using RSM considering engine performance and exhaust emissions parameters, to identify the rates of concentrations of components in the optimum blend of three. Confirmation tests were employed to compare the output values of concentrations that were identified by optimization. The real experiment results and the R 2 actual values that show the relation between the outputs from the optimizations and real experiments were determined in high accordance. The optimum component concentration was determined as 65.5 vol.% diesel, 23.1 vol.% n-butanol and 11.4 vol.% cotton oil (DnBC). According to engine performance tests brake torque, brake power, BTE and BMEP of DnBC decreased while BSFC increased compared to those of diesel fuel. NO x , CO and HC emissions of DnBC drastically decreased as 11.33%, 45.17% and 81.45%, respectively

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF SESAME SEEDS OIL EXTRACTION OPERATING CONDITIONS USING THE RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAITHAM OSMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  1. Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

    2010-07-01

    Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

  2. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    was determined. The peak lipase activity for fermented Africa locust bean, Castor seed, and African ..... Lipase by Penicillium restrictum in solid state ... sp. Rev. Microbiol. 28(2): 90-95. Martinek, G.H. (1969). Microbiology and amino acid ...

  3. Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2014-06-01

    Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches.

  4. Improvement of oil-seed and industrial crops by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 22 papers presented, seven dealing with the genetic improvement of crops using ionizing radiations, fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics covered were oil-seed quality requirements for industrial processing and concepts of improving biomass production from higher plants

  5. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly(alpha-hydroxydibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milled Osage orange seeds (Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid) were Soxhlet extracted with hexane, and portions of the extract were treated with activated carbon before solvent removal. The crude oil was winterized and degummed by centrifugation at low temperature. Decantation of the centrifuge gave an...

  6. Composition of the seed oil of Hibiscus abelmoschus L. (Malvaceae) growing in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Khien, P.V.; Nhuan, D.D.; Hoi, T.M.; Ban, N.K.; Leclercq, P.A.; Muselli, A.; Bighelli, A.; Casanova, J.

    1999-01-01

    The essential oils of ambrette (Hibiscus abelmoschus 1., syn. Abelmoschus moschatus) were produced from seeds collected in the different provinces of Vietnam. Five samples were investigated and 35 components were identified by a combination of high resolution GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR spectrometry. The

  7. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from and fatty acid profile of Gliricidia sepium seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing the supply of biodiesel by defining and developing additional feedstocks is important to overcome the still limited amounts available of this alternative fuel. In this connection, the methyl esters of the seed oil of Gliricidia sepium were synthesized and the significant fuel-related prop...

  8. Ameliorative effect of pumpkin seed oil against emamectin induced toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, Shimaa M; AbuBakr, Huda O; Mohamed, Mostafa A; El-Bahrawy, Amanallah

    2018-02-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of emamectin insecticide in mice and the possible protective effect of pumpkin seed oil. Treated mice received emamectin benzoate in the diet at 75-ppm for 8 weeks, while another group of animals received emamectin in addition to pumpkin seed oil at a dose of 4 ml/kg. Biochemical analysis of MDA, DNA fragmentation, GSH, CAT and SOD was performed in liver, kidney and brain as oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers. In addition, gene expression of CYP2E1 and Mgst1 and histopathological alterations in these organs were evaluated. Emamectin administration induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney evidenced by elevated levels of MDA and percentage of DNA fragmentation with suppression of GSH level and CAT and SOD activities. Brain showed increase of MDA level with inhibition of SOD activity. Relative expressions of CYP2E1 and Mgst1 genes were significantly elevated in both liver and kidney. Emamectin produced several histopathological changes in liver, kidney and brain. Co-administration of pumpkin seed oil produced considerable protection of liver and kidney and complete protection of brain. In conclusion, pumpkin seed oil has valuable value in ameliorating the toxic insult produced by emamectin in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of seed oil of garlic and Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of Moringa oleifera and garlic against some selected food-borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method. The results ...

  10. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  11. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  12. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  13. Amelioration of Anti-Nutritive Effects of Castor Oil Seed ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and twenty (320) day old male broilers were used to investigate the amelioration of anti-nutritive effects of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) meal in broilers' ration using natural fermentation and DL-Methionine supplementation. The experimental designed was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary ...

  14. Development a method for producing vegetable oil from safflower seeds by pressing in the field of ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    S. T. Antipov; S. V. Shakhov; A. N. Martekha; A. A. Berestovoy

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the prospects of production in agriculture safflower seeds for food and extract biologically active components. The physicochemical composition of safflower, which is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Safflower oil has a soothing and moisturizing effect, provides a barrier function of the skin, therefore, fatty oil is promising in terms of scientific evidence use in medical practice. In the article the task of developing a set of processes to extract oil from the seeds of saf...

  15. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  16. Model-free pyrolysis kinetics of sunflower seed and its de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Kilic, Murat; Pütün, Ersan; Pütün, Ayşe E.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower seed wastes from oil production are a potential biomass source for bio- energy production due to extensive and excessive oil production from sunflower seeds. Considering global energy requirement, pyrolysis seems a promising route for utilisation of such industrial biomass wastes. To develop, scale-up and operate pyrolysis plants efficiently, a fundamental understanding of pyrolysis behaviour and kinetics is essential. In this study, sunflower seeds and their waste cakes after extraction were evaluated as a potential biomass feedstock in pyrolysis process. In order to enlighten pyrolytic degradation behaviours, samples were pyrolysed under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C using multiple heating rates. The main degradation regimes of the structures were characterized by high weight loss rates. Reaction kinetics was investigated with respect to conversion degree. It is anticipated that this study will be beneficial in optimizing the thermochemical processes, which may be utilize industrial biomass wastes. (full text)

  17. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations.

  18. Production and refining of Dacryodes edulis “native pear” seeds oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KOH/g, SN of 72.8. Degumming (with 0.2%Na2CO3 and 0.2%H3PO4) and bleaching gave oils with lower AV (7.45 mgKOH/gfat) and higher acid value (9.4 mgKOH/gfat), respectively. Iodine value (48.78 ml/g) of the 0.2% Na2CO3 degummed oil was higher than that of the seed oil degummed with 0.2% H3PO4 (25.35ml/g).

  19. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P spreads resembled commercial peanut butter, both in appearance, texture and spreadability; were a source of ω-3 fatty acids and with no visual oil separation after 1 mo of storage. An optimum spread was produced using 1.25% (w/w) of stabilizer and 80% of hemp oil (w/w, of the total added oil) which had 0.97 g of ω-3 fatty acids per serving size; penetration depth of 68.4 mm; oil separation of 9.2% after 3 mo of storage; and a sensory score of 17.5. A use of by-products generated from different food processing technologies, where the edible waste is successfully incorporated as a value-added ingredient, has become a very important area of research to support global sustainability efforts. This study contributes to the knowledge of a product design process for oil-based spread development, where oil press-cake, a by-product of the oil pressing process of the naked pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Repellent Action Of Neem (Azadiracta India Seed Oil Against Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hati A K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadiracta India seed oil in appropriate amount when smeared on the surface of the hand showed excellent repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. When 1 ml of oil was spread on the hand, with an approximate area of 160 sq cm the percentage of alighting and blood fed mosquitoes in the experimental cages varied from 14 to 78 and 4 to 46 respectively. This percentage decreased to 6 to 18 and 0 to 16 respectively when the amount of oil applied was 1.5 ml. Only 0-4% of the mosquitoes alighted on the skin of which 2% only took the blood meal when 2 ml of the oil was used to cover the hand. In the control cages cent percent of the mosquitoes alighted and sucked blood. The repellent action was directly proportional to the hour of exposure to the oil. It was also observed that even after alighting on a oil- smeared skin a sizeable proportion of mosquitoes were not able to imbibe blood meal. Neem seed oil was non-toxic, non- irritating to skin.

  1. Determination of oil and fatty acids concentration in seeds of coastal halophytic Sueada aegyptica plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Assadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suaeda aegyptica (S. aegyptica species belong to the Chenepodiaceae family, the second largest family in the world of plants kingdom. It is indigenous to arid and semi-arid regions of the world and salty coastal zones Persian Gulf of Iran. It is an annual succulent halophyte plant which is characterized by producing oily seeds, high growth rate and large number of biomass. The aim of this study was analysis and determination of oil and fatty acids concentration in the S. aegyptica seed. Material and Methods: The seeds of S. aegyptica were collected form coastal zones of Persian Gulf in Bushehr province, washed and dried. The fatty acids content of the dried seeds were extracted in n-hexane solvent by soxhellet apparatus. The residue of n-hexane in oily phase was evaporated by rotary evaporator and remaining oil was collected for fatty acids analysis. In the presence of potassium hydroxide and BF3 by refluxing for 30 minutes, the methyl ester derivative of fatty acids were produced. Then the resulted derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID. Results: The seeds of S. aegyptica contains eight fatty acids as: Pelargonic (C9, Capric (C10, Undecylic (C11, Tridecylic (C13, Myristic (C14, Palmitic (C16, Stearic (C18, Linoleic (18:2 and Linolenic (18:3. Average oil content in seeds 014/0 ± 87 / percent. Conclusion: The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids was higher than the saturated ones. Linoleic and Palmitic acids are major unsaturated and saturated fatty acids of S. aegyptica seed respectively.

  2. Impact of Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on damage, yield and quality of lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), a potential new oil-seed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dierig, David A

    2011-10-01

    Lesquerella, Physaria fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, is a mustard native to the western United States and is currently being developed as a commercial source of valuable hydroxy fatty acids that can be used in a number of industrial applications, including biolubricants, biofuel additives, motor oils, resins, waxes, nylons, plastics, corrosion inhibitors, cosmetics, and coatings. The plant is cultivated as a winter-spring annual and in the desert southwest it harbors large populations of arthropods, several of which could be significant pests once production expands. Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common in lesquerella and are known pests of a number of agronomic and horticultural crops where they feed primarily on reproductive tissues. A 4-yr replicated plot study was undertaken to evaluate the probable impact of Lygus spp. on production of this potential new crop. Plant damage and subsequent seed yield and quality were examined relative to variable and representative densities of Lygus spp. (0.3-4.9 insects per sweep net) resulting from variable frequency and timing of insecticide applications. Increasing damage to various fruiting structures (flowers [0.9-13.9%], buds [1.2-7.1%], and seed pods [19.4-42.5%]) was significantly associated with increasing pest abundance, particularly the abundance of nymphs, in all years. This damage, however, did not consistently translate into reductions in seed yield (481-1,336 kg/ha), individual seed weight (0.5-0.7 g per 1,000 seed), or seed oil content (21.8-30.4%), and pest abundance generally explained relatively little of the variation in crop yield and quality. Negative effects on yield were not sensitive to the timing of pest damage (early versus late season) but were more pronounced during years when potential yields were lower due to weed competition and other agronomic factors. Results suggest that if the crop is established and managed in a more optimal fashion, Lygus spp. may not significantly limit yield

  3. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Cheng Wei

    Full Text Available Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans.The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%. Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans.This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods.

  4. Study on preparation method of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seeds kernel oil with zero trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Yao, Shi-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Yi; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    The seed of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum) is a by-product of pepper production and rich in unsaturated fatty acid, cellulose, and protein. The seed oil obtained from traditional producing process by squeezing or extracting would be bad quality and could not be used as edible oil. In this paper, a new preparation method of Z. bungeanum seed kernel oil (ZSKO) was developed by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of alkali saponification-cold squeezing, alkali saponification-solvent extraction, and alkali saponification-supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2). The results showed that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing could be the optimal preparation method of ZSKO, which contained the following steps: Z. bungeanum seed was pretreated by alkali saponification under the conditions of adding 10 %NaOH (w/w), solution temperature was 80 °C, and saponification reaction time was 45 min, and pretreated seed was separated by filtering, water washing, and overnight drying at 50 °C, then repeated squeezing was taken until no oil generated at 60 °C with 15 % moisture content, and ZSKO was attained finally using centrifuge. The produced ZSKO contained more than 90 % unsaturated fatty acids and no trans-fatty acids and be testified as a good edible oil with low-value level of acid and peroxide. It was demonstrated that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing process could be scaled up and applied to industrialized production of ZSKO.

  5. The antioxidant effects of pumpkin seed oil on subacute aflatoxin poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Aslan, Öznur; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at the investigation of the antioxidant effect of pumpkin seed oil against the oxidative stress-inducing potential of aflatoxin. For this purpose, 48 male BALB/c mice were used. Four groups, each comprising 12 mice, were established. Group 1 was maintained as the control group. Group 2 was administered with pumpkin seed oil alone at a dose of 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day (∼1375mg/kg.bw/day). Group 3 received aflatoxin (82.45% AFB1 , 10.65% AFB2 , 4.13% AFG1, and 2.77% AFG2 ) alone at a dose of 625 μg/kg.bw/day. Finally, group 4 was given both 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day pumpkin seed oil and 625 μg/kg.bw/day aflatoxin. All administrations were oral, performed with the aid of a gastric tube and continued for a period of 21 days. At the end of day 21, the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, heart, and spleen of the animals were excised, and the extirpated tissues were homogenized appropriately. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in tissue homogenates. In conclusion, it was determined that aflatoxin exhibited adverse effects on most of the oxidative stress markers. The administration of pumpkin seed oil diminished aflatoxin-induced adverse effects. In other words, the values of the group, which was administered with both aflatoxin and pumpkin seed oil, were observed to have drawn closer to the values of the control group. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Composition, physical properties and drying characteristics of seed oil of Citrullus lanatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, S. A.; Rashidi, A. R.; Muhammad, A.; Abdullah, M.; Elham, O. S. J.; Mamat, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    A study to investigate the effect of different drying methods for the pre-treatment process on the quality and quantity of oil extracted from Citrulllus lanatus seeds was conducted. The red type Citrulllus lanatus seeds from local supermarket in Shah Alam is used in this experiment. The amount of seed was divided into two portions; one portion was subjected to sun drying while the other portion was subjected to oven drying (at a temperature of 70°C). After the drying process, the seeds were ground in a laboratory grinder to turn them into powder. The ground seeds then will be fed to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide unit (SC-CO2) for extraction. Once the extracted oil is obtained, it will be analysed by using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). Results indicated that the amount of the moisture content from the sun-dried was lower compared to oven-dried. The results also indicated that, there were no significant difference in the quantity of oil obtained from both samples of oven-dried and sun-dried. However, the acid value and other component content in the sample were higher in the sun-dried sample relative to the oven-dried sample. Linoleic acid is the only compound that was found in the oven-dried sample, whereas linoleic acid and oleic acid were found in the sun-dried sample. Based on the results, it shows that the drying effect were important when the quality of oil was to be considered. The other compounds like Naphtalenol, 9-17-Octadecadeinal, 2-Chloroethyl linoleate, and Carboxin also are found in the sun-dried sample. Other that that, drying method does not give any effect to the physical appearance of the extracted oil, as similar color and other physical appearance was produced by the both sample.

  7. Enzymatic production of sterculic acid from the novel Phoenix tree seed oil: Optimization and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X.; Sun, S.

    2017-01-01

    Phoenix tree (Firmiana simplex) seed oil is a novel oil which is rich in sterculic acid. Sterculic acid, a cyclopropene fatty acid, can be used as the inhibitor of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase system and mammary carcinomas growth. In this work, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed hydrolysis of the novel Phoenix tree seed oil was used to prepare sterculic acid. High temperature GC-FID and the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were used to monitor the reaction progress. Effects of reaction variables on the hydrolysis were evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology. Results showed that sterculic acid can be successfully prepared from the novel seed oil, and the effect of reaction variables on the hydrolysis decreased in the order of reaction time > enzyme load > temperature. A high yield of fatty acids (DH, 98.2±0.8%) can be obtained under optimized conditions (45 ºC, mass ratio of water to oil 10:1, enzyme load 10%, and 18 h). The Arrhenius equation for the hydrolysis was LnV0 = 9.12 − 4721/T. The activation energy was 39.25KJ/mol. The kinetic values for Vmax, K/m were 0.232mol/(L∙min) and 0.084 mol/L, respectively. [es

  8. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of Rhazia stricta seed oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. • Biodiesel is prepared by alkaline transesterification. • Biodiesel from R. stricta oil meets specifications in biodiesel standards. - Abstract: Rhazya stricta Decne (R. stricta) is a hardy, drought-resistant, and arid land plant that is widely distributed from the Middle East to South Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of R. stricta seed oil as an alternative source of triacylglycerols that may be suitable for the synthesis of biodiesel. The oil content of the seeds was approximately 14% and was mainly composed of the fatty acids linoleic (60.95%) and oleic (25.48%) acid. R. stricta methyl esters (RSME) were prepared by a base-catalyzed transesterification reaction. The conversion rate of the triacylglycerols to the corresponding methyl esters was determined by 1 H-NMR to be approximately 97%. This study showed that the fuel properties of the RSMEs are comparable to other vegetable oil methyl esters that are commonly used as biodiesels. R. stricta plantations will therefore be suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and for producing biodiesel with viable prices in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world

  9. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  10. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE EXTRACTION OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Maliar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flax seed is an important source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for human physiology. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of major parameters of the lipid extraction from flax seed, in relation to the recovery of oil as well as the oil quality properties. The independent variables of extraction were proposed as: organic solvents, temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio. The following quantitative and qualitative parameters were chosen as dependent variables: yield of the lipid fraction, acid value of oil and the absorbance at 490 nm. After calculating the optimal values of the extraction, the validation analysis was carried out and it was found out that the predicted and experimentally verified dependent variables were in agreement with the optimal extraction parameters.doi:10.5219/168

  11. Cotton proteomics for deciphering the mechanism of environment stress response and fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Sun, Guoqing; Sun, Zhanmin; Tang, Yixiong; Wu, Yanmin

    2014-06-13

    Cotton fiber is considered as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop is severely hampered by the occurrence of pathogens, pests, and various environmental factors. Nevertheless, cotton plant has developed sophisticated mechanisms to respond to environment stresses to avoid detrimental effects on its growth and development. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of cotton fiber development and environment stress response is of considerable interest for designing agriculture breeding strategies to ensure sustainable productivity. The application of proteomics technologies to advance our knowledge in cotton fiber development and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance has increased dramatically in the last 5years as evidenced by the large amount of publications in this area. This review summarizes the work which has been reported for cotton proteomics and evaluates the findings in context of the approaches that are widely employed with the aim to generate novel insight useful for cotton improvement. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop grown all over the world and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. Cotton is also an important source of edible oil seed and a nutrient-rich food crop as cottonseed contains high-quality protein and oil. The growth and productivity of cotton crop are often hampered by various biotic stress factors, such as insect pests and pathogens. In addition, cotton plants are frequently subjected to unavoidable environmental factors that cause abiotic stress, such as salt, heat and drought. Proteomic techniques provide one of the best options for understanding the gene function and phenotypic changes during cotton fiber development and stress response. This review first summarizes the work which has been reported for cotton proteomics about cotton fiber development and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance, and also evaluates the findings in context of the approaches

  12. Thermal stabilisation of pvc with jatropha seed, khaya seed and rubber seed oils. Effect of barium and cadmium soaps of the seed oils on the thermal degradation of pvc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okieimen, F.E.

    2003-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride was mixed with barium and cadmium soaps of Jatropha seed, Khaya seed and rubber seed oils and mixtures of the metal soaps and degraded at 190 deg. C under oxidative and non oxidative conditions. The effectiveness of the additives in stabilizing PVC against thermal degradation was evaluated by comparing (a) the kinetic data measured at 1% conversion for the degradation of PVC in the presence of the additives with the corresponding values obtained in the absence of the additives (b) the intrinsic viscosity and level of unsaturation in the polymer samples degraded for the under graded polymer and (c) the thermogravimetric data obtained for the degradation of PVC in the presence of the additives at a constant heating rate of 10 degree C min/sup -1/ up to 500 degree C. It was found that the additives retarded the rate of dehydro chlorination of PVC (by up to about 50% and 1% conversion) and reduced the extent of decomposition of the polymer by as much as 60%. The mixtures of the metal soaps containing more than 70% (wt) cadmium soap showed marked synergistic stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. (author)

  13. Catalytic Activity of a Bifunctional Catalyst for Hydrotreatment of Jatropha curcas L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Dávila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrotreating process of vegetable oils (HPVO involves the transformation of vegetable oil triglycerides into straight chain alkanes, which are carried out by deoxygenation reactions, generating multiple hydrocarbon compounds, cuts similar to heavy vacuum oil. The HPVO is applied to Jatropha curcas oil on USY zeolite supported with gamma alumina and platinum deposition on the catalytic as hydrogenation component. The acid of additional activity of the supports allows the development of catalytic routes that the intervention of catalytic centers of different nature reaches the desired product. The products of the hydrotreating reaction with Jatropha curcas seed oil triglycerides were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and by mass spectroscopy to identify and analyze the generated intermediate and final hydrocarbon compounds.

  14. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  15. Biodiesel from Mandarin Seed Oil: A Surprising Source of Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin (Citrus reticulata is one of the most popular fruits in tropical and sub-tropical countries around the world. It contains about 22–34 seeds per fruit. This study investigated the potential of non-edible mandarin seed oil as an alternative fuel in Australia. The seeds were prepared after drying in the oven for 20 h to attain an optimum moisture content of around 13.22%. The crude oil was extracted from the crushed seed using 98% n-hexane solution. The biodiesel conversion reaction (transesterification was designed according to the acid value (mg KOH/g of the crude oil. The study also critically examined the effect of various reaction parameters (such as effect of methanol: oil molar ratio, % of catalyst concentration, etc. on the biodiesel conversion yield. After successful conversion of the bio-oil into biodiesel, the physio-chemical fuel properties of the virgin biodiesel were measured according to relevant ASTM standards and compared with ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD and standard biodiesel ASTM D6751. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were analysed by gas chromatography (GC using the EN 14103 standard. The behaviour of the biodiesel (variation of density and kinematic viscosity at various temperatures (10–40 °C was obtained and compared with that of diesel fuel. Finally, mass and energy balances were conducted for both the oil extraction and biodiesel conversion processes to analyse the total process losses of the system. The study found 49.23 wt % oil yield from mandarin seed and 96.82% conversion efficiency for converting oil to biodiesel using the designated transesterification reaction. The GC test identified eleven FAMEs. The biodiesel mainly contains palmitic acid (C16:0 26.80 vol %, stearic acid (C18:0 4.93 vol %, oleic acid (C18:1 21.43 vol % (including cis. and trans., linoleic acid (C18:2 4.07 vol %, and less than one percent each of other fatty acids. It is an important source of energy because it has a higher

  16. Essential oil and their microconstituents of cumin and coriander seeds during storage under the effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.M.; Abdullah, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Both cumin and coriander seeds were treated with gamma irradiation (10 KGy). The volatile oil and micro constituents were identified over seven months of storage. No marked changes were noticed regarding the volatile oil content and oil components between irradiated and non-irradiated of the two spices during the storage period at egyptian ambient temperature

  17. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S S; Al-Obeed, R S; Ahmed, T A

    2015-03-01

    The oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in Saudi Arabia. The results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. The refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. The iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the range of 74.2-86.6 g iodine 100 g(-1); 2.50-2.58 mg KOH g(-1) and 0.206-0.217 mg KOH g(-1), respectively. Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmitic acid C15, Palmitic acid C16 Stearic acid, Arachidic acid and Behenic acid of date seeds oil contents were found between 8.67-49.27; 7.01-15.43; 0-0.57; 4.82-18.09; 1.02-7.86; 0-0.08; and 0-0.15% w/w, in that order. Omega-6 and Omega-9 of date seeds oil were found between 7.31-17.87 and 52.12-58.78%, respectively. Khalas, Barhy cvs. and seed strain gave highest K and Ca, Na and Fe, Mg as compared with other studied cultivars.

  19. Fatty acid composition and some physicochemical characteristics of Sterculia apetala seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Meza, S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the tropical rain forests of southeastern Mexico, the use of Sterculia mexicana and Sterculia apetala seed oils for human and animal nutrition is common. However, the seeds contain cyclopropene fatty acids, whose consumption is related with beneficial as well as detrimental physiological effects. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid profile and the physicochemical characteristics of S. apetala seed oil and to evaluate the effect of roasting on both aspects. Cyclopropenoic fatty acids, sterculic acid and malvalic acid were identified in the natural and roasted seed oils. The major component in the seed oil was sterculic acid, as has been reported for Sterculia mexicana and Sterculia foetida. The roasting process modified some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition of the seed oil, particularly by decreasing its content of sterculic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fatty acid composition of S. apetala seed oil.En zonas tropicales del sureste de México, el uso de semillas de Sterculia mexicana y Sterculia apetala es común para consumo humano y animal. Sin embargo, dichas semillas contienen ácidos grasos ciclopropenoicos, los cuales se les ha relacionado tanto con efectos fisiológicos beneficiosos como adversos para la salud. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos y las características fisicoquímicas de la especie S. apetala, así como la evaluación del aceite sometido a un proceso de tostado. Se identificaron ácidos grasos ciclopropenoicos como el ácido estercúlico y malválico, en el aceite natural y tostado. Para las especies S. mexicana y S. foetida, el componente mayoritario en las semillas fue el ácido estercúlico. El proceso de tostado modificó algunas propiedades fisicoquímicas y la composción de los ácidos grasos, especificamente disminuyó el contenido de ácido estercúlico. Para nuestro conocimiento, este es la primera informaci

  20. A genome-wide association study of seed protein and oil content in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Young; Song, Qijian; Jia, Gaofeng; Specht, James E; Hyten, David L; Costa, Jose; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-01-02

    Association analysis is an alternative to conventional family-based methods to detect the location of gene(s) or quantitative trait loci (QTL) and provides relatively high resolution in terms of defining the genome position of a gene or QTL. Seed protein and oil concentration are quantitative traits which are determined by the interaction among many genes with small to moderate genetic effects and their interaction with the environment. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed protein and oil concentration in 298 soybean germplasm accessions exhibiting a wide range of seed protein and oil content. A total of 55,159 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using various methods including Illumina Infinium and GoldenGate assays and 31,954 markers with minor allele frequency >0.10 were used to estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. In euchromatic regions, the mean LD (r2) rapidly declined to 0.2 within 360 Kbp, whereas the mean LD declined to 0.2 at 9,600 Kbp in heterochromatic regions. The GWAS results identified 40 SNPs in 17 different genomic regions significantly associated with seed protein. Of these, the five SNPs with the highest associations and seven adjacent SNPs were located in the 27.6-30.0 Mbp region of Gm20. A major seed protein QTL has been previously mapped to the same location and potential candidate genes have recently been identified in this region. The GWAS results also detected 25 SNPs in 13 different genomic regions associated with seed oil. Of these markers, seven SNPs had a significant association with both protein and oil. This research indicated that GWAS not only identified most of the previously reported QTL controlling seed protein and oil, but also resulted in narrower genomic regions than the regions reported as containing these QTL. The narrower GWAS-defined genome regions will allow more precise

  1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SODIUM SOAP FROM NYAMPLUNG SEED OIL (Calophyllum inophyllum L. AND TEST ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST Staphilococus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Chasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was used nyamplung seed oil as antibacterial soap material. The soap from nyamplung seed oil was performed by saponification reactions, characterization of soap based on SNI 06-3632-1994. The antibacterial activity was tested against bacteria Staphylococus aureus. The result of this research showed that soap had yellow color with weight 13,028 g from 10,028 g nyamplung seed oil. The characteristic of soap based on SNI were water content of 25,287%, fatty acid of 72,177%, free alkali 0,082%, unsoap fatty or free fatty 0,834%, and mineral oil was negative. Soap base on nyamplung seed oil have antibacterial activity against bacteria Staphylococus aureus with diameter of inhibition zone 14,701 mm.

  2. Evaluation of seed yield and oil contents in four materials of Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaza T. Guido Armando

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Four castor materials were evaluated in 2009 in the middle region of Valle del Sinu, Colombia. The variables were phonological development, plant height, seed production and oil yield, in order to determine the best material for commercial purposes. All materials reported high yields of oil seeds and highlighting the commercial genotype Nordestina BRS149, 2.2 t ha-1 seed and 47% oil content. Planting distances were 1.5 x 1.5 m and 2.0 x 2.0 m, with densities of 6,666 and 3,906 plants ha-1, respectively. The plant height, seed productivity and oil yield showed significant differences for the interaction density × material; while comparing each material density, seed production only showed differences. These variables were significantly different between population densities, which shows that the higher the plant height, lower productivity. The planting distance of 2.0 x 2.0 m, provides higher productivity per plant values but seed oil yields were not different between densities. The oil quality parameters were assessed using free fatty acid value

  3. Comparative Analysis of Major Mosquito Vectors Response to Seed-Derived Essential Oil and Seed Pod-Derived Extract from Acacia nilotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Vivekanandhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Botanical metabolites are increasingly realized as potential replacements to chemical insecticides. In the present study, Acacia nilotica seed essential oil and seed pod solvent extracts were tested for bioefficacy against three important types of mosquitoes. Mortality was recorded 24 h post-treatment, while smoke toxicity of adult mosquitoes was recorded at 10 min intervals for 40 min. Seed pod powder was extracted with different solvents and hydrodistilled seed oil chemical constituents were determined by using Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS -. Larvicidal and adulticidal efficacy of seed hydrodistilled essential oil and solvent extracts were tested against larval and adult mosquitoes. The seed hydrodistilled oil provided strong larvicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi, (LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae = 5.239, LC90 (lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae = 9.713 mg/L; Aedes aegypti, (LC50 = 3.174, LC90 = 11.739 mg/L; and Culex quinquefasciatus, (LC50 = 4.112, LC90 = 12.325 mg/L. Smoke toxicities were 82% in Cx. quinquefasciatus, 90% in Ae. aegypti, and 80% mortality in An. stephensi adults, whereas 100% mortality was recorded for commercial mosquito coil. The GC-MS profile of seed essential oil from A. nilotica showed the presence of hexadecane (18.440% and heptacosane (15.914%, which are the main and active compounds, and which may be involved in insecticidal activity. Overall findings suggest that the seed oil showed strong mosquitocidal activity against mosquito vectors and therefore may provide an ecofriendly replacement to chemical insecticides.

  4. liquid soap production with blends of rubber seed oil (rso)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Chemical Engineering, Edo State Institute of Technology and Management, Usen,. P.M.B 1104, Benin City, Edo State. ... The basic processes for making soap have re- mained unchanged for the past 200 years. How- ... palm kernel oil for good quality liquid soap using locally produced caustic potash from ...

  5. South African seed oils are safe for human consumption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... Design: Samples were purchased from local retail stores. ... Results: The total TFA content of the three types of sampled oils was below 0.5%, and the peroxide (meq ... South Africa, and is also an ingredient in a range of products. The .... Statements with the intention of provoking fear are often misinformed.

  6. extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The free fatty acids values ranged from 0.096mgKOH/g – 1.34mgKOH/g. The results of these ... Nutritional and industrial processes have increased the demands for oils ..... Sarwar, M. (2013): The theatrical usefulness of olive. Oleaeuropaea L.

  7. Extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim Seed Oil Reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oil (EZSO), which is rich in ALA, on serum lipid level, oxidation status and underlying mechanism in hyperlipidemic ..... The plasma lipoprotein profile, bile acid pool composition, and metabolic responses to changes in ... platelet aggregation, or inflammatory markers. [17]. In another randomized trial in 62 healthy men in the ...

  8. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Seed Oil from Chinese Licorice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CO2) extraction. The oil was analysed by GC-MS after methylation. Compounds were identified according to their mass spectra (EI, 70 eV) by comparison with authentic reference substances and literature data. Five fatty acids were identified, with ...

  9. South African seed oils are safe for human consumption | Opperman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reported parameters included the fatty acid profile, TFA content, peroxide level and conjugated diene (CD) content. Design: Samples were purchased from local retail stores. Two independent researchers de-identified the oils, and stored them in numbered containers under nitrogen until commencement of the analysis.

  10. Triacylglycerols of the seed oil of Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M.D.; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.; Ali, Sanaa A.

    2018-01-01

    -flux anticancer-drug screening method was employed, and recorded IC50 values of 30±2.4, 30±2.5, >100, and >100 μg/mL against EL4, MCF7, PC3, and McCoy, respectively. In addition, the antihepatotoxic activity supplemented by a histopathological examination was done, and proved that, the oil enhanced all parameters...

  11. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  12. Purification and protein composition of oil bodies from Brassica napus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolivet Pascale

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil bodies are intracellular particles to store lipids as food reserves in oleaginous plants. Description of oil body-associated proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana has been recently reported whereas only few data are available in the case of rapeseed. Oil bodies have been prepared from two double-low varieties of Brassica napus seeds, a standard variety (Explus and an oleic variety (Cabriolet. Oil bodies have been purified using floatation technique in the successive presence of high salt concentration, detergent or urea in order to remove non-specifically trapped proteins. The integrity of the oil bodies has been verified and their size estimated. Their protein and fatty acid contents have been determined. The proteins composing these organelles were extracted, separated by denaturing gel electrophoresis, digested by trypsin and their peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed using Arabidopsis thaliana protein sequence database and a collection of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST of Brassica napus generated from the framework of the French plant genomics programme “Genoplante”. This led to the identification of a limited number of proteins: eight oleosins showing a high similarity each other and representing up to 75% of oil body proteins, a 11 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-like protein highly homologous to the same protein from A. thaliana, and only few contaminating proteins associated with myrosinase activity.

  13. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Montesinos

    Full Text Available Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted by SC-CO₂ from Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aarti; Ahmad, Anees

    2017-07-11

    Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD), Solvent Extraction (SE), Ultrasonication (US), and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi . A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD) under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar), temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C), and CO₂ flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min). Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO₂ methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w , respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC 50 (Inhibition Concentration) values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL -1 , respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO₂ method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted by SC-CO2 from Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD, Solvent Extraction (SE, Ultrasonication (US, and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi. A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar, temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C, and CO2 flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min. Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO2 methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC50 (Inhibition Concentration values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL−1, respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO2 method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity.

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted by SC-CO2 from Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aarti; Ahmad, Anees

    2017-01-01

    Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD), Solvent Extraction (SE), Ultrasonication (US), and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi. A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD) under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar), temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C), and CO2 flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min). Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO2 methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC50 (Inhibition Concentration) values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL−1, respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO2 method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity. PMID:28930268

  17. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening.

  18. Comparison of the Seed Oils of Ferulago trachycarpa Boiss . Different Localities with Respect to Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Bilsel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of the seed oil of Ferulago trachycarpa Boiss., collected from two different localities (Balıkesir-Edremit and Konya-Seydişehir, was analyzed for derived methyl esters of their fatty acids by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Seventeen components representing 98.7 % of Balıkesir sample and 98.6 % of Konya sample of F. trachycarpa seed oils were identified. GC-MS data showed that the main fatty acids were 9-octadeceneoic acid (68.1 and 73.6 %, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (23.0 and 18.0 %, 9-hexadeceneoic acid (4.1 and 3.5 % and 11-octadecenoic acid (2.0 and 1.8 % in both oils, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids were found as high as 97.7 and 97.4 %, while the percentage of the saturated fatty acids was found as low as 1.0 and 1.2 % in both seed oils, respectively.

  19. Analysis of cannabinoids in commercial hemp seed oil and decarboxylation kinetics studies of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citti, Cinzia; Pacchetti, Barbara; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Forni, Flavio; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2018-02-05

    Hemp seed oil from Cannabis sativa L. is a very rich natural source of important nutrients, not only polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins, but also terpenes and cannabinoids, which contribute to the overall beneficial effects of the oil. Hence, it is important to have an analytical method for the determination of these components in commercial samples. At the same time, it is also important to assess the safety of the product in terms of amount of any psychoactive cannabinoid present therein. This work presents the development and validation of a highly sensitive, selective and rapid HPLC-UV method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the main cannabinoids, namely cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), present in 13 commercial hemp seed oils. Moreover, since decomposition of cannabinoid acids generally occurs with light, air and heat, decarboxylation studies of the most abundant acid (CBDA) were carried out in both open and closed reactor and the kinetics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures in order to evaluate the stability of hemp seed oil in different storage conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of the Oil from Peony Seeds (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peony seed oil (PSO is a novel vegetable oil developed from the seeds of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. The present study aimed to make an overall investigation on the chemical profile and antioxidant activities of PSO for reasonable development and utilization of this new resource food. Chemical analysis revealed that PSO was characterized by an uncommon high portion of α-linolenic acid (>38%, fairly low ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (0.69, and much higher content of γ-tocopherol than various conventional seed oils. In vitro assay indicated that PSO is a more potent scavenger of free radicals than extra virgin olive oil. Moderate intake of PSO exhibited obvious protection against various oxidative damages such as tetrachloromethane-induced acute liver injury in mice and diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The changes in the key indicators of oxidative injury and fatty acid composition in the liver caused by PSO administration were measured, and the results demonstrated that antioxidant properties of PSO are closely related to their characteristic chemical composition. Consequently, the present study provided new evidence for the health implications of PSO, which deserves further development for medical and nutritional use against oxidative damages that are associated with various diseases.

  1. Changes in Acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics and in vivo effects of dietary pumpkin seed oil upon thermal oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Ahmad, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine the acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics and protective role of dietary pumpkin seed oil in rabbits. Pumpkin seed oil was thermally oxidized and analyzed for quality characteristics and acylglycerols composition using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Oxidized and un-oxidized oil samples were fed to the rabbits in different doses for two weeks. The changes in the serum biochemistry, hematology, and liver histology were studied. The levels of quality parameters such peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total phenolic contents (TPC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated trienes (CT) significantly increased with thermal treatment. HPLC analyses revealed ten individual triacylglycerols (TAGs), total di-acylglycerols (DAGs), mono-acylglycerols (MAGs), and total oxidized TAGs. Trilinolein (LLL), 1-oleoyl-2,3-dilinolinoyl glycerol (OLL), triolein (OOO) and 1,2-distearoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (SSP) were present in higher amounts and decreased with thermal treatment. Animal's studies showed that oxidized oils decreased the whole body weight, which was ameliorated by the co-administration of un-oxidized oils. The levels of serum biochemical parameters were improved by co-administration of pumpkin seed oils. There were no significant effects of both oxidized and un-oxidized pumpkin seed oil on the hematological and histological parameters of rabbits. In conclusion, nutritionally important triacylglycerols were present in pumpkin seed oil with protective role against the toxicity of its corresponding oxidized oils.

  2. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  3. Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

  4. Solubility of grape seed oil in supercritical CO2: Experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duba, Kurabachew Simon; Fiori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of grape seed oil in SC-CO 2 for P: 20–50 MPa and T: 313–343 K. • Experimental procedure: dynamic method and oil dispersed on the surface of glass beads. • Eight density-based models and a thermodynamic model to fit the experimental data. • All the models predict the solubility of grape seed oil in SC-CO 2 to a reasonable degree. • Models by Chrastil, del Valle and Aguilera, Kumar and Johnston, and the thermodynamic model are preferable. - Abstract: The solubility of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed oil in supercritical CO 2 was measured in the temperature range 313–343 K and pressure range 20–50 MPa using the dynamic technique. Several data and global trends were reported. The results show that, at constant temperature, the solubility increases with the increase in pressure, while the effect of the temperature is different for low and high pressure. The experimental data were modeled by eight density-based models and a thermodynamic model based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state. By best fitting procedures, the “free parameters” of the various models were calculated: in general, all the tested models have proved to be able to predict the solubility of grape seed oil in supercritical CO 2 . Differences in model capabilities have been discussed based on the main characteristics of the various models, evidencing their distinct and common features. The predictive capability of the thermodynamic model was comparable to that of the density-based models.

  5. Soybean (Glycine max) WRINKLED1 transcription factor, GmWRI1a, positively regulates seed oil accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zheng, Yuhong; Dong, Zhimin; Meng, Fanfan; Sun, Xingmiao; Fan, Xuhong; Zhang, Yunfeng; Wang, Mingliang; Wang, Shuming

    2018-04-01

    Soybean is the world's most important leguminous crop producing high-quality protein and oil. Elevating oil accumulation in soybean seed is always many researchers' goal. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) encodes a transcription factor of the APETALA2/ethylene responsive element-binding protein (AP2/EREBP) family that plays important roles during plant seed oil accumulation. In this study, we isolated and characterized three distinct orthologues of WRI1 in soybean (Glycine max) that display different organ-specific expression patterns, among which GmWRI1a was highly expressed in maturing soybean seed. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrid experiments demonstrated that the GmWRI1a protein was capable of binding to AW-box, a conserved sequence in the proximal upstream regions of many genes involved in various steps of oil biosynthesis. Transgenic soybean seeds overexpressing GmWRI1a under the control of the seed-specific napin promoter showed the increased total oil and fatty acid content and the changed fatty acid composition. Furthermore, basing on the activated expressions in transgenic soybean seeds and existence of AW-box element in the promoter regions, direct downstream genes of GmWRI1a were identified, and their products were responsible for fatty acid production, elongation, desaturation and export from plastid. We conclude that GmWRI1a transcription factor can positively regulate oil accumulation in soybean seed by a complex gene expression network related to fatty acid biosynthesis.

  6. Determinação do poder germinativo de sementes de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. Studies on germination of cotton seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zink

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os resultados das determinações do poder germinativo de sementes de sete variedades paulistas de algodoeiro, provenientes de ensaios de competição de variedades instalados nos Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, no ano agrícola de 1966/67. Os testes de germinação foram efetuados simultaneamente no Laboratório de Sementes, do Instituto Agronômico do Estado de São Paulo, e no Laboratório Central, da Divisão de Sementes e Mudas, da Secretaria da Agricultura do Estado de São Paulo. Com referência a plântulas normais e plântulas anormais B (infetadas verificaram-se, conforme o caso, diferenças significativas entre localidades, entre variedades, entre laboratórios e entre substratos, bem como diversas interações envolvendo as variáveis mencionadas.Seeds of seven varieties of cotton produced at different regions of the States of São Paulo and Paraná (Brazil were submitted to germination tests at two laboratories: Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC at 20 - 30°C and Divisão de Sementes e Mudas (DSM at 30°C. The substrata used for the tests were cotton towels desinfected differently at each laboratory. The statistical analysis for numbers of normal and abnormal plants (infected showed significant differences between regions, varieties, laboratories and substrata. Several significant interactions including these variables were also detected.

  7. Chapter 2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley group, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates and calcareous shales and (2) Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group organic-rich shales. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes four conventional Cotton Valley assessment units: Cotton Valley Blanket Sandstone Gas (AU 50490201), Cotton Valley Massive Sandstone Gas (AU 50490202), Cotton Valley Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50490203), and Cotton Valley Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490204). Together, these four assessment units are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29.81 million barrels of oil, 605.03 billion cubic feet of gas, and 19.00 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The Cotton Valley Group represents the first major influx of clastic sediment into the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Major depocenters were located in south-central Mississippi, along the Louisiana-Mississippi border, and in northeast Texas. Reservoir properties and production characteristics were used to identify two Cotton Valley Group sandstone trends across northern Louisiana and east Texas: a high-permeability blanket-sandstone trend and a downdip, low-permeability massive-sandstone trend. Pressure gradients throughout most of both trends are normal, which is characteristic of conventional rather than continuous basin-center gas accumulations. Indications that accumulations in this trend are conventional rather than continuous include (1) gas-water contacts in at least seven fields across the blanket-sandstone trend, (2) relatively high reservoir permeabilities, and (3) high gas-production rates without fracture stimulation. Permeability is sufficiently low in the massive-sandstone trend that gas-water transition zones are vertically extensive and gas-water contacts are poorly defined. The interpreted presence of gas-water contacts within the Cotton Valley

  8. Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; Marín-Aguilar, F; García-Giménez, M D; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2014-02-05

    Non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L., collectively namely as "hemp", have been an interesting source of food, fiber, and medicine for thousands of years. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components. The lipid profile showed that linoleic (55%), α-linolenic (16%), and oleic (11%) were the most abundant fatty acids. A yield (1.84-1.92%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained, and the most interesting compounds were β-sitosterol (1905.00 ± 59.27 mg/kg of oil), campesterol (505.69 ± 32.04 mg/kg of oil), phytol (167.59 ± 1.81 mg/kg of oil), cycloartenol (90.55 ± 3.44 mg/kg of oil), and γ-tocopherol (73.38 ± 2.86 mg/100 g of oil). This study is an interesting contribution for C. sativa L. consideration as a source of bioactive compounds contributing to novel research applications for hemp seed oil in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic food, and other non-food industries.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  10. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Gamma Irradiated and Stored Anise (Pimenella Anisum) and Black Cumin (Negilla Sativa) Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Anise and black cumin seeds were gamma irradiated to doses of 5, 10, 20 and 40 kGy then these seeds were stored to periods of 0, 4, 8 and 12 months. In all treatments, essential oils were extracted at concentrations 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm. The inhibitory effect of the different oil concentrations was tested against some microorganism which included bacteria (E. coli and B. cereus), fungi (A. niger and P. citrinum) and yeast (S. lypoytica and K. marxianus). Each of the extracted oil showed different magnitudes to inhibit the growth of the tested microorganisms. However, exposing the aromatic seeds to gamma irradiation before oil extraction was resulted in stimulation in the biological activity of the produced oil. Maximum stimulation was exerted at irradiation dose of 20 kGy. However, the antimicrobial activity of the tested oils was relatively declined when seeds were stored up to 12 months but this decrease was counteracted when seeds were irradiated before storage, thus, gamma radiation showed a beneficial impact to maintain the biological activity of the essential oils during seeds storage.

  12. Production of biodiesel from melia azedarach seed oil: a non- edible feedstock for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M.I.; Ranaa, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel (BD) is a first-generation biofuel that has emerged as a renewable alternative diesel fuel, obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animals fats, using a short-chain alcohol and a catalyst that may be an acid, a base or an enzyme. BD can be used in the existing compression-ignition engines without any further modification. Presently, most of the BD production is being carried out using edible vegetable oil which has put a strain on the food supply and, hence, has led it into a competition with the food industry. It has also resulted in a rise in the prices of such feed stocks. Hence, search for the newer and non-edible feed stocks is becoming increasingly important. The objective of the present work is to explore the utility of Melia azedarach seed oil, a non-edible feedstock, for the preparation of BD. The oil was extracted by using n-hexane as a solvent and a oil content of 32% was obtained. As a result of transesterification using sodium hydroxide and methanol, 80% conversion of the oil into BD was obtained. Fatty acid profile of the oil and the BD were found to be almost the same. Different fuel properties of the BD prepared were studied including viscosity, iodine number, acid number, cold point and cetane number, and the values obtained are 4.7, 112, 0.45 mg KOH/g, < -10 deg. C and 45, respectively. Although the oxidation stability is less than the required standard value by EN 14214, but it can be enhanced by introducing some additives into the final product. Other properties were found to be in agreement with the required specifications for BD by EN 14214, hence Melia azedarach seed oil is a suitable non-edible feedstock for the production of BD. (author)

  13. Characterization of the seed oils from kiwi (Actinidia chinensis, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and guava (Psidium guajava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piombo Georges

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Oils extracted from three exotic fruits, guava, kiwi and passion fruit were analyzed to evaluate the possible commercial interest for these waste materials from fruit juices industry. Results showed interesting fatty acids compositions with high amounts of essential fatty acids such as 62.3% alpha linolenic acid for kiwi seed oil, and respectively 73.4% and 77.0% for omega 6 linoleic acid in passion fruit and guava seed oils. Fatty acids regiodistribution, sterols and tocopherols contents were also analyzed to try to establish the potential nutritional interest of such oils.

  14. Essential oil and composition of anise (pimpinella anisum l.) with varying seed rates and row spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H.

    2014-01-01

    Two year study was carried out to explore the effect of seed rate and row spacing on the fruit yield, essential oil yield and composition of aniseed. The study factors included seed rate (6 g, 12 g, 24 g/10 m2) and row spacing (15 cm, 25 cm, 37.5 cm. A significantly higher fruit yield was produced at narrow row spacing of 15 cm among treatments. Wider row spacing produced markedly higher essential oil than narrow row spacing. Essential oil accumulation decreased as planting densities increased. The major constituent of anise oil was trans-anethole (82.1%) followed by himachalene (7.0%). The quality parameters including estragol, himachalene and trans-anethole were significantly affected by different row spacing. Plant grown at 37.5 cm row spacing accumulated the highest estragol and trans-anethole concentration among the row spacing treatments. It can be concluded that higher plant density and wider row spacing increased the disease infestation and lodging cultivar Enza Zaden in current study exhibited high concentration trans-anethole in essential oil composition therefore is a good quality chemotype. (author)

  15. Usage of immobilized porcine pancreas lipase in the hydrolysis of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Chau Tran Diem; Linh, Vo Thi Hong; Yen, Tran Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Nguyen Thi; Hoa, Phan Ngoc

    2017-09-01

    This study focused on the comparison among the usage of immobilized porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) on different hydrotalcite carriers (uncalcined and calcined hydrotalcite - like compound Mg /Al) and free lipase as the catalysts to hydrolyze of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed oil. The reaction conditions were investigated including the ratio of oil to buffer, ratio of enzyme to substrate, the temperature of the hydrolysis, pH. The calcined hydrotalcite showed a higher lipase immobilization yield and a better reusability than the uncalcined hydrotalcite (87.15% and 86.78%, respectively).

  16. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Saponification of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Optimization by D-Optimal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumat Salimon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of ethanolic KOH concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to free fatty acid (FFA percentage were investigated. D-optimal design was employed to study significance of these factors and optimum condition for the technique predicted and evaluated. The optimum conditions for maximum FFA% were achieved when 1.75 M ethanolic KOH concentration was used as the catalyst, reaction temperature of 65°C, and reaction time of 2.0 h. This study showed that ethanolic KOH concentration was significant variable for saponification of J. curcas seed oil. In an 18-point experimental design, percentage of FFA for saponification of J. curcas seed oil can be raised from 1.89% to 102.2%.

  18. Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid

    2011-06-01

    Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO₂ was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation.

  19. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

  20. Genetic variability and divergence studies in seed traits and oil content of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) accessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, N.; Kumar, Krishan; Kumar, Sushil [CCS HAU, Regional Research Station, Bawal (Rewari) (India); Kaushik, Nutan; Roy, S. [The Energy Resource Institute, New Delhi (India)

    2007-07-15

    Variability in seed traits and oil content of 24 accessions of Jatropha curcas collected from different agroclimatic zones of Haryana state, India were assessed. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in seed size, 100-seed weight and oil content between accessions. Maximum seed weight was recorded in seeds collected from IC-520602 and the least weight was recorded in IC-520587. Oil variability ranged from 28.00% in IC-520589 to 38.80% in IC-520601. In general phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation indicating the predominant role of environment. High heritability and genetic gain were recorded for oil content (99.00% and 18.90%) and seed weight (96.00% and 18.00%), respectively, indicating the additive gene action. Seed weight had positive correlation with seed length, breadth, thickness and oil content. On the basis of non-hierarchical Euclidian cluster analysis, six clusters were obtained with highest number of accession falling under cluster III. Maximum and minimum intra cluster distance was observed for cluster VI (2.499) and for cluster III (2.252), respectively. Whereas maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster VI and IV (5.129) and minimum between cluster III and II (2.472). Among the six clusters formed cluster IV showed maximum cluster value for seed size whereas, cluster VI showed maximum value for oil content and seed weight. Thus on the basis of present finding it is suggested that the crossing between accessions of cluster IV and VI will result in wide spectrum of variability in subsequent generations. (author)

  1. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil is a rich source of gamma-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R; Fernández, J; Pineda, M; Aguilar, M

    2007-04-01

    The antioxidant potential of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extracts was studied. Different plant organs, including seeds, stems, leaves, and sepals, were analyzed with respect to their water-soluble antioxidant capacity, lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity, and tocopherol content, revealing that roselle seeds are a good source of lipid-soluble antioxidants, particularly gamma-tocopherol. Roselle seed oil was extracted and characterized, and its physicochemical parameters are summarized: acidity, 2.24%; peroxide index, 8.63 meq/kg; extinction coefficients at 232 (k(232)) and 270 nm (k(270)), 3.19 and 1.46, respectively; oxidative stability, 15.53 h; refractive index, 1.477; density, 0.92 kg/L; and viscosity, 15.9 cP. Roselle seed oil belongs to the linoleic/oleic category, its most abundant fatty acids being C18:2 (40.1%), C18:1 (28%), C16:0 (20%), C18:0 (5.3%), and C19:1 (1.7%). Sterols include beta-sitosterol (71.9%), campesterol (13.6%), Delta-5-avenasterol (5.9%), cholesterol (1.35%), and clerosterol (0.6%). Total tocopherols were detected at an average concentration of 2000 mg/kg, including alpha-tocopherol (25%), gamma-tocopherol (74.5%), and delta-tocopherol (0.5%). The global characteristics of roselle seed oil suggest that it could have important industrial applications, adding to the traditional use of roselle sepals in the elaboration of karkade tea.

  2. Efeito do beneficiamento na qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes do algodoeiro herbáceo Effects of seed processing on physiological and sanitary qualities of seeds of herbaceous cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilson P. Lopes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de algodoeiro cvs. CNPA Precoce 2 e CNPA 7H, produzidas em campos irrigados do município de Touros, RN, safra 1998/99, foram submetidas, distintamente, ao descaroçamento, deslintamento mecânico e químico e, depois, acondicionadas em sacos de papel multifoliado, armazenadas em ambiente não controlado e em câmara seca, por 360 dias. Durante o armazenamento e em intervalos de 90 dias, realizaram-se avaliações da qualidade fisiológica e sanitária. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em parcela sub-subdividida, com quatro repetições, além de realizada a análise de variância e regressão polinomial. As sementes de ambas as cultivares, deslintadas quimicamente e mantidas em câmara seca preservaram suas qualidades fisiológicas pelo tempo de 270 dias de armazenamento. A maior preservação das sementes da cv. CNPA Precoce 2, descaroçadas, e as deslintadas mecanicamente, verificou-se em câmara seca; para as sementes da cv. CNPA 7H, isto se verificou no material mantido em ambiente não controlado. A micoflora foi constituída pelos fungos do gênero Aspergillus.Seeds of cotton cvs. CNPA Precoce 2 and CNPA 7H, produced under irrigated conditions in Touros Rio Grande do Norte State Brazil during the 1998/99 growing season were submitted to deseeding, mechanical or chemical delintering and then, packed in multi-layered paper bags and stored in a dry chamber or under room conditions during 360 days. Every 90 days, data on physiological and sanitary conditions of seeds were collected. The split plot design was employed, with four replications for each whole plot treatment arranged according to a completely randomized design. Collected data were analyzed by variance analysis and polynomial regression techniques. Chemically delinted seeds from both varieties, stored in dry chamber, preserved their physiological qualities until 270 days of storage. cv. CNPA Precoce 2 deseeded or mechanically delinted seeds kept

  3. PHOSPHOLIPIDS FROM PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata (Duch. Poir SEED KERNEL OIL AND THEIR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipids (PL of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata (Duch Poir seed kernel and their fatty acid composition were investigated. The crude oil was obtained by maceration with isopropanol followed by steps of extraction yielded polar lipids. The quantitative determination of PLs content of the dried pumpkin seed kernel and their polar lipids were calculated based on the elemental phosphorus (P contents which was determined by means of spectrophotometric methods. PL classes were separated from polar lipids via column chromatography. The fatty acid composition of individual PL was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The total of PL in the pumpkin seed kernels was 1.27% which consisted of phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidyletanolamine (PE. The predominant fatty acids of PL were oleic and palmitic acid in PC and PE while PS's fatty acid were dominantly consisted of oleic acid and linoleic acid.

  4. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

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    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  5. Characteristics of prickly lettuce seed oil in relation to methods of extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, A A

    1976-01-01

    Samples of seed oil of prickly lettuce (Lactuca Sacriola oleifera) which had been obtained by pressing or by extracting with acetone, ethyl ether, petroleum ether or carbon tetrachloride were analysed for the following parameters: viscosity, saponification number, iodine number, thiocyanogen value, unsaponifiable matter, free fatty acids, peroxide number and fatty acid composition. The different parameters varied in part considerably in relation to the method of production (pressing or solvent extraction) and to the solvent. It is tried to interprete these relationships.

  6. GC-MS analysis of hexane extract of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Warra, Aliyu A.; Abubakar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The spectral interpretation here was based on compounds identification. The following fatty acids were identified considering the peaks and library fragments; Oleic acid, Stearic acid, Palmitic acid Margaric acid, 6-Octadecenoic acid, Elaidic acid Erucic acid, Methyl ricinoleate, 11-octadecenoic acid,10-undecenoic acid. The results indicated that the Jatropha curcas L seed oil has potential in the production of cosmetics, perfumery and pharmaceuticals.The spectral interpretation here was ba...

  7. Comparison of Separation of Seed Oil Triglycerides Containing Isomeric Conjugated Octadecatrienoic Acid Moieties by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Anh Van Nguyen; Victor Deineka; Lumila Deineka; Anh Vu Thi Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    Relative retention analysis and increment approach were applied for the comparison of triglycerides (TGs) retention of a broad set of plant seed oils with isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acids (CLnA) by reversed-phase HPLC for “propanol-2-acetonitrile” mobile phases and Kromasil 100-5C18 stationary phase with diode array detection (DAD) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The subjects of investigation were TGs of seed oils: Calendula officinalis, Catalpa ovata, Jacaranda mimosifolia, ...

  8. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29) Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Ismail, Norsharina; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Tahir, Paridah

    2013-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as ? -sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO) was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE) at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars...

  9. Valorization of Waste Obtained from Oil Extraction in Moringa Oleifera Seeds: Coagulation of Reactive Dyes in Textile Effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca, Merc?; L?pez-Grimau, V?ctor; Guti?rrez-Bouz?n, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%–75% of seeds weight) which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. ...

  10. Characterization of grape seed oil from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bada, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the composition and characteristics of red grape seed oils (Vitis vinifera L from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain. Eight representative varieties of grape seed oils from the Spanish wine Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo and Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín and Verdejo were studied. The oil content of the seeds ranged from 13.89 to 10.18%, and the moisture was similar for all the seeds. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in all samples, representing around 78%, followed by oleic acid with a concentration close 16%, the degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 90%. β-sitosterol and α-tocopherol were the main sterol and tocopherol, reaching values of 77.31% and 3.82 mg·100 g−1 of oil, respectively. In relation to the tocotrienols, α-tocotrienol was the main tocotrienol and accounted for 13.18 mg·100 g−1 of oil.El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar la composición y características de aceites de semillas de uvas rojas (Vitis vinifera L de vinos con denominación de origen protegida (DOP de España. Ocho variedades representativas de aceites de semillas de uvas españolas Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo y Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín y Verdejo fueron estudiadas. Los contenidos en aceite de las semillas oscilaron entre 13.89 y 10.18%, la humedad fué similar para todas las semillas. El contenido en ácido linoléico fué alto en todos los aceites alcanzando un valor del 78%, seguido del ácido oléico con una concentración cercana al 16%, registrando un grado total de insaturación del 90%. b-sitosterol y α-tocoferol fué el principal esterol y tocoferol, alcanzado niveles del 77.31% y de un 3.82 mg·100 g−1 de aceite respectivamente. En relación a los tocotrienoles, α-tocotrienol fué el mayoritario con

  11. Preliminary studies of pest constraints to cotton seedlings in a direct seeding mulch-based system in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brevault, T.; Guibert, H.; Naudin, K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the pest constraints of an innovative crop management system in Cameroon involving conservation tillage and direct seeding mulch-based strategies. We hypothesized that the presence of mulch (i) would support a higher density of phytophagous arthropods particularly

  12. Seed biometric parameters in oil palm accessions from a Brazilian germplasm bank

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    Julcéia Camillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphological diversity of oil palm seeds and to cluster the accessions according to their morphological characteristics. Forty-one accessions from the oil palm germplasm bank of Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental were evaluated - 18 of Elaeis oleifera and 23 of E. guineensis. The groups were formed based on morphological characteristics, by principal component analysis. In E. oleifera, four groups were formed, tied to their region of origin, but with significant morphological differences between accessions from the same population. For tenera-type E. guineensis seeds, three widely divergent groups were formed, especially as to external parameters, which differentiated them from the other ones. The parameter endocarp thickness stood out in intra- and inter-population differentiation. For dura-type E. guineensis, three groups were formed, with larger seeds and thicker endocarps, which differed from all the other ones. The variability observed for seed characteristics in the analyzed accessions allows the establishment of different groups, to define strategies for genetic improvement.

  13. Embryo-specific expression of soybean oleosin altered oil body morphogenesis and increased lipid content in transgenic rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Xian; Liu, Hua Liang; Qu, Le Qing

    2013-09-01

    Oleosin is the most abundant protein in the oil bodies of plant seeds, playing an important role in regulating oil body formation and lipid accumulation. To investigate whether lipid accumulation in transgenic rice seeds depends on the expression level of oleosin, we introduced two soybean oleosin genes encoding 24 kDa proteins into rice under the control of an embryo-specific rice promoter REG-2. Overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice leads to an increase of seed lipid content up to 36.93 and 46.06 % higher than that of the non-transgenic control, respectively, while the overall fatty acid profiles of triacylglycerols remained unchanged. The overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice seeds resulted in more numerous and smaller oil bodies compared with wild type, suggesting that an inverse relationship exists between oil body size and the total oleosin level. The increase in lipid content is accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of total seed protein. Our results suggest that it is possible to increase rice seed oil content for food use and for use as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel by overexpressing oleosin in rice seeds.

  14. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition of two amaranth species: oil, sugars, fibres, minerals and vitamins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping, germination and flour air classification on several components of Amaranthus caudatus and A. cruentus seeds, including oil, sugars, fibre, minerals and vitamins were studied. The lipid, crude and dietary fibre, ash, and sugar contents were

  15. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed

  16. Bio-Based Polyols from Seed Oils for Water-Blown Rigid Polyurethane Foam Preparation

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    Paweena Ekkaphan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of water-blown rigid polyurethane (RPUR foams using bio-based polyols from sesame seed oil and pumpkin seed oil has been reported. Polyols synthesis involved two steps, namely, hydroxylation and alcoholysis reaction. FTIR, NMR, and ESI-MS were used to monitor the process of the synthesized polyols and their physicochemical properties were determined. The resulting polyols have OH number in the range of 340–351 mg KOH/g. RPUR foams blown with water were produced from the reaction of biopolyols with commercial polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI. The proper PUR formulations can be manipulated to produce the desired material applications. These seed oil-based RPUR foams exhibited relatively high compressive strength (237.7–240.2 kPa with the density in the range of 40–45 kg/m3. Additionally, the cell foam morphology investigated by scanning electron microscope indicated that their cellular structure presented mostly polygonal closed cells. The experimental results demonstrate that these bio-based polyols can be used as an alternative starting material for RPUR production.

  17. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH 4 )SO 4 , glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl 2 (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by 32 P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation

  18. Dill (Anethum graveolens L. seeds essential oil as a potential natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević, Lj.P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can induce many undesired side effects, which attracts interest of food producers and consumers in finding ingredients of natural origin. The antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L. seeds was investigated in terms of its possible application as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. DPPH test and FRAP method have been used for the investigation of antioxidative activity of essential oil. Disc-diffusion method has been used for investigation of oil antimicrobial activity on following microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Candida albicans. Essential oil, in concentration of 29 mg/mL, incubated for 60 minutes has shown the highest degree of DPPH radicals’ neutralization (79.62%. FRAP activity of oil was 40.63 μmol Fe2+/g of essential oil. Essential oil showed the best antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, there was a significant antimicrobial activity on all investigated microorganisms.

  19. Alternative oil extraction methods from Echium plantagineum L. seeds using advanced techniques and green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    The edible oil processing industry involves large losses of organic solvent into the atmosphere and long extraction times. In this work, fast and environmentally friendly alternatives for the production of echium oil using green solvents are proposed. Advanced extraction techniques such as Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE), Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) were evaluated to efficiently extract omega-3 rich oil from Echium plantagineum seeds. Extractions were performed with ethyl acetate, ethanol, water and ethanol:water to develop a hexane-free processing method. Optimal PLE conditions with ethanol at 150 °C during 10 min produced a very similar oil yield (31.2%) to Soxhlet using hexane for 8 h (31.3%). UAE optimized method with ethanol at mild conditions (55 °C) produced a high oil yield (29.1%). Consequently, advanced extraction techniques showed good lipid yields and furthermore, the produced echium oil had the same omega-3 fatty acid composition than traditionally extracted oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626