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Sample records for cotton fiber development

  1. Xyloglucan breakdown during cotton fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Hayato; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2003-11-01

    Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) fibers elongated almost linearly up to about 20 days post anthesis. The molecular mass of xyloglucans in fiber cell walls decreased gradually during the elongation stage. When enzymatically active (native) cell wall preparations of fibers were autolyzed, the molecular mass of xyloglucans decreased. The decrease was most prominent in wall preparations obtained from the rapidly elongating fibers. The xyloglucan-degrading activity was recovered from the fiber cell walls with 3 mol/L NaCl, and the activity was high at the stages in which fibers elongated vigorously. These results suggest the possible involvement of xyloglucan metabolism in the regulation of cotton fiber elongation.

  2. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  3. Transcriptome Profiling and Analysis during Cotton Fiber Cell Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ In this project,we aim to elucidate the molecular mechanism controlling initiation and elongation of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum fiber cells by setting up a high throughput custom-designed cDNA microarray and a systematic gene expression profiling during cotton fiber development.We first constructed a microarray consisting of more than 28,000 cotton UniESTs that we obtained by deep-sequencing of several cotton ovule cDNA libraries.

  4. Characterization of Developing Cotton Fibers by Confocal Raman Microscopy

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    Luis Cabrales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose deposition in developing cotton fibers has been studied previously with analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Recent technological developments in instrumentation have made Raman microscopy emerge as an extraordinary analytical tool in biological and plant research. The advantage of using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM resides in the lateral spatial resolution and in the fact that Raman spectroscopy provides not only chemical composition information, but also structural information. Cross-sections of cotton fibers harvested at different developmental stages were studied with CRM. The Raman bands assigned to cellulose were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that CRM can be used as a tool to study cellulose deposition in cotton fibers and could provide useful information on cellulose deposition during cotton fiber development.

  5. Cloning GhSCFP Gene and Its Function in Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lei; YANG Xia; LIU Hao; LI Jia-bao; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a major raw material for the textile industry and the most important fiber crop in the world,cotton is of great significance in Chinese economy.The development of cotton fiber can be divided into initiation,elongation,secondary wall synthesis,and maturation stages.The initiation and elongation stages of fiber,which determine the number of fibers on each seed and the final length of fiber,directly affect the yield and quality of cotton fiber.

  6. Developing Accurate Spatial Maps of Cotton Fiber Quality Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awareness of the importance of cotton fiber quality (Gossypium, L. sps.) has increased as advances in spinning technology require better quality cotton fiber. Recent advances in geospatial information sciences allow an improved ability to study the extent and causes of spatial variability in fiber p...

  7. Expression Profile Analysis of Genes Involved in Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Pathway in Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming; XIAO Zhong-yi; TAN Kun-ling; HU Ming-yu; LIAO Peng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the leading fiber crop and one of the mainstays of the economy in the world.Cotton fibers,as the main product of cotton plants,are unicellular,linear structures derived from the epidermis of the ovule.Cotton fiber development consists of four discrete yet overlapping developmental stages: initiation,elongation,secondary wall deposition,and maturation.

  8. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late, representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality.

  9. In vitro inhibition of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-na YUAN; Waqas MALIK; Shui-jin HUA; Noreen BIBI; Xue-de WANG

    2012-01-01

    Colored cotton has naturally pigmented fibers.The mechanism of pigmentation in cotton fiber is not well documented.This experiment was conducted to study the effects cf respiratory chain inhibitors,i.e.,rotenone and thiourea,on pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.After 1 d post-anthesis,ovaries were harvested and developing ovules were cultured on the liquid medium containing different concentrations of rotenone and thiourea for 30 d.The results demonstrate that both respiratory inhibitors reduced fiber length and ovule development under ovule culture conditions,and the inhibition efficiency of rotenone was much higher than that of thiourea.Rotenone and thiourea also showed significant effects on fiber pigment (color) development in colored cotton.In green cotton fiber,rotenone advanced fiber pigment development by 7 d at 200 μmol/L,while thiourea inhibited fiber pigmentation at all treatment levels (400,600,800,1000,and 2000 μmol/L).Both respiratory inhibitors,however,had no significant effects on pigmentation of brown cotton fibers.The activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) decreased significantly with increasing levels of both respiratory inhibitors.It is suggested that both respiratory inhibitors have important roles in deciphering the mechanism of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.

  10. Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Cotton Fiber Development and Protein Extraction Method Comparison in Late Stage Fibers

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    Hana Mujahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The distinct stages of cotton fiber development and maturation serve as a single-celled model for studying the molecular mechanisms of plant cell elongation, cell wall development and cellulose biosynthesis. However, this model system of plant cell development is compromised for proteomic studies due to a lack of an efficient protein extraction method during the later stages of fiber development, because of a recalcitrant cell wall and the presence of abundant phenolic compounds. Here, we compared the quality and quantities of proteins extracted from 25 dpa (days post anthesis fiber with multiple protein extraction methods and present a comprehensive quantitative proteomic study of fiber development from 10 dpa to 25 dpa. Comparative analysis using a label-free quantification method revealed 287 differentially-expressed proteins in the 10 dpa to 25 dpa fiber developmental period. Proteins involved in cell wall metabolism and regulation, cytoskeleton development and carbohydrate metabolism among other functional categories in four fiber developmental stages were identified. Our studies provide protocols for protein extraction from maturing fiber tissues for mass spectrometry analysis and expand knowledge of the proteomic profile of cotton fiber development.

  12. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases in developing cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in diverse physiological processes. Previously, we discovered superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracellular protein preparations from fiber-bearing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. We sho...

  13. Boosting seed development as a new strategy to increase cotton fiber yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers, which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis. Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation, elongation and cellulose synthesis. However, manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality. On the other hand, evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development. Therefore, I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Boosting Seed Development as a New Strategy to Increase Cotton Fiber Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ling Ruan

    2013-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers,which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis.Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation,elongation and cellulose synthesis.However,manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality.On the other hand,evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development.Therefore,I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality.

  15. MicroRNA expression profiles during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) fiber early development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Runrun; Li, Chao; Wang, Qinglian; Zhang, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) during cotton fiber development remains unclear. Here, a total of 54 miRNAs belonging to 39 families were selected to characterize miRNA regulatory mechanism in eight different fiber development stages in upland cotton cv BM-1. Among 54 miRNAs, 18 miRNAs were involved in cotton fiber initiation and eight miRNAs were related to fiber elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Additionally, 3,576 protein-coding genes were candidate target genes of these miRNAs, which are potentially involved in cotton fiber development. We also investigated the regulatory network of miRNAs and corresponding targets in fiber initiation and elongation, and secondary wall formation. Our Gene Ontology-based term classification and KEGG-based pathway enrichment analyses showed that the miRNA targets covered 220 biological processes, 67 molecular functions, 45 cellular components, and 10 KEGG pathways. Three of ten KEGG pathways were involved in lignan synthesis, cell elongation, and fatty acid biosynthesis, all of which have important roles in fiber development. Overall, our study shows the potential regulatory roles of miRNAs in cotton fiber development and the importance of miRNAs in regulating different cell types. This is helpful to design miRNA-based biotechnology for improving fiber quality and yield. PMID:28327647

  16. Functional Genomic Studies of Cotton Fiber Development%棉花纤维发育功能基因组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ya CHEN; Zhi-ping LIN; Tian-zhen ZHANG; Yong-qing ZHU; Jia-wei WANG; Chun-hong LI; Ke-xiang XU; Jin-ying GOU; Shui WANG; Jun-wei JIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton fibers are single-cell trichomes derived from the epidermis of cotton ovules. Analysis of transcripts in developing fiber cells may provide valuable information to understand mechanisms regulation fiber initiation and growth, as well as to cotton breeding. We have made an array of more than 5000 clones isolated from a cotton ovule ( and the fiber ) cDNA library.

  17. Specific expression of a β-tubulin gene (GhTub1) in developing cotton fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yuanli; (李园莉); SUN; Jie; (孙杰); LI; Chunhong; (李春红); ZHU; Yongqing; (朱勇清); XIA; Guixian; (夏桂先)

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed using poly (A)+ RNA isolated from -1-15 DPA fibers of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The cDNA encoding a β-tubulin isoform (designated as GhTub1) was identified through EST search. Northern blot analysis using 3′-UTR of the cDNA as a gene-specific probe was performed to investigate the expression levels of GhTub1 in various organs and in the developing fibers. The results showed that GhTub1 gene was specifically expressed in cotton fiber cells. During fiber development, GhTub1 transcripts accumulated highlyat the stage of cell rapid elongation with the highest expression appearing at the time when fiber expansion reaches the peak rate. To probe the in vivo function of GhTub1, its cDNA was cloned in the yeast expression vector pREP1 and transformed into the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Overexpression of GhTub1 in yeast cells caused severe changes in the cell morphology. These results suggest that GhTub1 may play a role in the polar elongation of cotton fibers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fiber-specific transcript accumulation of a cotton β-tubulin gene.

  18. Molecular Biological and Biochemical Studies Reveal New Pathways Important for Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xu; Hong-Bin Li; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2007-01-01

    As one of the longest single-celled seed trichomes, fibers provide an excellent model for studying fundamental biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, and cell wall biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize recent progress in cotton functional genomic studies that characterize the dynamic changes in the transcriptomes of fiber cells. Extensive expression profilings of cotton fiber transcriptomes have provided comprehensive information, as quite a number of transcription factors and enzyme-coding genes have been shown to express preferentially during the fiber elongation period. Biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene is found significantly upregulated during the fiber growth period as revealed by both microarray analysis and by biochemical and physiological studies. It is suggested that genetic engineering of the ethylene pathway may improve the quality and the productivity of cotton lint. Many metabolic pathways, such as biosynthesis of celiulose and matrix polysaccharides are preferentially expressed in actively growing fiber cells. Five gene families, including proline-rich proteins (PRP), arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are activated during early fiber development,indicating that they may also be needed for cell elongation. In conclusion, we identify a few areas of future research for cotton functional genomic studies.

  19. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environment...

  20. Genetic mapping and comparative analysis of seven mutants related to seed fiber development in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Junkang; Pierce, Gary J; Waghmare, Vijay N; Rogers, Carl J; Desai, Aparna; Chee, Peng W; May, O Lloyd; Gannaway, John R; Wendel, Jonathan F; Wilkins, Thea A; Paterson, Andrew H

    2005-10-01

    Mapping of genes that play major roles in cotton fiber development is an important step toward their cloning and manipulation, and provides a test of their relationships (if any) to agriculturally-important QTLs. Seven previously identified fiber mutants, four dominant (Li (1), Li (2), N (1) and Fbl) and three recessive (n (2), sma-4(h (a)), and sma-4(fz)), were genetically mapped in six F(2) populations comprising 124 or more plants each. For those mutants previously assigned to chromosomes by using aneuploids or by linkage to other morphological markers, all map locations were concordant except n (2), which mapped to the homoeolog of the chromosome previously reported. Three mutations with primary effects on fuzz fibers (N (1), Fbl, n (2)) mapped near the likelihood peaks for QTLs that affected lint fiber productivity in the same populations, perhaps suggesting pleiotropic effects on both fiber types. However, only Li (1) mapped within the likelihood interval for 191 previously detected lint fiber QTLs discovered in non-mutant crosses, suggesting that these mutations may occur in genes that played early roles in cotton fiber evolution, and for which new allelic variants are quickly eliminated from improved germplasm. A close positional association between sma-4(h ( a )), two leaf and stem-borne trichome mutants (t (1) , t (2)), and a gene previously implicated in fiber development, sucrose synthase, raises questions about the possibility that these genes may be functionally related. Increasing knowledge of the correspondence of the cotton and Arabidopsis genomes provides several avenues by which genetic dissection of cotton fiber development may be accelerated.

  1. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  2. Changes in the sugar composition and molecular mass distribution of matrix polysaccharides during cotton fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Hayato; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-04-01

    Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) fiber development consists of a fiber elongation stage (up to 20 d post-anthesis) and a subsequent cell wall thickening stage. Cell wall analysis revealed that the extractable matrix (pectic and hemicellulosic) polysaccharides accounted for 30-50% of total sugar content in the fiber elongation stage but less than 3% in the cell wall thickening stage. By contrast, cellulose increased dramatically after the fiber elongation ceased. The amounts of extractable xyloglucans and arabinose- and galactose-containing polymers per seed increased in the early fiber elongation stage and decreased thereafter. The amounts of extractable acidic polymers and non-cellulosic beta-glucans (mainly composed of beta-1,3-glucans) increased in parallel with fiber elongation and then decreased. The molecular masses of extractable non-cellulosic beta-glucans, and arabinose- and galactose-containing polymers decreased during both fiber elongation and cell wall thickening stages. The molecular mass of extractable xyloglucans also decreased during the fiber elongation stage, but this decrease ceased during the cell wall thickening stage. Conversely, the molecular size of acidic polymers in the extractable pectic fraction increased during both stages. Thus, not only the amounts but also the molecular size of the extractable matrix polysaccharides showed substantial changes during cotton fiber development.

  3. Genetical Genomics Dissection of Cotton Fiber Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LACAPE J M; JACOBS J; LLEWELLYN D

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton fiber is a commodity of key economic importance in both developed and developing countries.The two cultivated species,Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense,are tetraploid (2n=4x=52,2.3 Gb).Cotton fibers are single-celled trichomes of the outermost epidermal layer of the ovule and elongate extensively to 25-50 mm.The final quality of the fiber results from complex developmental processes and improvement of cotton fiber quality remains a challenge for many research groups worldwide.

  4. Genetic mapping and characteristics of genes specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber development in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Li

    Full Text Available Cotton fiber is an ideal model to study cell elongation and cell wall construction in plants. During fiber development, some genes and proteins have been reported to be specifically or preferentially expressed. Mapping of them will reveal the genomic distribution of these genes, and will facilitate selection in cotton breeding. Based on previous reports, we designed 331 gene primers and 164 protein primers, and used single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP to map and integrate them into our interspecific BC(1 linkage map. This resulted in the mapping of 57 loci representing 51 genes or proteins on 22 chromosomes. For those three markers which were tightly linked with quantitative trait loci (QTLs, the QTL functions obtained in this study and gene functions reported in previous reports were consistent. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of 52 polymorphic functional primers showed that 21 gene primers and 17 protein primers had differential expression between Emian22 (Gossypium hirsutum and 3-79 (G. barbadense. Both RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses of the three markers tightly linked with QTLs were consistent with QTL analysis and field experiments. Gene Ontology (GO categorization revealed that almost all 51 mapped genes belonged to multiple categories that contribute to fiber development, indicating that fiber development is a complex process regulated by various genes. These 51 genes were all specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber cell elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Therefore, these functional gene-related markers would be beneficial for the genetic improvement of cotton fiber length and strength.

  5. Effect of late planting and shading on cellulose synthesis during cotton fiber secondary wall development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR. Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%-25.5% produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%-20.9% was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%-5.6%. The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38-45 days post-anthesis. The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase.

  6. Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

  7. Activation of Arabidopsis seed hair development by cotton fiber-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Guan

    Full Text Available Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1 that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2, a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0 activated fiber-like hair production in 4-6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ∼8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ∼10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular.

  8. Genes Expressing Differences in Upland Cotton Fiber Development Between 12 DPA and 16 DPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Cai-rui; YU Shu-xun; WANG Wu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the major dominant natural fiber crop on the earth.Although some current cotton genetics and breeding programs had made great progresses in cotton lint yield increases and disease resistance (tolerance),fiber quality has little improvement.Global understanding genes expression will benefit to the fiber quality genetic improvement in the future.There are total 929 genes that were differently expressed between 12 DPA and 16 DPA based on the12 K cotton cDNA arrays (CapitalBio Corporation) analysis.There were 357 (38%) up-regulated,and 572 (62%) down-regulated.This work was supported by grants from the China National Basic Research Program (2004CB117306)

  9. STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF VARIOUS COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON CELLULOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and crystalline structure, as well as chemical composition of fibers related to various types and sorts of Israeli cottons, both white and naturally colored, were investigated. The differences in structural parameters and chemical compositions of the cotton fibers were evaluated. Samples of cotton of the “Pima”-type had long, thin and strong fibers with highly ordered supermolecular structure. Fibers of middle-long and hybrid cottons had some lower-ordered structural organization in comparison to long-length cotton, while fibers of naturally colored cotton were characterized with disordered supermolecular and crystalline structure. Dependence of tensile strength on orientation of nano-fibrils towards the fiber axis was found. Conditions of cellulose isolation from the different cotton fibers were studied. Structural characteristics of isolated cotton celluloses and obtained MCC are discussed.

  10. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  11. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  12. Suitable internal control genes for qRT-PCR normalization in cotton fiber development and somatic embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of cotton fiber development and somatic embryogenesis have been explored systematically with microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization. Real-time RT-PCR provides the simultaneous measurement of gene expression in many different samples, with which the data from microarray or others can be confirmed in detail. To achieve accurate and reliable gene expression results, normalization of real-time PCR data against one or several internal control genes is required, which should not fluctuate in different tissues during various stages of development. We assessed the gene expression of 7 frequently used housekeeping genes, including 18S rRNA, Histone3, UBQ7, Actin, Cyclophilin, Gbpolyubiquitin-1 and Gbpolyubiquitin-2, in a diverse set of 21 cotton samples. For fiber developmental series the expression of all housekeeping genes had the same down tendency after 17 DPA. But the expression of the AGP gene (arabinogalactan protein) that has high expression level at the later fiber development stage was up-regulated from 15 to 27 DPA. So the relative absolute quantification should be an efficient and convenient method for the fiber developmental series. The expression of nonfiber tissues series varied not so much against the fiber developmental series. And three best control genes Histone3, UBQ7 and Gbpolyubiquitin-1 have to be used in a combinated way to get better normalization.

  13. Molecular landscape of cotton fiber in early elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are the dominant source of natural fibers used in the textile industry and contribute significantly to the world economy. Adverse environmental conditions negatively affect fiber characteristics, especially when the fibers are in the elongation phase of development. Improvement in the...

  14. Study on the Genetics and Development of Fiber Pigments and Color Deviation After Wetting Process of Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Xin-mian; ZHOU Wen-long

    2003-01-01

    The genetic control of fiber pigment color in naturally colored cotton was studied. The expres-sion of brown and green fiber color was controlled by incompletely dominant single genes and incompletelydominant major genes, respectively. Production and accumulation of the fiber pigment were related to specialexpression of enzymatic genes for pigment synthesis in fiber cells. At the stage of fiber lengthening, naturallycolored cotton, like white cotton, appeared purely white. But when fiber cell walls entered the thickeningstage, pigment appeared by degrees. When the fiber was completely matured (on boll dehiscence), the colorreached its darkest level. After wetting process treatment, the hues of the fiber pigment changed in regularpatterns. The hue circle for brown and green cotton changed in the opposite direction with wetting processtreatment. In general, the treated cotton color and luster became dark and vivid, and this trend provided the possibili-ty for enhancing the fiber quality by suitable enviromnental friendly finishing. The analysis showed that the color andluster of the cotton may be controlled by a series of pigments which show different chemical performance.

  15. Xinjiang: Cotton Stalk Fiber Will Bring Profits to Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ On April 19,2007,Seminar on the Development and Application of Xinjiang Cotton Stalk Fiber,hosted by the Economic Operations Bureau of National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),successfully opened in Xinjiang Hotel of Beijing.

  16. A Comparative miRNAome Analysis Reveals Seven Fiber Initiation-Related and 36 Novel miRNAs in Developing Cotton Ovules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Ming Wang; Wei Xue; Chun-Juan Dong; Long-Guo Jin; Shao-Min Bian; Chuan Wang; Xiu-Yun Wu; Jin-Yuan Liu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of microRNAs(miRNAs)have been shown to play crucial regulatory roles in the process of plant development.Here,we used high-throughput sequencing combined with computational analysis to characterize miRNAomes from the ovules of wild-type upland cotton and a fiberless mutant during fiber initiation.Comparative miRNAome analysis combined with northern blotting and RACE-PCR revealed seven fiber initiation-related miRNAs expressed in cotton ovules and experimentally validated targets of these miRNAs are involved in different cellular responses and metabolic processes,including transcriptional regulation,auxin and gibberellin signal transduction,actin bundles,and lignin biosynthesis.This paper describes a complex regulatory network consisting of these miRNAs expressed in cotton ovules to coordinate fiber initiation responses.In addition,36 novel miRNAs and two conserved miRNAs were newly identified,nearly doubling the number of known cotton miRNA families to a total of 78.Furthermore,a chromatin remodeling complex subunit and a pre-mRNA splicing factor are shown for the first time to be miRNA targets.To our knowledge,this study is the first systematic investigation of fiber initiation-related miRNAs and their targets in the developing cotton ovule,deepening our understanding of the important regulatory functions of miRNAs in cotton fiber initiation.

  17. SCFP, a novel fiber-specific promoter in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lei; LIU Hao; LI JiaBao; YANG Xia; XIAO YueHua; LUO Ming; SONG ShuiQing; YANG GuangWei; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the expression pattern of GhSCFP which was isolated from cotton fiber cDNA library, a 1006 bp upstream fragment of the gene was cloned by chromosome walking and fused to GUSand GFP respectively. Histochemical GUS and GFP fluorescence analysis revealed that the expression of the report genes driven by the promoter sequence was detectable only in outer layer cells during the seed development in the transgentic tobaccos. In transgenic cotton, strong GUS activity was observed in spherical protrusions on 0 dps (days post anthesis) ovule surface, and in the 2-36 dpa fiber cells, while no GUS signals were detected in the root, leaves, stem, corolla, anther and stigma. Our data demon-strated that GhSCFP upstream sequence is a cotton fiber-specific promoter and this promoter will be useful in the molecular research on fiber cell development and in cotton fiber improvements by genetic modification.

  18. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  19. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  20. Genomes for jeans: cotton genomics for engineering superior fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Shahid; Paterson, Andrew H

    2012-10-01

    Twenty years ago, scientists predicted that better understanding of fiber development would lead to novel ways to engineer superior cotton fiber. Advances in genetic resources, DNA markers, DNA sequence information, and gene expression data have indeed provided new insights into fiber initiation, elongation and maturation. Many exciting applications of this knowledge offer the potential to select better cotton genotypes more effectively in mainstream breeding programs or engineer genotypes with improved agronomic and/or quality traits. Here, we discuss recent progress in understanding genes involved in fiber development, and their regulation and manipulation to engineer improved fibers. Better understanding of quantitative trait loci/gene interactions that influence fiber quality and yield may help to tailor superior cotton genotypes to diverse environments.

  1. Preferential Expression of a Beta-tubulin Gene in Developing Cotton Fibers%棉花发育纤维中一个优势表达的β-Tubulin基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-li LI; Jie SUN; Chun-hong LI; Yong-qing ZHU; Gui-xian XIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ The developing cotton fiber is considered as a model system for studying the function of microtubules in plant cell elongation and cell wall biosynthesis. It has been shown that microtubules undergo active dynamic changes during fiber development. At the molecular level, Dixon et al demonstrated that two alphatubulin and two beta-tubulin isoforms accumulated preferentially in fibers, and Whittaker and Triplett showed that the accumulation of alpha-tubulin transcripts changed in a gene-specific manner in the developing cotton fibers.

  2. Triarylmethane Dyes for Artificial Repellent Cotton Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Ana Maria; Gálvez, Erik; Shafir, Alexandr; Sebastián, Rosa María; Vallribera, Adelina

    2017-03-17

    Families of new hydrophobic and/or oleophobic triarylmethane dyes possessing long hydrocarbon or polyfluorinated chains have been prepared. When covalently grafted on to cotton fabric, these dyes give rise to a new type of colored superhydrophobic fibers.

  3. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decomposition, end of decomposition, and activation energy of synthesized cotton were higher than original cotton. The activation energy of jute cotton fibers was higher than the original cotton fibers.

  4. Gene cloning and molecular breeding to improve fiber qualities in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Cotton fiber is one of known natural resources comprising the highest purity cellulose. It plays an important role worldwide in the textile industry. With the acceleration of spinning speeds and the improvement of the people's living level, the demand of improving cotton fiber qualities is getting stronger and stronger. So, making clear the developmental model of fiber cell and elucidating systematically the molecular mechanisms of cotton fiber development and regulation will produce a great significance to make full use of cotton gene resources, raise cotton yield and improve fiber quality, and even develop man-made fiber. In the paper, the status of the gene cloning and the molecular breeding to improve cotton fiber quality were reviewed, the importance and potential of gene cloning related with cotton fiber quality were put forward and the proposal and prospect on fiber quality improvement were made. Using national resources available and through the creative exploration in corresponding research, some international leading patents in genes or markers linked with cotton fiber development having Chinese own intellectual property should be licensed quickly. And they can be used to improve cotton fiber quality in cotton breeding practice.

  5. Isolation and characterization of gene sequences expressed in cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana de Carvalho Coutinho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cotton fiber are tubular cells which develop from the differentiation of ovule epidermis. In addition to being one of the most important natural fiber of the textile group, cotton fiber afford an excellent experimental system for studying the cell wall. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the genes expressed in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. to be used in future work in cotton breeding. Fiber of the cotton cultivar CNPA ITA 90 II were used to extract RNA for the subsequent generation of a cDNA library. Seventeen sequences were obtained, of which 14 were already described in the NCBI database (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, such as those encoding the lipid transfer proteins (LTPs and arabinogalactans (AGP. However, other cDNAs such as the B05 clone, which displays homology with the glycosyltransferases, have still not been described for this crop. Nevertheless, results showed that several clones obtained in this study are associated with cell wall proteins, wall-modifying enzymes and lipid transfer proteins directly involved in fiber development.

  6. Improvements of Fiber Yield and Fiber Fineness by Expressing the iaaM Gene in Cotton Seed Coat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yan; ZHENG Xue-lian; ZHANG Mi; ZENG Qi-wei; HOU Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton,the most important natural fiber crop in the world,is a mainstay in China's economy.However,for over two decades,cotton yields both in China and U.S.have been at a plateau.One reason for this plateau is the limitation of current cotton germplasm.Cotton fibers are single cells resulting from elongated cells of the ovule epidermis.IAA regulates both plant growth and differentiation,and it has important roles in cotton fiber development.

  7. Comparative evolutionary and developmental dynamics of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jeong Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The single-celled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber provides an excellent model to investigate how human selection affects phenotypic evolution. To gain insight into the evolutionary genomics of cotton domestication, we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling of developing cotton fibers using RNA-Seq. Analysis of single-celled fiber transcriptomes from four wild and five domesticated accessions from two developmental time points revealed that at least one-third and likely one-half of the genes in the genome are expressed at any one stage during cotton fiber development. Among these, ~5,000 genes are differentially expressed during primary and secondary cell wall synthesis between wild and domesticated cottons, with a biased distribution among chromosomes. Transcriptome data implicate a number of biological processes affected by human selection, and suggest that the domestication process has prolonged the duration of fiber elongation in modern cultivated forms. Functional analysis suggested that wild cottons allocate greater resources to stress response pathways, while domestication led to reprogrammed resource allocation toward increased fiber growth, possibly through modulating stress-response networks. This first global transcriptomic analysis using multiple accessions of wild and domesticated cottons is an important step toward a more comprehensive systems perspective on cotton fiber evolution. The understanding that human selection over the past 5,000+ years has dramatically re-wired the cotton fiber transcriptome sets the stage for a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture underlying cotton fiber synthesis and phenotypic evolution.

  8. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion.

  9. Mechanical Characterization of Cotton Fiber/Polyester Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Rajper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of composite from natural fiber for lower structural application is growing for long-term sustainable perspective. Cotton fiber composite material has the added advantages of high specific strength, corrosion resistance, low cost and low weight compared to glass fiber on the expense of internal components of IC engines. The primary aim of the research study is to examine the effect of the cotton fiber on mechanical properties of lower structural applications when added with the polyester resin. In this paper composite material sample has been prepared by hand Lay-Up process. A mould is locally developed in the laboratory for test sample preparation. Initially samples of polyester resin with appropriate ratio of the hardener were developed and tested. At the second stage yarns of cotton fiber were mixed with the polyester resin and sample specimens were developed and tested. Relative effect of the cotton as reinforcing agent was examined and observed that developed composite specimen possess significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength was improved as 19.78 % and modulus of elasticity was increased up to 24.81%. Through this research it was also observed that developed composite material was of ductile nature and its density decreases up to 2.6%. Results from this study were compared with relevant available advanced composite materials and found improved mechanical properties of developed composite material

  10. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1.

  11. Xinjiang:Cotton Stalk Fiber Will Bring Profits to Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On April 19,2007,Seminar on the Development and Application of Xinjiang Cotton Stalk Fiber,hosted by the Economic Operations Bureau of National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC),successfully opened in Xinjiang Hotel of Beijing.The Seminar was attended by inspector Zhang

  12. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Fiber Elongating Process in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan; YANG Yi-wei; BIAN Shao-min

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was performed to explore the mechanism of cell elongation in developing cotton fibers.The temporal changes of global proteomes at five representative development stages (5~25 days post-anthesis [DPA]) were examined using 2-D electrophoresis.

  13. Development of antibacterial knitted products with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber%镀银纤维/棉混纺纱抗菌针织产品的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国华; 陈朱捷; 敖利民

    2013-01-01

    镀银纤维具有优异的抗菌性能,其针织面料的开发应用前景非常广阔。分析镀银纤维/棉混纺纱的外观特征和抗菌特点,并利用镀银纤维/棉混纺纱在单面针织机上开发了几种抗菌针织面料。测试结果表明,开发的镀银纤维/棉混纺纱针织面料具有良好的抗菌效果。%Silver-plated fiber has excellent antibacterial property , which makes its knitted fabrics have a vast potential for further development and application .The external appearance and antibacterial characteristics of blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber were analyzed .Several antibacterial knitted fabrics with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber were developed.The test results show all the knitted fabrics with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber have good antibacterial properties .

  14. Functional divergence of GhCFE5 homoeologs revealed in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fenni; Li, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Nina; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-04-01

    In GhCFE5 homoeologs, GhCFE5D interacted with more actin homologs and stronger interaction activity than GhCFE5A. GhCFE5D - but not GhCFE5A -overexpression severely disrupted actin cytoskeleton organization and significantly suppressed cell elongation. Homoeologous genes are common in polyploid plants; however, their functional divergence is poorly elucidated. Allotetraploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, AADD) is the most widely cultivated cotton; accounting for more than 90 % of the world's cotton production. Here, we characterized GhCFE5A and GhCFE5D homoeologs from G. hirsutum acc TM-1. GhCFE5 homoeologs are expressed preferentially in fiber cells; and a significantly greater accumulation of GhCFE5A mRNA than GhCFE5D mRNA was found in all tested tissues. Overexpression of GhCFE5D but not GhCFE5A seriously inhibits the Arabidopsis hypocotyl and root cell elongation. Yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis showed that compared with GhCFE5A, GhCFE5D interacts with more actin homologs and has a stronger interaction activity both from Arabidopsis and Upland cotton. Interestingly, subcellular localization showed that GhCFE5 resides on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and is colocalized with actin cables. The interaction activities between GhCFE5 homoeologs and actin differ in their effects on F-actin structure in transgenic Arabidopsis root cells. The F-actin changed direction from vertical to lateral, and the actin cytoskeleton organization was severely disrupted in GhCFE5D-overexpressing root cells. These data support the functional divergence of GhCFE5 homoeologs in the actin cytoskeleton structure and cell elongation, implying an important role for GhCFE5 in the evolution and selection of cotton fiber.

  15. Cloning and functional characterization of two cDNAs encoding NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductased from developing cotton fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Mei QIN; Francois MA PUJOL; Yong Hui SHI; Jian Xun FENG; Yi Ming LIU; Alexander J KASTANIOTIS; J Kalervo HILTUNEN; Yu Xian ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Genes encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids were significantly up-regulated during early cotton fiber development. Two cDNAs, GhKCR1 and GhKCR2 encoding putative cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases that catalyze the second step in fatty acid elongation, were isolated from developing cotton fibers. GhKCR1 and 2 contain open reading frames of 963 bp and 924 bp encoding proteins of 320 and 307 amino acid residues,respectively. Quantatitive RT-PCR analysis showed that both these genes were highly preferentially expressed during the cotton fiber elongation period with much lower levels recovered from roots, stems and leaves. GhKCR1 and 2 showed 30%-32% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ybr159p at the deduced amino acid level. These cotton cDNAs were cloned and expressed in yeast haploid ybr159w△ mutant that was deficient in 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity.Wild-type growth rate was restored in ybr159w△ cells that expressed either GhKCR1 or 2. Further analysis showed that GhKCR1 and 2 were co-sedimented within the membranous pellet fraction after high-speed centrifugation, similar to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum marker ScKar2p. Both GhKCR(s) showed NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity in an in vitro assay system using palmitoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as substrates. Our results suggest that GhKCR1 and 2 are functional orthologues of ScYbr159p.

  16. Regional Distribution of Cotton Fiber Quality in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fiber quality status is very important for super quality cotton production and diverse requirements of textile industry in China.In this study,the quality of cotton fiber samples which are collected from 13 major cotton production provinces between 2001 to 2005 were analyzed.Eight quality traits

  17. Application of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton fiber micronaire measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term “micronaire” describes an important cotton fiber property by characterizing the fiber maturity and fineness. In practice, micronaire is regularly measured in laboratories with well established high volume instrumentation (HVITM) protocol. Most often, cotton breeders/geneticists sent cotton ...

  18. Chemical, compositional and structural characterisation of cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, one of the most important and widely grown crops in the world, is a well-traded agricultural commodity primarily for textile fiber purpose. It is a type of natural cellulose I (ß 1'4 linked glucose residues), and its growth or development is considered to include at least four overlapping bu...

  19. Transcriptome and biochemical analyses revealed a detailed proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hua Xiao

    Full Text Available Brown cotton fiber is the major raw material for colored cotton industry. Previous studies have showed that the brown pigments in cotton fiber belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs. To clarify the details of PA biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber, gene expression profiles in developing brown and white fibers were compared via digital gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR. Compared to white cotton fiber, all steps from phenylalanine to PA monomers (flavan-3-ols were significantly up-regulated in brown fiber. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses showed that most of free flavan-3-ols in brown fiber were in 2, 3-trans form (gallocatechin and catechin, and the main units of polymeric PAs were trihydroxylated on B ring. Consistent with monomeric composition, the transcript levels of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase in cotton fiber were much higher than their competing enzymes acting on the same substrates (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, respectively. Taken together, our data revealed a detailed PA biosynthesis pathway wholly activated in brown cotton fiber, and demonstrated that flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase represented the primary flow of PA biosynthesis in cotton fiber.

  20. Spunlaced Cotton and Cotton Blend Cosmetic Pads and Bed Sheets: Study of Fiber Entanglement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Muenstermann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven webs containing five different blends of bleached cotton with Lyocell rayon, bicomponent core/sheath polyester/polyethylene, or cotton comber noil were prepared by either light needlepunching, or light needlepunching followed by spunlacing (hydroentanglement. We optically acquired fiber bundle size measurements to learn about the pre-needling process, the hydroentangling process and the influence of fiber blend composition on fiber entanglement. Fiber entanglement measurements were compared to basis weight uniformity measurements. One of the bed sheet developments utilized a combination of bonding technologies (spunlacing and thermal bonding that used low energy. Results from this work indicate that spunlacing produced high quality cosmetic pads and economical short-life bed sheeting.

  1. About Viscosity of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAGDULLAEV Ahror

    2008-01-01

    @@ The biological variety is mainly connected with presence of the field ecosites,which determine the mechanism of interaction (the symbiosis,pathogenesis,and etc.) that differ typically of such niches of live organism.The biological,forming on sowing of the cultural plants,including cotton plant are the example for this.Their formation is conditioned presence of the separations of aphids,consisting of different sugar,squirrel,ferment,pigment and other component natural substrata.Simultaneously with creation of in natural,it begins shaping the system with determined by balance insect and successes of microorganism.

  2. Tracking cotton fiber quality throughout a stipper harvester: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality and higher foreign matter content than picker ...

  3. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Bai

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

  4. Use of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in direct, non-destructive, and rapid assessment of developmental cotton fibers grown in planta and in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are routinely harvested from cotton plants (in planta), and their end-use qualities depend on their development stages. Cotton fibers are also cultured at controlled laboratory environments, so that cotton researchers can investigate many aspects of experimental protocols in cotton bre...

  5. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  6. Use of FTIR spectroscopy technique in the determination of cotton fiber maturity and crystallinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber consists of natural cellulose I component and its end-use qualities depend on the amount of cellulose deposited during the growth. The term fiber maturity has been used to describe the degree of cellulosic development or the secondary cell wall thickening of fibers. Useful information a...

  7. Molecular Markers in Improvement of Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAVEENDRAN T S; PREETHA S; RAJESWARI S

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the worlds leading natural fiber crop,and it is the cornerstone of textile industries worldwide.The cotton industry is confronted with problems in cost of production and requirements for high quality in the product.It is an industry in which marketing is based on measurable quality factors and where technological changes are being implemented rapidly and constantly.So the breeders have to constantly breed cotton varieties to suit the requirements of the textile industry.

  8. Transcriptome and Functional Analysis of Fiber-related Gene Expression in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Z Jeffrey; LEE Jinsuk J; HAN Zhi-guo; HA Misook; AGARWAL Vikram

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fiber cell initiation is a complex process involving many pathways,including phytohormones and components for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.Here we report expression analyses of fiber-related genes and small RNAs during fiber development.Using laser-dissected tissues and oligonucleotide microarrays corresponding to 23000 unigenes,we compared transcriptome profiles between the cells in epidermal layers,fibers,and inner integuments of cotton ovules.

  9. Analysis of flavonoids and the flavonoid structural genes in brown fiber of upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3'H, and GhF3'5'H were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. RESULT: The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL. The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

  10. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan;

    2014-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like...... different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength...... and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan...

  11. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength......A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like...... and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan...

  12. Transcriptional Analysis of the Relationship of Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis to the Brown Pigmentation in Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yue-hua; LUO Ming; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; YIN Meng-hui; DONG Jing

    2008-01-01

    @@ With increased concern to environment and health in the modern society,naturally colored cotton becomes more and more attractive to textile industry and cotton production.Brown is the most common fiber color in naturally colored cottons.Traditional genetic analyses revealed that brown fiber was controlled by 6 loci (Lc1-6) in cotton.

  13. Analysis of Five Differentially Expressed Gene Familiesin Fast Elongating Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-XunFENG; Sheng-JianJI; Yong-HuiSHI; YuXU; GangWEI; Yu-XianZHU

    2004-01-01

    Using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, we isolated five gene families,including proline-rich proteins (PRPs), arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), from fast elongating cotton fiber cells. Expression profile analysis using cDNA array technology showed that most of these gene families were highly expressed during early cotton fiber developmental stages (0-20 days post anthesis, DPA). Many transcripts accumulated over 50 fold in 10 DPA fiber cells than in 0 DPA samples. The entire gene family-AGP, together with 20 individual members in other 4 gene families, are reported in cotton for the first time. Accumulation of cell wall proteins, wall loosening enzymes, microtubules and lipid transfer proteins may contribute directly to the elongation and development of fiber cells.

  14. Analysis of Five Differentially Expressed Gene Families in Fast Elongating Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun FENG; Sheng-Jian JI; Yong-Hui SHI; Yu XU; Gang WEI; Yu-Xian ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, we isolated five gene families,including proline-rich proteins (PRPs), arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), from fast elongating cotton fiber cells. Expression profile analysis using cDNA array technology showed that most of these gene families were highly expressed during early cotton fiber developmental stages (0-20 days post anthesis, DPA). Many transcripts accumulated over 50-fold in 10 DPA fiber cells than in 0 DPA samples. The entire gene family-AGP, together with 20 individual members in other 4 gene families, are reported in cotton for the first time. Accumulation of cell wall proteins, wall loosening enzymes, microtubules and lipid transfer proteins may contribute directly to the elongation and development of fiber cells.

  15. LYOCELL AND COTTON FIBERS AS REINFORCEMENTS FOR A THERMOSET POLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Frollini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers obtained from the textile industry (lyocell were investigated as a potential reinforcement for thermoset phenolic matrices, to improve their mechanical properties. Textile cotton fibers were also considered. The fibers were characterized in terms of their chemical composition and analyzed using TGA, SEM, and X-ray. The thermoset (non-reinforced and composites (phenolic matrices reinforced with randomly dispersed fibers were characterized using TG, DSC, SEM, DMTA, the Izod impact strength test, and water absorption capacity analysis. The composites that were reinforced with lyocell fibers exhibited impact strengths of nearly 240 Jm-1, whereas those reinforced with cotton fibers exhibited impact strengths of up to 773 Jm-1. In addition to the aspect ratio, the higher crystallinity of cotton fibers compared to lyocell likely plays a role in the impact strength of the composite reinforced by the fibers. The SEM images showed that the porosity of the textile fibers allowed good bulk diffusion of the phenolic resin, which, in turn, led to both good adhesion of fiber to matrix and fewer microvoids at the interface.

  16. Yield and fiber quality of five pairs of near-isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines expressing the fuzzless/linted and fuzzy/linted seed phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzzless cotton often has traits desirable to the cotton industry, including longer fibers, reduced short fiber content, fewer neps, and improved ginning efficiency. This two-year field study described yield and fiber properties of five pairs of fuzzy and fuzzless near-isogenic lines, developed from...

  17. Response of the enzymes to nitrogen applications in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and their relationships with fiber strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the response of key enzymes to nitrogen (N) rates in cotton fiber and its relationship with fiber strength, experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2006 with cotton cultivars in Nanjing. Three N rates 0, 240 and 480 kgN/hm2, signifying optimum and excessive nitrogen application levels were applied.The activities and the gene expressions of the key enzymes were affected by N, and the characteristics of cellulose accumulation and fiber strength changed as the N rate varied. Beta-1,3-glucanase activity in cotton fiber declined from 9 DPA till boll opening, and the beta-1, 3-glucanase coding gene expression also followed a unimodal curve in 12—24 DPA. In 240 kgN/hm2 condition, the characteristics of enzyme activity and gene expression manner for sucrose synthase and beta-1,3-glucanase in developing cotton fiber were more favorable for forming a longer and more steady cellulose accumulation process, and for high strength fiber development.

  18. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, Tday/Tnight) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, Tnight had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means Tn could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  19. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. Cotton or vegetable fibers being transported on a vessel may not be stowed in the same hold with coal. They may be stowed in adjacent holds if...

  20. Expression of a cotton profilin gene GhPFN1 is associated with fiber cell elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Profilin is an important actin-binding protein involved in regulating the organization of actin filaments. A cotton profilin gene (GhPFN1) that shares 71% identity to profilin1 of Arabidopsis in its amino acid sequence was isolated. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that GhPFN1 was expressed preferentially in the developing cotton fibers and reached the highest level at the fast elongation stage. The function of GhPFN1 in vivo was analyzed using the S. pombe system, and results suggested that GhPFN1 plays a role in fiber cell elongation.

  1. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YU-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones including ethylene,gibberellin,and brassinolide have been reported to be involved in this process.Here we first identified by proteomic analysis a cotton cytosolic APX1 (GhAPX1) that was specifically accumulated during cotton fiber elongation.GhAPX1 expression was up-regulated in response to cellular H2O2 and ethylene,and it was involved in modulating the stead-state level of H2O2.

  2. Laboratory and outside the laboratory measurements of ginned and ot ginned cotton for fiber micronaire and maturity by portable Near Infrared (NIR) Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is a key cotton quality assessment property, impacting downstream fiber processing and dye consistency. A component of micronaire is fiber maturity (degree of secondary wall development). Historically, micronaire and maturity are measured in a laboratory under tight environmental condit...

  3. Transcriptional Analysis of the Relationship of Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis to the Brown Pigmentation in Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With increased concern to environment and health in the modern society,naturally colored cotton becomes more and more attractive to textile industry and cotton production.Brown is the most common fiber color in naturally colored cottons.Traditional genetic analyses revealed that brown fiber

  4. Improvement of Fiber Quality by Distant Hybridization in the Green Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ke-yun

    2008-01-01

    @@ In order to improve fiber quality of green cotton,a wide hybrid was used between a green fiber cotton and Sea Island cotton.The results show that the hybrid F1 plants were stable,but F2 plants had large variation.By self-pollinating for advancing generations,we found that the lint percent and fiber length of green fiber cotton were both improved,but micronaire value and fiber color were difficult to increase.The fiber pigment and micronaire value are controlled by linked genes.

  5. Cotton, biotechnology, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, cotton prices remained considerably below other agricultural prices (although they recovered toward the end of 2010). Yet, between 2000-04 and 2005-09 world cotton production increased 13 percent. This paper conjectures that biotechnology-induced productivity improvements increased supplies by China and India, which, in addition to keeping cotton prices low, aided t...

  6. Evaluation on Ideal Test Sites and Regional Characteristics of Cotton Fiber Quality in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LI; Naiyin XU

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The aim of this study was to explore the dominant fiber quality traits of test sites in cotton regional trials , by analyzing the regional characteristics of cotton fiber quality in Jiangsu province, in order to provide the theory background for cotton fiber quality improvement. [Method] The dominant fiber quality traits of test locations were analyzed with eight main fiber quality indexes of hybrid cotton regional trials during 2009-2013 in Jiangsu province by use of the "ideal test site"view of GGE biplot. [Result] The test locations with the best integrative fiber quality were proved to be Yanliang, and fol owed by Dongxin and Guanyun; The better test locations in terms of the major fiber quality indexes, including fiber strength, fiber Length and micronaire value, were Guanyun, Xinyang and Yanliang; To sum up, the best test location with balanced fiber quality was Yanliang. The test locations with specialties in fiber quality index were listed as bel ow: Dafeng, Xinghua and Dongtai performance better in fiber length; Qidong, Liuhe and Yanhai locations were of bet-ter fiber length uniformity; Sheyang and Dongxin were better in micronaire value;while Sheyang along was better in fiber elongation and reflectance. Moreover, the correlation between fiber yel owness and other traits was significant (P<0.01). [Con-clusion] The regional characteristic of cotton fiber quality index in Jiangsu province was obvious and fiber yel owness was worthy an indicator trait to assist the compre-hensive improvement of cotton fiber quality.

  7. Effects of Increased Night Temperature on Cellulose Synthesis and the Activity of Sucrose Metabolism Enzymes in Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jing-shan; HU Yuan-yuan; GAN Xiu-xia; ZHANG Ya-li; HU Xiao-bing; GOU Ling; LUO Hong-hai; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key factors that influence cotton fiber synthesis at the late growth stage of cotton. In this paper, using two early-maturing cotton varieties as experimental materials, night temperature increase was stimulated in the field using far-infrared quartz tubes set in semi-mobile incubators and compared with the normal night temperatures (control) in order to investigate the effects of night temperature on the cotton fiber cellulose synthesis during secondary wall thickening. The results showed that the activity of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) quickly increased and remained constant during the development of cotton fiber, while the activity of acid invertase (AI) and alkaline invertase (NI) decreased, increased night temperatures prompted the rapid transformation of sugar, and all the available sucrose fully converted into cellulose. With night temperature increasing treatment, an increase in SuSy activity and concentration of sucrose indicate more sucrose converted into UDPG (uridin diphosphate-glucose) during the early and late stages of cotton fiber development. Furthermore, SPS activity and the increased concentration of fructose accelerated fructose degradation and reduced the inhibition of fructose to SuSy; maintaining higher value of allocation proportion of invertase and sucrose during the early development stages of cotton fiber, which was propitious to supply a greater carbon source and energy for cellulose synthesis. Therefore, the minimum temperature in the nightime was a major factor correlated with the activity of sucrose metabolism enzymes in cotton fiber. Consequently, soluble sugar transformation and cellulose accumulation were closely associated with the minimum night temperature.

  8. Recent progress in Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study of compositional, structural, and physical attributes of developmental cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are natural plant products and their end-use qualities depend on their stages of development. In general, the quantity of natural fiber cellulose I (ß 1'4 linked glucose residues) increases rapidly, thus it leads to compositional, structural, and physical attribute variations among the...

  9. 精梳棉牛奶纤维混纺小提花织物的开发%Development of Combed Cotton Milk Fiber Blended Small Jacquard Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小玲; 杜胜英; 魏强; 梁红丽

    2012-01-01

    探讨精梳棉牛奶纤维混纺小提花织物的生产技术措施.分析了精梳棉牛奶纤维混纺织物的特点,指出:该种织物织前工序应采用“小张力,低速度,重被覆,保伸长,减毛羽”的工艺原则,减少纱线毛羽及伸长;织造工序选用“小张力,适当大开口”的工艺原则,优选经位置线.通过一系列技术措施的实施,织机效率达到87.5%,产品下机一等品率达85%,达到了预期的目标.%Production technology measures of combed cotton milk fiber blended small jacquard fabric were discussed. Properties of combed cotton milk fiber blended fabric were analyzed. It is pointed out that processing principle of smaller tension,lower speed,more covering,proper elongation,less hairiness was adopted in weaving preparatory process. Elongation and hairiness of yarn were reduced. In weaving process, processing of smaller tension, proper larger Bhed was adopted,warp shed line was optimized. Through a series of technology measures,loom efficiency can reach 87. 5% ,production first grade percentage before cloth repairing can reach 85% ,the target can be reached.

  10. Exp2 polymorphisms associated with variation for fiber quality properties in cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daohua He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins thought to affect the quality of cotton fibers. Previous expression profile analysis revealed that six Expansin A genes are present in cotton, of which two (GhExp1 and GhExp2 produce transcripts that are specific to the developing cotton fiber. To identify the phenotypic function of Exp2, and to determine whether nucleotide variation among alleles of Exp2 affects fiber quality, candidate gene association mapping was conducted. Gene-specific primers were designed to amplify the Exp2 gene. By amplicon sequencing, the nucleotide diversity of Exp2 was investigated across 92 accessions (including 7 Gossypium arboreum, 74 Gossypium hirsutum, and 11 Gossypium barbadense accessions with different fiber qualities. Twenty-six SNPs and seven InDels including 14 from the coding region of Exp2 were detected, forming twelve distinct haplotypes in the cotton collection. Among the 14 SNPs in the coding region, five were missense mutations and nine were synonymous nucleotide changes. The average SNP/InDel per nucleotide ratio was 2.61% (one SNP per 39 bp, with 1.81 and 3.87% occurring in coding and non-coding regions, respectively. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity across the entire Exp2 region was 0.00603 (π and 0.844, respectively, and diversity in non-coding regions was higher than that in coding regions. For linkage disequilibrium (LD, the mean r2 value for all polymorphism loci pairs was 0.48, and LD did not decay over 748 bp. Based on 132 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci evenly covering 26 chromosomes, the population structure was estimated, and the accessions were divided into seven groups that agreed well with their genomic origin and evolutionary history. A general linear model was used to calculate the Exp2-wide diversity–trait associations of 5 fiber quality traits, considering population structure (Q. Four SNPs in Exp2 were associated with at least one of the fiber quality traits, but not with

  11. [Major-polygene effect analysis of super quality fiber properties in upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, You-Lu; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Guo, Wang-Zhen; Yu, John; Kohel, Russell J

    2002-09-01

    The modern textile industry depends on the improvement of fiber quality, especially strength to meet the needs of higher spinning speed. Inheritance of super quality fiber properties in Upland cotton was conducted in the present paper. P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 of eight crosses from five parents with different fiber strength, i.e. 7235 x TM1, TM1 x 7235, HS42 x TM1, PD69 x TM1, MD51 x TM1, 7235 x HS42, 7235 x PD69 and HS42 x PD69, and F2:3 for 7235 x TM1, were used in the study. The materials were planted in Nanjing or Hainan in 1998 and 1999, the individual plant fiber samples were tested with HVI system in Cotton Research Institute of CAAS at Anyang. The segregation analysis methods for major genes plus polygene mixed inheritance model developed by Gai were used to identify the genetic system of fiber qualities. The results from joint analyses of multiple segregating generations as well as single segregating generations, especially for F2:3, showed one major gene plus polygene mixed inheritance model in all fiber quality characters. The heritability values of major gene in F2 of 7235 x TM1 with great parent difference were estimated as 19.6% for fiber strength, 32.0% for micronaire and 13.9% for fiber length, but little in B1 and B2 for fiber qualities. The fiber length showed high and positive dominant effect, but negative value or zero of major or polygene dominant effects for other fiber qualities. Therefore, Mid-parent value or tendency to lower parent in F1 for most of fiber qualities lead to low selection efficiency, which suggests that molecular assisted selection should be considered at first in the improvement of fiber qualities.

  12. [Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-12-01

    By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity.

  13. Observation of fiber ultrastructure of Ligon lintless mutant in upland cotton during fiber elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Chaohua; WANG Xuede; NI Xiyuan

    2005-01-01

    Lintless mutant is a super-short fiber mutant in upland cotton only 4-8 mm in fiber length and also named Ligon cotton controlled by one dominant gene Li1. Fiber ultrastructure of the mutant (Li1) and its wild type (li1) in situ and in vitro was observed under an electron microscope to understand its cytological characteristics during the fiber cell elongation. The results showed that the mutant fiber in situ had thinner cytoplasm, more small vacuoles, less mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticula, and there were more starch granules which were free or packed in the amyloplast beside the cell wall than that of wild type. It was indicated that scarcity of functional organelles and disability of transformation from starch to sugar might be associated with the fact that the mutant fiber cell was aborted too early to elongate into normal length. Mutant ovule in some media containing GA3 could produce a kind of huge callus that grew faster than normal ovules. The callus was covered with many white, loose, and semitransparent fiber-like cells that apt to get off from ovule. These fiber-like cells were multicellular fibers generated by cell division and had black dots just like pigment glands in the stem and leaf of cotton. There were lots of micro-tubes beside cytoplasm membrane of the multicellular fiber, which were thought to be primary preparation for second wall deposition of multicellular fiber. It was indicated that GA3 might induce the expression of gene(s) that kept inactive in the field condition and then stimulate the original fiber cell in vitro to undergo division again.

  14. Functional Analysis, Grouping and Expression Pattern Study of the Cotton Fiber Development-related Genes%棉纤维发育基因的功能分析、分类和表达形式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-jian JI; Yong-hui SHI; Xiu-juan LIANG; Qiang FU; Yu-xian ZHU

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton fiber growth consists of four overlapping developmental stages: fiber initiation, cell elongation, secondary wall deposition and maturation. To date, great progresses have been made on cellulose synthesis and deposition. The iniation and elongation requires rapid cell division, differentiation, growth and elongation,which undoubtedly includes expression of large amounts of genes.

  15. Measurement comparison of cotton fiber micronaire and its components by portable near infrared spectroscopy instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is a key cotton fiber classing and quality assessment property, and changes in fiber micronaire can impact downstream fiber processing and dye consistency in the textile manufacturing industry. Micronaire is a function of two fiber components—fiber maturity and fineness. Historically, m...

  16. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  17. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  18. Identification of cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci using intraspecific crosses derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in fiber bundle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...

  19. Preliminary field measurement of cotton fiber micronaire by portable NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The decline of the U.S. textile industry has led to the dramatic increase in the export of U.S. cotton. Improved quality measurement systems are needed to successfully compete in the global marketplace. One key need is the development of new breeder/producer quality tools for field and at-line mea...

  20. 生长物质对彩色棉胚珠离体培养纤维发育的影响%Effects of Growth Substances on the Fiber Growth and Development of Color Cotton Ovule Culturein vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松江; 龚文芳; 孙君灵; 庞保印; 杜雄明

    2015-01-01

    .72%和8.81%(P<0.05);添加适宜浓度的甘露醇(30 g·L-1)、氯化钠(0.10 mol·L-1)、氯化钾(0.20 mol·L-1)、蔗糖(10 g·L-1)、茉莉酸甲酯(40μmol·L-1)或者苯丙氨酸(0.10 mmol·L-1)有利于棕色棉显色,其中40μmol·L-1茉莉酸甲酯效果最好;试验所用的生长物质处理下,绿色棉显色差异不大。【结论】蔗糖为彩色棉胚珠生长和纤维发育提供了糖源和渗透环境;适宜浓度的茉莉酸甲酯、油菜素内酯或阿魏酸有利于棕色棉和绿色棉纤维伸长发育;油菜素内酯和茉莉酸甲酯存在交叉作用,油菜素内酯主要参与纤维伸长过程中,而茉莉酸甲酯可能参与到棕色棉色素代谢过程中;一定浓度的甘露醇、氯化钠、氯化钾、蔗糖、茉莉酸甲酯或苯丙氨酸有利于棕色棉色素合成;渗透压调节剂、植物生长调节剂和类黄酮前体物质对绿色棉纤维显色作用不明显。%[Objective] In order to establish and optimize theovule culture system of brown cotton and green cotton, the effects of growth substances (osmotic regulators, plant growth regulators and flavonoids biosynthesis precursors) on the fiber growth and development were studied.[Method]Brown cotton variety Z1-61, green cotton variety CC28 and the white cotton variety RT-White (control sample) were used as plant materials. The conventional ways of cultivation and management were adopted. Flowers were tagged at 0 day post anthesis (DPA), and then the ovules of 3 DPA were used for ovule culture in vitro. Besides the addition of 10.0μmol·L-1IAA and 5.0μmol·L-1GA3, different concentrations of osmotic regulators (mannitol, NaCl, KCl and sucrose), plant growth regulators (MeJA and BR) and flavonoids biosynthesis precursors (phenylalanine and ferelic acid ) were added to the basic BT medium, respectively. Except investigating the interaction effect between brassinolide and methyl jasmonate, the other experiments were

  1. Comparative fiber property and transcriptome analyses reveal key genes potentially related to high fiber strength in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) line MD52ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Individual fiber strength is an important quality attribute that greatly influences the strength of the yarn spun from cotton fibers. Fiber strength is usually measured from bundles of fibers due to the difficulty of reliably measuring strength from individual cotton fibers. However, bun...

  2. cDNA-AFLP-based genetical genomics in cotton fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Michel; Souquet, Marlène; Jean, Janine; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Lepitre, Vincent; Pré, Martial; Jacobs, John; Llewellyn, Danny; Lacape, Jean-Marc

    2012-03-01

    Genetical genomics, or genetic analysis applied to gene expression data, has not been widely used in plants. We used quantitative cDNA-AFLP to monitor the variation in the expression level of cotton fiber transcripts among a population of inter-specific Gossypium hirsutum × G. barbadense recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Two key fiber developmental stages, elongation (10 days post anthesis, dpa), and secondary cell wall thickening (22 dpa), were studied. Normalized intensity ratios of 3,263 and 1,201 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) segregating over 88 RILs were analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for the 10 and 22 dpa fibers, respectively. Two-thirds of all TDFs mapped between 1 and 6 eQTLs (LOD > 3.5). Chromosome 21 had a higher density of eQTLs than other chromosomes in both data sets and, within chromosomes, hotspots of presumably trans-acting eQTLs were identified. The eQTL hotspots were compared to the location of phenotypic QTLs for fiber characteristics among the RILs, and several cases of co-localization were detected. Quantitative RT-PCR for 15 sequenced TDFs showed that 3 TDFs had at least one eQTL at a similar location to those identified by cDNA-AFLP, while 3 other TDFs mapped an eQTL at a similar location but with opposite additive effect. In conclusion, cDNA-AFLP proved to be a cost-effective and highly transferable platform for genome-wide and population-wide gene expression profiling. Because TDFs are anonymous, further validation and interpretation (in silico analysis, qPCR gene profiling) of the eQTL and eQTL hotspots will be facilitated by the increasing availability of cDNA and genomic sequence resources in cotton.

  3. Copper Alginate-Cotton Cellulose (CACC Fibers with Excellent Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Chand, Ph.D.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes synthesis of copper alginate-cotton cellulose (CACC composite fibers and detailed investigation of antimicrobial action against the model bacteria E.coli. The CACC fibers were prepared by immersing cotton fibers in aqueous solution of sodium alginate, followed by ionic crosslinking of alginate chains within the cotton cellulose fibers with Cu(II ions to yield CACC composite fibers. The resulting CACC fibers were investigated for their biocidal action against E.coli, by using zone inhibition and colonies counting method. Finally, CACC fibers were reduced with sodium borohydride to yield copper nanoparticles- loaded composite fibers and investigated for biocidal action. It was found that CACC fibers possessed both, the fair mechanical strength and antibacterial action. The extent of biocidal action was found to depend upon the amount of Cu(II loaded and concentration of alginate into cotton- cellulose fibers. The fibers showed higher Cu(II release in physiological fluid as compared to distilled water. Copper alginate-cotton cellulose (CACC fibers show fair mechanical strength and release copper ions in the presence of physiological fluid and protein solution. These fibers have great potential to be used as dressing materials.

  4. Spatiotemporal manipulation of auxin biosynthesis in cotton ovule epidermal cells enhances fiber yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Zheng, Xuelian; Song, Shuiqing; Zeng, Qiwei; Hou, Lei; Li, Demou; Zhao, Juan; Wei, Yuan; Li, Xianbi; Luo, Ming; Xiao, Yuehua; Luo, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jinfa; Xiang, Chengbin; Pei, Yan

    2011-05-01

    The capacity of conventional breeding to simultaneously improve the yield and quality of cotton fiber is limited. The accumulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in cotton fiber initials prompted us to investigate the effects of genetically engineering increased IAA levels in the ovule epidermis. Targeted expression of the IAA biosynthetic gene iaaM, driven by the promoter of the petunia MADS box gene Floral Binding protein 7 (FBP7), increased IAA levels in the epidermis of cotton ovules at the fiber initiation stage. This substantially increased the number of lint fibers, an effect that was confirmed in a 4-year field trial. The lint percentage of the transgenic cotton, an important component of fiber yield, was consistently higher in our transgenic plants than in nontransgenic controls, resulting in a >15% increase in lint yield. Fiber fineness was also notably improved.

  5. Spontaneous, uncomplicated dissolution of a large cotton fiber in the laser in situ keratomileusis interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report the spontaneous dissolution of a long cotton thread in the laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK flap interface. In this observational case report, sequential follow-up of a post-LASIK eye with a long cotton fiber noticed in the LASIK interface was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, with no evidence of infection, uveitis, or any other complications. The cotton thread underwent spontaneous dissolution. Conservative management of a cotton fiber, not causing any symptoms and noticed after the immediate postoperative follow-up period is over, seems to be a possible alternative to flap relift and intervention.

  6. Cotton GhACT1 Gene Is Preferentially Expressed in Fiber and Required for Fiber Elongation%棉纤维发育优势表达及伸长必需的基因GhACT1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-bao LI; Lin CAI; Xiao-ping FAN; Ning-hui CHEN; Jian-wei LIU; Wei-cai YANG

    2002-01-01

    @@ Each fiber of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a single epidermal cell that rapidly elongates to 2.5 ~3.0 cm from ovule surface within about 16days after anthesis. A large number of genes are required for fiber differentiation and development, but it is unknown how these genes control and regulate the process of fiber development.

  7. Overexpression of a Potato Sucrose Synthase Gene in Cotton Accelerates Leaf Expansion,Reduces Seed Abortion, and Enhances Fiber Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Min Xu; Elizabeth Brill; Danny J.Llewellyn; Robert T.Furbank; Yong-Ling Ruan

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose and is considered a biochemical marker for sink strength,especially in crop species,based on mutational and gene suppression studies.It remains elusive,however,whether,or to what extent,increase in Sus activity may enhance sink development.We aimed to address this question by expressing a potato Sus gene in cotton where Sus expression has been previously shown to be critical for normal seed and fiber development.Segregation analyses at T1 generation followed by studies in homozygous progeny lines revealed that increased Sus activity in cotton (1) enhanced leaf expansion with the effect evident from young leaves emerging from shoot apex; (2) improved early seed development,which reduced seed abortion,hence enhanced seed set,and (3) promoted fiber elongation.In young leaves of Sus overexpressing lines,fructose concentrations were significantly increased whereas,in elongating fibers,both fructose and glucose levels were increased.Since hexoses contribute little to osmolality in leaves,in contrast to developing fibers,it is concluded that high Sus activity promotes leaf development independently of osmotic regulation,probably through sugar signaling.The analyses also showed that doubling the Sus activity in 0-d cotton seeds increased their fresh weight by about 30%.However,further increase in Sus activity did not lead to any further increase in seed weight,indicating an upper limit for the Sus overexpression effect.Finally,based on the observed additive effect on fiber yield from increased fiber length and seed number,a new strategy is proposed to increase cotton fiber yield by improving seed development as a whole,rather than solely focusing on manipulating fiber growth.

  8. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces.

  9. Nitrogênio e promotor de crescimento: efeitos no crescimento e desenvolvimento do algodão colorido verde Nitrogen and growth promoter: effects on growth and development of green fiber cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. de Lima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, quantificar os efeitos dos fatores adubação nitrogenada e promotor de crescimento aplicado nas sementes sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento do algodão colorido verde. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação pertencente ao Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Algodão (Embrapa-CNPA, onde o promotor de crescimento Stimulate® foi aplicado nas doses de 10 e 17 mL por 0,5 kg de sementes e o N em cobertura nas doses de 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg ha-1. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com nove tratamentos e três repetições em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 + 1. Estimaram-se as variáveis relativas ao crescimento (altura de planta, diâmetro do caule e área foliar e ao desenvolvimento (aparecimento do primeiro botão floral, da primeira flor e abertura do primeiro capulho. Verificou-se que o promotor de crescimento Stimulate® não alterou o crescimento do algodoeiro herbáceo nem interagiu com o N aplicado no meio edáfico. Independentemente do fator dose do promoter de crescimento, o nitrogênio promoveu um decréscimo linear significante na precocidade das plantas e aumentou o crescimento.This research had the objective of quantifying the effects of nitrogen manuring and growth promoter applied in the seeds on growth and development of cotton of green fiber. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions at the National Center of Cotton Research (EMBRAPA-CNPA, where the growth promoter Stimulate® was applied in doses of 10 and 17 mL per 0.5 kg of seeds and the nitrogen topdressing in doses of 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with nine treatments and three replications in a factorial scheme of 4 x 2 + 1. The variables related to growth (plant height, stem diameter and leaf area and to development (emergence of first flower button and of first flower and opening of first cotton boll were analyzed. It was verified that the Stimulate® growth promoter

  10. Within-plant distribution of cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton cultivars with colored fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover within a cotton plant in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus cultivars (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí with colored fiber over the time. Measurements of aphid population dynamics and distribution in the cotton plants were recorded in intervals of seven days. The number of apterous or alate aphids and their specific locations were recorded, using as a reference point the location of nodes on the mainstem of the plant and also those on the leaves present on branches and fruit structures. The number of apterous aphids found on the cultivar BRS Safira (56,515 aphids was greater than that found on BRS Rubí (50,537 aphids. There was no significant difference between the number of alate aphids found on the cultivars BRS Safira (365 aphids/plant and BRS Rubí (477 aphids/plant. There were interactions between cotton cultivar and plant age, between plant region and plant age, and between cultivar and plant region for apterous aphids. The results of this study are of great importance in improving control strategies for A. gossypii in the naturally-colored cotton cultivars BRS Safira and BRS Rubí.Nós descrevemos a distribuição vertical e horizontal do pulgão do algodoeiro Aphis gossypii Glover dentro da planta de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus, em dois cultivares com fibras coloridas (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí ao longo do seu desenvolvimento. Medidas de dinâmicas de populações e distribuição de A. gossypii nas plantas de algodão foram registradas em intervalos de sete dias. O número de afídeos ápteros ou alados e suas localizações específicas foram registrados, usando-se como ponto de referência a localização do nó no caule principal da planta e também aqueles presentes nas folhas de ramos e estruturas frutíferas. O número de afídeos ápteros encontrados na cultivar BRS Safira (56.515 afídeos foi maior do que o encontrado na BRS Rub

  11. Development of Cotton-Based Nonwovens Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article briefly describes the planned or projected developments of cotton-based nonwoven products, using state-of-the art technologies and equipment that now, after the devastating hurricane Katrina, have been made available for research at the Southern Regional Reserach Center. Although we sti...

  12. Ultra-structural Observation on Fiber Cell Development of Xinjiang Early-maturing cotton%新疆特早熟陆地棉纤维细胞发育过程的超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫洪颖; 胡文冉; 范玲

    2009-01-01

    The Ultra-structural developmental process of fiber cell from early maturing cotton (cv. Xinluzao 36) was observed by using transmission electron microscopy. At 10 DPA, when the primary cell wall of cotton fiber was thin and even thickness, and a big vacuole located at the central of fiber cell, there were many organelles, such as mitochondria, ribosomes and Golgi bodies in the cytoplasm. At 20 DPA, a thin layer of the secondary cell wall formed inside the primary cell wall clearly and a part of the organelles disappeared. Subsequently, the secondary cell wall thickened rapidly. The average thickness increased around 0.139 m per day from 30 DPA to 40 DPA and around 0.47 m per day from 40 DPA to 50 DPA. The secondary cell wall gradually thickened and formed daily growth rings. Then the vacuum inside fiber cell became a narrow gap as the fiber maturing. Results showed that the fiber development process of early-maturing cotton was quite similar to other varieties reported, despite flowering and maturing earlier.%利用透射电镜观察新疆特早熟陆地棉新陆早36号纤维发育过程中的超微结构变化.在10 DPA纤维细胞初生壁形成期,液泡占据纤维细胞中央,细胞质中有大量的线粒体、内质网、高尔基体等细胞器,初生壁较薄且厚度均匀;在20 DPA时,纤维在初生壁内已明显有一层薄薄的次生壁的形成,细胞质中细胞器部分解体;随后次生壁增厚速度逐步加快,在30 DPA到40 DPA之间,纤维平均增厚速度约为每天0.139 m,在40 DPA到50 DPA之间,纤维平均增厚速度约为每天0.47 m.纤维细胞次生壁向内层逐步层层加厚,形成"日生长轮".随着纤维细胞的脱水成熟,纤维细胞次生壁增厚使纤维中腔只剩下一条窄缝.观察结果表明,虽然特早熟陆地棉发育进程快,开花早,但纤维细胞的发育进程与所报道的其它棉花品种具有相似性.

  13. The Effect of Calcium on Early Fiber Elongation in Cotton Ovule Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are single-cell trichomes that initiate on the ovule epidermis. Fiber initials accumulate calcium and membranes, including ER. Multiple calcium sensors, and small GTPase proteins that may act in calcium signaling pathways and/or primary cell wall biosynthesis were present in fiber init...

  14. Preparation of Paper Mulberry Fibers and Possibility of Cotton/Paper Mulberry Yarns Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoon Jitjaicham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The novelty of yarn production from cotton/paper mulberry fiber blends was reported. The objective of this research was to prepare the paper mulberry fibers and study the possibility of production of yarns from cotton/paper mulberry fibers. For preparation of paper mulberry fibers, the inner bark was first immersed in water for 24 h. Then, the fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide at concentration of 5–10% (w/v for 1–3 h. After that, the bleaching process was conducted with hydrogen peroxide at concentration of 5–25% (v/v for different temperature and time. Finally, the fibers were washed with 10% (v/v of nonionic surfactant at temperature of 90°C for 30 minute to remove the residual gum from the fibers. The results showed that optimum condition for scouring of the paper mulberry fibers was 15% (w/v sodium hydroxide at 90°C for 2 h. The bleaching process with 15% (v/v H2O2 at 90°C for 90 minute was suitable. The obtained fibers were blended with the cotton fibers to produce yarns by open-end spinning method. The % elongation and tenacity of the blended yarns increased with the increasing of the paper mulberry ratio. Also, the antifungal property of yarns was improved by the blending of cotton fibers with the paper mulberry fibers.

  15. Development and Validation of National Cotton Cultivar Registration lndex Model in Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiyin XU; Jian Ll

    2014-01-01

    Based on the cotton variety high yielding potential, fiber quality traits, disease resistance, and early maturity characters, a cultivar registration index model was developed to simplify the tedious calculation process in national cotton registration procedure, and thus to enhance the practical application of cultivar regis-tration index in cotton breeding and cotton recommending. [Method] By means of correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis and path analysis methods, the cor-relation of cotton main properties and their effects on cultivar registration index were explored using the dataset of national cotton regional trials in Yangtze River Val ey during 1996-2013. The cultivar registration index model was constructed with step-wise regression statistical technique to ascertain the quantitative relationship of main characters with cultivar registration index, and the regional cotton trial dataset in 2013 was used to validate the model. [Result] Several characters with larger deter-minants to cultivar registration index were screened out, i.e. lint yield increase ratio, pro-frost yield ratio, verticil ium wilt index, fiber strength, fusarium wilt index and mi-cronaire value. The cultivar registration index model defined the functional relation-ship of cultivar registration index with the selected main characters, among which lint yield increase ratio, fiber strength and micronaire value contributed most to culti-var registration index. The model validation with regional cotton trials in 2013 indi-cated the root mean square error, RMSE was only 2.77, and the variation coeffi-cient was 6.77%, which confirmed the model prediction effect was quite perfect. [Conclusion] The developed cultivar registration index model was reliable enough to simulate the complicated scoring system in cultivar registration procedure, also sim-plified cotton registration process, and enhanced the practicability of the cultivar reg-istration index.

  16. Effect of Cotton Fibers and Their Trash Characteristics on the Performance of Spinning Preparatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. (Mrs. Tasnim N. Shaikh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological revolution in the age old cotton textile industry has made spinning preparatory section as a control centre for quality and economy of the outgoing product. Spinners have to chase these goals by cleaning the cotton mix without detoriating feed cotton characteristics and undue increase in the waste levels at higher productivity level. The successful efforts demand through investigation of the cotton fibers and their trash characteristics as well as identification of their best fit interrelationship with process parameters. Set of experimentations done in this direction are described in this paper as case study.

  17. An environment-friendly thermal insulation material from cotton stalk fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-yan Zhou; Fei Zheng; Hua-guan Li; Cheng-long Lu [College of Wood Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, No. 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing 210037 (China)

    2010-07-15

    A new environment-friendly thermal insulation material - binderless cotton stalk fiberboard (BCSF) made from cotton stalk fibers with no chemical additives was developed using high frequency hot-pressing. The goal of this paper was to investigate the effect of board density, fiber moisture content (MC) and pressing time on thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of BCSF. The results showed that the board with a density of 150-450 kg/m{sup 3} had the thermal conductivity values ranging from 0.0585 to 0.0815 W/m K, which was close to that of the expanded perlite and vermiculite within the same density range. The thermal conductivity values had a strong linear correlation with the board density. The internal bonding strength (IBS) of boards was good at the relatively low-density level, which can be significantly improved with increasing the fiber MC and prolonging pressing time. The same trend was observed for modulus of rapture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the boards. As an environment-friendly and renewable material, the BCSF is particularly suitable for ceiling and wall applications to save energy. (author)

  18. Examination of cotton fibers and common contaminants using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical imaging of cotton fibers and common contaminants in fibers is presented. Chemical imaging was performed with an infrared microscope equipped with a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In a...

  19. Functional Investigation of a Cotton Fiber HOX Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xue-ying; SHANGGUAN Xiao-xia; WANG Shui; WANG Ling-jian; CHEN Xiao-ya

    2008-01-01

    @@ Most of the plant homeodomain-containing proteins play important roles in regulating cell differentiation and organ development,and Arabidopsis GLABRA2 (GL2),a member of the class IV homeodomain-Leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) proteins,is a trichome and non-root hair cell regulator.We have analyzed several cotton homeodomain-containing proteins that belong to the class IV HD-ZIP family.One of them,GaHOX1,shows a high sequence identity to Arabidopsis GL2 (95% in the homeodomain and 64% overall).

  20. A MAGIC population-based genome-wide association study reveals functional association of GhRBB1_A07 gene with superior fiber quality in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cotton supplies a great majority of natural fiber for the global textile industry. The negative correlation between yield and fiber quality has hindered breeders’ ability to improve these traits simultaneously. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population developed t...

  1. Characterization of developmental immature fiber (im) mutant and Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) cotton fibers by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immature fiber (im) mutant is one type of cotton fiber mutants with unique characteristics of non-fluffy cotton bolls. Compared to its near-isogenic wild type Texas Marker-1 (TM-1), im fiber has thin secondary cell wall and is less mature. In this work, we applied the previously proposed princip...

  2. NOVEL USE OF WASTE KERATIN AND COTTON LINTER FIBERS FOR PROTOTYPE TISSUE PAPERS AND THEIR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Shi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate environmental sustainability calls for sustainable product manufacturing with less creation of waste material or increased reuse of waste materials. One example is the use of keratin fiber from the poultry industry and cotton linter from the textile industry for paper and tissue manufacturing. In this paper, the feasibility of using these waste fibers to make paper was demonstrated in handsheets. The properties of these handsheets were compared to the properties of handsheets made with standard bleached eucalyptus tropical hardwood fibers. A blend of cotton linter and keratin fibers at 80/20 and 60/40 ratios showed a 59% and 73% improvement in sheet bulk, respectively, compared to eucalyptus handsheets. Similarly, air permeability of the cotton / keratin fiber handsheets improved 414% and 336%, respectively, versus the eucalyptus. However, the tensile index of the cotton and keratin fiber blends was lower than the eucalyptus sheets. There was no remarkable difference in water absorbency up to 20% keratin fiber. Above 20% of keratin fibers the water absorbency started to decrease, which is likely attributable to the hydrophobic nature of the protein-based keratin fiber.

  3. Use of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy in non-destructive and rapid assessment of developmental cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The knowledge of chemical and compositional components in cotton fibers is of value to cotton breeders and growers for cotton enhancement and to textile processors for quality control. In this work, we applied the previously proposed simple algorithms to analyze the attenuated total reflection Fouri...

  4. Comparisons of minicard ratings to ion chromatography sugar profiles in cotton fiber water extract and minicard sticky spot material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific levels and ratios of the carbohydrates melezitose and trehalulose deposited on the surface of cotton fibers are indicators of whitefly or aphid contamination. These deposits could cause stickiness problems during cotton ginning and textile processing. The concept of cotton stickiness is hi...

  5. Extraction and Hydrophobic Modification of Cotton Stalk Bark Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton stalk bark fiber (CSBF was extracted at high temperature and under high pressure, under the condition of the alkali content of 11 wt%. Experimental results proved that the extraction yield of CSBF was 27.3 wt%, and the residual alkali concentration was 2.1 wt%. Then five kinds of modifiers including methyl methacrylate (MMA, MMA plus initiator, epoxy propane, copper ethanolamine, and silane coupling agent were chosen to modify the surface of CSBF. It was found by measuring water retention value (WRV that these five kinds of modifiers were all effective and the silane coupling agent was best modifier among all. The optimal modifying conditions of silane coupling agent were obtained: modifier concentration was 5%, the mixing temperature was 20°C, the mixing time was 1 h, and vacuum drying time was 1 h. Under the optimal condition, the WRV of the modified CSBF was 89%. It is expected that these modified CSBF may be a filler with strengthening effect in wood plastic composites (WPC fields.

  6. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehboob-ur- Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin—transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease—thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  7. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mehboob-Ur-; Khan, Ali Q; Rahmat, Zainab; Iqbal, Muhammad A; Zafar, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin-transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease-thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  8. QTL Mapping for Fiber Quality Traits Based on a Dense Genetic Linkage Map with SSR,TRAP,SRAP and AFLP Markers in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most important economic crops in the world,and it provides natural fiber for the textile industry.With the advancement of the textile technology and increased consumption demands on cotton fiber,both cotton yield and quality should be enhanced.However,cotton yield and

  9. Composite Nonwovens Made of Cotton and Other Plant Fibers: Mechanical and Thermal Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite nonwoven samples have been prepared from blends of fibers containing cotton and other fibers, such as bagasse, kenaf or ramie. The nonwoven structure has been stabilized with synthetic or bioderived polymers. Mechanical and thermal characteristics of nonwovens (tensile strength, modulus an...

  10. Comparative properties of cellulose nano-crystals from native and mercerized cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable aqueous suspensions of cellulose nano-crystals (CNCs) were fabricated from both native and mercerized cotton fibers by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, followed by high-pressure homogenization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Wide-angle X-Ray Diffraction data showed that the fibers had b...

  11. Analysis of the Fiber Quality of Upland Cotton in China from 2005 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei-hua; TANG Shu-rong; XU Hong-xia; WANG Yan-qin; ZHOU Da-yun; KUANG Meng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Upper-half-mean length (Len),uniformity index (UI),breaking tenacity (Str),and mieronaire value (Mic) are the key quality parameters of cotton fiber.In this study,182 upland cotton varieties examined and approved by The National or Provincial Committees for the Examination and Approval of Crop from 2005 to 2007 were selected as materials.These varieties were the most popular varieties planted in China.The result indicated that the distribution of fiber length was very limited.The fiber length of 145 varieties was concentrated from 28 mm to 30 mm,which was nearly 80% of the varieties.

  12. The Immature Fiber Mutant Phenotype of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Is Linked to a 22-bp Frame-Shift Deletion in a Mitochondria Targeted Pentatricopeptide Repeat Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Thyssen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotton seed trichomes are the most important source of natural fibers globally. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material, and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process that was previously shown to involve mitochondrial function in allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum. Here, we present the fine genetic mapping of the im locus, gene expression analysis of annotated proteins near the locus, and association analysis of the linked markers. Mapping-by-sequencing identified a 22-bp deletion in a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR gene that is completely linked to the immature fiber phenotype in 2837 F2 plants, and is absent from all 163 cultivated varieties tested, although other closely linked marker polymorphisms are prevalent in the diversity panel. This frame-shift mutation results in a transcript with two long open reading frames: one containing the N-terminal transit peptide that targets mitochondria, the other containing only the RNA-binding PPR domains, suggesting that a functional PPR protein cannot be targeted to mitochondria in the im mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that PPR gene Gh_A03G0489 is involved in the cotton fiber wall thickening process, and is a promising candidate gene at the im locus. Our findings expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that modulate cotton fiber fineness and maturity, and may facilitate the development of cotton varieties with superior fiber attributes.

  13. Genetic analysis of drought tolerance with respect to fiber traits in upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, R A; Khan, I A; Iqbal, M A; Khan, A A

    2016-10-05

    Cotton germplasm was analyzed to investigate its potential for developing water stress tolerance in varieties in the future. Four tolerant (NIAB-78, CIM-482, BH-121, and VH-142) and four susceptible (CIM-446, FH-1000, FH-900, and FH-901) lines were identified of 50 accessions based on their seedling root length. A complete set of diallel crosses among eight selected genotypes was subjected to genetic analysis for fiber property traits. Additive and non-additive genetic variance was involved in the inheritance of fiber strength, fineness, and length under normal and drought conditions. A large proportion of genetic variance was additive, which was further supported by moderately high narrow-sense heritability estimates for the characters. Graphic representation of variance versus covariance also depicted additive gene activity with partial dominance and the absence of non-allelic interactions in trait inheritance. The results of this study suggest that drought tolerance of cotton genotypes can be improved through crosses among tolerant genotypes using conventional selection procedures in segregating generations.

  14. Characterization of in vivo phosphorylation modification of differentially accumulated proteins in cotton fiber-initiation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenying; Zhang, Bing; He, Wenying; Wang, Zi; Li, Guanqiao; Liu, Jinyuan

    2016-08-01

    Initiation of cotton fiber from ovule epidermal cells determines the ultimate number of fibers per cotton ovule, making it one of the restriction factors of cotton fiber yield. Previous comparative proteomics studies have collectively revealed 162 important differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) in cotton fiber-initiation process, however, whether and how post-translational modifications, especially phosphorylation modification, regulate the expression and function of the DAPs are still unclear. Here we reported the successful identification of 17 phosphopeptides from 16 phosphoproteins out of the 162 DAPs using the integrated bioinformatics analyses of peptide mass fingerprinting data and targeted MS/MS identification method. In-depth analyses indicated that 15 of the 17 phosphorylation sites were novel phosphorylation sites first identified in plants, whereas 6 of the 16 phosphoproteins were found to be the phosphorylated isoforms of 6 proteins. The phosphorylation-regulated dynamic protein network derived from this study not only expanded our understanding of the cotton fiber-initiation process, but also provided a valuable resource for future functional studies of the phosphoproteins. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effect of pectin particles and cotton fibers on properties of thermoplastic cassava starch composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutarat Prachayawarakorn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to poor mechanical properties and high water uptake of thermoplastic starch (TPS, this research focused on property improvement of thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS using natural compatible polymers, i.e. pectin particles and cotton fibers. Different TPCS composites, reinforced by the pectin particles and/or the cotton fibers, were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and a compression molding machine, respectively. It was found from infrared (IR spectra that the peak position of O-H stretching of the TPCS polymer clearly shifted to lower wavenumber by the addition of the pectin particles and/or the cotton fibers. Moreover, the significant increase of stress at maximum load and Young’s modulus of the TPCS/pectin particle and the TPCS/cotton fiber composites was observed. The drop of water uptake was also found when the cotton fibers were incorporated into the TPCS matrix with/without pectin particles. In addition, X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis were used to characterize different TPCS composites.

  16. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The superior fiber properties of L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton ( L., but introgression from has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we constructed a linkage map and conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of 10 agronomic and fiber quality traits in a recombinant inbred mapping population derived from a cross between TM-1, an Upland cotton line, and NM24016, an elite line with stabilized introgression from . The linkage map consisted of 429 simple-sequence repeat (SSR and 412 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker loci that covered half of the tetraploid cotton genome. Notably, the 841 marker loci were unevenly distributed among the 26 chromosomes of tetraploid cotton. The 10 traits evaluated on the TM-1 × NM24016 population in a multienvironment trial were highly heritable, and most of the fiber traits showed considerable transgressive variation. Through the QTL analysis, we identified a total of 28 QTLs associated with the 10 traits. Our study provides a novel resource that can be used by breeders and geneticists for the genetic improvement of agronomic and fiber quality traits in Upland cotton.

  17. Construction of Genetic Linkage Map and QTL Mapping for Fiber Quality in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comprehensive genetic linkage map was constructed using 270 F2:7 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between two upland cotton cultivars Yumian 1 and T586.The linkage map comprised of 604 loci and 57 linkage groups ordered into 25 chromosomes,spanning 3106.9 cM,and approximately accounting for the 69.87~ of the whole cotton genome with an average genetic distance of 5.15 cM between two markers.Based on interval mapping,29 QTLs affecting fiber quality were identified,including 5 QTLs for fiber length,7 QTLs for fiber uniformity,10 QTLs for fiber strength,2 QTLs for fiber elongation,and 5 QTLs for fiber fineness.Seventeen QTLs were mapped on A sub-genome chromosomes,and 12 on D sub-genome.

  18. China Project "973"-Molecular Improvement of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-xun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the main cash crop in China,and plays a very important and irreplaceable role in the national economy.With only 3% of total crop plant area,China accounts for over 10% of the output of the cotton industry.

  19. Cotton GhPOX1 encoding plant class III peroxidase may be responsible for the high level of reactive oxygen species production that is related to cotton fiber elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wenqian; Qin, Yongmei; Song, Wenqiang; Li, Jun; Zhu, Yuxian

    2009-03-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in plant cell development. In plant, class III peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes encoded by a large multi-gene family participated in the release or consumption of ROS. The specific function of each member of the family is still elusive. Here, we showed that ROS was significantly generated during cotton fiber initiation and elongation, whereas, application of NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and peroxidase inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the wild-type cotton ovule culture significantly suppressed fiber growth, respectively. Their inhibitory effects were caused by the reduction of superoxide radical (O(2)(-)). Ten GhPOX genes (cDNAs) encoding cotton class III peroxidases were isolated, among them eight GhPOX genes were reported for the first time. Microarray analyses indicated that GhPOX1 was the mostly predominantly expressed in fast-elongating cotton fiber cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed the transcript level of GhPOX1 was over 400-fold higher in growing fiber cells than in ovules, flowers, roots, stems and leaves. To reveal the role of GhPOX1 in plant development, its Arabidopsis orthologue atpox13 mutant was demonstrated to be defective in branch root development. Taken together, the data suggest that GhPOX1 plays an important role during fiber cell elongation possibly by mediating production of reactive oxygen species.

  20. QTL Mapping for Fiber Quality Traits Based on a Dense Genetic Linkage Map with SSR,TRAP,SRAP and AFLP Markers in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ji-wen; YU Shu-xun; ZHANG Jin-fa; ZHAI Hong-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is one of the most important economic crops in the world,and it provides natural fiber for the textile industry.With the advancement of the textile technology and increased consumption demands on cotton fiber,both cotton yield and quality should be enhanced.However,cotton yield and fiber quality are complex quantitative traits and are usually negatively associated that hampers the simultaneous improvement of lint yield and fiber quality by traditional breeding.

  1. A MAGIC population-based genome-wide association study reveals functional association of GhRBB1_A07 gene with superior fiber quality in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Sariful; Thyssen, Gregory N; Jenkins, Johnie N; Zeng, Linghe; Delhom, Christopher D; McCarty, Jack C; Deng, Dewayne D; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Jones, Don C; Fang, David D

    2016-11-09

    Cotton supplies a great majority of natural fiber for the global textile industry. The negative correlation between yield and fiber quality has hindered breeders' ability to improve these traits simultaneously. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population developed through random-mating of multiple diverse parents has the ability to break this negative correlation. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a method that can rapidly identify and genotype a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping a MAGIC population using GBS technologies will enable us to identify marker-trait associations with high resolution. An Upland cotton MAGIC population was developed through random-mating of 11 diverse cultivars for five generations. In this study, fiber quality data obtained from four environments and 6071 SNP markers generated via GBS and 223 microsatellite markers of 547 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the MAGIC population were used to conduct a genome wide association study (GWAS). By employing a mixed linear model, GWAS enabled us to identify markers significantly associated with fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL). We identified and validated one QTL cluster associated with four fiber quality traits [short fiber content (SFC), strength (STR), length (UHM) and uniformity (UI)] on chromosome A07. We further identified candidate genes related to fiber quality attributes in this region. Gene expression and amino acid substitution analysis suggested that a regeneration of bulb biogenesis 1 (GhRBB1_A07) gene is a candidate for superior fiber quality in Upland cotton. The DNA marker CFBid0004 designed from an 18 bp deletion in the coding sequence of GhRBB1_A07 in Acala Ultima is associated with the improved fiber quality in the MAGIC RILs and 105 additional commercial Upland cotton cultivars. Using GBS and a MAGIC population enabled more precise fiber QTL mapping in Upland cotton. The fiber QTL and associated markers identified in

  2. Isolation of a cotton CAP gene: a homologue of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein highly expressed during fiber elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, M; Aotsuka, S; Uchimiya, H

    1998-12-01

    The cDNA encoding CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA (GhCAP) contained an open reading frame that encoded 471 amino acid residues. RNA blot analysis showed that the cotton CAP gene was expressed mainly in young fibers.

  3. Metabolomic and transcriptomic insights into how cotton fiber transitions to secondary wall sythesis, represses lignification, and prolongs elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber morphogenesis reflects extreme elongation and staged cell wall differentiation in an easily isolated single cell. Uncovering the cellular control mechanisms can lead to strategies for producing improved cotton fiber for textiles and other uses. To identify potential controls of the high...

  4. Development of Plain Fabrics Spun by BlendedYarn of Color Cotton/ Lyocell/Ramie/Spun Silk Fiber%彩棉/Lyocell/苎麻/绢丝混纺纱平纹织物的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟

    2012-01-01

      本文通过彩棉、苎麻、Lyocell、绢丝混纺纱线的合理组合,探索出了最优的配棉工艺,纺出了9.8  tex的高档高支纱,其织成的面料经过酶处理,免烫整理,可作高档衬衫面料.%  This paper searched the optimal cotton distribution technology for high-grade blended yarn of 9.8 tex by reasonable combination of cotton, ramie, lyocell and silk fiber. The fabric woven with this blended yarn could be used as high-quality shirt fabrics after the enzyme and non-iron finishing treatment.

  5. Chemical-free Extraction of Cotton Stalk Bark Fibers by Steam Flash Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuliang Hou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cotton stalk bark fibers (CSBF were extracted by steam flash explosion, completed within 0.09 s, and the extracted fibers were compared with those obtained by conventional alkaline treatment. Results indicate that the optimum steam pressure was 2.5 MPa when steaming time was set to 2 min for extracting CSBF. Under the optimized conditions, the obtained CSBF had a cellulose content of 72%, length of 48 mm, fineness of 45 dtex, crystallinity index of 68, moisture regain of 8%, water retention of 98%, and tensile strength of 2.4 cN/dtex, which were similar to results obtained by conventional alkaline treatment. Compared with bark of cotton stalks, CSBF had lower moisture regain and water retention, and higher onset decomposition temperature. The results show that moderate steam flash explosion is a chemical-free, quick, and effective method for exploring the industrial applications of bark of cotton stalks as natural cellulose fibers.

  6. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  7. Correlations and path analysis in components of fiber yield in cultivars of upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíse Ferreira de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relative contribution of agronomic and technological components on the fiber yield in upland cotton cultivars. The experiment was carried out with 11 upland cotton cultivars in a completely randomized blocks design with three replications. Initially, we performed analysis of variance, with the F test at 5% probability for the effect of cultivar as fixed effects as well as block and environment effects as random. Then the values were ordered according to cluster test Scott-Knott, at 5% probability level. The significance of the null hypothesis that all possible canonical correlations are null was evaluated using the chi-square test. The correlations were estimated through the path analysis. By examining the canonical correlations there was dependence between the two groups of variables and therefore it is possible to promote changes in certain characteristics through the selection of others correlated. Plants of upland cotton with higher fiber yield were influenced by the decrease in average weight of the cotton boll. When there is a reduced fiber yield, there is also an increase in uniformity and strength thereof. The fiber resistance had negative indirect effects on the fiber uniformity and length.

  8. A prerequisite for the effective transfer of the shape-memory effect to cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, H.; Yeung, L. Y.; Hu, J. L.

    2007-06-01

    Subtle interaction between shape-memory polymer and cellulose fibers within fabrics remains a critical issue for understanding their thermal-mechanical properties and thus the shape-memory behavior in cotton fibers. We demonstrate here the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy to probe the induced stresses in warp and weft fibers, presenting physicochemical features for cellulose fibers finished with macromolecule polyurethane and small-molecule dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. Accordingly, a possible mechanism for transfer of the shape-memory effect to fabrics is proposed. Forming as a coating on the fiber surface after the finishing process, the shape-memory polymer takes a critical role in reducing the residual stress in weft fibers, establishing the prerequisite for reserving the shape-memory effect to fabric. In addition, this work has demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is able to probe the residual stresses in cotton fabrics after being treated by chemicals in addition to that due to physical deformation. Our result provides clear evidence that in the finishing process strength reduction in fibers in general is not only caused solely by a chemical reaction, but also by a physical modification of the cotton structure.

  9. Biotechnological applications of pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2012-01-01

    This work represents a review of applications of alkaline pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, the nature of pectin and pectic supstances, and production of alkaline pectinases from various microorganisms. Over the years alkaline pectinases have been used in several industrial processes, such as textile and plant fiber processing, paper and pulp industry, oil extraction, coffee and tea fermentations,poultry feed and treatment of industrial wastewater containing p...

  10. Harvester-based sensing system for cotton fiber-quality mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture in cotton production attempts to maximize profitability by exploiting information on field spatial variability to optimize the fiber yield and quality. For precision agriculture to be economically viable, collection of spatial variability data within a field must be automated a...

  11. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

  12. Preparation and characterization of regenerated cellulose membranes from natural cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan CAO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of organic solutions with different cellulose concentrations are prepared by dissolving natural cotton fibers in lithium chloride/dimethyl acetamide (LiCl/DMAC solvent system after the activation of cotton fibers. Under different coagulating bath, the regenerated cellulose membranes are formed in two kinds of coagulation baths, and two coating methods including high-speed spin technique (KW-4A spin coating machine and low-speed scraping (AFA-Ⅱ Film Applicator are selected in this paper. The macromolecular structure, mechanical properties, crystallinity, thermal stability and wetting property of the regenerated cellulose membrane are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR,X-ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TG and contacting angle tester. The effects of mass fraction, coagulation bath type, membrane forming process on the regenerated membrane properties are investigated. Experimental results show that the performance of regenerated cellulose membrane is relatively excellent under the condition of using the KW-4A high-speed spin method, water coagulation bath, and when mass fraction of cellulose is 3.5%. The crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose membrane changes a lot compared with natural cotton fibers. The variation trend of thermal stability is similar with that of cotton fiber. But thermal stability is reduced to some degree, while the wetting ability is improved obviously.

  13. Isolation and Analysis of Expansins from the Gossypium barbadense Cotton Elongating Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Li-li; DENG Feng-lin; TAN Jia-fu; LI Yang; ZHANG Xian-long

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gossypium barbadense L.is one of the most valuable cotton species due to its silkiness,luster,long staple,and high strength.Transferring the excellent fiber traits from G.barbadense as the secondary gene pool to the widely cultivated G.hirsutum via traditional and molecular-aided selection is an attractive aim of breeders.

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy in the assessment of cotton fiber qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber is one of the most important agricultural commodities in the world. Its production and profitability are determined by at least three main factors including genotype, environment, and production practices that interact to one another and ultimately affects the yield and quality of cotto...

  15. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun

    2004-01-01

    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  16. Modified fiber qualities of the transgenic cotton expressing a silkworm fibroin gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI FeiFei; WU ShenJie; L(U) FenNi; CHEN TianZi; JU Ming; WANG HaiHai; JIANG YanJie; ZHANG Jie; GUO WangZhen; ZHANG TianZhen

    2009-01-01

    A silkworm gene for fibroin was introduced into the upland cotton WC line by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR detection for fibroin, nptll and gus genes, Kanamycin (Km)-resistance analysis and GUS-histochemical assay were conducted on 30 regenerated plants from 9 callus lines, and 17 positive plants were obtained by these 5 screening methods. By Km-resistance analysis and PCR for fibroin, 6 homozygous lines in T3 were obtained. Southern blot and Northern bolt demonstrated that the fibroin gene was inserted into the genome of these 6 lines, stably inherited and expressed. Compared to the control, the surface structure of mature fiber in the 6 lines was significantly distorted and an increased number of convolution was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fiber quality traits analysis indicated that fiber elongation of the 6 homozygous lines was all increased and fiber strength of 3 lines was enhanced. These results indicated that fibroin expression influenced cotton fiber structure and quality, suggesting that fibroin has great potential for improving cotton fiber quality by genetic engineering.

  17. Modeling Fiber Fineness, Maturity, and Micronaire in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-qing; ZHOU Zhi-guo; MENG Ya-li; CHEN Bing-lin; WANG You-hua

    2013-01-01

    Crop performance is determined by the combined effects of the genotype of the crop and the environmental conditions of the production system. This study was undertaken to develop a dynamic model for simulating environmental (temperature and solar radiation) and N supply effects on fiber fineness, maturity and micronaire. Three different experiments involving genotypes, sowing dates, and N fertilization rates were conducted to support model development and model evaluation. The growth and development duration of fiber fineness, maturity, and micronaire were scaled by using physiological development time of secondary wall synthesis (PDTSWSP), which was determined based on the constant ratio of SWSP/BMP. PTP (product of relative thermal effectiveness (RTE) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), MJ m-2) and subtending leaf N content per unit area (NA, g m-2) and critical subtending leaf N content per unit area (CNA, g m-2) of cotton boll were calculated or simulated to evaluate effects of temperature and radiation, and N supply. Besides, the interactions among temperature, radiation and N supply were also explained by piecewise function. The overall performance of the model was calibrated and validated with independent data sets from three field experiments with two sowing dates, three or five flowering dates and three or four N fertilization rates for three subsequent years (2005, 2007, and 2009) at three ecological locations. The average RMSE and RE for fiber fineness, maturity, and micronaire predictions were 372 m g-1 and 5.0%, 0.11 m g-1 and 11.4%, 0.3 m g-1 and 12.3%, respectively, indicating a good fit between the simulated and observed data. It appears that the model can give a reliable prediction for fiber fineness, maturity and micronaire formation under various growing conditions.

  18. GhDET2,a Steroid 5alpha-reductase,Plays an Important Role in Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation and Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.

  19. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  20. Utility assessment of published microsatellite markers for fiber length and bundle strength QTL in a cotton breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) may help mitigate some of the current challenges regarding the genetic improvement of cotton fiber quality, such as low genetic diversity and the negative association between fiber quality and lint yield. A multitude of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber length a...

  1. Genetic Effect on Yield and Fiber Quality Traits of 16 Chromosome Substitution Lines in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Ming-bao; GUO Xiang-mo; ZHANG Yongshan; YAO Jin-bo

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the genetic effect on yield and fiber quality can provide useful information on cotton breeding. Sixteen CSB lines and TM-1 introduced from USDA/ARS were used as male and top-crossed with three elite cultivars and the 51 F1 hybrids, 16 CSB lines, TM-1, and 3 elite cultivars were planted at the Cotton Research Institute of CAAS, Anyang, Henan Province and Xiajin, shandong Province, China. The yield traits and fiber quality data were obtained and additive and dominance effect on each trait were measured by AD model. Boll weight takes the largest additive proration, whereas boll number takes the least additive proration. The largest and the least dominant proration for lint yield and boll weight were measured, respectively. Fiber length has the additive and dominance effect, and dominance effect was slightly more than additive effect. Larger additive and no dominance effect on uniformity, micronaire, and fiber strength were measured. Significantly, positive additive effect on boll weight of CSB06 and CSB12Sh was observed. CSBI4Sh and CSB01 have significantly positive additive effect on 4 and 3 traits of fiber quality, respectively. CSB01 has the greatest dominant effect on lint yield among CSB lines. The dominant effect on fiber length of CSB lines showed positive. It is beneficial to use CSB06 and CSB12Sh as parents to improve boll size, to use CSB14Sh and CSB01 as parents to improve fiber quality. As for hybrid cotton breeding, it is reasonable using CSB01 to improve lint yield traits, and using CSB01, CSB11Sh, and CSB06 to improve fiber length.

  2. Low-level hydrogen peroxide generation by unbleached cotton nonwovens: implications for wound healing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greige cotton is an intact plant fiber. The cuticle and primary cell wall near the outer surface of the cotton fiber contains pectin, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and trace metals, which are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation during cotton fiber development. The compon...

  3. 我国主产棉区棉花纤维品质性状的区域分布特征%Regional distribution characteristics of cotton fiber quality in main cotton production areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许乃银; 李健

    2016-01-01

    corresponding subregions in China. The evaluation of cotton fiber quality characteristics in each cotton production region is obviously benefical for understanding current developing conditions of cotton fiber quality. This can contribute to the intensification of superior cotton production areas and the development of cotton production areas with special fiber qualtiy characteristics. The GGE biplot experimental design was used to explore the interaction pattern between subregional environments of cotton and cotton fiber quality traits in three main cotton production areas (Changjiang River Valley, Huanghe River Valley and Northwest Inland) and their subregions. Data for the study were collected from the national cotton regional trials during the period 2011–2015. The results indicated that: 1) at main cotton production area scale, fiber length and strength in Changjiang River Valley (CRV) performed the best in the three main cotton production areas. Although all of these areas reached the Class II level of national cotton variety registration standard, there were medium performances for micronaire value and spinning consistency index. Fiber length and strength for the Huanghe River Valley (HRV) were better, while micronaire value was higher than desirable. On the other hand, micronaire value and spinning consistency index were best for the Northwest Inland cotton production area. Both fiber length and micronaire value reached Class II level of national cotton variety registration standard, although fiber strength was the lowest in the three main cotton production areas. 2) For subregions within three main cotton production areas, fiber length was the highest in the lower and upper reaches of CRV, slightly poor in the Loess Plateau region and relatively good in other subregions. Strength performed well in the middle and lower reaches of CRV, Huaibei Plain, Nanxiang Basin and the Loess Plateau. It was relatively poor in the upper reaches of CRV and the Northwest Inland

  4. A knittable fiber-shaped supercapacitor based on natural cotton thread for wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianlong; Jia, Chunyang; Ye, Xingke; Tang, Zhonghua; Wan, Zhongquan

    2016-09-01

    At present, the topic of building high-performance, miniaturized and mechanically flexible energy storage modules which can be directly integrated into textile based wearable electronics is a hotspot in the wearable technology field. In this paper, we reported a highly flexible fiber-shaped electrode fabricated through a one-step convenient hydrothermal process. The prepared graphene hydrogels/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-cotton thread derived from natural cotton thread is electrochemically active and mechanically strong. Fiber-shaped supercapacitor based on the prepared fiber electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol-H3PO4 gel electrolyte exhibits good capacitive performance (97.73 μF cm-1 at scan rate of 2 mV s-1), long cycle life (95.51% capacitance retention after 8000 charge-discharge cycles) and considerable stability (90.75% capacitance retention after 500 continuous bending cycles). Due to its good mechanical and electrochemical properties, the graphene hydrogels/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-cotton thread based all-solid fiber-shaped supercapacitor can be directly knitted into fabrics and maintain its original capacitive performance. Such a low-cost textile thread based versatile energy storage device may hold great potential for future wearable electronics applications.

  5. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing cotton cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a by product of higher value cotton fibre, cotton seed has been increasingly recognised to have excellent potential as a source of additional food, feed, biofuel stock and even a renewable platform for the production of many diverse biological molecules for agriculture and industrial enterprises. The large size difference between cotyledon and embryo axis that make up a cotton seed results in the under-representation of embryo axis gene transcript levels in whole seed embryo samples. Therefore, the determination of gene transcript levels in the cotyledons and embryo axes separately should lead to a better understanding of metabolism in these two developmentally diverse tissues. RESULTS: A comparative study of transcriptome changes between cotton developing cotyledon and embryo axis has been carried out. 17,384 unigenes (20.74% of all the unigenes were differentially expressed in the two adjacent embryo tissues, and among them, 7,727 unigenes (44.45% were down-regulated and 9,657 unigenes (55.55% were up-regulated in cotyledon. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has provided a comprehensive dataset that documents the dynamics of the transcriptome at the mid-maturity of cotton seed development and in discrete seed tissues, including embryo axis and cotyledon tissues. The results showed that cotton seed is subject to many transcriptome variations in these two tissue types and the differential gene expression between cotton embryo axis and cotyledon uncovered in our study should provide an important starting point for understanding how gene activity is coordinated during seed development to make a seed. Further, the identification of genes involved in rapid metabolite accumulation stage of seed development will extend our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in these developmental processes and provide a foundation for future studies on the metabolism, embryo differentiation of cotton and other dicot oilseed crops.

  6. Mapping by sequencing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) line MD52ne identified candidate genes for fiber strength and its related quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber strength, length, maturity and fineness determine the market value of cotton fibers and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton fiber strength has been recognized as a critical quality attribute in the modern textile industry. Fine mapping along with quantitative trait loci (QTL) validation and candi...

  7. Molecular and Biochemical Evidence for Phenylpropanoid Synthesis and Presence of Wall-linked Phenolics in Cotton Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fan; Wei-Jun Shi; Wen-Ran Hu; Xiao-Yan Hao; Dong-Mei Wang; Hui Yuan; Hong-Ying Yan

    2009-01-01

    The mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber is a single cell with a typically thickened secondary cell wall. The aim of this research was to use molecular, spectroscopic and chemical techniques to investigate the possible occurrence of previously overlooked accumulation of phenolics during secondary cell wall formation in cotton fibers. Relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that GhCAD6 and GhCAD1 were predominantly expressed among seven gene homologs, only GhCAD6 was up-regulated during secondary wall formation in cotton fibers. Phylogenic analysis revealed that GhCAD6 belonged to Class I and was proposed to have a major role in monolignol biosynthesis, and GhCADI belonged to Class III and was proposed to have a compensatory mechanism for monolignol biosynthesis. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that the cofactor binding sites of GhCADs were highly conserved with high similarity and identity to bona fide cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases. The substrate binding site of GhCADI is different from GhCAD6. This difference was confirmed by the different catalytic activities observed with the enzymes. Cell wall auto-fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and chemical analyses confirmed that phenolic compounds were bound to the cell walls of mature cotton fibers. Our findings may suggest a potential for genetic manipulation of cotton fiber properties, which are of central importance to agricultural, cotton processing and textile industries.

  8. Preparations of meiotic pachytene chromosomes and extended DNA fibers from cotton suitable for fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhai Peng

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH

  9. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  10. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  11. Removal and recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solution using chitosan-coated cotton fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Rongjun; Sun, Changmei; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Chunnuan; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Chunhua; Chen, Hou

    2009-08-15

    Two types of chitosan-coated cotton fibers (SCCH and RCCH) were applied to remove and recover Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the two fibers for Hg(II) were investigated at different temperatures. The results revealed that the adsorption kinetic processes of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) followed the pseudo second-order model at lower temperatures and the pseudo first-order model at higher temperatures. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the adsorption isotherms of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) in the temperature range studied. SCCH and RCCH fibers selectively adsorbed Hg(II) from binary ion systems in the presence of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Ag(I). Increased temperature was beneficial to adsorption. The recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was also studied as a function of sample flow rate and volume, concentration and volume of eluent, elution rate, quantity of adsorbents added and concomitant ions. The results showed that the two fibers efficiently enriched and recovered Hg(II) in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals and some heavy metals under optimum conditions. The RCCH fiber exhibited better stability than the SCCH fiber following repeated use.

  12. High photocatalytic activity of immobilized TiO{sub 2} nanorods on carbonized cotton fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin, E-mail: bwang23@cityu.edu.hk [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Karthikeyan, Rengasamy; Lu, Xiao-Ying [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Xuan, Jin [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State-Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Leung, Michael K.H., E-mail: mkh.leung@cityu.edu.hk [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Hollow carbon fibers derived from natural cotton was successfully prepared by pyrolysis method. • TiO{sub 2} nanorods immobilized on carbon fibers by a facile hydrothermal method showed high photocatalytic activity. • The enhancement was due to the reduced band gap, improved dye adsorption capacity and effective electron–hole separation. -- Abstract: In this study, TiO{sub 2} nanorods were successfully immobilized on carbon fibers by a facile pyrolysis of natural cotton in nitrogen atmosphere followed by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Carbonized cotton fibers (CCFs) and TiO{sub 2}-CCFs composites were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results implied that the band gap narrowing of TiO{sub 2} was achieved after integration of CCFs. Dye adsorption isotherm indicated that the maximum dye adsorption capacity (q{sub m}) of CCFs-1000 (13.4 mg/g) was 2 times higher than that of cotton fibers and q{sub m} of TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 (9.0 mg/g) was 6–7 times higher than that of TiO{sub 2} nanorods. Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanorods prepared with 3 mL Ti(OBu){sub 4} showed the highest photocatalytic activity. TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 exhibited higher activity than TiO{sub 2} immobilized on CCFs-400, CCFs-600 and CCFs-800. Good photostability of TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 was found for dye degradation under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic dye degradation was due to the high adsorptivity of dye molecules, enhanced light adsorption and effective separation of electron–hole pairs. This work provides a low-cost and sustainable approach to immobilize nanostructured TiO{sub 2} on carbon fibers for environmental remediation.

  13. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jieying Zheng,; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang, E-mail: zhengfangye@163.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Cotton woven waste can be recycled as precursor to produce activated carbon fiber. • The optimum carbonization and activation temperature are 700 °C and 800 °C. • The prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the surface area of 789 m{sup 2}/g. • The prepared ACF can be used to remove over 80% of COD from oilfield wastewater. - Abstract: In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m{sup 2}/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C.

  14. Fiber biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  15. Transgenic cotton: from biotransformation methods to agricultural application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic plants commercially adopted around the world. Since it was first introduced into the field in the middle of 1990s, transgenic cotton has been quickly adopted by cotton farmers in many developed and developing countries. Transgenic cotton has offered many important environmental, social, and economic benefits, including reduced usage of pesticides, indirect increase of yield, minimizing environmental pollution, and reducing labor and cost. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is the major method for obtaining transgenic cotton. However, pollen tube pathway-mediated method is also used, particularly by scientists in China, to breed commercial transgenic cotton. Although transgenic cotton plants with disease-resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and improved fiber quality have been developed in the past decades, insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant cotton are the two dominant transgenic cottons in the transgenic cotton market.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF RIPPLE OF POLYACRYLONITRILIC FIBERS COTTON TYPE ON YARN PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTIAN Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed the influence of the number of undulations of polyacrylonitrile fibers, cotton type, on the properties of yarns with Nm50/1 fineness, made on BD 200 the rotor spinning machine. Rotor spinning of the synthetic fibers is largely influenced by some characteristics of the fibers as being: the quality and quantity of the avivage, frequency of undulations and the number of defects fiber. Tensile properties and structural characteristics aspect of the yarns carried on BD 200 rotor spinning machine are determined, at the fiber content, the structural model and the technological parameters of processing, by the result of the transfer of fibers proprieties, into the meaning fiber-yarn. The yarns structural compactness, determined by the degree of twisting and tensional properties are defining for the quality of yarns and warrants the corresponding to their destination. Structural characteristics of the yarns which are characterized by complexity and diversity of their actions were studied by determining the linear irregularity (U% , standard deviation (CV% and the imperfections in the form of thinning (S, thickening (G, neppines (N, relative to 1000 m yarn.

  17. Cotton-based nonwovens and their potential scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the overall use of cotton fiber in modern nonwovens has been limited, certain recent commercial and research developments make the use of cotton and its derivatives more attractive in nonwovens. The commercial developments include the availability of pre-cleaned greige cotton, purified (ble...

  18. Influence of Anthesis Date and Boll Branch Position on Qualities and Super-molecular Structure of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Shi-hua; SHI Pei; SUN Xue-zhen; ZHOU Zhi-guo; BIAN Dong-cai

    2002-01-01

    The influences of the anthesis date and the fruiting branch positions on parameters of cotton fiber quality and super-molecular structure were studied. Fiber quality parameters, such as cotton fiber length, micronair, maturity and fiber strength deteriorated with postponing the anthesis date and decreasing temperature. When anthesis happened on the same date, the fruiting branch positions affected the fiber quality parameters, and the fiber quality parameters of the lower portion turned out to be higher than that of the upper portion, although the difference was insignificant. The super-molecular structure of the lower portion turned out to be superior to that of the upper portion at the early anthesis date and high temperature, which is in accordance with what was mentioned above, but the fruiting branch positions did not affect the impact of the anthesis date on the super-molecular structure.

  19. Influence of Tencel/cotton blends on knitted fabric performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Arafa Badr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements in terms of wearing comfort with sportswear, underwear and outerwear are widely linked to the use of new fibers. Today, Tencel fiber is one of the most important developments in regenerated cellulosic fiber. However, the relation between Tencel fiber properties and fabric characteristics has not been enough studied in the literature especially the influence of fiber materials on mechanical, Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF and absorption properties. Therefore, in this study, knitted fabric samples were manufactured with eight different yarns with two fabric types (single jersey and single jersey with Lycra. 30/1-Ne yarns from natural and regenerated cellulosic fibers: 50% Tencel-LF/50% cotton, 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton, 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton, 70% bamboo/30% cotton, 100% bamboo, 100% Modal, 100% Micro-Modal and 100% cotton were employed. Then, all the produced fabrics were subjected to five cycles laundering and then flat dried. The results show that 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton has more flexural rigidity and withdrawing handle force than 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton fabric, while 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton has a merit of durability during bursting test. Blending Egyptian cotton fibers with bamboo and Tencel as in 70/30% bamboo/cotton and 50/50% Tencel-LF/cotton improve UPF of the produced fabric.

  20. Small RNA regulation of ovule development in the cotton plant, G. hirsutum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavlonov Gafurjon T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The involvement of small RNAs in cotton fiber development is under explored. The objective of this work was to directly clone, annotate, and analyze small RNAs of developing ovules to reveal the candidate small interfering RNA/microRNAs involved in cotton ovule and fiber development. Results We cloned small RNA sequences from 0–10 days post anthesis (DPA developing cotton ovules. A total of 6691 individual colonies were sequenced from 11 ovule small RNA libraries that yielded 2482 candidate small RNAs with a total of 583 unique sequence signatures. The majority (362, 62.1% of these 583 sequences were 24 nt long with an additional 145 sequences (24.9% in the 21 nt to 23 nt size range. Among all small RNA sequence signatures only three mirBase-confirmed plant microRNAs (miR172, miR390 and ath-miR853-like were identified and only two miRNA-containing clones were recovered beyond 4 DPA. Further, among all of the small RNA sequences obtained from the small RNA pools in developing ovules, only 15 groups of sequences were observed in more than one DPA period. Of these, only five were present in more than two DPA periods. Two of these were miR-172 and miR-390 and a third was identified as 5.8S rRNA sequence. Thus, the vast majority of sequence signatures were expressed in only one DPA period and this included nearly all of the 24 nt sequences. Finally, we observed a distinct DPA-specific expression pattern among our clones based upon sequence abundance. Sequences occurring only once were far more likely to be seen in the 0 to 2 DPA periods while those occurring five or more times were the majority in later periods. Conclusion This initial survey of small RNA sequences present in developing ovules in cotton indicates that fiber development is under complex small RNA regulation. Taken together, the results of this initial small RNA screen of developing cotton ovules is most consistent with a model, proposed by Baulcombe, that there

  1. Preliminary Examinations for the Identification of U.S. Domestic and International Cotton Fibers by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanel Fortier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick, reliable method to classify U.S. from foreign cottons so that the appropriate tariffs can be levied for non-American cottons. In addition, there is some interest in avoiding cotton identity theft. Thus, an accurate and precise instrumental method would be of interest to correctly identify the country of origin of cotton. This study provides an analytical method to identify domestic and foreign cotton fibers using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA. Samples from American cottons were evaluated along with a representative amount of international samples. The results provide a proof of concept that indicates that PCA analysis can be used to separate the respective domestic and foreign cotton groups.

  2. GhDET2,a Steroid 5alpha-reductase,Plays an Important Role in Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation and Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming; XIAO Yue-hua; LI Xian-bi; LI De-mou; HOU Lei; HU Ming-yu; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.Brassinosteroids (BRs),a class of steroidal phytohormone,play an important role in plant cell division and elongation.

  3. 进口印度棉与美棉纤维品质的对比分析%Contrast and Analyses of Indian Cotton and American Cotton Fiber Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宁; 耿向阳; 曲京武; 王铭; 董俊哲

    2013-01-01

    Fiber quality of Indian cotton and American cotton was discussed. Six fiber quality indexes of the two kinds fiber were contrasted and analyzed, including upper half mean length, fiber uniformity index, micronaire, reflectivity, breaking tenacity and spinning consistency index. The result shows that length and breaking tenacity of Indian cotton are better than American cotton. Fiber uniformity index of the two kinds fiber is upper-middle. A grade and B grade of American cotton micronaire is higher than Indian cotton in total proportion. In reflectivity, the American cotton is the same, the distribution of Indian cotton is wider. In spinning consistency index, the Indian cotton is wider and higher than American cotton,so Indian cotton is more suitable to textile industry needs.%探讨进口印度棉与美棉的纤维品质.通过对比分析进口印度棉和美棉的上半部平均长度、纤维整齐度指数、马克隆值、反射率、断裂比强度、纺纱均匀指数等6项纤维品质指标,结果表明:印度棉的长度和断裂比强度要远好于美棉;印度棉和美棉的纤维整齐度指数均属于中等偏上;美棉马克隆值A、B两级总比例高于印度棉;反射率方面,美棉较一致,印度棉分布范围较广;印度棉的纺纱均匀指数较美棉分布广而且高,更能满足纺织业对棉花品质多层次的用棉需求.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of an Allene Oxide Cyclase Gene Associated with Fiber Strength in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-man; ZHU You-min; TONG Xiang-chao; HU Wen-jing; CAI Cai-ping; GUO Wang-zhen

    2014-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase (AOC) is one of the most important enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA). AOC catalyzes the conversion of allene oxide into 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a precursor of JA. Using 28K cotton genome array hybridization, an expressed sequence tag (EST;GenBank accession no. ES792958) was investigated that exhibited signiifcant expression differences between lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM isogenic lines during ifber initiation stages. The EST was used to search the Gossypium EST database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) for corresponding cDNA sequences encoding full-length open reading frames (ORFs). Identiifed ORFs were conifrmed using transcriptional and genomic data. As a result, a novel gene encoding AOC in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum AOC;GenBank accession no. KF383427) was cloned and characterized. The 741-bp GhAOC gene comprises three exons and two introns and encodes a polypeptide of 246 amino acids. Two homologous copies were identiifed in the tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, and one copy in the diploid cotton species G. herbaceum and G. raimondii. qRT-PCR showed that the GhAOC transcript was abundant in cotton ifber tissues from 8 to 23 days post anthesis (DPA), and the expression proifles were similar in the two cultivated tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, with a higher level of transcription in the former. One copy of GhAOC in tetraploid cotton was localized to chromosome 24 (Chr. D8) using the subgenome-speciifc single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker analysis, which co-localized GhAOC to within 10 cM of a ifber strength quantitative trait locus (QTL) reported previously. GhAOC was highly correlated with ifber quality and strength (P=0.014) in an association analysis, suggesting a possible role in cotton ifber development, especially in secondary cell wall thickening.

  5. Biodegradable Poly(butylene succinate Composites Reinforced by Cotton Fiber with Silane Coupling Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Funabashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of cotton fiber (CF as a filler in poly(butylene succinate (PBS and the effect of silane treatment on the mechanical properties, thermal stability, and biodegradability of PBS/CF composites are investigated. The results showed that the tensile strength of PBS was improved (15%–78% with the incorporation of CF (10–40 wt% and was further increased (25%–118% when CF was treated with a silane coupling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation of the fracture surfaces of PBS/CF composites showed that there was slight improvement in fiber-matrix compatibility. Thermogravimetric (TG analysis showed that the thermal stability of the composites was lower than that of neat PBS and decreased with increasing filler loading. The biobased carbon content of the composites increased with increasing CF content. The incorporation of CF (with and without silane treatment in PBS significantly increased the biodegradation rate of the composites.

  6. Electrokinetic and Hemostatic Profiles of Nonwoven Cellulosic/Synthetic Fiber Blends with Unbleached Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent Edwards

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation, K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot, α (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached, and MA (clot strength. TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (ζplateau, Δζ and swell ratio. The material surface polarity (ζplateau varied from −22 to −61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to  ζplateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed.

  7. Electrokinetic and hemostatic profiles of nonwoven cellulosic/synthetic fiber blends with unbleached cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J Vincent; Graves, Elena; Bopp, Alvin; Prevost, Nicolette; Santiago, Michael; Condon, Brian

    2014-11-28

    Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation), K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot), α (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached), and MA (clot strength). TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (ζplateau, Δζ and swell ratio). The material surface polarity (ζplateau) varied from -22 to -61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to  ζplateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA) also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed.

  8. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Kim

    Full Text Available The number of cotton (Gossypium sp. ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.

  9. The immature fiber mutant phenotype of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is linked to a 22-bp frame-shift deletion in a mitochondria targeted pentatricopeptide repeat gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton seed trichomes are the globally most important source of natural fibers. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im) gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process...

  10. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity.

  11. PRICE RELATIONSHIPS IN THE U.S. FIBER MARKETS: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR COTTON INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Mohanty, Samarendu; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper examined the price relationship between cotton and polyester. The results provide strong evidence of long term price transmissions and granger causality between cotton and polyester price as well as the asymmetry transmissions for cotton on cotton, cotton on polyester, and polyester on polyester price. However, we did not find any evidence that there exists asymmetry transmission for polyester price on cotton price. Our results also did not support the contemporaneous effects hypoth...

  12. Functional Investigation of a Cotton Fiber HOX Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Most of the plant homeodomain-containing proteins play important roles in regulating cell differentiation and organ development,and Arabidopsis GLABRA2(GL2),a member of the class IV homeodomain-Leucine zipper(HD-ZIP) proteins,is a trichome and non-root hair cell regulator.We have

  13. Involvement of Extracellular Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in Cotton Fiber Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of seco...

  14. Infrared imaging of cotton fiber bundles using a focal plane array detector and a single reflectance accessory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared imaging is gaining attention as a technique used in the examination of cotton fibers. This type of imaging combines spectral analysis with spatial resolution to create visual images that examine sample composition and distribution. Herein, we report the use of an infrared instrument equippe...

  15. Micronaire measurements on seedcotton and cotton fiber, in and outside of laboratory using micro nir-infrared instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is a key quality parameter in cotton fiber. NIR-spectroscopy has the ability to measure micronaire in and out of the laboratory. New very small micronaire instruments have recently been introduced. A program was established to measure micronaire in and outside the laboratory on seed cotto...

  16. Preliminary evaluation of feeder and lint slide moisture addition on ginning, fiber quality, and textile processing of western cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture addition at the gin stand feeder conditioning hopper and/or the battery condenser slide on gin performance and Western cotton fiber quality and textile processing. The test treatments included no moisture addition, feeder hopper hum...

  17. Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diqiu LIU; Xianlong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned and analyzed. On the other hand, identification of stress response genes expressed in cotton was performed by other research groups. The major stress factors were studied including the wilt pathogens Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxy-sporum f. sp. vasinfectum, bacterial blight, root-knot nematode, drought, and salt stress. What is more, a few genes related to the biosynthesis of gossypol, other sesquiterpene phytoalexins and the major seed oil fatty acids were isolated from cotton. In the present review, we focused on the major advances in cotton gene cloning and expression profiling in the recent years.

  18. The Design and Development of Cotton/Modal/Bamboo Viscose Fiber Blended Fabric Collection%棉与木代尔、竹浆纤维混纺织物的设计与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2016-01-01

    By using Cotton/Modal/Bamboo Viscose ifber blended yarn, fabrics in 9 different weaves were designed, as the wearing property varies greatly depending on fabric weave. The looming parameters and production process were calculated, and the fabrics in nine different weaves were woven on sample loom. Then the key production and technical points were analyzed and the scheme for optimizing fabric properties was summed up, offering reference to textile enterprises for developing such fabrics.%采用棉与木代尔、竹浆纤维混纺纱,设计9种不同织物组织,其服用性能有很大差异。对9种不同组织织物的上机规格参数及生产工艺进行计算,再在小样机上试织,分析生产技术要点,总结出织物性能优选方案,为纺织企业进行此类织物的开发提供了参考依据。

  19. 开发汉麻棉涡流纱的体会%Experience of Developing Hemp Cotton Vortex Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美红

    2012-01-01

    To develop hemp cotton vortex yarn, hemp fiber and long-staple cotton raw material were selected reasonably, hemp fiber was pretreated. According to characteristics of hemp fiber raw material, related technulogy measures were adopted,such as selecting fore-spinning and vortex spinning processing parameters rationally, controlling temperature & humidity strictly,finally hemp/cotton 60/40 21. 6 tex vortex yarn can be developed successfully, yam hairiness can be reduced, yam quality level and usability can be improved. It is considered that it is feasible to use vortex spinning technology producing high content hemp cotton blended yarn,yarn hairiness can be reduced and hemp cotton blended yam quality level can be improved.%为开发高比例汉麻棉涡流纱,通过合理选用汉麻纤维和长绒棉原料,对汉麻纤维进行预处理,针对汉麻纤维原料特点,合理配置前纺和涡流纺工艺参数及采取有关技术措施,严格控制温湿度,结果顺利地开发出汉麻/棉60/40 21.6 tex涡流纱,大幅度降低了成纱毛羽,提升了质量水平和使用性能.认为:利用涡流纺纱技术生产高比例汉麻棉混纺纱在技术上是可行的,有助于大幅度降低纱线毛羽、提升汉麻棉混纺纱质量档次.

  20. Characterization and photocatalytic properties of cotton fibers modified with ZnO nanoparticles using sol–gel spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs were prepared using the sol–gel method. Cotton fibers were loaded with ZnO nanoparticles using sol–gel spin coating technique. The prepared ZnO NPs and ZnO-coated cotton were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The self-cleaning property of ZnO-coated cotton and the photocatalytic removal of methyl orange dye from the contaminated water and cotton fibers were studied by measuring the optical absorbance after exposure to sunlight and Philips 200W lamp illumination. The results showed that the cotton loaded with ZnO nanoparticles could efficiently decompose 73% of methyl orange dye in the sunlight and 30.7% in the lamp illumination after 12 hours. ZnO nanoparticles decomposed methyl orange dye by 92.7% in the sunlight and 26.4% in the lamp illumination after 7 hours.

  1. Ways of Developing Plants in Interspecific Hybridization of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAKHMANKULOV; S; DAMINOVA; D; RAKHMANKULOV; M

    2008-01-01

    It is known,that there are various barriers to fertilization,development of embryos,and endosperm because of different number of chromosomes in parents in the interspecific hybridization of cotton.Thus the factors providing normal cell fission of a germ and endosperm are necessary.It is necessary to culture embryos in vitro on the artificial environments containing various phytohormones,or to

  2. Development of a novel‐type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants—npf1 and npf2 (with a 120‐bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to for...

  3. Polymorphism analysis of multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations of upland cotton developed in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D G; Li, Z X; Hu, J S; Lin, Z X; Li, X F

    2016-12-19

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop that provides renewable natural fiber worldwide. Currently limited genetic base leads to a decrease in upland cotton genetic diversity. Multi-parent advance generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations can be used to evaluate complex agronomic traits in crops. In this study, we developed an upland cotton MAGIC population. A total of 258 MAGIC population lines and their twelve founder lines were analyzed, using 432 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Gene diversity indices and the polymorphism information content were calculated using polymorphism analyses. Our genotype analysis showed that 258 inbred lines could be divided into 158 genotypes. Among these, we identified 17 pairs of specific SSR primers on the A chromosome subgroups and 24 pairs of specific SSR primers on the B chromosome subgroups of upland cotton. These were related to 77 and 128 genotypes, respectively. Our results suggest that the upland cotton MAGIC population contained abundant genetic diversity and may provide enormous resources for future genetic breeding.

  4. Biodegradability and process characterization of nonwovens formed from cotton and cellulose acetate fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hageun

    A possible candidate as an environmentally friendly nonwoven fabric is one which can be formed from the thermal calendering of a cotton/cellulose acetate blend. The results presented have focused on biodegradable properties of the fibers, physical properties of the fabric, and process optimization of the thermal calendering. Biodegradation of cellulose has been intensively studied, and cellulose is believed to be readily biodegraded by many microorganisms due to the activity of cellulase enzymes. However, the biodegradability of cellulose acetate (CA) is less than certain. To determine a semi-quantitative measure of the biodegradation of CA fibers, the AATCC test method 30-1988 was selected. After a 12-week soil burial test, evidence of microbial attack on CA fabric was obtained on the basis of 27% strength loss. As a more reliable method, the ASTM test method D5209-91, an aerobic sludge test, was adopted, in which the amount of COsb2 evolved from the decomposition of CA, cotton and fiber blends was measured. The biodegradability of CA fibers was confirmed by showing COsb2 evolution, and the synergistic effects of multi-enzyme systems between cellulase and esterase were suggested based on the increased biodegradation rates in fiber blends. Opening, blending, carding, and thermal calendering processes were used in the fabrication of the nonwovens. Pretreatment with solvent vapors was introduced for modifying the softening temperatures of the cellulose acetate and for lowering the calendering temperatures required otherwise. The success of the solvent-assisted thermal calendering is demonstrated in enhanced tensile strengths of the nonwoven obtained with lower calendering temperatures. For process optimization, the experiment was designed for a 3-way factorial design with the following factors: bonding temperature, blend ratio and solvent treatment time. The effects of the factors on 18 physical properties were determined by analysis of variance, least

  5. Preparation of Cotton-Wool-Like Poly(lactic acid-Based Composites Consisting of Core-Shell-Type Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous works, we reported the fabrication of cotton-wool-like composites consisting of siloxane-doped vaterite and poly(l-lactic acid (SiVPCs. Various irregularly shaped bone voids can be filled with the composite, which effectively supplies calcium and silicate ions, enhancing the bone formation by stimulating the cells. The composites, however, were brittle and showed an initial burst release of ions. In the present work, to improve the mechanical flexibility and ion release, the composite fiber was coated with a soft, thin layer consisting of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. A coaxial electrospinning technique was used to prepare a cotton-wool-like material comprising “core-shell”-type fibers with a diameter of ~12 µm. The fibers, which consisted of SiVPC coated with a ~2-µm-thick PLGA layer, were mechanically flexible; even under a uniaxial compressive load of 1.5 kPa, the cotton-wool-like material did not exhibit fracture of the fibers and, after removing the load, showed a ~60% recovery. In Tris buffer solution, the initial burst release of calcium and silicate ions from the “core-shell”-type fibers was effectively controlled, and the ions were slowly released after one day. Thus, the mechanical flexibility and ion-release behavior of the composites were drastically improved by the thin PLGA coating.

  6. Titanium-Dioxide Nano-Fiber-Cotton Targets for Efficient Multi-keV X-Ray Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Yamamoto, N; Gu, Z; Pan, C; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Brebion, D; Fournier, K B; Fujishima, A; Mima, K

    2008-06-12

    Multi-keV x-ray generation from low-density (27 {+-} 7 mg/cc) nano-fiber-cotton targets composed of titanium-dioxide has been investigated. The cotton targets were heated volumetrically and supersonically to a peak electron temperature of 2.3 keV, which is optimal to yield Ti K-shell x rays. Considerable enhancement of conversion efficiency (3.7 {+-} 0.5%) from incident laser energy into Ti K-shell x rays (4-6 keV band) was attained in comparison with that (1.4 {+-} 0.9%) for a planar Ti-foil target.

  7. 杏棉间作复合系统对棉花产量及纤维品质的影响%Effect of apricot-cotton intercropping system on fiber quality and yield of cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光磊; 陈耀锋; 万群芳; 张玉东; 陈瑞萍; 曹春波

    2011-01-01

    以大田棉花为对照(CK),研究了环塔里木盆地杏、棉间作系统对棉花的产量和纤维品质特性的影响.结果表明:杏、棉间作下棉花的产量及其构成因素相比对照均有不同程度的减小,且随着距杏树垂直距离的增加,其变化呈偏态分布趋势;在杏、棉间作区,棉花的比强度、伸长率和马克隆值明显减少,而纤维长度、整齐度、黄度和纺纱指数则形成了明显的增加区和降低区,表明杏、棉间作对棉花产量和纤维品质的影响很大.%With the ingle cropping of cotton as CK, the effect of apricot-cotton intercropping on fiber quality characteristics and yield of cotton around Tarim Basin was studied. The results showed that the trend of changes in the yield and its components of cotton was in partial distribution tendency in the apricot-cotton intercropping system, which were lower than those in CK. In apricot-cotton intercropping, the strength, elongation and Micronaire value of cotton were significantly reduced, but the fiber length, uniformity, yellowness and CSP of cotton increased obviously in some areas but reduced in others. The experiment showed that the apricot-cotton intercropping had great effect on fiber quality and yield of cotton.

  8. Hydroentangled High Quality (HQ) Cotton Developments: Cosmetic Pads and Greige Cotton Bed Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydroentagled development work (at a plant-scale) was carried out in year 2004 in collaboration with Hollingsworth on Wheels, Greenville, SC, and Fleissener, Germany. This work was published as two papers in Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics in 2006 and 2007. Early this year physical test...

  9. Fiber laser development for LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Kenji [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, 20742 (United States); Chen, Jeffrey R [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Laser and electro-optics branch, Code 554, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States); Camp, Jordan, E-mail: kenji.numata@nasa.go [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Gravitational astrophysics branch, Code 663, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a linearly-polarized Ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser with single longitudinal-mode output at 1064 nm for LISA and other space applications. Single longitudinal-mode selection was achieved by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP). The FFP also serves as a frequency-reference within our ring laser. Our laser exhibits comparable low frequency and intensity noise to Non-Planar Ring Oscillator (NPRO). By using a fiber-coupled phase modulator as a frequency actuator, the laser frequency can be electro-optically tuned at a rate of 100 kHz. It appears that our fiber ring laser is promising for space applications where robustness of fiber optics is desirable.

  10. Fiber laser development for LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a linearly-polarized Ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser with single longitudinal-mode output at 1064nm for LISA and other space applications. Single longitudinal-mode selection was achieved by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP). The FFP also serves as a frequency-reference within our ring laser. Our laser exhibits comparable low frequency and intensity noise to Non-Planar Ring Oscillator (NPRO). By using a fiber-coupled phase modulator as a frequency actuator, the laser frequency can be electro-optically tuned at a rate of 100kHz. It appears that our fiber ring laser is promising for space applications where robustness of fiber optics is desirable.

  11. Fiber Laser Development for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Chen, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a linearly-polarized Ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser with single longitudinal-mode output at 1064nm for LISA and other space applications. Single longitudinal-mode selection was achieved by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP). The FFP also serves as a frequency-reference within our ring laser. Our laser exhibits comparable low frequency and intensity noise to Non-Planar Ring Oscillator (NPRO). By using a fiber-coupled phase modulator as a frequency actuator, the laser frequency can be electro-optically tuned at a rate of 100kHz. It appears that our fiber ring laser is promising for space applications where robustness of fiber optics is desirable.

  12. Potential development of a new cotton-based antimicrobial wipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of a cationic biocide on various cotton and synthetic nonwoven fabrics was investigated using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results reveal that rayon and greige cotton nonwovens adsorb nearly three times more cationic biocide than comparable bleached cotton substrates. Polyester...

  13. Near infrared measurment of cotton fiber micronaire by portable near infrared instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton production and usage is a global enterprise, and the export of U.S. cotton has increased dramatically. In the U.S., cotton is classed (and its primary quality parameters determined) by the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), which must be maintained under tightly controlled laboratory envir...

  14. Using and development of multi adversity resistance system in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Durmuş ÇETİN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic approach in plant breeding, make it possible to show the full genetic potential of plant. This methods also protect the health of plant growth over the period, by increasing resistance to diseases and pests is expected to provide. For this purpose, by Bird in 1963, with the name of multi adversity resistance has been initiated in cotton breeding and for many years as a result of the work carried out important varieties and germplasm have been developed. Nowadays, those using for varieties resistant to stress factors such as heat and drought are evaluated. And successful results are obtained.

  15. FROM Qutn TO Bt COTTON: DEVELOPMENT, ADOPTION AND PROSPECTS. A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maik, W; Abid, M A; Cheema, H M N; Khan, A A; Iqbal, M Z; Qayyum, A; Hanif, M; Bibi, N; Yuan, S N; Yasmeen, A; Mahmood, A; Ashraf, J

    2015-01-01

    Cotton has unique history of domestication, diversification, and utilization. Globally it is an important cash crop that provides raw material for textile industry. The story of cotton started from human civilization and the climax arrived with the efforts of developing transgenic cotton for various traits. Though conventional breeding brought steady improvement in developing resistance against biotic stresses but recent success story of gene transferfrom Bacillus thuringiensis into cotton showed game changing effects on cotton cultivation. Amongst various families of insecticidal proteins Bt Cry-toxins received more attention because of specificity against receptors on the cell membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. Rapid Bt cotton adoption by farmers due to its economic and environmental benefits has changed the landscape of cotton cultivation in many countries. But the variable expression of Bt transgene in the newly developed Bt cotton genotypes in tropical environment is questionable. Variability of toxin level in different plant parts at various life stage of plant is an outcome of genotypic interaction with environmental factors. Temporal gene expression of Cry1Ac is also blamed for the epigenetic background in which transgene has been inserted. The presence of genotypes with sub-lethal level of Bt toxin might create resistance in Lepidopteron insects, limiting the use of Bt cotton in future, with the opportunityfor other resistance development strategies to get more attention like gene stacking. Until the farmers get access to more recent technology, best option is to delay the development of resistance by applying Insect Resistance Management (IRM) strategies.

  16. Development of a novel-type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Zijing; Hou, Guangming; Hua, Jinping; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants-npf1 and npf2 (with a 120-bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to form the mature NPF1 and NPF2 peptides, and they were found to regulate feeding behaviour. Knock down of larval npf with dsNPF in vitro resulted in decreases of food consumption and body weight, and dsNPF also caused a decrease of glycogen and an increase of trehalose. Moreover, we produced transgenic tobacco plants transiently expressing dsNPF and transgenic cotton plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that H. armigera larvae fed on these transgenic plants or leaves had lower food consumption, body size and body weight compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the control of feeding of H. armigera and valuable for production of potential transgenic cotton.

  17. Breeding Potential of Introgression Lines Developed from Interspecific Crossing between Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense: Heterosis, Combining Ability and Genetic Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfa Zhang

    Full Text Available Upland cotton (Gossypium hirstum L., which produces more than 95% of the world natural cotton fibers, has a narrow genetic base which hinders progress in cotton breeding. Introducing germplasm from exotic sources especially from another cultivated tetraploid G. barbadense L. can broaden the genetic base of Upland cotton. However, the breeding potential of introgression lines (ILs in Upland cotton with G. barbadense germplasm integration has not been well addressed. This study involved six ILs developed from an interspecific crossing and backcrossing between Upland cotton and G. barbadense and represented one of the first studies to investigate breeding potentials of a set of ILs using a full diallel analysis. High mid-parent heterosis was detected in several hybrids between ILs and a commercial cultivar, which also out-yielded the high-yielding cultivar parent in F1, F2 and F3 generations. A further analysis indicated that general ability (GCA variance was predominant for all the traits, while specific combining ability (SCA variance was either non-existent or much lower than GCA. The estimated GCA effects and predicted additive effects for parents in each trait were positively correlated (at P<0.01. Furthermore, GCA and additive effects for each trait were also positively correlated among generations (at P<0.05, suggesting that F2 and F3 generations can be used as a proxy to F1 in analyzing combining abilities and estimating genetic parameters. In addition, differences between reciprocal crosses in F1 and F2 were not significant for yield, yield components and fiber quality traits. But maternal effects appeared to be present for seed oil and protein contents in F3. This study identified introgression lines as good general combiners for yield and fiber quality improvement and hybrids with high heterotic vigor in yield, and therefore provided useful information for further utilization of introgression lines in cotton breeding.

  18. RNA-seq analysis of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintless-1 (Li1) and – 2 (Li2) revealed important role of aquaporins in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber is the most prevalent natural raw material used in the textile industry. The length of the fiber is one of the most important characteristics and affects spinning efficiency and the quality of the resulting yarn. The identification of the genes that control fiber elongation is importa...

  19. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jieying; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m2/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C. We demonstrated the catalytic growth of m-axial InxGa1-xN (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.17) nanocolumn arrays with high crystallinity on silicon substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with trimethylindium (TMIn), triethylgallium (TEGa), and ammonia as precursors. The high quality of InGaN nanocolumns (NCs) were believed to be due to the utilization of TEGa that achieved less carbon impurities and offered more comparable vapor pressure with that of TMIn at low temperature. In addition, these NCs were grown in non-polar m-axis, which the internal electric field of the InGaN that often deteriorates the device performances might be able to be eliminated. Furthermore, the bandgap of this InGaN can be modulated from

  20. Association analysis of fiber quality traits and exploration of elite alleles in Upland cotton cultivars/accessions (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Caiping; Ye, Wenxue; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the elite alleles and germplasm accessions related to fiber quality traits will accelerate the breeding of cotton for fiber quality improvement. In this study, 99 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions with diverse origins were used to perform association analysis of fiber quality traits using 97 polymorphic microsatellite marker primer pairs. A total of 107 significant marker-trait associations were detected for three fiber quality traits under three different environments, with 70 detected in two or three environments and 37 detected in only one environment. Among the 70 significant marker-trait associations, 52.86% were reported previously, implying that these are stable loci for target traits. Furthermore, we detected a large number of elite alleles associated simultaneously with two or three traits. These elite alleles were mainly from accessions collected in China, introduced to China from the United States, or rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%. No one cultivar contained more than half of the elite alleles, but 10 accessions were collected from China and the two introduced from the United States did contain more than half of these alleles. Therefore, there is great potential for mining elite alleles from germplasm accessions for use in fiber quality improvement in modern cotton breeding.

  1. Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Genes Differentially Expressed between Pima and Upland Cotton Fibers%比马棉和陆地棉纤维差异表达基因的分离、鉴定及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-dao WU; Khairy M. SOLIMAN; Allan ZIPF; Sukumar SAHA

    2002-01-01

    @@ The demand for high strength fiber in raw cotton has increased because of the widespread use of high speed spinning technology in the yarn and textile industry. Improvement of cotton fiber quality through conventional breeding is limited due to the complexity of fiber quality genetics. Therefore, the primary goal of this project was to identify and characterize genes related to cotton fiber quality.

  2. 超细旦涤纶与棉、汉麻等异经异纬提花织物的开发%On Developing Jacquard Fabric with Different Warps and Wefts of Blended Yarns between Ultra-ifne Polyester and Cotton, Hemp and Other Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊利

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the key techniques for producing mini-jacquard woven fabric using blended yarns between ultra-fine polyester and cotton, hemp and other fibers as warps and wefts. By analyzing fabric style and difficulties in production, it suggests the rational process route and optimized parameters for warping, sizing and weaving processes. The resulted fabric has special stripped structure and unique look, offering reference for developing and producing high-grade apparel fabric.%探讨了超细旦涤纶与棉、汉麻等异经异纬提花织物生产技术的要点。通过对该面料的织物风格以及生产难点进行分析,选择合理的工艺流程,优化整经、浆纱织造等工序的工艺参数。面料具有特殊的条形结构,风格独特,为高档服装面料的开发及生产提供参考。

  3. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a β-Galactosidase Gene Expressed Preferentially in Cotton Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Mu ZHANG; Jin-Yuan LIU

    2005-01-01

    β-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) constitute a widespread family of enzymes in plants that is thought to be involved in metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. We reported herein the isolation of a fulllength cDNA encoding a typical β-galactosidase protein, designated GhGal1 (Gossypium hirsutum L.galactosidase), of 843 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of nearly 94.8 kDa. In addition to a glycosyl hydrolase family 35 domain and a putative signal peptide, an unusual characteristic of GhGal 1 is that, at the C-terminus of the enzyme, a domain was found that is structurally related to a sea urchin egg lectin (SUEL-lectin) with D-galactose- and L-rhamnose-binding domains. Based on results from Southern blot, we estimated that there would be two copies of the GhGal1 gene per haploid genome of G. hirsutum.The transcripts of GhGal1 were regulated spatially and temporally and were present in very high abundance at the elongation stage of the cotton fiber. The expression pattern suggests that the GhGal1 gene could be involved in metabolism of the primary cell wall.

  4. The GhTT2_A07 gene is linked to the brown color and natural flame retardancy phenotypes of Lc1 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some naturally-colored brown cotton fibers from accessions of Gossypium hirsutum L. can be used to make textiles with enhanced flame retardancy (FR). Several independent brown fiber loci have been identified and mapped to chromosomes, but the underlying genes have not yet been identified, and the me...

  5. Development of the phosphorus and nitrogen containing flame retardant for value added cotton product

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is our desire to develop new crosslinking agents for cotton textiles that afford useful flame protection regardless of fabric construction. Herein we present the synthesis and the application of the triazine and piperazine derivatives as flame retardant on cotton. Novel phosphorus-nitrogen contai...

  6. Cotton Research and Development at Institute for Agricultural Research,Samaru,Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADO S G; ABDULLAHI Y I; MOHAMMED S M

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Institute for Agricultural Research,Samaru,has the national mandate for genetic improvement and development of production technologies for cotton,maize,sorghum,cowpea,groundnut,sunflower,and castor.The Institute collaborates well with other national agricultural research institutes as well as with other governmental and non-governmental organizations,national cotton farmers association,input supply agencies,marketers,etc.

  7. Assessment of fennel aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their predators in fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, F S; Fernandes, F S; Nascimento, A R B; Nascimento Júnior, J L; Malaquias, J B; Silva, C A D

    2012-02-01

    The fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller in northeast region of Brazil. We hypothesize that intercropping can be used as an alternative pest management strategy to reduce aphid yield loss in fennel. Thus, we investigated the severity of fennel plant damage in relation to infestation by the fennel aphid and predation by Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (spotless lady beetle), green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in sole fennel plots and plots of fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers. The fennel aphid populations in nontreated plots were significantly larger in sole fennel plots than in intercropped plots. The highest densities of C. sanguinea, green lacewings and Scymnus spp., associated with the suppression of fennel aphid populations was found in fennel in the intercropping systems. Fennel aphids reduced the fennel seed yield by 80% in the sole fennel plots compared with approximately 30% for all intercropping systems. The results obtained in this research are of practical significance for designing appropriate strategies for fennel aphid control in fennel-cotton intercropping systems. In summary, intercropping fennel with cotton with colored fibers apparently promoted biocontrol of fennel aphid in fennel.

  8. A brief summary of major advances in cotton functional genomics and molecular breeding studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cotton fibers, commonly known as cotton lint, are single-celled trichomes derived from epidermal layers of cotton ovules. Despite of its importance in word trade, the molecular mechanisms of cotton fiber production is still poorly understood. Through transcriptome profiling, functional genomics, proteomics, metabolomics approaches as well as marker-assisted molecular breeding, scientists in China have made significant contributions in cotton research. Here, we briefly summarize major progresses made in Chinese laboratories, and discuss future directions and perspectives relative to the development of this unique crop plant.

  9. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunquan; Rong, Zhang; Li, Ye; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng

    Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs) with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB) was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore surface area.

  10. Role of biotechnology in sustainable development of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prospect of biotechnology to provide cost-efficient sustainable cotton production under a safe environment for the 21st century is enormous. The role of plant biotechnology in the improvement of cotton is a rapidly evolving area and very broad. The specific objective of this paper is to provide...

  11. Improvement of cotton fiber quality by transforming the acsA and acsB genes into Gossypium hirsutum L. by means of vacuum infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Wang, X D; Zhao, X; Dutt, Y

    2004-04-01

    A novel method for the genetic transformation of cotton pollen by means of vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is reported. The acsA and acsB genes, which are involved in cellulose synthesis in Acetobacter xylinum, were transferred into pollen grains of brown cotton with the aim of improving its fiber quality by incorporating useful prokaryotic features into the colored cotton plants. Transformation was carried out in cotton pollen-germinating medium, and transformation was mediated by vector pCAMBIA1301, which contains a reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS), a selectable marker gene, hpt, for hygromycin resistance and the genes of interest, acsA and acsB. The integration and expression of acsA, acsB and GUS in the genome of transgenic plants were analyzed with Southern blot hybridization, PCR, histochemical GUS assay and Northern blot hybridization. We found that following pollination on the cotton stigma transformed pollen retained its capability of double-fertilization and that normal cotton seeds were produced in the cotton ovary. Of 1,039 seeds from 312 bolls pollinated with transformed pollen grains, 17 were able to germinate and grow into seedlings for more than 3 weeks in a nutrient medium containing 50 mg/l hygromycin; eight of these were transgenic plants integrated with acsA and acsB, yielding a 0.77% transformation rate. Fiber strength and length from the most positive transformants was 15% greater than those of the control (non-transformed), a significant difference, as was cellulose content between the transformed and control plants. Our study suggests that transformation through vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium mediated transformation can be an efficient way to introduce foreign genes into the cotton pollen grain and that cotton fiber quality can be improved with the incorporation of the prokaryotic genes acsA and acsB.

  12. Modelling and Predicting the Breaking Strength and Mass Irregularity of Cotton Rotor-Spun Yarns Containing Cotton Fiber Recovered from Ginning Process by Using Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shanbeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main methods to reduce the production costs is waste recycling which is the most important challenge for the future. Cotton wastes collected from ginning process have desirable properties which could be used during spinning process. The purpose of this study was to develop predictive models of breaking strength and mass irregularity (CV% of cotton waste rotor-spun yarns containing cotton waste collected from ginning process by using the artificial neural network trained with backpropagation algorithm. Artificial neural network models have been developed based on rotor diameter, rotor speed, navel type, opener roller speed, ginning waste proportion and yarn linear density as input parameters. The parameters of artificial neural network model, namely, learning, and momentum rate, number of hidden layers and number of hidden processing elements (neurons were optimized to get the best predictive models. The findings showed that the breaking strength and mass irregularity of rotor spun yarns could be predicted satisfactorily by artificial neural network. The maximum error in predicting the breaking strength and mass irregularity of testing data was 8.34% and 6.65%, respectively.

  13. Sampling nucleotide diversity in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu John Z

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated cotton is an annual fiber crop derived mainly from two perennial species, Gossypium hirsutum L. or upland cotton, and G. barbadense L., extra long-staple fiber Pima or Egyptian cotton. These two cultivated species are among five allotetraploid species presumably derived monophyletically between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Genomic-based approaches have been hindered by the limited variation within species. Yet, population-based methods are being used for genome-wide introgression of novel alleles from G. mustelinum and G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using combinations of backcrossing, selfing, and inter-mating. Recombinant inbred line populations between genetics standards TM-1, (G. hirsutum × 3-79 (G. barbadense have been developed to allow high-density genetic mapping of traits. Results This paper describes a strategy to efficiently characterize genomic variation (SNPs and indels within and among cotton species. Over 1000 SNPs from 270 loci and 279 indels from 92 loci segregating in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense were genotyped across a standard panel of 24 lines, 16 of which are elite cotton breeding lines and 8 mapping parents of populations from six cotton species. Over 200 loci were genetically mapped in a core mapping population derived from TM-1 and 3-79 and in G. hirsutum breeding germplasm. Conclusion In this research, SNP and indel diversity is characterized for 270 single-copy polymorphic loci in cotton. A strategy for SNP discovery is defined to pre-screen loci for copy number and polymorphism. Our data indicate that the A and D genomes in both diploid and tetraploid cotton remain distinct from each such that paralogs can be distinguished. This research provides mapped DNA markers for intra-specific crosses and introgression of exotic germplasm in cotton.

  14. Sequencing of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1) provides a resource for fiber improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural textile fibre and a significant oilseed crop. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an allotetraploid derived from A- and D-genome progenitors, accounts for >95% of world production. Here, we sequenced and assembled 88% of the 2.5-gigabase genome of the ...

  15. Piperazine-phosphonate derivatives: their flame retardant and thermal degradation properties on cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been known that phosphorus-nitrogen system shows greater flame resistance in cotton textiles at a lower level than phosphorus used alone. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) for cotton fabric to a prev...

  16. Power and Time Dependent Microwave Assisted Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles Decorated Cotton (SNDC) Fibers for Bacterial Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Abhishek K.; Shukla, Abhishek; Mishra, Rohit K.; Singh, S. C.; Mishra, Vani; Uttam, K. N.; Singh, Mohan P.; Sharma, Shivesh; Gopal, R.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver and gold have fascinating optical properties due to their enhanced optical sensitivity at a wavelength corresponding to their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption. Present work deals with the fabrication of silver nanoparticles decorated cotton (SNDC) fibers as a cheap and efficient point of contact disinfectant. SNDC fibers were fabricated by a simple microwave assisted route. The microwave power and irradiation time were controlled to optimize size and density of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) on textile fibers. As prepared cotton fabric was characterized for ATR-FTIR, UV-VIS diffuse reflectance, SEM and TEM investigations. Size of SNPs as well as total density of silver atoms on fabric gets increased with the increase of microwave power from 100 W to 600 W. The antibacterial efficacy of SNPs extracted from SNDC fibers was found to be more effective against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria with MIC 38.5 ± 0.93 μg/mL against Salmonella typhimurium MTCC-98 and 125 ± 2.12 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC-737, a linear correlation coefficient with R2 ranging from ∼0.928–0.935 was also observed. About >50% death cells were observed through Propidium Iodide (PI) internalization after treatment of SNPs extracted from SNDC fibers with concentration 31.25 μg/mL. Generation of ROS and free radical has also been observed which leads to cell death. Excellent Escherichia coli deactivation efficacy suggested that SNDC fibers could be used as potentially safe disinfectants for cleaning of medical equipment, hand, wound, water and preservation of food and beverages. PMID:28316594

  17. Development of Isogenic Restorer Line in Extra Long Staple Cotton Variety Suvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manickam, K. N. Gururajan and N. Gopalakrishnan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the most important commercial crop of India and heterosis in cotton is well documented with 7 to 50per cent heterosis in interspecific (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense hybrids, 10 to 138 per cent in intra-hirsutum hybrids andupto 220 per cent in desi (G. herbaceum x G. arboreum hybrids. Currently hybrid cotton, especially Bt cotton hybrids,occupies more than 80 per cent of cultivated area under cotton in India. Male sterility system offers tremendousadvantage to produce quality hybrid seeds at affordable price so that even marginal farmers can take up hybridcultivation. In cotton both GMS and CGMS systems are available. In cotton, two types of male sterility viz., Genic(GMS and Cytoplasmic-Genic (CGMS systems have been identified. Both the systems have been utilized for thecommercial hybrid seed production in India and other countries. In CGMS system, the male parent of the hybrid needsto be converted into Restorer line. In cotton, Suvin is the only extra long staple G. barbadense variety available which iscapable of spinning to 120s count yarn. This variety has been successfully converted into Restorer line through backcross breeding utilizing Pima Restorer as the donor parent. Suvin Restorer is found to stably restore fertility in differentCMS lines of G. hirsutum. The interspecific hybrids developed using Suvin Restorer was found to combine both highyield and superior fibre quality capable of spinning upto 80s count and are comparable with conventional check hybrids.

  18. An investigation and an accessment of organic cotton production and processing in developing countries (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frida; Andersen, Lasse Kragh; Looms, Majken

    1999-01-01

    and Mozambique is a difficult but not impossible task, but a challenging way of improving the environmental impacts of todays conventional cotton production. Completing the manufacturing of cotton in the developing countries will enhance the economy of the country and thus the living standards of the population.......This report investigates and assesses whether cotton production and processing is prossible in the two African countries, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This is done through an intensive study of existing organic cotton projects in the two countries and a description of how the organic cotton production...... to teach the locals this knowledge since the educational level in Zimbabwe and Mozambique is at a low level. Another problem that might occur is fulfilling the concentration of heavy metals allowed from the certifying organizations.Generally an economic donor is needed to get a project started. Just...

  19. The analysis of colored acrylic, cotton, and wool textile fibers using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Part 2: comparison with the traditional methods of fiber examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve

    2015-05-01

    In the second part of this survey, the ability of micro-Raman spectroscopy to discriminate 180 fiber samples of blue, black, and red cottons, wools, and acrylics was compared to that gathered with the traditional methods for the examination of textile fibers in a forensic context (including light microscopy methods, UV-vis microspectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography). This study shows that the Raman technique plays a complementary and useful role to obtain further discriminations after the application of light microscopy methods and UV-vis microspectrophotometry and assure the nondestructive nature of the analytical sequence. These additional discriminations were observed despite the lower discriminating powers of Raman data considered individually, compared to those of light microscopy and UV-vis MSP. This study also confirms that an instrument equipped with several laser lines is necessary for an efficient use as applied to the examination of textile fibers in a forensic setting.

  20. MoS2/cotton-derived carbon fibers with enhanced cyclic performance for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Yan; Liu, Jiangwen; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jun; Hu, Renzong; Yang, Lichun; Zhu, Min

    2017-08-01

    Carbon fibers derived from bio-template are low cost and environmental benign, therefore have attracted much attention in energy storage materials. In this work, we successfully fabricated MoS2/cotton-derived carbon fibers (MoS2/CDCFs) via hydrothermal route followed by carbonization process. In the composite of MoS2/CDCFs, MoS2 nanosheets vertically grow on the carbon fibers which offer fast ways for electron transfer and at the same time act as robust support to buffer the volume changes of MoS2 nanosheets during discharge/charge cycles. As anode materials for sodium-ion batteries, MoS2/CDCFs exhibit good rate performance and markedly enhanced cyclic stability due to the conductive support of CDCFs. At a current density of 0.1 A g-1, the MoS2/CDCFs-1 shows an initial reversible capacity of 504.9 mAh g-1, and maintains 444.5 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. Even when the current density increases to 0.5 A g-1, it maintains 323.1 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles, which is much higher than the capacity retention of 149.6 mAh g-1 for the bare MoS2 nanosheets. The improved electrochemical performance verifies the effective strategy of using cotton as carbon source to construct hierarchical composites for sodium-ion batteries.

  1. Developing Cotton IPM by Conserving Parasitoids and Predators of The Main Pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On early development of intensive cotton program, insect pests were considered as an important aspect in cotton cultivation, so that it needed to be scheduled sprays. The frequency of sprays was 7 times used 12L of chemical insecticides per hectare per season. Development of cotton IPM was emphasized on non-chemical control methods through optimally utilize natural enemies of the cotton main pests (Amrasca biguttulla (IshidaHelicoverpa armigera (Hübner. Conservation of parasitoids and predators by providing the environment that support their population development is an act of supporting the natural enemies as an effective biotic mortality factor of the insect pests. The conservation could be done by improving the plant matter and cultivation techniques that include the use of resistant variety to leafhopper, intercropping cotton with secondary food plants, mulch utilization, using action threshold that considered the presence of natural enemies, and application of botanical insecticides, if needed. Conservation of parasitoids and predators in cotton IPM could control the insect pests without any insecticide spray in obtaining the production of cotton seed. As such, the use of IPM method would increase farmers’ income.

  2. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2 population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208(characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90(characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-locus linkage map was

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Tian, Ruiping; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Li, Xinghe; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs) that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes), and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes), etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fang

    Full Text Available Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes, and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes, etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  5. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density on cotton boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Xiang-Bin; Xu, Min; Shen, Dan; Jin, Lu-Lu; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-02-01

    Taking cotton cultivars Liaomian 19 and NuCoTN 33B as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrogen fertilization rate (0, 240 and 480 kg x hm(-2)) and planting density (75000, 97500 and 120000 plants x hm(-2)) on the boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in the extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China. With the growth and development of cotton, the biomass and nitrogen accumulation of cotton boll, cotton seed, and cotton fiber varied in 'S' shape. Both nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density had significant effects on the dynamic characteristics of boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation, and on the fiber yield and quality. In treatment 240 kg x hm(-2) and 97500 plants x hm(-2), the biomass of single boll, cotton seed and cotton fiber was the maximum, the starting time and ending time of the rapid accumulation period of the biomass and nitrogen were earlier but the duration of the accumulation was shorter, the rapid accumulation speed of the biomass was the maximum, and the distribution indices of the biomass and nitrogen were the lowest in boll shell but the highest in cotton seed and cotton fiber.

  6. Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule.

  7. Induction of Low-Level Hydrogen Peroxide Generation by Unbleached Cotton Nonwovens as Potential Wound Dressing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J Vincent; Prevost, Nicolette T; Nam, Sunghyun; Hinchliffe, Doug; Condon, Brian; Yager, Dorne

    2017-03-06

    Greige cotton is an intact plant fiber. The cuticle and primary cell wall near the outer surface of the cotton fiber contains pectin, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and trace metals, which are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) generation during cotton fiber development. Traditionally, the processing of cotton into gauze involves scouring and bleaching processes that remove the components in the cuticle and primary cell wall. The use of unbleached, greige cotton fibers in dressings, has been relatively unexplored. We have recently determined that greige cotton can generate low levels of H₂O₂ (5-50 micromolar). Because this may provide advantages for the use of greige cotton-based wound dressings, we have begun to examine this in more detail. Both brown and white cotton varieties were examined in this study. Brown cotton was found to have a relatively higher hydrogen peroxide generation and demonstrated different capacities for H₂O₂ generation, varying from 1 to 35 micromolar. The H₂O₂ generation capacities of white and brown nonwoven greige cottons were also examined at different process stages with varying chronology and source parameters, from field to nonwoven fiber. The primary cell wall of nonwoven brown cotton appeared very intact, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, and possessed higher pectin levels. The levels of pectin, SOD, and polyphenolics, correlated with H₂O₂ generation.

  8. Induction of Low-Level Hydrogen Peroxide Generation by Unbleached Cotton Nonwovens as Potential Wound Dressing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent Edwards

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Greige cotton is an intact plant fiber. The cuticle and primary cell wall near the outer surface of the cotton fiber contains pectin, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and trace metals, which are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generation during cotton fiber development. Traditionally, the processing of cotton into gauze involves scouring and bleaching processes that remove the components in the cuticle and primary cell wall. The use of unbleached, greige cotton fibers in dressings, has been relatively unexplored. We have recently determined that greige cotton can generate low levels of H2O2 (5–50 micromolar. Because this may provide advantages for the use of greige cotton-based wound dressings, we have begun to examine this in more detail. Both brown and white cotton varieties were examined in this study. Brown cotton was found to have a relatively higher hydrogen peroxide generation and demonstrated different capacities for H2O2 generation, varying from 1 to 35 micromolar. The H2O2 generation capacities of white and brown nonwoven greige cottons were also examined at different process stages with varying chronology and source parameters, from field to nonwoven fiber. The primary cell wall of nonwoven brown cotton appeared very intact, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, and possessed higher pectin levels. The levels of pectin, SOD, and polyphenolics, correlated with H2O2 generation.

  9. Development of New lnterspecific Monosomic F1 Substitution Stocks for Investigations in Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANAMYAN M F; PETLYAKOVA J E; SHARIPOVA E A; RAKHMATULLINA E M

    2008-01-01

    @@ As it is known a complete coverage of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genome with hypoaneuploids is not still realized.Therefore the detection of new types of aneuploids especially in different cytogenetic collections is very useful.In Uzbekistan,long-term investigations towards development of cytogenetic stocks that use different types of irradiation as a source of aberrations are carried out.As a result,many translocation lines and primary monosomics in cotton G.hirsutum were isolated.

  10. 种间杂交改良陆地棉的纤维品质%Fiber Quality Improvement by Interspecific Hybridization in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-zhong LIU; Fu-rong WANG; Liu-ming WANG; Jia-bao WANG; Jing YANG; Qin-hong LIU

    2002-01-01

    @@ In order to transfer genes for extra fiber strength to existing cotton cultivars, we introduced 207 interspecific materials obtained by outcrossing where GG. hirsutum , GG.barbadense , G. sturtianum , G. thurberi , G.harknessii and G. somalense etc. were involved as parents respectively.

  11. Laser line scan imaging method for detection of white foreign fibers in cotton%棉花中白色异性纤维的线扫描激光成像检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 尹伯彪; 刘翔; 何相呈; 苏真伟

    2015-01-01

    在可见光和紫外光照明条件下,皮棉中白色异性纤维和棉花背景的颜色相近,很难用现有的机器视觉系统或人工方法检测出来。该文以12种典型白色异性纤维为样本,采用线扫描相机,分别在红色激光(波长658 nm)、蓝色激光(波长405 nm)和红外激光(波长850 nm)3种照明条件下,改变激光功率和曝光时间,获取了300幅白色异性纤维与棉花的图像。在此基础上,根据同一图像中目标和背景的平均灰度值计算了图像的对比度,然后作出了不同激光波长、功率、曝光时间和图像对比度之间的关系曲线,最后,在该试验装置的条件下,该文确定了线激光成像的最佳检测波长为658 nm、光功率为55 mW和曝光时间为36µs,发现采用优化的线激光参数成像,图像中12种白色异性纤维灰度值已经接近饱和而棉花还处于欠饱和状态,“目标”和“背景”的对比度达到最大,利用两者平均灰度值的明显差异可以检测出棉花中的白色异性纤维。试验结果表明,采用优化的线激光成像参数获取730幅棉花图像,利用简单的Prewitt算子边缘检测法和固定阈值的二值化方法对图像进行分割,12种典型白色异性纤维样本的正确识别率分别可达93.7%和92.9%。%With the development of machine vision systems, auto-sorting systems have been used for removal of foreign fibers (contaminants) in cotton. Of them, white foreign fibers are hardly distinguished from lint cotton because their colors are the same or very close under the illumination of visible lights and ultraviolet lights in the inspection by an existing machine vision system or manual sorting. The laser imaging methods previously suggested by our team can detect most of the white foreign fibers in cotton, but there are 2 problems that need to be solved: One is that they can only use area cameras for the inspection, which is not

  12. Sustainable Development in Chemical Fiber Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The 18th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference (Xiaoshan 2012), themed on "How does Chemical Fiber Industry to Realize Sustainable Development against the Background of High-cost Era?", kicked off in Hangzhou on September 6th, 2012. More than 600 representatives from nearly 20 major chemical fiber manufacturing countries and regions all over the world were gathered together to discuss the sustainable development strategies of international chemical fiber industry in the context of the current compficated environment from different perspectives.

  13. Natural fire-defense of raw white and brown cotton fibers evidenced by suppressed unzipping depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-cleaned (scoured or scoured/bleached), cotton-based materials, whose utilization has greatly been enhanced in support of environmental sustainability, burn rapidly, causing a difficulty in controlling the spread of fire. This high burning rate is primarily associated with the unzipping depolymer...

  14. Nitrogen fertilizer sources and tillage effects on cotton growth, yield, and fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) as a N fertilizer is increasing due, in part, to increased restriction on ammonium nitrate. This has resulted in UAS being marketed as an alternative fertilizer source; however, UAS has not been widely tested. A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field study was c...

  15. Thermal and flame retardant behaviors of cotton fiber treated with phosphoramidate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this research, two phosphoramidate derivatives EHP Diethyl 3-hydroxypropylphos phoramidate and MHP Dimethyl 3-hydroxypropylphos phoramidate were prepared in very high yield and purity by one step procedure and the cotton fabrics treated with them at different levels of add-on (5 - 20 wt %) were c...

  16. Irrigation termination date and amount on cotton lint yield and fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton irrigation in the Texas High Plains (THP) is often dictated by the well capacity and not by the water needs of the crop. The source of irrigation-water is the Ogallala aquifer and in many areas of the THP the water table has declined to well capacities that deliver 1.3 to > 7.6 mm/d. There is...

  17. Cotton genotypes selection through artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, E G Silva; Cardoso, D B O; Reis, M C; Nascimento, A F O; Bortolin, D I; Martins, M R; Sousa, L B

    2017-09-27

    Breeding programs currently use statistical analysis to assist in the identification of superior genotypes at various stages of a cultivar's development. Differently from these analyses, the computational intelligence approach has been little explored in genetic improvement of cotton. Thus, this study was carried out with the objective of presenting the use of artificial neural networks as auxiliary tools in the improvement of the cotton to improve fiber quality. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, this research was carried out using the evaluation data of 40 genotypes. In order to classify the genotypes for fiber quality, the artificial neural networks were trained with replicate data of 20 genotypes of cotton evaluated in the harvests of 2013/14 and 2014/15, regarding fiber length, uniformity of length, fiber strength, micronaire index, elongation, short fiber index, maturity index, reflectance degree, and fiber quality index. This quality index was estimated by means of a weighted average on the determined score (1 to 5) of each characteristic of the HVI evaluated, according to its industry standards. The artificial neural networks presented a high capacity of correct classification of the 20 selected genotypes based on the fiber quality index, so that when using fiber length associated with the short fiber index, fiber maturation, and micronaire index, the artificial neural networks presented better results than using only fiber length and previous associations. It was also observed that to submit data of means of new genotypes to the neural networks trained with data of repetition, provides better results of classification of the genotypes. When observing the results obtained in the present study, it was verified that the artificial neural networks present great potential to be used in the different stages of a genetic improvement program of the cotton, aiming at the improvement of the fiber quality of the future cultivars.

  18. Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic cotton fibers for selective extraction of Cu(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; Ibrahim, Amr A; Metwally, M M; Badawy, D S

    2015-11-01

    Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic fibers (Cu-ABZ) were manufactured for efficient selective adsorption of Cu(2+) ions. The chemical modification steps had been characterized utilizing elemental analysis; Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) along with wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Also, the morphological structure of the ion-imprinted and the non-imprinted (NI-ABZ) fibers were visualized and compared with that of the native cotton fibers using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the coordination mode by which the Cu(2+) ions bonded to the active sites were examined by both FTIR and X-ray photo electron spectra (XPS). Both Cu-ABZ and NI-ABZ were implemented in batch experiments for optimizing the conditions by which the Cu(2+) ions can be selectively removal from aqueous medium and pH 5 was the optimum for the metal ion extraction. Moreover, the kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption data fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir models with estimated maximum adsorption capacity 93.6mg/g. Also, the reusability studies indicated that the prepared ion-imprinted adsorbent maintains more than 95% of its original activity after fifth generation cycle.

  19. Genetic Linkage Analysis of the Natural Colored Fiber and Fuzzless Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-zhen; QIU Xin-mian; WANG Ju-qin; LU Yan-tin; BAO Li-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Genetic linkage relationship of the natural colored fiber and six fuzzless seed germplasms in obsolete backgrounds of Gossypium hirsutum (AD genome) and G.barbadense were analyzed in the past two years.Three lines of natural brown fiber that were controlled by single dominant genes and two lines of green fiber controlled by another single dominant gene.

  20. Determination of total selenium in geological samples by HG-AFS after concentration with thiol cotton fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Haifeng; WEN Hanjie; HU Ruizhong; CHANG Bin

    2008-01-01

    Standard reference material and different geological samples were dissolved by system A (the mixture of nitric and perchloric acids) and system B (mixture of nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids), and total Se in all samples was measured by hydride-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) after concentration with thiol cotton fiber (TCF). The analytical results obtained by the two digestion method are in good agreement (within the limit of errors) for most of the samples, particularly for those having recommended values. The Se concentrations determined by the two methods are of no difference, and the correlation coefficient is 0.9986; the relative standard deviation (RSD) for the determination of 0.04 (g/g Se is 10.2%. The recovery rates of systems A and B by the standard-addition method were 96%-106% and 99%-104%, respectively.

  1. Parallel expression evolution of oxidative stress-related genes in fiber from wild and domesticated diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittler Ron

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a prominent role in signal transduction and cellular homeostasis in plants. However, imbalances between generation and elimination of ROS can give rise to oxidative stress in growing cells. Because ROS are important to cell growth, ROS modulation could be responsive to natural or human-mediated selection pressure in plants. To study the evolution of oxidative stress related genes in a single plant cell, we conducted comparative expression profiling analyses of the elongated seed trichomes ("fibers" of cotton (Gossypium, using a phylogenetic approach. Results We measured expression changes during diploid progenitor species divergence, allopolyploid formation and parallel domestication of diploid and allopolyploid species, using a microarray platform that interrogates 42,429 unigenes. The distribution of differentially expressed genes in progenitor diploid species revealed significant up-regulation of ROS scavenging and potential signaling processes in domesticated G. arboreum. Similarly, in two independently domesticated allopolyploid species (G. barbadense and G. hirsutum antioxidant genes were substantially up-regulated in comparison to antecedent wild forms. In contrast, analyses of three wild allopolyploid species indicate that genomic merger and ancient allopolyploid formation had no significant influences on regulation of ROS related genes. Remarkably, many of the ROS-related processes diagnosed as possible targets of selection were shared among diploid and allopolyploid cultigens, but involved different sets of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Our data suggests that parallel human selection for enhanced fiber growth in several geographically widely dispersed species of domesticated cotton resulted in similar and overlapping metabolic transformations of the manner in which cellular redox levels have become modulated.

  2. Acoustical evaluation of carbonized and activated cotton nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N; Chen, J Y; Parikh, D V

    2009-12-01

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from a cotton nonwoven fabric. For the ACF acoustic application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glassfiber nonwoven, and the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of cotton fiber nonwoven. Their noise absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss were measured using the Brüel and Kjaer impedance tube instrument. Statistical significance of the differences between the composites was tested using the method of Duncan's grouping. The study concluded that the ACF composite exhibited a greater ability to absorb normal incidence sound waves than the composites with either glassfiber or cotton fiber. The analysis of sound transmission loss revealed that the three composites still obeyed the mass law of transmission loss. The composite with the surface layer of cotton fiber nonwoven possessed a higher fabric density and therefore showed a better sound insulation than the composites with glassfiber and ACF.

  3. Screening Cotton Mini-core Collection for Characterizing the Genetic Variability of Drought Resistance Traits and Selection of Suitable Mapping Population Parents for Genetic Dissection of Drought Resistance and Fiber Quality Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BOOPATHI; N; Manikanda; GOPIKRISHNAN; A; SELVAM; N; Jagadeesh; RAVIKESAVAN; R; IYANAR; K

    2008-01-01

    In the face of a global scarcity of water resources,drought has already become a primary factor in limiting crop production worldwide.In cotton,fiber productivity and quality is strongly influenced by

  4. The effects of cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang WU; Weiping FANG; Shuijin ZHU; Kuiying JIN; Daofan JI

    2008-01-01

    The effects of upland cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae were studied, through the compared analysis of the root exudates components between the resistant and suscept-ive cotton materials, using a pair of resistant and sus-ceptive isogenic lines to Verticillium wilt, Z5629 and Z421, as well as 4 other upland cotton cultivars with different resistant levels of Verticillium wilt. The results showed that the amino acids in the root exudates of the resistant cultivars were much less than that of the sus-ceptible ones. Compared with the susceptible ones, there were a lack of aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine and proline in the root exudates from the resistant cul-tivars. On the contrary, arginine was lacking in the sus-ceptive cultivars. The saccharide types in the root exudates were no different between the two kinds of cultivars, but the contents of glucose, fructose and suc-rose in the root exudates of the susceptible varieties were much higher than those in the resistant ones. The experiment of Verticillium dahliae culture showed that the cotton root exudates from resistant cultivars can effectively restrain the spore germination and mycelium growth of Verticillium dahliae, and the argi-nine was the leading amino acid in this inhibitory action, besides the nutrition of the root exudates. However, the cotton root exudates from the susceptive cotton cultivars can improve the growth and develop-ment of Verticillium dahliae effectively; among the amino acid in the exudates, alanine was the most active one in this stimulating function.

  5. Development of antibacterial ZnO-loaded cotton fabric based on in situ fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Zhu; Bremner, David H.; Wan, Na; Wang, Xiao

    2016-11-01

    A method provided for the deposition of nanostructured ZnO on cotton fabric to introduce antibacterial functionality was presented in this article. This strategy enabled fabric to be coated with inorganic-based functional materials through in situ synthesis of nanoparticles using ultrasonic irradiation. The amino-terminated silicon sol (AEAPTS) was employed to generate nanostructured ZnO, and the mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted coating was proposed. Antibacterial activities, UV protection and other properties of ZnO-loaded cotton characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD and TGA were investigated. The results indicated that ZnO-loaded cotton exhibited excellent UV protective property, efficient antibacterial activities, well water-resistant effect, together with moderate cytotoxicity against L929 and lower tensile strength. The developed method provides not only a facile way for in situ synthesis of ZnO on textile but also the production of antibacterial materials for healthcare applications.

  6. Developing hybrid cotton (Gossypium spp.) using honey bees as pollinators and the Roundup Ready® Phenotype as the selection trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile fiber crop in the United States (US). Hybrid cotton is grown in several countries but the use of hybrids in the US has been limited due to seed production costs. The objective of this study was to investigate a novel method for the production of ...

  7. Cheese dyeing of cotton/cuprene fiber%棉/铜氨纤维筒子纱染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦海萍

    2011-01-01

    For differences in dyeing properties between cotton and cuprammonium fiber, the pretreatment and dyeing process are optimized.The trials show that two-bath pretreatment process of cotton/cuprammonium cheese can increase the strength of 89% and whiteness of 2, with less hairiness and good handle compared with the conventional one-bath bleaching process.The optimized dyeing process is: pH of dye bath 11.0, levelling agent LT-R 3%, heating from 30 ℃ to 60 ℃ with rate of 1 ℃/min and holding 40 min.The dyed cheese exhibits good union color and excellent color fastness.%针对棉和铜氨纤维染色性能的差异,优化前处理和染色工艺.试验表明,棉/铜氨纤维二浴前处理工艺较常规的漂白一浴工艺,强力提高8%,白度提高2个白度值,且毛羽少、手感好.优化的棉/铜氨纤维混纺筒纱染色工艺为:染液pH值11.0,染色保温时间40 min,始染温度30℃升至60℃染色,升温速率1℃/min,新型阻染剂LT-R 3%.用该工艺染色的棉/铜氨纤维混纺筒纱同色性好,色牢度优良.

  8. Spinning of Cotton Hemp Bamboo Fiber Blended Yarn%棉汊麻竹浆纤维混纺纱的纺制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙治海

    2011-01-01

    To spinning cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn,hemp fiber were reconditioned and pretreated. Processing of raw material blending was selected to improve spinnability. Raw material feed ratio was controlled rationally, waste percentages in comb process, opening and picking process were controlled well to ensure yam blending ratio. Drawing processing was adjusted rationally to improve draw sliver evenness. In spinning less nipper gauge was used, new top pin was adopted to reduced float area and increase yarn quality. In winding process, winding tension and electronic yarn clearer parameter were selected rationally to ensure winding shape,finally cotton/hemp/bamboo 50/25/25 29. 2 tex blended yarn was spun successfully. It is pointed out quality demand of cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn can be ensured only to adjust technology measures in each process according to hemp property.%为纺制棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱,对汉麻纤维进行养生及预分梳处理;选用原料混和工艺改善可纺性;合理控制原料投料比例并控制开清棉与梳棉落棉率,保证成纱混纺比;并条工序合理调整工艺,提高熟条条干;细纱工序使用小钳口隔距,使用新型上销,缩短浮游区,以提高成纱质量;络筒工序选择适当的电清参数和络纱张力,以保证成形良好,结果顺利纺制出棉/汉麻/竹浆50/25/25 29.2 tex混纺纱.指出:只有针对汉麻纤维特点调整各工序纺纱技术措施,方能纺制出符合质量要求的棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱.

  9. Development of New Interspecific Monosomic F_1 Substitution Stocks for Investigations in Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANAMYAN; M; F; PETLYAKOVA; J; E; SHARIPOVA; E; A; RAKHMATULLINA; E; M

    2008-01-01

    As it is known a complete coverage of cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) genome with hypoaneuploids is not still realized.Therefore the detection of new types of aneuploids especially in different cytogenetic collections is very useful.In Uzbekistan,long-term investigations towards development of

  10. Mechanical Properties Change of Cotton Fiber Caused by Ultrasonic Treatment%超声波处理对棉纤维力学性能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国强

    2015-01-01

    Micro-morphology, degree of polymerization, molecular weight and mechanical properties change were tested to study the changes of cotton fiber caused by ultrasonic treatment in distilled water. The research shows that after the experiments processing, the natural cotton fiber twist rate in still distilled water and ultrasonic treatment water was both decreased, however, the fiber diameter, reflective intensity of the fiber were increased. After 2 the ways of treatment, breaking strength has increased slightly at point of 0.5 hour. By treatment in distilled water, the degree of fiber aggregation, molecular weight and tensile strength changed little, while properties of cotton fiber decreased greatly after ultrasonic treatment.%本文利用超声波对处在蒸馏水的棉纤维进行处理,观察、测试计算棉纤维的微观形貌与聚合度、分子量与断裂强力。研究表明,棉纤维经过在蒸馏水静止侵泡、在蒸馏水中经超声波处理后,其天然转曲的扭曲率均呈现下降趋势,而纤维直径、反光强度增加。两种实验方式的棉纤维在0.5小时处,断裂强力都略有上升,其后在蒸馏水静止侵泡处理的棉纤维,其聚合度、分子量与断裂强力变化不大,而经超声波处理后的棉纤维均有较大幅度的降低。

  11. Nondestructive identification of dye mixtures in polyester and cotton fibers using raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) microspectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an assessment of the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP) in visible and ultraviolet light (UV-Vis) in the examination of textile fibers dyed with mixtures of synthetic dyes. Fragments of single polyester fibers, stained with ternary mixtures of disperse dyes in small mass concentrations, and fragments of single cotton fibers, dyed with binary or ternary mixtures of reactive dyes, were subjected to the study. Three types of excitation sources, 514, 633, and 785 nm, were used during Raman examinations, while the MSP study was conducted in the 200 to 800 nm range. The results indicate that the capabilities for discernment of dye mixtures are similar in the spectroscopic methods that were employed. Both methods have a limited capacity to distinguish slightly dyed polyester fiber; additionally, it was found that Raman spectroscopy enables identification of primarily the major components in dye mixtures. The best results, in terms of the quality of Raman spectra, were obtained using an excitation source from the near infrared. MSP studies led to the conclusion that polyester testing should be carried out in the range above 310 nm, while for cotton fibers there is no limitation or restriction of the applied range. Also, MSP UV-Vis showed limited possibilities for discriminatory analysis of cotton fibers dyed with a mixture of reactive dyes, where the ratio of the concentration of the main dye used in the dyeing process to minor dye was higher than four. The results presented have practical applications in forensic studies, inter alia.

  12. Ultrasound energy to accelerate dye uptake and dye-fiber interaction of reactive dye on knitted cotton fabric at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation formed due to propagation of ultrasound wave inside a dye bath was successfully used to dye cotton fabric with a reactive dye at lower temperatures. The energy input to the system during sonication was 0.7 W/cm(2). This was within the energy range that contributes towards forming cavitation during ultra-sonication. The influence of ultrasound treatment on dye particle size and fiber morphology is discussed. Particle size analysis of the dye bath revealed ultra-sonication energy was capable of de-agglomeration of hydrolyzed dye molecules during dyeing. SEM micrograph and AFM topographical image of the fiber surface revealed fiber morphology remains unchanged after the sonication. The study was extended in understanding the contribution of ultrasound method of dyeing towards achieving good color strength on the fabric, compared to the normal heating method of dyeing. Study showed color strength obtained using ultra sound method of dyeing is higher compared to normal heating dyeing. Ultrasound energy was able to achieve the good color strength on cotton fabric at very low temperature such as 30 °C, which was approximately 230% more than the color strength achieved in normal heating method of dyeing. This indicates that energy input to the system using ultrasound was capable of acting as an effective alternative method of dyeing knitted cotton fabrics with reactive dye.

  13. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  14. Construction of an EST-SSR-based interspecific transcriptome linkage map of fibre development in cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chuanxiang Liu; Daojun Yuan; Zhongxu Lin

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is an important method in marker-assisted selection breeding. Many studies on the QTLs focus on cotton fibre yield and quality; however, most are conducted at the DNA level, which may reveal null QTLs. Hence, QTL mapping based on transcriptome maps at the cDNA level is often more reliable. In this study, an interspecific transcriptome map of allotetraploid cotton was developed based on an F2 population (Emian22 × 3-79) by amplifying cDNA using EST-SSRs. The map was constructed using cDNA obtained from developing fibres at five days post anthesis (DPA). A total of 1270 EST-SSRs were screened for polymorphisms between the mapping parents. The resulting transcriptome linkage map contained 242 markers that were distributed in 32 linkage groups (26 chromosomes). The full length of this map is 1938.72 cM with a mean marker distance of 8.01 cM. The functions of some ESTs have been annotated by exploring homologous sequences. Some markers were related to the differentiation and elongation of cotton fibre, while most were related to the basic metabolism. This study demonstrates that constructing a transcriptome linkage map by amplifying cDNAs using EST-SSRs is a simple and practical method as well as a powerful tool to map eQTLs for fibre quality and other traits in cotton.

  15. Fiber type distribution in the shoulder muscles of the tree shrew, the cotton-top tamarin, and the squirrel monkey related to shoulder movements and forelimb loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela; Schilling, Nadja

    2007-04-01

    Muscle fiber type composition of intrinsic shoulder muscles was examined in tree shrews, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys with respect to their shoulder kinematics and forelimb loading during locomotion. Enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to differentiate muscle fiber types on serial cross-sections of the shoulder. In the majority of the shoulder muscles, the proportions of fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers (SO) and fatigable fast-twitch fibers (FG) were inversely related to each other, whereas the percentage of intermediate FOG-fibers varied independently. A segregation of fatigue resistant SO-fibers into deep muscle regions is indicative of differential activation of histochemically distinct muscle regions in which deep regions stabilize the joint against gravitational loading. In all three species, this antigravity function was demonstrated for both the supraspinatus and the cranial subscapularis muscle, which prevent passive joint flexion during the support phase of the limb. The infraspinatus muscle showed a high content of SO-fibers in the primate species but not in the tree shrew, which demonstrates the "new" role of the infraspinatus muscle in joint stabilization related to the higher degree of humeral protraction in primates. In the tree shrew and the cotton-top tamarin, a greater proportion of the body weight is carried on the forelimb, but the squirrel monkey exhibits a weight shift to the hind limbs. The lower amount of forelimb loading is reflected by an overall lower proportion of fatigue resistant muscle fibers in the shoulder muscles of the squirrel monkey. Several muscles such as the deltoid no longer function as joint stabilizers and allow the humerus to move beyond the scapular plane. These differences among species demonstrate the high plasticity of the internal muscle architecture and physiology which is suggested to be the underlying reason for different muscle activity patterns in homologous muscles

  16. Developing an effective community conservation program for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A; Guillen, R; Lamilla, I; Soto, L

    2010-05-01

    Developing effective conservation programs that positively impact the survival of a species while considering the needs of local communities is challenging. Here we present an overview of the conservation program developed by Proyecto Tití to integrate local communities in the conservation of Colombia's critically endangered primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Our comprehensive assessment of the threats effecting the long-term survival of the cotton-top tamarin allowed us to establish the primary components of our program. Proyecto Tití has three areas of emphasis: (1) scientific studies detailing the biology and long-term survival of the cotton-top tamarin, (2) conservation education programs to increase public awareness and conservation knowledge, and (3) community empowerment programs that demonstrate a valuable economic incentive to protecting wildlife and forested areas in Colombia. This integrated approach to conservation that involves local communities in activities that benefit individuals, as well as wildlife, has proven to be remarkably effective in protecting cotton-top tamarins and their forested habitat. Our bindes program, which uses small cook stoves made from clay, has demonstrated a marked reduction in the number of trees that have been harvested for firewood. Developing environmental entrepreneurs, who create products made from recycled plastic for sale in national and international markets, has had a significant impact in reducing the amount of plastic that has been littering the environment and threatening the health of wildlife, while creating a stable economic income for rural communities. Proyecto Tití has provided economic alternatives to local communities that have dramatically reduced the illegal capture of cotton-top tamarins and forest destruction in the region that has positively impacted the long-term survival of this critically endangered primate.

  17. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-xu; HE Dao-hua; WANG Hong-mei

    2008-01-01

    @@ QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208 (characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90 (characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-1ocus linkage map was constructed covering 5472.3 cM with an average distance of 5.32 cM between two markers.

  18. 两种形态棉秆与回收塑料制备复合板材的工艺%Composite Processing Technology from Cotton Stalk Fiber and Particles Combined with Two Types of Recycled Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺焘; 郭文静; 高黎; 常亮; 王正

    2011-01-01

    采用两种形态的棉秆与两种塑料复合,制备棉秆/塑料复合板材,分析棉秆形态、塑料种类及工艺因子对复合板材性能的影响.结果表明:刨花态棉秆复合板材的性能优于搓丝态棉秆,热压温度、聚丙烯比例和板材密度对复合板材的性能有显著影响.优化条件下制成的棉秆搓丝/聚丙烯复合板材性能,超过室外结构用刨花板性能指标要求.%The authors processed cotton stalks into fiber and particles, and combined them with recycled plastics, polypropylene(PP)and polyethylene (PE), to prepare cotton stalk fiber/plastic composites by hot pressing. The composite panel properties were tested to evaluate the effects caused by the cotton stalk shapes and panel processing factors. The results showed that; 1) The composites made from the cotton stalk particles had better properties than those made from cotton stalk fibers; 2) Density, hot-pressing temperature and the cotton stalk/plastic ratio had a great effect on the cotton-stalk-fiber/polypropylene panel properties. Under optimized conditions, the cotton-stalk-fiber /polypropylene panel properties exceeded the specifications of national standard GB/T 4897. 6-2003,GB/T 4897. 7-2003 for structural particleboards.

  19. 纤维陶粒泡沫混凝土抗剪性能试验研究%Evaluation of shear performance of reinforced ceramsite foamed concrete with cotton straw fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康; 陈国新; 陈磊; 万朝阳; 秦岷; 席亮

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the influence of cotton straw fiber on the shear performance of ceramsite foamed concrete,the experi-ment was performed by using double-sided direct shear method to evaluate the shear performance of fiber reinforced ceramsite foamed concrete.At the same fiber content and fiber length conditions,cotton straw fiber,glass fiber and polypropylene fiber re-inforcement effect on shear strength of ceramsite foamed concrete were compared.Additionally,effects of cotton straw fiber con-tent and fiber length on shear strength of ceramsite foamed concrete were also evaluated.Under the 0.2% fiber content and 6-10 mm fiber length conditions,the results indicated that the glass fiber reinforcement on the shear strength of ceramsite foamed con-crete is higher than the other kinds of fibers,polypropylene fiber followed,cotton stalk fiber is the lowest one.However,adding cotton fiber into ceramsite foamed concrete can also effectively improve its shear strength.Under the same cotton stalk fiber length but different fiber content conditions,it can be found that the blocks shear strength of 0.8% fiber content group is the highest with 39.2% increase in shear strength as compared with the same ratio for fiber specimens.Under the same cotton stalk fiber content but different fiber length conditions,it can be found that the 11-15 mm length of cotton fiber can further enhance the shear strength of ceramsite foamed concrete.The shear-compression ratio of cotton straw fiber reinforced ceramsite foamed con-crete is high and its shear performance is good.%为研究棉秆纤维对陶粒泡沫混凝土抗剪强度的影响,采用双面剪切法进行抗剪性能试验,对比相同纤维掺量及纤维长度下,棉秆纤维、玻璃纤维和聚丙烯纤维对陶粒泡沫混凝土抗剪强度的增强效果,分析棉秆纤维掺入量和纤维长度两个因素在不同水平下对陶粒泡沫混凝土抗剪强度的影响。结果表明:在0.2%纤维掺量及6

  20. Developments in distributed optical fiber detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Zhu, Qianxia; You, Tianrong

    2014-12-01

    The distributed optical fiber detection technology plays an important role in many fields, such as key regional security monitoring, pipeline maintenance and communication cable protection. It is superior to the traditional detector, and has a good prospect. This paper presents an overview of various distributed optical fiber sensors. At first, some related technologies of the optical fiber detection schemes are introduced in respect of sensing distance, real-time ability, signal strength, and system complexity; and the advantages and limitations of fiber gratings sensors, reflection-based optical fiber sensors, and interference- based optical fiber sensors are discussed. Then some advanced distributed optical fiber detection systems are mentioned. And the double-loop Sagnac distributed system is improved by adding photoelectric modulators and depolarizers. In order to denoise and enhance the original signal, a spectral subtraction-likelihood ratio method is improved. The experiment results show the spatial resolution is +/-15m per kilometer. Finally, based on the development trends of optical fiber detection technology at home and abroad, development tendency and application fields are predicted.

  1. Application of an automatic yarn dismantler to track changes in cotton fiber properties during full scale processing of cotton into carded yarn

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fassihi, A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available of fibers from dismantled yarn was higher, and SFC lower, than that in the twistless strand before twist insertion, indicating that, during twist insertion, short fibers were lost as fly and through suction. Fiber linear density and maturity showed similar...

  2. Advanced Optical Fiber Development for kW Fiber Lasers with Sub-GHz Linewidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Advanced Optical Fiber Development for kW Fiber Lasers with Sub-GHz Linewidth The project is for acquiring an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) covering...27709-2211 Specialty optical fibers , optical fiber lasers REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Advanced Optical Fiber Development for kW Fiber Lasers with Sub-GHz Linewidth

  3. Optimization of technical parameters for making mulch from waste cotton and rice straw fiber%废旧棉与水稻秸秆纤维混合地膜制造工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海涛; 明向兰; 刘爽; 张颖; 张鸿超

    2015-01-01

    The technology of plastic mulching was widely used, but its use depended on petroleum resources, which caused white pollution; straw was a rich resource in quantity, but large amount of waste straw was burned in the field, which caused the waste of resource and the environmental pollution at the same time. To solve the pollution of plastic film, plant fiber mulching has been developed, which was biodegradable mulching. There was lots of methyl cellulose in the biogas residue produced by anaerobic fermentation using ruminant feces. Crop residues, most often treated as waste material, could be used as raw material to produce biodegradable plastic membrane, and one technique may solve the white pollution brought by plastic mulching and the plant residue pollution. Waste cotton fiber came from human production and life with low price, so there was an urgent need to its re-utilization. Abandoned textiles were mostly disposed as garbage, and the recycle was very little, which resulted in serious waste of resource and environmental pollution. In abandoned textiles, cotton textiles were mostly confined, for cotton fiber was cut or broken, and through the re-processing, some low additional value products were produced, which hindered the establishment of the industrial chain of the waste textile recycling. In order to improve the utilization rate of waste cotton fabrics and crop straw, and provide technical support for making the biodegradable biogas residue fiber mulch, the processing and property of hybrid film produced by waste cotton and rice straw fiber were studied.The “skeleton” was waste cotton fiber, and filling material was rice straw fiber, with adding the additive that was environmental friendly. The method of four-factor and five-level quadratic regression orthogonal rotation center combination was applied. Beating degree, adding ratio, basis weight and wet strength agent were taken as influencing factors; dry tension strength and elongation, wet tension

  4. Development of simple algorithm for direct and rapid determination of cotton maturity from FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences...

  5. Effect of Blending Ratio on Modal Fiber Cotton Blended Yarn Quality%混纺比对Modal纤维棉混纺纱性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严瑛

    2012-01-01

    探讨混纺比对Modal纤维棉混纺纱性能的影响.选取Modal纤维与棉为原料,分别纺制14.5 tex的纯棉精梳纱、纯Modal纱以及Modal与棉混纺比分别为20/80、30/70、40/60、50/50的混纺精梳纱,并通过对比试验,分析了混纺比对成纱强伸性能、条干、毛羽的影响.结果表明:从提高混纺纱断裂强度考虑,混纺比选择50/50比较适宜;Modal纤维的含量在40%左右时,成纱条干较好;混纺比为40/60或50/50左右时,成纱毛羽数较低.%Effect of blending ratio on Modal fiber cotton blended yarn quality was discussed. Modal fiber and cotton were selected as raw material,pure cotton 14. 5 tex combed yarn was spun,pure Modal 14. 5 tex yarn was spun,Modal cotton blended yarns were spun as well,the blending ratio was 20/80,30/70,40/60 and 50/50- Through contrast and test,effect of blending ratio on yarn strength and elongation,evenness and hairiness were analyzed. The result shows when adopting the blending ratio of 50/50 breaking intensity of the blended yarn is better,when adopt the blending ratio of 40/60 evenness of the blended yarn is better, when adopt the blending ratio of 50/50 or 40/60 hairiness of the blended yarns are better.

  6. Recent Development in Optical Fiber Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Bosch Ojeda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable developments can be seen in the field of optical fibre biosensors in the last decade. More sensors for specific analytes have been reported, novel sensing chemistries or transduction principles have been introduced, and applications in various analytical fields have been realised. This review consists of papers mainly reported in the last decade and presents about applications of optical fiber biosensors. Discussions on the trends in optical fiber biosensor applications in real samples are enumerated.

  7. Development and Characterization of Cellulose/clay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is the most important textile fiber for apparel use and is preferred to synthetic fibers for reasons such as comfort and feel. A major drawback of cellulosic fibers is flammability. The development of cellulose/clay nanocomposites for use as flame retardant materials based on cotton is repo...

  8. Development and characterization of genomic and expressed SSRs for levant cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Satya Narayan; Srivastava, Anukool; Rai, Krishan Mohan; Ranjan, Alok; Singh, Sunil K; Nisar, Tarannum; Srivastava, Meenal; Bag, Sumit K; Mantri, Shrikant; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Yadav, Hemant Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh; Sawant, Samir V

    2012-02-01

    Four microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries for CA(15), GA(15), AAG(8) and ATG(8) repeats and transcriptome sequences of five cDNA libraries of Gossypium herbaceum were explored to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 428 unique clones from repeat enriched genomic libraries were mined for 584 genomic SSRs (gSSRs). In addition, 99,780 unigenes from transcriptome sequencing were explored for 8,900 SSR containing sequences with 12,471 expressed SSRs. The present study adds 1,970 expressed SSRs and 263 gSSRs to the public domain for the use of genetic studies of cotton. When 150 gSSRs and 50 expressed SSRs were tested on a panel of four species of cotton, 68 gSSRs and 12 expressed SSRs revealed polymorphism. These 200 SSRs were further deployed on 15 genotypes of levant cotton for the genetic diversity assessment. This is the first report on the successful use of repeat enriched genomic library and expressed sequence database for microsatellite markers development in G. herbaceum.

  9. Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of Upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this present study, we evaluated a RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, ‘HS 46’ and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundr...

  10. Development of Quartz Fiber Calorimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD40 \\\\ \\\\ Very Forward Calorimeters (VFCs) in LHC detectors should cover the pseudorapidity range from $\\eta$~=~2.5 to at least $\\eta$~=~5 in order to compute missing transverse energy and for jet tagging. Operation at such high rapidity requires the use of a calorimetry technique that is very radiation resistant, fast and insensitive to radioactivity (especially to neutrons). This can be accomplished through the Quartz-Calorimeter~(Q-Cal) concept of embedding silica core fibers, that resist to the Gigarad radiation level, into an absorber. In this calorimeter the shower particles produce light through the Cherenkov effect generating a signal less than 10~ns in duration. Unique to this new technology the visible energy of hadronic showers has a transverse dimension nearly an order of magnitude smaller than that in conventional calorimeters, enabling precise spatial resolution, sharper isolation cuts and better jet recognition against the minimum bias events background. Last but not least, most radioactive ...

  11. [Determination of cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric by NIR spectra and variable selection methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Geng, Xiang; Liu, Mu-hua

    2014-12-01

    Rapid detection of textile fiber components is very important for production process of quality control, trading and market surveillance. The objective of this research was to assess cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric quickly by near infrared (NIR) spectrum technology and variable selection methods. Reflectance spectra of samples were acquired by a NIRFlex N-500 Fourier spectroscopy in the range of 4000~10,000 cm(-1), primary election of spectral range and pretreatment analysis were conducted first. Then, three variable selection methods such as UVE (uninformative variables elimination), SPA (successive projections algorithm) and CARS (competitive adaptive reweighted sampling) were used to select sensitive variables. After that, PLS (partial least squares) was used to develop calibration model for cotton content of cotton/ramie blended fabric, and the best calibration model was used to predict cotton content of samples in prediction set. The result indicates that range of 4052~8000 cm(-1) is optimal spectral range for cotton content modeling. CARS method is an efficient method to improve model performance, the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of CARS-PLS for calibration and prediction sets are 0.903, 0.749 and 8.01%, 12.93%, respectively. So NIR spectra combined with CARS method is feasible for assessing cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric, and CARS method can simplify model, improve model performance.

  12. Effect of N fertilization rate on soil alkali-hydrolyzable N, subtending leaf N concentration, fiber yield, and quality of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binglin Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, which is sensitive to N fertilization rate, is one of the indicators of soil nitrogen supplying capacity. Two field experiments were conducted in Dongtai (120°19″ E, 32°52″ N, Jiangsu, China in 2009 and Dafeng (120°28″ E, 33°12″ N, Jiangsu province, China in 2010. Six nitrogen rates (0, 150, 300, 375, 450, and 600 kg ha− 1 were used to study the effect of N fertilization rate on soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content (SAHNC, subtending leaf nitrogen concentration (SLNC, yield, and fiber quality. In both Dongtai and Dafeng experiment station, the highest yield (1709 kg ha− 1, best quality (fiber length 30.6 mm, fiber strength 31.6 cN tex− 1, micronaire 4.82, and highest N agronomic efficiency (2.03 kg kg− 1 were achieved at the nitrogen fertilization rate of 375 kg ha− 1. The dynamics of SAHNC and SLNC could be simulated with a cubic and an exponential function, respectively. The changes in SAHNC were consistent with the changes in SLNC. Optimal average rate (0.276 mg day− 1 and duration (51.8 days of SAHNC rapid decline were similar to the values obtained at the nitrogen rate of 375 kg ha− 1 at which cotton showed highest fiber yield, quality, and N agronomic efficiency. Thus, the levels and strategies of nitrogen fertilization can affect SAHNC dynamics. The N fertilization rate that optimizes soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content would optimize the subtending leaf nitrogen concentration and thereby increase the yield and quality of the cotton fiber.

  13. The Development of Indicator Cotton Swabs for the Detection of pH in Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Schaude

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicator cotton swabs have been developed in order to enable faster, less expensive, and simpler information gathering of a wound status. Swabs are normally used for cleaning the wound, but here, they were covalently functionalized with indicator chemistry. Thus, they in principle enable simultaneous wound cleaning and wound pH detection. Using an indicator dye with a color change from yellow to red, combined with an inert dye of blue color, a traffic light color change from green to red is induced when pH increases. The indicator cotton swabs (ICSs show a color change from green (appropriate wound pH to red (elevated wound pH. This color change can be interpreted by the naked eye as well as by an optical color measurement device in order to obtain quantitative data based on the CIE L*a*b* color space. Two types of swabs have been developed—indicator cotton swabs ICS1 with a sensitive range from pH 5 to 7 and swabs ICS2 with a sensitive range from 6.5 to 8.5. The swabs are gamma-sterilized and the effect of sterilization on performance was found to be negligible. Furthermore, cytotoxicity testing shows cell viability and endotoxin levels to be within the allowable range.

  14. Development of Activated Carbon from Cotton Fibre Waste as Potential Mercury Adsorbent: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatindra N. Bhakta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempted to develop the activated carbon of cotton fibre (ACCF from cotton waste as a high Hg2+ adsorbent media and characterize physicochemical properties using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS and Hg2+ adsorption kinetic by batch adsorption study with the function of contact time, solution pH, dosages of ACCF, and Hg concentration. The SEM-EDS study revealed that ACCF is composed of carbon (95.1% and phosphorus pentoxide (4.9%. Obtained results of adsorption kinetics showed that 15 min of contact time is required to achieve the equilibrium state and wide range of pH (4.08–7 is favourable for maximum Hg adsorption. The Hg2+ adsorption capacity showed a decreasing trend with increasing dose of ACCF, whereas a reverse response of adsorption capacity was pronounced with increasing Hg concentration. The data was well described by Freundlich isotherm model and determined the high Hg2+ adsorption capacity of ACCF (169.2 mg/g. To our knowledge, the application of ACCF in removing Hg2+ is the first study. High Hg2+ adsorption capacity, economic feasibility, availability of cotton fibre waste, and simple preparation method concluded that it could be used as a novel low-cost and environmentally sound adsorbent media for removing high rate of Hg2+ from aqueous phase.

  15. Screening Cotton Mini-core Collection for Characterizing the Genetic Variability of Drought Resistance Traits and Selection of Suitable Mapping Population Parents for Genetic Dissection of Drought Resistance and Fiber Quality Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BOOPATHI N Manikanda; GOPIKRISHNAN A; SELVAM N Jagadeesh; RAVIKESAVAN R; IYANAR K

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the face of a global scarcity of water resources,drought has already become a primary factor in limiting crop production worldwide.In cotton,fiber productivity and quality is strongly influenced by water stress at any point of time during flowering to boll forming phases,and hence,it is imperative to improve the drought tolerance of cotton.This implies a need for a better characterization of the biodiversity available for drought tolerance and a complete perception of the physiological mechanisms,which are crucial to assure fiber yield and quality under water limited environments.

  16. Effects of several Plant Growth Regulators on the Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ÇOPUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGR are used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. production to balance vegetative and reproductive growth, as well as to increase seed cotton yield and lint quality. Field experiments were conducted with some PGRs to determine their effects on yield and yield components of cotton cultivar Stoneville 453. The study was conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the Agricultural Research and Application Centre of Harran University located in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. During the study, seven commercial PGRs (MC, NAP, BIGIB, KH, MCROP and BIGIBER were sprayed at recommended doses and appropriate application periods. Experiments were arranged as randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental plots consisted of six rows, each having 12 m length, row spacing was 0.70 and intra-row spacing was 0.20 m. The results showed that PGRs (except PC had statistically significant positive effects on the seed cotton yield, plant height, number of open boll, number of sympodia, boll weight, lint percentage and seed index and that they decreased the earliness index. However, fibre length, fibre fineness, fibre strength and fibre uniformity were not affected by the applications. Higher yields were obtained in MCROP, BIGIB and BIGIBER treated plots. Therefore, PGRs might be considered a component of cotton growth management, which is effective on providing higher seed cotton yields.

  17. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira; Osmundo Brilhante Oliveira-Neto; Hudson Fernando Moura; Leonardo Lima Pepino de Macedo; Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro Arraes; Wagner Alexandre Lucena; Isabela Tristan Lourenço-Tessuti; Aulus Estevão Anjos de Deus Barbosa; Maria Cristina Mattar Silva; Maria Fátima eGrossi de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (throu...

  18. Trade Statistics: Cotton Yarn & Fabric in Feb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the single most important textile fiber in the world,accounting for nearly 40 percent of total world fiber production.While some 80 countries from around the globe produce cotton,the United States,China,and India together provide over half the world's cotton.This monthly update provides official CNTAC (China National Textile & Apparel Council ) data on China import and export of cotton yarn and cotton fabric,to show a general profile of China's foreign trade in current textile industry.

  19. 棉花纤维和衣分等基因系的收集和遗传学研究%Genetics and the Genetic Collection of Isogenic Lines of Seed Lint Type and Fiber Output in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. A. MUSAEV; M. F. ABZALOV; A. S. ALMATOV; T. TURABEKOV; S. T. MUSAEVA; G. N. FATKHULLAEVA; N. G. GUBANOVA; Kh. A. AKHMEDOV

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a result of long standing investigation on urgent problems of amphidiploid cotton species Gossypium hirsutum genetics, for the first time genetic determination of the most important traits has been established, and the unique genetic collection of homozygous isogenic lines has been developed. A scientifically wellfounded theory about combined types of polygene interaction in genetic determination of tracts in cotton, has been developed.

  20. 绿色、棕色和白色棉品种光合作用与产量性状的研究%Comparative Studies on the Photosynthesis and Yield Characteristics among Green, Brown and White Fiber Cotton Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海鹏; 周桃华; 周琴; 王荣富

    2011-01-01

    以棕色棉(皖棉38号)、绿色棉(皖棉39号)和白色棉(皖棉25号)为材料,研究了它们的光合表现与产量性状.结果表明:与白色棉相比,彩色棉皖棉38号和绿色棉皖棉39号中前期干物质积累速率慢、积累量少;叶绿素含量低;叶面积系数的增长主要在棉花生育中前期,盛花期以后,叶面积系数下降较快;光合速率在盛花前期略高于白色棉,但盛花期后明显低于白色棉.3个品种盛花期光合速率日变化有两个明显的峰值,分别为上午10时和下午16时,彩色棉的“午休”现象不明显,晴天中午下降的幅度较小,恢复的时间短,抗旱性较强.在产量性状方面,白色棉产量显著高于2个彩色棉且差异显著.%Using brown-fiber cotton (Wanmian 38), green-fiber cotton (Wanmian 39), and the'parental material called white-cotton (Wanmian 25) as experimental materials to analyze the differences of the photosynthesis character and yield in the three lines. The results indicated,compared with the white cotton, colored cottons had a relatively lower increasing rate and less amount of dry matter in the former and middle growth period, also chlorophyll' content were lower. In addition, leaf area indices of colored cotton went up mainly in the early growth stage, but they fell down fast after the full bloom stage. Just as photosynthetic rate, the green-fiber cotton and brown-fiber cotton were slightly higher than that of the white-cotton during the former full bloom stage, but obviously lower than the white-cotton during the later full bloom stage. In this study, there were two obvious peaks in diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate at 10:00am and 16:00pm among the three varieties. In comparison of white-cotton, the "nap phenomenon" of colored cottons were not obvious and their photosynthetic rate dropped within a small range, besides, the recovery time was short and the toler-ance to drought was stronger. Moreover, yields of the white-cotton

  1. Coordination and collaboration to document the global cotton germplasm resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 years to insure the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene ...

  2. 基于纤维纵向显微图像的棉/亚麻单纤维识别%Single fiber identification of cotton/ flax fabric based on longitudinal view of microscopic fiber images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应乐斌; 戴连奎; 吴俭俭; 孙国君

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at cotton/flax blended fabrics, a new automatic identification method based on the longitudinal view of microscopic fiber images is proposed, in which the length of fiber about 0. 5 mm is used for image capture. For fiber detection, the background of fiber image is removed firstly, then fiber areas are detected by a method combining morphological close operation and background regional growth, and the glass scratches and other sundries in the images are filtered as well. Based on the region image, binary image and refining image of binary image perpendicular to the fiber skeleton, their vertical integral projection series are captured, and each coefficient variation ( CV value) and mean value of these three series are extracted and used as the texture parameters of cotton/flax blended fabric to train the least square support vector machine classifier. The experiment results show that the mean identification accuracy of cotton and flax fibers is 93. 3% .%针对棉/亚麻混纺织物,基于其单纤维纵向显微图像(纤维切段的长度约为0.5 mm),研究了纤维的自动识别方法.检测纤维时,先对纤维图像进行去背景处理,而后运用形态学闭运算和背景区域生长相结合的方法获得纤维的目标区域,对图片中出现的玻璃划痕、干扰杂物等进行了较好的滤除.由纤维骨架垂直方向上的区域图、二值图和细化图得到它们的垂直积分投影序列,并提取这3条序列各自的变异系数CV值和平均值共计6个参数.将这6个参数作为棉/亚麻纤维的特征参数,训练最小二乘支持向量机分类器,对测试集的测试结果表明该分类器对棉/亚麻短纤维的识别正确率平均为93.3%.

  3. New glass developments for fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higby, Paige L.; Holst, Karen; Tabor, Kevin; James, William; Chase, Elizabeth; Pucilowski, Sally; Gober-Mangan, Elizabeth; Klimek, Ronald; Karetta, Frank; Schreder, Bianca

    2014-02-01

    Fiber optic components for lighting and imaging applications have been in use for decades. Recent requirements such as a need for RoHS compliance, attractive market pricing, or particular optical properties, such as numerical aperture (NA) or transmission, have required SCHOTT to develop and implement new glasses for these applications. From Puravis™ lead-free fibers for lighting applications, to new glasses for digital X-ray imaging and sensor applications, the challenges for SCHOTT scientists are considerable. Pertinent properties of these glasses and methods of determination for suitability will be discussed.

  4. Oil sorption by lignocellulosic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom-Goo. Lee; James S. Han; Roger M. Rowell

    1999-01-01

    The oil sorption capacities of cotton fiber, kenaf bast fiber, kenaf core fiber, and moss fiber were compared after refining, extraction, and reduction in particle sizes. The tests were conducted on diesel oil in a pure form. Cotton fiber showed the highest capacity, followed by kenaf core and bast fibers. Wetting, extraction, and reduction in particle size all...

  5. Development Of Porous Glass Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, P. B.; Barkatt, Aa.; Feng, X.; Finger, S. M.; Hojaji, H.; Laberge, N.; Mohr, R.; Penafiel, M.; Saad, E.

    A method for producing rugged, continuous porous glass fiber optic sensors was developed. pH and temperature sensors based on this technology have been successfully produced. The sensor portion of the fiber is made porous by selective leaching of a specially formulated borosilicate glass fiber. This results in a strong, monolithic structure where the sensor portion of the fiber remains integrally attached to the rest of the fiber (which acts as a light pipe), essentially eliminating losses at the sensor-light pipe interface. Pore size in the sensor can be controllably varied by modifying heat treatment conditions, making these sensors suitable for chemical concentration measurements in liquids and gases. Appropriate dyes were chemically bonded by silanization to the large interior surface area of the porous sensors to produce the pH and temperature sensors. Cresol red and phenol red were used for pH and pinacyanol chloride was used for temperature sensing. The sensitivity of these devices can be controlled by varying the concentration of the chemically bonded dye and the length of the porous region. Optical absorbance measurements were made in the visible range. The tip of the sensors was coated with a thin, porous layer of gold to reflect the incident light, resulting in a double pass across the porous sensor. Experimental measurements were made over a pH range of 3 to 8 and a temperature range of 28-70 C. These porous glass fiber optic sensors were found to be rugged and reliable due to their monolithic structure and large interior surface area for attachment of active species. A broad range of sensors based on this technology could be developed by using different active species, such as enzymes and other biochemicals, which could be bonded to the interior surface of the porous glass sensor.

  6. Fiber optic gyro development at Fibernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Ralph A.; Arnesen, Leif; Herdman, Craig

    2016-05-01

    Fiber optic gyroscope based inertial sensors are being used within increasingly severe environments, enabling unmanned systems to sense and navigate in areas where GPS satellite navigation is unavailable or jammed. A need exists for smaller, lighter, lower power inertial sensors for the most demanding land, sea, air, and space applications. Fibernetics is developing a family of inertial sensor systems based on our closed-loop navigation-grade fiber optic gyroscope (FOG). We are making use of the packaging flexibility of the fiber to create a navigation grade inertial measurement unit (IMU) (3 gyroscopes and 3 accelerometers) that has a volume of 102 cubic inches. We are also planning a gyrocompass and an inertial navigation system (INS) having roughly the same size. In this paper we provide an update on our development progress and describe our modulation scheme for the Sagnac interferometers. We also present a novel multiplexed design that efficiently delivers source light to each of the three detectors. In our future development section we discuss our work to improve FOG performance per unit volume, specifically detailing our focus in utilizing a multicore optical fiber.

  7. Ecological regionalization of cotton fiber quality in the Northwest Inland Region using GGE analysis%基于GGE分析的西北内陆棉区纤维品质生态区划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐淑荣; 许乃银; 杨伟华; 魏守军; 周治国

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the distribution characteristics of cotton fiber quality using environmental materials from 7 sites of early-maturing and 10 sites of medium-early maturing cotton of regional trials in the Northwest Inland in China during 2005–2014. Using the GGE model to draw biplots, cotton fiber quality performance and environmental interaction patterns and the correlation between spinning consistency index and fiber trait were explored, and the GGE biplot method was also used to zone potential ecological sub-regions. The aim of the study was to provide the basis for regional cultivation of cotton varieties, and the ideal experimental environment in the Northwest Inland for improving cotton fiber and yarn quality in the country. The research results showed that cotton fiber quality traits were correlated with each other. The spinning consistency index significantly positively correlated with fiber length, strength and index uniformity. The cultivation regions were divided into three ecological sub-regions based on cotton fiber quality in the early maturing cotton cultivation area. These sub-regions included the high quality cotton fiber ecological sub-region (i.e. Jinghe), the common high quality fiber ecological sub-region (Sixth Divisions of Agricultural Production and Construction Corps in Xinjiang, i.e., ACD6 and Usu City) and the common fiber ecological sub-region (Dunhuang, 125 Tuan of ACD7, 121 Tuan of ACD8 and Shihezi). The medium-early maturing cotton cultivation area in the Northwest Inland was also divided into three sub-regions. They were the high quality cotton fiber ecological sub-region (Yarkand, Luntai, Bazhou, Kuqa, Shufu, 13 Tuan and 10 Tuan Tahe of Alaer ACD1), the common high quality fiber ecological sub-region (Maigaiti and Kashi of ACD3) and the common fiber ecological sub-region (Aksu). It was therefore important to cultivate the early maturing cotton with good comprehensive quality traits, and to improve fiber length and strength in

  8. Allen Terhaar: Future Development of Cotton for the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 China International Cotton Conference, organized by China Cotton Association (CCA), Research Centre for Rural Economy (RCRE) of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) as well as the China National Cotton Exchange (CNCE), took place June 15-16 in the beautiful coastal city of Dalian this year. Allen Terhaar, Executive President of Cotton Council International (CCI), delivered a speech with the name of Cotton in the 21st Century: Sustaining Our Industry's Future. In the following part, let's share his opinions and suggestions.

  9. Cloning and Function Characteristic of GhDWF4,an Ortholog of Arabidopsis DWF4 from Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As one of the longest cells characterized in plant kingdom,cotton fibers were regarded as an ideal material for studying plant cell growth and development.In recent years,several reports revealed that

  10. RNA Interference for Functional Genomics and Improvement of Cotton (Gossypium sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Ruziboev, Haydarali S; Shapulatov, Umid M; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z; Percy, Richard G; Devor, Eric J; Sharma, Govind C; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Kumpatla, Siva P; van der Krol, Alexander; Kater, Hake D; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialization.

  11. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrokhim Y. Abdurakhmonov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi, is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium ssp.. The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialisation.

  12. Toward Molecular Cytogenetical Characterizations in Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; WANG Kun-bo; PENG Ren-hai; WU Qion; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang; STELLY David

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is viewed as the most important cash crop in the world,and sustains the agricultural economies of many nations by providing a sustainable fiber product for the textile industry.Due to its global economic importance,many molecular tools are being developed.Florescent in situ hybridization (FISH),which allows DNA sequences to be mapped directly on chromosomes,is stressed as one of the most powerful techniques in plant molecular cytogenetics research.

  13. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  14. Cotton domestication: dramatic changes in a single cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasburg Jared L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Investigations on the nature of genetic changes underpinning plant domestication have begun to shed light on the evolutionary history of crops and can guide improvements to modern cultivars. A recent study focused on cotton fiber cells tracks the dramatic genome-wide changes in gene expression during development that have accompanied selection for increased fiber yield and quality. See Research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/139

  15. Materials Development for Next Generation Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballato, John; Dragic, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Optical fibers, the enablers of the Internet, are being used in an ever more diverse array of applications. Many of the rapidly growing deployments of fibers are in high-power and, particularly, high power-per-unit-bandwidth systems where well-known optical nonlinearities have historically not been especially consequential in limiting overall performance. Today, however, nominally weak effects, most notably stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) are among the principal phenomena restricting continued scaling to higher optical power levels. In order to address these limitations, the optical fiber community has focused dominantly on geometry-related solutions such as large mode area (LMA) designs. Since such scattering, and all other linear and nonlinear optical phenomena including higher order mode instability (HOMI), are fundamentally materials-based in origin, this paper unapologetically advocates material solutions to present and future performance limitations. As such, this paper represents a ‘call to arms’ for material scientists and engineers to engage in this opportunity to drive the future development of optical fibers that address many of the grand engineering challenges of our day. PMID:28788683

  16. Development of hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns with improved absorption properties for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica, E-mail: federica.paladini@unisalento.it; Sannino, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is an overlooked and potentially disabling symptom, which is often seen in social anxiety disorder. In this work an innovative advanced textile material was developed for application in the management of excessive sweating, preparing a drying yarn providing improved comfort. Hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns were obtained by combining cotton with superabsorbent hydrogels through an optimization study focused on the achievement of the most promising product in terms of absorption properties and resistance to washings. Swelling and washing tests were performed using different hydrogels, and the effect of an additional crosslinking on the materials was also evaluated by testing different solutions containing Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. Scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses were adopted to characterize morphology and chemical structure of the hydrogels undergoing different production processes. The biocompatibility of the hybrid fabrics was demonstrated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay (MTT) through the extract method. - Highlights: • Novel textile based on natural fibres and superabsorbent hydrogels was developed. • The swelling ratio and the durability to washings were evaluated. • The effect of the choice of the hydrogel was studied. • The effects of additional crosslinking on hydrogel and fabrics were evaluated. • The optimized parameters determined durable and improved absorption properties.

  17. Identification and Functional Analysis of microRNAs Involved in the Anther Development in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Line Yu98-8A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line. Sequencing revealed 1588 and 1536 known microRNAs and 347 and 351 novel miRNAs from male sterile and male fertile libraries, respectively. MicroRNA expression profiles revealed that 49 conserved and 51 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. Bioinformatic and degradome analysis indicated the regulatory complexity of microRNAs during flower induction and development. Further RT-qPCR and physiological analysis indicated that, among the different Kyoto Encyclopedia Gene and Genomes pathways, indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid signaling transduction pathways may play pivotal regulatory functions in male sterility.

  18. Preliminary examinations for the identification of U.S. domestic and international cotton fibers by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick rel...

  19. Water use, canopy temperature, lint yield, and fiber quality response of six upland cotton cultivars to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The declining saturated thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer combined with the unpredictability of precipitation during the growing season in the Southern High Plains has resulted in elevated production risks associated with short-term crop water deficits. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars that can use...

  20. Ameliorative effects of potassium nutrition on yield and fiber quality characteristics of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. under NaCl stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. being moderately tolerant to salinity has been extensively grown in arid and semiarid regions where soil salinization is a major threat to plant growth and soil productivity. Excess salts in the growth medium may interfere with growth processes of cotton, leading to a severe decline in yield and fiber quality characteristics. Adequate mineral nutrient status of plants can provide an important strategy to improve plant tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment was planned to evaluate the ameliorative effects of additional potassium (K applied at 50 and 100 mg K2O kg-1 soil as potassium sulfate against NaCl stress of 100 and 180 mM in cotton. The experiment was conducted according to completely randomized design with five replications. NaCl caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05 increase in shoot sodium (Na+ and chloride (Cl- with a corresponding decrease in shoot K+, K+: Na+ ratio, calcium (Ca2+ and magnesium (Mg2+. Plant growth, yield and fiber quality characteristics were also declined significantly by increasing external NaCl concentration. Additional K reduced shoot Na + while increased K+, K+: Na+ ratio, Ca2+ and Mg2+ with the consequent improvement in plant growth, lint yield and yield attributes as well as fiber quality characteristics at both levels of NaCl. Results revealed that K nutrition improved shoot K+: Na+ ratio by 116 and 246% at NaCl100 while 188 and 294% at NaCl180 with K50 and K100, respectively as compared to NaCl treated plants without additional K. Likewise, lint yield was improved by 38.27 and 60.49% at NaCl100 while 75.12 and 136% at NaCl180 with K50 and K100, respectively compared to NaCl stressed plants without additional K. Ameliorative effects of K against NaCl stress were relatively more prominent at higher K application at both NaCl levels. In conclusion, K-induced decrease in Na+, increase in Ca2+, K+, K+: Na+ ratio, relative water content and membrane stability index provide protective

  1. Structure and properties of cotton-based biodegradable/compostable nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Haoming

    Cotton-based biodegradable nonwoven products have been receiving increasing attention in recent years with the growing environmental awareness throughout the world. A majority of the cotton-based nonwoven products are processed by carding with the binder fibers, and then point-bonding using a thermal calender. In this work, different biodegradable binder fibers were used to produce cotton-based nonwovens. The structure and the properties of the resulting fabrics were studied. The effect of bonding temperature and binder fiber content on the bond morphology was investigated. The fracture and failure mechanisms of the fabrics produced with different binder fiber content and at different bonding temperature were analyzed. Binder fiber distribution was determined by both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that DSC is a useful method to quantitatively characterize the binder fiber distribution in the carded cotton-based nonwovens. By determining the specific enthalpy from crystallization of one of the binder fiber components in the fabrics, it is possible to calculate the fiber composition. Tensile properties of the resultant nonwovens under different processing conditions were studied. The optimal processing conditions for the nonwovens processed using different binder fibers were determined based on their tensile properties. Consequently, effects of binder fiber type, binder fiber content, and bonding temperature on the tensile property of the nonwoven fabrics are discussed. The best binder fiber under the experimental conditions was selected based on the tensile property of the resulting fabrics. Based on the interactions of binder fiber composition and bonding temperature, empirical models have been developed to predict the breaking load of the webs bonded by the best binder fiber using the General Linear Models Procedure in JMP 5.0 statistical analysis software. The absorbent behavior and flexural rigidity of the nonwoven fabrics bonded by one

  2. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m(-1) of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m(-1) of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20-0.33 weed plant m(-1) of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m(-1) of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m(-2). Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430-2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha(-1) tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m(-1) of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management.

  3. Cotton Leaf Curl Virus: lonic Status of Leaves and Symptom Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naeem Iqbal; Muhammad Yasin Ashraf; Farrukh Javed; Muhammad Ashraf; Sohail Hameed

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the relationship between the nutritional status of leaves and the development of symptoms of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (i.e. CIM-240 and S-12) was investigated. The incidence of disease attack was found to be 100% in the S-12 cultivar and 16% in the CIM-240 cultivar. Geminivirus particles in infected leaves were confirmed by transmission electron microscope examination of highly specific geminivirus coat protein antisera-treated cell sap. The CLCuV impaired the accumulation of different nutrients in both cultivars. A marked decrease in the accumulation of Ca2+ and K+ was observed in infected leaves. However, the disease had no effect on leaf concentrations of Na+, N, and P. It was observed that the curling of leaf margins in CLCuV-infected plants was associated with the leaf Ca2+ content; leaf curling was severe in plants with a significant reduction in Ca2+ content.Moreover, leaf K+ content was found to be associated with resistance/susceptibility to CLCuV infection.

  4. Development of hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns with improved absorption properties for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica; Sannino, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is an overlooked and potentially disabling symptom, which is often seen in social anxiety disorder. In this work an innovative advanced textile material was developed for application in the management of excessive sweating, preparing a drying yarn providing improved comfort. Hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns were obtained by combining cotton with superabsorbent hydrogels through an optimization study focused on the achievement of the most promising product in terms of absorption properties and resistance to washings. Swelling and washing tests were performed using different hydrogels, and the effect of an additional crosslinking on the materials was also evaluated by testing different solutions containing Al(3+) and Ca(2+) ions. Scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses were adopted to characterize morphology and chemical structure of the hydrogels undergoing different production processes. The biocompatibility of the hybrid fabrics was demonstrated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay (MTT) through the extract method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

    2009-10-15

    In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  6. Efeito do controle de nematóides na qualidade da fibra do algodoeiro Effect of nematode control on fiber properties of upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento com torta de mamona e com nematicidas sistêmicos (aldicarb, carbofurã, oxamil e sulfona de aldicarb, na qualidade das fibras do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 cultivado em área infestada por Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides e Xiphinema sp., no nunicípio de Paranapanema, no Estado de São Paulo. As características afetadas foram: o comprimento das fibras, no qual só o carbofurã produziu aumento significativo; a resistência das fibras, que aumentou com os tratamentos torta de mamona e aldicarb; e a maturidade das fibras, onde, com exceção do oxamil, todos os tratamentos foram superiores à testemunha. As características de uniformidade e índice de finura das fibras não diferiram da testemunha em nenhum dos tratamentos.The effect of nematode control using castor bean cake and systemic nematicide treatments (Aldicarb, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and Sulfon Aldicarb, on the fiber properties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 was evaluated. The crop was grown in Paranapanema - SP, Brazil, in a field infested with Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides and Xiphinema sp. The properties affected were: fiber length, which improved only with Carbofuran; fiber strength, that improved with the treatments castor bean calce and Aldicarb; and fiber maturity, in which all treatments showed superior results than the check, except Oxamyl. No treatment effects on fiber fineness and uniformity were observed.

  7. Efeito da tenacidade da fibra sobre propriedades tecnológicas do fio de algodão Effect of the cotton fiber strength on yarn properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Paulieri Sabino

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideraram-se três variedades de algodão com valores de tenacidade da fibra variando de 20,5 a 22,2 g/Tex: IAC 16, IAC 13-1 e IAC 17, classificadas, respectivamente, como de alta, média e baixa tenacidade. Tais variedades apresentaram características tecnológicas semelhantes quanto a comprimento, uniformidade de comprimento, índice de finura Micronaire e maturidade. As amostras foram processadas em estabelecimentos industriais, da maneira convencional, produzindo, cada uma, fios de títulos Ne20, Ne30 e Ne40. Para cada título, empregaram-se sete coeficientes de torção, representados pelas constantes 3,4, 3,6, 3,8, 4,0, 4,2, 4,5 e 4,7. Efetuaram-se as análises da variância dos resultados, de acordo com o delineamento fatorial 3 x 3 x 7, representado pelas três variedades, pelos três títulos e pelos sete níveis de coeficientes de torção. Mediante os resultados, conclui-se que fibras de algodão com alta tenacidade produzem fios mais resistentes e elásticos do que aquelas de baixa tenacidade, para qualquer título ou torção. A quantidade de torções requeridas para a obtenção de máxima resistência dos fios de algodão é pouco afetada pela tenacidade da fibra. Os fios de títulos mais altos têm os menores valores de tenacidade e elongação. A variedade IAC 16 apresentou fios com os maiores valores de tenacidade, seguida da 'IAC 13-1' e da 'IAC 17', e fios mais elásticos, acompanhada da 'IAC 17' e da 'IAC 13-1'.Three cottons with fiber strength of 20.5, 20.9 and 22.2 g/Tex and having other important fiber properties approximately equal were selected. The cottons were processed on conventional processing equipment into 20/1, 30/1 and 40/1 yarn counts, using a range of twist multipliers of 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4.0, 4.2, 4.5 and 4.7. Yarn strength and elongation determinations were made on a pendulum-type tester of 150-300 lbs capacity. It was found that: 1 - High strength cotton produced stronger yarns than low strength for any

  8. Flame retardant polymer-clay nanocoatings on cotton textile substrates using a newly developed, continuous layer-by-layer deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton’s exceptional softness, breathability, and absorbency have made it America’s best selling textile fiber; however, cotton textiles are generally more combustible than most synthetic fabrics. In this study, a continuous layer-by-layer self-assembly technique was used to deposit polymer-clay nan...

  9. In-ovulo embryo culture and seedling development of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J M; Hsu, C L

    1977-01-01

    A convenient and reliable method for culturing cotton embryos is needed to obtain interspecific hybrids of this genus. C.A. Beasley and I.P. Ting (Amer. J. Bot. 60, 130, 1973) developed a phytohormone-supplemented medium (BTP) upon which the growth of ovules was similar that of in situ ovules. This medium was examined for in-ovulo embryo culture. Although good ovule growth occurred on BTP no embryos developed to maturity. However, when the medium was supplemented with NH 4 (+) , more than 50% of the ovules produced mature embryos, and many of these germinated precociously after 8-10 weeks of culture. After germination seedlings were established on a separate medium designed to give balanced root and shoot growth. Subsequently young plants could be transferred to pots for greenhouse culture.

  10. Enhanced attached growth of microalgae Scenedesmus. LX1 through ambient bacterial pre-coating of cotton fiber carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Lin-Lan; Azimi, Yaldah; Yu, Dawei; Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Yin-Hu; Dao, Guo-Hua; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2016-10-01

    The role of bacteria/extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) coated carriers on attached microalgae growth in suspended-solid phase photobioreactor (sspBR) was assessed in this study. The results showed that pre-coating cotton with ambient bacteria and their EPS improved the attached microalgal growth by as much as 230% in terms of attached microalgae density. Additionally, the single cell dry weight, chemical composition and oxygen evolving activity of attached microalgae were significantly affected by the presence of bacteria/EPS coating on the cotton carriers. The protein content of microalgae cells cultivated in the ssPBRs with carriers coated by bacteria and sterilized bacteria were on average 26% and 15% more than uncoated carriers, respectively. Through absorbing and immobilizing nutrients from the bulk medium, the bacteria/EPS coating provided the attached microalgae with nitrogen/phosphorus for protein synthesis, especially during the late stages of batch cultivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of high-gossypol cotton on the development and reproduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1 cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Ying; Wu, Gang; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2013-06-01

    Use of plant secondary metabolic compounds is an important method for insect pest control. In this study, the survival, development, and reproduction of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1 cryptic species were compared over two consecutive generations on three cotton cultivars of different gossypol levels. Both cotton cultivar and generation significantly affected the fitness of the whitefly. In both generations, the immature development times on the low-gossypol cultivar ZMS13 were significantly longer than those on the high-gossypol cultivar M9101 or medium-gossypol cultivar HZ401. The female fecundity and rate of population increase of the whitefly ranked in the following order: ZMS13 > HZ401 > M9101. On each cultivar, the immature development time was shorter and the immature survival rate was higher in the second generation than those in the first generation. Rate of increase was also higher in the second generation. These results demonstrated that the fitness of B. tabaci MEAM1 cryptic species on the low-gossypol cotton cultivar ZMS13 was higher than that on the medium- or high-gossypol cultivar. The comparison of the life histories of B. tabaci MEAM1 cryptic species on different cotton varieties is important for the development of an integrated pest management program of the whitefly by using plant secondary metabolic compounds.

  12. Development of EST-based SNP and InDel markers and their utilization in tetraploid cotton genetic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed in silico in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletion polymorphisms (InDels) in cotton. A total of 1349 EST-based SNP and InDel markers were developed by comparing ESTs between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, m...

  13. Development of a prototype sensor to detect plastic contamination in seed cotton at the gin

    Science.gov (United States)

    US cotton is considered to have some of the lowest levels of contamination in the world. That reputation is expected by foreign and domestic mills. Despite this reputation, U.S. spinners have recently experienced some serious contamination issues with US cotton. Of particular concern are plastic con...

  14. Microscopic Methods to Evaluate Gland Initiation and Development in Cotton Ovules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands that helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. Cotton seed use is mainly limited to cattle feed, because gossypol is toxic to most animals, except ruminants. Lowering the gossypol content in the seed would increa...

  15. Studies on the Characteris of the Induction of Cotton Fiber Derived from Cotton Ovule Callus Cells%棉胚珠愈伤组织诱导成纤维实验系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤清秀; 赵旌旌; 王隆华

    2000-01-01

    Cotton nbers were induced from cotton ovule callus cells by suspension culture,floatculture or filter paper bridge culture.h was found that float culture or filter paper bridge culture was bener than suspension culture.APM and actinomycin D inhibit the fibe elongation.Cellobiose promotes its development. Polarity affects its culture.%用棉花胚珠切块诱导愈伤组织,经悬浮振荡培养、漂浮培养、滤纸桥法等方法诱导成纤维细胞。发现漂浮培养和改进的滤纸桥法对纤维的诱导效果比悬浮振荡培养的效果好。微管解聚剂APM和核酸抑制剂抑制纤维的生长,纤维二糖有一定的促进作用。极性对纤维的生长有影响。

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Sus Gene Family in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsong Zou; Cairui Lu; Haihong Shang; Xinrui Jing; Hailiang Cheng; Youping Zhang; Guoli Song

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose metabolism.In cotton,Sus (EC 2.4.1.13) is the main enzyme that degrades sucrose imported into cotton fibers from the phloem of the seed coat.This study demonstrated that the genomes of Gossypium arboreum L.,G.raimondii Ulbr.,and G.hirsutum L.,contained 8,8,and 15 Sus genes,respectively.Their structural organizations,phylogenetic relationships,and expression profiles were characterized.Comparisons of genomic and coding sequences identified multiple introns,the number and positions of which were highly conserved between diploid and allotetraploid cotton species.Most of the phylogenetic clades contained sequences from all three species,suggesting that the Sus genes of tetraploid G.hirsutum derived from those of its diploid ancestors.One Sus group (Sus I) underwent expansion during cotton evolution.Expression analyses indicated that most Sus genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and had development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells.Members of the same orthologous group had very similar expression patterns in all three species.These results provide new insights into the evolution of the cotton Sus gene family,and insight into its members' physiological functions during fiber growth and development.

  17. BASIS WEIGHT UNIFORMITY OF LIGHTLY NEEDLED HYDROENTANGLED COTTON AND COTTON BLEND WEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Parikh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available New nonwoven products containing cotton and Lyocell (Trademarked name Tencel, low temperature thermal-bondable bicomponent olefin/polyester, or comber noils were developed using needlepunching and spunlacing (hydroentanglement. Webs containing five different blends were prepared by either light needlepunching, or light needlepunching followed by hydroentangling. We acquired detailed basis weight uniformity measurements to learn about processing and the influence of fiber blend composition on web uniformity. Basis weight uniformity was evaluated without regard to web direction ("Total" uniformity, along the machine direction (MD uniformity and across the cross direction (CD uniformity at numerous size resolutions. We observed that blending manufactured fibers (either Tencel or olefin/polyester with bleached cotton and comber noils substantially improved basis weight uniformity of both types of nonwovens. We also observed that subjecting needled webs to hydroentangling significantly improved Total and MD uniformities.

  18. FIAS fiber maturity measurement based on ribbon width and Fiber Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineness and maturity parameters of cotton fibers are often derived from measurements of cotton fiber cross-sections. Currently, image analysis is used to measure cross sectional properties of cotton fibers such as total area, cellulose area, lumen area, fiber perimeter, lumen perimeter, circularity...

  19. Development of insect-resistant transgenic cotton with chimeric TVip3A* accumulating in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiahe; Luo, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiangrong; Shi, Yuejing; Tian, Yingchuan

    2011-10-01

    An optimized vip3A gene, designated as vip3A* was chemically synthesized and a thi1 gene chloroplast transit peptide coding sequence was attached to its 5' end to produce the tvip3A*. vip3A* and tvip3A* genes were transformed into Gossypium hirsutum cv. Zhongmiansuo35. Of 42 independent transformants, 36 were positive for the vip3A* or tvip3A* gene. Four independent transgenic T1 lines with single-copy insertions and unchanged phenotypes (CTV1 and CTV2 for tvip3A*, and CV1 and CV2 for vip3A*) were selected by Southern blotting, and subjected to an insect bioassay and field assessment. Four homozygous T2 transgenic lines were then selected and the amount of expressed Vip3A* protein was determined by western blotting and ELISA. The protein concentrations of CTV1 and CTV2 were about three-fold higher than those of CV1 and CV2. As expected, the Vip3A* protein of CTV1 and CTV2 were transported to the chloroplasts, where they accumulated. The Vip3A* protein concentration in the chloroplasts of CTV1 and CTV2 was about 15-fold of that of CV1 and CV2. All four transgenic lines showed 100% mortality against fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) by insect bioassay. Moreover, CTV1 and CTV2 exhibited 100% mortality against cotton bollworm (CBW, Helicoverpa zea), whereas CV1 and CV2 showed 75.0% and 72.5% mortality against CBW, respectively. The field bioassay indicated that CTV1 and CTV2 were more resistant to CBW than CV1 and CV2. Our results suggest that the two tvip3A* transgenic lines (CTV1 and CTV2) can be used to develop insect-resistant cultivars and could be used as a resource for raising multi-toxins-expressing transgenic cotton.

  20. 汊麻棉精梳涡流纱的开发%Development of Hemp Cotton Combed Vortex Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘必英; 戴俊; 凡启光; 王冬成

    2011-01-01

    为开发汉麻棉精梳涡流纱,对比了汉麻与苎麻、亚麻及棉纤维的性能指标、截面结构,阐述了汉麻纤维的性能特点,运用涡流纺纱技术纺制汉麻棉混纺精梳纱.通过汉麻预处理,正确选择原料混和工艺,合理配置前纺各工序及涡流纺纱机工艺参数,成功纺制出汉麻/棉60/40 21.6 tex混纺精梳涡流纱,且成纱毛羽较环锭纱得到大幅度降低.认为汉麻棉精梳涡流纱具有较好的开发前景,应进一步改进工艺,提高成纱强力和制成率,降低生产成本,方能更好地满足产品开发的需求.%To develop hemp cotton combed vortex yarn, property index and cross section structure of hemp, flax and cotton were contrasted. Property of hemp was introduced. Vortex spinning technology was used and hemp cotton blended combed yarn was spun. Hemp was pretreated, raw material and blending processing were selected correctly, processing parameters in fore-spinning process and vortex spinning were set rationally, hemp/cotton 60/40 21.6 tex blended combed vortex yarn was spun successfully. Hairiness was reduced greatly. It is considered that the development prospects of hemp cotton blended combed yarn is better,the processing should be modified further,yarn strength and finished product rate should be increased and production cost should be reduced, demands of product development can be reached well.

  1. Laser imaging method for fast detecting white foreign fibers in cotton%棉花中白色异性纤维的激光成像快速检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 何相呈; 苏真伟; 刘锋; 王冬; 顾其彪

    2014-01-01

    现有的棉花异性纤维分拣机采用可见光照明成像,难以识别棉花中混杂的白色异性纤维。为了有效地检测出与棉花颜色相同或相近的白色异性纤维,该文采用线激光照明成像的方法,在固定线激光功率、波长和相机光圈的条件下,利用不同的曝光时间,获取了12种典型的白色异性纤维与皮棉的图像,分析其成像曝光时间与图像对比度之间的关系,发现不同的关系曲线存在一段共有的最优曝光峰值时间。在此曝光时间内,同一图像中的白色异性纤维已经“过曝”,而棉花还处于欠饱和状态。二者图像灰度值的明显差异可用于检测棉花中的白色异性纤维。该文在线激光功率为0.8 W,波长650 nm,相机光圈为8C,曝光时间为1.6 ms的条件下获取了1500幅图像。试验表明,采用简单的固定阈值法,皮棉中12种典型的白色异性纤维的识别率达到了95.8%。研究结果为提高棉花中白色异性纤维的识别率和速度提供了一条新途径。%Foreign fibers, such as polypropylene baler twine, packaging materials, ropes, small pieces of cloths, nylon, and other different synthetic fibers, are almost invariably present in cotton during the cotton picking, storing, drying, and transporting. Their presence in textile processing may cause a disastrous quality problem in the textile industry because their physical and chemical properties are different from cotton. In recent years, machine vision systems have been used for sorting out the foreign fibers from cotton, however, all of the sorting machines cannot efficiently identify white foreign fibers in cotton, because their color is the same or very similar under the illumination of visible light. The laser imaging method previously suggested by our team can distinguish most of the white foreign fibers from cotton based on the difference of the microstructure of the sample surface, but the successful

  2. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  3. 涤/锦/棉/氨纶多组分纤维功能性面料染整工艺探讨%Dyeing and finishing process of polyester/ polyamide/ cotton/ spandex multi-component fibers functional fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 李春光; 吕建品; 徐惠娟; 王海花

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme cold-batch and low temperature pretreatment were used to solve the wrinkling problem of polyester/polyamide/cotton/spandex multi-component fibers fabric. The potential damage of hole on the fabric caused by low temperature oxygen bleaching was also solved. And the fluffy and soft-feeling semi-finished product was obtained. Disperse dyes with high washing fastness were selected to solve the high washing fastness of multi-component fibers fabric. The continuous pad dyeing process with acid dyes was developed and the uniform dyeing quality was obtained by adjusting three kinds of fiber hue. The functional composite finishing of fabric was carried out to increase the hydrophilic soil-release finishing on the base of outstanding fabric smoothness. The wearing comfort and washable fabric performances were achieved, improving wearability of the fabric.%采用生物酶冷堆及低温前处理工艺解决涤棉锦氨纶多纤维织物的褶皱问题,同时解决了低温氧漂中潜在破洞的损伤,半成品手感柔软、蓬松;染色工序优选高水洗牢度分散染料,解决多纤维织物的高水洗色牢度,开发酸性染料的长车轧染工艺,通过3种纤维色相调整,获得均匀、饱满的染色实物质量;在获得优良的织物外观平整度的基础上,对面料功能性复合整理,增加亲水易去污整理,使面料穿着舒适、历久常新,提高了织物的服用性能.

  4. Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-12-18

    This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of θ(a)/θ(r) = 151°/144° (θ(a), advancing contact angle; θ(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation.

  5. Linear Laser Detecting Method of White Foreign Fibers in Cotton Based on Sample Cross-section Imaging%基于线激光截面成像的棉花白色异性纤维检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锋; 苏真伟; 乔丽

    2013-01-01

    Machine vision inspection of white foreign fibers in cotton is a research hotspot in China and aboard. Based on the fact that there are flosses and free filaments on the surface of a cotton layer, and most of the white foreign fiber surfaces are smooth, without any floss, an image acquisition method of the cross-section of the samples under the illumination of linear laser was proposed, which showed the differences of the microstructure characteristic of their surface from the reflection and transmission of the linear laser. Then, according to the features of the distribution and density of the flosses around the white spots in the images, an algorithm for identification of cotton and white foreign fibers was suggested. The experimental results indicated that, by the new method, the detecting rate of the white foreign fibers in cotton was up to 86. 9% .%针对棉层表面散布绒毛或游离的纤维细丝,而异性纤维表面光洁无毛的特点,提出了一种基于线激光的样本截面图像获取方法,获取并显示了其微观结构在激光照射下的图像差异.在此基础上,根据激光照射下二者周围有无高亮度的星点,以及星点的分布特征,提出了一种棉花中白色异性纤维的识别算法.实验结果表明,该方法对棉花中典型白色异性纤维的识别率达到了86.9%.

  6. 保护棉纤维和非织造布工厂的金属探测仪%Metal detectors protect cotton fiber and nonwovens plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Konig

    2011-01-01

    现代纤维生产没有金属探测仪是不可想象的。它们在棉纤维转换成非织造材料的生产链中保护材料和机器。作为唯一不需要增加移动管就可直接集成到气动输送线的金属探测器——Metmn 05 PowerLine(德国Mesutronic公司生产),已用于德国ErkoTriitzschler公司的非织造工厂,以检测纤维中的金属颗粒。小于2m的传感器间距和极快的机构提高了除杂的可靠性。气动输送线中重型和轻型团块在气流中的速度差异几乎没有影响,将除杂损失降到最低。%Modem fiber production without metal detectors is inconceivable today. They protect material and machines in the refinement chain from the cotton fiber to the nonwovens material. The only metal detector that can be directly integrated into the pneumatic conveying line without a probe tube, the Metron 05 PowerLine from Mesutronic GmbH, Kirchberg,/Germany, examines the fibers in nonwovens plants from Erko Trtitzschler GmbH, Dtilmen/German, for metallic particles. The short distance of less than 2 m between the sensor and the extremely fast mechanism increases ejection reliabihy. The difference in the airspeeds of heavy and light parts in the pneumatic conveying line has virtually no effect. This reduces ejection losses to a minimum.

  7. Aberrant Expression of Critical Genes during Secondary Cell Wall Biogenesis in a Cotton Mutant, Ligon Lintless-1 (Li-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Bolton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over ninety percent of the value of cotton comes from its fiber; however, the genetic mechanisms governing fiber development are poorly understood. Due to their biochemical and morphological diversity in fiber cells cotton fiber mutants have been useful in examining fiber development; therefore, using the Ligon Lintless (Li-1 mutant, a monogenic dominant cotton mutant with very short fibers, we employed the high throughput approaches of microarray technology and real time PCR to gain insights into what genes were critical during the secondary cell wall synthesis stage. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the normal TM-1 genotype and the near isogenic Li-1 revealed that over 100 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold during secondary wall biogenesis, although the genetic profile of the expansion phase showed no significant differences in the isolines. Of particular note, we identified three candidate gene families-expansin, sucrose synthase, and tubulin—whose expression in Li-1 deviates from normal expression patterns of its parent, TM-1. These genes may contribute to retarded growth of fibers in Li-1 since they are fiber-expressed structural and metabolic genes. This work provides more details into the mechanisms of fiber development, and suggests the Li gene is active during the later stages of fiber development.

  8. Impacto do beneficiamento sobre o número de neps e quantidade de impurezas da fibra do algodão Ginning impact on the number of neps and amount of cotton fiber contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon R. R. F. da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar o efeito do beneficiamento sobre o conteúdo de impurezas, pó e o número de neps na pluma, em 12 algodoeiras do Estado de Mato Grosso. O experimento consistiu de uma combinação fatorial de cinco etapas de beneficiamento do algodão em 12 algodoeiras em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Amostras de algodão foram coletadas nas seguintes etapas: a no desmanche do fardão; b antes do descaroçamento; c logo após o descaroçamento; d na bica, sem o uso do limpador tipo serrilha; e na bica, após a limpeza da pluma, utilizando-se o limpador tipo serrilha. Em todas as etapas se retiraram quatro amostras padrão de pluma com massa de 350 g a fim de serem analisadas mediante o instrumento AFIS (Advanced Fiber Information System para determinação do conteúdo de impurezas e poeira e o número de neps da fibra. Os resultados indicam que os processos de prelimpeza do algodão em caroço e limpeza da pluma reduzem o conteúdo de impurezas e da poeira do algodão enquanto, juntamente com o descaroçamento, esses processos aumentaram o número de neps da fibra do algodão. A utilização do limpador de pluma tipo serrilha com manta contínua aumenta a eficiência de limpeza da pluma, porém ocasiona incrementos significativos no número de neps.The purpose of this work was to study the ginning effect on the amount of cotton contaminants, dust and neps in cotton fiber, in 12 industries in the Mato Grosso State. The experiment consisted of a factorial combination over five stages of ginning and 12 cotton industries using a randomized design with four replications. Some samples of cotton were collected in the following phases: a in the bale dismantling; b before the ginning; c right after ginning; d into the covered lint slide not using the saw lint cleaner; and e into the covered lint slide, after cleaning process using the saw lint cleaner system. Over all stages four standard samples of

  9. Development of the nested fiber filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, R. D.; Conkle, H. N.; Raghavan, J. K.

    Battelle has tested the Nested Fiber Filter (NFF) as a particulate control device for high temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) applications. Battelle funded initial bench-scale tests which were the basis for patents and a concept applying the NFF. Subsequent parametric tests in a 6-inch diameter reactor established excellent particulate capture performance, greater than 99 percent, for conditions up to 1600 F and 6 atmospheres. Effective cleaning/regeneration of the NFF was achieved in the 6-inch scale with acoustic and mechanical vibration. A pulse combustor was tested in an integrated NFF arrangement because of compatibility with the HTBP conditions. This arrangement provided the basis for larger scale tests under the subject contract. A 6-sq ft test module was designed and installed with an existing fluidized bed combustor for additional development and testing.

  10. Quantification of the fate of dietary fiber in humans by a newly developed radiolabeled fiber marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carryer, P.W.; Brown, M.I.; Malagelada, J.R.; Carlson, G.L.; McCall, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    A radiolabeled cellulose (/sup 131/I-fiber) that retains the essential physical and chemical properties of this class of fiber was developed in our laboratory. Researchers quantified the fate of orally ingested /sup 131/I-fiber in healthy individuals by external gamma camera monitoring and fecal collections. The marker passes virtually intact through the human gastrointestinal tract with negligible release and absorption of the label in the gut. Comparison of the gastric emptying rate of /sup 131/I-fiber with that of a predominantly aqueous marker, /sup 99/mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99/mTc-DTPA), showed that /sup 131/I-fiber strands were evacuated more slowly than intragastric fluids. An important finding was that some /sup 131/I-fiber emptying occurred during most time periods, even before liquids were completely evacuated. This suggests that the human stomach is able to empty simultaneously liquids and fiber strands (1-15 mm in length) that are resistant to grinding by antral mechanical forces and to digestion by acid-peptic secretion. Thus, some nondigestible solids may be emptied with the bulk of a meal, although at a slower rate. /sup 131/I-Fiber may be a useful marker for quantifying gastric emptying of nondigestible solids. Further, the stability of /sup 131/I-fiber in the gut, as opposed to most other physiologic solid labels, should enable future investigation of intestinal and colonic transit of fiber, which is an important component of the human diet.

  11. Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Aiqun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7 identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum. Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development.

  12. Nonwoven greige cotton for wound healing and hygienic product applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential to use greige (non-bleached) cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention. This is due to innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwoven hydroentanglement processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorpt...

  13. Trends in United States cotton yield productivity since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is produced in over 30 countries and provides a major fiber source for textile manufacturers. In 2012, the direct market value of 17.0 million bales of U.S. cotton equated to US$ 8.1 billion. The objective of this study was to document trends in U.S. upland cotton yield productivity since 198...

  14. Fourier transform infrared imaging of Cotton trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the identification of trash types comingled with cotton lint. A good understanding of the specific trash types present can lead to the fabrication of new equipment which can identify and sort cotton trash found with cotton fiber. Conventional methods, including the High Vo...

  15. Continued work to develop a low-cost sensor to detect plastic contamination in seed cotton at the gin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of cotton from plastic trash that collects in cotton fields or introduced at the gin or due to mishandling at the warehouse is one of the most significant threats to US cotton world market share. For U.S. cotton to maintain its status as “contamination-free”, the industry must strive t...

  16. Thermomechanical Property Data Base Developed for Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A key to the successful application of metal and ceramic composite materials in advanced propulsion and power systems is the judicious selection of continuous-length fiber reinforcement. Appropriate fibers can provide these composites with the required thermomechanical performance. To aid in this selection, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center, using in-house state-of-the-art test facilities, developed an extensive data base of the deformation and fracture properties of commercial and developmental ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures. Lewis' experimental focus was primarily on fiber compositions based on silicon carbide or alumina because of their oxidation resistance, low density, and high modulus. Test approaches typically included tensile and flexural measurements on single fibers or on multifilament tow fibers in controlled environments of air or argon at temperatures from 800 to 1400 C. Some fiber specimens were pretreated at composite fabrication temperatures to simulate in situ composite conditions, whereas others were precoated with potential interphase and matrix materials.

  17. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  18. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  19. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR: A CASE STUDY OF TECHNOLOGY OF COTTON ORGANIC COLOR IN BOM SUCESSO -PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesinaldo Ataíde Cândido

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study it has the objective to evaluate the global index of sustentability (IGS of the technology of production of the cotton colored in the state of the Paraíba, in its dimensions social, ambient, economic and institucional. To reach the considered objective a research of study of case was used based on the model considered for González and Carvajal (2002 that it measures the IGS of the producing unit in agroecological system. The results disclose that although to present a considered index of sustentability satisfactory, are necessary that mechanism of participation of the social actors in the decisions of the company is developed, as well as, to develop a research on the repercussion that this technology brings for the involved population, also identifying the social demand of the deriving products of the technology of the cotton in the population.

  20. Development of new radiopaque glass fiber posts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtos, Gabriel, E-mail: gfurtos@yahoo.co.uk [Raluca Ripan Institute of Research in Chemistry, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Baldea, Bogdan [Dep. of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Timisoara (Romania); Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura [Raluca Ripan Institute of Research in Chemistry, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity and filler content of three experimental glass fiber posts (EGFP) in comparison with other glass/carbon fibers and metal posts from the dental market. Three EGFP were obtained by pultrusion of glass fibers in a polymer matrix based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Using intraoral sensor disks 27 posts, as well as mesiodistal sections of human molar and aluminum step wedges were radiographed for evaluation of radiopacity. The percentage compositions of fillers by weight and volume were investigated by combustion analysis. Two EGFP showed radiopacity higher than enamel. The commercial endodontic posts showed radiopacity as follows: higher than enamel, between enamel and dentin, and lower than dentin. The results showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) when evaluated with one-way ANOVA statistical analysis. According to combustion analyses, the filler content of the tested posts ranges between 58.84 wt.% and 86.02 wt.%. The filler content of the tested EGFP ranged between 68.91 wt.% and 79.04 wt.%. EGFP could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts. Future glass fiber posts are recommended to present higher radiopacity than dentin and perhaps ideally similar to or higher than that of enamel, for improved clinical detection. The posts with a lower radiopacity than dentin should be considered insufficiently radiopaque. The radiopacity of some glass fiber posts is not greatly influenced by the amount of filler. - Highlights: • AR glass fibers for dental applications • AR glass fibers have a great potential for obtaining radiopaque glass fiber posts. • Experimental AR glass fiber posts could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts for clinical application.

  1. Study on Compression Mechanical Properties of Waste Cotton Fibers Bio-Composites%废棉纤维生物复合材料压缩力学性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱金帆; 李国辉; 吕鹏飞; 张海泉

    2015-01-01

    采用糙皮侧耳真菌的菌丝体来替代传统的化学粘合剂来粘结废棉纤维并通过一定的后加工处理制备质轻环保的废棉纤维生物复合板材,并通过添加废旧烟梗和烟叶作为骨架材料来增强其压缩强度。实验结果表明,添加了不同骨架材料的棉纤维生物复合板抗压载荷和压缩弹性模量都优于废棉纤维生物复合板;厚度为20 mm的废棉纤维生物复合板在合理的压缩范围内的抗压载荷达到12.35 kN,而添加了烟叶和烟梗的废棉纤维生物复合板的抗压载荷分别达到了10.16 kN和27.10 kN;最终制成的三种不同的生物复合材料其压缩弹性模量最高达到22.40 MPa,赋予了该生物复合材料特殊的静态压缩特性。%Light and green waste cotton fibers bio-composites were prepared by the use of the mycelium of pleurotus ostreatus to intertwine the waste cotton fibers instead of the traditional chemical adhesives and then certain post processing,and improving its compressive strength by adding waste tobacco leaves and stems as the skeletal materials. The results show that the compressive load and compression modulus of the waste cotton fiber bio-composite panels added with different skeletal materials are better than cotton fiber bio-composite panels. The compressive load of the waste cotton fibers bio-composite panels with the thickness of 20 mm reach 12.35 kN in the reasonable compression range, and the compressive load of the two materials by adding tobacco leaves and stems are up to 10.16 kN and 27.10 kN respectively. The most high compression modulus of the final three different biological composites is 22.40 MPa,which lead to the special static compression characteristics of the materials.

  2. How current ginning processes affect fiber length uniformity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop cotton ginning methods that improve fiber characteristics that are compatible with the newer and more efficient spinning technologies. A literature search produced recent studies that described how current ginning processes affect HVI fiber length uniformity index. Resul...

  3. Survival and Development of Spodoptera frugiperda and Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Cotton and Implications for Resistance Management Strategies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; Bernardi, Oderlei; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) and Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) are important cotton pests and target of control of Bollgard II (Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab2) and WideStrike (Cry1Ac/Cry1F) cotton technologies. To subsidize an insect resistance management program, we conducted laboratory studies to evaluate the toxicity of these Bt cotton plants throughout larval development of S. frugiperda and C. includens. In bioassays with leaf disc, the efficacy of both Bt cotton plants against neonates was >80% for S. frugiperda and 100% for C. includens. However, S. frugiperda larvae that survived on Bt cotton had >76% of growth inhibition and stunting. In bioassays with S. frugiperda and C. includens larvae fed on non-Bt near-isoline during different time period (from 3 to 18 d) and then transferred to Bollgard II or WideStrike leaves showed that larval susceptibility decreased as larval age increased. For Bollgard II cotton, in all S. frugiperda instars, there were larvae that reached the pupal and adult stages. In contrast, on WideStrike cotton, a few larvae in fifth and sixth instar completed the biological cycle. For C. includens, some larvae in sixth instar originated adults in both Bt cotton plants. In conclusion, Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton technologies showed high efficacy against neonates of S. frugiperda and C. includens. However, the mortality of these species decreases as larval age increase, allowing insect survival in a possible seed mixture environment and favoring the resistance evolution.

  4. Development of insect-resistant transgenic cotton with chimeric TVip3A accumulating in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiahe; Tian, Yingchuan

    2013-01-01

    An optimized vip3A gene, designated as vip3A* was chemically synthesized and a thi1 gene chloroplast transit peptide coding sequence was attached to its 5' end to produce the tvip3A*. vip3A* and tvip3A* genes were transformed into Gossypium hirsutum cv. Zhongmiansuo35 mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Four independent transgenic T1 lines with single-copy insertions and unchanged phenotypes (CTV1 and CTV2 for tvip3A*, and CV1 and CV2 for vip3A*) were selected by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, Southern blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and insect bioassay. As expected, the Vip3A* protein of CTV1 and CTV2 were transported to the chloroplasts, where they accumulated. Our results suggest that the two tvip3A* transgenic lines (CTV1 and CTV2) can be used to develop insect-resistant cultivars and could be used as a resource for raising multi-toxins-expressing transgenic cotton.

  5. CCI and CI Join Hands:A Better Supply Chain with More Innovations on Cotton Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom; Xue

    2010-01-01

    Cotton Council International("CCI")and Cotton Incorporated("CI") joined forces again,from October 19-22,2010 at Intertextile Shanghai,to promote natural fiber-U.S.cotton.As global textile strategic partners,both organizations were bringing together alliances through the cotton

  6. 29 CFR 780.805 - Ginning of “cotton.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Mississippi Levee Com'rs v. Refuge Cotton Oil Co., 91 Miss. 480, 44 So. 828, 829). Mote ginning, the process... a ginning process to extract the short-fiber cotton, is not included in the ginning of cotton unless... cotton waste resulting from spinning or oil mill operations is not included, since such waste is not the...

  7. Introduction of rol Genes into Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Genome and Effects of Transgene Expression on the Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-yan; YANG Ye-hua; WU Zheng-bin; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jin

    2004-01-01

    The rol genes cloned from Agrobacterium rhizogenes were transferred to the cotton genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Molecular analyses and developmental identification of the putative transgenic plants were carried out by means of PCR, Southern blotting and field characterization. The results showed that the expression of rol genes greatly increased the rooting ability of the transgenic plants, and changed the plant development. Highly male-sterile plants with strong apical dominance and fertile plants with short internodes, stunted growth and improved economic characteristics were segregated from the T1 transgenic lines of wild rol B gene and the rol B gene driven by 35S promoter. The transgenic lines of rol ABC construct usually had normal boll setting and slow growth. Therefore we concluded that the rol genes, modified in suitable ways,could be used to create new cotton varieties with some highly valuable characteristics.

  8. Cotton Wool Derived Carbon Fiber Aerogel Supported Few-Layered MoSe2 Nanosheets As Efficient Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youfang; Zuo, Lizeng; Zhang, Longsheng; Huang, Yunpeng; Lu, Hengyi; Fan, Wei; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-03-23

    Recent studies have proven that newly emerging two-dimensional molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) is a promising noble-metal-free electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Increasing the exposures of the active edges of MoSe2 nanostructures is a key issue to fully realize the excellent electrochemical properties of MoSe2. In this work, a few-layered MoSe2/carbon fiber aerogel (CFA) hybrids have been facilely obtained through the combination of high-temperature carbonization and one-pot solvothermal reaction. CFA derived from cotton wool is used as a three-dimensional conductive network for construction of hierarchical MoSe2/CFA hybrids, where few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets are uniformly and perpendicularly decorated on the surfaces of CFA. In the designed and prepared hybrids, CFA effectively increases the exposures of the active edges of MoSe2 nanosheets as well as provides reduced lengths for both electron transportation and ion diffusion. Therefore, the obtained optimal MoSe2/CFA hybrid exhibits excellent electrochemical activity as HER electrocatalyst with a small onset potential of -0.104 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode and a small Tafel slope of 62 mV per decade, showing its great potential as a next-generation Pt-free electrocatalyst for HER.

  9. Direct, non-destructive, and rapid evaluation of developmental cotton fibers by ATR FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical, compositional, and structural differences within the fibers at different growth stages have been investigated considerably through a number of methodologies. Due to its direct, non-destructive, and rapid attribute, this study reports the utilization of attenuated total reflection Fourier t...

  10. Dielectric permitivity measurement of cotton lint

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique was developed for making broad band measurements of cotton lint electrical permitivity. The fundamental electrical permitivity value of cotton lint at various densities and moisture contents; is beneficial for the future development of cotton moisture sensors as it provides a...

  11. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  12. Development of Non-Halogen Flame Retardant Optical Fiber and Optical Fiber Cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazunori; Tanaka; Kaoru; Okuno; Tomoyuki; Hattori; Kiyoaki; Moriuchi; Hiroshi; Hayami; Wataru; Katsurashima; Yoshikyo; Tamekuni

    2003-01-01

    A non-halogen highly flame-retardant 0.9mm optical fiber and 2.0mm simplex optical cord, which are harmonized with the ecosystem, have been developed. The characteristics of them are presented in this paper.

  13. Genes expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) buds isolated with a subtractive library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M P N; Batista, V G L; Martins, N F; Santos, R C; Melo Filho, P A; Silva, C R C; Lima, L M

    2013-01-16

    A subtractive cDNA library from cotton buds was constructed to prospect for differentially expressed genes related to early bud development. A library was constructed and 768 cDNA sequences were obtained, comprising 168 clusters, with 126 contigs and 42 singlets. Both the Gossypium as well as Arabidopsis databases were utilized for the in silico analysis, since some genes identified in cotton have not yet been studied for functionality, although they have homology with genes from other species. The transcriptome revealed a large number of transcripts, some of them with unknown function, and others related to pollen development, pollen tubes, ovules, and fibers at different stages. The most populated contig was identified as fiber from 0-10 days after anthesis, with 12 reads. The success and novelty rates generated from the library were 67 and 51%, respectively. The information obtained here will provide a framework for research on functional cotton genomics.

  14. PLA fibers with antimicrobial properties developed by solution blow spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present work reports on the development and characterization of novel Poly(lactic acid) hybrid fibers with antimicrobial properties produced by solution blow spinning. This technique presents additional advantages over conventional electrospinning, such as reduced cost and higher rate of fiber p...

  15. Rapid Development of Carbon Fiber Industry in Jilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Jilin Carbon Fiber Industrial Zone in Liaoning Province has seen a rapid development, forming a complete industrial chain from precursor to carbonization, and then to products. Along with the promotion of a large number of carbon fiber in

  16. High quality yarns from high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highest quality yarns from upland cotton are typically produced by using combing in the textile mill. Combing is a resource-intensive process in which short fibers are removed from cotton before spinning. The improvement in fiber length and length uniformity of upland cotton when high speed ro...

  17. Obtenção e caracterização de compósitos utilizando poliestireno como matriz e resíduos de fibras de algodão da indústria têxtil como reforço Obtainment and characterization of composites using polystyrene as matrix and fiber waste from cotton textile industry as reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Borsoi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é utilizar fibras de algodão como material de reforço em materiais compósitos poliméricos utilizando o poliestireno como matriz e o poli(estireno-co-anidrido maleico como agente compatibilizante. Os compósitos foram desenvolvidos em uma extrusora dupla-rosca co-rotacional, precedidos de uma pré-mistura em extrusora mono-rosca e moldados por injeção. Os compósitos foram avaliados mediante ensaios mecânicos, térmicos, termo dinâmico-mecânico e de morfologia dos compósitos produzidos. Os ensaios de flexão e tração mostram que a adição de 20% de fibra de algodão faz com que essas propriedades aumentem, sendo esse efeito intensificado em presença de compatibilizante. Observou-se aumento da resistência ao impacto com adição de carga; porém, os compósitos com compatibilizante apresentaram resultados inferiores. A HDT para os compósitos com 20% de fibra de algodão foi de aproximadamente 7 ºC. Por meio do TGA, observa-se que a adição de fibras de algodão desloca o início da perda de massa para temperaturas próximas a 200 ºC. Na análise de DMTA, observa-se que, com a adição da fibra de algodão, ocorre aumento na rigidez e no módulo de armazenamento. As micrografias mostram redução no pull-out das fibras, devido a uma maior adesão fibra/matriz, com a utilização do agente compatibilizante.The aim of this work is to use cotton fibers as reinforcement in polymeric composites materials using polystyrene as matrix and poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride coupling agent. The composites were developed by first mixing in a single screw extruder and a co-rotation parallel twin screw extruder and injection molded. The composites were characterized by analysis mechanical, thermal, dynamic mechanical thermal and morphology. The results from the flexural and tensile strength demonstrate that the addition of 20% cotton fibers tends to increase in these properties; however there is increase when using a

  18. Potential of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton micronaire determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is one of important cotton properties as it reflects fiber maturity and fineness. Automation-based high volume instrumentation (HVITM) measurement has been well established as a primary and routine tool of providing fiber micronaire and other quality properties to cotton breeders and fibe...

  19. Use of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton micronaire assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is one of important cotton properties as it reflects fiber maturity and fineness. Automation-based high volume instrumentation (HVITM) measurement has been well established as a primary and routine tool of providing fiber micronaire and other quality properties to cotton breeders and fibe...

  20. Review of the cotton market in Pakistan and its future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Tassawar Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is the world’s 4th largest producer of cotton. Cultivation along the Indus River extends across nearly 3 million hectares and serves as the backbone of the economy. Despite this importance, information on the cotton sector in Pakistan, in particular with regard to cotton oils, is scanty and not available from a single source. This review seeks to remedy that gap. Though cultivated mainly for fiber, its kernel seed oil is also used as an edible vegetable oil and accounts for a large share of the local oil industry; per capita consumption of edible oils is nearly 14 kg, which is much higher than consumption in countries at similar levels of economic development. Pakistan fulfills 17.7% of its demand for edible oils through cottonseed oil. Total demand for this purpose in 2029–30 is estimated at 5.36 million tons of which local production will be 1.98 million tons. Genetically modified (Bt cotton was introduced in Pakistan in 2010 to control three deleterious lepidopterous insects; it now accounts for more than 85% of the cotton cultivated. There is good scope for organic cotton production in Pakistan, especially in non-traditional cotton growing areas where there is less insect pressure. High temperature and water scarcity associated with climate change are a major concern, since current cultivation takes place in areas that already experience extremely high temperatures.

  1. Review of the cotton market in Pakistan and its future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Tassawar Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is the world’s 4th largest producer of cotton. Cultivation along the Indus River extends across nearly 3 million hectares and serves as the backbone of the economy. Despite this importance, information on the cotton sector in Pakistan, in particular with regard to cotton oils, is scanty and not available from a single source. This review seeks to remedy that gap. Though cultivated mainly for fiber, its kernel seed oil is also used as an edible vegetable oil and accounts for a large share of the local oil industry; per capita consumption of edible oils is nearly 14 kg, which is much higher than consumption in countries at similar levels of economic development. Pakistan fulfills 17.7% of its demand for edible oils through cottonseed oil. Total demand for this purpose in 2029–30 is estimated at 5.36 million tons of which local production will be 1.98 million tons. Genetically modified (Bt cotton was introduced in Pakistan in 2010 to control three deleterious lepidopterous insects; it now accounts for more than 85% of the cotton cultivated. There is good scope for organic cotton production in Pakistan, especially in non-traditional cotton growing areas where there is less insect pressure. High temperature and water scarcity associated with climate change are a major concern, since current cultivation takes place in areas that already experience extremely high temperatures.

  2. Evaluation of Sampling Methods and Development of Sample Plans for Estimating Predator Densities in Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost-reliability of five sampling methods (visual search, drop cloth, beat bucket, shake bucket and sweep net) was determined for predatory arthropods on cotton plants. The beat bucket sample method was the most cost-reliable while the visual sample method was the least cost-reliable. The beat ...

  3. Insect infestations crop development and evolving management approaches on a northeast Arkansas cotton farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    COTMAN information, cotton production records and insect scouting reports for Wildy Farms in Mississippi County, Arkansas were organized into large databases and studied for variability among years and fields in a wide range of crop and insect indices. The study included records from 126 individual...

  4. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  5. Development of new radiopaque glass fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity and filler content of three experimental glass fiber posts (EGFP) in comparison with other glass/carbon fibers and metal posts from the dental market. Three EGFP were obtained by pultrusion of glass fibers in a polymer matrix based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Using intraoral sensor disks 27 posts, as well as mesiodistal sections of human molar and aluminum step wedges were radiographed for evaluation of radiopacity. The percentage compositions of fillers by weight and volume were investigated by combustion analysis. Two EGFP showed radiopacity higher than enamel. The commercial endodontic posts showed radiopacity as follows: higher than enamel, between enamel and dentin, and lower than dentin. The results showed statistically significant differences (p b 0.05)when evaluatedwith one-way ANOVA statistical analysis. According to combustion analyses, the filler content of the tested posts ranges between 58.84wt.% and 86.02wt.%. The filler content of the tested EGFP ranged between 68.91 wt.% and 79.04 wt.%. EGFP could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts. Futureglass fiber posts are recommended to present higher radiopacity than dentin and perhaps ideally similar to or higher than that of enamel, for improved clinical detection. The posts with a lower radiopacity than dentin should be considered insufficiently radiopaque. The radiopacity of some glass fiber posts is not greatly influenced by the amount of filler.

  6. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  7. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  8. Isolation and recovery of cellulose from waste nylon/cotton blended fabrics by 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fangbing; Wang, Chaoxia; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Chuanjie

    2015-06-05

    Development of a simple process for separating cellulose and nylon 6 from their blended fabrics is indispensable for recycling of waste mixed fabrics. An efficient procedure of dissolution of the fabrics in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl) and subsequent filtration separation has been demonstrated. Effects of treatment temperature, time and waste fabrics ratio on the recovery rates were investigated. SEM images showed that the cotton cellulose dissolved in [AMIM]Cl while the nylon 6 fibers remained. The FTIR spectrum of regenerated cellulose (RC) was similar with that of virgin cotton fibers, which verified that no other chemical reaction occurred besides breakage of hydrogen bonds during the processes of dissolution and separation. TGA curves indicated that the regenerated cellulose possessed a reduced thermal stability and was effectively removed from waste nylon/cotton blended fabrics (WNCFs). WNCFs were sufficiently reclaimed with high recovery rate of both regenerated cellulose films and nylon 6 fibers.

  9. Genetic mapping and comparative expression analysis of transcription factors in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Xin; Li, Ximei; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. The study of the structure and function of TFs represents a research frontier in plant molecular biology. The findings of these studies will provide significant information regarding genetic improvement traits in crops. Currently, a large number of TFs have been cloned, and their function has been verified. However, relatively few studies that genetically map TFs in cotton are available. To genetically map TFs in cotton in this study, specific primers were designed for TF genes that were published in the Plant Transcription Factor Database. A total of 977 TF primers were obtained, and 31 TF polymorphic loci were mapped on 15 cotton chromosomes. These polymorphic loci were clearly preferentially distributed on chromosomes 5, 11, 19 and 20; and TFs from the same family mapped to homologous cotton chromosomes. In-silico mapping verified that many mapped TFs were mapped on their corresponding chromosomes or their homologous chromosomes' corresponding chromosomes in the diploid genomes. QTL mapping for fiber quality revealed that TF-Ghi005602-2 mapped on Chr19 was associated with fiber length. Eighty-five TF genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis, and 4 TFs were selected for qRT-PCR analysis, revealing unique expression patterns across different stages of fiber development between the mapping parents. Our data offer an overview of the chromosomal distribution of TFs in cotton, and the comparative expression analysis between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense provides a rough understanding of the regulation of TFs during cotton fiber development.

  10. 控释氮肥对不同部位棉铃素质及纤维品质的影响%Effects of Controlled Release Nitrogen Fertilizer on Quality of Cotton Bolls and Fiber in Different Fruiting Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学刚; 孙学振; 宋宪亮; 孙淑娟; 陈二影; 张美玲

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences between urea and controlled release urea in terms of their effects on the qualities of cotton bolls and fiber.The cotton cultivar Lumianyan No.28 was grown under field conditions with three types of controlled release nitrogen fertilizers; 100% PCU (pitch controlled urea),50% U (urea) +50% PCU (pitch controlled urea),and 100% CRBBF (controlled release bulk blending fertilizer).Compared with the control,those treatments that received controlled release nitrogen fertilizer showed improved quality of cotton bolls and fiber.That is,they showed improved quality of cotton bolls and fiber at the third to fifth fruit node on both middle and upper fruiting branches,an increased number of fruiting branches,greater boll weight at both positions on the plant,and a decreased lint percentage.Applying controlled release nitrogen fertilizer increased the fiber micronaire,significantly improved the fiber strength,and shortened the time to reach fiber maturity,but it did not affect fiber length.These results indicated that 100% PCU and CRBBF treatments significantly affected the quality of cotton bolls and fiber.%设计100%树脂包膜尿素基施、50%普通尿素+50%树脂包膜尿素基施和棉花控释专用肥基施3种控释氮肥处理,以100%普通尿素为对照,研究等氮条件下,不同控释氮肥处理对棉花(鲁棉研28号)不同结铃部位棉铃素质及纤维品质的影响.结果表明,与普通氮肥处理相比,控释氮肥处理对棉株3~5果节和中上部果枝的棉铃素质及纤维品质影响显著,呈现出铃重增加、衣分降低的趋势,而对其他部位棉铃素质及纤维品质无显著影响.控释氮肥处理显著增大了纤维马克隆值,增加了纤维比强度,提高了纤维成熟度,但对纤维长度影响不显著.3个控施氮肥处理以100%树脂包膜尿素基施处理和棉花控释专用肥基施处理影响最显著.

  11. Development of Ceramic Fibers for Reinforcement in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, L. E.; Lent, W. E.; Teague, W. T.

    1961-01-01

    the. testing apparatus for single fiber tensile strength increased the precision. of tests conducted on nine fibers. The highest mean tensile strength, a value of 295,000 pounds per square inch, was obtained with R-141 fibers. Treatment of R-74 fibers with anhydrous Linde A-1100 silane finish improved its mean fiber tensile strength by 25 percent. The lapse of time after fiber formation had no measurable effect on tensile strength. A static heating test conducted with various high melting fibers indicated that Fiberfrax and R-108 underwent no significant changes in bulk volume or resiliency on exposure to 2750 degrees Fahrenheit (1510 degrees Centigrade) in an oxidizing atmosphere. For fiber-resin composition fabrication, ten fiber materials were selected on the bases of high fiber yield, fusion temperature, and type of composition. Fiberfrax, a commercial ceramic fiber, was included for comparison. A new, more effective method of removing pellets from blown fibers was developed. The de-pelletized fibers were treated with a silane finish and felted into ten-inch diameter felts prior to resin impregnation. Composites containing 30 percent by weight of CTL 91-LD phenolic resin were molded under high pressure from the impregnated felts and post-cured to achieve optimum properties. Flexural strength, flexural modules of elasticity, and punch shear strength tests were conducted on the composite specimens. The highest average flexural strength obtained was 19,958 pounds per square inch with the R-74-fiber-resin composite. This compares very favorably with the military specification of 13,000 pounds per square inch flexural strength for randomly oriented fiber reinforced composites. The highest punch shear strength (11,509 pounds per square inch) was obtained with the R-89 fiber-resin composite. The effects of anhydrous fiber finishes on composite strength were not clearly indicated. Plasma arc tests at a heat flux of 550 British Thermal Units per square foot per second on

  12. Test of pressure transducer for measuring cotton-mass flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a cotton harvester yield monitor was developed based on the relationship between air pressure and the mass of seed cotton conveyed. The sensor theory was verified by laboratory tests. The sensor was tested on a cotton picker with seed cotton at two moisture contents, 5.9% and 8.5% we...

  13. Cotton GalT1 encoding a putative glycosyltransferase is involved in regulation of cell wall pectin biosynthesis during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li-Xia; Rao, Yue; Li, Long; Huang, Jun-Feng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Li, Xue-Bao

    2013-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), are a group of highly glycosylated proteins that are found throughout the plant kingdom. To date, glycosyltransferases that glycosylate AGP backbone have remained largely unknown. In this study, a gene (GhGalT1) encoding a putative β-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) was identified in cotton. GhGalT1, belonging to CAZy GT31 family, is the type II membrane protein that contains an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a C-terminal galactosyltransferase functional domain. A subcellular localization assay demonstrated that GhGalT1 was localized in the Golgi apparatus. RT-PCR analysis revealed that GhGalT1 was expressed at relatively high levels in hypocotyls, roots, fibers and ovules. Overexpression of GhGalT1 in Arabidopsis promoted plant growth and metabolism. The transgenic seedlings had much longer primary roots, higher chlorophyll content, higher photosynthetic efficiency, the increased biomass, and the enhanced tolerance to exogenous D-arabinose and D-galactose. In addition, gas chromatography (GC) analysis of monosaccharide composition of cell wall fractions showed that pectin was changed in the transgenic plants, compared with that of wild type. Three genes (GAUT8, GAUT9 and xgd1) involved in pectin biosynthesis were dramatically up-regulated in the transgenic lines. These data suggested that GhGalT1 may be involved in regulation of pectin biosynthesis required for plant development.

  14. Development and application of nonflammable, high-temperature beta fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Frederic S.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber technology have contributed to the success of the U.S. space program. The inorganic fiber Beta, developed as a result of efforts begun in the early 1960's and heightened following the January 27, 1967 Apollo fire is unique among inorganic and organic fibers. It has been developed into woven, nonwoven, knitted, braided, coated and printed structures. All of these were used extensively for the Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz test project, space shuttle, Spacelab, and satellite programs. In addition to being used successfully in the space program, Beta fibers are being used commercially as firesafe fabrics in homes, hospitals, institutions, public buildings, aircraft, and public transportation, wherever total nonflammability is required. One of the most unique applications of the Beta composite structure is the roofing material for the 80,000-seat Detroit Lion's Silverdome and 5 square miles of the Jeddah International Airport in Saudi Arabia. This fiber has been successfully incorporated into 165 major public construction projects around the globe. The United States alone has used more than 12 million square yards of the material. Beta fiber has been used successfully to date and has a promising future with unlimited potential for both space and commercial application. Efforts are currently underway to improve Beta fiber to meet the requirements of extended service life for the Space Station Freedom, lunar outpost, and Mars exploration missions.

  15. 基于GGE双标图与纤维长度选择的棉花品种生态区探索与划分%Cotton Megaenvironment Investigation Based on GGE Biplot and Fiber Length Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金石桥; 许乃银

    2013-01-01

    The possible megaenvironments in the Yangtze River Valley based on cotton fiber length selection were investigated and divided in order to provide the scientific rationale for the decision-making of cotton fiber length selection and recommendation for the target environment. GGE biplot analysis method was adopted to analyze the classification scheme of the megaenvironments in the target environment on the purpose of cotton fiber length selection in the cotton variety trial in the Yangtze River Valley during the 2000-2010 periods. Based on the environment combination pattern concluded from the“which-won-where”view of GGE biplot and the corresponding information ratio adjustment, the cotton planting regions in Yangtze River Valley was divided into three distinct fiber length selection megaenvironments, namely, the first megaenvironment contained seven test environments including Anqin, Jiujiang, Wuhan, Nantong, Huanggang, Changde and Yueyang; the second megaenvironment contained four test environments including Jingzhou, Yancheng, Nanjing and Shehong;and the third megaenvironment contained test environment of Cixi, Jianyang, Xiangfan and Nanyang. It was feasible to select and utilize the particular varieties within the particular megaenvironment, thus to enhance the cotton fiber length selection and application efficiency.%探索和划分长江流域棉区基于棉花纤维长度选择的品种生态区,为棉花品种纤维长度的选择和推荐提供决策依据。采用GGE双标图方法分析了2000-2010年期间长江流域国家棉花品种区域试验目标环境基于纤维长度选择的品种生态区划分方案。以GGE双标图的“品种与环境最佳组合”功能图展示的试验环境组合模式为基础,并采用信息比进行较正,结果表明中国长江流域棉区大致可划分为基于纤维长度选择的3个品种生态区,第1个品种生态区包括安庆、九江、武汉、南通、黄冈、常德和岳阳,第2个

  16. Overexpression of the Rice SUMO E3 Ligase Gene OsSIZ1 in Cotton Enhances Drought and Heat Tolerance, and Substantially Improves Fiber Yields in the Field under Reduced Irrigation and Rainfed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neelam; Sun, Li; Zhu, Xunlu; Smith, Jennifer; Prakash Srivastava, Anurag; Yang, Xiaojie; Pehlivan, Necla; Esmaeili, Nardana; Luo, Hong; Shen, Guoxin; Jones, Don; Auld, Dick; Burke, John

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase gene AtSIZ1 plays important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses as loss of function in AtSIZ1 leads to increased sensitivity to drought, heat and salt stresses. Overexpression of the AtSIZ1 rice homolog, OsSIZ1, leads to increased heat and drought tolerance in bentgrass, suggesting that the function of the E3 ligase SIZ1 is highly conserved in plants and it plays a critical role in abiotic stress responses. To test the possibility that the SUMO E3 ligase could be used to engineer drought- and heat-tolerant crops, the rice gene OsSIZ1 was overexpressed in cotton. We report here that overexpression of OsSIZ1 in cotton results in higher net photosynthesis and better growth than wild-type cotton under drought and thermal stresses in growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Additionally, this tolerance to abiotic stresses was correlated with higher fiber yield in both controlled-environment and field trials carried out under reduced irrigation and rainfed conditions. These results suggest that OsSIZ1 is a viable candidate gene to improve crop yields under water-limited and rainfed agricultural production systems. PMID:28340002

  17. Development of CVD Mullite Coatings for SiC Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, V.K.; Varadarajan, S.

    2000-03-15

    A process for depositing CVD mullite coatings on SiC fibers for enhanced oxidation and corrosion, and/or act as an interfacial protective barrier has been developed. Process optimization via systematic investigation of system parameters yielded uniform crystalline mullite coatings on SiC fibers. Structural characterization has allowed for tailoring of coating structure and therefore properties. High temperature oxidation/corrosion testing of the optimized coatings has shown that the coatings remain adherent and protective for extended periods. However, preliminary tests of coated fibers showed considerable degradation in tensile strength.

  18. Artificial neural nets application in the cotton yarn industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Clóvis Antoneli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness in the yarn production sector has led companies to search for solutions to attain quality yarn at a low cost. Today, the difference between them, and thus the sector, is in the raw material, meaning processed cotton and its characteristics. There are many types of cotton with different characteristics due to its production region, harvest, storage and transportation. Yarn industries work with cotton mixtures, which makes it difficult to determine the quality of the yarn produced from the characteristics of the processed fibers. This study uses data from a conventional spinning, from a raw material made of 100% cotton, and presents a solution with artificial neural nets that determine the thread quality information, using the fibers’ characteristics values and settings of some process adjustments. In this solution a neural net of the type MultiLayer Perceptron with 11 entry neurons (8 characteristics of the fiber and 3 process adjustments, 7 output neurons (yarn quality and two types of training, Back propagation and Conjugate gradient descent. The selection and organization of the production data of the yarn industry of the cocamar® indústria de fios company are described, to apply the artificial neural nets developed. In the application of neural nets to determine yarn quality, one concludes that, although the ideal precision of absolute values is lacking, the presented solution represents an excellent tool to define yarn quality variations when modifying the raw material composition. The developed system enables a simulation to define the raw material percentage mixture to be processed in the plant using the information from the stocked cotton packs, thus obtaining a mixture that maintains the stability of the entire productive process.

  19. Identification of Conserved Cotton MicroRNAs and Their Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-hong; WANG Qing-lian

    2008-01-01

    @@ No study has been performed on identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets in cotton although cotton is one of the most important fiber and economic crops around the world.In this study,we found 30 potential cotton miRNAs using a comparative genomic approach based on genomic survey sequence analysis and miRNA secondary structure.These cotton miRNAs belong to 22 miRNA families.Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis indicated that the predicted miRNAs were expressed in cotton plants.

  20. Rapid development of enhanced atrazine degradation in a Dundee silt loam soil under continuous corn and in rotation with cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotowicz, Robert M; Krutz, L Jason; Reddy, Krishna N; Weaver, Mark A; Koger, Clifford H; Locke, Martin A

    2007-02-07

    Mississippi Delta cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production in rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in field experiments from 2000 to 2005 at Stoneville, Mississippi. Plots maintained under minimum tillage were established in 2000 on a Dundee silt loam with treatments including continuous cotton or corn and alternate cotton-corn rotations. Mineralization and dissipation of 14C [ring]-labeled atrazine were evaluated in the laboratory on soils collected prior to herbicide application in the first, second, third, and sixth years of the study. In soils collected in 2000, a maximum of 10% of the atrazine was mineralized after 30 days. After 1 year of herbicide application, atrazine-treated soils mineralized 52-57% of the radiolabeled atrazine in 30 days. By the sixth year of the study, greater than 59% of the atrazine was mineralized after 7 days in soils treated with atrazine, while soils from plots with no atrazine treatment mineralized less than 36%. The data also indicated rapid development of enhanced atrazine degradation in soils following 1 year of corn production with atrazine use. Atrazine mineralization was as rapid in soils under a rotation receiving biannual atrazine applications as in soils under continuous corn receiving annual applications of atrazine. Cumulative mineralization kinetics parameters derived from the Gompertz model (k and ti) were highly correlated with a history of atrazine application and total soil carbon content. Changes in the soil microbial community assessed by total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis indicated significant interactions of cropping system and sampling date, with FAME indicators for soil bacteria responsible for differences in community structure. Autoclaved soil lost all ability to mineralize atrazine, and atrazine-mineralizing bacteria were isolated from these plots, confirming the biological basis for atrazine mineralization. These results indicate that changes in degradative potential of a soil can

  1. A comparison of hemorrhage control and hydrogen peroxide generation in commercial and cotton-based wound dressing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonwoven UltraCleanTM Cotton (highly cleaned and hydroentangled, greige cotton) retains the native wax and pectin content (~2%) of the cotton fiber traditionally removed from scoured and bleached cotton gauze, yet potentially affording wound healing properties. In vitro thromboelastography, hydrog...

  2. Recent Developments in Micro-Structured Fiber Optic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in fiber-optic sensing have involved booming research in the design and manufacturing of novel micro-structured optical fiber devices. From the conventional tapered fiber architectures to the novel micro-machined devices by advanced laser systems, thousands of micro-structured fiber-optic sensors have been proposed and fabricated for applications in measuring temperature, strain, refractive index (RI, electric current, displacement, bending, acceleration, force, rotation, acoustic, and magnetic field. The renowned and unparalleled merits of sensors-based micro-machined optical fibers including small footprint, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interferences, durability to harsh environment, capability of remote control, and flexibility of directly embedding into the structured system have placed them in highly demand for practical use in diverse industries. With the rapid advancement in micro-technology, micro-structured fiber sensors have benefitted from the trends of possessing high performance, versatilities and spatial miniaturization. Here, we comprehensively review the recent progress in the micro-structured fiber-optic sensors with a variety of architectures regarding their fabrications, waveguide properties and sensing applications.

  3. Preparation of Adsorbent Based on Modiifcation of Cotton Fibers by HBP-NH2 and Its Property%HBP-NH2改性棉纤维吸附剂的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凤; 臧传峰; 闫腾; 张德锁; 陈宇岳; 林红

    2014-01-01

    A modified cotton fiber adsorbent was prepared successfully by grafting amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP-NH2) onto oxidized cotton ifbers. Its technology of preparation was optimized based on the adsorption quantity of Cd2+. The results showed that the modiifed cotton ifbers have the highest adsorption capacity up to Cd2+when 20 g/L HBP-NH2 reacted with oxidized cotton ifbers at 60℃and 11.03 pH value for 2 h. The adsorption quantity of Cd2+could reach 38.94 mg/g.%本研究通过氧化活化棉纤维的方法将端氨基超支化聚合物(HBP-NH2)接枝到棉纤维表面,成功制备了一种HBP-NH2改性棉纤维吸附剂,并以Cd2+的吸附量为依据对吸附剂的制备工艺进行了优化。研究表明HBP-NH2改性棉纤维吸附剂最佳制备工艺为:在60℃下,pH值为11.03的20 g/L HBP-NH2溶液中(浴比1∶50),接枝反应2 h,所制备的改性棉纤维对Cd2+的吸附量最高,可达38.94 mg/g。

  4. 基于费舍尔评分与离散粒子群优化的棉花异性纤维在线检测%Online detection for cotton foreign fiber based on fisher score and binary particle swarm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学华; 李道亮; 于合龙

    2014-01-01

    Foreign fibers in cotton refer to non-cotton fibers and dyed fibers such as hairs, binding ropes, plastic films, candy wrappers, and polypropylene twines. Foreign fibers in cotton even in low content, especially in lint, can seriously affect the quality of the final cotton textile products. Today, online detection systems based on machine vision have been developed for evaluating the quality of the cotton. In such systems, classification of foreign fibers in cotton is the basic and key technology, which is related to the systems’ performance. Finding the optimum feature set with the small size and high accuracy is essential due to it can not only simplify the design of classifier, but also reduce the time of feature extraction. It is a feature selection problem in nature. Feature selection plays an important role in online detection of foreign fibers in cotton. This paper proposed a combined feature selection algorithm for foreign fiber data by combining Fisher Score with BPSO (Binary Particle Swarm Optimization). First, Fisher Score was used to filter noisy features. Then, the BPSO used the classifier accuracy as a fitness function to select the highly discriminating features. The proposed method was tested for classification on foreign fiber dataset. The comparisons of the proposed algorithm with Fisher Score approach and BPSO algorithm showed that the proposed algorithm was able to find the subsets with small size that produced the best classification accuracy in cross-validation. The optimal set with 18 features was selected from 75 features by the proposed algorithm, which classification accuracy reached 93.5%. The time cost of the optimal sets involving three stages corresponding to image segmentation, feature extraction and classification throughout the process of online detection was also tested. The time (0.8231 s) of the optimal set obtained by the proposed algorithm was obviously lower than the original set and the other subset selected by Fscore and

  5. Development and Validation of a Fluorescent Multiplexed Immunoassay for Measurement of Transgenic Proteins in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Grant R; Paul, Sudakshina; Nahirna, Iryna; Wang, Yongcheng; Deffenbaugh, Andrew E; Liu, Zi Lucy; Glenn, Kevin C

    2016-06-22

    In order to provide farmers with better and more customized alternatives to improve yields, combining multiple genetically modified (GM) traits into a single product (called stacked trait crops) is becoming prevalent. Trait protein expression levels are used to characterize new GM products and establish exposure limits, two important components of safety assessment. Developing a multiplexed immunoassay capable of measuring all trait proteins in the same sample allows for higher sample throughput and savings in both time and expense. Fluorescent (bead-based) multiplexed immunoassays (FMI) have gained wide acceptance in mammalian research and in clinical applications. In order to facilitate the measurement of stacked GM traits, we have developed and validated an FMI assay that can measure five different proteins (β-glucuronidase, neomycin phosphotransferase II, Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab2, and CP4 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase) present in cotton leaf from a stacked trait product. Expression levels of the five proteins determined by FMI in cotton leaf tissues have been evaluated relative to expression levels determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of the individual proteins and shown to be comparable. The FMI met characterization requirements similar to those used for ELISA. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that FMI results are equivalent to those determined by conventional individual ELISAs to measure GM protein expression levels in stacked trait products but with significantly higher throughput, reduced time, and more efficient use of resources.

  6. 转Bt基因抗虫棉对棉蚜个体生长发育和繁殖能力的影响%Effects of Transgenic Bt gene Cotton on the Development and Reproduction of Individuals Cotton Aphids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海强; 王冬梅; 徐遥; 张永军; 丁瑞丰; 李号宾; 汪飞; 阿克旦·吾外士; 刘建

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究转Bt基因抗虫棉对棉蚜的个体生长发育及繁殖能力的影响.[方法]在室内研究转Bt基因棉(处理)和常规棉(对照)对棉蚜个体生长发育及繁殖能力的影响.[结果]转Bt基因抗棉铃虫棉对棉蚜发育速度、成蚜寿命、4龄若蚜体重、成蚜繁殖力无明显影响.[结论]取食转Bt基因棉花对棉蚜个体生长发育没有负面影响,转Bt基因棉花对棉蚜生长发育和繁殖是安全的.为转Bt基因抗虫棉对棉蚜的生态安全性评价提供相关依据.%[Objective] The purpose of this study was to discuss effects of transgenic Bt gene cotton on the development and reproduction of individuals cotton Aphuids. [Method] The preliminary effects of transgenic cotton on Aphis were measured in laboratory with the method of life - table. [Result]The result showed that the effect on the development speed , adult life - span. 4 duration avoirdupois, and adult reproduction of Aphids were not significant. [ Conclusion] The correlative evidence had been built on transgenic Bt gene cotton ecoloey safety evaluation .

  7. Development of ceramic fibers for high-energy laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Geoff E.; Kim, Hyun Jun; Lee, HeeDong; Parthasarathy, Triplicane A.; Keller, Kristin A.; Miller, Zachary D.

    2011-06-01

    Polycrystalline ceramics offer a number of advantages relative to single crystal materials such as lower processing temperatures, improved mechanical properties, and higher doping levels with more uniform distribution of dopants for improved laser performance. Ceramic YAG (Y3Al5O12) and rare earth sesquioxide (RE2O3) fibers promise to enable a number of high power laser devices via high thermal conductivity and higher allowable dopant concentration; however, these materials are not currently available as fine diameter optical-quality fibers. Powder processing approaches for laser quality polycrystalline ceramic fibers are in development at AFRL. Current processing techniques will be reviewed. The effects of a number of processing variables on the resulting fibers as well as preliminary optical characterization will also be presented.

  8. 棉织物上SESA活化法固定化脂肪酶工艺的研究*%Study on immobilization of lipase onto cotton fiber activated by SESA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭立凤; 刘新喜

    2001-01-01

    研究了对-β-硫酸酯乙砜基苯胺活化法在棉织物上固定化脂肪酶的工艺条件,并考察了固定化酶的最适作用温度和pH及间歇操作稳定性。最佳固定化条件为:醚化pH为10.0,偶联pH为7.0,脂肪酶的浓度为6 mg/ml,偶联时间为12h,所得固定化脂肪酶的最大活力为35U/g(棉)·min。固定化酶的最适作用温度为35℃,最适pH为8.0,半衰期为6d。%The conditions of the lipase immobilization onto cotton fiber activated by p-β-sulfuric acid ester ethyl sulfone aniline (SESA) have been studied. The optimal temperature and pH of the immobilized lipase were investigated, and the operating stability of the immobilized lipase was studied too. The results showed that the optimal conditions for the immobilization were that the pH of the reaction for the cotton fiber with SESA was 10.0,the linking pH of lipase to fiber was 7.0,the linking time was 12h,and the concentration of lipase was 6mg· mL- 1 .Then 35 U· g(fiber) - 1 · min- 1 activity of immobilized lipase was obtained. The optimal temperature and pH of the immobilized lipase were 35 ℃ and 8.0 respectively, and its half life was 6 days .

  9. Development of Transgenic Restorer of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-de; LI Yue-you

    2002-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase gene (gst) has been introduced into restorers of cytoplasmic male sterility in upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A transviable pollens of hybrid (sterile line×restorer) F1. The hybrid gave 3.6 more bolls per plant, 10.1% less aborted seeds and 10.6% more lint yield when ‘Zheda strong restorer’ was used as male parent than when ‘DES-HAF277’ was. Southern and Northern bloting analysis showed that the foreign gst gene was detectable and highly expressed in ‘Zheda strong restorer’.

  10. Physical and combustion properties of nonwoven fabrics produced from conventional and naturally colored cottons

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted to identify the effects of processing parameters on physical and combustion properties of needlepunched (NP) and hydroentangled (H-E) nonwoven fabrics produced from fibers of a standard Mid-South white fiber cotton and a naturally colored brown fiber cotton. The fl...

  11. Development of Thermoelectric Fibers for Miniature Thermoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Menchhofer, Paul; Kiggans, James; Wang, Hsin

    2016-03-01

    Miniature thermoelectric (TE) devices may be used in a variety of applications such as power sources of small sensors, temperature regulation of precision electronics, etc. Reducing the size of TE elements may also enable design of novel devices with unique form factor and higher device efficiency. Current industrial practice of fabricating TE devices usually involves mechanical removal processes that not only lead to material loss but also limit the geometry of the TE elements. In this project, we explored a powder-processing method for the fabrication of TE fibers with large length-to-area ratio, which could be potentially used for miniature TE devices. Powders were milled from Bi2Te3-based bulk materials and then mixed with a thermoplastic resin dissolved in an organic solvent. Through an extrusion process, flexible, continuous fibers with sub-millimeter diameters were formed. The polymer phase was then removed by sintering. Sintered fibers exhibited similar Seebeck coefficients to the bulk materials. However, their electrical resistivity was much higher, which might be related to the residual porosity and grain boundary contamination. Prototype miniature uni-couples fabricated from these fibers showed a linear I- V behavior and could generate millivolt voltages and output power in the nano-watt range. Further development of these TE fibers requires improvement in their electrical conductivities, which needs a better understanding of the causes that lead to the low conductivity in the sintered fibers.

  12. New development in optical fibers for data center applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Shubochkin, Roman; Zhu, Benyuan

    2015-01-01

    VCSEL-multimode optical fiber based links is the most successful optical technology in Data Centers. Laser-optimized multimode optical fibers, OM3 and OM4, have been the primary choice of physical media for 10 G serial, 4 x 10 G parallel, 10 x 10 G parallel, and 4 x 25 G parallel optical solutions in IEEE 802.3 standards. As the transition of high-end servers from 10 Gb/s to 40 Gb/s is driving the aggregation of speeds to 40 Gb/s now, and to 100 Gb/s and 400 Gb/s in near future, industry experts are coming together in IEEE 802.3bs 400 Gb/s study group and preliminary discussion of Terabit transmission for datacom applications has also been commenced. To meet the requirement of speed, capacity, density, power consumption and cost for next generation datacom applications, optical fiber design concepts beyond the standard OM3 and OM4 MMFs have a revived research and developmental interest, for example, wide band multimode optical fiber using multiple dopants for coarse wavelength division multiplexing; multicore multimode optical fiber using plural multimode cores in a single fiber strand to improve spatial density; and perhaps 50 Gb/s per lane and few mode fiber in spatial division multiplexing for ultimate capacity increase in far future. This talk reviews the multitude of fiber optic media being developed in the industry to address the upcoming challenges of datacom growth. We conclude that multimode transmission using low cost VCSEL technology will continue to be a viable solution for datacom applications.

  13. Duplication, divergence and persistence in the Phytochrome photoreceptor gene family of cottons (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdukarimov Abdusattor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytochromes are a family of red/far-red photoreceptors that regulate a number of important developmental traits in cotton (Gossypium spp., including plant architecture, fiber development, and photoperiodic flowering. Little is known about the composition and evolution of the phytochrome gene family in diploid (G. herbaceum, G. raimondii or allotetraploid (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense cotton species. The objective of this study was to obtain a preliminary inventory and molecular-evolutionary characterization of the phytochrome gene family in cotton. Results We used comparative sequence resources to design low-degeneracy PCR primers that amplify genomic sequence tags (GSTs for members of the PHYA, PHYB/D, PHYC and PHYE gene sub-families from A- and D-genome diploid and AD-genome allotetraploid Gossypium species. We identified two paralogous PHYA genes (designated PHYA1 and PHYA2 in diploid cottons, the result of a Malvaceae-specific PHYA gene duplication that occurred approximately 14 million years ago (MYA, before the divergence of the A- and D-genome ancestors. We identified a single gene copy of PHYB, PHYC, and PHYE in diploid cottons. The allotetraploid genomes have largely retained the complete gene complements inherited from both of the diploid genome ancestors, with at least four PHYA genes and two genes encoding PHYB, PHYC and PHYE in the AD-genomes. We did not identify a PHYD gene in any cotton genomes examined. Conclusions Detailed sequence analysis suggests that phytochrome genes retained after duplication by segmental duplication and allopolyploidy appear to be evolving independently under a birth-and-death-process with strong purifying selection. Our study provides a preliminary phytochrome gene inventory that is necessary and sufficient for further characterization of the biological functions of each of the cotton phytochrome genes, and for the development of 'candidate gene' markers that are potentially useful for

  14. Identification of mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and development of single nucleotide polymorphic markers for CMS-D8 in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Yu, Jiwen; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jinfa

    2013-06-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which is a maternally inherited trait and controlled by novel chimeric genes in the mitochondrial genome, plays a pivotal role in the production of hybrid seed. In cotton, no PCR-based marker has been developed to discriminate CMS-D8 (from Gossypium trilobum) from its normal Upland cotton (AD1, Gossypium hirsutum) cytoplasm. The objective of the current study was to develop PCR-based single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers from mitochondrial genes for the CMS-D8 cytoplasm. DNA sequence variation in mitochondrial genes involved in the oxidative phosphorylation chain including ATP synthase subunit 1, 4, 6, 8 and 9, and cytochrome c oxidase 1, 2 and 3 subunits were identified by comparing CMS-D8, its isogenic maintainer and restorer lines on the same nuclear genetic background. An allelic specific PCR (AS-PCR) was utilized for SNP typing by incorporating artificial mismatched nucleotides into the third or fourth base from the 3' terminus in both the specific and nonspecific primers. The result indicated that the method modifying allele-specific primers was successful in obtaining eight SNP markers out of eight SNPs using eight primer pairs to discriminate two alleles between AD1 and CMS-D8 cytoplasms. Two of the SNPs for atp1 and cox1 could also be used in combination to discriminate between CMS-D8 and CMS-D2 cytoplasms. Additionally, a PCR-based marker from a nine nucleotide insertion-deletion (InDel) sequence (AATTGTTTT) at the 59-67 bp positions from the start codon of atp6, which is present in the CMS and restorer lines with the D8 cytoplasm but absent in the maintainer line with the AD1 cytoplasm, was also developed. A SNP marker for two nucleotide substitutions (AA in AD1 cytoplasm to CT in CMS-D8 cytoplasm) in the intron (1,506 bp) of cox2 gene was also developed. These PCR-based SNP markers should be useful in discriminating CMS-D8 and AD1 cytoplasms, or those with CMS-D2 cytoplasm as a rapid, simple, inexpensive, and

  15. Study on the Handle of Keratin Transgenic Cotton Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋培清; 严文源; 严灏景

    2004-01-01

    Gene of animal keratin can be inoculated into cotton fiber and thus get the keratin transgenic cotton fiber through transgenic technology. Handle of two kinds of pure cotton poplin, one of which is made of the keratin transgenic cotton while the other is made of the ordinary cotton of the same breed as control group and both with absolutely identical spinning, weaving, and dyeing process, was objectively evaluated with KES system. The result of analysis indicates that the principal changes of keratin transgenic cotton fabric are that the bending and shearing property of the fabric are considerably enhanced, KOSHI (Stiffness) and HARI (Anti-drape stiffness) of the fabric are good, while SHINAYAKASA (Flexibility with soft feeling) and SHARI (Crispness) decline.

  16. Solitons in ideal optical fibers: a numerical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliandro Rodrigues Cirilo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work developed a numerical procedure for a system of partial differential equations (PDEs describing the propagation of solitons in ideal optical fibers. The validation of the procedure was implemented from the numerical comparison between the known analytical solutions of the PDEs system and those obtained by using the numerical procedure developed. It was discovered that the procedure, based on the finite difference method and relaxation Gauss-Seidel method, was adequate in describing the propagation of soliton waves in ideals optical fibers.

  17. Nylon and Chemical Fiber Industry of Shifeng Developing Synchronously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Yinshi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, over 40 people of the investigation group of the 10th Chinese Caprolactam and Nylon Market Forum went to Shifeng Group for visitation and investigation. They learnt the overall general situation of Shifeng Group in details, visited the factory areas such as chemical fiber & tire industrial park and agricultural automobile industrial park, and listened to the development process of Shifeng Group, the present production and future development of such products as nylon chip, nylon yarn and flat chafer fabric under nylon and chemical fiber project, and the market growth in recent two years. The investigation group showed great cooperation intention on the caprolactam project of Shifeng Group.

  18. Newly-developed Fiber Product: How to Realize the Value Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ However, for domestic Chinese textile enterprise, most of them have the ability to develop new textile fibers. In the past years, fiber products, such as the corn fiber, milk fiber, bamboo fiber and so on, mushroomed in the markets. Whereas, during the process of product promotion, they experience a bottleneck: from fiber to consumer, how to improve and realize the long value chain, how to promote the industrial application.

  19. Development of smart textiles with embedded fiber optic chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Saif E.; Yuan, Jianming; El-Sherif, Mahmoud A.

    2004-03-01

    Smart textiles are defined as textiles capable of monitoring their own health conditions or structural behavior, as well as sensing external environmental conditions. Smart textiles appear to be a future focus of the textile industry. As technology accelerates, textiles are found to be more useful and practical for potential advanced technologies. The majority of textiles are used in the clothing industry, which set up the idea of inventing smart clothes for various applications. Examples of such applications are medical trauma assessment and medical patients monitoring (heart and respiration rates), and environmental monitoring for public safety officials. Fiber optics have played a major role in the development of smart textiles as they have in smart structures in general. Optical fiber integration into textile structures (knitted, woven, and non-woven) is presented, and defines the proper methodology for the manufacturing of smart textiles. Samples of fabrics with integrated optical fibers were processed and tested for optical signal transmission. This was done in order to investigate the effect of textile production procedures on optical fiber performance. The tests proved the effectiveness of the developed methodology for integration of optical fibers without changing their optical performance or structural integrity.

  20. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  1. In Silico study for diversing the molecular pathway of pigment formation: An alternative to manual coloring in cotton fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammara eAhad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of colors in flowers and fruits is largely due to anthocyanin pigments. The flavonoid/anthocyanin pathway has been most extensively studied. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR is a vibrant enzyme of the flavonoid pathway which displays major impact on the formation of anthocyanins, flavan 3-ols and flavonols. The substrate specificity of the DFR was found to play a crucial role in determination of type of anthocyanidins. Altering the flavonoid/ anthocyanin pathway through genetic engineering to develop color of our own choice is an exciting subject of future research. In the present study, comparison among four DFR genes (Gossypium hirsutum, Iris × hollandica, Ang. DFRI and DFRII, sequence alignment for homology as well as protein modeling and docking is demonstrated. Estimation of catalytic sites, prediction of substrate preference and protein docking were the key features of this article. For specific substrate uptake, a proline rich region and positions 12 plus 26 along with other positions emphasizing the 26-amino acid residue region (132-157 was tested. Results showed that proline rich region position 12, 26 and 132-157 plays an important role in selective attachment of DFRs with respective substrates. Further, ‘Expasy ProtParam tool’ results showed that Iris × hollandica DFR amino acids (Asn 9: Asp 23 favorable for reducing DHQ and DHM thus accumulating delphinidin, while Gossypium hirsutum DFR has (Asn 13: Asp 21 hypothesized to consume DHK. Protein docking data showed that amino acid residues in above mentioned positions were just involved in attachment of DFR with substrate and had no role in specific substrate uptake.Advanced bioinformatics analysis has revealed that all above mentioned positions have role in substrate attachment. For substrate specificity, other residues region is involved. It will help in color manipulations in different plant species.

  2. Salt Stress Effects on Secondary Metabolites of Cotton in Relation to Gene Expression Responsible for Aphid Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Many secondary metabolites have insecticidal efficacy against pests and may be affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known of how plants may respond to such stress as pertains the growth and development of pests. The objective of this study was to determine if and how salt stress on cotton plants affects the population dynamics of aphids. The NaCl treatment (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM and 200 mM increased contents of gossypol in cotton by 26.8-51.4%, flavonoids by 22.5-37.6% and tannic by 15.1-24.3% at 7-28 d after salt stress. Compared with non-stressed plants, the population of aphids on 150 and 200 mM NaCl stressed plants was reduced by 46.4 and 65.4% at 7d and by 97.3 and 100% at 14 days after infestation. Reductions in aphid population were possibly attributed to the elevated secondary metabolism under salt stress. A total of 796 clones for aphids transcriptome, 412 clones in the positive- library (TEST and 384 clones in the reverse-library (Ck, were obtained from subtracted cDNA libraries and sequenced. Gene ontology (GO functional classification and KEGG pathway analysis showed more genes related to fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, and fewer genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and cell motility pathways in TEST than in Ck library, which might be the reason of aphids population reduction. A comparative analysis with qRT-PCR indicated high expression of transcripts CYP6A14, CYP6A13, CYP303A1, NADH dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase in the TEST group. However, CYP307A1 and two ecdysone-induced protein genes were down regulated. The results indicate that genes of aphids related to growth and development can express at a higher level in reaction to the enhanced secondary metabolism in cotton under salinity stress. The expression of CYP307A1 was positively correlated with the population dynamics of aphids since it was involved in ecdysone synthesis.

  3. Structural analysis of Gossypium hirsutum fibers grown under greenhouse and hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Friedrich, Norman; Köck, Margret; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Paris, Oskar; Paschke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    Cotton is the one of the world's most important crops. Like any other crop, cotton growth/development and fiber quality is highly dependent on environmental factors. Increasing global weather instability has been negatively impacting its economy. Cotton is a crop that exerts an intensive pressure over natural resources (land and water) and demands an overuse of pesticides. Thus, the search for alternative cotton culture methods that are pesticide-free (biocotton) and enable customized standard fiber quality should be encouraged. Here we describe a culture of Gossypium hirsutum ("Upland" Cotton) utilizing a greenhouse and hydroponics in which the fibers are morphological similar to conventional cultures and structurally fit into the classical two-phase cellulose I model with 4.19nm crystalline domains surrounded by amorphous regions. These fibers exhibit a single crystalline form of cellulose I-Iß, monoclinic unit cell. Fiber quality bulk analysis shows an improved length, strength, whiteness when compared with soil-based cultures. Finally, we show that our fibers can be spun, used for production of non-woven fabrics and indigo-vat stained demonstrating its potential in industrial and commercial applications.

  4. Metabolism of aflatoxin B-1 in cotton bolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellon, J.E.; Lee, L.S. (Dept. of Agriculture, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungus capable of producing the potent carcinogen aflatoxin (AFB-1) when it infects developing cotton seed. Although high levels of toxin can readily be isolated from internal tissues of infected seeds, very low toxin levels are observed in the fiber-linter matrix. In order to test the hypothesis that constituents associated with the lint of the host plant are metabolizing aflatoxin, {sup 14}C-AFB-1 was introduced into cotton bolls (30 days postanthesis). Other sets of bolls received inoculations of toxigenic or nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus plus exogenous {sup 14}C-AFB-1. In addition to the exogenously applied {sup 14}C-AFB-1, at least two new labelled metabolites were recovered from the test bolls. One of these metabolites was very polar and remained on the origin of the thin layer analysis system. Test bolls which received both A. flavus and AFB-1 produced significantly lower levels of this polar metabolite. Results indicated that some constituent(s) associated with cotton fiber may metabolize fungal-produced aflatoxin, rather than inhibit its formation.

  5. Our experience in processing a pre-cleaned greige cotton lint for certain nonwoven base materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally bleached cotton has been used for the production of nonwoven fabrics. One primary reason for this scenario was that there was no greige cotton fiber alternative that would meet the required cotton cleanliness needs of the nonwovens manufacturers. However, today, there are several vers...

  6. Global Annotation of Small RNA and MicroRNA Mature Sequences from Developing Ovules of Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABDURAKHMONOV Ibrokhim Y; DEVOR Eric J; HUANG Ling-yan; BURIEV Zabardast T; MAKAMOV Abdusalom; SHERMATOV Shukhrat E; ABDUKARIMOV Abdusattor

    2008-01-01

    @@ The involvement of small RNAs in cotton fiber development is under explored.The objective of this work was to directly clone,annotate,and analyze small RNAs of developing ovules to reveal the candidate small interfering RNA/microRNAs (siRNAs/miRNAs) involved in cotton ovule and fiber development.We cloned small RNA sequences from 0~10 days post anthesis (DPA) developing ovules of Gossypium hirsutum var.

  7. Determing the feasiblity of chemical imaging of cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is some interest in the textile community about the identity of cotton trash that has become comingled with cotton lint. Currently, trash is identified visually by human “classers” and instrumentally by the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) and the High Volume Instrument (HVI). Although...

  8. Cost Effective Approaches to Impart Flame Resistance to Cotton Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent changes in the flammability laws require improvements in the flame resistance of cotton-containing consumer goods such as upholstered furniture, mattresses, and pillows. Cotton, synthetic fibers, fabrics, and foam are the basic constituents of these goods, often the first to engulf by a fire....

  9. Fourier transform infrared macro-imaging of botanical cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The marketability of cotton fiber is directly tied to the trash comingled with it. Trash can contaminate cotton during harvesting, ginning, and processing. Thus, the removal of trash is important from field to fabric. An ideal prerequisite to removing trash from lint is identifying what trash types...

  10. Expression Profiling Identifies Candidate Genes for Fiber Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LLEWELLYN D J; MACHADO A; AI-GHAZI Y; WU Y; DENNIS E S

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gene expression profiling at early stages (0~2 DPA) of fiber development in Gossypiurn hirsuturn identified a number of transcription factors which were down regulated in fiberless mutants relative to wild type controls and which could play a role in controlling early fiber development.Chief among these was GhMYB25,a Mixta-like MYB gene.Transgenic GhMYB25-silenced cotton showeddramatic alterations in fiber initiation and the timing of rapid fiber elongation,reduction in trichomes on other parts of the plant,a delay in lateral root growth,and a reduction in seed production due toreduced fertilization efficiency.

  11. Development of Manila Hemp Fiber Epoxy Composite with High Tensile Properties Through Handpicking Fiber Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Takagi, Hitoshi; Yang, Zhimao

    Manila hemp fibers are separated to several sequent fragments from single fiber. The tensile strength of each fiber fragments and their epoxy composite are measured, followed by scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis. The results show that the tensile strength of fiber fragments is almost constant along fiber. For composite, the tensile strength first increases and then decreases at the position near to root. The Young's modulus presents increasing with location from root to top for fiber and composite. Microstructure analysis indicates that the difference of tensile properties between fiber fragments derive from the difference of fiber diameter.

  12. [FTIR Spectroscopic Characterization of Material Composition in Functional Leaf of Cotton under Stress of Potassium and Boron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-wen; Hao, Yan-shu; Lei, Jing; Jiang, Cun-cang

    2016-03-01

    Potassium (K) and boron (B) are essential nutrient elements for plants, and the elements play an important role for plant growth, development and physiological metabolism. Cotton has a higher demand for K and B; K deficiency or B deficiency often occurs in cotton though. To reveal the component changes in functional leaf of cotton under K and B stress and investigate effects on material composition from K and B. A pot experiment was conducted at Huazhong Agricultural University. (1) the characteristic peaks at 1 546.86, 1 438.85, 1 153.39 and 1 024.17 cm(-1) disappeared due to B deficiency, and relative absorbance of other characteristic peaks was decreased compared with normal, which suggested that the structures of protein, fiber, soluble sugar and ribosome in cotton functional leaf changed and decreased in cotent when lack of K. (2) the relative absorbance of all characteristic peaks was increased in the B-deficient cotton leaves compared with normal, suggesting B deficiency leads to the accumulation in leaves of protein, and fiber, soluble sugar and other carbohydrates because of the hindered transportation. (3) lack of both potassium and boron, induced significant changes to both the locations and relative absorbance of characteristic peaks, and the content of protein, and soluble sugar and other carbohydrates increased, while the content of nucleic acids and polysaccharides dropped. K deficiency led to the structures of protein, fiber, soluble sugar and ribosome in cotton functional leaf changed and decreased in content; B deficiency gave rise to the accumulation in leaves of protein, and fiber, soluble sugar and other carbohydrates; the content of protein and soluble sugar and other carbohydrates increased, while the content of nucleic acids and polysaccharides dropped when K and B were all in short supply.

  13. Textile fibers prepared by combined alkali soaking, steam explosion and laccase/mediator treatments to bark of cotton stalks%碱液浸泡-蒸汽闪爆-漆酶介体处理制备棉秆皮纤维

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 夏胜娟; 马博谋; 廖祥儒; 侯秀良

    2015-01-01

    为了实现棉秆的高效资源化利用,该文提出一种碱液浸泡-蒸汽闪爆-漆酶介体联合处理棉秆皮制备纺织纤维的新方法。研究了浸泡NaOH用量对棉秆皮分离效果的影响以及漆酶介体处理介体种类及用量、漆酶用量对木质素去除的影响。采用扫描电子显微镜、X 射线衍射、热稳定性分析等方法,对比研究了蒸汽闪爆、漆酶介体处理后棉秆皮纤维的化学成分、结构与性能。研究结果表明,碱液浸泡-蒸汽闪爆-漆酶介体处理(NaOH用量10 g/L,介体ABTS用量为棉秆皮纤维干质量的1%,漆酶用量为600 U/g)能制得表面洁净、热稳定性好的棉秆皮纤维,其长度为55.7 mm,细度为28 dtex,长径比为1139,断裂强度为2.97 cN/dtex,纤维素质量分数为78%,结晶指数为67.5,得率为40%,可用于纺织,研究结果为木质纤维素纤维的制备提供参考。%As we all know, burning of cotton stalks will bring serious environment pollution. In order to protect the environment and make efficient utilization of cotton stalks, this paper presented a new method for the preparation of cellulose textile fibers, which could obtain better fibers from bark of cotton stalks. It was reported that natural cellulose fibers from bark of cotton stalks had significantly better mechanical properties than those from other lignocellulosic agricultural byproducts such as rice and wheat straws. Fibers from bark of cotton stalks were used to reinforce thermoplastic composites, but they were difficult to be spun into textile yarns due to their high fineness value and rigidity. However, conventional method of using strong alkaline solution (30-100 g/L NaOH) for extraction of cellulose fibers from lignocellulosic byproducts led to environmental pollution and high cost. In this paper, the new method included 3 combined steps, i.e. alkali soaking, steam explosion and laccase mediator system treatment. Bark of cotton stalks

  14. Cotton bollworm resistance to Bt transgenic cotton: A case analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is one of the most serious insect pests of cotton. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry toxins derived from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has been produced to target this pest. Bt cotton has been widely planted around the world, and this has resulted in efficient control of bollworm populations with reduced use of synthetic insecticides. However, evolution of resistance by this pest threatens the continued success of Bt cotton. To date, no field populations of bollworm have evolved significant levels of resistance; however, several laboratory-selected Cry-resistant strains of H. armigera have been obtained, which suggests that bollworm has the capacity to evolve resistance to Bt. The development of resistance to Bt is of great concern, and there is a vast body of research in this area aimed at ensuring the continued success of Bt cotton. Here, we review studies on the evolution of Bt resistance in H. armigera, focusing on the biochemical and molecular basis of Bt resistance. We also discuss resistance management strategies, and monitoring programs implemented in China, Australia, and India.

  15. Cotton Industry:Situation Report in March 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rapid development of the textile industry has made China the world’s largest cotton consumer and importer-cotton is the country’s third- largest product import after soybeans and edible oil.Generally

  16. Waste polyvinylchloride derived pitch as a precursor to develop carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, W M; Yoon, S H; Mochida, I; Yang, J H

    2007-01-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) was successfully recycled through the solvent extraction from waste pipe with an extraction yield of ca. 86%. The extracted PVC was pyrolyzed by a two-stage process (260 and 410 degrees C) to obtain free-chlorine PVC based pitch through an effective removal of chlorine from PVC during the heat-treatment. As-prepared pitch (softening point: 220 degrees C) was spun, stabilized, carbonized into carbon fibers (CFs), and further activated into activated carbon fibers (ACFs) in a flow of CO2. As-prepared CFs show comparable mechanical properties to commercial CFs, whose maximum tensile strength and modulus are 862 MPa and 62 GPa, respectively. The resultant ACFs exhibit a high surface area of 1200 m2/g, narrow pore size distribution and a low oxygen content of 3%. The study provides an effective insight to recycle PVC from waste PVC and develop a carbon precursor for high performance carbon materials such as CFs and ACFs.

  17. Double feature selection and cluster analyses in mining of microarray data from cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins Thea A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome of major biological and economic importance. In recent years, genomic approaches such as microarray-based expression profiling were used to study fiber growth and development to understand the developmental mechanisms of fiber at the molecular level. The vast volume of microarray expression data generated requires a sophisticated means of data mining in order to extract novel information that addresses fundamental questions of biological interest. One of the ways to approach microarray data mining is to increase the number of dimensions/levels to the analysis, such as comparing independent studies from different genotypes. However, adding dimensions also creates a challenge in finding novel ways for analyzing multi-dimensional microarray data. Results Mining of independent microarray studies from Pima and Upland (TM1 cotton using double feature selection and cluster analyses identified species-specific and stage-specific gene transcripts that argue in favor of discrete genetic mechanisms that govern developmental programming of cotton fiber morphogenesis in these two cultivated species. Double feature selection analysis identified the highest number of differentially expressed genes that distinguish the fiber transcriptomes of developing Pima and TM1 fibers. These results were based on the finding that differences in fibers harvested between 17 and 24 day post-anthesis (dpa represent the greatest expressional distance between the two species. This powerful selection method identified a subset of genes expressed during primary (PCW and secondary (SCW cell wall biogenesis in Pima fibers that exhibits an expression pattern that is generally reversed in TM1 at the same developmental stage. Cluster and functional analyses revealed that this subset of genes are primarily regulated during the transition stage that overlaps the termination of PCW and onset of SCW biogenesis, suggesting

  18. Steam Explosion Pretreatment of Cotton Gin Waste for Fuel Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jeoh, Tina

    1998-01-01

    Steam Explosion Pretreatment of Cotton Gin Waste for Ethanol Production By Tina Jeoh Foster A. Agblevor, Chair Biological Systems Engineering ABSTRACT The current research investigates the utilization of cotton gin waste as a feedstock to produce a value-added product - fuel ethanol. Cotton gin waste consists of pieces of burs, stems, motes (immature seeds) and cotton fiber, and is considered to be a lignocellulosic material. The three main chemical constituents are ce...

  19. 聚乳酸纤维与棉纤维不同混纺比对纱线力学性能的影响%Different Blended Ratio Effected on Yarn Mechanical Properties of the Yarn Blended with Corn Polylactic Acid Fiber and Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 潘福奎; 王春

    2012-01-01

    文章对聚乳酸纤维的性能和发展应用进行了阐述。通过设定实验条件,对聚乳酸纤维和棉纤维不同混纺比下的拉伸性能进行测试、分析,并得出结论。%The properties and application of polylactic acid fiber were elaboreted. The mechanical properties of corn polylactic acid fiber and cotton fiber were tested and analysed, according to setted experimental conditions, and the conclusions drawn.

  20. Mali's white revolution: smallholder cotton from 1960 to 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Tefft, James

    2004-01-01

    "One of the pillars of rural development in francophone Africa, the cotton sector serves as a principal motor of economic development, generating benefits to farmers, rural communities, private traders, cotton companies, and national governments.... Government and farmers alike consider cotton a strategic industry.... The Malian cotton model exemplifies the common vertical support system for smallholder agriculture, in which a single entity supplies inputs (usually on credit) in return for gu...

  1. Development of a novel membrane aerated hollow-fiber microbioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Louis; Meyer, Lina; Kroll, Stephen; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A new challenge in biotechnological processes is the development of flexible bioprocessing platforms, allowing strain selection, facilitating scale-up and integrating separation steps. Miniaturization of such a cultivation system allows parallel use and the saving of resources but makes the supply of oxygen to the cells difficult. In this work we present a membrane aerated hollow-fiber microbioreactor (HFMBR) which consists of an acrylic glass module equipped with two different types of membrane fibers. Fibers of polyethersulfone and polyvinyldifluoride were used for substrate and oxygen supply, respectively. Cultivation of E. coli as model organism and production of His-tagged GFP were carried out in the extracapillary space of the membrane aerated HFMBR and compared with cultivations in shaking flask which are commonly used for screening experiments. The measurement of the oxygen transfer capacity and the online monitoring of the dissolved oxygen during the cultivation were performed using a fiber optic oxygen sensor. Online measurement of the optical density was also integrated to the bioreactor. Due to efficient oxygen transfer, a better cell growth than in the shaking flask experiments was achieved, while no negative influence on the GFP productivity was observed in the membrane aerated bioreactor. Thus the feasibility of a future integrated downstreaming could also be demonstrated.

  2. Single mode optical fiber vibration sensor: design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis-Carranza, L. E.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Perez-Sanchez, G. G.; Sierra-Calderon, A.; Rodriguez-Novelo, J. C.

    2016-09-01

    This work deals with the design and development of an SMF28-based vibration detector including the fiber segment, the data acquisition via an NI-USB-6212 card, the data processing code in Visual Basic and the signal spectrum obtained via Fourier analysis. The set-up consists of a regulated voltage source at 2.6V, 300mA, which serves as the power source for a 980nm semiconductor laser operating at 150mW which is fiber coupled into a 20m-piece of SMF-28 fiber. Perpendicular to such fiber the perturbations ranged from 1 to 100 kHz, coming from a DC motor at 12 Volts. At the detection stage, a simple analog filter and a commercial photo diode were employed for data acquisition, before a transimpedance amplification stage reconstructed the signal into the National Instruments data acquisition card. At the output, the signals Fourier transformation allows the signal to be displayed in a personal computer. The presentation will include a full electrical and optical characterization of the device and preliminary sensing results, which could be suitable for structural health monitoring applications.

  3. Genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of bollworm-infested developing cotton bolls revealed the genes and pathways involved in the insect pest defence mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Kumar, Krishan; Narayanasamy, Prabhakaran; Kethireddy Venkata, Padmalatha; Solanke, Amolkumar; Gamanagatti, Savita; Hiremath, Vamadevaiah; Katageri, Ishwarappa S; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2016-06-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major insect pest that feeds on cotton bolls causing extensive damage leading to crop and productivity loss. In spite of such a major impact, cotton plant response to bollworm infection is yet to be witnessed. In this context, we have studied the genome-wide response of cotton bolls infested with bollworm using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Further, we have validated this data using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Comparative analyses have revealed that 39% of the transcriptome and 35% of the proteome were differentially regulated during bollworm infestation. Around 36% of significantly regulated transcripts and 45% of differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in signalling followed by redox regulation. Further analysis showed that defence-related stress hormones and their lipid precursors, transcription factors, signalling molecules, etc. were stimulated, whereas the growth-related counterparts were suppressed during bollworm infestation. Around 26% of the significantly up-regulated proteins were defence molecules, while >50% of the significantly down-regulated were related to photosynthesis and growth. Interestingly, the biosynthesis genes for synergistically regulated jasmonate, ethylene and suppressors of the antagonistic factor salicylate were found to be up-regulated, suggesting a choice among stress-responsive phytohormone regulation. Manual curation of the enzymes and TFs highlighted the components of retrograde signalling pathways. Our data suggest that a selective regulatory mechanism directs the reallocation of metabolic resources favouring defence over growth under bollworm infestation and these insights could be exploited to develop bollworm-resistant cotton varieties.

  4. Effects of Transgenic Cry 1 Ac plus CpTI Cotton on the Bioecology of Main Parasitoids in Laboratory Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jin-jie; VANDER Weft Wopke; MA Yah; LUO Jun-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Effects of transgenic CrylAc plus CpTI cotton (double genes cotton) on development of main parasitoids were studied in the laboratory.Compared with the traditional cotton,the differences of the moulting rate and adult weight of cotton aphid-Aphydius from double gene cotton field were not obvious.

  5. Simple sequence repeat marker associated with a natural leaf defoliation trait in tetraploid cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Abdullaev, A A; Saha, S; Buriev, Z T; Arslanov, D; Kuryazov, Z; Mavlonov, G T; Rizaeva, S M; Reddy, U K; Jenkins, J N; Abdullaev, A; Abdukarimov, A

    2005-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf defoliation has a significant ecological and economical impact on cotton production. Thus the utilization of a natural leaf defoliation trait, which exists in wild diploid cotton species, in the development of tetraploid cultivated cotton will not only be cost effective, but will also facilitate production of very high-grade fiber. The primary goal of our research was to tag loci associated with natural leaf defoliation using microsatellite markers in Upland cotton. The F2 populations developed from reciprocal crosses between the two parental cotton lines--AN-Boyovut-2 (2n = 52), a late leaf defoliating type, and Listopad Beliy (2n = 52), a naturally early leaf defoliating type--demonstrated that the naturally early leaf defoliation trait has heritability values of 0.74 and 0.84 in the reciprocal F2 population. The observed phenotypic segregation difference in reciprocal crosses suggested a minor cytoplasmic effect in the phenotypic expression of the naturally early leaf defoliation trait. Results from the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) nonparametric test revealed that JESPR-13 (KW = 6.17), JESPR-153 (KW = 9.97), and JESPR-178 (KW = 13.45) Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are significantly associated with natural leaf defoliation in the mapping population having stable estimates at empirically obtained critical thresholds (P < .05-.0001). JESPR-178 revealed the highest estimates (P < .0001) for association with the natural leaf defoliation trait, exceeding maximum empirical threshold values. JESPR-178 was assigned to the short arm of chromosome 18, suggesting indirectly that genes associated with natural leaf defoliation might be located on this chromosome. This microsatellite marker may have the potential for use to introgress the naturally early leaf defoliation quantitative trait loci (QTL) from the donor line Listopad Beliy to commercial varieties of cotton through marker-assisted selection programs.

  6. Novel cotton homeobox gene and its expression profiling in root development and in response to stresses and phytohormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Ni; Xiulan Wang; Dengdi Li; Yajie Wu; Wenliang Xu; Xuebao Li

    2008-01-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins are transcriptional factors involved in plant development.In this study,one cDNA clone (Gossypium hirsutum homeobox1,designated GhHB1) encoding HD-Zip protein was isolated from a cotton root cDNA library.The GhHB1 cDNA is 1132 bp in length,including an 828 bp open reading frame that encodes a peptide with 275 amino acids,and 5'-/3'- untranslated regions.The predicted GhHB1 protein containing a homeodomain and a leucine-rich zipper motif shares relatively high identity with other plant HD-Zip proteins.Analysis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR indicated that the GhHB1 gene is predominantly expressed in roots and hypocotyls.Furthermore,GhHB1 transcripts were largely accumulated in early root development,and significantly reduced to very low levels as roots further developed,suggesting that the gene might function in the early development of roots.Under treatment with 1% NaCl,the expression level of the GhHB1 gene was dramatically increased in roots.Likewise,GhHB1 activity in roots was up-regulated by abscisic acid.These results imply that GhHB1 might play an important role in response to salt stress and to abscisic acid signaling.

  7. Recent development on high-power tandem-pumped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pu; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Zhang, Hanwei; Xu, Jiangmin; Wu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    High power fiber laser is attracting more and more attention due to its advantage in excellent beam quality, high electricto- optical conversion efficiency and compact system configuration. Power scaling of fiber laser is challenged by the brightness of pump source, nonlinear effect, modal instability and so on. Pumping active fiber by using high-brightness fiber laser instead of common laser diode may be the solution for the brightness limitation. In this paper, we will present the recent development of various kinds of high power fiber laser based on tandem pumping scheme. According to the absorption property of Ytterbium-doped fiber, Thulium-doped fiber and Holmium-doped fiber, we have theoretically studied the fiber lasers that operate at 1018 nm, 1178 nm and 1150 nm, respectively in detail. Consequently, according to the numerical results we have optimized the fiber laser system design, and we have achieved (1) 500 watt level 1018nm Ytterbium-doped fiber laser (2) 100 watt level 1150 nm fiber laser and 100 watt level random fiber laser (3) 30 watt 1178 nm Ytterbium-doped fiber laser, 200 watt-level random fiber laser. All of the above-mentioned are the record power for the corresponded type of fiber laser to the best of our knowledge. By using the high-brightness fiber laser operate at 1018 nm, 1178 nm and 1150 nm that we have developed, we have achieved the following high power fiber laser (1) 3.5 kW 1090 nm Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier (2) 100 watt level Thulium-doped fiber laser and (3) 50 watt level Holmium -doped fiber laser.

  8. A combined functional and structural genomics approach identified an EST-SSR marker with complete linkage to the Ligon lintless-2 genetic locus in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yuhong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton fiber length is an important quality attribute to the textile industry and longer fibers can be more efficiently spun into yarns to produce superior fabrics. There is typically a negative correlation between yield and fiber quality traits such as length. An understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling fiber length can potentially provide a valuable tool for cotton breeders to improve fiber length while maintaining high yields. The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fiber mutation Ligon lintless-2 is controlled by a single dominant gene (Li2 that results in significantly shorter fibers than a wild-type. In a near-isogenic state with a wild-type cotton line, Li2 is a model system with which to study fiber elongation. Results Two near-isogenic lines of Ligon lintless-2 (Li2 cotton, one mutant and one wild-type, were developed through five generations of backcrosses (BC5. An F2 population was developed from a cross between the two Li2 near-isogenic lines and used to develop a linkage map of the Li2 locus on chromosome 18. Five simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were closely mapped around the Li2 locus region with two of the markers flanking the Li2 locus at 0.87 and 0.52 centimorgan. No apparent differences in fiber initiation and early fiber elongation were observed between the mutant ovules and the wild-type ones. Gene expression profiling using microarrays suggested roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis and cytokinin regulation in the Li2 mutant phenotype. Microarray gene expression data led to successful identification of an EST-SSR marker (NAU3991 that displayed complete linkage to the Li2 locus. Conclusions In the field of cotton genomics, we report the first successful conversion of gene expression data into an SSR marker that is associated with a genomic region harboring a gene responsible for a fiber trait. The EST-derived SSR marker NAU3991 displayed complete linkage to the Li2 locus on

  9. Comparison of a wire belt conveyor and cross auger conveyor for conveying burr cotton on a stripper harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll, and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper-harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality including on average lower micronaire, length...

  10. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  11. Fibra de coco e resíduo de algodão para substrato de mudas de tomateiro Coconut fiber and cotton waste as substrate for tomato seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido A da Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da mistura de fibra de coco (FC e resíduo compostado de algodão (RA foi avaliado na formação de substrato para produção de mudas de tomateiro Kada Gigante. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação no ICA da UFMG em Montes Claros-MG. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: T1 Substrato comercial Hortimix®; T2 100% massa seca de resíduo algodão proveniente da compostagem do resíduo da industria têxtil (RA; T3 20% FC+80% RA; T4 40% FC+60% RA; T5 60% FC+40% RA; T6 80% FC+20% RA; T7 100% FC+% RA. Foram avaliados o diâmetro do caule, a altura da planta, o índice de velocidade de emergência, a porcentagem de germinação, a massa fresca da parte aérea e a massa fresca da raiz, a massa seca da aérea seca e a massa da matéria seca da raiz. Observou-se que o aumento da proporção de fibra de coco verde em relação ao resíduo compostado de algodão proporcionou maior emergência, e índice de velocidade de emergência, entretanto, o diâmetro do caule, a altura da planta, a massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular diminuíram com o aumento dessa proporção. O resíduo de algodão proveniente da compostagem do resíduo da industria têxtil, constitui-se em um material útil na produção de substratos comerciais.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate fiber mixture of coconut and cotton waste, to produce substrate for tomato seedling production (cultivar Kada Gigante. The experimental design was randomized blocks, four replications, with seven treatments: T1 Commercial Substrate Hortimix®; T2 0% coconut dry fiber mass (FC+100% dry mass of cotton waste (RA; T3 20% (FC+80% (RA; T4 40% (FC+60% (RA; T5 60% (FC+40% (RA; T6 80% (FC+20% (RA; T7 100% (FC+0% (RA. The vigor was evaluated in terms of percentage and index of emergence, stem diameter, seedling height. Increasing the proportion of coconut fiber to cotton

  12. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  13. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized with PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold. Also, a significant reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60% was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda and the Coleopteran (A. grandis insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  14. Utilization of pre-cleaned greige cotton in nonwovens: a sensible approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cotton – a consumer-preferred, naturally sustainable fiber – has been extensively used in traditional textiles for centuries, its utilization in nonwoven fabrics has been minimal (~2% by weight). A major reason thus far for the cotton not being a preferred fiber for modern nonwovens has be...

  15. Microbial odor profile of polyester and cotton clothes after a fitness session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; De Maeseneire, Evelyn; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Verliefde, Arne; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-11-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts were collected from 26 healthy individuals after an intensive bicycle spinning session and incubated for 28 h before analysis. A trained odor panel determined significant differences between polyester versus cotton fabrics for the hedonic value, the intensity, and five qualitative odor characteristics. The polyester T-shirts smelled significantly less pleasant and more intense, compared to the cotton T-shirts. A dissimilar bacterial growth was found in cotton versus synthetic clothing textiles. Micrococci were isolated in almost all synthetic shirts and were detected almost solely on synthetic shirts by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting. A selective enrichment of micrococci in an in vitro growth experiment confirmed the presence of these species on polyester. Staphylococci were abundant on both cotton and synthetic fabrics. Corynebacteria were not enriched on any textile type. This research found that the composition of clothing fibers promotes differential growth of textile microbes and, as such, determines possible malodor generation.

  16. farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    on chemical insecticides supplied by their contract cotton companies to ... Plantations Development Ltd.) in the three northern regions through multi-stage random sampling ... level of education, farm size, history of cotton cultivation and objectives. ..... Cotton production and marketing in northern Ghana: the dynamics of ...

  17. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electricity is a major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significantly decrease e...

  18. Evaluation of a load measurement system for cotton harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work is to develop and characterize the performance of a system used onboard a cotton harvester for obtaining seed cotton weight data. This system can be used to measure seed cotton weight on a load by load basis, thereby enhancing the ability for a producer to conduct on-farm ...

  19. The development of high precision carbon fiber composite mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ding, Jiao-teng; Wang, Yong-jie; Xie, Yong-jie; Ma, Zhen; Fan, Xue-wu

    2016-10-01

    Due to low density, high stiffness, low thermal expansion coefficient, duplicate molding, etc., carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is one of the potential materials of the optical mirror. The process developed for Φ300mm high precision CFRP mirror described in this paper. A placement tool used to improve laying accuracy up to ± 0.1°.A special reinforced cell structure designed to increase rigidity and thermal stability. Optical replication process adopted for surface modification of the carbon fiber composite mirror blank. Finally, surface accuracy RMS of Φ300mm CFRP mirror is 0.22μm, surface roughness Ra is about 2nm, and the thermal stability can achieve 13nm /°C from the test result. The research content is of some reference value in the infrared as well as visible light applications.

  20. Development of Optical Fiber Sensor for Water Quality Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, A. F.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2008-05-01

    The development of water quality fiber sensor through spectroscopy analysis utilizes the emission of incident light and detection of backscattered light through fiber optic cables as key elements of the design. The system has the capability to detect the light scattered 180° away from the incident light when there is an interaction between the light and the solids suspended in the water. The empirical analysis is conducted for the measurement of the capacity of clay suspended in water (in mg/L). The system consists of two separate light detector circuitry that is sensitive to blue (470 nm) and red (635 nm) monochromatic light. The heart of the system is the sensor, TSLB257 and TSLR257 that having a peak response at wavelength of 470 nm and 635 nm respectively. The final result of detection is submitted to Basic Stamp 2 microcontroller for processing and analysis. The level of turbidity is then defined and displayed by the microcontroller.

  1. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  2. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  3. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  4. Import and Export for Cotton Textile Shrinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the National Development and Reform Committee held a meeting to discuss the preparation work of this year's new cotton storage. The meeting declared clearly the policy for this year's new cotton store up, namely starting from September 1, at the fixed price of CNY 19800 per ton, making the purchase without limitation.

  5. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  6. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  7. The Case for Cotton Wipes and Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The significant growth in the volume and number of wipe-based products for a wide variety of applications is consuming ever increasing amounts of fiber as raw material in wipes and other nonwoven products. The United States Department of Agriculture and Cotton Incorporated recognize both the economi...

  8. Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

  9. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, J

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past four decades has brought about a rapid development of insecticide resistance, serious outbreaks of key pests, resurgence of secondary pests, and risk for man and environment. Biological control of ...

  10. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. Development and Validation of a Triple Quad LC/MS Method for Fiber Dye Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly-Ingram, Ceirin M.

    This study aims to determine whether the analysis of dyed fiber through liquid chromatography (HPLC) with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) can be used as a reliable alternative to the current chemical techniques used to differentiate dyes. Other methods of analysis involving HPLC and MS have proven to be capable of distinguishing chemically different dyes within a few dye classifications, but none have proven capable of providing a complete alternative to the current accepted technique of thin layer chromatography (TLC). In theory, HPLC-triple quad MS is capable of providing more reproducible and reliable data than the conventional TLC methods with a much greater depth of measurable information with which to characterize dye components. In this study, dyes will be extracted from various types of fibers, including commonly worn types like cotton, polyester, nylon, and wool, and examine dyes from most of the eight different dye classes.

  12. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Gamal H; Assem, Shireen K; Alreedy, Rasha M; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Basry, Mahmoud A; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2015-12-14

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica.

  13. MNASA as a Test for Carbon Fiber Thermal Barrier Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Paul; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A carbon fiber rope thermal barrier is being evaluated as a replacement for the conventional room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) thermal barrier that is currently used to protect o-rings in Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle joints. Performance requirements include its ability to cool any incoming, hot propellant gases that fill and pressurize the nozzle joints, filter slag and particulates, and to perform adequately in various joint assembly conditions as well as dynamic flight motion. Modified National Aeronautics and Space Administration (MNASA) motors, with their inherent and unique ability to replicate select RSRM internal environment features, were an integral step in the development path leading to full scale RSRM static test demonstration of the carbon fiber rope (CFR) joint concept. These 1/4 scale RSRM motors serve to bridge the gap between the other classes of subscale test motors (extremely small and moderate duration, or small scale and short duration) and the critical asset RSRM static test motors. A series of MNASA tests have been used to demonstrate carbon fiber rope performance and have provided rationale for implementation into a full-scale static motor and flight qualification.

  14. Development and evaluation of semi-purified diets for fiber related studies in Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe emampour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to develop and evaluate a semi-purified diet suitable for fiber related studies without negative impacts on performance, serum biochemistry and intestinal morphology of growing Japanese quails. Total of 144 Japanese quail chicks were used in a factorial arrangement using completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 4 replicates of 6 quails in each replicate. The levels of dietary crude fiber (3.37%, 1.18% and 0.08%, respectively viz. high, medium and low crude fiber diets. The dietary supplementation levels of a commercial feed additive concentrate fiber-Arbocel were considered 0 and 3 %. The medium crude fiber semi-purified diet produced acceptable growth performances comparable to conventional high crude fiber diet. Serum triglyceride concentration was influenced by the levels of dietary crude fiber and the highest level was related to low crude fiber diet which was significantly different from high crude fiber diet (P

  15. Sugar and auxin signaling pathways respond to high-temperature stress during anther development as revealed by transcript profiling analysis in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ling; Li, Yaoyao; Hu, Qin; Zhu, Longfu; Gao, Wenhui; Wu, Yuanlong; Ding, Yuanhao; Liu, Shiming; Yang, Xiyan; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-03-01

    Male reproduction in flowering plants is highly sensitive to high temperature (HT). To investigate molecular mechanisms of the response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) anthers to HT, a relatively complete comparative transcriptome analysis was performed during anther development of cotton lines 84021 and H05 under normal temperature and HT conditions. In total, 4,599 differentially expressed genes were screened; the differentially expressed genes were mainly related to epigenetic modifications, carbohydrate metabolism, and plant hormone signaling. Detailed studies showed that the deficiency in S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase1 and the inhibition of methyltransferases contributed to genome-wide hypomethylation in H05, and the increased expression of histone constitution genes contributed to DNA stability in 84021. Furthermore, HT induced the expression of casein kinasei (GhCKI) in H05, coupled with the suppression of starch synthase activity, decreases in glucose level during anther development, and increases in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level in late-stage anthers. The same changes also were observed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GhCKI overexpression lines. These results suggest that GhCKI, sugar, and auxin may be key regulators of the anther response to HT stress. Moreover, phytochrome-interacting factor genes (PIFs), which are involved in linking sugar and auxin and are regulated by sugar, might positively regulate IAA biosynthesis in the cotton anther response to HT. Additionally, exogenous IAA application revealed that high background IAA may be a disadvantage for late-stage cotton anthers during HT stress. Overall, the linking of HT, sugar, PIFs, and IAA, together with our previously reported data on GhCKI, may provide dynamic coordination of plant anther responses to HT stress.

  16. Technology Development Road for Chemical Fiber Industry in Ghina [Part Two

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅲ.Technology development direction for China's chemical fiber industry in the"11th Five-year Plan" period and the longer run Presently,China's chemical fiber industry is in a critical period for development,or important transition period.Fully implement and fulfill the "'scientific development concept"put forward by the nation,and take a sustainable development road.The growth model of chemical fiber industry must undergo fundamental transformation from "quantitative"development into "qualitative" development.

  17. 转基因抗真菌病害棉花及T-DNA插入突变体的培育%Development of Transgenic Cotton Resistant to Fungal Diseases and of Mutants by T-DNA Insertional Mutagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xing WANG; Hong-mei CHENG; Shi-rong JIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ Verticillium (V. dahliae Kleb. ) and Fusarium (F. Oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) wilt are two major fungal diseases in cotton production which cause great crop damage and yield loss world wide. Breeding and application of resistant varieties have effectively controlled Fusarium wilt. However, the Verticillium wiltresistant varieties have not been developed to date since there is no resistant resources in upland cotton that can be used in conventional breeding.

  18. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  19. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes: Phase 2, Improved refractory fiber and industrial benefit development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yifang; Curtis, J.M.; DePoorter, G.L.; Martin, P.C.; Munoz, D.R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    1995-05-01

    This is Phase II of a three-phase study for the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes, for use in the aluminum, glass, cement, and iron and steel industries. Fiberization of 24 out of 25 compositions in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Si0{sub 2}-Zr0{sub 2} system were achieved. These 24 and three existing fiber compositions were evaluated: The shrinkage and the crystalline and vitreous phases were determined vs heat treatment time and temperature. Four theoretical models were developed: Shrinkage, devitrification kinetics, density change, and fiberization. Although some of the fibers formed during Phase II had properties as good as the reference ASZ fiber, no fiber had a significantly improved performance. This work, although not entirely successful, did produce significant benefits to refractory insulating fiber manufacturers and users: Mechanisms of both linear and thickness shrinkage for vitreous refractory fibers were determined, devitrification kinetics were quantified and used in models to predict shrinkage during service, and the mechanism of fiber formation in the melt spinning process was studied.

  20. SORPTION PROPERTIES OF PERIODATE OXIDIZED COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of periodate oxidation on the chemical and sorption properties of cotton yarn was investigated by determining aldehyde group content, moisture sorption, water retention and iodine sorption. Oxidation of cotton yarn was performed by varying concentration of sodium periodate solution and reaction time. To measure the aldehyde content present in the oxidized cotton, the aldehyde groups were selectively oxidized to carboxyl groups with sodium chlorite at pH 4-5, at room temperature for 48 h, and carboxyl group content was determined by modified calcium-acetate method. Differences in the sorption properties of untreated and oxidized cotton samples were obtained using conventional methods. The aldehyde groups were introduced into the oxidized cotton up to 99.2 µmol/g. Compared to the untreated fibers, oxidized cotton samples exhibited higher moisture sorption (up to 9% and lower water retention values (up to 19% and iodine sorption values (up to 31%. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the crystalline structure of cellulose is not significantly changed by periodate oxidation, which is of great importance for textile material production.

  1. Development of natural fiber reinforced polylactide-based biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Herrera, Andrea Marcela

    . During crystallization, viscoelastic properties are expected to be strongly influenced by crystallite development and impingement. Rheometry was selected as a suitable technique to study the evolution of complex viscosity and storage and loss moduli during the crystallization of compounded PLA and PLA-biocomposites. Optimization of experimental conditions was needed for achieving the compensation of polymer shrinkage, which was a major concern for the reproducibility of measurements, particularly at high supercooling level. Fruitful information about the enhanced crystallization rate due to the presence of flax fibers in a wide range of crystallization temperatures was obtained from this study. Since development of crystallization in industrial processing may differ greatly from quiescent studies, a preliminary investigation of the effect of shear flow on the improvement of PLA crystallization was carried out. Using the same shear rate interval, two different sets of conditions were explored, namely (1) constant total deformation and (2) constant shearing time. In both cases, the crystallization enhancement was evidenced by a decrease in the induction time which became stronger as shear rate augmented. About 75% of reduction was observed at 4 s-1, the maximum shear rate reached in this research. The size reduction of cellulose particles from micro to the nanoscale has also drawn special attention over the last decade. Well-dispersed nanosized fiber networks into polymeric matrices may bring extraordinary strength enhancement and modify the particle/polymer interactions at the molecular level. As a consequence, crystallization may be promoted at considerably low concentrations of reinforcement. It is well-known that dispersion of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in non-aqueous systems is a major challenge for further developments. In this work, a novel twostep process involving solvent-mixing and melt-mixing was found to successfully dispersed cellulose nanocrystals at low

  2. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umebidai Kidugawa Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Applied Laser Technology Institute, Tsuruga Head Office, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 65-20 Kizaki Tsuruga Fukui 914-8585 (Japan); Technical Research and Development Institute, Kumagai Gumi Co., Ltd., 2-1 Tsukudo, Shinjuku Tokyo 162-8557 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  3. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi

    2012-07-01

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  4. Impact of gin saw tooth design on fiber and textile processing quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toothed gin saws have been used to separate cotton fiber from the seed for over 200 years. There have been many saw tooth designs developed over the years. Most of these designs were developed by trial and error. A complete and scientific analysis of tooth design has never been done. It is not k...

  5. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  6. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  7. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  8. DETERMINAÇÃO DO NÚMERO E DO ÂNGULO DE CONVOLUÇÃO DA FIBRA DE ALGODÃO E SUA RELAÇÃO COM PROPRIEDADES TECNOLÓGICAS DA FIBRA E DO FIO COTTON FIBER NUMBER AND CONVOLUTION ANGLE MEASUREMENT AND ITS RELATION TO YARN AND FIBER TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORMA DE MAGALHÃES ERISMANN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A linhagem de algodoeiro IAC 20-233 e as variedades comerciais IAC 21 e IAC 22 foram caracterizadas morfologicamente pelo número e pelo ângulo de convolução de suas fibras, utilizando-se microscopia óptica. A variedade IAC 21 apresentou fibras com menor número e ângulo de convolução que a IAC 20-233 e a IAC 22, enquanto estas foram semelhantes entre si. Os três genótipos apresentaram fibras de maturidade similar. O índice Micronaire (medida do complexo finura + maturidade da variedade IAC 21 foi maior que o dos demais, correspondendo, portanto, a fibras mais grossas. Isso pode ter contribuído para diminuir o número e o ângulo de convolução e, como conseqüência, deprimido a elongação da fibra e do fio de algodão produzido.Two cotton cultivars (IAC 21 and IAC 22 and a breeding line (IAC 20-233 were morphologically characterized by the fiber number of convolutions and the convolution angle determined using optical microscopy. IAC 21 presented a smaller value for those traits than the ones determined for IAC 22 and IAC 20-233, which presented similar values. All three genotypes produced fibers with similar maturity. The highest Micronaire index (measurement of the complex fineness + maturity obtained by the IAC 21 fiber, corresponds to the thickest fibers. This fact may lead to a reduction of the fiber number and angle of convolution and therefore decreased fiber and yarn elongation.

  9. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO CAPULHO E PROPRIEDADES TECNOLÓGICAS DA FIBRA DO ALGODOEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DA CALAGEM E DA GESSAGEM BOLLS CHARACTERISTICS AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE COTTON FIBER FACING OF LIMESTONE AND PHOSPHOGYPSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON PAULIERI SABINO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Em latossolo roxo ácido e de baixa fertilidade do município de Guaíra (SP, desenvolveu-se de 1986/87 a 1989/90 um ensaio de caráter permanente com o algodoeiro para estudar o efeito da aplicação de calcário (0,6; 1,8 e 3,0 t.ha-1 e de gesso (0, 2, 4, 6 t.ha-1 sobre as características do capulho e propriedades tecnológicas da fibra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi do tipo blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas e quatro repetições. O calcário elevou os valores de massa de um capulho e diminuiu o índice Micronaire e a maturidade da fibra, mas não afetou a massa de sementes, a porcentagem, o comprimento, a uniformidade de comprimento e a tenacidade da fibra. O gesso aumentou as massas de capulho e de sementes, especialmente quando associado a maior dose de calcário, assim como o índice Micronaire e a maturidade da fibra, no mais baixo nível de calagem.The effects of limestone and phosphogypsum applications on bolls characteristics and technological properties of the cotton fiber were studied in a permanent trial on a Dystrophic Dusky Latosol, acid and of low fertility during growing seasons of 1986/87 to 1989/90. A randomized complete block design was used, arranged in split split-plots with four replications where the dolomitic limestone doses were the main plots (0.6, 1.8 and 3.0 t.ha-1, and the phosphogypsum doses (0, 2, 4, and 6 t.ha-1 were the subplots. Lime and phosphogypsum were applied in the first year and reaplicated during 1988/89. Liming caused an increase in mass of bolls and reduced the Micronaire index and fiber maturity, and did not affect the mass of seed, the percentage of fiber, the length, the length uniformity and fiber tenacity. The use of phosphogypsum increase the mass of bolls and mass of seed, mainly when associated with extremes doses of lime. Otherwise, its effects upon Micronaire index and fiber maturity values, were significant at low level of liming.

  10. Study of illuminance distribution of lighting source based on cotton foreign fiber detecting system%原棉异纤维检测系统照明光源光照度分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张显斌; 袁轲

    2012-01-01

    Based on the cotton foreign fiber detecting system of machine vision, the success or failure of the system is decided by the good lighting source and lighting solutions, which plays a very vital role in the whole process and has the detecting targets display more characteristics. The white LED with single-chip InGaN(Blue)/YAG phosphor is chosen as lighting solutions, the theoretical analysis and non-imaging optical design are adopted to study the illumination distribution of LED square arrays, which are compared by TracePro. By comparing the results of illuminance distribution of the two ranking ways, LED triangular arrays with high illumination and good uniformity is chosen as the lighting source of the cotton foreign fiber detecting system, which can improve the quality of the machine vision imaging.%在基于机器视觉的原棉异纤维检测系统中,选择能满足检测系统的光源和照明方案是提高系统检测率和检出率的关键,使检测对象尽可能多地显现出特征信息.选用单芯片InGaN(蓝)/YAG荧光粉型白光LED作为照明光源,采用理论计算和非成像光学设计的方法对LED阵列的光照度分布进行了研究,并根据原棉异纤维检测系统对光源光照度的具体要求,设计出了LED正方形阵列和三角形阵列两种排列方式,并利用TracePro软件对两种阵列形式进行仿真.通过比较两种阵列形式光照度分布的结果,最终选用高光照度且均匀性好的LED三角形阵列作为原棉异纤维检测系统的照明光源,满足了机器视觉成像的要求.

  11. Small Increase in Global Cotton Consumption Expected in 2011/12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to ICAC, after a 4% drop in 2010/11, world cotton mill use is projected to resume slow growth in 2011/12. Cotton mill use is forecast at 24.7 million tons in 2011/12, 1.5% higher than in 2010/11. This rise will be facilitated by increased availability of cotton, but moderated by still relatively high cotton prices and competition from chemical fibers. However, the possibility of a double-dip global economic recession could reduce these expectations. China, India and Pakistan will drive the increase in global cotton mill use in 2011/12.

  12. The State of the Kenyan Cotton Growing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josphat Igadwa Mwasiagi; HUANG Xiu-bao; WANG Xin-hou; J O Wagala

    2007-01-01

    From the early 1960s to late 1980s, the Kenyan cotton growing industry played a vital role in the Kenyan economy in terms of provision of employment and creation of wealth in the rural areas. It also played a central role in the textile industry which was thriving during the above mentioned period. Over the years, cotton production in Kenya has fallen steadily, such that by the year 2000, the country experienced a severe cotton fiber deficit. This study was undertaken to investigate the trend of the cotton growing industry in Kenya. Selected aspects of the industry like cost of production, cotton seed distribution, the operation of cotton gins and the quality of cotton lint were considered.Kohonen Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and K-means clustering techniques were used in data analysis. The results of this study show that Kenyan cotton farmers produced seed cotton at a break-even price of US$ 0.31 per kilogram, while the price offered was US $ 0.29 per kilogram.c

  13. Development, genetic mapping and QTL association of cotton PHYA, PHYB, and HY5-specific CAPS and dCAPS markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among SNP markers that become increasingly valuable in molecular breeding of crop plants are the CAP and dCAP markers derived from the genes of interest. To date, the number of such gene-based markers is small in polyploid crop plants such as tetraploid cotton that has A and D subgenomes. The obje...

  14. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in th

  15. Electrokinetic profiles of nonowoven cotton for absorbent incontinence material

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses recent work on cotton/synthetic nonwovens, their electrokinetic analysis, and their potential use in incontinence materials. Electrokinetic analysis is useful in exploring fiber surface polarity properties, and it is a useful tool to render a snap shot of the role of fiber char...

  16. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira itinerantes para o beneficiamento do algodão Development of a mobile gin and baler press for cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane F. Jerônimo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Novas tecnologias vêm sendo incorporadas ao sistema produtivo da cotonicultura brasileira, visando verticalizar a produção por meio do beneficiamento do algodão em caroço possibilitando, aos produtores ou associações, a agregação de valor à sua produção. Objetivou-se então, com o presente trabalho, desenvolver e avaliar um equipamento de beneficiamento composto de descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira itinerantes. O descaroçador se compõe de: limpador, cilindro de serras, cilindro de escovas, condensador e rolo. A prensa enfardadeira é constituída de chapas de prensagem, cilindros hidráulicos, bomba hidráulica, válvula de controle de acionamento, dispositivos de filtragem do óleo hidráulico e manômetro. Esses equipamentos são montados sobre um reboque composto por chassi de cantoneiras em U, quatro rodas de aro 13, pontas de eixo, dois feixes de cinco molas, lastro em chapa de ferro e sistema de frenagem. Na avaliação e validação do conjunto pelos cotonicultores, este conjunto recebeu o conceito "muito bom" quanto ao rendimento do descaroçador, o peso do fardo e em relação à qualidade da fibra obtida. A qualidade da fibra obtida com o conjunto descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira atendeu aos padrões da indústria têxtil.New technologies have been incorporated into the Brazilian cotton production system, in order to verticalize the production through processing, allowing the producers or associations to add value to their production. Thus, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate processing equipment composed of mobile gin and baler press. The ginner consists of cleaner, saw cylinder, cylinder brushes, condenser and coil. The baler press is constituted of pressing sheets, hydraulic cylinders, hydraulic pump, control valve actuation, devices for filtering hydraulic oil and manometer. These devices are mounted on a trailer chassis composed of U-shaped angle iron chassis, four wheels (rim 13, shaft ends, two

  17. Differential Gene Expression Between Hybrids and Their Parents During the Four Crucial Stages of Cotton Growth and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-lei; YU Shu-xun; XING Chao-zhu; FAN Shu-li; SONG Mei-zhen; YE Wu-wei

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to clarify the differential gene expression between cotton hybrids and their parents in order to better understand the molecular basis of cotton heterosis. The research focused on cotton heterotic and lower heterotic hybrids and their parents during the four crucial stages, which were analyzed using a differential display technique. The results indicated that there were both quantitative and qualitative differences in gene expression amongst them. The quantitative differences include over- and under-expression of parental genes and the dominant expression of highly-expressed parental genes in hybrids. In contrast, the qualitative differences are the following: (i) Bands were observed in both parents but not in the F1 hybrid (BPnF1); (ii) bands occurred in either of the parents but not in the F1 hybrid (UPnF1); (iii) bands presented only in the F1 hybrid but not in either of the parents (UF1nP); and (iv) bands were detected in either of the parents and the F1 hybrid (UPF1). Overall, the major differences of gene expression occurred in the qualitative level and four related differential patterns were observed. Furthermore, the amount of differential patterns during the flowering stage was relatively higher than those of other stages. At this juncture, both the amount of hybrid-specific expression patterns at flowering stage and the silenced expression patterns at boll-forming stage in highly heterotic hybrids were found higher than those in the lower heterotic ones. It was concluded that significant differences of gene expression in leaves were present between cotton hybrid and its parents during the whole growing stages. Hence, these differences might be responsible for the observed cotton heterosis.

  18. Development of a 2-Channel Embedded Infrared Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Using Silver Halide Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsoo Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2-channel embedded infrared fiber-optic temperature sensor was fabricated using two identical silver halide optical fibers for accurate thermometry without complicated calibration processes. In this study, we measured the output voltages of signal and reference probes according to temperature variation over a temperature range from 25 to 225 °C. To decide the temperature of the water, the difference between the amounts of infrared radiation emitted from the two temperature sensing probes was measured. The response time and the reproducibility of the fiber-optic temperature sensor were also obtained. Thermometry with the proposed sensor is immune to changes if parameters such as offset voltage, ambient temperature, and emissivity of any warm object. In particular, the temperature sensing probe with silver halide optical fibers can withstand a high temperature/pressure and water-chemistry environment. It is expected that the proposed sensor can be further developed to accurately monitor temperature in harsh environments.

  19. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

    1991-02-01

    We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

  20. Developing engineering model Cobra fiber positioners for the Subaru Telescope's prime focus spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles; Morantz, Chaz; Braun, David; Seiffert, Michael; Aghazarian, Hrand; Partos, Eamon; King, Matthew; Hovland, Larry E.; Schwochert, Mark; Kaluzny, Joel; Capocasale, Christopher; Houck, Andrew; Gross, Johannes; Reiley, Daniel; Mao, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Bui, Khanh; Henderson, David; Haran, Todd; Culhane, Robert; Piazza, Daniele; Walkama, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The Cobra fiber positioner is being developed by the California Institute of Technology (CIT) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) instrument that will be installed at the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. PFS is a fiber fed multi-object spectrometer that uses an array of Cobra fiber positioners to rapidly reconfigure 2394 optical fibers at the prime focus of the Subaru Telescope that are capable of positioning a fiber to within 5μm of a specified target location. A single Cobra fiber positioner measures 7.7mm in diameter and is 115mm tall. The Cobra fiber positioner uses two piezo-electric rotary motors to move a fiber optic anywhere in a 9.5mm diameter patrol area. In preparation for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra positioners an Engineering Model (EM) version was developed, built and tested to validate the design, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve system reliability. The EM leveraged the previously developed prototype versions of the Cobra fiber positioner. The requirements, design, assembly techniques, development testing, design qualification and performance evaluation of EM Cobra fiber positioners are described here. Also discussed is the use of the EM build and test campaign to validate the plans for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra fiber positioners scheduled to begin in late-2014.