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Sample records for cotton fabrics dyed

  1. Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Washing fastness of dyed cotton fabrics by malachite green (MG) blended with nanosols composite of SiO2–TiO2 has been significantly enhanced. The nanoparticulate inorganic sols were prepared by acidcatalyzed hydrolysis of titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS) in ethanol at room ...

  2. Impact of high and zero formaldehyde crosslinkers on the performance of the dyed cotton fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of the colored cotton fabrics dyed with sulphur, vat, direct and reactive dyes was investigated by using two crosslinkers. DMDHEU was used as formaldehyde based crosslinker and BTCA was assessed as a zero formaldehyde alternative. Shade change of the fabrics treated with both crosslinkers was comparable and in acceptable range apart from all sulphur dyes and two reactive dyes. However, shade change of the sulphur dyed fabrics was significantly improved when typical sodium hypophosphite based catalyst for BTCA was replaced with sodium phosphate. In addition, tensile strength and easy care performance of the crosslinker treated dyed fabric was also assessed.

  3. An evaluation of UV protection imparted by cotton fabrics dyed with natural colorants

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    Sarkar Ajoy K

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultraviolet properties of textiles dyed with synthetic dyes have been widely reported in literature. However, no study has investigated the ultraviolet properties of natural fabrics dyed with natural colorants. This study reports the Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF of cotton fabrics dyed with colorants of plant and insect origins. Methods Three cotton fabrics were dyed with three natural colorants. Fabrics were characterized with respect to fabric construction, weight, thickness and thread count. Influence of fabric characteristics on Ultraviolet Protection Factor was studied. Role of colorant concentration on the ultraviolet protection factor was examined via color strength analysis. Results A positive correlation was observed between the weight of the fabric and their UPF values. Similarly, thicker fabrics offered more protection from ultraviolet rays. Thread count appears to negatively correlate with UPF. Dyeing with natural colorants dramatically increased the protective abilities of all three fabric constructions. Additionally, within the same fabric type UPF values increased with higher depths of shade. Conclusion Dyeing cotton fabrics with natural colorants increases the ultraviolet protective abilities of the fabrics and can be considered as an effective protection against ultraviolet rays. The UPF is further enhanced with colorant of dark hues and with high concentration of the colorant in the fabric.

  4. Influence of Warp Yarn Tension on Cotton Greige and Dyed Woven Fabric Prosperities

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    Uzma Syed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabric properties such as pilling and abrasion resistance and tensile strength vary when greige fabric is processed further. The quality of dyed fabric depends on the quality of greige fabric. Cotton Plain and Twill weave fabrics were woven at three different warp yarn tension and then dyed using monochlorotriazine, Drimerene Red Cl-5B dye gives difference in fabric properties. The ASTM, American International Standards were used to determine the greige and dyed fabric properties. It has been observed fabric woven at proper loom setting or warp yarn tension have high strength, less pilling and abrasion tendency as compared to fabric woven at variant warp yarn tension. Moreover, fabric tenacity is decreased after dyeing whereas, slight difference in pilling and abrasion values is observed after dyeing than that of greige fabric.

  5. Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Optimized. UV-protecting coatings by the presence of titania and organic UV absorbers were achieved at a certain compo- sition. Yadav et al (2006) has shown the incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on bleached cotton fabrics pro- viding UV-blocking properties. Thus, it is interesting to apply such nanosols composite ...

  6. Dyeing of white and indigo dyed cotton fabrics with Mimosa tenuiflora extract

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    Gökhan Erkan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora extract has been used in food industry as an additive and in textile and leather industry as a colorant. Two types of fabrics, ready to be dyed white and indigo dyed fabrics, were dyed with M. tenuiflora extract. The fabrics were mordanted after dyeing with six different metal salts. Colorimetric evaluations of fabrics were carried out by spectrophotometer. Colour fastness to washing, rubbing and light were performed. Colour strength of fabrics was calculated from Kubelka–Munk formula. Highest vividness (C∗ values were obtained by Ni mordant. Moderate fastness values were observed. However poor wet rubbing fastness values were observed in the case of indigo dyed fabrics due to lack of good wet rubbing fastness of indigo itself.

  7. Colorimetric Assay and Antibacterial Activity of Cotton, Silk, and Wool Fabrics Dyed with Peony, Pomegranate, Clove, Coptis chinenis and Gallnut Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the antibacterial functionality of natural colorant extracts, five kinds of natural dying aqueous solutions were obtained by extraction from peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut using water at 90 °C for 90 min with a liquor ratio (solid natural colorant material/water, weight ratio of 1:10. The colorimetric assay and antibacterial activity of cotton, silk, and wool fabrics dyed with these natural colorant extracts were examined. It was found that these properties were significantly dependent on the structure of colorant and the kind of fabrics. The hues (H of all fabrics dyed with these natural colorants were in the range of 6.05YR -1.95Y. The order of value (V was wool, silk and cotton. The chroma (C of all samples was found to be at very low levels indicating the natural tone. All the fabrics dyed with the five natural colorants (peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut extracts displayed excellent antibacterial activity (reduction rate: 96.8 - 99.9% against Staphylococcus aureus. However, in the case of Klebsiella pneumoniae, the antibacterial activity was found to depend on the kind of natural colorant extract used.

  8. cotton fabric 51

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Some salient properties of cotton cellulose which requires it to be treated with additives to improve its versatility were examined taken ... modification of the cotton cellulose upon resination with methylolmelamine phosphate. Keywords: Cotton Fabric ..... Decomposition of Pure Cellulose and Pulp. Paper. Polym Degrad Stab.

  9. Aged-look vat dyed cotton with anti-bacterial/anti-fungal properties by treatment with nano clay and enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryan, Ali Sadeghian; Montazer, Majid; Harifi, Tina; Rad, Mahnaz Mahmoudi

    2013-06-05

    In this research, nanotechnology as a route to functional finishing of textiles was used along with bio-finishing to enhance the cotton fabrics performance. For this purpose, quaternary modified montmorillonite and common enzymes such as cellulase, laccase and their mixture were applied on vat dyed cotton fabric. Characteristic analysis of the treated samples and the dispersed nano clays in the effluent of the treatment was performed by various analyzing methods. The nano/bio-finishing is believed to impart antibacterial and antifungal activities with simultaneously higher lightness, advanced softness and handle properties into cotton fabrics. Moreover, cotton fabrics were proved to have no adverse effects (low toxicity) on human dermal fibroblasts. Findings suggest the potential of the proposed method in reducing the risk of microorganism for textile applications and imparting better handle and appearance properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  11. Colour Changes in Fabrics Dyed with Vegetable Dyes Caused by Daylight and Washing

    OpenAIRE

    福田, 瑛子; 〓谷, 要; フクダ, エイコ; カツラヤ, カナメ; Eiko, FUKUDA; Kaname, KATURAYA

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on the colour of various samples (cotton, wool, nylon) dyed using vegetable dyes consisting of onion skin and tumeric along with the effects of fibre type and mordants on colour fastness to daylight and colour fastness to washing the results of wich are described below. Although colour fastness to daylight of fabric dyed with vegetable dye differs according to the type of fibre and vegetable dye as well as the mordant used, colour fastness to washing was high for a...

  12. Cotton Fabric Properties with Water-Repellent Finishing via Sol-Gel Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoxia; Li, Mao; Wu, Min; Chen, Li

    The properties of the cotton fabric with water-repellence finishing by sol method with the hexadecyltrimethoxysilane as additive were observed. The cotton fabrics were immersed in the prepared sols with double dip and double nip dried at 90°C, annealed at 160°C for 3 min. The water repellence and the physical properties such as gas permeability, bending properties, beetling properties, tensile strength, elongation at break, abrasion resistance, and anti-crease properties of the cotton fabrics were investigated. The results showed that anti-crease and tensile strength were improved. However, the abrasion resistance of the cotton fabrics decreased in some way. Both the bending and beetling properties measurement proved that the handle of the treated cotton fabrics changed stiffness. For the dyed fabrics by the water-repellent finishing, the hue was slightly changed, the deeper color was achieved. There is no adverse effect for treated fabric by water-repellent finishing on the fastness.

  13. Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics with enhanced stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bi; Ding, Yinyan; Qu, Shaobo; Cai, Zaisheng

    2015-11-01

    Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared by alternately depositing organically modified silica alcogel (ormosil) particles onto chitosan precoated cotton fabrics and subsequent 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane (PFOTMS) modification. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the ormosil particles display a fluffy, sponge-like nanoporous structure, and the entire cotton fiber surface is covered with highly porous networks. PFOTMS acts as not only a modifier to lower the surface energy of the cotton fabric but also a binder to enhance the coating stability against abrasion and washing. The treated cotton fabrics show highly liquid repellency with the water, cooking oil and hexadecane contact angels reaching to 164.4°, 160.1° and 156.3°, respectively. Meanwhile, the treated cotton fabrics exhibit good abrasion resistance and high laundering durability, which can withstand 10,000 cycles of abrasion and 30 cycles of machine wash without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. The superamphiphobic cotton fabric also shows high acid stability, and can withstand 98% H2SO4. Moreover, the superamphiphobic coating has almost no influence on the other physical properties of the cotton fabrics including tensile strength, whiteness and air permeability. This durable non-wetting surface may provide a wide range of new applications in the future.

  14. Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics with enhanced stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bi, E-mail: xubi@dhu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science & Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Yinyan; Qu, Shaobo [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cai, Zaisheng, E-mail: zshcai@dhu.edu [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared. • Water and hexadecane contact angels reach to 164.4° and 156.3°, respectively. • Nanoporous organically modified silica alcogel particles were synthesized. • The superamphiphobic cotton fabrics exhibit enhanced stability against abrasion, laundering and acid. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared by alternately depositing organically modified silica alcogel (ormosil) particles onto chitosan precoated cotton fabrics and subsequent 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane (PFOTMS) modification. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the ormosil particles display a fluffy, sponge-like nanoporous structure, and the entire cotton fiber surface is covered with highly porous networks. PFOTMS acts as not only a modifier to lower the surface energy of the cotton fabric but also a binder to enhance the coating stability against abrasion and washing. The treated cotton fabrics show highly liquid repellency with the water, cooking oil and hexadecane contact angels reaching to 164.4°, 160.1° and 156.3°, respectively. Meanwhile, the treated cotton fabrics exhibit good abrasion resistance and high laundering durability, which can withstand 10,000 cycles of abrasion and 30 cycles of machine wash without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. The superamphiphobic cotton fabric also shows high acid stability, and can withstand 98% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Moreover, the superamphiphobic coating has almost no influence on the other physical properties of the cotton fabrics including tensile strength, whiteness and air permeability. This durable non-wetting surface may provide a wide range of new applications in the future.

  15. Application of traditional knowledge to create indigo-dyed fabric products in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand

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    Chanitsara Duangbubpa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigo fabric is created by dying silk or cotton with color from the true indigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria and is a valuable commodity in Northeastern Thai communities. This is a qualitative investigation with two principal research aims: 1 To study the history and background of indigo-dyed fabric in Sakon Nakhon Province; 2 To study the current conditions and application of traditional knowledge in creating indigo-dyed fabric in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand. Data for this investigation were collected from document analysis and field research between July 2013 and July 2014. Results show that weaving groups are sponsored by the government and the local community to produce indigo-dyed fabric that can be transformed into a variety of different products that meet consumer needs. These products include blankets, scarves, shawls, formal wear and bags. Weaving communities prefer to use materials from the surrounding environment. Community members cultivate their own true indigo plants using the traditional processes inherited from generation to generation. The dye creation process requires plant matter to be soaked in water for 24 hours before it can be used in the dye mixture. The traditional dye mixture is 4 liters of indigo plant, 2 liters of natural lye water and 1 tablespoon of white lime. During the dyeing process, the cotton fabric is stirred and wring in the dye mixture until the color holds. The fabric is then rested and the process is repeated to achieve the desired hue. The quality of the dye is then tested by washing the fabric in clean water. By applying the resourcefulness of traditional knowledge used in the dye creation process to the marketing and sale of indigo fabric, the entire production will benefit

  16. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In-Vitro Analysis of the Effect of Constructional Parameters and Dye Class on the UV Protection Property of Cotton Knitted Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cotton knitted fabrics were manufactured with different yarn types (conventional ring spun yarn and torque-free ring spun yarn) with different fibre types (combed cotton and combed Supima cotton) and yarn fineness (Ne30 and Ne40). These fabrics were then dyed with three types of dye (reactive, direct and sulphur dye) with three dye concentrations (0.1%, 1.0% and 5.0% on-weight of fabric (owf)) in three colours (red, yellow and blue). This study examined the impact of constructional parameters and dyeing on ultraviolet (UV) protection properties of cotton knitted fabric. In-vitro test with spectrophotometer was used for evaluating the UV protection property of dyed cotton knitted fabrics. Among the six parameters investigated, fineness of yarn and dye concentration were the most significant factors affecting UPF while the color effect is the least significant. Experimental results revealed that the UPF value of dyed fabrics made from combed cotton is generally higher than the combed Supima cotton since combed cotton is composed of shorter fibres which facilitate the blocking or absorption of UV radiation. Second, fabrics made with twist yarn (i.e. ring spun yarn) have higher UPF value than the corresponding ESTex one (i.e. torque-free yarn) in general since fabrics made with ring spun yarn tend to shrink during wet processing and so it is more compact. Third, the UPF value of fabrics made with 30Ne yarn was higher than the 40Ne one since it is thicker and has lower fabric porosity. Fourth, fabrics dyed with lower concentration of dye gave the lowest UPF. Fifth, the sulphur dyed samples performed worse than the reactive and direct dyed samples in terms of UV protection property. Sixth, there is no significant difference in UPF for red, yellow and blue coloured fabrics. Seventh, this study also demonstrated that lightness of fabric is negatively related to UV protection property. PMID:26222792

  18. In-Vitro Analysis of the Effect of Constructional Parameters and Dye Class on the UV Protection Property of Cotton Knitted Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chi-Wai; Au, Chui-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Cotton knitted fabrics were manufactured with different yarn types (conventional ring spun yarn and torque-free ring spun yarn) with different fibre types (combed cotton and combed Supima cotton) and yarn fineness (Ne30 and Ne40). These fabrics were then dyed with three types of dye (reactive, direct and sulphur dye) with three dye concentrations (0.1%, 1.0% and 5.0% on-weight of fabric (owf)) in three colours (red, yellow and blue). This study examined the impact of constructional parameters and dyeing on ultraviolet (UV) protection properties of cotton knitted fabric. In-vitro test with spectrophotometer was used for evaluating the UV protection property of dyed cotton knitted fabrics. Among the six parameters investigated, fineness of yarn and dye concentration were the most significant factors affecting UPF while the color effect is the least significant. Experimental results revealed that the UPF value of dyed fabrics made from combed cotton is generally higher than the combed Supima cotton since combed cotton is composed of shorter fibres which facilitate the blocking or absorption of UV radiation. Second, fabrics made with twist yarn (i.e. ring spun yarn) have higher UPF value than the corresponding ESTex one (i.e. torque-free yarn) in general since fabrics made with ring spun yarn tend to shrink during wet processing and so it is more compact. Third, the UPF value of fabrics made with 30Ne yarn was higher than the 40Ne one since it is thicker and has lower fabric porosity. Fourth, fabrics dyed with lower concentration of dye gave the lowest UPF. Fifth, the sulphur dyed samples performed worse than the reactive and direct dyed samples in terms of UV protection property. Sixth, there is no significant difference in UPF for red, yellow and blue coloured fabrics. Seventh, this study also demonstrated that lightness of fabric is negatively related to UV protection property.

  19. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry...

  20. Discrimination of reactively-dyed cotton fibres with thin layer chromatography and UV microspectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, K; Van Dijck, K; Gason, F

    2015-12-01

    Reactively-dyed black, navy blue and medium red cotton samples showing metamerism under fluorescent tube illumination were examined. Optical microscopy (bright field, polarization and fluorescence microscopy) was used, followed by microspectrometry in the visible range (MSP Vis), to differentiate the samples in each block of colours. Additionally, the non-discriminated samples were subjected both to microspectrophotometry in the UV-range (MSP UV) and to enzymatic digestion followed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) on the digests. While it was found that both methods may potentially result in higher discrimination, preparation of reactively-dyed cotton for HPTLC was found to be a very tedious and time-consuming step and HPTLC only led to a better discrimination than MSP UV for the red cotton samples. The results suggest that in order to increase the discrimination for reactively-dyed cotton fibres, measurement of the UV absorption spectrum (MSP UV) is preferred over HPTLC. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functionalization of cotton fabrics through thermal reduction of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guangming; Xu, Zhenglin; Yang, Mengyun; Tang, Bin; Wang, Xungai

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was in-situ reduced on cotton fabrics by a simple heat treatment, which endowed cotton fabrics with multi-functions. GO was coated on the surface of cotton fabric through a conventional ;dip and dry; approach. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained from GO in the presence of cotton by heating under the protection of nitrogen. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize the complexes of RGO and cotton (RGO/cotton). The RGO/cotton fabrics showed good electrical conductivity, surface hydrophobicity and ultraviolet (UV) protection properties. These properties did not deteriorate significantly after repeated fabric bending and washing.

  2. NEW METHOD OF UNION DYEING OF COTTON/NYLON BLENDED FABRIC USING CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALIYAMOORTHI Karthikeyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing of fabric blends such as Cotton/Nylon (C/N is presently dyed by two-bath or one-bath two-step dyeing. Cellulose fibers when immersed in water produce a negative electrokinetic potential. The negative charge on the fiber repels the anionic dye ions and consequently the exhaustion of the dye bath is limited. When the fabric is treated with chitosan (polyacrylamide, the primary hydroxyl groups of cellulose is partially modified into amide groups, which intern leads the cellulose to act like as polyamide fiber. As a naturally deriving substance, chitosan has several beneficial properties such as being nontoxic and biodegradable. Absorption of acid dyes by chitosan is mostly by electrostatic interactions, the larger surface area of chitosan nanoparticles is advantageous for enhancement of dyeability of textile material. Experimental work was carried out on finding the possibility of one bath dyeing of chitosan pretreated cotton/nylon fabric with acid dyes. The effect of chitosan pretreatment on dyeability, fastness, and few physicochemical properties has been investigated, and results are presented. The cotton/nylon sample treated with 0.3% of chitosan nanoparticles had higher K/S values, washing, and crocking fastness. Also observed, dyed fabric had antibacterial potential due to the antibacterial property of chitosan. New method of union dyeing showed level dyeing having good fastness properties and offers the option of cost effective and eco-friendly.

  3. Functional finishing of cotton fabrics using silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, N; Kathe, A A; Varadarajan, P V; Nachane, R P; Balasubramanya, R H

    2007-06-01

    We have reported a novel in situ synthesis protocol for silver nanoparticles onto cotton fabrics. Here, cotton fabric immersed in silver nitrate solution is autoclaved at 15 psi, 121 degrees C for 15 min. At this temperature and pressure, the aldehyde terminal of starch (residual size material on cotton fabric) reduced the silver nitrate to silver metal and simultaneously stabilized the nanoparticles on fabric itself. The UV-visible absorption spectrum of both cotton fabrics and bath solution showed a typical absorption peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. With the help of transmission electron micrographs, the average size of the dislodged silver nanoparticles in water is calculated to be 20.9 +/- 13.7 nm. This silver nanoparticles impregnated cotton fabrics showed excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and bacteriostasis activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Also, silver nanoparticles impregnated fabrics expressed significant UV-protection capability in comparison with the untreated fabrics.

  4. Effects of greige cotton lint properties on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined the effects of fiber length, the length uniformity index, micronaire (fineness), and strength of greige cotton lint on properties of nonwoven fabrics. Seven bales of pre-cleaned greige (non-bleached) cotton were procured from a U.S cotton producer and ginner. Each bale primar...

  5. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Nicula, Gheorghe; Iordache, Ovidiu; Dinca, Laurentiu Christian; Berechet, Mariana-Daniela; Vamesu, Mariana; Gurau, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes. PMID:25276112

  6. Functionalization of cotton fabrics through thermal reduction of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Guangming; Xu, Zhenglin; Yang, Mengyun [Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Tang, Bin, E-mail: bin.tang@deakin.edu.au [Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Deakin University, Geelong, Institute for Frontier Materials (Australia); Wang, Xungai [Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Deakin University, Geelong, Institute for Frontier Materials (Australia)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) is in-situ reduced on cotton by heat under nitrogen protection. • The incorporation of reduced GO endowed fabrics with good electrical conductivity. • Repeated bending and washing do not change obviously the electrical conductivity. • The RGO/cotton fabrics show significant UV-blocking and hydrophobic properties. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was in-situ reduced on cotton fabrics by a simple heat treatment, which endowed cotton fabrics with multi-functions. GO was coated on the surface of cotton fabric through a conventional “dip and dry” approach. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained from GO in the presence of cotton by heating under the protection of nitrogen. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize the complexes of RGO and cotton (RGO/cotton). The RGO/cotton fabrics showed good electrical conductivity, surface hydrophobicity and ultraviolet (UV) protection properties. These properties did not deteriorate significantly after repeated fabric bending and washing.

  7. Automatic detection of seed coat fragments in cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) reduce the marketability of cotton fiber, yarns and fabrics. It is particularly important to measure SCF content in the fabric because they cause severe dyeing and appearance defects. SCF content is greatly affected by cotton varieties, environmental conditions during crop ...

  8. Synthesis, structural characterization and antibacterial activity of cotton fabric modified with a hydrogel containing barium hexaferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Desislava; Koutzarova, Tatyana; Vertruyen, Benedicte; Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Grabchev, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of Ba2+ and Fe3+ cations with NaOH under of high-power ultrasound. The nanoparticles were dispersed in an aqueous solution of the hydrogel precursors. This solution was used to impregnate the cotton fabric dyed with a photoinitiator. The composite material BaFe12O19 nanoparticles-hydrogel-cotton fabric was prepared by surface initiate photopolymerization under visible light. The modification of the cotton fabric and uniform distribution of the nanoparticles in the structure of the hydrogel were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), fluorescence and colourimetric analyses. The antibacterial efficacy of the material was evaluated against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  9. First-Order Parametric Model of Reflectance Spectra for Dyed Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5708--16-9666 First-Order Parametric Model of Reflectance Spectra for Dyed Fabrics D...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT First-Order Parametric Model of Reflectance Spectra for Dyed Fabrics D. Aiken, S. Ramsey, T. Mayo, S.G. Lambrakos, and J. Peak Naval...Unclassified Unlimited 31 Daniel Aiken (202) 279-5293 Parametric modeling Inverse/direct analysis This report describes a first-order parametric model of

  10. Nano-particulate coating on cotton fabric through DBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jinzhou; Zhou, Rongming; Yu, Jianyong

    2008-02-01

    Plasma polymerization of fluorocarbon was processed through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A thin hydrophobic film packed with nano-particulate structure was obtained on cotton fabric surface. The contact angle of the water and 1-bromonaphthalene on coated cotton fabric was 133° and 124° separately. The surface morphology of the coating was observed through SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope). It was found that cotton fabric surface was tightly adhered to a thin film packed by nano-particles from 10nm to 200nm. This process showed potential applications in continuous coating of textiles with functional nano-particulate polymers, but without changing their softness performance.

  11. Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

  12. Bleaching of hydroentangled greige cotton nonwoven fabrics without scouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated whether a hydroentangled greige cotton nonwoven fabric made at a relatively high hydroentangling water pressure, say, 135-bar, could be successfully bleached to attain the desired whiteness, absorbency and other properties without traditional scouring. Accordingly, the scoured...

  13. Effect of dichlorodimethylsilane on plasma-treated cotton fabric*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Cotton fabric was treated with dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS) solution by two methods. In the first method, the fabrics were directly dipped into DCDMS solu- tion for different time intervals and in the second method, the fabric was first subjected to radiofrequency (RF) plasma treatment for different durations and ...

  14. Versatile superamphiphobic cotton fabrics fabricated by coating with SiO2/FOTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deke; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-12-01

    A multifunctional superamphiphobic cotton fabric was fabricated by coating silica nanoparticles on the cotton fabric surface and further modification by 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (FOTS). The fluctuant woven fabric and the fluffy spherical SiO2 nanoparticles constructed a dual micro/nano-structures. The surface free energy of the fabric composite was reduced by FOTS modifier. The interplay of the structured and perfluorinated SiO2 nanoparticles could not only endow the fabric highly liquid repellent ability, but could also to enhance the coating stability. The prepared cotton fabrics exhibited high liquid repellency to water, colza oil and n-hexadecane with lower surface tension, showing a contact angle of 158°, 152°, and 153°, respectively. The results demonstrated that superamphiphobic cotton fabric possessed desirable chemical and mechanical durability, self-cleaning and self-healing property, the robust and multifunctional fabric would find innovative opportunities for practical applications.

  15. Preparation of activated carbon fabrics from cotton fabric precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R.; Dadashian, F.; Abedi, M.

    2017-10-01

    The preparation of activated carbon fabrics (ACFs) from cotton fabric was performed by chemical activation with phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The operation conditions for obtaining the ACFs with the highest the adsorption capacity and process yield, proposed. Optimized conditions were: impregnation ratio of 2, the rate of temperature rising of 7.5 °C min‑1, the activation temperature of 500 °C and the activation time of 30 min. The ACFs produced under optimized conditions was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The surface area and pore volume of carbon nanostructures was characterized by BET nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 °K. The pore size distribution calculated from the desorption branch according to BJH method. The iodine number of the prepared ACFs was determined by titration at 30 °C based on the ASTM D4607-94. The results showed the improvement of porous structure, fabric shape, surface area (690 m2/g), total pore volume (0.3216 cm3/g), and well-preserved fibers integrity.

  16. Effects of Different Mordants on Silk Fabric Dyed with Onion Outer Skin Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gias Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, a higher demand is put towards the use of natural dyes due to increased awareness of the environmental and health hazards associated with the synthesis and use of synthetic dyes. This research was conducted using onion outer skins as a potential source of natural plant dyes. In this study, extraction of dye was carried out in aqueous boiling method. Premordanting technique was followed using different mordants, namely alum, ferrous sulphate, tin, tannic acid, tartaric acid, and their combinations on silk fabric. Fabric samples dyed without using any mordant were then compared with the dyed samples pretreated with the mordants. The range of colors developed on dyed materials was evaluated by measuring the color values with respect to K/S values and color coordinates. It was concluded that the color values were found to be influenced by the addition of mordants, and thus different fashion hues were obtained from the same amount of dye extract using different mordants. Ferrous sulphate was found as the most influential mordant. ΔEcmc values between unmordanted (Reference dyed and metallic mordanted fabric samples were found higher than those between unmordanted and nonmetallic mordanted fabric samples. The dyed samples were evaluated for color fastness to washing, light, drycleaning, rubbing, and perspiration. The color fastness properties were found to be satisfactory and improved in many cases. From the fastness results, it was obvious that these dyes can also be applied on silk fabric without using any mordant if required.

  17. New prospects in pretreatment of cotton fabrics using microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, M; Taleb, M Abou; El-Shall, F N; Haggag, K

    2014-03-15

    As microwaves are known to give fast and rapid volume heating, the present study is undertaken to investigate the use of microwave heating for pretreatment cotton fabrics to reduce the pretreatment time, chemicals and water. The onset of the microwave heating technique on the physicochemical and performance properties of desized, scoured and bleached cotton fabric is elucidated and compared with those obtained on using conventional thermal heating. Combined one-step process for desizing, scouring and bleaching of cotton fabric under microwave heating was also investigated. The dual effect of adding urea, (as microwave absorber and hydrogen peroxide activator) has been exploiting to accelerate the pretreatment reaction of cotton fabric. DSC, FT-IR and SEM have been used to investigate the onset of microwave on the morphological and chemical change of cotton cellulose after pretreatment and bleaching under microwave heating. Results obtained show that, a complete fabric preparation was obtained in just 5 min on using microwave in pretreatments process and the fabric properties were comparable to those obtained in traditional pretreatment process which requires 2.5-3h for completion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanosilica-Chitosan Composite Coating on Cotton Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharani, Dina Kartika; Kartini, Indriana; Aprilita, Nurul Hidayat

    2010-10-01

    Nanosilica-chitosan composite coating on cotton fabrics has been prepared by sol-gel method. The sol-gel procedure allows coating of material on nanometer scale, which several commonly used coating procedure cannot achieve. In addition, sol-gel coating technique can be applied to system without disruption of their structure functionaly. The coating were produced via hidrolysis and condensation of TEOS and GPTMS and then mixed with chitosan. The composite coating on cotton fabrics were characterized with X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) method. The result showed that the coating not changed or disrupted the cotton stucture. The coating result in a clear transparent thin layer on cotton surface. The nanocomposite coating has new applications in daily used materials, especially those with low heat resistance, such as textiles and plastics, and as an environmentally friendly water-repellent substitute for fluorine compounds.

  19. Cotton fabrics with UV blocking properties through metal salts deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emam, Hossam E., E-mail: hossamelemam@yahoo.com [Textile Research Division, National Research Centre, El Buhouth St., Dokki, Cairo 12311 (Egypt); Research Institute of Textile Chemistry and Textile Physics, University of Innsbruck, Hoechsterstrasse 73, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria); Bechtold, Thomas [Research Institute of Textile Chemistry and Textile Physics, University of Innsbruck, Hoechsterstrasse 73, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Introducing metal salt based UV-blocking properties into cotton fabric. • A quite simple technique used to produce wash resistant UV-absorbers using different Cu-, Zn- and Ti-salts. • Good UPF was obtained after treatment with Cu and Ti salts, and ranged between 11.6 and 14. • The efficiency of the deposited metal oxides is compared on molar basis. - Abstract: Exposure to sunlight is important for human health as this increases the resistance to diverse pathogens, but the higher doses cause skin problems and diseases. Hence, wearing of sunlight protective fabrics displays a good solution for people working in open atmosphere. The current study offered quite simple and technically feasible ways to prepare good UV protection fabrics based on cotton. Metal salts including Zn, Cu and Ti were immobilized into cotton and oxidized cotton fabrics by using pad-dry-cure technique. Metal contents on fabrics were determined by AAS; the highest metal content was recorded for Cu-fabric and it was 360.6 mmol/kg after treatment of oxidized cotton with 0.5 M of copper nitrate. Ti contents on fabrics were ranged between 168.0 and 200.8 mmol/kg and it showed the lowest release as only 38.1–46.4% leached out fabrics after five laundry washings. Metal containing deposits were specified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV-transmission radiation over treated fabrics was measured and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was calculated. UPF was enhanced after treatment with Cu and Ti salts to be 11.6 and 14, respectively. After five washings, the amount of metal (Cu or Ti) retained indicates acceptable laundering durability.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Some Nanometal Oxides Using Microwave Technique and Their Application to Cotton Fabrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gouda, M; Aljaafari, A; Al-Fayz, Y; Boraie, W. E

    2015-01-01

    .... Cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were prepared via a thiol-modification of cotton fabric samples and then dipped into the metal salt solutions precursors and transferred to the microwave oven...

  1. STUDY ON THE BIOSCOURING TREATMENT OF 50 % OF HEMP + 50 % OF COTTON FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUSTIANU Monica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the study of the Bioscouring treatment applied on 50 % of hemp + 50 % of cotton blended materials. The goal of the treatment was the removing of morphological impurities present in cotton and hemp fibers in order to obtain cleaner materials with better properties. For enzymatic treatments different concentrations (1-3 % o.w.f from a commercial product named Beisol PRO (a mixture of enzymes pectinases were used. The reaction media was made of phosfate buffer solution of 0.1 M and pH 8. (sodium phosfate/disodium phosphate, 2 g/L sodium citrate (complexing agent and 0.5 % Denimcol Wash RGN (wetting agent. All the experiments were carried out after a central, rotatable second order compound program with two independent variables: enzyme concentration (concentrations between 1-3 % o.w.f and treatment time (15-55 minutes at 20:1 liquid to fabric ratio and a temperature of 55 0C. The reatment efficiency has been verified by the following analyses: weight loss, hydrophilicity, whiteness degree, yellowness degree, crystallinity, tensile strength, elongation at break, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, spectrophotometric analysis in CIELAB system of the samples dyed with alizarin dye. After all the investigations it was found that the bioscouring procedure of 50 % of hemp + 50 % of cotton blended materials conducted to a proper removal of the morphological impurities without affecting the internal structure of cellulose or any significant degradation of the material.

  2. Antimicrobial coating of modified chitosan onto cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoli; Ma, Kaikai; Li, Rong; Ren, Xuehong; Huang, T. S.

    2014-08-01

    Chitosan has been applied as an antibacterial agent to provide biocidal function for textiles but has limitations of application condition and durability. In this study, a new N-halamine chitosan derivative was synthesized by introducing N-halamine hydantoin precursor. The synthesized chitosan derivative 1-Hydroxymethyl-5,5-dimethylhydantoin chitosan (chitosan-HDH) was coated onto cotton fabric with 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) as a crosslinking agent. The coatings were characterized and confirmed by FT-IR and SEM. The treated cotton fabrics can be rendered excellent antimicrobial activity upon exposure to dilute household bleach. The chlorinated coated swatches can inactivate 100% of the Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli O157:H7 with a contact time of 5 min. Almost all the lost chlorine after a month of storage could be recharged upon rechlorination. The crease recovery property of the treated swatches improved while the breaking strength decreased compared with uncoated cotton.

  3. Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and soluble starch as stabilizing agent. These nanoparticles, which have an average size of 40 nm, were coated on the bleached cotton fabrics (plain weave, 30 s count) using acrylic ...

  4. Cone calorimeter evaluation of two flame retardant cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Sunghyun Nam; Dharnidhar V. Parikh

    2012-01-01

    Unbleached (gray) cotton needle-punched nonwoven (NW) fabrics with 12.5% polypropylene scrim were treated with two phosphate–nitrogen-based flame retardant (FR) formulations, Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC)-1 and SRRC-2. The SRRC-1 formulation contains diammonium phosphate as the FR chemical along with urea and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. Because a trace...

  5. An efficient nontraditional method of directly converting a cotton fibrous material into a woven-like hydroentangled nonwoven cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traditional technology of producing cotton woven fabrics is comprised of about 20 mechanical and chemical processes that generally are costly, slow, inefficient, and environmentally somewhat unfriendly. A modern system, using fewer preparatory processes, of fabricating hydro-entangled cotton and...

  6. Antibacterial cotton fabrics treated with core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M; Hrdina, R; Imramovský, Aleš; Burgert, Ladislav; Aly, A S

    2012-06-01

    Multifinishing treatment of cotton fabrics was carried out using core-shell nanoparticles that consists of silver nanoparticles (Ag(0)) as core and chitosan-O-methoxy polyethylene glycol (CTS-O-MPEG) as shell. The synthesized (Ag(0)-CTS-O-MPEG) core-shell nanoparticle was applied to cotton fabrics using the conventional pad-dry-cure method. The finished fabrics were examined for their morphological features and surface characteristics by making use of scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX), which reveals the well dispersion of (Ag(0)-CTS-O-MPEG) core-shell nanoparticles on cotton fabrics. Factors affecting the treatment such as core shell nanoparticles, citric acid (CA) concentration as well as curing temperature were studied. The treated fabrics, at optimum condition of 1% core shell nanoparticles, 5% citric acid, drying at 80°C, curing at 160°C for 2 min, showed excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), even after 20 washing cycles in addition to an enhancement in crease recovery angles (CRA) along with a slight improvement in tensile strength (TS). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Yarn-dyed fabric defect classification based on convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Junfeng; Dong, Amei; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Kaibing

    2017-09-01

    Considering that manual inspection of the yarn-dyed fabric can be time consuming and inefficient, we propose a yarn-dyed fabric defect classification method by using a convolutional neural network (CNN) based on a modified AlexNet. CNN shows powerful ability in performing feature extraction and fusion by simulating the learning mechanism of human brain. The local response normalization layers in AlexNet are replaced by the batch normalization layers, which can enhance both the computational efficiency and classification accuracy. In the training process of the network, the characteristics of the defect are extracted step by step and the essential features of the image can be obtained from the fusion of the edge details with several convolution operations. Then the max-pooling layers, the dropout layers, and the fully connected layers are employed in the classification model to reduce the computation cost and extract more precise features of the defective fabric. Finally, the results of the defect classification are predicted by the softmax function. The experimental results show promising performance with an acceptable average classification rate and strong robustness on yarn-dyed fabric defect classification.

  8. Thermal properties of flame retardant cotton fabric grafted by dimethyl methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Tie-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of flame retardant cotton fabric grafted by dimethyl methacryloy-loxyethyl phosphate were investigated by the atom transfer radical polymerization method. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to explore the thermal decomposition mode of flamed retardant cotton fabric. The weight loss rate of the flamed retardant cotton was bigger than that of the control cotton fabric, and a more final residual char of flamed retardant cotton was also observed. Flammability tests were used to study the flame retardance property of the flame retardant cotton fabric. The results showed that flamed retardant cotton fabric with 16.8% of weight gain could keep good flame retardance. Scanning electron microscope pictures were applied to investigate the morphology of residual char of the flame retardant samples.

  9. Plasma-enhanced regenerable 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) antibacterial finishing for cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chang-E.; Kan, Chi-Wai

    2015-02-01

    In this study, atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma treatment was applied to cotton fabrics in the coating process of cotton fabric coated with 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) with the aim to enhance the adhesion of DMH and antibacterial property. Then chlorine was introduced into nitrogen-containing groups on the coated cotton fabrics in order to make it antibacterial by chlorination with sodium hypochlorite. The antibacterial property, rechargeability and stability of the coated cotton fabrics were investigated. FTIR, UV and SEM were used to evaluate the surface properties, including the existence of DMH on cotton fabrics, the content of DMH on cotton fabrics and the surface topography of cotton fabrics after modification. The results showed that nitrogen plasma treatment introduces nitrogen-containing groups into cotton fabrics and enhances the adhesion of DMH on the fabrics, and introduction of chlorine on the coated fabrics inhibits bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), effectively and the antibacterial property is regenerable. Therefore, the antibacterial finishing of cotton fabrics coated with DMH with the aid of nitrogen plasma treatment achieves good effect.

  10. Thermal properties and water repellency of cotton fabric prepared through sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics were treated by one-step sol-gel method. The pure silica hydrosol and phosphorus-doped hydrosol were prepared with the addition of a hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane to decrease the surface energy of cotton fabric. The thermal properties and water repellency of treated cotton fabric were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, micro combustion, limiting oxygen index, and contact angle measurement. The results showed that cotton fabric treated by phosphorus-doped silica hydrosol had excellent flame retardance, and the water repellence was apparently improved with the addition of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane.

  11. Study of plasma-induced graft polymerization of stearyl methacrylate on cotton fabric substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongqiang [Engineering Research Center for Eco-Dyeing & Finishing of Textiles, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); “Textile Fiber Materials and Processing Technology” Local Joint National Engineering Laboratory, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhang, Yan; Zou, Chao [Engineering Research Center for Eco-Dyeing & Finishing of Textiles, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Shao, Jianzhong, E-mail: jshao@zstu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Eco-Dyeing & Finishing of Textiles, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); “Textile Fiber Materials and Processing Technology” Local Joint National Engineering Laboratory, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The plasma induced graft polymerization on the cotton fabric substrates. • Coating film on fibers changed fabric hydrophobicity and stability. • Effect of the plasma process time on grafting ratio was investigated. • The cotton grafted SMA exhibited an excellent heat resistance. - Abstract: A simple and facile method to prepare the cotton fabric with hydrophobicity was described in the present work. In the one-step process, the cotton fabric pre-impregnated with the monomer solution of stearyl methacrylate (SMA) was placed in the plasma chamber and followed by glow discharge of the Helium low temperature plasma. The cotton fabrics before and after the plasma treatment were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The wettability of the cotton fabrics was evaluated by contact angle measurement. Fabric Hand Values and mechanical properties were also measured in the experiment. The results showed that polymer films could be coated on the cotton fibers through the plasma induced grafting polymerization of SMA. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited an extraordinary hydrophobicity with a contact angle of 149° for a 5 μL water droplet and excellent thermal stability. The relative hand value and mechanical breaking strength of the cotton fabrics declined slightly after graft polymerization of SMA by the plasma.

  12. Influence of Amino-Ffunctional Macro and Micro Silicone Softeners on the Properties of Cotton Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Jatoi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-functional silicone softeners are most widely used type of soft finishes owing to their outstanding permanent softness, smoothness and handle characteristics. These soft finishes are prepared in different emulsion droplet sizes such as macro and micro emulsions providing varying characteristics on the textile on which they are applied. The macroemulsions due to their larger droplet sizes lubricate fabric and yarn surfaces, while the micro-emulsion, thanks to their smaller sizes penetrate inside fiber pores. In this research amino-functional macro and micro emulsions have been applied on dyed cotton fabric in 1:1 combination and compared against their influence on physical properties such as bending length, abrasion resistance, tensile strength, crease resistance and water repellency. These emulsions have also been compared for their influence on colorimetric properties; color difference and color strength (K/S values. The results reveal that the softener`s application in combination improves the properties deteriorated by each softener when applied separately

  13. A Novel Two-Step Method for Fabricating Silver Plating Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel two-step method was presented for fabricating silver plating cotton fabrics (SPCFs with high electrical conductivity and excellent washing fastness. First, polydopamine (PDA film was coated on the surface of cotton fabrics by in situ polymerization of dopamine, the silver ions in silver nitrate solution were reduced by the catechol groups of polydopamine, and silver nanoparticles were combined with polydopamine by covalent bond on the surface of cotton fabrics. Second, silver ions were reduced by glucose, and silver plating was coated on the surface. Subsequently, the properties of SPCFs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and so forth. With the increasing of silver-ammonia solution concentration or dopamine concentration, the surface resistivity of SPCFs decreases and gradually stabilized. The surface resistivity of the SPCFs can reach 0.12±0.02 Ω, and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (ESE of the SPCFs can reach 58.5±4.5 dB. Conductive fabrics have wide application prospect in many of fields, such as antibacterial, intelligent textiles, smart garments, electromagnetic shielding, and flexible sensors.

  14. Effect of chitosan on resist printing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of chitosan, types of resist agent, curing temperature and curing time were varied to determine their effects on resist-printed cotton fabrics. An optimal chitosan concentration of 1.6% resulted in the greatest resist effect on printed cotton fabrics. For mixtures, a 6:4 ratio of citric acid : chitosan and an 8:2 ...

  15. Effect of cotton fiber properties on properties of hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven mechanically pre-cleaned greige cottons of significantly different fiber length, length uniformity or micronaire were processed into nonwoven fabrics using a commercial-grade hydroentanglement system of fabric formation. Results have shown that the pre-cleaned greige cotton of considerably di...

  16. Effect of polymer microsphere incorporation on impact performance of STF cotton fabric composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, M. S.; Mohamed, R.; Faiza, M. A.

    2010-05-01

    Liquid body armor system is recently being used compared to conventional body armor due to its lightweight, highly flexibility and reduced layered fabric. Shear thickening fluid (STF) system comprising of Polymer Microsphere (PMS) and solvent media are exploited in this study. Polymer Microsphere (eg: PMS) in solvent media varies with viscosity upon different PMS composition with and without surfactant. Fabrication of STF fabric system using Cotton laminate were performed using hand lay up with fixed areal density of 40% PMS content. Impact performance was evaluated using knife pendulum impact tester. Impact strength was found to increase with incorporation of STF system. STF addition significantly improves stab resistance of fabric. There were improvements of impact energy absorption for cotton fabric at different volume of STF used with 3 layers. For the three layer systems, impact performance showed improvement of 27.62% using 4ml of STF compared to use of 8ml of STF (12.44% impact improvement). For Cotton STF fabric composite, the effectiveness of the penetration was raised upon higher fabric layers. Overall, the STF-Cotton fabric composite are totally failure during testing, because of the cotton fabric is a fabric, which has very low strength. The addition of STF onto the cotton fabric system will not make the fabric becomes highly impact resistance.

  17. Fabrication of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric for wearable device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyarasan, V.; Suhasini, S.; Archana, J.; Navaneethan, M.; Majumdar, Abhijit; Hayakawa, Y.; Ikeda, H.

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric (CF) s a flexible material for an application of wearable thermoelectric (TE) power generator which requires super-hydrophobicity, UV protection, and high TE efficiency. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the formed ZnO nanostructures have a mixture of nanorods and nanosheets and are uniformly coated on the CF. XRD pattern and Raman spectra revealed that the ZnO nanostructure has a wurtzite structure. Contact angle measurements showed that the ZnO-nanostructures-coated CF possessed a high super hydrophobic nature with an angle of 132.5°. ZnO nanocomposite/CF sample exhibited an excellent UV protection factor 183.84. Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power factor of the ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric were evaluated to be 28 μV/K, 0.04 Ω-cm, and 22 μW/m K2, respectively.

  18. Characterizing the sorption of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to cotton and polyester fabrics under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Amandeep [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Rauert, Cassandra [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Simpson, Myrna J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Harrad, Stuart [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Diamond, Miriam L., E-mail: miriam.diamond@utoronto.ca [Department of Earth Sciences, 22 Russell Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Cotton and polyester, physically and chemically different fabrics, were characterized for sorption of gas-phase polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and BET specific surface area (BET-SSA) analysis showed cotton's high microsurface area; NMR analysis showed richness of hexose- and aromatic-carbon in cotton and polyester, respectively. Cotton and polyester sorbed similar concentrations of gas-phase PBDEs in chamber studies, when normalized to planar surface area. However, polyester concentrations were 20–50 times greater than cotton when normalized to BET-SSA, greater than the 10 times difference in BET-SSA. The difference in sorption between cotton and polyester is hypothesized to be due to ‘dilution’ due to cotton's large BET-SSA and/or greater affinity of PBDEs for aromatic-rich polyester. Similar fabric-air area normalized distribution coefficients (K'{sub D}, 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m) for cotton and polyester support air-side controlled uptake under non-equilibrium conditions. K'{sub D} values imply that 1 m{sup 2} of cotton or polyester fabrics would sorb gas-phase PBDEs present in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume at room temperature over one week, assuming similar air flow conditions. Sorption of PBDEs to fabrics has implications for their fate indoors and human exposure. - Highlights: • Sorption of gas-phase PBDEs by cotton and polyester fabrics • Similar sorption to cotton and polyester per unit planar surface area • Greater sorption by polyester/BET-SSA; cotton's dilution or polyester’s affinity • 1 m{sup 2} fabric sorbs PBDEs in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume • Clothing likely a large indoor sink of PBDEs and influence human exposure.

  19. Printing properties of the red reactive dyes with different number sulfonate groups on cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Li, Min; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-30

    Cellulose fabric is an important printing substrate. Four red azo reactive dyes based on 1-naphthol-8-amino-3,6-disulfonic acid for cotton fabric printing were designed. Their UV-Vis spectra and printing properties for cotton were investigated. The relationship between the chemical structures of the dyes and their printing properties on cotton fabric was discussed. The results show that the color yield (K/S) values of the printed fabrics decreased with the increase of sulfonate groups, but the fixation and penetration of the reactive dyes on cotton fabric increased. The reactive dyes with fewer number sulfonate groups were sensitive to alkaline and urea. Whereas, the reactive dyes with numerous sulfonate groups were not sensitive to urea and had good leveling properties, penetration uniformity, and good wet fastness for cotton fabric. Surface wettability of all cotton fabrics printed with four dyes was excellent. It is possible to print cotton fabric urea-free using the reactive dyes with numerous sulfonate groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. INFLUENCE OF FABRIC TIGHTNESS ON SPIRALITY OF WEFTKNITTED PLAIN COTTON FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Mobarok Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for knitted garments is growing at a faster rate than that of woven items.Currently around 50% of clothing needs in the developed countries is met by knit goods. So ensuring the required quality in a knitted fabric is a vital issue for the manufacturer. One of the major problems encountered in knitted fabric is spirality. It affects particularly single jersey fabric and presents a serious problem during garment confection and use. So controlling spirality is a basic requirement for producing quality knitted fabric. Though there are several factors that contribute to knitted fabric spirality, yarn twist and relative tightness of the fabric are said tobe the most significant ones. In this work the basic single jersey fabric, i.e. plain jersey cotton fabrics were produced by a Hosiery knitting machine and spirality values were observed for different yarn T.P.I. and tightness factor at relaxed state. It was found that tightness factor has a direct influence on knitted fabric spirality with a high degree of correlation. The work thus gives an idea to deal this problem by controlling the knitting parameters.

  1. Tensile Properties of Single Jersey and 1×1 Rib Knitted Fabrics Made from 100% Cotton and Cotton/Lycra Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereje Berihun Sitotaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tensile properties such as tensile strength which is measured as breaking force in Newton (N and elongation percent (% at break of single jersey and 1×1 rib (knitted with full needles knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra yarns (5% Lycra yarn content in 95% combed cotton yarn are investigated in this research. The sample fabrics are conditioned for 24 hours at 20±1°C temperature and 65±2% relative humidity before testing. Ten specimens (five for lengthwise and five for widthwise have been taken from each of the two knitted structures, those made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra (at 95/5 percent ratio blend yarns. According to the discussion and as found from the investigations, the tensile properties of single jersey and 1×1 rib knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra yarns are significantly different from each other and both of the knitted fabrics have high elongation percent at break with cotton/Lycra blend yarns as compared to 100% cotton yarn. Knitted fabrics made from cotton/Lycra blended yarn have low breaking force and high elongation percent at break relative to knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton yarns.

  2. Investigation of antibacterial activity of cotton fabric incorporating nano silver colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Vo Ke Thanh; Nguyen Thi Phuong Phong [Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Community 6, Linh Trung Award, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ngovokethanh@yahoo.com

    2009-09-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles were prepared by polyol process with microwave heating and incorporated on cotton fabric surfaces. The antibacterial performance of the antibacterial cotton fabric was tested for different concentration of nano-sized silver colloid, contact time germs, and washing times. It was found that antibacterial activity increased with the increasing concentration of nano-sized silver colloid. The antibacterial fabric with 758 mg/kg of silver nanoparticles on surface cotton was highly effective in killing test bacteria and had excellent water resisting property.

  3. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıışık Merih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ZnO nanoparticle–based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL process on cotton fabrics properties.

  4. Physical and combustion properties of nonwoven fabrics produced from conventional and naturally colored cottons

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted to identify the effects of processing parameters on physical and combustion properties of needlepunched (NP) and hydroentangled (H-E) nonwoven fabrics produced from fibers of a standard Mid-South white fiber cotton and a naturally colored brown fiber cotton. The fl...

  5. A study of the antibacterial efficiency and coloration of dyed polyamide and polyester fabrics modified with colloidal Ag nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA ILIĆ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of dyeing on the antibacterial efficiency of polyamide and polyester fabrics loaded with colloidal Ag nanoparticles and the influence of the presence of Ag nanoparticles on the color change of dyed fabrics were investigated. Dyes C.I. acid green 25 and C.I. disperse blue 3 were used for dyeing of polyamide fabrics, while dye C.I. disperse violet 8 was used for dyeing of polyester fabrics. The influence of Ag nanoparticles on the color change of polyamide fabrics depends on the dye type, but generally it was lower compared to polyester fabrics. Polyester fabrics exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, independent of the order of dyeing and Ag loading. Polyamide fabrics provided a desirable level of antibacterial activity only if the Ag loading was performed after dyeing.

  6. Evaluation of the use and re-use of cotton fabrics as medical and hospital wraps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, Edna; Levin, Anna S; Sinto, Sumiko Ikura; Mendes, Caio Figueiredo; Barbosa, Benedito; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2006-01-01

      The objective of this study was to verify the efficacy of cotton fabric, made of serge bonding 2 x 1, as microbial barrier, when new and after multiple laundering and steam sterilization procedures...

  7. Fluid handling and fabric handle profiles of hydroentangled greige cotton and spunbond polypropylene nonwoven topsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absorbent nonwoven topsheets are traditionally spunbond (or spunbond-meltblown (SM)) polypropylene nonwoven fabrics, and are used for a wide range of incontinence applications. Here we describe how nonwoven greige cotton demonstrates positive incontinence performance indices suitable for top sheet ...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of cotton and silk fabric with herbal extract by micro encapsulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saraswathi R Krishnan PN Dilip C

    2010-01-01

    ... of microcapsules.Methods:The microcapsules were prepared from the mixture of herbs by plain diffusion method,a natural encapsulation technique with yeast and applied on cotton and silk fabric by pad-dry-cure...

  9. Advancement in conductive cotton fabrics through in situ polymerization of polypyrrole-nanocellulose composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeish, A; Farag, S; Sharaf, S; Shaheen, Th I

    2016-10-20

    Current research was undertaking with a view to innovate a new approach for development of conductive - coated textile materials through coating cotton fabrics with nanocellulose/polypyrrole composites. The study was designed in order to have a clear understanding of the role of nanocellulose as well as modified composite thereof under investigation. It is anticipated that incorporation of nanocellulose in the pyrrole/cotton fabrics/FeCl3/H2O system would form an integral part of the composites with mechanical, electrical or both properties. Three different nanocellulosic substrates are involved in the oxidation polymerization reaction of polypyrrole (Ppy) in presence of cotton fabrics. Polymerization was subsequently carried out by admixing at various ratios of FeCl3 and pyrrole viz. Ppy1, Ppy2 and pp3. The conductive, mechanical and thermal properties of cotton fabrics coated independently with different nanocellulose/polypyrrole were investigated. FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDX were also used for further characterization. Results signify that, the conductivity of cotton fabrics increases exponentially with increasing the dose of pyrrole and oxidant irrespective of nanocellulose substrate used. While, the mechanical properties of cotton fabrics are not significantly affected by the oxidant treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ON THE PROPERTIES OF DYED COTTON CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSU Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyes have been reported of causing various stages of contact dermatitis. Reactive dyes are widely applied in dyeing cellulose fiber based textiles (100% cotton, skin fibers (hemp, flax, regenerated cellulose (cellulose acetate, viscose, protein fibers (natural silk, wool. The human body comes in contact daily with such compounds. This aspect is important for elucidating their biological effects on the human body, in correlation with physico-chemical properties. Dyes are chemical compounds containing chromophore and auxochrome groups. Authors herein report results concerning the influence of UV irradiation with λ > 300 nm on the structure and properties of different colored textiles. Subjects to study were textiles painted with four azo-triazine based dyes which were exposed to 100 h UV irradiation time and irradiation dose values up to 3500 J cm-2. The five azo dyes were: reactive orange 13, reactive red 183, reactive yellow 143, reactive blue 204 and reactive red 2. Structural modifications as a result of irradiation were undertaken by UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was observed that during UV exposure there occurred partial dyes detachment from the textiles, accompanied by glucosidic units and dye photodecomposition by C–N bond scission and degradation of aromatic entities and azo based chromophores. Color modifications were also investigated. Color differences significantly increased with the irradiation dose for all the studied samples.

  11. Eco-friendly finishing agent for cotton fabrics to improve flame retardant and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafei, A; ElShemy, M; Abou-Okeil, A

    2015-03-15

    This research work deals with flame retardant and antibacterial finishing agent for cellulosic fabrics using TiO2 nanoparticles and chitosan phosphate. TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method using titanium tetraisopropoxide. The size of TiO2 nanoparticles was characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The application of nano TiO2 onto cellulosic fabrics (cotton 100%) was achieved in presence of polycarboxylic acid [1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA)] with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as catalyst and chitosan phosphate through conventional pad-dry-cure method. The effect of the finishing on the physical properties, flammability and antibacterial properties of cross-linked fabrics are investigated. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the thermal decomposition behaviour of the treated samples. Limited oxygen indexes (LOI) of the treated cotton fabrics were investigated. The treated cotton fabric also reveals excellent antibacterial properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of Fastness, UV Protection, Deodorization and Antimicrobial Properties of Silk Fabrics Dyed with the Liquids Extracted from the Gallnuts, Areca Nuts, and Pomegranate Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jin Soun.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the fastness, UVprotection, deodorization, and antimicrobial properties of silk fabrics dyed with liquids extracted from the gallnuts, areca nuts, and pomegranate peels.

  13. Investigation of the effect of different structural parameters of cotton woven fabrics on their air permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastan, E.; Akgun, M.; Gurarda, A.; Omeroglu, S.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an investigation of the effect of different structural parameters of cotton woven fabrics on their air permeability. For this purpose, 24 fabric samples having different structural properties were obtained by using three different weave types (plain, 1/3 twill and 1/7 sateen), two different weft yarn counts (Ne 20/2 and Ne 70/2) and four different yarn twist levels (120, 360, 600, and 840 turns/m). Cotton Ne 50/1; 150 turns/m warp yarns and 40 threads/cm warp density were used in all fabric samples. The relationship between the fabrics structural parameters like weft yarn count, weave type, yarn twist number and air permeability behavior are investigated. It has been shown that the increase of yarn counts and yarn twist led to an increase in air permeability values of cotton woven fabrics. Also, cotton woven fabrics with 1/7 sateen weave have the maximum air permeability value; these fabrics are followed by the fabrics having weave types of plain and 1/3 twill in spite of high weft density.

  14. Development of flame retardant cotton fabric based on ionic liquids via sol-gel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentis, A.; Boukhriss, A.; Boyer, D.; Gmouh, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, flame retardant cotton fabrics were developed by the sol-gel method, in order to enhance their flame retardant proprieties. For this aim, seven sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and different ionic liquids (ILs) consist on pyridinium and Methylimidazolium cations with different anions such as: PF6‑, CH3COO‑, and Br‑. Those sols were applied separately to the cotton fabrics by a pad-dry-cure process. The flame retardant properties of functionalized cotton fabrics before and after washing were determined by the vertical flame tests according to ISO6940:2004(F) standard. The effects of anions have been thoroughly investigated, aiming at the optimization of the targeted properties. Thermogravimetric and mechanical according to NF EN ISO 13934-1:2013standard, analyses have been also investigated. The results showed that flame retardancy, thermal stability and mechanical properties of treated fabrics were enhanced by using ionic liquids.

  15. Development of improved nanosilver-based antibacterial textiles via synthesis of versatile chemically modified cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeish, A; El-Shafei, A; Sharaf, S; Zaghloul, S

    2014-11-26

    Cationization of cotton fabric form was effected by reacting the cellulose with 3-chloro-2 hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride in presence of sodium hydroxide as per the pad dry cure method. Thus obtained cationized cotton cellulose was reacted with a reactive copolymer, namely, reactive β-cyclodextrin grafted with polyacrylic acid (MCT-βCD-g-PAA).Bridging of another copolymer, namely, β-cyclodextrin grafted with polyacrylic acid (βCD-g-PAA) to the cationized fabric using epichlorohydrin crosslinker was also performed. Inclusion of Ag nanoparticles in these three cotton substrates via treatment of the latter with colloid of Ag nanoparticles or through in situ formation of the former was exercised. Characterization of cotton fabric before and after being chemically modified was carried out using FTIR, XRD and SEM. Bacterial examination of the cationized cotton containing either (MCT-βCD-g-PAA) or (βCD-g-PAA) incorporated with Ag nanoparticles showed these substrates function against G+ve and G-ve bacteria. Ability of (MCT-βCD-g-PAA) modified cotton to include hydrophobic molecules was examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and applications of vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents on cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Zheng, Junzhi; Sun, Gang

    2012-06-05

    Vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents were prepared by chemical modifications of different vegetable oils - soybean and linseed oils through several reactions, including saponification, acidification, acylation of vegetable oil and trans-esterification with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol. The resulted fluorocarbon agents were then copolymerized with styrene. The structures of the vegetable oil based agents were characterized by FT-IR and NMR. By evaluating water contact angle and time of water disappearance on cotton fabrics, as well as whiteness and breaking strength of cotton fabrics that were treated by these agents, optimum fabric finishing conditions were explored. The cotton fabrics finished with the vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon agents showed excellent water repellency, while other properties of the cotton fabrics declined to certain level. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent displayed the highest water repellency among all modified oils. All the treated fabrics exhibited good durability of water repellency. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent demonstrated the best durability among all repellent agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heat Release Property and Fire Performance of the Nomex/Cotton Blend Fabric Treated with a Nonformaldehyde Organophosphorus System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Q. Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blending Nomex® with cotton improves its affordability and serviceability. Because cotton is a highly flammable fiber, Nomex®/cotton blend fabrics containing more than 20% cotton require flame-retardant treatment. In this research, combination of a hydroxyl functional organophosphorus oligmer (HFPO and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA was used for flame retardant finishing of the 65/35 Nomex®/cotton blend woven fabric. The system contains HFPO as a flame retardant, BTCA as a bonding agent, and triethenolamine (TEA as a reactive additive used to enhance the performance of HFPO/BTCA. Addition of TEA improves the hydrolysis resistance of the HFPO/BTCA crosslinked polymeric network on the blend fabric. Additionally, TEA enhances HFPO’s flame retardant performance by reducing formation of calcium salts and also by providing synergistic nitrogen to the treated blend fabric. The Nomex®/cotton blend fabric treated with the HFPO/BTCA/TEA system shows high flame resistance and high laundering durability at a relatively low HFPO concentration of 8% (w/w. The heat release properties of the treated Nomex®/cotton blend fabric were measured using microscale combustion calorimetry. The functions of BTCA; HFPO and TEA on the Nomex®/cotton blend fabric were elucidated based on the heat release properties, char formation, and fire performance of the treated blend fabric.

  18. 77 FR 31182 - Final Withdrawal of Regulations Pertaining to Imports of Cotton Woven Fabric and Short Supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Pertaining to Imports of Cotton Woven Fabric and Short Supply Procedures AGENCY: Import Administration... short supply procedures. Both sets of regulations are obsolete: The tariff quota on cotton woven fabric expired in 2009, and the short supply voluntary restraints have not affected U.S. trade for over 19 years...

  19. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Action modes of recombinant endocellulase, EGA, and its domains on cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meilan; Qiu, Yaqin; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Fukun; Shao, Jianzhong

    2015-08-01

    The action modes of an endocellulase, EGA, and its domains (CD9 and CBM3) during enzymatic treatment of cotton fabrics were investigated. EGA, CD9 and CBM3 had the binding capacity to cellulose substrates, of which the filter paper was the substrate with the strongest binding capacity. Analyses of scanning electronic microscopy indicated that EGA and its catalytic domain CD9 etched the surface of cotton fabrics and broke the fibers of long chains. On the other hand, the binding domain CBM3 only resulted in swelling of cotton fibers. Both EGA and its catalytic domain CD9 had minimal effect on the weight loss of cotton fabrics, whereas the effect of EGA and CD9 on the degree of polymerization and breaking strength was significant. After 12 h enzymatic action, the values of weight loss ratio for EGA and CD9 were 2.07 and 2.21 %, respectively, meanwhile the reductions in fabric strength were 27.04 % for EGA and 17.23 % for CD9. In contrast to the action of EGA and CD9, CBM3 showed no significant changes in terms of the weight loss ratio, degree of polymerization, and fabric strength.

  1. Durable antibacterial and UV protections of in situ synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles onto cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Th I; El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Abdelgawad, Abdelrahman M; Hebeish, A

    2016-02-01

    Herein we represent a new discovery based on amine material called hexamethyltriethylene tetramine (HMTETA). We have observed that when an aqueous solution of Zn(NO3)·6H2O was added to aqueous solution of HMTETA followed by shaking for a time, the colorless solution was converted to milky color under the alkaline medium provided by HMTETA prior to formation of uniform zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). The latter are in situ formed within the cotton fabrics without the support of capping or other stabilizing agents. Obviously, then, the new made of formation of ZnO NPs speaks of a single-stage process where cotton fabric is immersed in a prepared solution of the new precursors through which binding of ZnO NPs into the textile fabrics takes place. Textile fabrics are, indeed, used as a template, which is capable of maintaining the size and surface distribution of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in a uniform domain. It is also likely that nanoparticles is confined inside the fibril and microfibrils of the cotton fibers. World-class facilities have been employed to follow up the synthesis of ZnO NPs, their characterization and their application to confer, in particular, high durable antibacterial and UV protective function on cotton fabrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved Reactive Dye-fixation in Pad-Steam Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using Tetrasodium N, NBiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Khatri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pad steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes is known to give lower levels of dye-fixation on the fiber because of excessive dye-hydrolysis. This research presents improved reactive dye-fixation in padsteam process of dyeing cotton found in an effort of using biodegradable organic salts to improve the effluent quality. The CI Reactive Blue 250, a bissulphatoethylsulphone dye and the Tetrasodium N, Nbiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate, a biodegradable organic salt, were used. The new dye-bath formulation using the organic salt gave more than 90% dye-fixation. Traditional pad-steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes requires the use of inorganic electrolyte, sodium-chloride, and alkali, sodium-carbonate, to ensure effective dye consumption and fixation. These inorganic chemicals when drained generate heavy contents of dissolved solids and oxygen demand in the effluent leading to environmental pollution. Thus, Tetrasodium N, N-biscarboxylatomethyl-L-Glutamate was used in place of inorganic electrolyte and alkali to improve effluent quality. A significant increase in dye-fixation and ultimate color-yield was obtained with same colorfastness properties of the dyed fabric comparing to the traditional pad-steam dye-bath formulation.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Some Nanometal Oxides Using Microwave Technique and Their Application to Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gouda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the synthesis of some nanometal oxides via microwave irradiation technique and their application to augment multifunctional properties of cotton fabric. Cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were prepared via a thiol-modification of cotton fabric samples and then dipped into the metal salt solutions precursors and transferred to the microwave oven. The surface morphology and quantitative analysis of the obtained modified cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with high energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX. The shape and distribution of nanometal oxide inside the fabric samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy of cross-section fabric samples. The iron oxide nanoparticles had a nanosphere with particle size diameter 15–20 nm, copper oxide nanoparticles had a nanosphere with particle size diameter 25–30 nm, and cobalt oxide nanoparticles had a nanotube-like shape with a length of 100–150 nanometer and a diameter of ~58 nanometer, whereas the manganese oxide nanoparticles had a linear structure forming nanorods with a diameter of 50–55 nanometer and a length of 70–80 nanometers. Antibacterial activity was evaluated quantitatively against gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, UV-protection activity was analyzed using UV-DRS spectroscopy, and flame retardation of prepared fabric samples was evaluated according to the limiting oxygen index (LOI. Results revealed that the prepared fabric sample containing nanometal oxide possesses improved antibacterial, LOI, and UV-absorbing efficiency. Moreover, the metal oxide nanoparticles did not leach out the fabrics by washing even after 30 laundering washing cycles.

  4. Cotton Fabric Coated with Conducting Polymers and its Application in Monitoring of Carnivorous Plant Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Bajgar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the electrical plant response to mechanical stimulation monitored with the help of conducting polymers deposited on cotton fabric. Cotton fabric was coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, in situ during the oxidation of respective monomers in aqueous medium. Thus, modified fabrics were again coated with polypyrrole or polyaniline, respectively, in order to investigate any synergetic effect between both polymers with respect to conductivity and its stability during repeated dry cleaning. The coating was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The resulting fabrics have been used as electrodes to collect the electrical response to the stimulation of a Venus flytrap plant. This is a paradigm of the use of conducting polymers in monitoring of plant neurobiology.

  5. Modification of cotton fabric with temperature/pH responsive hydrogel: influence of particles size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štular, D.; Tomšič, B.; Simončič, B.; Jerman, I.; Mihelčič, M.; Čolović, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, smart stimuli responsive cotton fabric was tailored by incorporation of temperature and pH responsive hydrogel with two different hydrogel particle size ranges, namely microgel and nanogel. Both hydrogels were based on temperature responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly-NiPAAm) and pH responsive chitosan (PNCS hydrogel). Hydrogels were incorporated onto cotton fabric, in order to study the influence of hydrogel particle size on the stimuli responsive properties, as well as morphological and chemical changes. Regardless of hydrogel particle size, improved air and moisture management activity of the functionalised fabric was achieved. Reduced size of nanogel somewhat influenced swelling ability of the functionalised fabric, although regardless of 4-times smaller concentration of applied hydrogel, comparable responsiveness and great decrease of stiffness was achieved.

  6. Functional finishing of cotton fabrics using zinc oxide-soluble starch nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam; Kumar, Sampath; Kathe, A A; Varadarajan, P V; Prasad, Virendra [Nanotechnology Research Group, Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Adenwala Road, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India)

    2006-10-28

    Zinc oxide-soluble starch nanocomposites (nano-ZnO) synthesized using water as a solvent and soluble starch as a stabilizer is impregnated onto cotton fabrics to impart antibacterial and UV-protection functions. Nano-ZnO synthesized by reacting zinc nitrate with sodium hydroxide in the presence of soluble starch absorbed strongly at 361 nm due to the quantum confinement effect. The average size of ZnO nanoparticles is estimated to be 38 {+-} 3 nm using a transmission electron microscope (TEM); this was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and the effective mass approximation method. The starch content in synthesized nano-ZnO was estimated to be 37.57% using thermo-gravimetric analysis. The nano-ZnO impregnated cotton fabrics showed excellent antibacterial activity against two representative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Gram negative). Also, nano-ZnO impregnation enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics against UV radiation in comparison with the untreated cotton fabrics.

  7. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-coated cotton fabric for possible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is in corroboration with − characteristics, and is attributed to increased loading of MWCNT through hydrogen bonding with glycosidic group present in cotton (cellulose) fibres. The series capacitance of the MWCNT-coated fabric is about 40 F cm-2, which is found to decrease with the increase in frequency, close to ...

  8. Cooperative action of cellulase enzyme and carboxymethyl cellulose on cotton fabric cleanability from a topographical standpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvimontes, A.; Lant, N.J.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cotton treatment with cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose on soil release of three different types of fabric: woven plain, woven twill and knitted were systematically studied. A recent study of the effect of a cleaning cellulase enzyme on cellulose films has proven

  9. The comparison of differences in flammability and thermal degradation between cotton fabrics treated with phosphoramidate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of a phosphoramidate Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphoramidate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) on cotton twill fabrics was compared with that of a previously studied Diethyl 4-methylpiperazin-1-ylphosphoramidate (DEPP). TEPP was formed in a reaction between two phosphonates...

  10. Understanding the mechanism of action of triazine-phosphonate derivatives as flame retardants for cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countless hours of research and studies on triazine, phosphonate and their combination have provided insightful information into their flame retardant properties on polymeric systems. However, only limited number of studies shed light on the mechanism of flame retardant cotton fabrics. The purpose...

  11. Illumination correction of dyed fabrics approach using Bagging-based ensemble particle swarm optimization-extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiyu; Xu, Rui; Wu, Dichong; Zhu, Zefei; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Changes in illumination will result in serious color difference evaluation errors during the dyeing process. A Bagging-based ensemble extreme learning machine (ELM) mechanism hybridized with particle swarm optimization (PSO), namely Bagging-PSO-ELM, is proposed to develop an accurate illumination correction model for dyed fabrics. The model adopts PSO algorithm to optimize the input weights and hidden biases for the ELM neural network called PSO-ELM, which enhances the performance of ELM. Meanwhile, to further increase the prediction accuracy, a Bagging ensemble scheme is used to construct an independent PSO-ELM learning machine by taking bootstrap replicates of the training set. Then, the obtained multiple different PSO-ELM learners are aggregated to establish the prediction model. The proposed prediction model is evaluated with real dyed fabric images and discussed in comparison with several related methods. Experimental results show that the ensemble color constancy method is able to generate a more robust illuminant estimation model with better generalization performance.

  12. Cotton fabric with plasma pretreatment and ZnO/Carboxymethyl chitosan composite finishing for durable UV resistance and antibacterial property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxia; Lv, Jingchun; Ren, Yu; Zhou, Qingqing; Chen, Jiayi; Zhi, Tian; Lu, Zhenqian; Gao, Dawei; Ma, Zhipeng; Jin, Limin

    2016-03-15

    ZnO/carboxymethyl chitosan (ZnO/CMCS) composite was prepared and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The combination of plasma pretreatment and ZnO/CMCS composite finishing was applied to provide durable UV resistance and antibacterial activity for cotton fabric. Cotton fabric was pretreated by cold oxygen plasma and the ZnO/CMCS composite finishing was carried out by pad-dry-cure. Cotton fabric was characterized by SEM, FTIR, UV resistance, antibacterial activity and Thermogravimetry (TG). SEM and FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of ZnO/CMCS composite on cotton fabric and the increasing loading efficiency of ZnO/CMCS composite owing to plasma treatment. UV resistance and antibacterial activity of the finished cotton fabric were greatly improved, which increased with the increasing concentration of ZnO/CMCS composite. TG analysis indicated that the combined finishing of cotton fabric with plasma pretreatment and ZnO/CMCS composite could improve its thermal property. The finished cotton fabric exhibited an excellent laundering durability in UV resistance and antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of flame retardancy and water repellency properties of cotton fabrics using silanol based nano composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amina L; El-Sheikh, Manal A; Waly, Ahmed I

    2014-02-15

    Environmental concerns related to fluorinated and organophosphorus compounds led to a consideration of the methods for imparting flame retardancy and water/oil repellency to textiles. A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. Complex coating with amino-functionalized silica nano-particles on epoxy-functionalized cotton accompanied with ZnO nano-particles coating are carried out. In This context, new preparation techniques were used to prepare both aminated silica and ZnO nano-particles. The particle size was investigated using Transition Electron Microscope (TEM) and the chemical structure was investigated using FT-IR analysis and other analytical techniques. Cotton was functionalized with epoxy and carboxyl via grafting cotton with nano-emulsion consisted of mixture of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and acrylic acid (AA), and then treated for functional finishing through conventional pad-dry-cure method. The treated fabrics showed good water repellency and excellent flame retardant properties as determined by the standard test methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Textile Structure and Silica Based Finishing on Thermal Insulation Properties of Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rosace

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of weave structures and silica coatings obtained via sol-gel process on the thermal insulation properties of cotton samples. For this reason three main weave structures (plain, satin, and piqué of cotton fabric were selected with different yarn count, threads per cm, and mass per square meter values. Thereafter, only for the plain weave, the samples were padded using silica sol formed by hydrolysis and subsequent condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane under acidic conditions. The silanized plain weave samples were characterized by TGA and FT-IR techniques. The thermal properties were measured with a home-made apparatus in order to calculate thermal conductivity, resistance, and absorption of all the treated fabric samples. The relationship between the thermal insulation properties of the plain weave fabrics and the concentration of sol solutions has been investigated. Fabrics weave and density were found to strongly influence the thermal properties: piqué always shows the lowest values and satin shows the highest values while plain weave lies in between. The thermal properties of treated high-density cotton plain weave fabric were proved to be strongly influenced by finishing agent concentration.

  15. Pyrazole-based compounds in chitosan liposomal emulsion for antimicrobial cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Ahmed; Al-Moghazy, Marwa; Soliman, Ahmed A F; Rashwan, Gehan M T; Eldawy, Taghreed Hosny Ahmed; Hassan, Ashraf Abd Elhakim; Sayed, Galal Hosni

    2017-09-13

    The chemistry of pyrazoles has gained increasing attention due to its diverse pharmacological properties such as antiviral, antagonist, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-prostate cancer, herbicidal, acaricidal and insecticidal activities. 1-Phenyl pyrazole-3, 5-diamine, 4-[2-(4-methylphenyl) diazenyl] and 1H- pyrazole-3 (1), 5-diamine, 4-[2-(4-methylphenyl) diazenyl] (2) were synthesized, characterized and encapsulated into liposomal chitosan emulsions for textile finishing. The chemical modifications of cotton fabrics were demonstrated by infrared analysis. Retention of the fabric mechanical properties was investigated by reporting the tensile strength values. Synthesized pyrazole-based compounds were screened for cytotoxicity against skin fibroblast cell line and showed very limited toxicity for both compounds. Antimicrobial potentials of the treated cotton fabrics were tested against bacterial strains E. coli ATCC 8379 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction of Alginate/Copper System on Cotton and Bamboo Fabrics: The Effect on Antimicrobial Activity and Thermophysiological Comfort Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet UZUN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobialagent treated materials have been widely used clinically as medical devices and articles, in which the active substances, such as antimicrobial molecules, are present on or in the matrix of the surface of the devices and articles.This study aims to treat a selection of fabrics with alginate/copper, and then determine the treated fabrics’antimicrobial activity against two common Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is also aimed to analyse and evaluate the thermophysiological properties of the treated fabrics. Cotton, organic cotton and bamboo woven fabrics were employed. The fabrics were applied in 1 %, 3 % and 5 %w/v copper solutions andsubsequentlyspecimens were subjected to 10 min and 20 min ultrasonic energy treatment. The results clearly demonstrated that the cotton and organic cotton fabrics were successfully treatedwith the alginate/copper and the treated fabrics showed considerable zone of inhibitions. The bamboo fabric did not appear to bond effectively with the copper alginate, andas the result,the fabrics did not display any improved bacterial protection against the chosen bacteria. In fact the bamboo fabric lost its natural antimicrobialproperties after the alginate and copper treatment.The thermophysiological comfort properties of the treated cotton fabrics changed significantly; on the other hand, the treated bamboo fabrics were not affected by the copper treatment.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.1217

  17. Optimizing the photocatalytic properties and the synergistic effects of graphene and nano titanium dioxide immobilized on cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Loghman; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail; Khajavi, Ramin; Rashidi, Abosaeed; Mirjalili, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    A new facile route based on cotton fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite is reported to produce photo-active cellulose textiles. A thin layer of graphene oxide has been produced on cotton fabrics by a dip-dry process. The graphene oxide-coated cotton fabrics were then immersed in titanium trichloride aqueous solution to yield a fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. The photo-activity efficiency of the coated fabrics was tested by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV and sunlight irradiations. To obtain the optimum condition, the response surface methodology (RSM) through the central composite design was applied and the role of both graphene oxide and titanium trichloride concentrations on photo-activity efficiency was investigated. The physicochemical properties of the prepared samples has been characterized by a series of techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of the application of graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite on the physical properties of the cotton fabric, such as tensile strength, bending rigidity and crease recovery angle has been analyzed. Other characteristics of treated fabrics such as antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity were also investigated. Cotton fabric coated with optimum concentrations of graphene oxide and titanium trichloride obtained significant photo-activity efficiency under UV and sunlight irradiations. Moreover, the graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite coated cotton samples proved low toxicity and possessed excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  18. Optimizing the photocatalytic properties and the synergistic effects of graphene and nano titanium dioxide immobilized on cotton fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Loghman, E-mail: l.karimi@srbiau.ac.ir [Department of Textile Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail [Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajavi, Ramin [Department of Textile Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Abosaeed [Department of Textile Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirjalili, Mohammad [Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Producing superior photo-active cotton fabric using graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. • Optimizing processing conditions using response surface methodology. • Obtaining significant photo-activity properties on cotton fabric by this method under sun irradiation. • Possessing excellent antimicrobial activity with low cytotoxicity on human fibroblasts. - Abstract: A new facile route based on cotton fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite is reported to produce photo-active cellulose textiles. A thin layer of graphene oxide has been produced on cotton fabrics by a dip-dry process. The graphene oxide-coated cotton fabrics were then immersed in titanium trichloride aqueous solution to yield a fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. The photo-activity efficiency of the coated fabrics was tested by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV and sunlight irradiations. To obtain the optimum condition, the response surface methodology (RSM) through the central composite design was applied and the role of both graphene oxide and titanium trichloride concentrations on photo-activity efficiency was investigated. The physicochemical properties of the prepared samples has been characterized by a series of techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of the application of graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite on the physical properties of the cotton fabric, such as tensile strength, bending rigidity and crease recovery angle has been analyzed. Other characteristics of treated fabrics such as antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity were also investigated. Cotton fabric coated with optimum concentrations of graphene oxide and titanium trichloride obtained significant photo-activity efficiency under UV and sunlight irradiations. Moreover, the graphene

  19. EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH REACTIVE BLUE 204

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes are synthetic organic compounds used on a wide scale in textile industry, for painting materials of different types and compositions (e.g. 100% cotton, wool, natural satin, viscose, synthetic fibres. Reactive dyes are solid compounds (powders completely water soluble at normal temperature and pressure conditions. Their structures contain chromophore groups, which generate colour, and auxochrome groups, which determine the compounds water solubility and the capacity to fix to the textile fiber. Such organic compounds absorb UV-Vis radiations at specific wavelengths, corresponding to maximum absorbtion peaks, in both solution and dyed fiber. The human organism, through the dyed clothing, comes in direct contact with those dyes which can undergo modifications once exposed to UV radiations, having the posibility to reach the organism via cutanated transport. As it is known, the provoked negative effects are stronger during summer when UV radiations are more intense and in order to reduce their intensity dark coloured clothing is avoided. Dyes can be transformed in compounds which are easily absorbed into the skin. Some of these metabolites can be less toxic than the original corresponding dye, whilst others, such as free radicals, are potentially cancerous. Knowledge of the biological effects of the organic dyes, reactive dyes in particular, correlated with their structural and physical characteristics, permanently consists an issue of high scientific and practical interest and its solution may contribute in the diminishing of risk factors and improving of population health. UV radiation influence on the structural and colour modifications of textile materials were studied. Colour modifications are due to structural changes in aromatic and carbonil groups. In most cases photo-oxidative processes were identified in the dye structure. Dyeing was performed using non-irradiated and irradiated cotton painted with reactive blue dye 204.

  20. Structural coloration of chitosan-cationized cotton fabric using photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, G.; Zille, A.; Seventekin, N.; Souto, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, poly (styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) P(St-MMA-AA) composite nanospheres were deposited onto chitosan-cationized woven cotton fabrics followed by a second layer of chitosan. The deposited photonic crystals (PCs) on the fabrics were evaluated for coating efficiency and resistance, chemical analysis and color variation by optical and SEM microscopy, ATR-FTIR, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and washing fastness. Chitosan deposition on cotton fabric provided cationic groups on the fiber surface promoting electrostatic interaction with photonic crystals. SEM images of the washed samples indicate that the PCs are firmly coated on the cotton surface only in the chitosan treated sample. The photonic nanospheres show an average diameter of 280 nm and display a face-centered cubic closepacking structure with an average thickness of 10 μm. A further chitosan post-treatment enhances color yield of the samples due to the chitosan transparent covering layer that induce bright reflections where the angles of incidence and reflection are the same. After washing, no photonic crystal can be detected on control fabric surface. However, the sample that received a chitosan post-treatment showed a good washing fastness maintaining a reasonable degree of iridescence. Chitosan fills the spaces between the polymer spheres in the matrix stabilizing the photonic structure. Sizeable variations in lattice spacing will allow color variations using more flexible non-close-packed photonic crystal arrays in chitosan hydrogels matrices.

  1. Intumescent flame retardant properties of graft copolymerized vinyl monomers onto cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosace, G.; Colleoni, C.; Trovato, V.; Iacono, G.; Malucelli, G.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, an intumescent flame retardant treatment, obtained by a combination of vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) and methacrylamide (MAA), was applied to cotton fabrics. In order to improve the cross-linking degree onto cellulose polymers, potassium persulfate was used as initiator of a radical polymerization technique. The application on cotton was carried out by padding, followed by drying and a curing treatment. The treated samples were characterized by SEM, TGA and FTIR-ATR analyses and tested in terms of flammability and washing fastness. The thermal and fire behavior of the treated fabrics was thoroughly investigated. The results clearly showed that the VPA/MAA coating was able to exert a protective action, giving rise to the formation of a stable char on the surface of textile fibers upon heating, hence improving the flame retardant performance of cotton. Horizontal flame spread tests confirmed that the coated fabrics achieved self-extinction, and the residues well preserved the original weave structure and fiber morphology; at variance, the uncoated fabric left only ashes. A remarkable weight loss was observed only after the first washing cycle, then the samples did not show any significant weight loss, hence confirming the durability of the self-extinguishing treatment, even after five laundering cycles.

  2. In situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles on the cotton fabrics modified by plasma induced vapor phase graft polymerization of acrylic acid for durable multifunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. X.; Ren, Y.; Lv, J. C.; Zhou, Q. Q.; Ma, Z. P.; Qi, Z. M.; Chen, J. Y.; Liu, G. L.; Gao, D. W.; Lu, Z. Q.; Zhang, W.; Jin, L. M.

    2017-02-01

    A practical and ecological method for preparing the multifunctional cotton fabrics with excellent laundering durability was explored. Cotton fabrics were modified by plasma induced vapor phase graft polymerization (PIVPGP) of acrylic acid (AA) and subsequently silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were in situ synthesized on the treated cotton fabrics. The AgNP loaded cotton fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), antibacterial activity, self-cleaning activity, thermal stability and laundering durability, respectively. SEM observation and EDX, XPS and XRD analysis demonstrated the much more AgNPs deposition on the cotton fabrics modified by PIVPGP of AA. The AgNP loaded cotton fabrics also exhibited better antibacterial activity, self-cleaning activity, thermal stability and laundering durability. It was concluded that the surface modification of the cotton fabrics by PIVPGP of AA could increase the loading efficiency and binding fastness of AgNPs on the treated cotton fabrics, which could fabricate the cotton fabrics with durable multifunction. In addition, the mechanism of in situ synthesis of AgNPs on the cotton fabrics modified by PIVPGP of AA was proposed.

  3. Surface micro-dissolve method of imparting self-cleaning property to cotton fabrics in NaOH/urea aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Tao; Hu, Ruimin; Zhao, Zhenyun [College of Textile & Garment, Southwest University, 400716, Chongqing (China); Liu, Yiping [College of Textile & Garment, Southwest University, 400716, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, 400716, Chongqing (China); Lu, Ming, E-mail: lumingswu@163.com [College of Textile & Garment, Southwest University, 400716, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, 400716, Chongqing (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A novel micro-dissolved process was carried out to embedding commercial titanium dioxide nanoparticles into cotton fabric with NaOH/urea aqueous solution. • X-ray diffraction pattern of modified fabrics shown that the cellulose structure of modified fabrics had not changed. • Modified cotton fabrics demonstrated favourable photocatalytic self-cleaning performance while tensile strength and whiteness of treated fabrics also expressed an increasement slightly. - Abstract: A simple and economical micro-dissolved process of embedding titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles into surface zone of cotton fabrics was developed. TiO{sub 2} was coated on cotton fabrics in 7% wt NaOH/12% wt urea aqueous solution at low temperature. Photocatalytic efficiency of cotton fabrics treated with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied upon measuring the photocatalytic decoloration of Rhodamine B (RhB) under ultraviolet irradiation. Self-cleaning property of cotton fabric coated with TiO{sub 2} was evaluated with color depth of samples (K/S value). The treated fabrics were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR), tensile strength, stiffness and whiteness. The results indicated, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could be embedded on the surface layer of cotton fabrics throuth surface micro-dissolve method. Treated cotton fabrics possessed distinct photocatalytic efficiency and self-cleaning properties. Tensile strength and whiteness of modified cotton fabrics appeared moderately increasement.

  4. In situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles on the cotton fabrics modified by plasma induced vapor phase graft polymerization of acrylic acid for durable multifunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.X., E-mail: cxwang@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building, Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu, 226019 (China); Ren, Y. [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu, 226019 (China); Lv, J.C.; Zhou, Q.Q.; Ma, Z.P.; Qi, Z.M.; Chen, J.Y.; Liu, G.L.; Gao, D.W. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Lu, Z.Q. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building, Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); Zhang, W. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Jin, L.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201204 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A new means for multifunctional cotton fabrics by PIVPGP of AA and AgNPs synthesis. • Surface modification by PIVPGP of AA had a positive effect on AgNPs loading. • Antibacterial, self-cleaning and thermal stability were greatly improved. • AgNP loaded cotton fabric exhibited excellent laundering durability. • Mechanism of AgNPs in situ synthesis on cotton fabrics by PIVPGP of AA was proposed. - Abstract: A practical and ecological method for preparing the multifunctional cotton fabrics with excellent laundering durability was explored. Cotton fabrics were modified by plasma induced vapor phase graft polymerization (PIVPGP) of acrylic acid (AA) and subsequently silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were in situ synthesized on the treated cotton fabrics. The AgNP loaded cotton fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), antibacterial activity, self-cleaning activity, thermal stability and laundering durability, respectively. SEM observation and EDX, XPS and XRD analysis demonstrated the much more AgNPs deposition on the cotton fabrics modified by PIVPGP of AA. The AgNP loaded cotton fabrics also exhibited better antibacterial activity, self-cleaning activity, thermal stability and laundering durability. It was concluded that the surface modification of the cotton fabrics by PIVPGP of AA could increase the loading efficiency and binding fastness of AgNPs on the treated cotton fabrics, which could fabricate the cotton fabrics with durable multifunction. In addition, the mechanism of in situ synthesis of AgNPs on the cotton fabrics modified by PIVPGP of AA was proposed.

  5. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of cotton fabric-reinforced geopolymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alomayri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabric (CF reinforced geopolymer composites are fabricated with fibre loadings of 4.5, 6.2 and 8.3 wt%. Results show that flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength, hardness and fracture toughness are increased as the fibre content increased. The ultimate mechanical properties were achieved with a fibre content of 8.3 wt%. The effect of water absorption on mechanical and physical properties of CF reinforced geopolymer composites is also investigated. The magnitude of maximum water uptake and diffusion coefficient is increased with an increase in fibre content. Flexural strength, modulus, impact strength, hardness and fracture toughness values are decreased as a result of water absorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is used to characterise the microstructure and failure mechanisms of dry and wet cotton fibre reinforced geopolymer composites.

  6. Effect of heat-setting on UV protection and antibacterial properties of cotton/spandex fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, M. N.; Talukder, M. E.; Shafiq, F.; Hasan, K. M. F.; Taher, M. A.; Meraz, M. M.; Cai, Y.; Lin, Lina

    2018-01-01

    An unexampled approach for simultaneous heat setting process with optimized condition at C3 (140°C, 45 s) and functional finishing, i.e. UV protection and antibacterial properties of cotton/spandex fabric were studied in this research. Experimental results disclosed that, ameliorative antibacterial efficacy and perdurable UV protection of heat-treated cotton/spandex fabrics with best sample A3 among all samples was achieved and mechanical properties also improved as the temperature rose from 120 to 140°C. In addition, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection and antibacterial properties are becoming increasingly necessary for human health, and textiles play an important role and this report will be appurtenant to meet regular demand.

  7. Laundering durable antibacterial cotton fabrics grafted with pomegranate-shaped polymer wrapped in silver nanoparticle aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Lv, Ming; Deng, Bo; Li, Jingye; Yu, Ming; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-08-01

    To improve the laundering durability of the silver functionalized antibacterial cotton fabrics, a radiation-induced coincident reduction and graft polymerization is reported herein where a pomegranate-shaped silver nanoparticle aggregations up to 500 nm can be formed due to the coordination forces between amino group and silver and the wrapping procedure originated from the coincident growth of the silver nanoparticles and polymer graft chains. This pomegranate-shaped silver NPAs functionalized cotton fabric exhibits outstanding antibacterial activities and also excellent laundering durability, where it can inactivate higher than 90% of both E. coli and S. aureus even after 50 accelerated laundering cycles, which is equivalent to 250 commercial or domestic laundering cycles.

  8. Innovative technologies for anti-flammable cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its environmentally friendly properties, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this presentation, innovative approaches for preparation of flame retardant fabrics were obtained by utilizing supercr...

  9. Study of chemical and physical behavior cotton fabrics treated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Conclusion. According to results, increasing in corona passage num- ber to usual level (14 passages) can increase exhaustion and carboxyl groups. The results showed that increasing corona passage number reduced shrinkage behavior and this behavior related to internal forces in fabric. REFERENCES.

  10. Thermosensitive Behavior and Antibacterial Activity of Cotton Fabric Modified with a Chitosan-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide Interpenetrating Polymer Network Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To increase the themosensitive behavior and antibacterial activity of cotton fabric, a series of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide/chitosan (PNIPAAm/Cs hydrogels was synthesized by interpenetrating polymer network (IPN technology using a redox initiator. The IPN PNIPAAm/Cs hydrogel was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results indicated that the IPN PNIPAAm/Cs hydrogel has a lower critical solution temperature (LCST at 33 °C. The IPN hydrogel was then used to modify cotton fabric using glutaric dialdehyde (GA as a crosslinking agent following a double-dip-double-nip process. The results demonstrated that the modified cotton fabric showed obvious thermosensitive behavior and antibacterial activity. The contact angle of the modified cotton fabric has a sharp rise around 33 °C, and the modified cotton fabric showed an obvious thermosensitive behavior. The bacterial reduction of modified cotton fabric against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli were more than 99%. This study presents a valuable route towards smart textiles and their applications in functional clothing.

  11. Biodegradable metal adsorbent synthesized by graft polymerization onto nonwoven cotton fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Ayako [Oriental Engineering Co., Ltd., 1438-2 Owada, Minuma, Saitama 345-0023 (Japan); Seko, Noriaki, E-mail: seko.noriaki@jaea.go.j [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Tamada, Masao [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshio [Oriental Engineering Co., Ltd., 1438-2 Owada, Minuma, Saitama 345-0023 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    A fibrous adsorbent for Hg ions was synthesized by radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto a nonwoven cotton fabric and subsequent chemical modification. The optimal pre-irradiation dose for initiation of the graft polymerization of GMA, which minimized the effects of radiation damage on the mechanical strength of the nonwoven cotton fabric, was found to be 10 kGy. The GMA-grafted nonwoven cotton fabric was subsequently modified with ethylenediamine (EDA) or diethylenetriamine (DETA) to obtain a Hg adsorbent. The resulting amine-type adsorbents were evaluated for batch and continuous adsorption of Hg. In batch adsorption, the distribution coefficients of Hg reached 1.9x10{sup 5} and 1.0x10{sup 5} for EDA- and DETA-type adsorbents, respectively. A column packed with EDA-type adsorbent removed Hg from 1.8 ppm Hg solution at a space velocity of 100 h{sup -1}, which corresponds to 16,000 times the volume of the packed adsorbent. The adsorbed Hg on the EDA-type adsorbent could be completely eluted by 1 M HCl solution. A microbial oxidative degradation test revealed that the EDA-type adsorbent is biodegradable.

  12. Biodegradable metal adsorbent synthesized by graft polymerization onto nonwoven cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Ayako; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    A fibrous adsorbent for Hg ions was synthesized by radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto a nonwoven cotton fabric and subsequent chemical modification. The optimal pre-irradiation dose for initiation of the graft polymerization of GMA, which minimized the effects of radiation damage on the mechanical strength of the nonwoven cotton fabric, was found to be 10 kGy. The GMA-grafted nonwoven cotton fabric was subsequently modified with ethylenediamine (EDA) or diethylenetriamine (DETA) to obtain a Hg adsorbent. The resulting amine-type adsorbents were evaluated for batch and continuous adsorption of Hg. In batch adsorption, the distribution coefficients of Hg reached 1.9×10 5 and 1.0×10 5 for EDA- and DETA-type adsorbents, respectively. A column packed with EDA-type adsorbent removed Hg from 1.8 ppm Hg solution at a space velocity of 100 h -1, which corresponds to 16,000 times the volume of the packed adsorbent. The adsorbed Hg on the EDA-type adsorbent could be completely eluted by 1 M HCl solution. A microbial oxidative degradation test revealed that the EDA-type adsorbent is biodegradable.

  13. Development of thermosensitive microgel-loaded cotton fabric for controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Zhu; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Jun-Zi; Li, Shu-De

    2017-05-01

    COS-g-PVCL copolymer was synthesized and infiltrated into CaCO3 particles to prepare thermosensitive porous microgels which exhibited phase transition behavior at the temperature that was similar to the lower critical solution temperature(LCST) of copolymer. The incorporation of microgel to cotton was done by pad-dry-cure method from aqueous microparticle dispersion that contained citric acid as a crosslinking agent. In vitro drug release experiments were performed at two different temperatures (25 and 37 °C) in PBS of pH 7.4 to study its drug release behavior with response to temperature. Due to the shrinkage of microgels, drug release profiles obtained were found to have enhanced release for aloin when the temperature was above LCST than other release conditions. Microgel-loaded fabrics proved to be in vivo biocompatible by skin irritation studies and displayed an obviously high water vapor permeability at 40 °C. The MTT assay showed no obvious cytotoxicity of microgel-loaded cotton against mouse fibroblast cells within 5 days. The results obtained demonstrated the potential use of the thermos-responsive microgel-loaded cotton fabrics as a textile-based drug delivery system for treating sunburn or skin care.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Soft Computing Models in Prediction of Bending Rigidity of Cotton Woven Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, R.; Behera, B. K.

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative prediction of fabric mechanical properties is an essential requirement for design engineering of textile and apparel products. In this work, the possibility of prediction of bending rigidity of cotton woven fabrics has been explored with the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and two hybrid methodologies, namely Neuro-genetic modeling and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) modeling. For this purpose, a set of cotton woven grey fabrics was desized, scoured and relaxed. The fabrics were then conditioned and tested for bending properties. With the database thus created, a neural network model was first developed using back propagation as the learning algorithm. The second model was developed by applying a hybrid learning strategy, in which genetic algorithm was first used as a learning algorithm to optimize the number of neurons and connection weights of the neural network. The Genetic algorithm optimized network structure was further allowed to learn using back propagation algorithm. In the third model, an ANFIS modeling approach was attempted to map the input-output data. The prediction performances of the models were compared and a sensitivity analysis was reported. The results show that the prediction by neuro-genetic and ANFIS models were better in comparison with that of back propagation neural network model.

  15. Instantly AgNPs deposition through facile solventless technique for poly-functional cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Hossam E; Saleh, N H; Nagy, Khaled S; Zahran, M K

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, functional clothes are employed for human body protection in addition to be fashionable clothes. Hence functionalization of clothes increases the attention of scientists and business. In the current study, poly-functional cotton fabric was carried out by instantly deposition of AgNPs using two solventless techniques namely; sorption and padding. Sorption technique was exhibited extremely high efficiency than padding one by ca. 10 times. By using the same concentrations of AgNO3, Ag content was ranged 69.3-6094.8 mg/kg and 33.8-609.3 mg/kg for sorption and padding, respectively. After AgNPs deposition, fabrics color was turned to gray-reddish yellow. By applying 5912.3 mgAg/kg fabric, bacterial reduction and UPF value were reached 99% and 12.59. Bacterial reduction and UPF were lessened to 90% and 10.19 after 20 washings. These findings proved that the direct AgNPs deposition into cotton using solventless/sorption technique is applicable in manufacturing of antibacterial/UV resistant fabrics with acquired decorative color. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on the grafting of chitosan-gelatin microcapsules onto cotton fabrics and its antibacterial effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayi; Liu, Chaohong; Liu, Yingju; Chen, Minjie; Hu, Yang; Yang, Zhuohong

    2013-09-01

    In this work, patchouli oil embedded chitosan-gelatin microcapsules were prepared by the complex coacervation method. Their surface and morphology were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing that the microcapsules were with a regular spherical shape in the range of 1 and 20 μm. In the thermal stability analysis, the microcapsules were stable below 190°C, which indicated the fabrics finish can be conducted at 160°C. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of the microcapsules were calculated as 50.69% and 30.31%, respectively. Then, the microcapsules were grafted onto cotton fabrics using 2D resin (dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea, DMDHEU) as the crosslinking reagent. SEM showed that the microcapsules were not only grafted on the surface of the fabrics, but also inserted in the spacing of the fibers. In addition, the formation of ether bonds between 2D resin and hydroxyl groups of cotton and/or hydroxyl groups of the microcapsules was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Finally, the antibacterial rate of the fabrics for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were about 65% even after being washed 25 times, suggesting its potential application in many fields such as antibacterial mask, bacteriostatic sheet and health-care clothes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conductive reduced graphene oxide/MnO2 carbonized cotton fabrics with enhanced electro -chemical, -heating, and -mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingwei; Du, Minzhi; Qu, Lijun; Zhang, Kun; Li, Hongliang; Zhu, Shifeng; Liu, Dongdong

    2016-09-01

    Versatile and ductile conductive carbonized cotton fabrics decorated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/manganese dioxide (MnO2) are prepared in this paper. In order to endow multifunction to cotton fabric, graphene oxide (GO) is deposited on cotton fibers by simple dip-coating route. MnO2 nanoparticles are assembled on the surface of cotton fabric through in-situ chemical solution deposition. MnO2/GO@cotton fabrics are carbonized to achieve conductive fabric (MnO2/rGO@C). The morphologies and structures of obtained fabrics are characterized by SEM, XRD, ICP and element analysis, and their electro-properties including electro-chemical, electro-heating and electro-mechanical properties are evaluated. The MnO2/rGO@C yields remarkable specific capacitance of 329.4 mA h/g at the current density of 100 mA/g, which is more than 40% higher than that of the control carbonized cotton fabric (231 mA h/g). Regarding electro-heating properties, the temperature of MnO2/rGO@C fabric could be monotonically increased to the steady-state maximum temperatures (ΔTmax) of 36 °C within 5 min under the applied voltage 15 V while the ΔTmax = 17 °C of the control case. In addition, MnO2/rGO@C exhibits repeatable electro-mechanical properties and its normalized resistance (R-R0)/R0 could reach 0.78 at a constant strain (curvature = 0.6 cm-1). The MnO2/rGO@C fabric is versatile, scalable, and adaptable to a wide variety of smart textiles applications.

  18. The Influence of Annealing Process on Crystallinity and Structural Properties of Cotton/Spandex Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervez Md. Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to elucidate the crystallinity, structural and mechanical properties of cotton/spandex knitted fabric after conducting heat setting i.e., annealing process with optimized condition for the first time. Experimental results disclosed that, crystallinity index (CI (% of heat-treated cotton/spandex were increased with increased temperature and also mechanical properties i.e., tensile strength was improved as the temperature rose from 120 to 140°C and decreased with augmenting temperature ranges, which is in good agreement with the findings of CI % through X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns. The attendance of cellulose dehydration was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra in order to observe the structural integrity.

  19. Size-Free Weaving of Cotton Fabrics on a Modern High-Speed Weaving Machine: An Updated Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving experiments to produce 1/2-twill fabrics of varied constructions, using a size-free (common) cotton warp, have been conducted under mill-like conditions on a modern, high-speed, flexible-rapier weaving machine. More than 100 yards of fabrics of the same warp density and different pick densit...

  20. Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

  1. A Developed Meta-model for Selection of Cotton Fabrics Using Design of Experiments and TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Chatterjee, Prasenjit

    2017-12-01

    Selection of cotton fabrics for providing optimal clothing comfort is often considered as a multi-criteria decision making problem consisting of an array of candidate alternatives to be evaluated based of several conflicting properties. In this paper, design of experiments and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) are integrated so as to develop regression meta-models for identifying the most suitable cotton fabrics with respect to the computed TOPSIS scores. The applicability of the adopted method is demonstrated using two real time examples. These developed models can also identify the statistically significant fabric properties and their interactions affecting the measured TOPSIS scores and final selection decisions. There exists good degree of congruence between the ranking patterns as derived using these meta-models and the existing methods for cotton fabric ranking and subsequent selection.

  2. A Developed Meta-model for Selection of Cotton Fabrics Using Design of Experiments and TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Chatterjee, Prasenjit

    2017-11-01

    Selection of cotton fabrics for providing optimal clothing comfort is often considered as a multi-criteria decision making problem consisting of an array of candidate alternatives to be evaluated based of several conflicting properties. In this paper, design of experiments and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) are integrated so as to develop regression meta-models for identifying the most suitable cotton fabrics with respect to the computed TOPSIS scores. The applicability of the adopted method is demonstrated using two real time examples. These developed models can also identify the statistically significant fabric properties and their interactions affecting the measured TOPSIS scores and final selection decisions. There exists good degree of congruence between the ranking patterns as derived using these meta-models and the existing methods for cotton fabric ranking and subsequent selection.

  3. Calculation of the relative uniformity coefficient on the green composites reinforced with cotton and hemp fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Florin; Hadǎr, Anton; Sava, Mihaela; Marinel, Stǎnescu Marius; Bolcu, Dumitru

    2016-06-01

    In this paper it is studied the influence of discontinuities on elastic and mechanical properties of green composite materials (reinforced with fabric of cotton or hemp). In addition, it is studied the way variations of the volume f the reinforcement influences the elasticity modulus and the tensile strength for the studied composite materials. In order to appreciate the difference in properties between different areas of the composite material, and also the dimensions of the defective areas, we have introduced a relative uniformity coefficient with which the mechanical behavior of the studied composite is compared with a reference composite. To validate the theoretical results we have obtained we made some experiments, using green composites reinforced with fabric, with different imperfection introduced special by cutting the fabric.

  4. Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Treated Cotton Fabric Subjected to Zinc Oxide-Anti-Microbial Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wai Kan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics are highly popular because of their excellent properties such as regeneration, bio-degradation, softness, affinity to skin and hygroscopic properties. When in contact with the human body, cotton fabrics offer an ideal environment for microbial growth due to their ability to retain oxygen, moisture and warmth, as well as nutrients from spillages and body sweat. Therefore, an anti-microbial coating formulation (Microfresh and Microban together with zinc oxide as catalyst was developed for cotton fabrics to improve treatment effectiveness. In addition, plasma technology was employed in the study which roughened the surface of the materials, improving the loading of zinc oxides on the surface. In this study, the low stress mechanical properties of plasma pre-treated and/or anti-microbial-treated cotton fabric were studied. The overall results show that the specimens had improved bending properties when zinc oxides were added in the anti-microbial coating recipe. Also, without plasma pre-treatment, anti-microbial-treatment of cotton fabric had a positive effect only on tensile resilience, shear stress at 0.5° and compressional energy, while plasma-treated specimens had better overall tensile properties even after anti-microbial treatment.

  5. The influence of repellent coatings on surface free energy of glass plate and cotton fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerne, Lidija [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Snezniska 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simoncic, Barbara [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Snezniska 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: barbara.simoncic@ntf.uni-lj.si; Zeljko, Matjaz [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Mathematics, Jadranska 19, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the influence of chemical finishes on the surface properties of glass plate, considered as a model homogeneous smooth surface and cotton fabric as a non-ideal heterogeneous rough surface. Microscopic slides and 100% cotton fabric in plain weave were coated with fluorocarbon polymers (FCP), paraffin waxes with zirconium salts (PWZ), methylolmelamine derivatives (MMD), polysiloxanes with side alkyldimethylammonium groups (PSAAC) and aminofunctional polysiloxanes (AFPS). From the goniometer contact angle measurements of different liquids, the surface free energy of the coated glass plates was calculated according to approaches by Owens-Wendt-Kaelble, Wu, van Oss-Chaudhury-Good, and Li-Neumann-Kwok. The results showed that all the coatings decreased the surface free energy of the substrate, which was also influenced by the liquid combination and the theoretical approach used. In spite of the fact that the liquid contact angles were much higher on the coated fabric samples than on glass plates and resulted in the lower values of work of adhesion, a very good correlation between the coatings deposited on both substrates was obtained. The presence of repellent coatings FCP, PWZ and MMD converted the solid surface from polar to highly apolar by masking the functional groups of glass and cellulose. PSAAC and AFPS coatings did not decrease the solid surface free energy to such an extent as the former three coatings due to their monopolar character.

  6. Stain Resistance of Cotton Fabrics before and after Finishing with Admicellar Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Hanumansetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns related to perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA led to a re-examination of the methods for imparting stain resistance and stain repellency to textiles. Non-PFOA fluoropolymer finishes have been formed on cotton knits by admicellar polymerization, a surface analogue of emulsion polymerization. Fabric samples were characterized by a drop test, contact angle measurements, SEM, elemental analysis and durability studies. Stain resistance and stain release properties were assessed by reflectance and AATCC tests with results comparing favorably with swatches from commercially available garments. Admicellar polymerization enabled the formation of durable finishes that exhibited high performance in stain resistance and stain repellency.

  7. A review on the formation, causes, measurement, implications and reduction of neps during cotton processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neps not only adversely affect the appearance of cotton yarns and fabric but are also usually associated with lower yarn strength, ends down in spinning and less-uniform yarn. Depending on the type and size of the nep, the appearance of dyed...

  8. Parametric Models of NIR Transmission and Reflectivity Spectra for Dyed Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    considered are camouflage textiles characterized by color variations. The results of this study provide validation of the constructed parametric models...within reasonable error tolerances for practical applications, including NIR spectral characteristics in camouflage textiles , for purposes of...direct modeling [1]. The fabrics considered are camouflage textiles characterized by color variations. The dyes considered for prototype analysis

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Water-Based Flame Retardant Spray Coating for Cotton Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Indraneel S; Foo, Shini; Seah, Dean G J; Akunuri, Aswini Tara; Dasari, Aravind

    2017-11-22

    In this Research Article, we report on the development of water-based flame retardant coating based on phospho-nitrogen combination for cotton fabrics. A one-step spray-on process was employed to coat the fabrics by taking advantage of the spontaneous reaction between para-phenylenediamine (PDA) and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC) resulting in an instantaneous precipitation of poly[1,4-diaminophenylene-tris(dimethyl hydroxymethyl)phosphine] (PApP) on the fabric surface. The effectiveness of PApP in improving the flame retardant properties like ignition resistance and lateral flame spread were evaluated in accordance with ASTM D6413 and BS EN ISO 15025 flammability tests. Despite the early (thermal) decomposition onset for coated fabrics under both oxidative and pyrolytic conditions, remarkably, self-extinguishing behavior (<3 s) without any lateral flame spread was observed. Possible reaction scheme was also proposed to correlate flame retardant mechanism of the coated fabrics with the observations. Additional analysis via pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry and vertical flame testing before and after washing showed that flame retardant efficiency did decrease with washing, but the overall performance was still promising.

  10. Thermal Comfort Properties of Clothing Fabrics Woven with Polyester/Cotton Blend Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdemir Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, thermal and water vapor resistance, components of thermal comfort of 65/35 and 33/67% polyester/ cotton (PES/CO blend fabrics woven with 2/2 twill, matt twill, cellular and diced weaves, which are commonly used for clothing, were determined. The results indicate that both the fabric construction and the constituent fiber properties affect thermal comfort properties of clothing woven fabrics. Cellular weave, which is derivative of sateen weave and diced weave, which is compound weave, has the highest thermal resistance appropriating for cold climatic conditions. On the other hand, the 2/2 twill weave and matt twill weave, which is derivative of sateen weave, depicted the lowest water vapor thermal resistance, making it convenient for hot climatic conditions. Besides, fabrics woven with 65/35% PES/CO blend yarns have higher thermal resistance, so they are suitable for cold climatic conditions. Fabrics woven with 33/67% PES/CO blend yarns have lower water vapor resistance, so they are convenient for hot climatic conditions.

  11. Functionalization of Cotton Fabrics with Polycaprolactone Nanoparticles for Transdermal Release of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Massella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery by means of transdermal patches raised great interest as a non-invasive and sustained therapy. The present research aimed to design a patch for transdermal delivery of melatonin, which was encapsulated in polycaprolactone (PCL nanoparticles (NPs by employing flash nanoprecipitation (FNP technique. Melatonin-loaded PCL nanoparticles were successfully prepared with precise control of the particle size by effectively tuning process parameters. The effect of process parameters on the particle size was assessed by dynamic light scattering for producing particles with suitable size for transdermal applications. Quantification of encapsulated melatonin was performed by mean of UV spectrophotometry, obtaining the estimation of encapsulation efficiency (EE% and loading capacity (LC%. An EE% higher than 80% was obtained. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis of NPs was performed to confirm effective encapsulation in the solid phase. Cotton fabrics, functionalized by imbibition with the nano-suspension, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to check morphology, adhesion and distribution of the NPs on the surface; melatonin transdermal release from the functionalized fabric was performed via Franz’s cells by using a synthetic membrane. NPs were uniformly distributed on cotton fibres, as confirmed by SEM observations; the release test showed a continuous and controlled release whose kinetics were satisfactorily described by Baker–Lonsdale model.

  12. Conductive pathway on cotton fabric created using solution with silver organometallic compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Eric E.; He, Ruijian; Mayer, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A knitted cotton fabric is made conductive by thermal deposition of an organometallic silver compound (OSC). For the thermal process, the fabric was soaked with the OSC liquid and heated to 225 °C for 4 min. The cured state of the OSC is determined by the stabilization in the electrical resistance. The resulting silver metallization is shaped as nanoparticles and a continuous film. A typical resistance of a 10 cm  ×  1.5 cm metallized strip made with 1.9 ml OSC is 1.70 Ω. Various other resistance levels were achieved. A higher volume of OSC provided a lower electrical resistance for the metallized conductive path but increased its stiffness. Lower resistance was achieved by increasing the number of repeat coatings while keeping the OSC volume constant. The resistance decreased when the OSC coated fabric was elongated, an effect similar to negative piezoresistivity. A resistance of initially 0.34 Ω decreased to a minimum of 0.29 Ω at 10% elongation under repeated stretching and relaxation cycling. The metallization method reported here can be suitable for applications in the field know as technical textiles, electronic textiles (e-textiles), wearable electronics, functional garments, or smart fabrics.

  13. Cotton fabric modification for imparting high water and oil repellency using perfluoroalkyl phosphate acrylate via gamma-ray-induced grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao Hui; Bao Fenfen; Cheng Liangliang [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi Wenfang, E-mail: wfshi@ustc.ed [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The perfluoroalkyl phosphate acrylates were grafted onto a cotton fabric via gamma-ray irradiation to improve the hydrophobic and oleophobic properties. The change in chemical structure of grafted cotton fabric was detected by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The contact angles for water and sunflower oil were determined to be over 150 deg. and 140 deg., respectively, after irradiated with a dose range of 471-5664 Gy. The flame retardancy of the fabric with a grafting ratio of over 13.0 wt% was improved, reaching to 24 compared with 18 of which before grafted, according to the limiting oxygen index measurement. The microstructure of the fabric before and after grafted was observed by the scanning electron microscope.

  14. Preparation of antibacterial coating based on in situ synthesis of ZnO/SiO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite on cotton fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barani, Hossein, E-mail: barani@birjand.ac.ir

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ approach was used to synthesize ZnO/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. • Spherical structure and stabilized ZnO/SiO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized. • The synthesized ZnO particles have a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. • The ZnO nanoparticles enhance the moisture content of cotton fabric. • ZnO/SiO{sub 2} loaded cotton fabrics presented a good antibacterial property. - Abstract: In this study, the antibacterial cotton fabric was prepared using zinc oxide/silicon dioxide (ZnO/SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized with an in situ approach using two different methods on the cotton fabric. One of the methods was to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles into the prepared sol solution, and then coating on the cotton fabric. The other method was to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles on the silicon dioxide-coated cotton fabric. The morphological, structural, thermal, and antibacterial properties of ZnO/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite-coated cotton fabric was studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, thermo gravimetric analysis, and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles on the silicon dioxide coated cotton fabric sample resulted in agglomerated nanoparticles on the surface of cotton fiber, while the spherical nanoparticles structure was formed by synthesizing them into the sol solution of silicon dioxide. The EDS results indicated presence of ZnO/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite on the surface of coated cotton fabric, and presented an inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  15. Surface micro-dissolve method of imparting self-cleaning property to cotton fabrics in NaOH/urea aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tao; Hu, Ruimin; Zhao, Zhenyun; Liu, Yiping; Lu, Ming

    2017-04-01

    A simple and economical micro-dissolved process of embedding titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles into surface zone of cotton fabrics was developed. TiO2 was coated on cotton fabrics in 7% wt NaOH/12% wt urea aqueous solution at low temperature. Photocatalytic efficiency of cotton fabrics treated with TiO2 nanoparticles was studied upon measuring the photocatalytic decoloration of Rhodamine B (RhB) under ultraviolet irradiation. Self-cleaning property of cotton fabric coated with TiO2 was evaluated with color depth of samples (K/S value). The treated fabrics were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR), tensile strength, stiffness and whiteness. The results indicated, TiO2 nanoparticles could be embedded on the surface layer of cotton fabrics throuth surface micro-dissolve method. Treated cotton fabrics possessed distinct photocatalytic efficiency and self-cleaning properties. Tensile strength and whiteness of modified cotton fabrics appeared moderately increasement.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan/Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Imparting Antimicrobial and UV Protection to Cotton Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. AbdElhady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles was performed using different concentrations of ZnO at different temperatures. Nanoparticles of ZnO/chitosan were prepared in rod form with average length 60 nm and average width 5–15 nm. Thus, obtained nanoparticles of ZnO/chitosan were characterized using UV spectrophotometer, FTIR, TEM, X-ray, and SEM. Size and shape of chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles relied on conditions of their synthesis. Notably, chitosan/ZnO in rod form with average length of 60 nm and average width 5–15 nm could be achieved. Application of chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles to cotton fabric conferred on the latter antibacterial and UV protection properties. Cotton fabric was characterized using SEM, ultraviolet protection factor (UPF rating, and antibacterial (gram-positive and gram-negative characteristics. Finished cotton fabric exhibited good antibacterial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The UV testes indicated a significant improvement in UV protection of finished cotton fabric which is increasing by increasing the concentration of nanoparticles of ZnO/chitosan.

  17. Effects of certain key metrics of hydroentanglement system on properties of nonwoven fabrics made with commercially cleaned greige cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of certain key process metrics of a commercial-grade hydroentanglement system on properties of the nonwoven fabrics made with cleaned Upland greige cotton lint. The metrics studied, among others, were the hydroentangling water pressure, the strip orif...

  18. Whiteness and absorbency of hydroentangled cotton-based nonwoven fabrics of different constituent fibers and fiber blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript reports result of the research efforts devoted to the exploration and development of greige (non-bleached) cotton-containing nonwoven fabrics that likely could be made optimally competitive in cost, quality and performance to existing products that presently and predominantly use man...

  19. Water-based chitosan/melamine polyphosphate multilayer nanocoating that extinguishes fire on polyester-cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistner, Marcus; Abu-Odeh, Anas A; Rohmer, Sarah C; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-10-05

    Polyester-cotton (PECO) blends are widely used in the textile industry because they combine the softness of cotton and the strength and durability of polyester. Unfortunately, both fiber types share the disadvantage of being flammable. The layer-by-layer coating technique was used to deposit a highly effective flame retardant (melamine polyphosphate) from water onto polyester-cotton fabric. Soluble melamine and sodium hexametaphosphate form this water-insoluble flame retardant during the coating procedure. This unique nanocoating imparts self-extinguishing properties to PECO with only 12% relative coating weight. Vertical flame testing, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the quality of the coating as well as its flame retardant performance. A combination of both condensed and gas-phase activity appears to be the reason for this effective flame retardancy. Degradation pathways of both cotton and polyester are affected by the applied coating, as shown by PCFC and TGA. Use of environmentally benign and non-toxic chemicals, and the ease of layer-by-layer deposition, making this coating an industrially feasible alternative to render polyester-cotton fabric self-extinguishing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fungal mediated silver nanoparticle synthesis using robust experimental design and its application in cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velhal, Sulbha Girish; Kulkarni, S. D.; Latpate, R. V.

    2016-09-01

    Among the different methods employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the biological method is most favorable and quite well established. In microorganisms, use of fungi in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has a greater advantage over other microbial mediators. In this study, intracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Aspergillus terrerus (Thom) MTCC632 was carried out. We observed that synthesis of silver nanoparticles depended on factors such as temperature, amount of biomass and concentration of silver ions in the reaction mixture. Hence, optimization of biosynthesis using these parameters was carried out using statistical tool `robust experimental design'. Size and morphology of synthesized nanoparticles were determined using X-ray diffraction technique, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Nano-embedded cotton fabric was further prepared and studied for its antibacterial properties.

  1. Phosphorus-Silica Sol-Gel Hybrid Coatings for Flame Retardant Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosace Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the use of organic-inorganic sol-gel coatings based on silica and phosphorous compounds for providing cotton fabrics with fl ame retardant features. To this aim, diethylphosphatoethyltriethoxysilane precursor was employed for the synthesis of several sols in combination with diff erent chemical additives. Sols were reacted with azo-based compounds and repeatedly applied onto the cellulosic substrate in a multilayer assembly, aiming at assessing the eff ect of the concurrent presence of Si, P and N on the overall fi re behaviour of the fabric. In order to evaluate the fl ame retardancy of treated cellulosic fabrics, fl ammability tests were carried out. The obtained results showed that the phosphorus-silica coating is able to promote the formation of a stable char that acts as insulator barrier. Finally, an additive P-N eff ect of the ceramic oxide coating in terms of increased residue and decreased heat release rate and total burning time was observed in cone calorimetry tests.

  2. Study of Physical Properties of Nano-Silica Coated Cotton Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Saleemi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to investigate the effect of silica sol-gel coating on air permeability, stiffness and tensile properties of dyed cotton fabric. Various concentrations of silica nanoparticles were applied on dyed cotton substrate using two different cross-linkers through sol-gel method. The homogenous sol-gel coating dispersions were prepared by using an ultrasonicator. Coated samples were tested for mechanical and comfort properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, crease recovery and air permeability. It was found that tensile strength and crease recovery of coated substrate were slightly improved. On other hand, it was observed that fabric stiffness and air permeability were affected slightly by increasing concentration of silica nano particle. It was also observed that type of cross-linker has strong influence on coated fabric?s strength and flexural rigidity.

  3. Preparation of stable dispersion of ZnO nanorods and its application on cotton fabric for functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M.; Hussain, T.; Tabassum, M.; Javid, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this systematic study, we describe the influence of various surfactants and polymers on aggregation stability of ZnO nanorods. Triton X-100, PVP and PVA were used to disperse nanorods. The surfactant/polymer stabilizing effect was monitored using the sedimentation study and photographic methods based on the decrease in the height of the interface as a function of time. The dispersion of nanorods when applied to cotton fabric, it exhibited functional properties like antibacterial activity and UV protection. The morphologies of nanorods and functionalized cotton were characterized by using SEM.

  4. Process Optimization of Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Finish for Cotton Fabric: a Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Sohail; Curti, Massimo; Behary, Nemeshwaree; Perwuelz, Anne; Giraud, Stephane; Rovero, Giorgio; Guan, Jinping; Chen, Guoqiang

    The n-methylol dimethyl phosphono propionamide (MDPA) flame retardant compounds are predominantly used for cotton fabric treatments with trimethylol melamine (TMM) to obtain better crosslinking and enhanced flame retardant properties. Nevertheless, such treatments are associated with a toxic issue of cancer-causing formaldehyde release. An eco-friendly finishing was used to get formaldehyde-free fixation of flame retardant to the cotton fabric. Citric acid as a crosslinking agent along with the sodium hypophosphite as a catalyst in the treatment was utilized. The process parameters of the treatment were enhanced for optimized flame retardant properties, in addition, low mechanical loss to the fabric by response surface methodology using Box-Behnken statistical design experiment methodology was achieved. The effects of concentrations on the fabric’s properties (flame retardancy and mechanical properties) were evaluated. The regression equations for the prediction of concentrations and mechanical properties of the fabric were also obtained for the eco-friendly treatment. The R-squared values of all the responses were above 0.95 for the reagents used, indicating the degree of relationship between the predicted values by the Box-Behnken design and the actual experimental results. It was also found that the concentration parameters (crosslinking reagents and catalysts) in the treatment formulation have a prime role in the overall performance of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

  5. Isolation and recovery of cellulose from waste nylon/cotton blended fabrics by 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fangbing; Wang, Chaoxia; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Chuanjie

    2015-06-05

    Development of a simple process for separating cellulose and nylon 6 from their blended fabrics is indispensable for recycling of waste mixed fabrics. An efficient procedure of dissolution of the fabrics in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl) and subsequent filtration separation has been demonstrated. Effects of treatment temperature, time and waste fabrics ratio on the recovery rates were investigated. SEM images showed that the cotton cellulose dissolved in [AMIM]Cl while the nylon 6 fibers remained. The FTIR spectrum of regenerated cellulose (RC) was similar with that of virgin cotton fibers, which verified that no other chemical reaction occurred besides breakage of hydrogen bonds during the processes of dissolution and separation. TGA curves indicated that the regenerated cellulose possessed a reduced thermal stability and was effectively removed from waste nylon/cotton blended fabrics (WNCFs). WNCFs were sufficiently reclaimed with high recovery rate of both regenerated cellulose films and nylon 6 fibers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. One bath method dyeing of polyester/cotton blend fabric with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... temperature. The colour difference between the dyed blank samples and samples dyed after the alkaline and/or chitin treatment was monitored with a Macbeth Color Eye 3000 diffusion reflectance spectrophotometer, made in the USA, under illuminant D65 using a. 10° observer. The colour and rubbing ...

  7. Using NANO-TiO2 as Co-Catalyst for Improving Wrinkle-Resistance of Cotton Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, C. W. M.; Ku, S. K. A.; Kan, C. W.; Cheng, Y. F.; Choi, P. S. R.; Lam, Y. L.

    In order to prevent cotton wrinkling, hydroxyl groups in the cellulose chain of cotton are partially crosslinked to keep the chain fixed relative to each other with dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU). However, DMDHEU suffers disadvantages of reduced fabric strength and releasing of free formaldehyde. Recently, 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) has been explored as a new wrinkle-resistant agent providing similar performance to that of DMDHEU. In BTCA finishing, catalyst of inorganic phosphorus-containing acids was used but such phosphorus compounds have an adverse impact on the environment. In this paper, nano-TiO2 was used as a co-catalyst with sodium hypophophite in the treatment of cotton with BTCA, and the final properties were assessed.

  8. Cotton fabric functionalisation with menthol/PCL micro- and nano-capsules for comfort improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Raffaella; Ferri, Ada; Innocenti, Riccardo; Zelenková, Tereza; Dotti, Francesca; Marchisio, Daniele L; Barresi, Antonello A

    2015-01-01

    Cotton functionalisation with poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) micro- and nano-capsules containing menthol was carried out with the aim of introducing a long-lasting refreshing sensation. The preparation of the polymer micro- and nano-capsules was carried out by solvent displacement technique. A confined impinging jets mixer was used in order to ensure fast mixing and generate a homogeneous environment where PCL and menthol can self-assemble. The micro- and nano-capsules and the functionalised fabrics were characterised by means of DSC, FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM imaging. Micro- and nano-capsules of different size, from about 200 to about 1200 nm, were obtained varying menthol to PCL ratio (from 0.76 to 8), overall concentration and flow rate (i.e. mixing conditions). The inclusion of menthol was confirmed by DSC analysis. A patch test was carried out by 10 volunteers. Micro-capsules were found to be effective in conferring the fabric a refreshing sensation without altering skin physiology.

  9. Roles of Novel Reactive Cationic Copolymers of 3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethyldiallylammonium Chloride and Dimethyldiallylammonium Chloride in Fixing Anionic Dyes on Cotton Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikai Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of novel reactive cationic copolymers (P(CMDA-DMDAACs of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethyldiallylammonium chloride (CMDA and dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC in fixing anionic dyes on cotton fabric were studied by modern instrumental analysis technologies such as FT-IR spectra and SEM analysis, to achieve the new theoretical guides for the wide applications of those dye fixatives. The FT-IR spectra of the obtained insoluble-water color lakes verified that they could be formed from the electrostatic interactions of the P(CMDA-DMDAACs with anionic dyes, which were further confirmed by the FT-IR analysis of the anionic dyes on dyeing cotton sample fixed by P(CMDA-DMDAACs. The FT-IR spectra of cotton samples fixed by P(CMDA-DMDAACs showed the absorptions of P(CMDA-DMDAACs and the signs similar to the formation of new ether linkage on cotton fabric even after being repeatedly washed, which were further confirmed by the SEM analysis of the fixed dyeing cotton samples. Thus, the reactive units (CMDA of the obtained P(CMDA-DMDAACs could be expected to bring about the covalent bonds with the hydroxyl groups of cotton (cellulose to form an ether linkage when fixing, resulting in the stronger interactions of P(CMDA-DMDAACs with cotton fabric, as well as their electrostatic forces with anionic dyes to produce the insoluble-water color lakes, for the development of fastness of anionic dyes on cotton fabric.

  10. Effect of polyester blends in hydroentangled raw and bleached cotton nonwoven fabrics on the adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics (applicable for wipes) including raw cotton, bleached cotton, and their blends with polyester (PES) were stu...

  11. Integrating high electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity in cotton fabric by cationizing for enriched coating of negatively charged graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Electroconductive textiles have attended tremendous focus recently and researchers are making efforts to increase conductivity of e-textiles, in order to increase the use of such flexible and low cost textile materials. In this study, surface conductivity and photo catalytic activity of standard cotton fabric (SCF) was enhanced by modifying its surface charge, from negative to positive, using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a cationic agent, to convert it into cationised cotton fabric (CCF). Then, both types of fabrics were dip coated with a simple dip and dry technique for the adsorption of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets onto its surface. This resulted in 67.74% higher loading amount of GO on the CCF making self-assembly. Finally, this coating was chemically converted by vapor reduction using hydrazine hydrate to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for restoration of a high electrical conductivity at the fabric surface. Our results revealed that with such high loading of GO, the surface resistance of CCF was only 40Ω/sq as compared to 510Ω/sq of the SCF and a 66% higher photo catalytic activity was also achieved through cationization for improved GO coating. Graphene coated SCF and CCF were characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, WAXD, EDX and XPS spectroscopy to ascertain successful reduction of GO to rGO. The effect of BSA treatment on adsorption of cotton fabric was studied using drop shape analyzer to measure contact angle and for thermal and mechanical resistance, the fabric was tested for TGA and tensile strength, respectively. rGO coated fabric also showed slightly improved thermal stability yet a minor loss of strength was observed. The high flexibility, photocatalytic activity and excellent conductivity of this fabric suggests that it can be used as an electrode material for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Loading of chitosan - Nano metal oxide hybrids onto cotton/polyester fabrics to impart permanent and effective multifunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nabil A; Eid, Basma M; El-Aziz, Eman Abd; Elmaaty, Tarek M Abou; Ramadan, Shaimaa M

    2017-12-01

    New and durable multifunctional properties of cotton/polyester blended fabrics were developed through loading of chitosan (Cs) and various metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) namely ZnO, TiO2, and SiO2 onto fabric surface using citric acid/Sodium hypophosphite for ester-crosslinking and creating new anchoring and binding sites, COOH groups, onto the ester-crosslinked fabrics surface. The surface morphology and the presence of active ingredients (Cs & MONPs) onto selected - coated fabric samples were analyzed by SEM images and confirmed by EDS spectrums. The influence of various finishing formulations on some performance and functional properties such as wettability, antibacterial activity, UV-protection, self-cleaning, resiliency and durability to wash were studied. The obtained results revealed that the extent of improvement in the imparted functional properties is governed by type of loaded-hybrid and follows the decreasing order: Cs-TiO2NPs>Cs-ZnONPs>SiO2NPs>Cs alone, as well as kind of substrate cotton/polyester (65/35)>cotton/polyester (50/50). Moreover, after 15 washing cycles, the durability of the imparted functional properties of Cs/TiO2NPs - loaded substrates marginally decreased indicating the strong fixation of the hybrid components onto the ester-crosslinked substrates. The obtained bioactive multifunctional textiles can be used for producing eco-friendly protective textile materials for numerous applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Flame retardancy and UV protection of cotton based fabrics using nano ZnO and polycarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hady, M M Abd; Farouk, A; Sharaf, S

    2013-01-30

    This research mainly deals with a novel flame-retardant and UV-protection for cellulosic fabrics using ZnO nanoparticles. We present the preparation and application of ZnO nanoparticles. The size of the prepared nanoparticles was analysed using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The application of nano ZnO on cellulosic fabrics (cotton 100% and cotton/cotton polyester 65/35%) was achieved by using different polycarboxilic acids (succinic acid [SA] and 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxilic acids [BTCA]) with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as catalyst through conventional pad-dry-cure method. The effect of concentration of SHP on the physical properties, flammability and UV-protection of cross-linked fabrics are investigated. The effect of concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the effect of curing temperature were also investigated. The results revealed the importance of SHP in increasing the flame-redundancy of the treated cellulosic fabrics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of graphene oxide on the structural and electrochemical behavior of polypyrrole deposited on cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubidoust, Fatemeh; Wicaksono, Dedy H. B.; Chandren, Sheela; Nur, Hadi

    2014-10-01

    Improving the electrical response of polypyrrole-cotton composite is the key issue in making flexible electrode with favorable mechanical strength and large capacitance. Flexible graphene oxide/cotton (GO/Cotton) composite has been prepared by dipping pristine cotton in GO ink. The composite‘s surface was further modified with polypyrrole (Ppy) via chemical polymerization to obtain Ppy/GO/Cotton composite. The composite was characterized using SEM, FTIR and XRD measurements, while the influence of GO in modifying the physicochemical properties of the composite was also examined using TG and cyclic voltammetry. The achieved mean particle size for Ppy/Cotton, Ppy/GO/Cotton and GO estimated using Scherrer formula are 58, 67 and 554 nm, respectively. FTIR spectra revealed prominent fundamental absorption bands in the range of 1400-1800 cm-1. The increased electrical conductivity as much as 2.2 × 10-1 S cm-1 for Ppy/GO/Cotton composite measured by complex impedance, is attributed to the formation of continuous conducting network. The partial reduction of GO on the surface of cotton (GO/Cotton) during chemical polymerization can also affect the conductivity. This simple, economic and environmental-friendly preparation method may contribute towards the controlled growth of quality and stable Ppy/GO/Cotton composites for potential applications in microwave attenuation, energy storage system, static electric charge dissipation and electrotherapy.

  15. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ANTIBACTERIAL TREATED COTTON FABRICS AND EFFECT OF LAUNDRY CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALAMUTCU Sema

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During daily usage of textiles, humidity and warmth conditions provide appropriate living conditions for bacteria and microorganisms in textile products. Bacteria growth, infection and cross infection by pathogens might develop due to usage of textile products. Especially since World War II, antibacterial textile products have developed as a result of the hygiene demand of the society. In this study, triclosan (sample A, quaternary ammonium plus triclosan (sample B, dichlorophenol (sample C, silver (sample D, quaternary ammonium (sample E and chitosan (sample F based six different antibacterial additives were applied on 100% cotton fabrics for antibacterial treatment. All six treated fabrics and the untreated fabric (control sample were washed for 40 cycles; the antibacterial efficacies were tested; changes in tear strength and Berger whiteness values of the samples were recorded prior to washing and after 1st, 5th, 10th, 20th and 40th washing cycles. Regarding all washing cycles, a decrease in tear strength results is observed between unwashed and 40 cycle washed samples. Textile materials such as bedlinen, pillow cases, surgeon gowns for which tear strength values are important and that have antibacterial treatments should be tested for tear strength values for different washing cycles to see if they meet minimum tear strength requirements. The change in tear strength and Berger whiteness of samples shows differences according to the antibacterial agent treated and washing cycle applied. Generally, slight decreases in tear strength values are observed. And slight decreases in whiteness, except for sample F which is treated with chitosan, are observed as well. Textile materials having antibacterial treatments should be tested for the special antibacterial agent they are treated and for the number of washing cycles that is required for their product life.

  16. Natural Dyeing and UV Protection of Raw and Bleached/Mercerised Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuk Nina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing with natural dyes extracted from curcuma, green tea, avocado seed, pomegranate peel and horse chestnut bark was studied to evaluate the dyeability and ultraviolet (UV blocking properties of raw and bleached/mercerised cotton fabrics. 20 g/l of powdered plant material was extracted in distilled water and used as a dyeing bath. No mordants were used to obtain ecologically friendly finishing. The colour of samples was measured on a refl ectance spectrophotometer, while UV-blocking properties were analysed with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that dyeing increased UV protection factor (UPF to all samples, however much higher UPF values were measured for the dyed raw cotton samples. The highest UPF values were obtained on both cotton fabrics dyed with pomegranate peel and green tea extracts, giving them excellent protective properties (UPF 50+. The lowest UPF values were obtained by dyeing cotton with avocado seed extract and curcumin. Dyeing with selected dyes is not stable to washing, so the UV-blocking properties worsen after repetitive washing. However, raw cotton samples retain their very good Uvblocking properties, while bleached/mercerised cotton fabrics do not provide even satisfactory UV-blocking properties. No correlation between CIE L*a*b*, K/S and UPF values were found.

  17. Decomposition of indoor ammonia with TiO 2-loaded cotton woven fabrics prepared by different textile finishing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongchun; Bai, Zhipeng; Liu, Ruihua; Zhu, Tan

    Addition of urea-based antifreeze admixtures during cement mixing in construction of buildings has led to increasing indoor air pollution due to continuous transformation and emission of urea to gaseous ammonia in indoor concrete wall. In order to control ammonia pollution from indoor concrete wall, the aqueous dispersion was firstly prepared with nano-scale TiO 2 photocatalysts and dispersing agent, and then mixed with some textile additives to establish a treating bath or coating paste. Cotton woven fabrics were used as the support materials owing to their large surface area and large number of hydrophilic groups on their cellulose molecules and finished using padding and coating methods, respectively. Two TiO 2-loaded fabrics were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a specifically designed ammonia photocatalytic system consisting of a small environmental chamber and a reactor was used for assessing the performance of these TiO 2-loaded fabrics as the wall cloth or curtains used in house rooms in the future and some factors affecting ammonia decomposition are discussed. Furthermore, a design equation of surface catalytic kinetics was developed for describing the decomposition of ammonia in air stream. The results indicated that increasing dosage of the TiO 2 aqueous dispersion in treating bath or coating paste improved the ammonia decomposition. And ammonia was effectively removed at low ammonia concentration or gas flow rate. When relative humidity level was 45%, ammonia decomposition was remarkably enhanced. It is the fact that ammonia could be significantly decomposed in the presence of the TiO 2-padded cotton fabric. Whereas, the TiO 2-coated cotton fabric had the reduced photocatalytic decomposition of ammonia and high adsorption to ammonia owing to their acrylic binder layer. Finally, the reaction rate constant k and the adsorption equilibrium constant K values were determined through a

  18. Comparative Enactment of Formaldehyde-free and Formaldehyde-based Cross-linkers on Cotton Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawshin Farzana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The performances of formaldehyde-based and non-formaldehyde cross-linkers on pretreated cotton woven fabric were assessed and compared in this research. Fixapret CL was considered as the formaldehyde-based resin and Fixapret NF as the formaldehyde-free resin. Dry cross-linking method was adopted for the application of cross-linkers. Different properties of resin treated fabrics investigated and compared were as follows: DP (durable press rating, wrinkle recovery, stiff ness, tensile strength, tear strength, shrinkage, skewness, hydrophobicity, whiteness and yellowness index. Marginally low performances in smoothness appearance and dimensional stability on fabric were exhibited with formaldehyde-free cross-linkers although indicating lower amount of the strength loss percentage. The formaldehyde-based compounds imparted more yellowing tendency to the treated fabric. The formaldehyde-free resins may be a good choice of replacements considering the overall eff ectiveness on fabric

  19. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of cotton fabric coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, and with deposited silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maráková, Nela; Humpolíček, Petr; Kašpárková, Věra; Capáková, Zdenka; Martinková, Lenka; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-02-01

    Cotton fabric was coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, in situ during the oxidation of respective monomers. Raman and FTIR spectra proved the complete coating of substrates. Polypyrrole content was 19.3 wt.% and that of polyaniline 6.0 wt.%. Silver nanoparticles were deposited from silver nitrate solutions of various concentrations by exploiting the reduction ability of conducting polymers. The content of silver was up to 11 wt.% on polypyrrole and 4 wt.% on polyaniline. The sheet resistivity of fabrics was determined. The conductivity was reduced after deposition of silver. The chemical cleaning reduced the conductivity by less than one order of magnitude for polypyrrole coating, while for polyaniline the decrease was more pronounced. The good antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli and low cytotoxicity of polypyrrole-coated cotton, both with and without deposited silver nanoparticles

  20. Incorporation of ZnO and their composite nanostructured material into a cotton fabric platform for wearable device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluswamy, Pandiyarasan; Sathiyamoorthy, Suhasini; Khan, Faizan; Ghosh, Aranya; Abhijit, Majumdar; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Hiroya

    2017-02-10

    The central idea of this paper is to innovate a new approach for the development of wearable device materials through the coating of cotton fabric with ZnO and Sb-/Ag-/ZnO composites. The study was designed in order to have a clear understanding of the role of ZnO as well as the modified composite thereof under investigation. Cotton fabric with uniform ZnO/ZnO-composite layers on the surface was successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method. The growth behaviors were investigated by comparing ZnO and ZnO-composites. The structural, morphological, chemical states, optical, electrical and thermopower properties of these fabrics were studied. Nanostructured ZnO-composite fabric had enhanced UV shielding with a value of 83.96. It is found that the ZnO-composite fabrics have increased electrical conductivity. The thermopower value of the ZnO-composite fabric could reach 471.9μVK-1. Such materials are anticipated to be worthwhile as wearable electronic devices and as protective textiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of highly hydrophobic cotton fabrics by modification with bifunctional silsesquioxanes in the sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylak, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.przybylak@ppnt.poznan.pl [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland); Maciejewski, Hieronim, E-mail: maciejm@amu.edu.pl [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Dutkiewicz, Agnieszka, E-mail: agdut@interia.pl [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Fabric hydrophobization process using bifunctional silsesquioxanes was studied. • Superhydrophobic fabric was produced using fluorofunctional silsesquioxanes. • Surface of modified fabrics was analyzed using different techniques. - Abstract: The surface modification of cotton fabrics was carried out using two types of bifunctional fluorinated silsesquioxanes with different ratios of functional groups. The modification was performed either by one- or two-step process. Two methods, the sol-gel and the dip coating method were used in different configurations. The heat treatment and the washing process were applied after modification. The wettability of cotton fabric was evaluated by measuring water contact angles (WCA). Changes in the surface morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, SEM-LFD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Moreover, the modified fabrics were subjected to analysis of elemental composition of the applied coatings using SEM-EDS techniques. Highly hydrophobic textiles were obtained in all cases studied and one of the modifications resulted in imparting superhydrophobic properties. Most of impregnated textiles remained hydrophobic even after multiple washing process which shows that the studied modification is durable.

  2. Effect of silica nanoparticles and BTCA on physical properties of cotton fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobi Nallathambi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles particles were synthesized from rice hulls and characterized. The particles were found to be amorphous in nature, ranging in size from 50 to 100 nm. The concentration of silica nanoparticles, pH and curing time were taken as independent variables to design the experiment. Box-Behnken method has been used to derive the experimental plan and fifteen experiments were conducted. Regression equations have been formed with the dependent and independent variables and the results of all possible combinations have been derived. The combination of optimized concentration of BTCA and SHP were used as crosslinking agent and catalyst respectively and silica nano particles were used to enhance the physical properties of the cotton fabric. The effect of pH and curing time on physical properties were analysed by FTIR studies. By ranking method the best combination of process parameters were identified. From this study, it was observed that higher concentration of silica nanoparticles with BTCA improve the crease recovery angle and tensile strength. FTIR studies revealed that the increase of pH and curing time increases the ester carbonyl band intensity ratio.

  3. A multifunctional cotton fabric using TiO2 and PCMs: introducing thermal comfort and self-cleaning properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, F. A. P.; Pinto, E.; Soares, G.

    2017-10-01

    The development of materials with multiple functionalities is a market imperative that places new challenges on textile processing. The purpose of this study was to establish the conditions to obtain a cotton material that is comfortable, with self-cleaning and antimicrobial properties. For this purpose, microcapsules of phase change materials (mPCM) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) were applied. The resulting fabrics were characterized with resource to infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), contact angle and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The self-cleaning properties of treated fabrics were also analysed based on the photocatalytic ability of coated fabrics. Therefore, the decomposition of methyl orange (MO) and the degradation of red wine and curry spots under the irradiation of a solar simulator were analysed. Thus, the incorporation of TiO2 particles into the cotton fabric promoted self-cleaning and antibacterial characteristics, but the presence of PCM combined with TiO2 increases the bioactivity of materials.

  4. Influence of absorbed moisture on desizing of poly(vinyl alcohol) on cotton fabrics during atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shujing; Liu, Xiulan; Sun, Jie; Gao, Zhiqiang; Yao, Lan; Qiu, Yiping

    2010-04-01

    This paper studies the influence of moisture absorption of cotton fabrics on the effectiveness of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) on desizing of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Cotton fabrics with three different moisture regains (MR), namely 1.8%, 7.3%, and 28.4% corresponding to 10%, 65%, and 98% of relative humidity respectively, are treated for 16 s, 32 s, 48 s, and 64 s. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that the plasma treated PVA has higher oxygen concentration than the control. Mass loss results show that the fabric with the highest MR has the largest mass loss after 64 s plasma exposure. Solubility measurement reveals that the sample with the lowest MR has the highest desizing efficacy and the percent desizing ratio reaches 96% after 64 s exposure plus a 20 min hot wash, which is shown as clean as the unsized sample through scanning electron microscopy analysis. The yarn tensile strength test results show that APPJ has no negative effect on fabric tensile strength.

  5. Fabrication of durable super-repellent surfaces on cotton fabric with liquids of varying surface tension: Low surface energy and high roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun K.; Singh, Jayant K.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we have developed super-repellent surface on cotton fabric via a facile and eco-friendly strategy using zirconia particles with water-soluble siloxane emulsion. The coated fabric using zirconia-siloxane (ZS) coating showed super-repellency of liquids with surface tension >47.7 mN/m, like water, mixtures of isopropyl alcohol with deionized water (2% and 5%, v/v), and ethylene glycol with contact angle of 158°, 155°, 153° and 152°, respectively. Furthermore, the coated fabric displays low sliding angle, anti-wetting, self-cleaning, support for aquatic floating devices and as a filtration material for rapid and continuous oil-water separation.

  6. Low-temperature fabrication of alkali metal-organic charge transfer complexes on cotton textile for optoelectronics and gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Walia, Sumeet; Kandjani, Ahmad Esmaielzadeh; Balendran, Sivacarendran; Mohammadtaheri, Mahsa; Bhargava, Suresh Kumar; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh; Bansal, Vipul

    2015-02-03

    A generalized low-temperature approach for fabricating high aspect ratio nanorod arrays of alkali metal-TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) charge transfer complexes at 140 °C is demonstrated. This facile approach overcomes the current limitation associated with fabrication of alkali metal-TCNQ complexes that are based on physical vapor deposition processes and typically require an excess of 800 °C. The compatibility of soft substrates with the proposed low-temperature route allows direct fabrication of NaTCNQ and LiTCNQ nanoarrays on individual cotton threads interwoven within the 3D matrix of textiles. The applicability of these textile-supported TCNQ-based organic charge transfer complexes toward optoelectronics and gas sensing applications is established.

  7. Imparting super hydro/oleophobic properties to cotton fabric by means of molecular and nanoparticles vapor deposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminayi, Payam; Abidi, Noureddine

    2013-12-01

    Super hydro/oleophobic cotton fabrics were prepared using nanoparticle vapor deposition and molecular vapor deposition techniques. The surface was roughened by trimethylaluminum/water nanoparticles followed by functionalization with (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl)trichlorosilane. This process imparted unique hydro/oleophobic properties (contact angle >160°). In contrast to wet chemistry processes, the chemicals used and the thickness of the coatings produced by this method could be controlled precisely, which allowed for the minimization of waste generation while preserving the original properties of the fabric. Dynamic contact angles were measured and the fabrics that were coated using this technique showed low-contact-angle hysteresis properties. Scanning electron microscopy and universal attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of a nanostructure-roughened surface. Drop dynamics such as the force of droplet movement, work of adhesion, and surface free energy were also calculated.

  8. Crystallization and magnetic characterizations of DyIG and HoIG nanopowders fabricated using citrate sol-gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Thuy Nguyet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dy and Ho iron garnets in form of nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate sol-gel method. Phase formation, lattice constant and average crystallite sizes of the samples were determined via XRD measurements. Morphology and particle size distribution were studied by TEM and chemical composition was checked by EDX. Magnetic measurements in temperature range 5–600 K and in the maximum applied field of 50 kOe were carried out by using SQUID and VSM. Their magnetic parameters, including Curie temperature, magnetization compensation temperature, spontaneous magnetization, high-field susceptibility, magnetic coercivity were discussed in the framework of three interacting magnetic sublattices, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, core-shell model and compared to those of the bulk materials. Based on these analyses further evaluation on the crystallinity and homogeneity of the samples has been made.

  9. Comparison of sodium dithionite and glucose as a reducing agent for natural indigo dyeing on cotton fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikhao Laksanawadee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A traditional reducing agent in an indigo dyeing process with cotton fabrics is sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4 which is environmentally unfavorable because the resulting by-products cause various problems to the disposal wastewaters. In this research, glucose was used as a possible replacement of Na2S2O4 in indigo dyeing. The comparison of reduction power of Na2S2O4 and glucose for natural indigo dyeing on cotton fabrics based on reduction potential was analyzed. The optimum reduction temperature for natural indigo dye of both reducing agents was at 70°C. The reduction time did not have a significant effect on the reduction potential under the condition studied. Na2S2O4 could give higher color strength than glucose. However, wash fastness of the fabric samples from a glucose reduction was slightly better than Na2S2O4 ones. Hence, glucose virtually has a potential to be used as a green reducing agent in natural indigo dyeing.

  10. Coating of cellulose-TiO2 nanoparticles on cotton fabric for durable photocatalytic self-cleaning and stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Bandu Madhukar; Wiener, Jakub; Militky, Jiri; Rwawiire, Samson; Mishra, Rajesh; Jacob, Karl I; Wang, Youjiang

    2016-10-05

    A new route to make cotton fabric self-cleaning and permanently stiff by coating cellulose-TiO2 on its surface is demonstrated herein. Cellulose-TiO2 dispersion was used for coating and was prepared by mixing TiO2 nanoparticles with cellulose in 60% H2SO4 solution. The surface morphology of cellulose-TiO2 nanoparticles coated sample was analyzed by SEM. The appearance of white TiO2 particles on the surface of the cotton fabric confirmed the successful coating process. The Orange II dye was used as stain and its degradation was observed under UV light. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that cellulose II content increases slightly (by 5.3%) after the solvent treatment. Washing fastness study showed that the fabric stiffness was permanent and self-cleaning properties were stable with 1, 3 and 5% TiO2 coated samples. Air and water vapor permeability was not decreased considerably, whereas tensile strength was increased significantly after coating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bactericidal activity under UV and visible light of cotton fabrics coated with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Rahal, Raed

    2013-06-01

    This study describes a method derived from ISO/TC 206/SC specifications to assess the bactericidal activity against a bacterial strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens, of various photocatalytic fabrics, under UVA and filtered visible light. The experimental method allowed the accurate quantification of bacteria survival on photoactive surfaces and films under UVA and UV-free visible irradiation. Cotton fabrics coated with TiO2, anthraquinone or anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 display a significant bactericidal efficiency. TiO2-coated fabrics are very efficient against P. fluorescens after 4 h UVA irradiation (bacteria survival below the detection limit). Under UVA-free visible light, anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 coated fabrics induced a significant bactericidal activity after 2 h irradiation, while anthraquinone alone-coated fabrics were not as efficient and TiO2 coated fabrics were almost inefficient. These results show that although exhibiting a weak n-π* band in the 350-420 nm range, anthraquinone is a good candidate as an efficient visible light photosensitizer. A synergy effect between anthraquinone and TiO2 was demonstrated. A possible reaction mechanism, involving a synergy effect for singlet oxygen formation with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 is proposed to account for these results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. UV-Vis microspectrophotometry as a method of differentiation between cotton fibre evidence coloured with reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-05-05

    The main purposes of this study was to assess the usefulness of microspectrophotometry (MSP), both in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) range for discriminating single cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes coming from the same manufacturer, as well as the possibility of evaluation of the concentration of dye in an examine fibre. This study utilised woven cotton fabrics dyed with different concentrations of one-compound reactive dyes with the commercial name Cibacron® (at present Novacron®) as the focus of the MSP analysis. The spectra were recorded in the UV-Vis range between 200 and 800nm, in transmission mode. The results from this study illustrated that all of the analysed cotton samples dyed with reactive dyes were distinguishable between each other with the use of MSP, mostly in the visible, and also in ultraviolet range. The limit for applied MSP techniques was 0.18% of the concentration of a dye in the textile sample. The results indicate that based on the absorbance measurements for fibres constituting e.g. forensic traces it was not possible to estimate the concentration of the dye in the fibre because Beer's law did not obey. The intra-sample, and inter- sample variation, as well as dichroism effect in a case of a cotton fibres dyed with reactive dye were observed. On the basis of the results obtained for each analysed cotton sample, it was concluded that there was no correlation between colour uniformity in cotton fabric (changes in lightness, red/green and yellow/blue colour) and concentration of the reactive dye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fabrication of Eu-TiO2 NCs functionalized cotton textile as a multifunctional photocatalyst for dye pollutants degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caschera, Daniela; Federici, Fulvio; de Caro, Tilde; Cortese, Barbara; Calandra, Pietro; Mezzi, Alessio; Lo Nigro, Raffaella; Toro, Roberta G.

    2018-01-01

    A modified one step and cost-effective chemical green route has been used to synthesize oleate-capped TiO2 anatase nanocrystals (NCs) doped with different amounts of europium, with high yields and without high-temperature post-calcination processes. Europium doping endowed TiO2 NCs with an intense red luminescence associated with the 5D0 → 7F2 transition of the electronic structure of Eu3+ and was responsible for both the morphological change of the NCs structure (from nanorods to spherical nanoparticles) and the blue shift in the absorption edge respect to the undoped TiO2 NCs. Furthermore, photocatalytic experiments revealed that a low-content (0.5 mol%) Eu3+ doped TiO2 NCs showed the best ability as photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under both UV and visible light irradiation, even if all the Eu3+ doped oleate-capped TiO2 NCs were more effective under visible light. Moreover, taking advantage of their photocatalytic activity, the 0.5% Eu3+ doped oleate-capped TiO2 photocatalysts has been employed on cotton fabrics. Our results highlighted that functionalization of cotton textile with Eu3+ doped oleate-capped TiO2 NCs imparted new functionalities, such as a high photocatalytic activity toward MB degradation under visible light. In addition, it determined also the change in the wetting behaviour of cotton that switches to a superhydrophobic nature. The obtained fabric also showed stable and robust superhydrophobicity against strong acid and alkaline environments. Multifunctional materials having simultaneously luminescence, superhydrophobicity and visible light photocatalysis are expected to be very useful in many technological applications.

  14. Durable flame retardant and antibacterial finishing on cotton fabrics with cyclotriphosphazene/polydopamine/silver nanoparticles hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingzhan; Wang, Bijia; Sui, Xiaofeng; Xie, Ruyi; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Linping; Zhong, Yi; Mao, Zhiping

    2018-03-01

    Durable flame retardant and antibacterial hybrid coatings were developed for cotton fabrics via simultaneous polymerization of dopamine and hydrolytic condensation of N3P3[NH(CH2)3Si(OC2H5)3]6. Silver nanoparticles were also introduced to the coatings by in situ reaction of AgNO3 with catechol moieties on polydopamine (PDA) in the absence of any external reducing agents. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to study the morphology and constitution of the coatings. Thermal stability and combustion behaviors were characterized with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and vertical flammability tests. Considerable flame retardancy was obtained for the modified cotton fabrics, which also exhibited decent antibacterial activities (99.99%) against Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. The modification was durable with largely intact flame retardancy and antimicrobial properties after 30 washing cycles.

  15. Synthesis of novel polymethacrylates with siloxyl bridging perfluoroalkyl side-chains for hydrophobic application on cotton fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Lu; Dai, Li; Yuan, Yanhua; Liu, Anqi [College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhanxiong, Li, E-mail: lizhanxiong@suda.edu.cn [College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Novel polymethacrylates with multi-perfluoroalkyl groups were reported. • TFSMA monomer in the polymer contributed much to the lower surface free energy. • PSD and TEM showed a broader size distribution with the increasing fluorine content. • EDS and XPS revealed migration of perfluoroalkyl chains under high temperature. - Abstract: Three novel fluorinated methacrylate monomers with siloxyl bridging perfluoroalkyl groups were synthesized and characterized. Afterwards, the corresponding polymethacrylate latexes, namely monofluoroalkylsiloxyl polymethacrylate (PMFSMA), bisfluoroalkylsiloxyl polymethacrylate (PBFSMA) and trisfluoroalkylsiloxyl polymethacrylate (PTFSMA), were prepared and coated onto cotton fabrics to make them water-repellent. Particle size, particle size distribution, zeta potential and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) were tested to assess the emulsion stability and particle morphology. Thermal properties of PTFSMA were evaluated by thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Surface properties of the coated cotton fabrics were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), water contact angle (WCA), adhesive force and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the incorporation of more perfluoroalkyl chains and the annealing process could decrease the surface free energy of polymer film to 13.7 mN/m. Furthermore, the EDS spectra of PTFSMA film after annealing showed an enrichment of fluorine in the film-air interface.

  16. Power and Time Dependent Microwave Assisted Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles Decorated Cotton (SNDC) Fibers for Bacterial Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Abhishek K; Shukla, Abhishek; Mishra, Rohit K; Singh, S C; Mishra, Vani; Uttam, K N; Singh, Mohan P; Sharma, Shivesh; Gopal, R

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver and gold have fascinating optical properties due to their enhanced optical sensitivity at a wavelength corresponding to their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption. Present work deals with the fabrication of silver nanoparticles decorated cotton (SNDC) fibers as a cheap and efficient point of contact disinfectant. SNDC fibers were fabricated by a simple microwave assisted route. The microwave power and irradiation time were controlled to optimize size and density of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) on textile fibers. As prepared cotton fabric was characterized for ATR-FTIR, UV-VIS diffuse reflectance, SEM and TEM investigations. Size of SNPs as well as total density of silver atoms on fabric gets increased with the increase of microwave power from 100 W to 600 W. The antibacterial efficacy of SNPs extracted from SNDC fibers was found to be more effective against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria with MIC 38.5 ± 0.93 μg/mL against Salmonella typhimurium MTCC-98 and 125 ± 2.12 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC-737, a linear correlation coefficient with R(2) ranging from ∼0.928-0.935 was also observed. About >50% death cells were observed through Propidium Iodide (PI) internalization after treatment of SNPs extracted from SNDC fibers with concentration 31.25 μg/mL. Generation of ROS and free radical has also been observed which leads to cell death. Excellent Escherichia coli deactivation efficacy suggested that SNDC fibers could be used as potentially safe disinfectants for cleaning of medical equipment, hand, wound, water and preservation of food and beverages.

  17. Influence of gamma radiation on the colour strength and fastness properties of fabric using turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as natural dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, Ijaz A., E-mail: ijazchem@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Adeel, Shahid [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Jamal, M. Asghar [Department of Chemistry, G.C. University, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Safdar, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, University of A J and K, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan); Abbas, Muhammad [Haris Dyes and Chemicals, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    The effect of gamma radiation on the dyeing of cotton with extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder has been investigated. Cotton fabric and turmeric powder were irradiated to absorbed doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing parameters such as temperature, pH and mordant concentration were optimized. Dyeing was performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with the extracts of un-irradiated and irradiated turmeric powder in order to investigate the effect of radiation treatment on the colour strength of dyed fabric. The reported data of un-irradiated and irradiated fabrics dyed with un-irradiated and irradiated dyes were obtained using the spectraflash SF-650. The colourfastness to light, rubbing- and washing-fastness properties showed that gamma irradiation has improved the dyeing characteristics from fair to good.

  18. Influence of gamma radiation on the colour strength and fastness properties of fabric using turmeric (Curcuma longa L .) as natural dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Ijaz A.; Adeel, Shahid; Jamal, M. Asghar; Safdar, Muhammad; Abbas, Muhammad

    2010-05-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the dyeing of cotton with extract of turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder has been investigated. Cotton fabric and turmeric powder were irradiated to absorbed doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing parameters such as temperature, pH and mordant concentration were optimized. Dyeing was performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with the extracts of un-irradiated and irradiated turmeric powder in order to investigate the effect of radiation treatment on the colour strength of dyed fabric. The reported data of un-irradiated and irradiated fabrics dyed with un-irradiated and irradiated dyes were obtained using the spectraflash SF-650. The colourfastness to light, rubbing- and washing-fastness properties showed that gamma irradiation has improved the dyeing characteristics from fair to good.

  19. Intelligent Textiles with Comfort Regulation and Inhibition of Bacterial Adhesion Realized by Cross-Linking Poly(n-isopropylacrylamide-co-ethylene glycol methacrylate) to Cotton Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiping; Chen, Yangyi; An, Jie; Xu, Ke; Chen, Tao; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Zhong, Qi

    2017-04-19

    Comfort regulation and inhibition of bacterial adhesion to textiles is realized by cross-linking thermoresponsive random copolymer to the cotton fabrics. By introduction of ethylene glycol methacrylate (EGMA) monomers into n-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with a molar ratio of 2:18, the obtained random copolymer poly(n-isopropylacrylamide-co-ethylene glycol methacrylate), abbreviated as P(NIPAM-co-EGMA), presents a transition temperature (TT) of 40 °C in an aqueous solution with a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Because of the additional EGMA in the copolymer, the obtained P(NIPAM-co-EGMA) shows a glass transition temperature (T g ) of 0 °C, which is much lower than that of pure PNIPAM (T g = 140 °C). Therefore, the introduction of P(NIPAM-co-EGMA) into the cotton fabrics will have little influence on the softness of the fabrics. Due to the cross-linked P(NIPAM-co-EGMA) layer on the cotton fabrics, the porosity of the polymer layer can be adjusted by varying the external temperature below or above TT, showing that regulation of the air and moisture permeability as well as the body comfort are feasible in the cotton fabrics cross-linked with P(NIPAM-co-EGMA). In addition, the cross-linked P(NIPAM-co-EGMA) layer is capable of absorbing moisture in the ambient atmosphere to form a hydrated layer on top, which can inhibit bacterial adhesion to the textiles.

  20. Flexible and conductive cotton fabric counter electrode coated with graphene nanosheets for high efficiency dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Choi, Yun Seon; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Textile fabric based electrodes due to their lightweight, flexibility and cost effectiveness, coupled with the ease of fabrication are recently given a huge attention as wearable energy sources. The current dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are based on Platinized-Fluorinated Tin oxide (Pt-FTO) glass electrode, which is not only expensive, but also rigid and heavyweight. In this work, a highly conductive-graphene coated cotton fabric (HC-GCF) is fabricated with a surface resistance of only 7 Ω sq-1. HC-GCF is used as an efficient counter electrode (CE) in DSSC and the results are examined using photovoltaic and electrochemical analysis. HC-GCF counter electrode shows a negligible change of resistance to bending at various bending positions and is also found extremely resistant to electrolyte solution and washing with water. Cyclic voltammogram, Nyquist and the Tafel plots suggest an excellent electro catalytic activity (ECA) for the reduction of tri-iodide (I3-) ions. Symmetrical cells prepared using HC-GCF, indicate a very low charge transfer resistance (RCT) of only 1.2 Ω, which is nearly same to that of the Pt with 1.04 Ω. Furthermore, a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.93% is achieved using HC-GCF counter electrode using polymer electrolyte.

  1. THE APPLICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAPHENE DECORATED WITH TiO2 –Fe (1%-N ON COTTON FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRESCU Iuliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Doped TiO2/graphene nanocomposites are studied due to their capacity to absorb the visible rays and large applicability in photo-catalytic applications. In this paper, we summarize our experiments on the development of photocatalytic fabrics based on deposition of doped TiO2/graphene nanocomposites by ultrasound method. We have investigated the surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and elemental composition was determinate through EDX. Other information were obtained from electrical resistivity analysis measured on Prostat PRS-801 instrument, evaluation of the cotton fabrics wettability by measuring the contact angle on a VCA Optima instrument and evaluation of the photo-catalytic properties of the treated fabrics under solar and visible light (Xenotest by measuring the trichromatic coordinates of the treated and untreated textile materials. The results demonstrated that the ultrasound is an effective method to deposit nanoparticles on textile materials and that the uniform dispersion of TiO2- graphene composites depends on sonication parameters. Also, the treatment used on textile materials doesn’t improve the electrical properties of the knit. The results obtain after evaluation of the photo-catalytic activity by photo degradation of methylene blue under visible and solar light show the performance of the developed fabrics and also that the photo-catalytic activity is high under visible light and solar light.

  2. Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton cellulose using a new reactive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, R; Gaffer, H E

    2013-08-14

    Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton fabric using a new antibacterial reactive dye having a modified chemical structure to the commercial reactive dye CI Reactive Red 198 were studied. This modification was carried out by replacing metanilic acid in the commercial dye with 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (sulfadimidine). Optimum exhaustion and fixation values were achieved at 60 g/l sodium sulphate and 20 g/l sodium carbonate for both dyes. The modified dye exhibited higher substantivity, exhaustion and fixation efficiency compared to the commercial dye. Antibacterial activities of the dyed samples at different concentrations of both dyes were studied against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The cotton dyed with the modified dye shows higher antibacterial efficacy compared to the dyed cotton fabric using the commercial dye, especially on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. All the reactive dyeings also exhibited high fastness properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethyl chitosan synthesis and quantification of the effects acquired after grafting it on a cotton fabric, using ANOVA statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Vasilica; Muresan, Augustin; Popescu, Gabriel; Balan, Mihaela; Dobromir, Marius

    2016-03-15

    Three ethyl chitosans (ECSs) have been prepared using the ethyl chloride (AA) that was obtained in situ. Each ECS was applied on a 100% cotton fabric through a pad-dry-cure technology. Using the ANOVA as statistic method, the wrinkle-proofing effects have been determined varying the concentrations of AA (0.1-2.1mmol) and chitosan (CS) (0.1-2.1mmol). Alkylation and grafting mechanisms have been confirmed by the results of FTIR, (1)H NMR, XPS, SEM, DSC and termogravimetric analyses. The performances of each ECS as wrinkle-proofing agent have been revealed through quantitative methods (taking-up degree, wrinkle-recovering angle, tensile strength and effect's durability). The ECSs confer wrinkle-recovering angle and tensile strength higher than those of the witness sample. Durability of ECSs grafted on cotton have been demonstrated by a good capacity of dyeing with non-specific (acid/anionic and cationic) dyes under severe working conditions (100°C, 60min) and a good antimicrobial capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Cotton Fabrics with Durable UV Protective and Self-cleaning Property by Deposition of Low TiO2 Levels through Sol-gel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anu; Butola, Bhupendra Singh

    2018-01-19

    In this article, the deposition of TiO2 on cotton fabric using sol-gel techniques has been described. Various process routes (pad-dry-cure, pad-dry-hydrothermal and pad-dry-solvothermal) were examined to impart a stable coating of TiO2 on fabric. The role of pre-cursor concentration, process temperature and time of treatment were studied to aim at a wash durable, UV protective and self-cleaning property in the treated fabric. EDX and ICP-MS techniques were used to examine the add-on % of TiO2 on cotton fabrics treated via different routes. It has been found that the TiO2 remains largely amorphous and non-durable if it is given a short thermal treatment. To convert the deposited TiO2 to its anatase crystal form, a prolonged hydrothermal treatment for at least three hours needs to be given. TiO2 deposition levels of less than 0.1% were found to be effective in imparting reasonable degree of UV protection and self-cleaning property to the cotton fabric. The self-cleaning ability of the treated fabric against coffee stain was also studied and was found to be related to the process route and the deposition levels of TiO2 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of liquid repellent coating on cotton fabric by simple binary silanization with excellent self-cleaning and oil-water separation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Anita; Varshney, Priya; Mohapatra, Soumya S; Kumar, Aditya

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims to develop a facile and single step method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating on cotton fabric. The coating has been prepared by using two silane trichloro(octadecyl)silane and (pentaflurophenyl)triethoxy silane by solution immersion technique. The wettability, surface topography and chemical compostion of the cotton fabric before and after treatment were charecterized by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum, respectively. Additionally, the functional group present in coating was analysed by FT-IR spectra. The coated fabric shows a contact angle of 172.9±3°, 169±3° and 167±3° for water, ethylene glycol and glycerol, respectively. The chemical stability of the coated sample has been evaluated by immersion of the sample in different pH solutions and different solvents, showing the excellent chemical stability of coating. Ultrasonication with water, detergent and petroleum ether, and water jet impact test reveals the mechanical stability of coating. The thermal stability of the coated fabric has been examined by annealing the sample at different temperature. Additionally, it shows resistance to stain and UV irradiation. Furthermore, the coated cotton fabric exhibits excellent self-cleaning and oil-water separation properties, which makes it suitable for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of after-treatments on dyeability of raw and bleached cotton with curcumin, and visibility of anthotype produced motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkič Nuša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing of raw and bleached cotton fabrics with a natural dye of curcumin was studied to implement the ancient and environmentally friendly technique of developing photos called anthotype. With the aim of achieving diff erent colours of dyed cotton fabrics, several modifi cations were performed, such as extraction of curcumin in hard and soft water, after-treatments of dyed cotton, i.e. with ferrous sulphate, zinc chloride and silver nitrate, aftertreatment in alkaline bath, and aftertreatment with other natural dyes (blueberry and raspberry. The colour values of dyed samples were determined using a refl ectance spectrophotometer. Colour stability to light was determined by the standard method in Xenotest. It was found that the use of various metal salts, natural dyes, alkalinity and hardness of water infl uenced the colour changes of the substrate. Yellow, red, greenish and brownish colours of fabrics were produced by diff erent treatments. Since the use of metal ions improved the stability of curcumin to light, the motifs produced by anthotype technique were hardly visible. It was found that the natural dye of blueberries and raspberries did not infl uence the light stability, therefore a larger colour contrast between exposed and unexposed areas of the fabric was visible, and consequently good visibility of the motifs was achieved.

  8. Effect of yarn structure on wicking and its impact on bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) on woven cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyu; Li, Jingyao; Michielsen, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) of bloodstains on hard, non-porous surfaces has found widespread use in crime scene analysis and reconstruction for violent crimes in which bloodshed occurs. At many violent crime scenes, bloody clothing is also found and may be analyzed. However, to date, there are no definitive methods for analyzing bloodstains on textiles, even for simple drip stains. There are two major classes of textiles used for apparel and household textiles, weaves and knits. In this article, drip stains on two 100% cotton plain weave fabrics representative of bed sheets are analyzed. Since it is common practice in the manufacture of bed sheeting to use different types of yarn in the warp and weft direction to reduce cost, custom weaves were made from yarns produced by each of the three most common staple yarn production techniques to control this variable. It was found that porcine blood wicked into the fabrics made with ring spun yarn, but not into those made with open end or vortex spun yarns. The uneven wicking of blood into the different yarns resulted in elliptical-shaped stains on commercial bed sheeting that can be misleading when performing bloodstain pattern interpretation based on the stain morphology. This surprising result demonstrates that it is not sufficient to analyze the structure of the fabric, but one must also characterize the yarns from which the fabric is made. This study highlights the importance of a deeper characterization of the textile structure, even down to the yarn level, for BPA on textiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IMPROVING KNITTED FABRICS BY A STATISTICAL CONTROL OF DIMENSIONAL CHANGES AFTER THE DYEING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LLINARES-BERENGUER Jorge

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems that cotton knitted fabrics present during the manufacturing process is their dimensional instability, which needs to be minimised. Some of the variables that intervene in fabric shrinkage are related with its structural characteristics, use of fiber when producing yarn, the yarn count used or the dyeing process employed. Conducted under real factory conditions, the present study attempted to model the behaviour of a fabric structure after a dyeing process by contributing several algorithms that calculate dyed fabric stability after the first wash cycle. Small-diameter circular machines are used to produce garments with no side seams. This is the reason why a list of machines that produce the same fabrics for different widths needs to be made available to produce all the sizes of a given garment. Two relaxation states were distingued for interlock fabric: dyed and dry relaxation, and dyed and wash relaxation. The linear density of the yarn employed to produce sample fabric was combed cotton Ne 30. The machines used for optic bleaching were Overflow. To obtain knitting structures with optimum dimensional stability, different statistical tools were used to help us to evaluate all the production process variables (raw material, machines and process responsible for this variation. This allowed to guarantee product quality without creating costs and losses.

  10. One Step Photopolymerization of N, N-Methylene Diacrylamide and Photocuring of Carboxymethyl Starch-Silver Nanoparticles onto Cotton Fabrics for Durable Antibacterial Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. El-Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The PI/UV system ((4-trimethyl ammonium methyl benzophenone chloride/UV was used to synthesize carboxymethyl starch- (CMS- stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. AgNPs so prepared had round shape morphology with size of 1–7 nm. The prepared AgNPs were utilized to impart antibacterial finishing for cotton fabrics. The PI/UV system was further utilized to fix AgNPs onto cotton fabrics by photocrosslinking of AgNPs-CMS composite onto cotton fabrics to impart durable antibacterial properties. Effect of irradiation time and incorporating N, N-methylene diacrylamide (MDA in different concentrations on antibacterial performance before and after repeated washing cycles was studied. S. aureus and E. coli were used to evaluate the antibacterial performance of finished fabrics. The antibacterial performance was directly proportional to the irradiation time and concentration of MDA but inversely proportional to the number of washing cycles. The inhibition zone of S. aureus and E. coli is the same although they are different in the cell wall structure and mode of action due to the nanosize structure formed.

  11. Effect of Weave Structure on Thermo-Physiological Properties of Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sheraz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between fabric weave structure and its comfort properties. The two basic weave structures and four derivatives for each selected weave structure were studied. Comfort properties, porosity, air permeability and thermal resistance of all the fabric samples were determined. In our research the 1/1 plain weave structure showed the highest thermal resistance making it suitable for cold climatic conditions. The 2/2 matt weave depicted the lowest thermal resistance which makes it appropriate for hot climatic conditions.

  12. Smart and Fragrant Garment via Surface Modification of Cotton Fabric With Cinnamon Oil/Stimuli Responsive PNIPAAm/Chitosan Nano Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashari, Azadeh; Hemmatinejad, Nahid; Pourjavadi, Ali

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with obtaining aromatherapic textiles via applying stimuli-responsive poly N-isopropyl acryl amide (PNIPAAm) /chitosan (PNCS) nano hydrogels containing cinnamon oil on cotton fabric and looks into the treated fabric characteristics as an antibacterial and temperature/pH responsive fabric. The semi-batch surfactant-free dispersion polymerization method was proposed to the synthesis of PNCS nano particles. The incorporation of modified β -cyclodextrin ( β -CD) into the PNCS nanohydrogel was performed in order to prepare a hydrophobic(cinnamon oil) carrier embedded in stimuli-responsive nanohydrogel. The β -CD postloading process of cinnamon oil in to the hydrogel nano particles was performed via ultrasonic bath and exhaustion methods. The antibacterial activity of the treated fabrics at different temperatures demonstrated the preparing new functional bio-antibacterial fabrics with temperature responsiveness.

  13. Develop of innovative technologies for flame resistant cotton fabrics at USDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) high pressure and microwave reactor are considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this presentation, innovative approaches for preparation of flame retardant fabrics were obtained by utilizing supercritical carb...

  14. Green application of flame retardant cotton fabric using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this poster, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant woven and nonwoven fabrics were obtained by utiliz...

  15. Development of innovative technologies for flame resistant cotton fabrics at USDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) high pressure and microwave reactor are considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this presentation, innovative approaches for preparation of flame retardant fabrics were obtained by utilizing supercritical carbo...

  16. Photocatalytic self-cleaning cotton fabrics with platinum (IV) chloride modified TiO{sub 2} and N-TiO{sub 2} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Mingce, E-mail: long_mc@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zheng, Longhui; Tan, Beihui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Shu, Heping [Xiaoxi New Materials Science and Technology (Shanghai) Co. Ltd., 655 Cangyuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Platinum (IV) chloride modified TiO{sub 2} and N-TiO{sub 2} nanosols are synthesized. • Pt-TiO{sub 2} coatings display enhanced performance in the degradation of MO and stains. • Surface attached PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} enable visible light activity of TiO{sub 2} coated cotton fabric. - Abstract: To enable photocatalytic self-cleaning cotton fabrics working under visible light irradiation, platinum (IV) chloride modified TiO{sub 2} (Pt-TiO{sub 2}) and N-TiO{sub 2} (Pt-N-TiO{sub 2}) nanosols are synthesized through a low temperature precipitation-peptization method. According to the characterizations of XRD, DRS and TEM, all nanoparticles are anatase nanocrystallites in the sizes of less than 10 nm, while N-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have better crystallization and smaller sizes. However, the cotton fabrics functionalized with Pt-TiO{sub 2} display significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation and coffee stain removal under both solar simulator and visible light irradiation, while the performance of that coatings of Pt-N-TiO{sub 2} is poor. Further XRF and XPS results indicate that surface species on N-TiO{sub 2} block the adsorption of PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} anions, whereas these anions strongly attach on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, and accordingly enable functionalized cotton fabrics efficient visible light driven activities based on a mechanism of charge transfer from ligand to metal (CTLM) excitation.

  17. Bactericidal activities of woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite "Earth-plus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Eriko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Hidaka, Eiko; Oana, Kozue; Ogiwara, Naoko; Yamaki, Dai; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Honda, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria from the hospital environment, including linens and curtains, are often responsible for hospital-associated infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal effects of fabrics coated with the hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite "Earth-plus". Bactericidal activities of woven and nonwoven fabrics coated with Earth-plus were investigated by the time-kill curve method using nine bacterial strains, including three Staphylococcus aureus, three Escherichia coli, and three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The numbers of viable S. aureus and E. coli cells on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus decreased to below 2 log(10) colony-forming units/mL in six hours and reached the detection limit in 18 hours. Viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus could not be detected after 3-6 hours. Viable cells on woven fabrics showed a more rapid decline than those on nonwoven fabrics. Bacterial cell counts of the nine strains on fabrics without Earth-plus failed to decrease even after 18 hours. Woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics were shown to have excellent antibacterial potential. The woven fabric was more bactericidal than the nonwoven fabric.

  18. Bactericidal activities of woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite “Earth-plus”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Eriko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Hidaka, Eiko; Oana, Kozue; Ogiwara, Naoko; Yamaki, Dai; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Honda, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacteria from the hospital environment, including linens and curtains, are often responsible for hospital-associated infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal effects of fabrics coated with the hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite “Earth-plus”. Methods Bactericidal activities of woven and nonwoven fabrics coated with Earth-plus were investigated by the time-kill curve method using nine bacterial strains, including three Staphylococcus aureus, three Escherichia coli, and three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Results The numbers of viable S. aureus and E. coli cells on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus decreased to below 2 log10 colony-forming units/mL in six hours and reached the detection limit in 18 hours. Viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus could not be detected after 3–6 hours. Viable cells on woven fabrics showed a more rapid decline than those on nonwoven fabrics. Bacterial cell counts of the nine strains on fabrics without Earth-plus failed to decrease even after 18 hours. Conclusion Woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics were shown to have excellent antibacterial potential. The woven fabric was more bactericidal than the nonwoven fabric. PMID:21931489

  19. Isotropy equilibrium of the double woven fabric with cotton face and wool reverse fibrous compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnev, I.; Rimini, G.

    2017-10-01

    The equilibrium of the masses and the mechanical properties between the warp and the weft is a determining factor for the quality of the woven fabrics. When the fabric has a multi-layered structure and is designed for protective clothing, the uniform distribution of the elastical resistance acquires a paramount importance for the consumer properties. Isotropy in the sense of absolute equalising of the properties between the base and the weft evaluates the achieved optimum cohesion between the weaving threads and directs the weaving cycle settings. The possible variation of the ratio between the elastic modules of the warp and the weft, depending on the weft spacing and the warp tension, is the basic idea of this article.

  20. Effect of Titanium Dioxide Treatment on the Properties of 100% Cotton Knitted Fabric

    OpenAIRE

    Md Mostafizur Rahman; Md. Solaiman; Elias Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a white, water insoluble pigment. It is used in paints, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Its main application on textile materials as an ultraviolet ray protecting agents. Titanium dioxide can reflect, scatter or absorb ultraviolet ray. Besides Titanium dioxide also modify the properties of fabrics. In previous research, titanium dioxide was applied mainly by padding mangle method. This paper presents an approach to observe the effect of titanium d...

  1. Effect of chitosan on resist printing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... centration of 1.6% and individually mixed with citric acid and tartaric acid at various ratios (10:0, 8:2, 6:4, 4:6, 2:8 and 0:10), was prepared for comparison. Analysis. Reflectance measurements on the printed fabrics were performed on an automatic filter spectrophotometer (HunterLab Miniscan 45/0. LAV).

  2. All-cellulose and all-wood composites by partial dissolution of cotton fabric and wood in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mitsuhiro; Teramoto, Naozumi; Nakamura, Taro; Saitoh, Yoshinobu

    2013-11-06

    After cotton fabric (CF) and hinoki lumber (HL) were dipped in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) at 100 °C, the BMIMCl-impregnated CF and HL were hot-pressed to give CF-BMIMCl and HL-BMIMCl composites, respectively. The BMIMCl contained in the composites was removed by Soxhlet extraction, and subsequently annealed to produce all-cellulose and all-wood composites (CF-A and HL-A). The SEM analyses revealed that cellulose fibers combined together for CF-A and the surface of HL-A became smooth, respectively. The XRD measurements indicated that the crystallinity index of cellulose component decreased by the hot press, increased by the extraction, and further increased by the annealing for both the composites. The tensile modulus of CF-A increased with increasing pressure of hot-press. Although tensile strength of HL-A was a little lower than that of original HL, tensile modulus of the former was much higher than that of the latter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cotton fabric finishing with TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} composite hydrosol based on ionic cross-linking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.J.; Tian, Y.L.; Liu, H.L., E-mail: hlliu@dhu.edu.cn; Du, Z.Q.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the cotton finishing with TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} based on ionic cross-linking method. • The samples treated with CHTAC had lower value of whiteness. • The samples treated with BTCA achieved higher crease recovery angle and lower tensile strength. • The ionic cross-linking treatment (CHTAC + BTCA + TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}) was better than with TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} sol alone. - Abstract: Cotton fabric was successfully modified by 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHTAC), 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) and TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} sol. Self-cleaning characteristic was investigated using a Color Measuring and Matching System with 6 h sunlight irradiation. And the stability of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} coatings was explored by measuring the washing fastness and wrinkle resistance of treated cotton samples. In addition, whiteness index, crease recovery angle and tensile strength retention (%) of treated samples were evaluated. Moreover, the morphology, structure change and crystallinity of samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results revealed that the samples treated with CHTAC had lower value of whiteness index as compared with original cotton fabric. It was also found that samples treated with BTCA achieved higher crease recovery angle and lower tensile strength. Moreover, the treatment of CHTAC and BTCA had adverse effect on the crystallinity of cotton samples, as treated samples had lower crystallinity in comparison with raw cotton fabrics. Nevertheless, the stability of self-cleaning coatings was better for samples treated with ionic cross-linking treatment (CHTAC + BTCA + TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}) than samples treated with TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} sol alone. Furthermore, compared with original samples the UV-blocking property of ionic cross-linking treated samples was obviously enhanced.

  4. Cotton Fabric Surface Modification by Sol-Gel Deposition of ZnO Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihodceva, S.; Kukle, S.

    2012-08-01

    One of the main tasks of research is to impact the additional value on natural textiles by adding to them ultraviolet (UV) absorption and antimicrobial protection properties with ZnO nano-level coatings. ZnO shows high absorption in the UV region of the light spectrum, in comparison with organic absorbers conventionally used in the textile industry shows no significant degradation, is stable and classified as non-toxic material. Nanosols were prepared by using the sol-gel process. In this work comparison of samples coated by nanosols with zinc acetate (Zn (CH3COO)2-2H2O) and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) was made. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the nature of the surface modification with ZnO coating by the sol-gel technique as also after exploitation of samples; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for the analysis of elemental composition of coated fabric samples.

  5. Ultrasound mediation for one-pot sonosynthesis and deposition of magnetite nanoparticles on cotton/polyester fabric as a novel magnetic, photocatalytic, sonocatalytic, antibacterial and antifungal textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgoo, Madine; Montazer, Majid; Malek, Reza M A; Harifi, Tina; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2016-07-01

    A magnetic cotton/polyester fabric with photocatalytic, sonocatalytic, antibacterial and antifungal activities was successfully prepared through in-situ sonosynthesis method under ultrasound irradiation. The process involved the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) via hydroxyl radicals generated through bubbles collapse in ultrasonic bath. The treated samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Photocatalytic and sonocatalytic activities of magnetite treated fabrics were also evaluated toward Reactive Blue 2 decoloration under sunlight and ultrasound irradiation. Central composite design based on response surface methodology was applied to study the influence of iron precursor, pH and surfactant concentration to obtain appropriate amount for the best magnetism. Findings suggested the potential of one-pot sonochemical method to synthesize and fabricate Fe3O4 nanoparticles on cotton/polyester fabric possessing appropriate saturation magnetization, 95% antibacterial efficiency against Staphylococcus aureus and 99% antifungal effect against Candida albicans, 87% and 70% dye photocatalytic and sonocatalytic decoloration along with enhanced mechanical properties using only one iron rich precursor at low temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of argon/oxygen atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge treatment on desizing and scouring of poly (vinyl alcohol) on cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shujing; Gao, Zhiqiang; Sun, Jie; Yao, Lan; Qiu, Yiping

    2009-09-01

    The effect of argon/oxygen atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) treatment on desizing and scouring of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on cotton fabric was studied with respect to the treatment duration of 1, 2, 4 and 6 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that oxygen concentration increased for the plasma treated PVA film. Solubility measurement revealed that plasma treatment increased PVA solubility in hot washing but less effective in cold washing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the fiber surfaces were as clean as unsized fibers after 6 min treatment followed by hot washing. Wickability analysis indicated that the capillary heights of plasma treated fabrics increased significantly as the plasma treatment duration increased. The results of the yarn tensile strength test showed that the plasma treatment did not have a negative effect on fabric tensile strength.

  7. Polymeric nanoencapsulation of insect repellent: Evaluation of its bioefficacy on Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito population and effective impregnation onto cotton fabrics for insect repellent clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.B. Balaji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diethylphenylacetamide (Bulk-DEPA, an organic insect repellent was subjected to Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG polymerization followed by Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT emulsification method to yield the polymeric nanodroplets of DEPA (Nano-DEPA. The mean hydrodynamic diameter was found to be 149 ± 1.06 nm. The efficacy of Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA was comparatively investigated on the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito population. The larvicidal bioassay was performed on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and the median lethal indices (LC50 of was found to be 0.055, 0.208, 1.397 mg/L and 0.023, 0.144, 0.260 mg/L for Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA respectively. The histopathological studies were found to be corroborative with the larvicidal bioassay. The median knockdown indices (KD50 on 2–3 day old sucrose fed adult mosquitoes determined by WHO cone bioassay and was found to be 55.168 and 33.277 mg/L for Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA. The obtained results indicate the improved efficacy possessed by the Nano-DEPA as comparative to Bulk-DEPA even at lower concentrations. Further, the Nano-DEPA was impregnated onto the alginate cross-linked (ACL and Plain (PL cotton fabrics, and the Washing resistance index (WRI was determined. The obtained results indicate the higher WRI possessed by the ACL cotton fabric than the PL cotton fabric. This was owing to the effective physical entrapment of Nano-DEPA onto the alginate matrices, which was further substantiated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopic (HR-SEM studies. Overall, the present study has emphasized the benefit of formulating Bulk-DEPA into Nano-DEPA to exert higher efficacy on the mosquito population. In addition, study has provided the methodology for the effective impregnation of Nano-DEPA onto the cotton fabrics for the reliable application in long lasting insect repellent clothing.

  8. Cotton fabric coated with nano TiO{sub 2}-acrylate copolymer for photocatalytic self-cleaning by in-situ suspension polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xue, E-mail: jiangx@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles of Ministry of Education, College of textiles and Clothing, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510640 (China); Tian Xiuzhi; Gu Jian; Huang Dan [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles of Ministry of Education, College of textiles and Clothing, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Yang Yiqi [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles of Ministry of Education, College of textiles and Clothing, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Department of Textiles, Clothing and Design, 234 HECO Bldg, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Two kinds of nano TiO{sub 2}-polyacrylate hybrid dispersions, TBM-w and TBM-e were synthesized by in-situ suspension polymerization and solution polymerization respectively, in order to fix the nano TiO{sub 2} on fabrics. The photocatalytic self-cleaning fabrics have received much attention in recent years for its water-saving and environment-protection advantages. However, the fixation of the photocatalyst on fabrics is still a key problem that inhibits industrialization of these eco-friendly fabrics. The cotton fabric was treated by the two hybrid dispersions. The photocatalytic self-cleaning property was characterized. Infrared spectroscopy, burning loss test and thermogravimetry showed that some copolymer chains entangled with the nano TiO{sub 2}. Transmission electron microscope illustrated that there was a polymeric layer on the surface of nano TiO{sub 2}. The average diameter of TBM-w was smaller than that of TBM-e based on size analysis. The photocatalytic decoloration of the grape syrup indicated that the fabric with TiO{sub 2}-polymer hybrid had excellent self-cleaning property.

  9. Cotton fabric coated with nano TiO 2-acrylate copolymer for photocatalytic self-cleaning by in-situ suspension polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Tian, Xiuzhi; Gu, Jian; Huang, Dan; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-08-01

    Two kinds of nano TiO 2-polyacrylate hybrid dispersions, TBM-w and TBM-e were synthesized by in-situ suspension polymerization and solution polymerization respectively, in order to fix the nano TiO 2 on fabrics. The photocatalytic self-cleaning fabrics have received much attention in recent years for its water-saving and environment-protection advantages. However, the fixation of the photocatalyst on fabrics is still a key problem that inhibits industrialization of these eco-friendly fabrics. The cotton fabric was treated by the two hybrid dispersions. The photocatalytic self-cleaning property was characterized. Infrared spectroscopy, burning loss test and thermogravimetry showed that some copolymer chains entangled with the nano TiO 2. Transmission electron microscope illustrated that there was a polymeric layer on the surface of nano TiO 2. The average diameter of TBM-w was smaller than that of TBM-e based on size analysis. The photocatalytic decoloration of the grape syrup indicated that the fabric with TiO 2-polymer hybrid had excellent self-cleaning property.

  10. An in vitro study on the burn wound healing activity of cotton fabrics incorporated with phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles in male Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannerselvam, Balashanmugam; Dharmalingam Jothinathan, Mukesh Kumar; Rajenderan, Murugan; Perumal, Palani; Pudupalayam Thangavelu, Kalaichelvan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Singh, Vijay; Rangarajulu, Senthil Kumaran

    2017-03-30

    In modern therapeutics, chemically synthesized drugs have been reported as causing adverse effects including allergies, rashes, itches, and swelling. For the past few decades, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have widely been applied in medical domains due to their antimicrobial and wound healing properties. In the present study, different concentrations of phytosynthesized AgNPs-saturated cotton dress fabrics - in comparison to cotton fabrics treated with commercial ointment - were tested for 18days to assess their ability to speed the healing of rats' burn wounds. No significant difference in body weight was observed during the course of treatment as compared to the normal rat group. The cotton fabrics observed under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) confirmed the distribution of AgNPs in the cotton fibers. Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) spectrum also authenticated the AgNPs' distribution. At the end of the experimental period, the wound healing efficacy of dressing containing commercial ointment (Burn Heal) was slightly lower than that of treatment containing 100μg/kg of body weight (kg b.w.) of AgNPs. Additionally, it was also observed that the wound contraction area was higher than that of the positive drug 100μg/kg b.w. treated group, which indicates comparatively better-quality activity of ointments with AgNPs with regards to their burn healing properties. The histological and SEM observations showed better fibril alignments in repaired skin when compared with the negative and positive control groups. Perhaps due to the tensile strength of the comparatively higher concentration of nanoparticles, Groups IV and V (which contained the most nanoparticles out of all the groups) showed much better healing properties than did the positive drug treated group VI. Altogether, increased-concentration AgNPs show increased recovery action in comparison to the positive drug treated group. This study provides additional insight into the incorporation of AgNPs in

  11. Preparation of crosslinked polysiloxane/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite via in-situ condensation and its surface modification on cotton fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Lifen, E-mail: haolifen@sust.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Zibo Dahuanjiu Polygrace Tannery Group Co. Ltd., Zibo, Shandong 256400 (China); Gao, Tingting [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Xu, Wei [College of Resource and Environment, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Zibo Dahuanjiu Polygrace Tannery Group Co. Ltd., Zibo, Shandong 256400 (China); Wang, Xuechuan [College of Resource and Environment, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Yang, Shuqin; Liu, Xiangguo [Zibo Dahuanjiu Polygrace Tannery Group Co. Ltd., Zibo, Shandong 256400 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • We used a two-step method to fabricate novel crosslinked polysiloxane/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite (CLPS-SiO{sub 2}). • Superhydrophobic surface on cotton fiber can be conveniently constructed by CLPS-SiO{sub 2}. • Color and softness of the CLPS-SiO{sub 2} treated fabric would not be influenced at all. • The CLPS-SiO{sub 2} treated fabric possessed good washing durability. - Abstract: Novel crosslinked polysiloxane/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite (CLPS-SiO{sub 2}) was successfully prepared via the in-situ condensation reaction of silica sols and crosslinked polysiloxane with end-capped triethoxysilane in solvent, which was firstly fabricated through the modification of our previously developed crosslinked polysiloxane with end-capped epoxy groups using aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and noted as APTES-CLPS. Chemical structures and thermal properties of the as-prepared resultants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectra ({sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). CLPS-SiO{sub 2} was applied as surface modification agent to treat cotton fabrics. Film morphologies and surface properties were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements, and other instruments. FTIR and NMR confirmed structure of the products. CLPS-SiO{sub 2} showed better thermal stability than APTES-CLPS due to anchor of the nanosilica. APTES-CLPS could deposit a smooth film on cotton fiber surface. Besides, CLPS-SiO{sub 2} also coated the fibers with many nano-scaled tubercles beneath this smooth film by SEM. However, the APTES-CLPS film and the CLPS-SiO{sub 2} film on silicon-wafer were never homogeneous and had a few low or high peaks. The root mean square roughness (Rq) of APTES-CLPS film reached to 0.441 nm in 2 × 2 μm{sup 2} scanning field and at 5 nm data scale. Owing to the incorporation of

  12. Biosynthesis of indigo dye by newly isolated naphthalene-degrading strain Pseudomonas sp. HOB1 and its application in dyeing cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hilor; Madamwar, Datta

    2010-03-01

    Indigo is one of the oldest dyes manufactured chemically and is mostly used in textile, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, owing to the environmental hazards posed by the chemical production, the present scenario in the field stipulates a biosynthesis alternative for indigo production. The present study describes an indigenously isolated naphthalene-degrading strain Pseudomonas sp. HOB1 producing a blue pigment when indole was added in the growth medium. This blue pigment was analyzed by high-pressure thin-layer chromatography and other spectroscopic techniques which revealed it to be the indigo dye. Pseudomonas sp. HOB1 showed ability to produce 246 mg indigo liter(-1) of the medium. The K (m) for the enzyme naphthalene dioxygenase which is involved in indigo formation is 0.3 mM, and V (max) was as high as 50 nmol min(-1) mg dry biomass(-1). The bacterial indigo dye was further successfully applied for dyeing cotton fabrics. The high indigo productivity of Pseudomonas sp. HOB1 using naphthalene as growth substrate and its applicability on cotton fabrics, therefore, stems the probability of using this culture for commercial indigo production.

  13. Enriched adhesion of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on cotton fabric assisted by aloe-vera for bio-medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, D.; Thenammai, A. N.; Yogamalar, N. R.; Hemamalini, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis and characterization of talc/ZnO nanocomposites with the assistance of aloe-vera are investigated by structural and morphological studies. The crystal structure and the phase analysis of ZnO and talc are characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite size estimation from the Scherrer formula and the particle size analysis clearly predicts that the size of the ZnO declines when aloe-vera is used as a capping molecule in comparison to the commercially available ZnO. The reduced crystallite size of ZnO renders a stable cohesion with the talc composition and the presence of distinct functional group pyridines/ammonia in the synthesized nanocomposites enriches the good adhesion between the as-synthesized material and cotton fabric. The adhesion and homogeneous distribution of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric are inferred from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The basic studies and characterizations would pave way for futuristic bio-medical application.

  14. ZnO nanoparticles obtained by pulsed laser ablation and their composite with cotton fabric: Preparation and study of antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetlichnyi, Valery; Shabalina, Anastasiia, E-mail: shabalinaav@gmail.com; Lapin, Ivan; Goncharova, Daria; Nemoykina, Anna

    2016-05-30

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles obtained by pulsed laser ablation exhibit antibacterial activity. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Zn{sup 2+} are not responsible for antibacterial activity of obtained zinc oxide. • Nano-ZnO/cotton fabric composite is a promising material for antibacterial bandage. - Abstract: A simple deposition method was used to prepare a ZnO/cotton fabric composite from water and ethanol dispersions of ZnO nanoparticles obtained by the pulsed laser ablation method. The structure and composition of the nanoparticles from dispersions and as-prepared composites were studied using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and spectroscopy. The nanoparticles and composite obtained exhibited antibacterial activity to three different pathogenic microorganisms—Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. An attempt to understand a mechanism of bactericidal effect of ZnO nanoparticles was made. It was shown that zinc ions and hydrogen peroxide were not responsible for antibacterial activity of the particles and the composite, and surface properties of nanoparticles played an important role in antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. The proposed composite is a promising material for use as an antibacterial bandage.

  15. Enriched adhesion of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on cotton fabric assisted by aloe-vera for bio-medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvakumar, D.; Yogamalar, N. R.; Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai – 600025 (India); Thenammai, A. N.; Hemamalini, R. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary’s College, Chennai – 600004 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Synthesis and characterization of talc/ZnO nanocomposites with the assistance of aloe-vera are investigated by structural and morphological studies. The crystal structure and the phase analysis of ZnO and talc are characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite size estimation from the Scherrer formula and the particle size analysis clearly predicts that the size of the ZnO declines when aloe-vera is used as a capping molecule in comparison to the commercially available ZnO. The reduced crystallite size of ZnO renders a stable cohesion with the talc composition and the presence of distinct functional group pyridines/ammonia in the synthesized nanocomposites enriches the good adhesion between the as-synthesized material and cotton fabric. The adhesion and homogeneous distribution of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric are inferred from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The basic studies and characterizations would pave way for futuristic bio-medical application.

  16. High level extracellular production of a recombinant alkaline catalase in E. coli BL21 under ethanol stress and its application in hydrogen peroxide removal after cotton fabrics bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenxiao; Zheng, Hongchen; Zhao, Xingya; Li, Shufang; Xu, Jianyong; Song, Hui

    2016-08-01

    The effects of induction parameters, osmolytes and ethanol stress on the productivity of the recombinant alkaline catalase (KatA) in Escherichia coli BL21 (pET26b-KatA) were investigated. The yield of soluble KatA was significantly enhanced by 2% ethanol stress. And a certain amount of Triton X-100 supplementation could markedly improved extracellular ratio of KatA. A total soluble catalase activity of 78,762U/mL with the extracellular ratio of 92.5% was achieved by fed-batch fermentation in a 10L fermentor, which was the highest yield so far. The purified KatA showed high stability at 50°C and pH 6-10. Application of KatA for elimination of H2O2 after cotton fabrics bleaching led to less consumption of water, steam and electric power by 25%, 12% and 16.7% respectively without productivity and quality losing of cotton fabrics. Thus, the recombinant KatA is a promising candidate for industrial production and applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of biodegradation of low-weight hydroentangled raw cotton nonwoven fabric and that of commonly used disposable nonwoven fabrics in the aerobic Captina silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing use of disposable nonwovens made of petroleum-based materials generates a large amount of non-biodegradable, solid waste in the environment. As an effort to enhance the usage of biodegradable cotton in nonwovens, this study analyzed the biodegradability of mechanically pre-cleaned gr...

  18. FTT comfort indices of ring-spun and air-jet knitted fabrics with post-treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, S.; Malengier, B.; De Raeve, A.; Haji Musa, A. Binti

    2017-10-01

    The Fabric Touch Tester (FTT) is a relatively new instrument that simultaneously measures several fabric indices and subsequently compute from them primary and global comfort indices (fabric total touch and total feel). The main aim of this research was to investigate the ability of the FTT to discriminate between primary comfort indices of fabrics differentiated by yarn type (i.e. ring-spun yarns and air-jet yarns) and finishing treatments. Polyester-cotton knitted fabrics were produced and their FTT-predicted primary comfort indices (i.e. smoothness, softness and warmth) were compared with those of the finished knits (i.e. dyed and dyed with softening treatments). For the considered fabrics, it was fond that the type of yarn did not lead to statistically significant different comfort indices. Nevertheless, significant differences were found between the comfort indices of the untreated fabrics and the fabrics dyed and treated with a softener regardless the type of yarn. The findings are in line with similar findings from literature where other instruments were used. These first results suggest that FTT is a promising tool that is able to distinguish between samples with small differences induced by finishing treatments.

  19. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of cotton fabric coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, and with deposited silver nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maráková, N.; Humpolíček, P.; Kašpárková, V.; Capáková, Z.; Martinková, L.; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 396, 28 February (2017), s. 169-176 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020022; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antimicrobial activity * conductivity * cotton Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  20. Surface coating for flame-retardant behavior of cotton fabric using a continuous layer-by-layer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton’s exceptional softness, breathability, and absorbency have made it America’s best selling textile fiber; however, cotton textiles are generally more combustible than their synthetic counterparts. In this study, a continuous layer-by-layer self-assembly technique was used to deposit polymer-cl...

  1. Low-level, uniform ultrasound field effects on enzymatic bioprocessing of greige cotton using three fabric weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic bio-processing of greige cotton offers an environmentally friendly alternative approach to conventional alkaline scouring. Our research has found that the introduction of a low energy, uniform ultrasound field into enzyme processing solutions greatly improved enzyme ef...

  2. In vitro assessment of ultraviolet protection of coloured cotton knitted fabrics with different structures under stretched and wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W Y; Lam, J K C; Kan, C W; Postle, R

    2015-04-01

    Clothing provides intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) protection that can be improved by colouration. However, the daily wearing condition can undermine the UV protection of coloured clothing wherein garments are stretched by body movement and/or wetted by perspiration of wearers. Knitwear is an indispensable clothing in summer, but its UV protection against wearing conditions lacks extensive study especially in a fabric structural approach. This article aimed at narrowing the research gap by focusing on the UV protection against stretch and wetness provided by various knitted fabric constructions incorporating the knit, tuck and miss stitches. The results show that the black knitted fabrics exhibit a significant reduction in the UV protection factor by 53% on average at a 10% stretch level. Knitted fabrics with miss stitches retained good UV protection even when the fabrics were stretched by 20% of its original dimensions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  4. Antibacterial performance of Chlorhexidine acetate treated plain cotton and β-cyclodextrin treated cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Usha; Nabers, M.G.D.; Agrawal, Pramod; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2014-01-01

    Cotton was treated with β-cyclodextrin via a crosslinker 1, 2, 3, 4, butane tetracarboxylic acid. β-cyclodextrin attached cotton and plain cotton was treated with the antimicrobial agent Chlorhexidine acetate. The difference in amount of Chlorhexidine acetate loaded onto the two types of fabrics for

  5. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  6. LiDy(PO34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia Chehimi-Moumen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of lithium dysprosium polyphosphate, LiDy(PO34, were prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3n chains extending along the b axis. Dy3+ and Li+ cations alternate in the middle of four such chains, with Dy...Li distances of 3.54 (1 and 3.48 (1 Å. The DyO8 dodecahedra and LiO4 tetrahedra deviate significantly from the ideal geometry. Both Dy and Li occupy special positions (Wyckoff position 4e, site symmetry 2.

  7. AND Dy(III)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL. ACTIVITIES OF Sm(III) AND Dy(III) COMPLEXES WITH SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM. 2-HYDROXY-1-NAPHTHALDEHYDE AND 2-AMINOBENZOIC ACID. 1Bashir, S.S. and Abdulhadi, A. 1Department of Chemistry, Rabi'u Musa Kwankwaso ...

  8. Batch production of Pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes versicolor (ATCC 11235) in medium with a lignocellulosic substrate and enzymatic bleaching of cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara; Erden, Emre; Ucar, M Cigdem; Akkaya, Alper; Sariisik, A Merih

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine new, different and low-cost substrates that can be used for enzyme production from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor (ATCC 11235) by taking advantage of the broad substrate specificity of pyranose 2-oxidase. In this report, we investigated the production of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. versicolor (ATCC 11235) using ten different agricultural residues such as clover straw, almond shells, hazelnut cobs, grass and others. Pyranose 2-oxidase activity was determined as 2.332 U/g at the 9th day in a submerged culture containing clover straw and tap water shaken at 150 rpm and 26°C, and the optimum clover straw concentration was determined to be 12 g/l. The effects of different glucose, nitrogen and phosphate sources on the production of pyranose 2-oxidase were studied in the clover straw medium. Analyses of biomass, protein, reduced sugar and nitrogen concentrations were also monitored in a clover straw medium that did not contain carbon or nitrogen and phosphate sources under the parameters determined. The produced pyranose 2-oxidase was used for improving the properties of cotton fabrics.

  9. Studies on Coloration and UV Protective Action of Anar Peel (Pomegranate Rind) as an Effective Natural Colorant for Cotton Khadi Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnur, H. D.; Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Verma, D. K.; Kaware, Runali

    2017-10-01

    Besides optimization of conditions of colour extraction from dried anar peel, effect of different single and double mordants, dyeing process variables and UV protective action of anar peels (pomegranate rind i.e. Punica granatum L.) as a natural colourant is studied in this work. Mordants used are potash alum, aluminium sulphate and stannous chloride (as metallic salt mordant) and harda (i.e., myrobolan as natural mordant) from natural source. Relevant results indicate that 50:50 ratio of harda plus potash aluminium sulphate at overall 15% application level offers maximum K/S value and overall good colour fastness than any other combination. After finalizing the mordants, dyeing process variables were studied for standardization of conditions for dyeing cotton khadi fabric with aqueous extract of pomegranate rind. The results indicate that standardized conditions for dyeing are (a) dyeing time : 60 min, (b) dyeing temperature: 80 °C, (c) dye bath MLR : 1:30, (d) dye bath pH : 9.0, (e) max dye concentration : 20% and (f) common salt : 3%. Studies of FTIR, UV scan, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and UV Protection Factor (UPF) characters show a medium to good level of ultraviolet protection. Corresponding reaction mechanism amongst mordant/fibre and dye forming giant complex is also reported.

  10. Effect Of Dyeing On Wrinkle Properties Of Cotton Cross-Linked By Butane Tetracarboxylic Acid (BTCA In Presence Of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezavehi Emadaldin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the wrinkle behaviour and wrinkle resistant properties of cotton fabrics dyed by Direct Blue 2B in the presence and absence of nano-TiO2 particles. A finishing process on samples was performed before dyeing by means of 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA and sodium hypophosphite (SHP using a pad dry cure method. Such experiments as wrinkle recovery test (AATCC-128, water drop test and dye fastness determination (ISO 105-C01 were conducted to understand how current treatment impacted the cotton fabrics’ properties. Finally, samples were characterised using the X-ray diffractometery method to scrutinise how crystallinity changes and dominates the structural parameter (wrinkle behaviour of cotton fabrics. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to visualise the surface variations of the samples before and after dyeing process. The results showed that the wrinkle resistant of cross-linked fabrics have been improved after direct dyeing. Furthermore, levelness dyeing and good fastness properties of dyes on cross-linked fabrics were observed.

  11. Production and validation of model iron-tannate dyed textiles for use as historic textile substitutes in stabilisation treatment studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Helen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For millennia, iron-tannate dyes have been used to colour ceremonial and domestic objects shades of black, grey, or brown. Surviving iron-tannate dyed objects are part of our cultural heritage but their existence is threatened by the dye itself which can accelerate oxidation and acid hydrolysis of the substrate. This causes many iron-tannate dyed textiles to discolour and decrease in tensile strength and flexibility at a faster rate than equivalent undyed textiles. The current lack of suitable stabilisation treatments means that many historic iron-tannate dyed objects are rapidly crumbling to dust with the knowledge and value they hold being lost forever. This paper describes the production, characterisation, and validation of model iron-tannate dyed textiles as substitutes for historic iron-tannate dyed textiles in the development of stabilisation treatments. Spectrophotometry, surface pH, tensile testing, SEM-EDX, and XRF have been used to characterise the model textiles. Results On application to textiles, the model dyes imparted mid to dark blue-grey colouration, an immediate tensile strength loss of the textiles and an increase in surface acidity. The dyes introduced significant quantities of iron into the textiles which was distributed in the exterior and interior of the cotton, abaca, and silk fibres but only in the exterior of the wool fibres. As seen with historic iron-tannate dyed objects, the dyed cotton, abaca, and silk textiles lost tensile strength faster and more significantly than undyed equivalents during accelerated thermal ageing and all of the dyed model textiles, most notably the cotton, discoloured more than the undyed equivalents on ageing. Conclusions The abaca, cotton, and silk model textiles are judged to be suitable for use as substitutes for cultural heritage materials in the testing of stabilisation treatments.

  12. Production and validation of model iron-tannate dyed textiles for use as historic textile substitutes in stabilisation treatment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background For millennia, iron-tannate dyes have been used to colour ceremonial and domestic objects shades of black, grey, or brown. Surviving iron-tannate dyed objects are part of our cultural heritage but their existence is threatened by the dye itself which can accelerate oxidation and acid hydrolysis of the substrate. This causes many iron-tannate dyed textiles to discolour and decrease in tensile strength and flexibility at a faster rate than equivalent undyed textiles. The current lack of suitable stabilisation treatments means that many historic iron-tannate dyed objects are rapidly crumbling to dust with the knowledge and value they hold being lost forever. This paper describes the production, characterisation, and validation of model iron-tannate dyed textiles as substitutes for historic iron-tannate dyed textiles in the development of stabilisation treatments. Spectrophotometry, surface pH, tensile testing, SEM-EDX, and XRF have been used to characterise the model textiles. Results On application to textiles, the model dyes imparted mid to dark blue-grey colouration, an immediate tensile strength loss of the textiles and an increase in surface acidity. The dyes introduced significant quantities of iron into the textiles which was distributed in the exterior and interior of the cotton, abaca, and silk fibres but only in the exterior of the wool fibres. As seen with historic iron-tannate dyed objects, the dyed cotton, abaca, and silk textiles lost tensile strength faster and more significantly than undyed equivalents during accelerated thermal ageing and all of the dyed model textiles, most notably the cotton, discoloured more than the undyed equivalents on ageing. Conclusions The abaca, cotton, and silk model textiles are judged to be suitable for use as substitutes for cultural heritage materials in the testing of stabilisation treatments. PMID:22616934

  13. Enhancement of abdominal wall defect repair using allogenic platelet-rich plasma with commercial polyester/cotton fabric (Damour) in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelnasr, Khaled; Hamed, Mohamed; Lashen, Samah; El-Adl, Mohamed; Eltaysh, Rasha; Tagawa, Michihito

    2017-07-28

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has an important role in musculoskeletal surgery; however, it has been underutilized for accelerating the healing of abdominal wall defects in veterinary practice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial polyester/cotton fabric (Damour) as a new composite mesh for the repair of experimentally induced abdominal wall defects in canine models, and to investigate the possible role of PRP for improving such repair and reducing allied complications. For this purpose, abdominal wall defects were created in 24 healthy mongrel dogs and then repaired with mesh alone (control group) or mesh and allogenic PRP (PRP group). Dogs were euthanized after 2 or 4 months for gross examination of implantation site, detection of adhesion score and hernia recurrence. Moreover, tissue samples were collected for histological and gene expression analyses for neovascularization, collagen formation and tissue incorporation. Hernia recurrence was not recorded in PRP-treated dogs that also displayed significantly more neovascularization and less severe adhesion to the underlings (1.08 ± 0.51) in comparison to control group (2.08 ± 0.99). Histological and molecular evaluation confirmed the gross findings that collagen deposition, new vessel formation, and overexpression of angiogenic and myofibroplastic genes (COL1α1, COL3α1, VEGF and TGFβ1) were observed more frequently in the PRP group, at both time points. In conclusion, we found that addition of allogenic PRP to Damour mesh enhanced neovessel formation, and increased tissue deposition and incorporation, with subsequent reduction of peritoneal adhesion and recurrence rate.

  14. XPS and contact angle study of cotton surface oxidation by catalytic bleaching, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 296

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topalovic, T.; Nierstrasz, Vincent; Bautista, J.; Bautista, Lorenzo; Jocic, Dragan; Jocic, D.; Navarro, Antonio; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2007-01-01

    Surface chemistry and wetting properties of cotton fibres as affected by catalytic bleaching have been investigated. Two types of cotton fabric have been analysed: the regular and a model cotton fabric. In the regular – double scoured cotton fabric, cellulose was contaminated with both non-removable

  15. Potential development of a new cotton-based antimicrobial wipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of a cationic biocide on various cotton and synthetic nonwoven fabrics was investigated using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results reveal that rayon and greige cotton nonwovens adsorb nearly three times more cationic biocide than comparable bleached cotton substrates. Polyester...

  16. Green Flame Retardant Cotton Highlofts for Mattresses and Upholstered Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric is environmentally-friendly because it is from a natural renewable resource, biodegradable, economical, employing greige cotton that is soft to touch. Greige unbleached cotton is cheaper and softer than bleached cotton, thus, increasing its marketability par...

  17. Fourier transform infrared imaging of Cotton trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the identification of trash types comingled with cotton lint. A good understanding of the specific trash types present can lead to the fabrication of new equipment which can identify and sort cotton trash found with cotton fiber. Conventional methods, including the High Vo...

  18. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from cotton nonowoven fabric. For the ACF acoustical application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glass fiber ...

  19. Antibacterial activity and the hydrophobicity of cotton coated with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaeti, Eli; Rakhmawati, Anna

    2017-08-01

    In this work, cotton fiber was fabricated using silver nanoparticles to produce hydrophobic and antibacterial material. The silver nanoparticle was prepared with chemical reduction method using trisodium citrate as reducing agent and PVA as stabilizer. Silver nanoparticle was deposited on cotton fibers as antibacterial agent and HDTMS 4% v/v was coated on those as hydrophobic agent. The cotton fibers before and after modification were characterized its functional groups, contact angles, and antibacterials activities. The functional groups of cottons were determined by using ATR-FTIR, hydrophobic properties of cottons were determined by measuring contact angle, and antibacterial activities of cottons were determined by measuring clear zone. The addition of HDTMS decreased the intensity of absorption bands of functional groups but increased contact angle of cotton cloth. The cotton cloth-silver nanoparticle shows the highest antibacterial properties. The antibacterial activity of cotton cloth without and with modification against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Eschericia coli 32518 were significantly different.

  20. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. The preparation and antibacterial effects of dopa-cotton/AgNPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Hong, E-mail: hxu@dhu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shi Xue; Ma Hui; Lv Yihang; Zhang Linping [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Mao Zhiping, E-mail: zhpmao@dhu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been known to have powerful antibacterial activity. In this paper, in situ generation of AgNPs on the surface of dopamine modified cotton fabrics (dopa-cotton/AgNPs) in aqueous solution under room temperature is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were used to analyze the surface chemical composition and the morphology of the modified cotton fabrics, respectively. The results indicated that the surface of cotton fabrics was successfully coated with polydopamine and AgNPs. The cotton fabrics with AgNPs showed durable antibacterial activity.

  2. Application of foams to the processing of fabrics. Phase III. Technical progress report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodri, C.G.

    1980-09-01

    Objective is to reduce the energy required to evaporate the water in wet processes by using foams. By the end of August 1980 approximately 400,000,000 yards of fabric had been foam finished. Plant energy data from three UM and M plants have been collected which shows great savings. Considerable work has been done on developing applicators to apply dye and finish uniformly to flat goods. Simultaneously tinting and foam finishing by the use of a tripad show promise. Foam dyeing of nylon carpets is in production and approximately 3 million pounds of carpet have been foam dyed in one US plant. Nylon flock fabric dyeing has been scaled-up in pilot plant and plant trials. Foam dyeing of 100% polyester blankets utilizing pigment foam and disperse dye foam is in production in one textile mill. Foam pigment dyeing of flat goods by horizontal pad application shows promise by the traverse application of foam on both sides of fabric. Wet on wet foam dyeing of prepared wet fabrics is feasible. A polyester/cotton narrow width industrial toweling is now being foam dyed and finished simultaneously commercially. Foam printing using engraved rolls continues in production.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Eu{sup 2+} Dy{sup 3+}/CS-PCL electrospun nanocomposite scaffold for retinal tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepahvandi, Azadeh; Eskandari, Mahnaz, E-mail: eskandarim@aut.ac.ir; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah

    2016-09-01

    Millions of people around the world become blind due to losing a part of the retina cells. In tissue engineering field one way to address this issue is to develop a retina tissue by scaffolds based on structure and signals received These scaffolds can play an essential role in repair and reformation of the damaged retina tissue. Here, SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} nanophosphor were prepared by sol-gel method and then coated with PEG to become biocompatible. Next 10%, 30% and 50% concentration of the coated nanophosphors were dispersed in CS-PCL copolymer and electrospuned to form SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+}/CS-PCL scaffolds. The aforementioned photo –luminescence-scaffolds were studied for their optical, mechanical and morphological characteristics finally the effect of these scaffolds on the mice RPCs cells' proliferation and differentiation was observed. The 30% nanophosphor dispersion scaffold while providing adequate mechanical flexibility and integrity, and exhibiting superior proliferation rates and acceptable differentiation into retinal neural cells (particularly photo receptors retinal) is suggested as a promising choice in retinal tissue repair. - Highlights: • The 30% nanophosphor dispersion scaffold for both shorter wavelength and middle intense emission is more near to biocompatible nanophosphors. • 30% dispersed nanophosphor scaffold displays satisfactory mechanical strength and flexibility where its behavior is similar to the retina tissue. • Besides as the most effective signal in this study is the electromagnetic signals emitted by nanophosphors, we attribute the enhanced proliferation to the positive effects of the later, the emitted signals of scaffolds. • The tendency towards spherical morphology implies that emitting light may stimulate the cell signaling toward differentiation • These findings implies that mRPC grown on SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+}/CS-PCL scaffolds in differentiation

  4. Our experience in processing a pre-cleaned greige cotton lint for certain nonwoven base materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally bleached cotton has been used for the production of nonwoven fabrics. One primary reason for this scenario was that there was no greige cotton fiber alternative that would meet the required cotton cleanliness needs of the nonwovens manufacturers. However, today, there are several vers...

  5. Cost Effective Approaches to Impart Flame Resistance to Cotton Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent changes in the flammability laws require improvements in the flame resistance of cotton-containing consumer goods such as upholstered furniture, mattresses, and pillows. Cotton, synthetic fibers, fabrics, and foam are the basic constituents of these goods, often the first to engulf by a fire....

  6. Silver(I) Antimicrobial Cotton Nonwovens and Printcloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we discuss the preparation and comparative evaluation of silver (I) [Ag(I)] nonwoven and woven antimicrobial barrier fabrics generated from commercial calcium-sodium alginates and laboratory prepared sodium carboxymethyl (CM) cotton nonwovens and CM-cotton printcloth for potential use ...

  7. Fourier transform infrared macro-imaging of botanical cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The marketability of cotton fiber is directly tied to the trash comingled with it. Trash can contaminate cotton during harvesting, ginning, and processing. Thus, the removal of trash is important from field to fabric. An ideal prerequisite to removing trash from lint is identifying what trash types...

  8. Never Say Dye: The Story of Coloured Cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    radiological safety and molecular biology. He occasionally writes popular science articles in both English and. Kannada. He was also the. Editor of Journal of. Medical Physics. .... the environment-friendly coloured cotton. However, coloured cottons are .... particularly children's clothes and fancy fabrics. In Peru it is marketed ...

  9. Surface nanomodification of cotton fiber for flame retardant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat; Jermsutjarit, Piyarat; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents efficient surface modification methodology to increase fire resistance properties of cotton by radio frequency (RF) plasma-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl phosphate ester as nanometer residue structure onto cotton surface. Methacryloyloxyethyl diphenyl phosphate (MEDP) monomer was synthesized and grafted onto the surface of cotton fabric by argon RF plasma at ambient temperature. Under optimum RF power (30 W), amounts of MEDP and N,N methylenebisacrylamide cross linking agent were varied to obtain optimum graft copolymerization conditions. Untreated and treated cotton were characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate their functional group characteristics. This showed a strong covalent attachment between the surface of cotton and flame retardant material as the carbonyl functionality of the MEDP was clearly observed in the spectra. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also showed grafted material as nanometer residue on cotton surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the decomposition of phosphorus compound which occurs at lower temperature than the cotton itself resulted in the formation of char which covers cotton surface. This protects the fabric surface from further burning, therefore, higher amounts of remaining materials were observed as char in all cases. Furthermore, limiting oxygen index (LOI) had increased from 19 in untreated to 28 in grafted cotton. Detailed analysis on structural and thermal properties as well as surface grafting efficiency are presented.

  10. Green FR Cotton Barrier Nonwovens: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This green barrier fabric is unique in sense that it is from a renewable resource, biodegradable, economical, employing greige (unbleached) cotton, thus, increasing its marketability. The recent open-flame standard (effective since July, 2007) for residential mattresses 16 CFR 1633 from CPSC has l...

  11. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  12. Observation of room temperature saturated ferroelectric polarization in Dy substituted BiFeO3 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shuxia

    2012-04-06

    High quality Bi1− x Dy x FeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) ceramics have been fabricated by sintering Dy-doped BiFeO3 (BFO) precursor powders at a low temperature of 780 °C. The magnetic properties of BFO were improved by the introduction of Dy on the Bi-site. More importantly, well saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops and polarization switching currents have been observed at room temperature. A large remnant polarization (2P r) value of 62 μC/cm2 is achieved, which is the highest value reported so far for rare-earth-doped BFO ceramics. Moreover, mechanisms for improved multiferroic properties depending on chemical doping-caused structure evolutions have also been discussed.

  13. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  14. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...... lightweight debugging models scale well, they can currently only debug a subset of bug classes. DySectAPI fills the gap between these two approaches with a novel user-guided approach. Using both experimental results and analytical modeling we show how DySectAPI scales and can run with a low overhead...

  15. The effect of pheno-formaldehyde finishing on the properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the effect of catalyst concentration, curing time and temperature on a phenolformaldehyde finished direct dyed cotton. The grey cotton fabric was desized, scoured, bleached and dyed with chlorazol D, a direct dye. Sample of the dyed cotton were subjected to resin finishing using phenol: formaldehyde.

  16. Extraction of natural colorant from purple sweet potato and dyeing of fabrics with silver nanoparticles for augmented antibacterial activity against skin pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Kim, Jae-In; Kim, Kangmin; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chang, Woo-Suk; Park, Yool-Jin; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to extract natural colorant from purple sweet potato powder (PSPP) via a water bath and ultrasound water bath using acidified ethanol (A. EtOH) as the extraction solvent. When optimizing the colorant extraction conditions of the solvents, acidified ethanol with ultrasound yielded a high extraction capacity and color intensity at pH2, temperature of 80°C, 20mL of A. EtOH, 1.5g of PSPP, time of 45min, and ultrasonic output power of 75W. Subsequently, the colorant was extracted using the optimized conditions for dyeing of textiles (leather, silk, and cotton). This natural colorant extraction technique can avoid serious environmental pollution during the extraction and is an alternative to synthetic dyes, using less solvent and simplified abstraction procedures. The extracted purple sweet potato natural colorant (PSPC) was used to dye leather, silk, and cotton fabrics in an eco-friendly approach with augmented antibacterial activity by in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and dyeing. The optimal dyeing conditions for higher color strength (K/S) values were pH2 and 70°C for 45min. The colorimetric parameters L∗, a∗, b∗, C, and H were measured to determine the depth of the color. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of undyed control, dyed with PSPC and dyed with blend of PSPC and AgNPs treated leather, silk and cotton fabric were investigated to study the interaction among fiber type, nanoparticles, and dye. The structural morphology of leather and silk and cotton fabrics and the anchoring of AgNPs with elemental compositions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dry and wet rubbing fastness for dye alone and dye with nanoparticles were grade 4-5 and 4, respectively. Thus, the results of the present study clearly suggest that in situ synthesis of AgNPs along with dyeing should be considered in the development of antimicrobial

  17. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  18. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Etaibi, Alya M; Alnassar, Huda S; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed

    2016-06-29

    The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  19. Optical thermometry based on luminescence behavior of Dy{sup 3+}-doped transparent LaF{sub 3} glass ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Y.Y. [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, College of Science, Nanjing (China); Cheng, S.J.; Wang, X.F. [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China); Key Laboratory of Radio Frequency and Micro-Nano Electronics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Yan, X.H. [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China); Key Laboratory of Radio Frequency and Micro-Nano Electronics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Science, Nanjing (China)

    2015-11-15

    Dy{sup 3+}-doped transparent LaF{sub 3} glass ceramics were fabricated, and its structures of resulting glass ceramics are studied by the X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Optical temperature sensing of the resulting glass ceramics in the temperature range from 298 to 523 K is studied based on the down-conversion luminescence of Dy{sup 3+} ion. By using fluorescence intensity ratio method, the {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} of Dy{sup 3+} ions are verified as thermally coupled levels. A minimum S{sub R} = 1.16 x 10{sup -4} K{sup -1} is obtained at T = 294 K. By doping Eu{sup 3+} ion, the overall emission color of Eu{sup 3+}-Dy{sup 3+} co-doped transparent glass ceramics can be tuned from white to yellow with the temperature increase through energy transfer between Eu{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+}. Additionally, the thermal stability of the Dy{sup 3+} single-doped transparent glass ceramics becomes higher after doping Eu{sup 3+} ion. (orig.)

  20. New textiles of biocidal activity by introduce insecticide in cotton-poly (GMA) copolymer containing β-Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeish, A; El-Sawy, S M; M Ragaei; Hamdy, I A; El-Bisi, M K; Abdel-Mohdy, F A

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the preparation of innovative cotton textiles which act against blood sucking insects such as mosquitoes. Thus experiments were designed to incorporation of efficient insecticide (Permethrin, bioallethrin) in the macro-molecular structure of modified cotton fabrics. Chemical modification of cotton was realized by grafting with glycidyl methacrylate alone or in combination with β-cyclodextrin by irradiation using fasting electron beam. Retreatment of the so obtained modified cotton was also made to increase the amount of CDs, and in turn, their cavities within the molecular structure of the modified cottons. Finished fabrics were though evaluated using chemical analysis; physical testing, bioassay tests and IR as well as SEM. Results obtained conclude that the amount of insecticide in the finished fabrics increases by increasing of the fixed amount of cyclodextrins which incorporate through their cavities the insecticide. The bioassay test shows that finished cotton fabrics display fast acting against mosquitoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Some Limitations in the Use of Plastic and Dyed Plastic Dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Bjergbakke, Erling; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Several practical plastic and dyed plastic dosimeters were examined under irradiation conditions similar to those used for radiation processing of materials. Cellulose triacetate, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, dyed polymethyl methacrylate, dyed Cellophane and dyed Nylon were given...

  2. Acoustical evaluation of carbonized and activated cotton nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N; Chen, J Y; Parikh, D V

    2009-12-01

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from a cotton nonwoven fabric. For the ACF acoustic application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glassfiber nonwoven, and the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of cotton fiber nonwoven. Their noise absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss were measured using the Brüel and Kjaer impedance tube instrument. Statistical significance of the differences between the composites was tested using the method of Duncan's grouping. The study concluded that the ACF composite exhibited a greater ability to absorb normal incidence sound waves than the composites with either glassfiber or cotton fiber. The analysis of sound transmission loss revealed that the three composites still obeyed the mass law of transmission loss. The composite with the surface layer of cotton fiber nonwoven possessed a higher fabric density and therefore showed a better sound insulation than the composites with glassfiber and ACF.

  3. Preliminary study on the correlation between color measurement of dyed polyester and its image files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. K.; Park, Y. C.

    2017-10-01

    As the internet becomes more popular, buyers send image files to manufacturers instead of sending swatches. However, this method may cause problems because different from the monitor between the buyer and the manufacturer, and also there is a problem depending on the light source. In order to overcome these problems, we investigated the relationship between color measurement values of dyed fabrics and RGB values of image files. The RGB values of image files tended to decrease with increasing dye concentration in all three colors. Correlation between RGB values and a*, b* values was observed at low concentration, but there was little correlation at high concentration. In the case of yellow color, there is no correlation between the L*a*b* values obtained from the dyed fabric and RGB values obtained from the image file.

  4. Page 1 Accelerated Oxidation of Cotton Ced/u/ose-Z// 113 TABLE VI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accelerated Oxidation of Cotton Ced/u/ose-Z// 113. TABLE VI. Relation between pH and oxygen consumption (Temp. 30° C). (Ciba Blue 2 B). pIH of buffer Milliatoms of oxygen sodium hypochlorite consumed by 100 g. of solution dyed cellulose. 9. ()56 14 - 06. 8, 10 22.28. 7-48 - 23-83. 6.99 27.63. 6, 13 34-21. 5.98 29, 02.

  5. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Nguyen To, E-mail: hoaito@pvu.edu.vn; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  6. Manipulation of Dy-Mn coupling and ferrielectric phase diagram of DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}: The effect of Y substitution of Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Wang, Y. L.; Lin, L.; Liu, M. F.; Li, X.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M. [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-11-07

    DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} is an extraordinary example in the family of multiferroic manganites and it accommodates both the 4f and 3d magnetic ions with strong Dy-Mn (4f-3d) coupling. The electric polarization origin is believed to arise not only from the Mn spin interactions but also from the Dy-Mn coupling. Starting from proposed scenario on ferrielectricity in DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} where the exchange-strictions associated with the Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+}-Mn{sup 3+} blocks and Dy{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+}-Dy{sup 3+} blocks generate the two ferroelectric sublattices, we perform a set of characterizations on the structure, magnetism, and electric polarization of Dy{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 5} in order to investigate the roles of Dy-Mn coupling in manipulating the ferrielectricity. It is revealed that the non-magnetic Y substitution of Dy suppresses gradually the Dy{sup 3+} spin ordering and the Dy-Mn coupling. Consequently, the ferroelectric sublattice generated by the exchange striction associated with the Dy{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+}-Dy{sup 3+} blocks is destabilized, but the ferroelectric sublattice generated by the exchange striction associated with the Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+}-Mn{sup 3+} blocks remains less perturbed, enabling the ferrielectricity-ferroelectricity transitions with the Y substitution. A phenomenological ferrielectric domain model is suggested to explain the polarization reversal induced by the Y substitution. The present work presents a possible scenario of the multiferroic mechanism in not only DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} but probably also other RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} members with strong 4f-3d coupling.

  7. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  8. Cotton trends in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Cotton trends in India. A crop of significant economic importance, valued at over Rs. 15000 Crs. Provides income to 60 million people. Crucial raw material for Rs 83000 Crores textile industry out of which Rs 45754 crores is exports. Approx. 20 Million acres of cotton provides ...

  9. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg–Zn–Zr–Dy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microstructures and phase compositions of as-cast and extruded ZK60–Dy ( = 0–5) alloys were analysed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Meanwhile, the tensile mechanical property was tested.With increasing Dy content, Mg–Zn–Dy new phase ...

  10. Exploring the biocatalytic potential of a DyP-type peroxidase by profiling the substrate acceptance of Thermobifida fusca DyP peroxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncar, Nikola; Colpa, Dana I.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) represent a new class of oxidative enzymes for which the natural substrates are largely unknown. To explore the biocatalytic potential of a DyP, we have studied the substrate acceptance profile of a robust DyP peroxidase, a DyP from Thermobifida fusca (TfuDyP).

  11. Non-Rotational States of 164Dy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Běrziņš, J.; Bondarenko, V.; Krasta, T.; Hoyler, F.; Föhl, K.; Börner, H. G.; Krusche, B.; Robinson, S. J.; Schillenbeck, P.

    2003-06-01

    The level scheme of 164Dy up to about 2.6 MeV energy is analyzed, using experimental data obtained in (n, γ), (n, e-) and (n, nγγ) reaction measurements at the high-flux reactor ILL Grenoble, as well as the (n, n'γ) reaction data, measured at the IRT reactor in Salaspils. The structure of low-lying levels of 164Dy is interpreted in terms of two-quasiparticle states, interacting with collective excitations of axially-deformed core.

  12. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  13. Disperse Dyes Based on Aminothiophenes: Their Dyeing Applications on Polyester Fabrics and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Al-Mousawi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of monoazo disperse dyes derived from arylazothienopyridazines were synthesized. Fastness properties of dyed polyester samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness and moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  14. Utilization of pre-cleaned greige cotton in nonwovens: a sensible approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cotton – a consumer-preferred, naturally sustainable fiber – has been extensively used in traditional textiles for centuries, its utilization in nonwoven fabrics has been minimal (~2% by weight). A major reason thus far for the cotton not being a preferred fiber for modern nonwovens has be...

  15. Development of the phosphorus and nitrogen containing flame retardant for value added cotton product

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is our desire to develop new crosslinking agents for cotton textiles that afford useful flame protection regardless of fabric construction. Herein we present the synthesis and the application of the triazine and piperazine derivatives as flame retardant on cotton. Novel phosphorus-nitrogen contai...

  16. USDA research enables total quat release from cotton nonwoven disinfecting wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on various cotton, cotton-blend, and synthetic nonwoven fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Modifying ...

  17. Potential of Kapok Fibre as a Substitute of Cotton in Textiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a blend of kapok and cotton fibres was successfully spun into a yarn after blending the two in a kapok/cotton ratio 3:2. The yarn produced exhibited mechanical properties similar to most of the short staple fibres. The fabric produced was lustrous, slippery and with a smooth, soft handle. The fibre yarn resulting from ...

  18. Octadecabromidobis(dicarbidodecadysprosium, [Dy10Br18(C22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Daub

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of [Dy10Br18(C22] were obtained during the reaction of DyBr3 with dysprosium metal and graphite in a sealed tantalum container. In the crystal structure, the Dy atoms form dimers of edge-sharing octahedra, each encapsulating a C2 unit. The metal atoms are surrounded by Br atoms above the cluster edges and vertices, respectively. The dimers are connected to each other by Br atoms, leading to a three-dimensional network. [Dy10Br18(C22] is isotypic with its iodido analogue [Dy10I18(C22].

  19. ハイパフォマンス/ハイブリッド繊推材料の解析

    OpenAIRE

    梶原, 莞爾; 綿岡, 勲

    2004-01-01

    Cotton fabrics were dyed with indigo (vat dye) and CI Reactive Red 120 (reactive dye), and then enzymatically decomposed. When dyed with indigo, the cotton fabric was decomposed consistently up to ca. 50% and then farther in two steps, showing no dye-concentration dependence. When dyed with reactive dye, the cotton fabric was decomposed up to ca. 50% but no further decomposition was observed within the observed time. Here the decomposition rate seems to depend inversely on the dye concentrati...

  20. Ultrasound-enhanced bioscouring of greige cotton: regression analysis of process factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound-enhanced bioscouring process factors for greige cotton fabric are examined using custom experimental design utilizing statistical principles. An equation is presented which predicts bioscouring performance based upon percent reflectance values obtained from UV-Vis measurements of rutheniu...

  1. Unipolar resistive switching behavior in Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films for nonvolatile memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Jim-Long [Division of Natural Science, Center for General Education, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Pan, Tung-Ming, E-mail: tmpan@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lu, Chih-Hung [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-30

    In this article, we report the forming-free resistive switching behavior of a Ru/Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TaN memory device incorporating a Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film fabricated entirely through processing at room temperature. We used X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate the structural and chemical features of the Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. The dominant conduction mechanisms in the low- and high-resistance states were ohmic behavior and Poole-Frenkel emission, respectively. The Ru/Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TaN memory device exhibited a high resistance ratio and provided nondestructive readout and reliable data retention. This memory device has a great potential for application in nonvolatile resistive switching memory. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The forming-free resistive switching behavior in the Ru/Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TaN device was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conduction mechanisms of the device are ohmic behavior and Poole-Frenkel emission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This memory device exhibits good electrical characteristics.

  2. Hydrophobic cotton textile surfaces using an amphiphilic graphene oxide (GO) coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D.; Wijesena, Ruchira N.; Perera, J. Rangana; de Silva, K. M. Nalin; Amaratunge, Gehan A. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time hydrophobic properties on cotton fabric successfully achieved by grafting graphene oxide on the fabric surface, using a dyeing method. Graphite oxide synthesized by oxidizing natural flake graphite employing improved Hummer's method showed an inter layer spacing of ∼1 nm from XRD. Synthesized graphite oxide was exfoliated in water using ultrasound energy to obtain graphene oxide (GO). AFM data obtained for the graphene oxide dispersed in an aqueous medium revealed a non-uniform size distribution. FTIR characterization of the synthesized GO sheets showed both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups present on the nano sheets giving them an amphiphilic property. GO flakes of different sizes were successfully grafted on to a cotton fabric surface using a dip dry method. Loading different amounts of graphene oxide on the cotton fiber surface allowed the fabric to demonstrate different degrees of hydrophobicity. The highest observed water contact angle was at 143° with the highest loading of graphene oxide. The fabric surfaces grafted with GO also exhibits adhesive type hydrophobicity. Microscopic characterization of the fiber surface using SEM and AFM reveals the deposition of GO sheets on the fiber surface as a conformal coating. Analysis of the fabric surface using UV-vis absorption allowed identification of the ratio of hydrophobic to hydrophilic domains present on the GO coated cotton fabric surface. Hydrophobic properties on cotton fabric are ascribed to two dimensional amphiphilic properties of deposited GO nano sheets, which successfully lower the interfacial energy of the fabric surface.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of thermally aged Egyptian linen dyed with organic natural dyestuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoumelis, N.; El-Gaoudy, H.; Varella, E.; Kovala-Demertzi, D.

    2013-08-01

    A number of organic natural dyestuffs used in dyeing in ancient times, i.e. indigo, madder, turmeric, henna, cochineal, saffron and safflower, have been used to colour Egyptian fabrics based on linen. Their physicochemical properties have been evaluated on thermally aged linen samples. The aged dyed linen samples were thoroughly examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and tensile strength and elongation measurements. It was found that, in the molecular level, dyes interact mainly with the cellulose compounds of the aged linen while in the macroscopic level tensile and elongation parameters are altered. Tensile strength is positively related to the dye treatment while elongation depends specifically on the type of the dye used. Results converge that the dyed textiles did indeed play a role as protecting agents affecting strength and reducing thermal deterioration.

  4. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton harvested...

  5. Towards multifunctional cellulosic fabric: UV photo-reduction and in-situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles into cellulose fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Mohamed; Barhoum, Ahmed; Van Assche, Guy; Dufresne, Alain; Gätjen, Linda; Wilken, Ralph

    2017-05-01

    Herein, the highly multifunctional cotton fabric surfaces were designed with excellent coloration, UV-protection function, and antimicrobial activity. These multifunctional functions were developed by in-situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) into the cotton fabric surface using a simple green one-pot "UV-reduction" method. Cotton fabrics were pretreated with non-anionic detergent, immersed into alcoholic silver nitrate solution (concentration ranging from 100 to 500ppm), squeezed to remove excess solution and then exposed to UV-irradiation (range 320-400nm) for 1h. The influence UV-irradiation on the thermal, chemical, optical and biological properties of the cotton fabric surface was discussed in details. The UV-irradiation promotes reducing of Ag+ ions and the cotton fabrics act as seed medium for Ag NPs formation by "heterogeneous nucleation". Increasing Ag+ concentration (from 100 to 500ppm) results in Ag NPs of particle size (distribution) of 50-100nm. Interestingly, the Ag NPs exhibited different localized surface Plasmon resonance properties causing a coloration of the cotton fabrics with different color shades ranging from bright to dark brown with excellent color fastness properties. The treated cotton fabrics also show high protecting functions against UV-transmission (reduction of 65%) and Escherichia coli growth (99%). The side-effects of the UV-reduction process are further investigated. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Innovative green technique for preparing of flame retardant cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, microwave-assisted or supercritical carbon dioxide high pressure reactors are considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this paper, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric ...

  7. Analysis of the Dy contribution to the Faraday rotation of Bi-DyIG film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, M.; Le Gall, H.; Desvignes, J. M.; Artinian, M.

    1997-04-01

    At λ=633 nm, very accurate measurements of the Faraday rotation (FR) on epitaxial garnet films of the composition {R3-xBix}[Fe2](Fe3)O12 with R=Dy, Y, and high Bi content (x≅1.30) are reported, in the temperature range of 10-620 K under magnetic field up to 20 kOe applied along the (111) and the (110) directions. The films which were prepared by standard liquid-phase epitaxy techniques under constant growth conditions present a high crystalline quality. BiDyIG films exhibit a very different temperature and field variation of FR below 140 K whereas BiYIG films data indicate no FR anisotropy. The origin of the FR anisotropy observed when R=Dy is discussed and it is shown that the anisotropy of the magnetization cannot account for the whole FR anisotropy.

  8. Eco-Friendly Dyeing of Cotton with Indigo Dye By Electrochemical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, H. Gurumallesh; Sarala, K.; Babu, S. Ananda; Savitha, K. U.

    2011-07-01

    Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton was performed in two step process; (i) enzymatic pre-treatment of grey cotton fabric and (ii) Electrochemical dyeing of the pre-treated cotton fabric with indigo. The enzymatic pre-treatment was done in three methods; (i) amylase treatment only, (ii) amylase and hydrogen peroxide treatment and (iii) single bath method. The dyeing was carried out with the pre-treated cotton fabric. The reduction of indigo dye by electrochemical method was initiated by applying potential. Then the dyeing was carried out different concentrations of dye, glucose and NaOH. Conventional method of dyeing was also carried out and compared with the electrochemical method. Dyeability was measured by computer colour matching (CCM) GretagMacbeth colour eye 2180UV instrument.

  9. Growth of DySi sub 2 layers on Si surface by high-current Dy-ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X Q

    2003-01-01

    We report, in this paper, the synthesis of DySi sub 2 layers on Si surfaces by high-current Dy-ion implantation in Si wafers using a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. It was found that the continuous DySi sub 2 layers could grow at a relatively low formation temperature of 190degC and that the surface morphology varied with the variation of the implantation parameters. The formation mechanism of the equilibrium DySi sub 2 phase as well as the continuous DySi sub 2 layer on Si surface is proposed in terms of ion beam heating and the effect of ion dose on the Dy-ion implantation process. (author)

  10. Defective muscle basement membrane and lack of M-laminin in the dystrophic dy/dy mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Christmas, P; Wu, X R

    1994-01-01

    -linked Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. We have examined M-laminin expression in mice with autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by the mutation dy. The heavy chain of M-laminin was undetectable in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and peripheral nerve by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting......M-laminin is a major member of the laminin family of basement membrane proteins. It is prominently expressed in striated muscle and peripheral nerve. M-laminin is deficient in patients with the autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy but is normal in patients with the sex...... tissue from dy/dy mice, suggesting that M-laminin heavy-chain mRNA may be produced at very low levels or is unstable. Information about the chromosomal localization of the M heavy-chain in human and mouse suggests that a mutation in the M-chain gene causes the muscular dystrophy in dy/dy mice. The dy...

  11. Dyeing of hydrophobic fabrics with disperse dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITHAL SOMA PATEL

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of disperse dyes has been synthesized by diazotisation of 2,6-dibromo-4-nitroaniline and coupled with various N-arylmaleimides. The dyes were characterized by IR spectral studies, visible absorption spectroscopy and elemental analysis. All the dyes were applied as disperse dyes on nylon, cellulose triacetate and polyester fabrics. These dyeswere found to give yellowish orange to deep brown shades with very good depth, levelness and brightness on different fabrics. The percentage dye bath exhaustion and fixation on fabrics were found to be very good. The light, washing, rubbing, perspiration and sublimation fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were found to be good to excellent.

  12. Comparison of regenerated bamboo and cotton performance in warm environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Solorio-Ferrales

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different materials have been used to fabricate summer (warm environment clothing, such as cotton, nylon, neoprene, polyester and 100% synthetic fibers. However, because of their mechanical and thermal properties, nylon and polyester cloth has a tendency to rot and chafe in damp conditions. In addition, close-fitting synthetic fibers and neoprene make some wearers feel uncomfortable because of the rapidly occurring body skin sweat. However, bamboo and cotton have demonstrated to have low thermal conductivity. Hence, they are excellent materials to fabricate summer clothing. In this study, a theoretical analysis complemented with practical measurements of thermal properties of three different rib knitted structures produced from a 30 tex yarn of three blends of fibers (100% regenerated bamboo, 100% cotton and 50:50 regenerated bamboo: cotton was realized to compare bamboo and cotton performance in warm environment. Obtained results show that garment thickness and heat storage rate in the human body can significantly be reduced by using 100% regenerated bamboo, without compromising comfort.

  13. Effect of web formation on properties of hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of two popular web-forming technologies, viz., the Rando air-laid technology and the traditional carding technology, on properties of the hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics made therewith. The fibers used in the study were greige cotton, bleached cotton, ...

  14. Benign development of cotton with antibacterial activity and metal sorpability through introduction amino triazole moieties and AgNPs in cotton structure pre-treated with periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amina L; Hassabo, Ahmed G; Shaarawy, S; Hebeish, A

    2017-12-15

    The research work presented herein was undertaken with a view to develop, characterize and highlight modified cotton fabrics that acquire durable antibacterial activity in concomitant with high metal sorption capacity. The development is based on reacting cotton cellulose previously oxidized by sodium periodate-with 4 amino-1,2,4 triazole in presence and absence of silver nano particles (AgNPs). The idea behind the periodate pretreatment is to convert (via oxidative cleavge) the 2,3-vicinal diol of the anhydroglucose units of cotton into aldehyde groups. The latter are easily reacting with the triazole groups in the modified cotton. On the other hand AgNPs were fabricated as per the reduction method using bio-material extracted from the root of licorice. By virtue of its reducing action, the bio-material converts Ag + ions to Ag 0 atom which is also stabilized Ag the bio-material in the form of cluster which is the agregate of about 5 Ag 0 . The clusters are cropped with the stabilizer thus forming silver nanoparticles. Measurement of the particle size displays a value of 8.7nm. Charactrisation of triazole treated cotton fabrics reveals the presence of the triazole moieties inside the structure of cotton. Furthermore, Fabrictreated with triazole in presence and absence of AgNPs exhibits a relatively high antibacterial activity against gram-negative tested bacteria (E. coli) as compared to that of gram-positive tested bacteria (S. aureus). The metal sorption of triazole treated cotton fabrics was higher than those of untreated or periodate pretreated fabric due to the increase in nitrogen centers created along the cellulose chains. Experimental data were accomplished through Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin sorption isotherm models. It was shown that sorption follows Langmuir isotherm model and suggests that the innovative fabric in question can adsorb metal ions from polluted dye bath. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  16. Investigation into the supramolecular properties of fibres regenerated from cotton based waste garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haule, L V; Carr, C M; Rigout, M

    2016-06-25

    This paper investigated the supramolecular properties and accessibility of fibres regenerated from cotton-based waste garments and compared to typical lyocell fibres. The supramolecular and accessibility properties of the cotton-based waste garments fibres regenerated from three sources (waste denim garments, easy care finished cotton fabrics and a blend of cotton-based waste garment with wood pulp) were analysed and compared to the lyocell fibres. The Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) analyses indicated that the fibres from cotton waste garments had supramolecular properties similar to the typical lyocell fibres. The exception was spun from the cotton pulp reclaimed from easy care treated cotton fabrics and maybe related to increased amorphous cellulose content in its structure. The fibre's accessibility by reagents behaviour correlated well with the supramolecular properties. The results indicate that the waste garment purification process may affect the properties of the pulp and hence the supramolecular properties of the resultant fibres. Further research on the purification and regeneration of fibres from waste garments may lead to the use of cotton waste garments as an alternative feedstock source to the lyocell process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of effluent filtrate in the hydro-entanglement process for producing cotton nonwovens: a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of hydro-entangled cotton nonwoven fabrics were produced on commercial equipment, using UltraCleanTM Cotton (T.J. Beall Company). Polypropylene “sock” filters were used in the production trials to clean the effluent water for recycling it in the hydro-entanglement process. After each trial ...

  18. Functionalization of cotton with poly-NiPAAm/chitosan microgel. Part I. Stimuli-responsive moisture management properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krizman Lavric, P.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Jocic, D.

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive microgel, based on synthetic polymer (poly-NiPAAm) and biopolymer (chitosan), was incorporated onto cotton fabric surface by pad-dry-cure method using 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) as crosslinker. In order to assess the moisture management properties of cotton

  19. Influence of precursor ratios on the properties of cotton coated with a sol-gel flame retardant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chapple, Stephen A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton has many desirable properties, but is flammable. The flame retardant treatment of cotton is an important textile process. To study the effect of a sol-gel phosphate-based flame-retardant coating on fabric properties (flammability, stiffness...

  20. Hydrophobic cotton textile surfaces using an amphiphilic graphene oxide (GO) coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D., E-mail: nadeekat@slintec.lk; Wijesena, Ruchira N.; Perera, J. Rangana; Nalin de Silva, K.M.; Amaratunge, Gehan A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different GO dispersions were prepared by sonicating different amounts of GO in water. Degree of exfoliation of these GO sheets in water was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). • AFM results obtained showed higher the GO concentration on water more the size of GO sheets and lesser the degree of exfoliation. • GO with different amounts was deposited on cotton fabric using simple dyeing method. • High GO loading on cotton increase the surface area coverage of the textile fibers with GO sheets. This led to less edge to mid area ratio of grafted GO sheets. • As contribution of mid area of GO increase on fiber surface cotton fabric becomes more hydrophobic. • Amphiphilic property of GO sheets was used to lower the surface energy of the cotton fibers leading to hydrophobic property. - Abstract: We report for the first time hydrophobic properties on cotton fabric successfully achieved by grafting graphene oxide on the fabric surface, using a dyeing method. Graphite oxide synthesized by oxidizing natural flake graphite employing improved Hummer's method showed an inter layer spacing of ∼1 nm from XRD. Synthesized graphite oxide was exfoliated in water using ultrasound energy to obtain graphene oxide (GO). AFM data obtained for the graphene oxide dispersed in an aqueous medium revealed a non-uniform size distribution. FTIR characterization of the synthesized GO sheets showed both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups present on the nano sheets giving them an amphiphilic property. GO flakes of different sizes were successfully grafted on to a cotton fabric surface using a dip dry method. Loading different amounts of graphene oxide on the cotton fiber surface allowed the fabric to demonstrate different degrees of hydrophobicity. The highest observed water contact angle was at 143° with the highest loading of graphene oxide. The fabric surfaces grafted with GO also exhibits adhesive type hydrophobicity

  1. Synthesis of CaF{sub 2}: dy for thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamato, M.E.P.; Vasconcelos, D.A.A. de; Asfora, V.K.; Khoury, H.J.; Santos, R.A.; Barros, V.S.M., E-mail: mepyamato@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Calcium Fluoride doped with dysprosium is a known thermoluminescent material for applications that require highly sensitive dosimeters. Research in novel methods such as Combustion Synthesis (CS) has been ongoing for several years at the University of Pernambuco. The method uses the heat of the oxi-redox reaction a between nitrate and a fuel. This work presents results of CaF{sub 2}:Dy produced by combustion synthesis under different fabrication conditions. Samples were prepared by mixing stoichiometric amounts of calcium nitrate, urea and ammonium nitrate in a beaker under vigorous stirring. The resulting gel was transferred to a pre-heated muffle furnace were the combustion reaction occurred after a few minutes. For comparison, a variation of the production method with the same amounts of nitrate, ammonium fluoride and dopant, but without using the fuel was prepared. For both methods the resulting powder was pelleted and irradiated with Co-60 gamma radiation. The reproducibility and sensitivity for gamma dose irradiation was tested and results showed that optimum TL sample reproducibility was without the urea as fuel. Samples were then prepared with 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 mol% Dy concentration. The highest TL sensitivity was found for samples with 0.15 mol% Dy and sintered at 400 deg C for 3.5 h in air. The TL emission spectra, obtained using a Hammamatsu optical spectrometer, was comparable with commercial CaF{sub 2}:Dy. Thermoluminescence was measured in a Harshaw-Bicron 3500 TL Reader. The glow curve showed stable dosimetric peaks at around 200, 235 and 300 deg C were a linear dose response curve was obtained for the range 100 mGy to 1000 mGy. (author)

  2. Metal analysis of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  3. Cotton, Prof. Aime Auguste

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Cotton, Prof. Aime Auguste. Date of birth: 9 October 1869. Date of death: 16 April 1951. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the ...

  4. Nanoengineered cotton wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in nanotechnology are creating synergy with nonwoven technology in cleaning and/or disinfecting power for the next generation of wipe products. However, there is little known about the use of cotton fiber in wipes as a nanoengineering tool, which self-produces silver nanoparticles -- one of...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the administrative...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all cultivated...

  7. High-spin structure of neutron-rich Dy isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In view of recent experimental progress on production and spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes of Dy with mass number A. 166 and 168, we have made theoretical investigations on the structure of high spin states of164 170Dy isotopes in the cranked Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (CHFB) theory employing a ...

  8. Formation of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The glass-forming ability (GFA) of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy alloys was systematically investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) techniques. The results showed that a series of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses (BGMs) with a diameter of 4–8 mm were suc-.

  9. Colour Fading of Textile Fabric by Plasma Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    H. F. Cheung; C. W. Kan; C. W. M. YUEN; J. Yip; Law, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Colour fading of a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 19) dyed textile fabric was performed by atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment with the use of plasma jet. Under the APP treatment condition of treatment time = 5 sec/mm; ignition power = 160 W; oxygen concentration = 1%; jet distance = 3 mm, significant colour-fading effect was achieved. For comparison purpose, the reactive dye dyed textile fabric was subjected to conventional enzymatic colour-fading process. Experimental results reve...

  10. A physicochemical research of the Dy-Sn-O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskaya, Tatyana; Lysak, Ilya; Zhek, Valentina; Kuznetsova, Svetlana

    2017-11-01

    A physicochemical research of the processes of phase composition formation in the materials of the Dy-Sn-O system was performed. Phase composition was taking place in the course of thermal treatment of dysprosium (III) and tin (IV) codeposition products. These were codeposited from nitrate solutions at pH 7, and 25% ammonia water was used as the precipitant. Using thermal and X-ray diffraction analysis, it was found that in the above system at 90 wt. % of Dy2O3 and 10 wt. % of SnO2, when the precursors were heated above 600°C there are no solid solutions. In the meanwhile, at temperatures below 1000°C there is only one phase, Dy2O3. At temperatures above 1000°C, the system becomes bi-phase and includes Dy2O3 and Dy2Sn2O7.

  11. Integration of textile fabric and coconut shell in particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, M. I.; Bahari, S. A.; Islam, M. M.; Epaarachchi, J. A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, cotton fabric and coconut shell were integrated in particleboard to reduce the use of wood. Particleboards containing mixed rubberwood and coconut shell with an equal weight ratio have been integrated with various layers of cotton fabric. These materials were bonded by urea formaldehyde with a content level of 12% by weight. Flexural and water absorption tests were conducted to analyze its mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Results of flexural test showed an increment at least double strength values in fabricated materials as compared to control sample. The existence of fabric in the particleboard system also improved the dimensional stability of the produced material. Enhancement of at least 39% of water absorption could help the dimensional stability of the produced material. Overall, these new particleboards showed better results with the incorporation of cotton fabric layers and this study provided better understanding on mechanical and physical properties of the fabricated particleboard.

  12. Chitosan pretreatment for cotton dyeing with black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J.; Díaz-García, P.; Montava, I.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan is used in a wide range of applications due to its intrinsic properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin and among their most important aspects highlights its bonding with cotton and its antibacterial properties. In this study two different molecular weight chitosan are used in the dyeing process of cotton with black tea to evaluate its influence. In order to evaluate the effect of the pretreatment with chitosan, DSC and reflection spectrophotometer analysis are performed. The curing temperature is evaluated by the DSC analysis of cotton fabric treated with 15 g/L of chitosan, whilst the enhancement of the dyeing is evaluated by the colorimetric coordinates and the K/S value obtained spectrophotometrically. This study shows the extent of improvement of the pretreatment with chitosan in dyeing with natural products as black tea.

  13. A carbon nanotube based ammonia sensor on cotton textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Beomseok; Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-05-01

    A single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) based ammonia (NH3) sensor was implemented on a cotton yarn. Two types of sensors were fabricated: Au/sensing CNT/Au and conducting/sensing/conducting all CNT structures. Two perpendicular Au wires were designed to contact CNT-cotton yarn for metal-CNT sensor, whereas nanotubes were used for the electrode as well as sensing material for the all CNT sensor. The resistance shift of the CNT network upon NH3 was monitored in a chemiresistor approach. The CNT-cotton yarn sensors exhibited uniformity and repeatability. Furthermore, the sensors displayed good mechanical robustness against bending. The present approach can be utilized for low-cost smart textile applications.

  14. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton

  15. Magnetic properties of Dy nano-islands on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nathaniel A.; Zhang, Qiang; Hupalo, Myron; Rosenberg, Richard A.; Freeland, John W.; Tringides, Michael C.; Vaknin, David

    2017-08-01

    We have determined the magnetic properties of epitaxially grown Dy islands on graphene/SiC(0001) that are passivated by a gold film (deposited in the ultra-high vacuum growth chamber) for ex-situ X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Our sum-rule analysis of the Dy M4,5 XMCD spectra at low temperatures (T = 15 K) as a function of magnetic field assuming Dy3+ (spin configuration 6H15/2) indicate that the projection of the magnetic moment along an applied magnetic field of 5 T is 3.5(3) μB . Temperature dependence of the magnetic moment (extracted from the M5 XMCD spectra) shows an onset of a change in magnetic moment at about 175 K in proximity of the transition from paramagnetic to helical magnetic structure at TH = 179 K in bulk Dy. No feature at the vicinity of the ferromagnetic transition of hcp bulk Dy at Tc = 88 K is observed. However, below ∼130 K, the inverse magnetic moment (extracted from the XMCD) is linear in temperature as commonly expected from a paramagnetic system suggesting different behavior of Dy nano-island than bulk Dy.

  16. The utility of polyester and cotton as swabbing substrates for the removal of cellular material from surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Christina M; Kaufman, Stacie R; Quarino, Lawrence

    2011-03-01

    Various types of cotton and polyester fabrics were tested to ascertain the optimal physical and chemical characteristics of fabrics needed for the removal of cellular material from surfaces. DNA quantitation values obtained on dried saliva stains showed no difference between cotton and polyester across all constructions and solvent conditions. Fabrics used dry and with water yielded higher quantitation values than those used with isopropanol. Quantitation values were also higher for wovens and nonwovens than knits across all solvent conditions. Low thread count fabrics used with water yielded higher quantitation values, but no correlation between thread count and quantitation values was observed with dry fabrics. A low thread count woven fabric, however, outperformed other tested fabrics when swabbing object surfaces in a highly used room. Full DNA profiles from fingerprints on glass surfaces were obtained with low thread count woven and nonwoven fabrics but not with the knit fabric tested. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Measuring the contribution of Bt cotton adoption to India's cotton yields leap:

    OpenAIRE

    Gruere, Guillaume P.; Sun, Yan

    2012-01-01

    While a number of empirical studies have demonstrated the role of Bt cotton adoption in increasing Indian cotton productivity at the farm level, there has been questioning around the overall contribution of Bt cotton to the average cotton yield increase observed these last ten years in India. This study examines the contribution of Bt cotton adoption to long- term average cotton yields in India using a panel data analysis of production variables in nine Indian cotton-producing states from 197...

  18. 75 FR 39046 - Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a Subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom, Including Employees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a Subsidiary of Fruit of the... Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom, Alexander City, Alabama. The notice was... related to the production of yarn dyed woven fabric. New information shows that worker separations have...

  19. Nano photo scouring and nano photo bleaching of raw cellulosic fabric using nano TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, M; Morshedi, S

    2012-05-01

    Photo catalytic action of nano TiO(2) for decomposing of some organic compounds is a well known phenomenon. This can be extended to the application on nano TiO(2) on the desized cotton fabric to decompose the hydrophobic impurities and coloring matters of the fabric. This can be nominating as a replacement for the conventional scouring and bleaching processes on cotton fabric producing the hydrophilic white cotton fabric. The photo activities of the nano TiO(2) on the desized cotton through decomposition of the cotton impurities compared for two different light exposures: UV rays and daylight. The desized cotton fabrics treated in the ultrasonic bath containing a colloidal aqueous solution of nano TiO(2)/citric acid (CA)/sodium hypophosphite (SHP). Incorporating CA in the treatment bath enhanced the treatment durability against washing, created a durable hydrophilic white cotton fabric even after several successive washings. Increasing the nano TiO(2) content enhanced the fabric hydrophilicity and whiteness features. Overall, the nano photo scouring and nano photo bleaching on the cotton fabric introduced and thoroughly discussed. This gains the application of nano TiO(2) on textile materials besides the other well known characteristics obtained on the textiles including self-cleaning, antibacterial and UV protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  1. Evaluation of the use and re-use of cotton fabrics as medical and hospital wraps Avaliação do uso e reuso de tecido de algodão como embalagem de artigos médico-hospitalares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the efficacy of cotton fabric, made of serge bonding 2 x 1, as microbial barrier, when new and after multiple laundering and steam sterilization procedures. The power of the microbial barrier was correlated with physical characteristics of the fabric, using standard test methods for evaluation of weight, traction, stretching tearing resistance and microbiological characteristics. The microbiological results evidenced that the microbial barrier was effective when the wrapping material was new or went through a maximum of new 65 reprocessing procedures. As for the alterations in the physical characteristics of the reprocessed material, the decrease in weight seemed to be the event responsible for microbial barrier breaking. The timing of detected alterations in bursting, traction and stretching in the wrap and the reprocessed fabrics did not coincide with the moment of bacterial barrier breaking. The present investigation corroborates that the use double cotton fabric, for wrapping medical and hospital items for steam sterilization, is safe. Re-use number must be controlled, not exceeding 65 times.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a efetividade do tecido de ligamento sarja 2 x 1, usado na confecção de campos duplos de algodão para a embalagem de artigos médico-hospitalares como barreira microbiana eficaz, enquanto novos e após múltiplas lavagens e autoclavações e correlacionar a quebra do poder de barreira microbiana com as alterações das características físicas do tecido. Foram utilizados métodos de testes padronizados tanto para a avaliação das características físicas para a determinação da gramatura, resistência a ruptura, resistência a tração e alongamento quanto para as microbiológicas. Os resultados microbiológicos demonstraram a efetividade da barreira microbiana da embalagem em estudo enquanto novos e, na determinação do número máximo de reprocessamentos, indicaram

  2. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  3. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  4. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1205 RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following a referendum held October 13 through November 10, 2009, in which Upland cotton producers and importers favored...

  5. Synthesis and photoluminescence characterization of Ce and Dy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A = Na or Li), La2O3, Dy2O3/Ce2O3 and WO3 with high purity of 99·9% were used. They were taken in stoichiome- tric amounts. The Dy3+ concentrations were varied from 0·1 to 1 mol%. The starting materials were mixed thoroughly for 1 h using the agate mortar pestle. The crushed samples were placed in a silica crucible ...

  6. Studies on dyed coconut ( Cocos nucifera ) pollens for removal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of undyed and dyed coconut pollens to remove Cu(II) and Zn(II) from single ion solutions was been studied. The experiments were carried out using coconut pollens (1.0 g) undyed coconut pollens, UDCP, and dyed coconut pollens, DCPI, DCPII and DCPIII of different particle sizes: 0.40, 0.63 and 0.80 mm, ...

  7. Preparation and characterisation of thermoresponsive nanogels for smart antibacterial fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Muhammad [Institute of Materials Research and Innovation, University of Bolton (United Kingdom); Shah, Tahir, E-mail: t.h.shah@bolton.ac.uk [Institute of Materials Research and Innovation, University of Bolton (United Kingdom); Rawal, Amit [Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi (India); Siores, Elias [Institute of Materials Research and Innovation, University of Bolton (United Kingdom); TEI Athens, Agiou Spyrodonos, 12243 Egaleo, Athens (Greece)

    2014-07-01

    The present investigation involves the preparation and characterisation of silver containing nanogels and their incorporation onto the surface of woven fabrics so that they can be potentially used in biomedical applications such as wound dressings. These silver nanoparticles were mixed with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) based nanogels during and at the end of polymerisation process prior to their application onto the fabrics. NIPAM based nanogels were found to have a peak of lower critical solution temperature (LCST) that is close to the human body temperature. These nanogels were applied on cotton fabrics and cured for 15 h at 30 °C. Silver based nanogels were padded onto the fabrics followed by drying at 30 °C overnight. Scanning electron microscopy images have shown excellent distribution of silver nanoparticles on the fabric surface. EDX analysis was also conducted to confirm the presence of silver particles on the fabric surface. The results showed that a cotton fabric treated with silver based nanogels prevented the growth of bacteria, i.e. Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli), on whereas the control cotton fabric samples exhibited considerable level of bacterial growth. Specifically, the nanogels in which the silver particles were added during the polymerisation process were observed to have higher antibacterial efficacy towards both types of bacteria. - Highlights: • Silver containing NIPAM based nanogels were prepared and characterised. • Cotton fabric treated with silver based nanogels prevented the growth of bacteria. • Silver particles added during polymerisation revealed higher antibacterial efficacy.

  8. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all Upland...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

  10. Comparison of the Sequence-Dependent Fluorescence of the Cyanine Dyes Cy3, Cy5, DyLight DY547 and DyLight DY647 on Single-Stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschy, Nicole; Somoza, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are commonly used for fluorescent labeling of DNA and RNA oligonucleotides in applications including qPCR, sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, Förster resonance energy transfer, and labeling for microarray hybridization. Previous research has shown that the fluorescence efficiency of Cy3 and Cy5, covalently attached to the 5′ end of single-stranded DNA, is strongly sequence dependent. Here, we show that DY547 and DY647, two alternative cyanine dyes that are becoming widely used for nucleic acid labeling, have a similar pattern of sequence-dependence, with adjacent purines resulting in higher intensity and adjacent cytosines resulting in lower intensity. Investigated over the range of all 1024 possible DNA 5mers, the intensities of Cy3 and Cy5 drop by ∼50% and ∼65% with respect to their maxima, respectively, whereas the intensities of DY547 and DY647 fall by ∼45% and ∼40%, respectively. The reduced magnitude of change of the fluorescence intensity of the DyLight dyes, particularly of DY647 in comparison with Cy5, suggests that these dyes are less likely to introduce sequence-dependent bias into experiments based on fluorescent labeling of nucleic acids. PMID:24454899

  11. Influence of Fabric Parameters on Thermal Comfort Performance of Double Layer Knitted Interlock Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Ali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of various fabric parameters on the thermal resistance, thermal conductivity, thermal transmittance, thermal absorptivity and thermal insulation of polyester/cotton double layer knitted interlock fabrics. It was found that by increasing fibre content with higher specific heat increases the thermal insulation while decreases the thermal transmittance and absorptivity of the fabric. It was concluded that double layer knitted fabrics developed with higher specific heat fibres, coarser yarn linear densities, higher knitting loop length and fabric thickness could be adequately used for winter clothing purposes.

  12. Hydrophobic Coatings on Cotton Obtained by in Situ Plasma Polymerization of a Fluorinated Monomer in Ethanol Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Ricardo; Teixidó, Josep Maria; Kan, Chi-Wai; Jovančić, Petar

    2017-02-15

    Plasma polymerization using hydrophobic monomers in the gas phase is a well-known technology to generate hydrophobic coatings. However, synthesis of functional hydrophobic coatings using plasma technology in liquids has not yet been accomplished. This work is consequently focused on polymerization of a liquid fluorinated monomer on cotton fabric initiated by atmospheric plasma in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. Functional hydrophobic coatings on cotton were successfully achieved using in situ atmospheric plasma-initiated polymerization of fluorinated monomer dissolved in ethanol. Gravimetric measurements reveal that the amount of polymer deposited on cotton substrates can be modulated with the concentration of monomer in ethanol solution, and cross-linking reactions occur during plasma polymerization of a fluorinated monomer even without the presence of a cross-linking agent. FTIR and XPS analysis were used to study the chemical composition of hydrophobic coatings and to get insights into the physicochemical processes involved in plasma treatment. SEM analysis reveals that at high monomer concentration, coatings possess a three-dimensional pattern with a characteristic interconnected porous network structure. EDX analysis reveals that plasma polymerization of fluorinated monomers takes place preferentially at the surface of cotton fabric and negligible polymerization takes place inside the cotton fabric. Wetting time measurements confirm the hydrophobicity of cotton coatings obtained although equilibrium moisture content was slightly decreased. Additionally, the abrasion behavior and resistance to washing of plasma-coated cotton has been evaluated.

  13. PART I. STUDY REGARDING THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE BIOSCOURING TREATMENT IN ULTRASOUND ON 60 % COTTON + 40 % COTTONISED FLAX MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUSTIANU Monica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past years the commercial products for the bioscouring treatment were usually dedicated only for 100 % cotton or only for 100% lignocelluloses fabrics. The development of hemp/cotton or flax/cotton mixtures fabrics leds to the necessity of finding of the most apropiate products that could be used for different enzymatic treatments on these types of fabrics.The usage of the commercial product SERA ZYME C-PE for bioscouring treatment in ultrasound conditions on 60 % cotton + 40 % cottonised flax was studied in this work. The optimization of the Bioscouring treatment in ultrasound on 60 % cotton + 40 % hemp materials using the same commercial product was previous published. In order to assess more accurately the influence of some process parameters of the bioscouring treatment in a mathematical modeling of the process was made and a central compound rotatable program with two independent variable: x1 - the concentration of enzyme (% and x 2 - treatment time (minutes was used. The independent variable considered was y 1 – the weight loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of cottonised flax/cotton mixtures for the same conditions of bioscouring treatment used as for hemp/cotton mixtures.

  14. Rethinking cotton in nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invited article (published in a popular online trade periodical “Advanced Textile Source,” April 10, 2015, and later published in the Industrial Fabrics Association International’s (IFAI’s) regular print journal “Speciality Fabrics Review,” May 15, 2015) briefly reviews the long history of cott...

  15. Investigation of the Characteristics of Elasticised Woven Fabric by Using PBT Filament Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadoğlu Hüseyin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to growing demand for comfortable clothes, elastane filament yarns are being used in fabrics for several garments. In this study, core spun yarns were produced with cotton fibres and PBT/elastane filament yarns (cotton as sheath material, PBT yarn and elastane as core yarns. Twill woven (1/3 Z fabrics were produced by using core spun yarns (30 tex and cotton yarns (30 tex as weft, and 100% cotton yarn (59 tex as warp yarns. The fabrics consisting of PBT were washed at 100°C for 30 minutes to gain the elasticity. The woven fabrics’ weight, thickness, elongation, permanent elongation, dimensional stability, air permeability, thermal conductivity, thermal absorptivity characteristics were tested and statistically evaluated. According to the results, the fabrics containing PBT and elastane filaments had similar elongation and shrinkage values. PBT filament yarns have a great potential to produce lightweight elastic fabrics.

  16. Impact of Bollgard cotton on Indian cotton production and Income of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Impact of Bollgard cotton on Indian cotton production and Income of cotton farmers. Presentation made in the Seventy Second Annual Meeting Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore at Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Indore 11th November 2006.

  17. Cotton pistil drip transformation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Chen, Tianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Conventional plant transformation typically includes preparation of competent plant cells or tissues, delivery of foreign genes into cells, transformed cell selection with stable incorporated foreign genes, and regeneration of transformed cells into intact plants. This process traditionally relies on tissue culture, and cotton has not been an exception to this paradigm. Though the commercialization of transgenic cotton is a resounding success, cotton transformation, which is the first step in producing transgenic cotton, is a burdensome process since there is a very long tissue culture process and a limited number of cultivars that can be regenerated. An improved process which is easier to handle and more genotype independent could efficiently generate more transgenic plants and allow meaningful analyses of gene function and transgenic plants. Cotton pistil drip by inoculating Agrobacterium tumefaciens onto the pistil after pollination gave rise to stable transformants. Since this transformation process in cotton occurs following pollination and during fertilization (postanthesis) but not during preanthesis as in Arabidopsis, the mechanism by which Agrobacterium enters plant cells and integrates into the cotton genome may differ from that in Arabidopsis. This chapter provides the detailed protocol for pistil drip, a simple in planta transformation method without the plant tissue culture process.

  18. Study on the improvement of hydrophilic character on polyvinylalcohol treated polyester fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pitchai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyester fabric was treated with polyvinyl alcohol in alkaline medium. The moisture regain, water retention and wettability of the PVA treated polyester fabric were tested. The PVA treated PET fabric was dyed with disperse dye. The presence of PVA in the treated PET fabric was assessed by spot test. The treated fabric was also characterized by scanning electron microscope, FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry. The PVA treated polyester fabric showed improved hydrophilic character over intact and sodium hydroxide treated PET fabrics.

  19. Sampling nucleotide diversity in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu John Z

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated cotton is an annual fiber crop derived mainly from two perennial species, Gossypium hirsutum L. or upland cotton, and G. barbadense L., extra long-staple fiber Pima or Egyptian cotton. These two cultivated species are among five allotetraploid species presumably derived monophyletically between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Genomic-based approaches have been hindered by the limited variation within species. Yet, population-based methods are being used for genome-wide introgression of novel alleles from G. mustelinum and G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using combinations of backcrossing, selfing, and inter-mating. Recombinant inbred line populations between genetics standards TM-1, (G. hirsutum × 3-79 (G. barbadense have been developed to allow high-density genetic mapping of traits. Results This paper describes a strategy to efficiently characterize genomic variation (SNPs and indels within and among cotton species. Over 1000 SNPs from 270 loci and 279 indels from 92 loci segregating in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense were genotyped across a standard panel of 24 lines, 16 of which are elite cotton breeding lines and 8 mapping parents of populations from six cotton species. Over 200 loci were genetically mapped in a core mapping population derived from TM-1 and 3-79 and in G. hirsutum breeding germplasm. Conclusion In this research, SNP and indel diversity is characterized for 270 single-copy polymorphic loci in cotton. A strategy for SNP discovery is defined to pre-screen loci for copy number and polymorphism. Our data indicate that the A and D genomes in both diploid and tetraploid cotton remain distinct from each such that paralogs can be distinguished. This research provides mapped DNA markers for intra-specific crosses and introgression of exotic germplasm in cotton.

  20. Coliform bacteria, fabrics, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclasure, Victoria J; Soderquist, Thomas J; Lynch, Thomas; Schubert, Nina; McCormick, Deirdre S; Urrutia, Erika; Knickerbocker, Corey; McCord, Devon; Kavouras, Jerry H

    2015-02-01

    People come into contact with coliform bacteria at recreational sites. Previous research on bacteria adhering to fabrics and surfaces focused on the viability of clinically significant microbes, but did not examine the quantity of bacteria. This study examined the viability and quantity of coliform bacteria adhered to common fabrics. The fabrics of 100% cotton, blended cotton, and silk were exposed to a mixture of environmental coliform isolates. Fabrics were incubated in the dark at 25°C or 37°C or in direct sunlight at room temperature for 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. The quantity and viability of the bacteria were determined by the Most Probable Number technique using Colilert reagent (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME) and eosin methylene blue agar, respectively. The highest numbers of bacteria were detected for each type of fabric when stored in the dark at 25°C, whereas the lowest numbers of bacteria were detected when fabrics were stored in the dark at 37°C. Low numbers of bacteria were detected on silk and blended cotton exposed to sunlight at room temperature, but not 100% cotton. It appears that coliform bacteria can survive on fabrics longer than previous studies have reported. Coliform bacteria survive better in the dark, at lower temperatures, and on fabrics that can retain moisture. These findings can be applied directly to the viability of bacteria on clothing and potential human exposure to fecal pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma treatment of polyester fabric to impart the water repellency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    silane (DCDMS) gives better water repellency. When cotton fabric was treated earlier with DCDMS, though water repellency property was enhanced, the fabric lost its strength due to hydrochloric acid [HCl] generated during the condensation reaction [8]. So, it is considered necessary to carry out the investigation using a.

  2. Comparison of structural and luminescence properties of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders synthesized by co-precipitation and green combustion routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar, M. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Department of Physics, Acharya Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 107 (India); Nagabhushana, H., E-mail: bhushanvlc@gmail.com [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Sudheerkumar, K.H. [Department of Chemistry, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Dhananjaya, N. [Department of Physics, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Sharma, S.C. [Vice chancellor, Chhattisgarh Swamy Vivekananda Technical University, North Park Avenue, Sector – 8, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh 490 009 (India); Kavyashree, D. [Department of Physics, Channabasaveshwara Institute of Technology, Gubbi 572 216 (India); Shivakumara, C. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Nagabhushana, B.M. [Department of Chemistry, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 054 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation and eco-friendly green combustion route using plant latex. • Both the products show excellent chromaticity coordinates in the white region, which were quite useful for white LED’s. • Thermoluminescence response of the Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} product prepared by green synthesis was higher when compared to co-precipitation route. • Structural parameters of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} were estimated using Rietveld refinement. • The development of nanosize materials using eco-friendly resources was an attractive non-hazardous chemical route. - Abstract: Dysprosium oxide (Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation (CP) and eco-friendly green combustion (GC) routes. SEM micrographs prepared by CP route show smooth rods with various lengths and diameters while, GC route show porous, agglomerated particles. The results were further confirmed by TEM. Thermoluminescence (TL) responses of the nanopowder prepared by both the routes were studied using γ-rays. A well resolved glow peak at 353 °C along with less intense peak at 183 °C was observed in GC route while, in CP a single glow peak at 364 °C was observed. The kinetic parameters were estimated using Chen’s glow peak route. Photoluminescence (PL) of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows peaks at 481, 577, 666 and 756 nm which were attributed to Dy{sup 3+} transitions of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}⟶{sup 6}H{sub 15/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 13/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 6}H{sub 9/2}, respectively. Color co-ordinate values were located in the white region as a result the product may be useful for the fabrication of WLED’S.

  3. Effects of fabric thickness and material on apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance of knitted fabric 'skin' on sweating manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Lai, Dandan; Shi, Wen; Fu, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Currently, no published standard and research work have addressed the basic requirements on knitted fabric 'skin' on sweating manikins. In this study, we performed 252 experiments to investigate the influence of fabric thickness and material on the apparent 'wet' conductive (or effective) thermal resistance of the fabric 'skin' using a 'Newton' manikin. Four types of cotton fabric 'skin' (fabric thickness: 0.38, 0.54, 0.92 and 1.43mm) and three types of polyester fabric 'skin' (fabric thickness: 0.41, 0.54 and 1.0mm) were selected and their 'wet' conductive thermal resistance was determined. Empirical equations were also developed for each fabric 'skin' to predict wet fabric 'skin' surface temperatures. It was found that both fabric thickness and material significantly affected the apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance. Clothing total evaporative resistance determined using thin fabric 'skin' (e.g., CO1, CO2) was normally lower than that determined using thick fabric 'skin' (e.g., CO4). Besides, synthetic fabric 'skin' tended to have a larger apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance than the cotton fabric 'skin' due to a smaller amount of moisture contained. Hence, there is a great need to standardize the fabric 'skin' to eliminate the influence of fabric 'skin' on the measurement of clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  5. Tissue engineering scaffolds electrospun from cotton cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu; Cheng, Long; Zhang, Ximu; Xiao, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2015-01-22

    Nonwovens of cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning of cotton cellulose in its LiCl/DMAc solution. The key factors associated with the electrospinning process, including the intrinsic properties of cellulose solutions, the rotating speed of collector and the applied voltage, were systematically investigated. XRD data indicated the electrospun nanofibers were almost amorphous. When increasing the rotating speed of the collector, preferential alignment of fibers along the drawing direction and improved molecular orientation were revealed by scanning electron microscope and polarized FTIR, respectively. Tensile tests indicated the strength of the nonwovens along the orientation direction could be largely improved when collected at a higher speed. In light of the excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their unique porous structure, the nonwovens were further assessed as potential tissue engineering scaffolds. Cell culture experiments demonstrated human dental follicle cells could proliferate rapidly not only on the surface but also in the entire scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Local devitrification of Dy 3+ doped Ba 2TiSi 2O 8 glass by laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L. L.; Haro-González, P.; Martín, I. R.; Puerto, D.; Solís, J.; Cáceres, J. M.; Capuj, N. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Ba 2TiSi 2O 8 (BTS) is a well known piezoelectric, ferroelectric and non-linear crystal. In this work, nanocrystals of BTS have been obtained by different thermal treatments of precursor glasses. The glasses were fabricated from BaO-TiO 2-SiO 2 and doped with Dy 2O 3 using the melt quenching method. Thermal treatment in an electrical furnace at 740 °C was used to obtain transparent glass ceramic samples, which are formed by an amorphous matrix containing BTS nanocrystals, with an average size of 35 nm confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, a localized area in the precursor glass has been irradiated by continuous wave (c.w.) Ar-laser or femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser. Evidence of the changes induced by laser irradiation is confirmed by spectroscopic comparison of irradiated regions with the precursor glass and glass ceramic samples. The emission spectra corresponding to the Dy 3+: 4F 9/2 → 6H 13/2 (578 nm), 4F 9/2 → 6H 11/2 (670 nm) and 4F 9/2 → 6H 9/2 (757 nm) transitions were obtained under laser excitation at 473 nm. These measurements confirm the incorporation of the Dy 3+ ions into the BTS nanocrystals which produces an enhancement of luminescence and makes it an attractive material for optical amplification.

  7. Microbial odor profile of polyester and cotton clothes after a fitness session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; De Maeseneire, Evelyn; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Verliefde, Arne; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-11-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts were collected from 26 healthy individuals after an intensive bicycle spinning session and incubated for 28 h before analysis. A trained odor panel determined significant differences between polyester versus cotton fabrics for the hedonic value, the intensity, and five qualitative odor characteristics. The polyester T-shirts smelled significantly less pleasant and more intense, compared to the cotton T-shirts. A dissimilar bacterial growth was found in cotton versus synthetic clothing textiles. Micrococci were isolated in almost all synthetic shirts and were detected almost solely on synthetic shirts by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting. A selective enrichment of micrococci in an in vitro growth experiment confirmed the presence of these species on polyester. Staphylococci were abundant on both cotton and synthetic fabrics. Corynebacteria were not enriched on any textile type. This research found that the composition of clothing fibers promotes differential growth of textile microbes and, as such, determines possible malodor generation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Nondestructive identification of dye mixtures in polyester and cotton fibers using raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) microspectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an assessment of the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP) in visible and ultraviolet light (UV-Vis) in the examination of textile fibers dyed with mixtures of synthetic dyes. Fragments of single polyester fibers, stained with ternary mixtures of disperse dyes in small mass concentrations, and fragments of single cotton fibers, dyed with binary or ternary mixtures of reactive dyes, were subjected to the study. Three types of excitation sources, 514, 633, and 785 nm, were used during Raman examinations, while the MSP study was conducted in the 200 to 800 nm range. The results indicate that the capabilities for discernment of dye mixtures are similar in the spectroscopic methods that were employed. Both methods have a limited capacity to distinguish slightly dyed polyester fiber; additionally, it was found that Raman spectroscopy enables identification of primarily the major components in dye mixtures. The best results, in terms of the quality of Raman spectra, were obtained using an excitation source from the near infrared. MSP studies led to the conclusion that polyester testing should be carried out in the range above 310 nm, while for cotton fibers there is no limitation or restriction of the applied range. Also, MSP UV-Vis showed limited possibilities for discriminatory analysis of cotton fibers dyed with a mixture of reactive dyes, where the ratio of the concentration of the main dye used in the dyeing process to minor dye was higher than four. The results presented have practical applications in forensic studies, inter alia.

  9. At the nano-level modified cotton knitwear prototype development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukle, S.; Vihodceva, S.; Belakova, D.; Lukasevica, B.; Riepniece, A.

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews efficiency of the fluorine, silica and zinc compounds containing textile coating conformity with the day-to-day wearing conditions of cotton knitwear used as the first level clothing to the wearer skin. Silica sol modified with the zinc acetate dehydrate was used for the weft knitted cotton single-jersey and double-jersey fabrics chemical modification. The experimental part of the presented research includes the evaluation of the fabrics structure characteristics, air and vapour permeability and water-repellent abilities. The wettability of cotton textiles were evaluated by the water contact angle before and after modification as well after hydrothermal treatment. Images of the obtained modified fibres surfaces analysed by scanning electron microscopy, and fibres surface chemical composition has been determined with dispersive X-ray analysis. Conformity of modified textiles properties important to the wearing comfort and the inserted additional functions determined by testing textiles “in vitro” verified “in vivo” in experimental wearing process where 100 volunteers of different professions had participated.

  10. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than Good...

  11. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for classification...

  12. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than Leaf...

  13. Size effects on magnetic property of multiferroic DyMn2O5 nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hsiang Tung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DyMn2O5 multiferroic nanorods with radial (D × axial ( lengths of 24(9 nm × 46(12 nm, 36(9 nm × 84(26 nm and 111(22 nm × 212(84 nm, were fabricated through the hydrothermal method. The aspect ratio /D of the nanorods retained the value 2 at different annealing temperatures (Ta = 400, 800, and 1000 °C for = 46, 84, and 212 nm, respectively. Antiferromagnetic magnetic ordering started at approximately 42 K, 42 K, and 50 K for = 46 nm, 84 nm, and 212 nm samples, respectively. The saturation magnetic moment (s, Hc, and Mr decreased as increased. The results of magnetic hysteresis experiment implied that magnetic domain sizes decreased as the increased. The size effect not only merges the nanorods into larger crystals but also reduces interior magnetic domain sizes.

  14. Synthesis, structure and spectroscopic properties of luminescent GdVO4:Dy3+ and DyVO4 particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Dragana J.; Chiappini, Andrea; Zur, Lidia; Gavrilović, Tamara V.; Lam Tran, Thi Ngoc; Chiasera, Alessandro; Lukowiak, Anna; Smits, Krisjanis; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we focused on the syntheses, structure and spectroscopic properties of GdVO4:Dy3+ and DyVO4 (nano)particles of different sizes and shapes (spherical nanoparticles of 2 nm, 4 nm, and 20 nm in size, nanorods with a few nanometers in diameter and up to 10-20 nm in length and microparticles of 1-8 μm) obtained by four synthetic methods. The size effect on the structure, Raman active modes, and photoluminescence emission intensities was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and diffuse reflection spectroscopy. All X-ray diffraction patterns clearly indicated presence of a single tetragonal zircon-type phase; absence of impurity phases indicate that the dopant Dy3+ ions were successfully and uniformly incorporated into the GdVO4 host lattice due to the equal valence and similar ionic radii. Micro-Raman measurements support the XRD measurements and showed Raman-active modes of the REVO4 systems (RE = Gd, Dy). The difference between the two hosts in the diffuse reflectance spectra was observed and it could be attributed to more effective Gd3+ ions on the charge transfer bands and different polarization (compared to bulk material) in smaller nanoparticles. Photoluminescence spectroscopy showed several bands in the visible and near-infrared regions which can be exclusively attributed to the f-f transitions of Dy3+ ions.

  15. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Therapeutical radiopharmaceuticals based In vivo generator system [{sup 166} Dy] Dy/{sup 166} Ho; Radiofarmacos terapeuticos basados en un sistema de generador In vivo [{sup 166}Dy] Dy/{sup 166}Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G.; Garcia S, L.; Monroy G, F.; Tendilla, J.I. [Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pedraza L, M.; Murphy, C.A. de [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    At the idea to administer to a patient a molecule containing in it structure a father radionuclide, with a half life enough large which allows to the radiolabelled molecule to take up position specifically in a white tissue and decaying In vivo to the daughter radionuclide with properties potentially therapeutic, it is known as In vivo generator system. In this work the preparation and the preliminary dosimetric valuations of radiopharmaceuticals based In vivo generator system {sup 166} Dy Dy/{sup 166} Ho for applications in radioimmunotherapy, in the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis and in the bone marrow ablation (m.o.) for candidates patients to bone marrow transplant are presented. (Author)

  17. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  18. Conductive cotton prepared by polyaniline in situ polymerization using laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Dong, Aixue; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Zhang, Ying

    2014-09-01

    The high-redox-potential catalyst laccase, isolated from Aspergillus, was first used as a biocatalyst in the oxidative polymerization of water-soluble conductive polyaniline, and then conductive cotton was prepared by in situ polymerization under the same conditions. The polymerization of aniline was performed in a water dispersion of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) micellar solution with atmospheric oxygen serving as the oxidizing agent. This method is ecologically clean and permits a greater degree of control over the kinetics of the reaction. The conditions for polyaniline synthesis were optimized. Characterizations of the conducting polyaniline and cotton were carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, the fabric induction electrostatic tester, and the far-field EMC shielding effectiveness test fixture.

  19. Microbial Odor Profile of Polyester and Cotton Clothes after a Fitness Session

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callewaert, C.; De Maeseneire, E.; Kerckhof, F.M.; Verliefde, A.; Van de Wiele, T.; Boon, N.

    2014-01-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts

  20. Time survivor study of Escherichia coli with polyhexamethylene biguanide on cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Usha; Hendrix, R.M.G.; Dutschk, Victoria; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2013-01-01

    Time survivor or time kill studies are commonly used to investigate the efficacy of antimicrobial agents in homogeneous solutions. Such a study was attempted via a textile treated with an antimicrobial agent. For this study, a finished undyed cotton fabric and a commercially available antimicrobial

  1. Advent of Greige Cotton Nonwovens Made By Hydro-Entanglement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using greige (scour/bleachless) cotton, a few nonwoven fabrics have been successfully produced by adopting conventional fiber opening, cleaning and (modified) carding machines followed by cross-lapping, pre/light needling, and hydro-entanglement (H-E) on modern commercial machinery and equipment. Us...

  2. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on the near infrared spectroscopy measurements of cotton fiber micronaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key cotton fiber property is micronaire, the indirect indicator of the fiber’s maturity (cell wall development or thickening) and fineness (linear density or size). Micronaire can impact the fiber’s quality, textile processing efficiency, and fabric dye consistency. As a key quality property, fi...

  3. Study on pigment dyeing opportunities of polyester and cotton-mix fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabieva, I. A.; Shamukimova, M. B.; Artikboeva, R. M.

    2017-11-01

    The process of coloring the dyeing pigments in polyether and cotton fibers for different fabrics, which are inclined to dye, have been studied in this article. Based on the experiences on pigments dyeing, it was suggested to study the materials with the dyeing pigment substances with the purpose of improving the technology of color forming.

  4. Effect of pre-heating on the thermal decomposition kinetics of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pre-heating at low temperatures (160-280°C) on the thermal decomposition kinetics of scoured cotton fabrics was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis under nonisothermal conditions. Isoconversional methods were used to calculate the activation energies for the pyrolysis after one-...

  5. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin

    2013-01-01

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In certain cases, A. rhizogenes-induced hairy root culture has been a suitable molecular tool for functional analyses of genes and promoters for plants that are difficult to regenerate by A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Similarly, A. rhizogenes-induced hairy root cultures are an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics. In this chapter, the advantages and disadvantages of using A. rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture over A. tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation are discussed. The procedures for transformation, generation, selection, and molecular analyses of transgenic cotton hairy roots are introduced by describing the functional analysis of a cotton promoter in cotton hairy roots generated by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation.

  6. Structure and properties of cotton-based biodegradable/compostable nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Haoming

    Cotton-based biodegradable nonwoven products have been receiving increasing attention in recent years with the growing environmental awareness throughout the world. A majority of the cotton-based nonwoven products are processed by carding with the binder fibers, and then point-bonding using a thermal calender. In this work, different biodegradable binder fibers were used to produce cotton-based nonwovens. The structure and the properties of the resulting fabrics were studied. The effect of bonding temperature and binder fiber content on the bond morphology was investigated. The fracture and failure mechanisms of the fabrics produced with different binder fiber content and at different bonding temperature were analyzed. Binder fiber distribution was determined by both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that DSC is a useful method to quantitatively characterize the binder fiber distribution in the carded cotton-based nonwovens. By determining the specific enthalpy from crystallization of one of the binder fiber components in the fabrics, it is possible to calculate the fiber composition. Tensile properties of the resultant nonwovens under different processing conditions were studied. The optimal processing conditions for the nonwovens processed using different binder fibers were determined based on their tensile properties. Consequently, effects of binder fiber type, binder fiber content, and bonding temperature on the tensile property of the nonwoven fabrics are discussed. The best binder fiber under the experimental conditions was selected based on the tensile property of the resulting fabrics. Based on the interactions of binder fiber composition and bonding temperature, empirical models have been developed to predict the breaking load of the webs bonded by the best binder fiber using the General Linear Models Procedure in JMP 5.0 statistical analysis software. The absorbent behavior and flexural rigidity of the nonwoven fabrics bonded by one

  7. Losartan, a therapeutic candidate in congenital muscular dystrophy: studies in the dy(2J) /dy(2J) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Moran; Yanay, Nurit; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Brunschwig, Zivia; Kassis, Ibaa; Ettinger, Keren; Barak, Vivian; Nevo, Yoram

    2012-05-01

    Lamininα2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a cureless disease associated with severe disability and shortened lifespan. Previous studies have shown reduced fibrosis and restored skeletal muscle remodeling following treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker. We therefore evaluated the effect of losartan treatment in the dy(2J) /dy(2J) mouse model of MDC1A. Homozygous dy(2J) /dy(2J) and control mice were treated with losartan or placebo for 12 weeks from 6 weeks of age. Outcome measures included hindlimb and forelimb muscle strength by Grip Strength Meter and quantitative muscle fibrosis parameters. Losartan's effects on transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were evaluated with Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and cytokine measurements. Losartan treatment was associated with significant impressive improvement in muscle strength and amelioration of fibrosis. Administration of losartan inhibited TGF-β signaling pathway, resulting in decreased serum TGF-β1 level and reduced downstream phosphorylated (P) Smad2/3 proteins. Moreover, losartan activated Smad7 protein, a key negative regulator of TGF-β signaling. In addition, losartan treatment inhibited the MAPK cascade as shown by decreased expression of P-p38 MAPK, P-c-jun-N-terminal kinase, and P-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 in the treated mice. Losartan, a commonly prescribed US Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for hypertension, demonstrated clinical improvement and amelioration of fibrosis in the dy(2J) /dy(2J) mouse model of MDC1A via TGF-β and MAPK signaling pathways. The results of this study support pursuing a clinical trial of losartan treatment in children with MDC1A. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  8. Preparation and properties of electro-conductive fabrics based on polypyrrole: covalent vs. non-covalent attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N. C.; Anavi, D.; Milanovich, M.; Popowski, Y.; Frid, L.; Amir, E.

    2017-10-01

    Electro-conductive fabrics were prepared via in situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in the presence of unmodified and chemically modified cotton fabrics. Chemical modification of cotton fabric was achieved by covalent attachment of a bifunctional linker molecule to the surface of the fabric, followed by incorporation of a monomer unit onto the linker. The fabrics were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Furthermore, the effect of Py concentration on the degree of polypyrrole (PPy) grafting, surface morphology, electrical resistivity, and laundering durability were studied for both types of cotton fabrics. Reductions of several orders of magnitude in surface and volume electrical resistivities were observed for both non-covalently and covalently linked cotton-PPy systems, whereas the effect of covalent pre-treatment of the fabric was stronger at low Py concentration. On the other hand, at higher monomer concentration, the electrical properties and laundering durability of the fabrics we comparable for both unmodified and chemically pre-treated cotton fabrics, indicating that only a small fraction of PPy chains were chemically grafted onto the fabric surface with the majority of the polymer being connected to the fabric through hydrogen bonds.

  9. Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...

  10. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  11. Dielectric permitivity measurement of cotton lint

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique was developed for making broad band measurements of cotton lint electrical permitivity. The fundamental electrical permitivity value of cotton lint at various densities and moisture contents; is beneficial for the future development of cotton moisture sensors as it provides a...

  12. The water footprint of cotton consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this report is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1043 - Cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cotton dust. 1910.1043 Section 1910.1043 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1043 Cotton dust. (a... cotton dust in all workplaces where employees engage in yarn manufacturing, engage in slashing and...

  14. Dyeing of Polyester Woven Fabric with Disperse Dye Using Conventional and Microwave Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyester fabric is generally dyed using high temperature dyeing technique and carrier. Both techniques require high energy consumption while few carriers are toxic in nature. In this study, 100% polyester woven fabric was dyed by microwave and conventional dyeing technique with disperse dye; Foron Blue RD GLN by an exhaust method for short dyeing cycle (15 and 30 min. The fabric samples were dyed using conventional high temperature dyeing technique using recommended recipe. Moreover, samples were also dyed using microwave technique with recommended recipe and by the addition of salt and urea, pre-treatment with caustic and organic solvent for improving the dye uptake value and fastness properties. The dyeing assessment; (K/S?max value by Datacolor spectrophotometer, dye uniformity by optical microscope and washing fastness by grey scale were measured. It has been observed that over conventional dyeing method, microwave irradiation dyed sample gives almost 70% high (K/S?max value and uniform dye penetration and good to very good washing fastness property. In addition, microwave dyeing gives excellent dyeing behavior at short dyeing cycle; 15 min; hence saves energy and sustainable dyeing process

  15. Effect of Lycra Percentages and Loop Length on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Single Jersey Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Eltahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single jersey knitted fabrics are generally used to make underwear and outerwear such as T-shirts. Knit fabric can more easily deform or stretch by compressing or elongating the individual stitches that form the fabric. Cotton yarns, which are not elastomeric, do not have the ability of recovery to rearrange the stitches. As a consequence, single-knit fabrics may have permanent deformation. To improve the recovery performance of circular single-knit fabrics, it is now a common practice to knit a small amount of spandex fiber or yarn with companion cotton yarn. In this study the physical, dimensional, and mechanical properties of back plaited cotton/spandex single jersey knitted fabrics were investigated and the results are compared with knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and the effect of spandex percentage was also studied. It was found that as the loop length increases, the wales density was not affected and specific fabric hand and extension increased, but bursting strength and fabric recovery decreased. The presence of Lycra in single jersey knitted fabric increases of course density, fabric thickness, and knitted fabric recovery, while fabric width, fabric porosity, and extension were decreased.

  16. EST Table: DY230676 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available x mori] dbj|BAA89306.1| Promoting Protein [Bombyx mori] 10/09/03 32 %/105 aa FBpp0237404|DvirGJ22987-PA 10/0...DY230676 EST01412 10/09/28 87 %/127 aa ref|NP_001036842.1| promoting protein [Bomby

  17. Equilibrium and kinetics studies of metal ion adsorption on dyed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    diffusion control- led, even though these two different mechanisms cannot be sharply demarcated (Okieimen et al., 1987). In this study the rate of adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions onto dyed coconut pollens was investigated at pH of.

  18. Equilibrium and kinetics studies of metal ion adsorption on dyed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch equilibration studies were conducted to determine the nature of adsorption of Zn (II) and Cu (II) onto dyed coconut pollens. The nature of adsorption of metal ions was explained using the Langmuir equation. The calculated values of equilibrium parameter indicated favourable adsorption by the adsorbents. Also the ...

  19. Characteristics of the iron moment in Dy-Fe and Dy-FeCo amorphous alloys studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury-Frenette, K.; Dhesi, S.S.; Laan, G. van der; Strivay, D.; Weber, G.; Delwiche, J. E-mail: jdelwiche@ulg.ac.be

    2000-10-01

    The local magnetic moment of Fe in Dy-Fe and Dy-FeCo amorphous alloys has been studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The Fe orbital and spin magnetic moments have been obtained for a range of alloy compositions by applying the sum rules to the XMCD spectra. The room temperature variations of the average components of the Fe moments as a function of Dy concentration and with the substitution of Fe by Co have been determined. A sharp reversal of the total magnetic moment was found at 28{+-}1 at% Dy for both alloys.

  20. FINAL PROCESS DEPENDENT DIMENSIONAL CHANGES OF DOUBLE KNIT FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat ÖZYAZGAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Ne 30/1 cotton yarn obtained by using pure cotton fibers is employed. 1x1, 2x1 and 3x1 Rib fabrics were knitted with yarns at different gauges. During the knitting process, the tension was kept constant. In order to investigate the relaxation on the knitting process fabric samples were treated using three relaxation processes; dry, wet and full respectively. After each relaxation process, stitches dimensions were measured. As a result of these measurements, it is observed that as the relaxation increases the stitches length decreases while the stitches width increases. In rib knitting, As the fabric stretches increases the stitch length increases. As a result it is observed that as the stitch length increases, the width of the stitches increases linearly. In all rib fabrics, increase in the stitch density leads to an increase in the weight of the fabric.

  1. Synthesis of a novel multi N-halamines siloxane precursor and its antimicrobial activity on cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lin; Xu, Yan; Cai, Lu; Zang, Xiong [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, No 199 Renai Road, Industry Park, Suzhou 215021 (China); Li, Zhanxiong, E-mail: lizhanxiong@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, No 199 Renai Road, Industry Park, Suzhou 215021 (China)

    2014-09-30

    A novel N-halamine siloxane antibacterial precursor N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-N′- (N″′-heptylcarbamido-N″-ethyl)-butanediamide (TSHCEB) was synthesized and characterized in this study. The compound was then tethered to the surface of cotton fabrics through covalent ether linkages, followed by exposure to dilute sodium hypochlorite solutions to confer the cotton fabrics antibacterial property. The chemical structure of the monomer was confirmed by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR and MS, and the surface of the treated cotton fabrics was characterized by FTIR, TGA, SEM, and XPS analysis. The antimicrobial cotton materials were then challenged with Gram-negative Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538). Results showed that it provided excellent antimicrobial properties against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus via direct contacting for 2–15 min. The controlled release of diverse chlorines was proved by inhibition zone. The chlorine bonded to the coating was stable under standard washing test and routine storage, stability toward UVA irradiation was also investigated, and the lost chlorine could be regenerated by rechlorination. The new N-halamine antibacterial precursor can provide superior antibacterial property within a short contact time.

  2. Synthesis of a novel multi N-halamines siloxane precursor and its antimicrobial activity on cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Xu, Yan; Cai, Lu; Zang, Xiong; Li, Zhanxiong

    2014-09-01

    A novel N-halamine siloxane antibacterial precursor N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-N‧- (N″‧-heptylcarbamido-N″-ethyl)-butanediamide (TSHCEB) was synthesized and characterized in this study. The compound was then tethered to the surface of cotton fabrics through covalent ether linkages, followed by exposure to dilute sodium hypochlorite solutions to confer the cotton fabrics antibacterial property. The chemical structure of the monomer was confirmed by FTIR, 1H NMR and MS, and the surface of the treated cotton fabrics was characterized by FTIR, TGA, SEM, and XPS analysis. The antimicrobial cotton materials were then challenged with Gram-negative Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538). Results showed that it provided excellent antimicrobial properties against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus via direct contacting for 2-15 min. The controlled release of diverse chlorines was proved by inhibition zone. The chlorine bonded to the coating was stable under standard washing test and routine storage, stability toward UVA irradiation was also investigated, and the lost chlorine could be regenerated by rechlorination. The new N-halamine antibacterial precursor can provide superior antibacterial property within a short contact time.

  3. Moisture Responded Transformable Property Of Intelligent Coolness Knitted Fabrics For Sportswear Clothings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Kim Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the physical properties related to the intelligent coolness characteristics including the wearing comfort of Huvis elastic fiber (HEF knitted fabrics. For this purpose, three kinds of covered filament yarn specimens, such as PET-HEF, Aerocool-HEF, and PET-spandex, were prepared, and their knitted fabric specimens were made using these covered yarn specimens. These knitted fabric specimens were dyed at different dyeing temperatures and times to analyze the dyeing characteristics. The moisture absorption rate, drying, and hygral expansion of the three kinds of knitted fabric specimens were measured and compared with the yarn characteristics to determine the wearing comfort of HEF knitted fabrics.

  4. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  5. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  6. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  7. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton with a superhydrophobic surface and self-cleaning ability has been prepared by the treatment with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-fluorooctyl triethoxysilane. An increased level of treatment increases the water contact angle, thereby exhibiting a self...

  8. Cotton Wilt and the Environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THE wilt disease of cotton (Fusarium sp.) has been studied extensively by Ajrekar and Bal (1921), Fahmy (1928), Kulkarni and Mundkur (1928),. Dastur (1929), Dharmarajulu (1932), Fikry (1932) and Kulkarni (1934). The last author has fully reviewed previous work. In these studies, detailed attention has been given, mainly, ...

  9. Cottonseed and cotton plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton plant generates several marketable products as a result of the ginning process. The product that garners the most attention in regards to value and research efforts, is lint with cottonseed being secondary. In addition to lint and cottonseed, the plant material itself has a value that...

  10. Cotton Square Morphology Offers New Insights into Host Plant Resistance to Cotton Fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoud, Laura Ann; Hague, Steven; Knutson, Allen; Wayne Smith, C; Brewer, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that feeds preferentially on developing flower buds, called squares. Heavy infestations cause yield reductions that result from abscission of squares damaged by the cotton fleahopper feeding. Antixenosis, or nonpreference, has been reported as a mechanism of host plant resistance in cotton to cotton fleahopper. Square structure, particularly the placement of the reproductive tissues, and stylet penetration were investigated as factors that influence resistance to cotton fleahopper in cotton lines derived from crosses with Pilose, a cultigen of upland cotton resistant to cotton fleahopper, and backcrossed with high-yielding, susceptible lines. Ovary depth varied among the lines tested and was found to be a heritable trait that affected the ability of a fleahopper's feeding stylets to penetrate the reproductive tissues in the square and might influence preference. Behavioral assays suggested antixenosis as a mechanism of host plant resistance, and the trait conferring antixenosis was found to be heritable. Results suggest ovary depth plays a role in conferring resistance to cotton fleahopper and is an exploitable trait in resistance breeding. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Multifunctional hybrid functionalization of cellulose fabrics with AgNWs and TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesz, Patrycja; Mackiewicz, Ewelina; Grobelny, Jarosław; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Cieślak, Małgorzata

    2017-12-01

    A study on the hybrid functionalization of cotton and viscose fabrics using silver nanowires (AgNWs) colloid and titanium dioxide (TiO2) sol prepared in sol-gel technique was carried out. The microwave treatment was applied to change amorphous form of TiO2 to anatase. The photocatalytic activity of both cellulose fabrics was evaluated by decomposition of nicotine using new method on the basis of infrared spectroscopy. The AgNWs/TiO2 modification caused 3 and 4 times (cotton fabric) and 1.8 and 1.5 (viscose fabric) faster decomposition of nicotine under respectively UV and VIS light than for unmodified fabrics. The AgNWs/TiO2 modified cotton showed the surface resistance 1.5×10(3)Ω and antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria. The same modification method gives various effects for cotton and viscose fabrics. Our study demonstrates that AgNWs/TiO2 modified cotton fabric with protective properties against bacteria can be used as conductive and air purifying materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by an...

  13. ARS labs update to California Cotton Ginners and Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are four USDA-ARS labs involved in cotton harvesting, processing & fiber quality research; The Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory (Mesilla Park, NM); The Cotton Production and Processing Unit (Lubbock, TX); The Cotton Ginning Research Unit (Stoneville, MS); and The Cotton Structur...

  14. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence of...

  15. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence of...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31 following...

  17. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification and/or...

  18. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  19. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control of...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan deficiency...

  1. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other samples, or of loose or miscellaneous lots collected and rebaled, or cotton in a bale which is composed of cotton from two or more smaller bales or parts of bales that are combined after the cotton leaves the gin. (f) False packed cotton. Cotton in a bale (1) containing substances entirely foreign to...

  2. Luminomagnetic Eu3+- and Dy3+-doped hydroxyapatite for multimodal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, Annemarie; Wenisch, Christoph; Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Warncke, Paul; Fischer, Dagmar; Müller, Frank A

    2017-12-01

    Multimodal imaging has recently attracted much attention due to the advantageous combination of different imaging modalities, like photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the present study, luminescent and magnetic hydroxyapatites (HAp) were prepared via doping with europium (Eu3+) and dysprosium (Dy3+), respectively. Co-doping of Eu3+ and Dy3+ was used to combine the desired physical properties. Both lanthanide ions were successfully incorporated in the HAp crystal lattice, where they preferentially occupied calcium(I) sites. While Eu-doped HAp (Eu:HAp) exhibits dopant concentration dependent persistent PL properties, Dy-doped HAp (Dy:HAp) shows paramagnetic behavior due to the high magnetic moment of Dy3+. Co-doped HAp (Eu:Dy:HAp) nanoparticles combine both properties in one single crystal. Remarkably, multimodal co-doped HAp features enhanced PL properties due to an energy transfer from Dy3+ sensitizer to Eu3+ activator ions. Eu:Dy:HAp exhibits strong transverse relaxation effects with a maximum transverse relaxivity of 83.3L/(mmol·s). Due to their tunable PL, magnetic properties and cytocompatibility Eu:-, Dy:- and Eu:Dy:HAp represent promising biocompatible ceramic materials for luminescence imaging that simultaneously may serve as a contrast agent for MRI in permanent implants or functional coatings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Comfort Properties of Two Differential-Shrinkage Polyester Warp Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-layered warp knitted fabrics were produced by the 60D/36F (containing 36 filaments polyester yarn with differential shrinkage (DS property in this study. Due to the differential shrinkage property, the fabric becomes curly and bulkier, simulating cotton fabric in terms of its appearance and fabric handle. The performance and appearance of these DS polyester warp knitted fabrics were evaluated objectively and subjectively. The testing results demonstrated that the DS polyester warp knitted fabric had better abrasion property, worse pilling resistance due to the mechanical property of polyester yarn when compared with 100% cotton warp knitted fabric. Meanwhile, lower water vapour permeability and air resistance were found for DS polyester warp knitted fabric resulting from the dense structure of yarn shrinkage after heat-moisture treatment. Besides, the fabric handle was evaluated by Kawabata evaluation system and subject to trial under dry and wet fabric condition. DS polyester warp knitted fabrics provide better recovery under low stress mechanical pressure. The subjective evaluation result shows that the warp knitted fabrics made of DS polyester had similar handle against cotton warp knitted fabric in terms of prickle, smooth, comfort and dry feeling in both dry and wet testing conditions.

  4. Basidiomycete DyPs: Genomic diversity, structural-functional aspects, reaction mechanism and environmental significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Dolores; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Guallar, Victor; Hammel, Kenneth E; Pogni, Rebecca; Martínez, Angel T

    2015-05-15

    The first enzyme with dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) activity was described in 1999 from an arthroconidial culture of the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. However, the first DyP sequence had been deposited three years before, as a peroxidase gene from a culture of an unidentified fungus of the family Polyporaceae (probably Irpex lacteus). Since the first description, fewer than ten basidiomycete DyPs have been purified and characterized, but a large number of sequences are available from genomes. DyPs share a general fold and heme location with chlorite dismutases and other DyP-type related proteins (such as Escherichia coli EfeB), forming the CDE superfamily. Taking into account the lack of an evolutionary relationship with the catalase-peroxidase superfamily, the observed heme pocket similarities must be considered as a convergent type of evolution to provide similar reactivity to the enzyme cofactor. Studies on the Auricularia auricula-judae DyP showed that high-turnover oxidation of anthraquinone type and other DyP substrates occurs via long-range electron transfer from an exposed tryptophan (Trp377, conserved in most basidiomycete DyPs), whose catalytic radical was identified in the H2O2-activated enzyme. The existence of accessory oxidation sites in DyP is suggested by the residual activity observed after site-directed mutagenesis of the above tryptophan. DyP degradation of substituted anthraquinone dyes (such as Reactive Blue 5) most probably proceeds via typical one-electron peroxidase oxidations and product breakdown without a DyP-catalyzed hydrolase reaction. Although various DyPs are able to break down phenolic lignin model dimers, and basidiomycete DyPs also present marginal activity on nonphenolic dimers, a significant contribution to lignin degradation is unlikely because of the low activity on high redox-potential substrates. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Ras antagonist, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS), decreases fibrosis and improves muscle strength in dy/dy mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Yoram; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Elmakayes, Edva; Yanay, Nurit; Ettinger, Keren; Elbaz, Moran; Brunschwig, Zivia; Dadush, Oshrat; Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Haklai, Roni; Kloog, Yoel; Chapman, Joab; Reif, Shimon

    2011-03-22

    The Ras superfamily of guanosine-triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins regulates a diverse spectrum of intracellular processes involved in inflammation and fibrosis. Farnesythiosalicylic acid (FTS) is a unique and potent Ras inhibitor which decreased inflammation and fibrosis in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis and ameliorated inflammatory processes in systemic lupus erythematosus, neuritis and nephritis animal models. FTS effect on Ras expression and activity, muscle strength and fibrosis was evaluated in the dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse model of merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. The dy(2J)/dy(2J) mice had significantly increased RAS expression and activity compared with the wild type mice. FTS treatment significantly decreased RAS expression and activity. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK, a Ras downstream protein, was significantly decreased following FTS treatment in the dy(2J)/dy(2J) mice. Clinically, FTS treated mice showed significant improvement in hind limb muscle strength measured by electronic grip strength meter. Significant reduction of fibrosis was demonstrated in the treated group by quantitative Sirius Red staining and lower muscle collagen content. FTS effect was associated with significantly inhibition of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. We conclude that active RAS inhibition by FTS was associated with attenuated fibrosis and improved muscle strength in the dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  6. The Ras antagonist, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS, decreases fibrosis and improves muscle strength in dy/dy mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram Nevo

    Full Text Available The Ras superfamily of guanosine-triphosphate (GTP-binding proteins regulates a diverse spectrum of intracellular processes involved in inflammation and fibrosis. Farnesythiosalicylic acid (FTS is a unique and potent Ras inhibitor which decreased inflammation and fibrosis in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis and ameliorated inflammatory processes in systemic lupus erythematosus, neuritis and nephritis animal models. FTS effect on Ras expression and activity, muscle strength and fibrosis was evaluated in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. The dy(2J/dy(2J mice had significantly increased RAS expression and activity compared with the wild type mice. FTS treatment significantly decreased RAS expression and activity. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK, a Ras downstream protein, was significantly decreased following FTS treatment in the dy(2J/dy(2J mice. Clinically, FTS treated mice showed significant improvement in hind limb muscle strength measured by electronic grip strength meter. Significant reduction of fibrosis was demonstrated in the treated group by quantitative Sirius Red staining and lower muscle collagen content. FTS effect was associated with significantly inhibition of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. We conclude that active RAS inhibition by FTS was associated with attenuated fibrosis and improved muscle strength in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  7. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  8. Moisture management properties of Cupro knitted fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durur, G.; Oner, E.; Gunduz, G.

    2017-10-01

    On the purpose of analysing the moisture management behaviour of Cupro blend knitted fabrics made of Ne 40/1 and Ne 56/1 cotton/Cupro blend yarns, which have single jersey, 1x1 rib and interlock knitting types were systematically produced. Multi-dimensional liquid transport properties of the produced fabric were measured on the Moisture Management Tester (MMT). The air permeability and some structural properties of the fabrics were also measured, and the results were evaluated taking into account moisture management properties. According to results, it is observed that moisture management capacity and permeability of Cupro blends produced from finer yarns were higher than those of fabrics from coarse count yarns. Generally, Cupro blend knitted fabrics showed good moisture management properties.

  9. Immobilization of lysozyme on cotton fabrics; synthesis, characterization, and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage is the leading cause of death on the battlefield and second leading cause of death in civilian trauma. Recent animal testing using a lethal arterial injury model compared a variety of woven and non woven products with granular products, and found only one product (WoundStat) ...

  10. anolyte as an alternative bleach for stained cotton fabrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Anolyte possesses antimicrobial activity against a variety of micro-organisms as a disinfectant used in agriculture, dentistry, medicine and the food industry. ..... Modification of denim garment with the treatment of bleaching powder. Canadian. Journal on Chemical Engineering & Technology. (2):30–36. KIM, C., HUNG, YC ...

  11. Anolyte as an alternative bleach for stained cotton fabrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anolyte has been successful in the food industry and in disinfecting textiles, extensive research has not been done to determine the bleaching effect on textiles. If it can bleach textiles, it can be considered alternative bleach. If it does not bleach textiles, it can be useful as a disinfectant without the bleaching damage as result ...

  12. anolyte as an alternative bleach for stained cotton fabrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    are difficult to bleach with hydrogen peroxide. (Perkins, 1996:64), but to avoid any damage to the fibres ... reaction, as it reacts with phenolic compounds found in the dye. This means that colour can be removed or ..... and distilled water as the p-value was 0.42. Soot is the carbon residue of a burning process; apart from the ...

  13. Conductive Cotton Filters for Affordable and Efficient Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is highly desirable to develop affordable, energy-saving, and highly-effective technologies to alleviate the current water crisis. In this work, we reported a low-cost electrochemical filtration device composing of a conductive cotton filter anode and a Ti foil cathode. The device was operated by gravity feed. The conductive cotton filter anodes were fabricated by a facile dying method to incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs as fillers. The CNTs could serve as adsorbents for pollutants adsorption, as electrocatalysts for pollutants electrooxidation, and as conductive additives to render the cotton filters highly conductive. Cellulose-based cotton could serve as low-cost support to ‘host’ these CNTs. Upon application of external potential, the developed filtration device could not only achieve physically adsorption of organic compounds, but also chemically oxide these compounds on site. Three model organic compounds were employed to evaluate the oxidative capability of the device, i.e., ferrocyanide (a model single-electron-transfer electron donor, methyl orange (MO, a common recalcitrant azo-dye found in aqueous environments, and antibiotic tetracycline (TC, a common antibiotic released from the wastewater treatment plants. The devices exhibited a maximum electrooxidation flux of 0.37 mol/h/m2 for 5.0 mmol/L ferrocyanide, of 0.26 mol/h/m2 for 0.06 mmol/L MO, and of 0.9 mol/h/m2 for 0.2 mmol/L TC under given experimental conditions. The effects of several key operational parameters (e.g., total cell potential, CNT amount, and compound concentration on the device performance were also studied. This study could shed some light on the good design of effective and affordable water purification devices for point-of-use applications.

  14. Hyperfine Structure and Isotope Shifts in Dy II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan F. Del Papa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using fast-ion-beam laser-fluorescence spectroscopy (FIBLAS, we have measured the hyperfine structure (hfs of 14 levels and an additional four transitions in Dy II and the isotope shifts (IS of 12 transitions in the wavelength range of 422–460 nm. These are the first precision measurements of this kind in Dy II. Along with hfs and IS, new undocumented transitions were discovered within 3 GHz of the targeted transitions. These atomic data are essential for astrophysical studies of chemical abundances, allowing correction for saturation and the effects of blended lines. Lanthanide abundances are important in diffusion modeling of stellar interiors, and in the mechanisms and history of nucleosynthesis in the universe. Hfs and IS also play an important role in the classification of energy levels, and provide a benchmark for theoretical atomic structure calculations.

  15. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihye; Kang, Min Hwa; Lee, Kang-Bong; Lee, Yeonhee

    2013-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements were used to characterize commercial natural dyes and traditional silk fabric dyed with plant extracts dyes avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. Silk textiles dyed with plant extracts were then analyzed for chemical and functional group identification of their dye components and mordants. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed silk fabric showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions and molecular ions from plant-extracted dyes. The results of TOF-SIMS, XPS and FTIR are very useful as a reference database for comparison with data about traditional Korean silk fabric and to provide an understanding of traditional dyeing materials. Therefore, this study shows that surface techniques are useful for micro-destructive analysis of plant-extracted dyes and Korean dyed silk fabric. PMID:28809257

  16. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR measurements were used to characterize commercial natural dyes and traditional silk fabric dyed with plant extracts dyes avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. Silk textiles dyed with plant extracts were then analyzed for chemical and functional group identification of their dye components and mordants. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed silk fabric showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions and molecular ions from plant-extracted dyes. The results of TOF-SIMS, XPS and FTIR are very useful as a reference database for comparison with data about traditional Korean silk fabric and to provide an understanding of traditional dyeing materials. Therefore, this study shows that surface techniques are useful for micro-destructive analysis of plant-extracted dyes and Korean dyed silk fabric.

  17. Investigating comfort properties of 3/1 Z twill weaved denim fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taştan Özkan, E.; Kaplangiray, B.

    2017-10-01

    Denim jeans are preferred because of durability and easy washing properties. Nowadays the expectations of consumers from denim fabrics are changed towards design and comfort properties. Fort this reason, thermal and moisture comfort properties of denim fabrics should be examined. This paper aims to investigate thermal, air permeability and moisture management properties of 3/1 Z twill weaved denim fabrics. These fabrics are produced mainly from cotton with different yarn count and cover factors are close to each other.

  18. Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Haonan; Yin, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Lin; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Shuwen; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Yidong

    2011-01-01

    .... To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural...

  19. Bacterial communities of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii associated with Bt cotton in northern China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2016-01-01

    .... This study investigated the bacterial diversity of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii associated with Bt cotton in northern China by targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA using the Illumina MiSeq platform...

  20. The effect of varieties on cotton wax as it relates to cotton quality parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton wax is one of the non-cellulosic components found on the surfaces of cotton. It is important in dyeing and processing quality. This investigation was carried out to study the yield of wax on the surface of cottons by performing two methods: Soxhlet extractions and accelerated solvent extracti...

  1. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Parts 1423 and 1427 RIN 0560-AH81 Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA... implemented the 2008 Farm Bill provisions for the cotton program. The correction removes definitions that are...

  2. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... and 28 [Doc. AMS-CN-11-0066] RIN 0581-AD19 Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... official leaf grade for Upland and Pima cotton. The leaf grade is a part of the official classification...

  3. PHOTOCATALYTIC EFFICIENCY OF N-TIO2 APPLIED ON COTTON KNIT – PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRESCU Iuliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research work is the development of photocatalytic textiles materials by treating them with TiO2 doped with nitrogen. Also, the research was focused on the nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2 formulation as homogeneous, stable solution, immobilization of large quantities of N-TiO2 on 100% cotton knit while preserving its genuine properties, minimize the loss of nanoparticles in wastewaters and achieve a high photocatalytic fabrics effects under visible light. The photocatalytic effect was investigated by exposing the materials to ultraviolet and visible light, and the evaluation of exposed and non-exposed fabrics was performed using a spectroscopic method. By using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the characteristic, morphology and distribution of nanoparticles covering the textile materials, and the presence of Ti and Fe on textile materials was analyzed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed the relatively uniform coating of cotton fibers by particles by using initial and re-used N-TiO2 dispersions. By using additives like polyethylene glycols and wetting agents, the stability of aqueous N-TiO2 is increased. Wetting agents, together with a higher treatment temperature represent important factors contributing to the deposition of increased amount of N-TiO2 particles existing in the dispersion remained after the first treatment of the fabric. Key words: nitrogen-doped TiO2, photocatalysis, cotton fabric, nanoparticles, scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Cotton transformation via pollen tube pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Baohong; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-01-01

    Although many gene transfer methods have been employed for successfully obtaining transgenic cotton, the major constraint in cotton improvement is the limitation of genotype because the majority of transgenic methods require plant regeneration from a single transformed cell which is limited by cotton tissue culture. Comparing with other plant species, it is difficult to induce plant regeneration from cotton; currently, only a limited number of cotton cultivars can be cultured for obtaining regenerated plants. Thus, development of a simple and genotype-independent genetic transformation method is particularly important for cotton community. In this chapter, we present a simple, cost-efficient, and genotype-independent cotton transformation method-pollen tube pathway-mediated transformation. This method uses pollen tube pathway to deliver transgene into cotton embryo sacs and then insert foreign genes into cotton genome. There are three major steps for pollen tube pathway-mediated genetic transformation, which include injection of -foreign genes into pollen tube, integration of foreign genes into plant genome, and selection of transgenic plants.

  5. Moisture sorption in naturally coloured cotton fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Ö.; De Clerck, K.

    2017-10-01

    Increasing environmental concerns have stimulated an interest in naturally coloured cottons. As many commercial and technical performance aspects of cotton fibres are influenced by their response towards atmospheric humidity, an in-depth research on moisture sorption behaviour of these fibres using dynamic vapour sorption is carried out. Significant differences were observed in sorption capacity and hysteresis behaviour of brown and green cotton fibres. These differences are mainly attributed to the variations in maturity and crystallinity index of the fibres. This study provides valuable insights into the moisture sorption behaviour of naturally coloured cotton fibres.

  6. [Bt gene flow of transgeic cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, F F; Yu, Y J; Zhang, X K; Bi, J J; Yin, C Y

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the gene flow of transgenic cotton under Chinese ecological environment. Transgenic cotton GK-12 containing the marker gene NPTII and Bt gene was planted in the 6 x 6 m2 plot, non-transgenic cotton CCRC 12 and Xinmian 13 were planted respectively around them. At varying distances from transgenic cotton, seeds produced by the non-transgenic cotton were collected and screened for marker gene and Bt gene using kanamycine sulphate and Dot-ELISA method. PCR technique was also used in some seeds to screen Bt gene. The result indicated that gene flow was found to be high at 0-6 m, and to decrease with distances; however gene flow occurred up to distance of 36 m from the transgenic cotton plot. Bt gene flow at 3-6 m increased with increasing the diversity of transgenic cotton in the plot, but gene flow increased little at long distance. The gene flow between species was lower than between cultivars at 0-6 m, and occurred at the distance of 72 m from transgenic plot. 72 m buffer zones would serve to limit gene flow of transgenic cotton from small-scale field test. The possibility of escapes of engineered gene to wild relatives of cotton species was also discussed.

  7. Electrical Properties of Conductive Cotton Yarn Coated with Eosin Y Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Arul, Narayanasamy Sabari; Han, Jeong In

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the fabrication and investigation of the electrical properties of two types of conductive cotton yarns coated with eosin Y or eosin B functionalized reduced graphene (RGO) and bare graphene oxide (GO) using dip-coating method. The surface morphology of the conductive cotton yarn coated with reduced graphene oxide was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Due to the strong electrostatic attractive forces, the negatively charged surface such as the eosin Y functionalized reduced graphene oxide or bare GO can be easily coated to the positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) treated cotton yarn. The maximum current for the conductive cotton yarn coated with eosin Y functionalized RGO and bare GO with 20 cycles repetition of (5D + R) process was found to be 793.8 μA and 3482.8 μA. Our results showed that the electrical conductivity of bare GO coated conductive cotton yarn increased by approximately four orders of magnitude with the increase in the dipping cycle of (5D+R) process.

  8. Photoluminescence properties of emission-tunable Ca{sub 9}Y(PO{sub 4}){sub 7}: Tm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} phosphor for white light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xiaoyong [Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liang Yujun, E-mail: yujunliang@sohu.com [Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen Rui; Liu Mingyu; Cheng Zheng [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} White-emitting Ca{sub 9}Y(PO{sub 4}){sub 7}: Tm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} has been prepared by solid-state reaction. {yields} All as-obtained samples can be effectively excited by UV light. {yields} Doping content of Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} has a great effect in luminescence properties. {yields} Emission and color coordinate of samples are able to be tuned around white light. - Abstract: A white-emitting Ca{sub 9}Y(PO{sub 4}){sub 7}: Tm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} phosphor has been successfully prepared by conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence spectrophotometer were used to characterize the as-synthesized phosphors. The excitation and emission spectra show that all the Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} co-doped Ca{sub 9}Y(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} samples can be effectively excited by UV light and then emit blue and yellow light simultaneously. Furthermore, the emission and color coordinate of as-obtained samples pumped by 365 nm are able to be adjusted around white light by varying the doping concentrations of Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+}. So, the as-fabricated single-composition Ca{sub 9}Y(PO{sub 4}){sub 7}: Tm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} phosphor will have a promising application in the area of white light emitting diodes.

  9. Assessing the Suitability of Woven Fabric and Composite Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This art studio experimental study explored the suitability of woven cotton fabric as alternative material for creating pictorial designs for murals based on the batik, tie-and-dye, screen printing, appliqué and embroidery techniques in textiles. While painted and sculpted murals abound in Ghana, the study found textile murals a ...

  10. Multi-functional and durable nanofiber-fabric layered composite for protective application

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multifunctional and durable nanofiber-fabric-layered composite (NFLC) material was prepared by depositing electrospun Ag/PAN hybrid nanofibers onto a Nylon/cotton 50: 50 fabric substrate. The NFLCs showed excellent aerosol barrier efficiency and good air/moisture permeability. In addition, they sh...

  11. PHOTOCATALYTIC EFFICIENCY OF N-TIO2 APPLIED ON COTTON KNIT – PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRESCU Iuliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to demonstrate the treatment durability at washing of N-TiO2 layers applied on cotton fabrics by padding and to investigate the particle adherence and morphology of the textile surface. After 5 washing cycles, the cotton fibers are covered with a high number of particles, which demonstrate that the particle adherence to the substrate is high, most of them being present as large clusters. Also, the washing process does not affect in an important manner the polymer layer, only from place to place the cotton knit beeing disrupted. To evaluate the photocatalytic effect of the materials after washing treatment, samples were exposed to ultraviolet and visible light. The trichromatic coordinates of the exposed and non-exposed samples were measured on Hunterlab spectrophotometer. The contradictories values are determined by the non-uniformities of the materials which don’t allowed a uniform dyeing of the fabrics. The obtained results showed that after 5 washings, the particles adherence to the substrate is still high and the photocatalytic effects are not significantly impaired. The photocatalytic efficiency of cotton knit treated with N-TiO2 nanoparticles is higher under visible light than under UV light demonstrating the extension of the TiO2 absorption in the visible range.

  12. Genotoxicological assessment of two reactive dyes extracted from cotton fibres using artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Meireles, Gabriela; dos Santos, Tuane Cristina; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2014-02-01

    Human eyes have a remarkable ability to recognize hundreds of colour shades, which has stimulated the use of colorants, especially for clothing, but toxicological studies have shown that some textile dyes can be hazardous to human health. Under conditions of intense perspiration, dyes can migrate from coloured clothes and penetrate into human skin. Garments made from cotton fabrics are the most common clothing in tropical countries, due to their high temperatures. Aiming to identify safe textile dyes for dyeing cotton fabrics, the genotoxicity [in vitro Comet assay with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), Tail Intensity] and mutagenicity [Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay (30min), tester strains TA98, TA100, YG1041 and YG1042] of Reactive Blue 2 (RB2, CAS No. 12236-82-7, C.I. 61211) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19, CAS No. 61931-49-5, C.I. 205075) were evaluated both in the formulated form and as extracted from cotton fibres using different artificial sweats. Both the dyes could migrate from cotton fibres to sweat solutions, the sweat composition and pH being important factors during this extraction. However, the dye sweat solutions showed no genotoxic/mutagenic effects, whereas a weak mutagenic potential was detected by the Ames test for both dyes in their formulated form. These findings emphasize the relevance of textile dyes assessment under conditions that more closely resemble human exposure, in order to recognize any hazard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of Dye-decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP) from Thermomonospora curvata Reveals Unique Catalytic Properties of A-type DyPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shrestha, Ruben; Jia, Kaimin; Gao, Philip F; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Bossmann, Stefan H; Shi, Jishu; Li, Ping

    2015-09-18

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) comprise a new family of heme peroxidases, which has received much attention due to their potential applications in lignin degradation. A new DyP from Thermomonospora curvata (TcDyP) was identified and characterized. Unlike other A-type enzymes, TcDyP is highly active toward a wide range of substrates including model lignin compounds, in which the catalytic efficiency with ABTS (kcat(app)/Km(app) = (1.7 × 10(7)) m(-1) s(-1)) is close to that of fungal DyPs. Stopped-flow spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the transient intermediates as well as the catalytic cycle involving wild-type (wt) and mutant TcDyPs. Although residues Asp(220) and Arg(327) are found necessary for compound I formation, His(312) is proposed to play roles in compound II reduction. Transient kinetics of hydroquinone (HQ) oxidation by wt-TcDyP showed that conversion of the compound II to resting state is a rate-limiting step, which will explain the contradictory observation made with the aspartate mutants of A-type DyPs. Moreover, replacement of His(312) and Arg(327) has significant effects on the oligomerization and redox potential (E°') of the enzyme. Both mutants were found to promote the formation of dimeric state and to shift E°' to a more negative potential. Not only do these results reveal the unique catalytic property of the A-type DyPs, but they will also facilitate the development of these enzymes as lignin degraders. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Characterization of Dye-decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP) from Thermomonospora curvata Reveals Unique Catalytic Properties of A-type DyPs*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shrestha, Ruben; Jia, Kaimin; Gao, Philip F.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Bossmann, Stefan H.; Shi, Jishu; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) comprise a new family of heme peroxidases, which has received much attention due to their potential applications in lignin degradation. A new DyP from Thermomonospora curvata (TcDyP) was identified and characterized. Unlike other A-type enzymes, TcDyP is highly active toward a wide range of substrates including model lignin compounds, in which the catalytic efficiency with ABTS (kcatapp/Kmapp = (1.7 × 107) m−1 s−1) is close to that of fungal DyPs. Stopped-flow spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the transient intermediates as well as the catalytic cycle involving wild-type (wt) and mutant TcDyPs. Although residues Asp220 and Arg327 are found necessary for compound I formation, His312 is proposed to play roles in compound II reduction. Transient kinetics of hydroquinone (HQ) oxidation by wt-TcDyP showed that conversion of the compound II to resting state is a rate-limiting step, which will explain the contradictory observation made with the aspartate mutants of A-type DyPs. Moreover, replacement of His312 and Arg327 has significant effects on the oligomerization and redox potential (E°′) of the enzyme. Both mutants were found to promote the formation of dimeric state and to shift E°′ to a more negative potential. Not only do these results reveal the unique catalytic property of the A-type DyPs, but they will also facilitate the development of these enzymes as lignin degraders. PMID:26205819

  15. White light generation in Dy{sup 3+}-and Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}-doped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldiño, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Lira, A. [Departamento de Física , Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del estado de México, C.P. 50000 Toluca (Mexico); Meza-Rocha, A.N. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Pasquini, E. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Pelli, S. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Speghini, A. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università di Verona, and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università di Verona, and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Righini, G.C. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    A spectroscopic investigation of 1% Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}-singly doped and 0.5% Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3}-1.0% Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}-codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses was performed by analyzing their absorption and photoluminescence spectra, and decay times. Warm white yellow light emission, with (0.419, 0.440) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates and 3579 K color temperature, is obtained in the Dy{sup 3+}-singly doped glass excited at 399 nm, which fits to the requirements of GaN LEDs. A quantum efficiency of 74% and a very high optical gain (38.7×10{sup −25} cm{sup 2} s) were estimated for the dysprosium {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level luminescence, which might also make the Dy{sup 3+}-doped glass a promising gain medium for solid state yellow laser pumped by GaN LEDs. In the Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}-codoped glass a radiative energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Dy{sup 3+} is observed upon UV excitation (310–365 nm), with a Ce{sup 3+} to Dy{sup 3+} interaction distance that could be greater than 6–12 Å. The emission color from the codoped glass can be tuned with the excitation wavelength from blue light (0.247, 0.245), upon 310 nm excitation, to cold white light (0.284, 0.300), with a 9052 K color temperature, upon 365 nm excitation. - Highlights: • Zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate (ZN) glasses are optically activated with Dy{sup 3+} (ZNDy). • ZN glasses are optically activated with Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} (ZNCeDy). • Dy{sup 3+} is sensitized by Ce{sup 3+} through a radiative energy transfer. • ZNDy glass can generate 3579 K warm white yellow light emission. • ZNCeDy glass can generate 9052 K cold white light emission.

  16. Spectroscopic properties of Dy3 + doped ZnO for white luminescence applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira, Guesmi; Chaker, Bouzidi; Habib, Elhouichet

    2017-04-01

    Undoped and Dy3 + (0.25, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.5 at.%) doped ZnO were elaborated by solid-state reaction method. The ZnO:Dy3 + samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD analysis confirms the wurtzite structure of ZnO. A slight shift to lower angles, of the (101) peak, is seen with Dy3 + content, indicating the substitution of these ions into the ZnO lattice. Raman study indicates the good crystallinity of all ZnO:Dy3 + samples and confirms the substitution of Zn2 + by Dy3 +. The band gap energy was found to increase then decrease with Dy content. The PL excitation spectra (PLE) of Dy3 + showed six excitation bands with hypersensitive at 346 nm (6H15/2 → 6P7/2). PL spectra show principally three emission bands relatives to 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 (476 nm), 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 (567 nm) and 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 (658 nm) transitions. The concentration dependency of PL intensity indicates a quenching for Dy3 + concentration above 0.5 at.%. The PL lifetime of 4F9/2 metastable state was measured and discussed for all Dy content in ZnO. The temperature dependency of PL intensity is investigated for ZnO:Dy (0.5%) sample and the activation energy is determined. The CIE chromaticity color coordinate shows that ZnO:Dy3 + can be useful for white luminescence applications.

  17. Modified cotton socks--possibility to protect from diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Magaš, Saša

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes has become a major public health problem and grows rapidly in the most developed countries of the world. Beside genetic and environmental factors, lifestyle habits play an important role in the development and progression of diabetes mellitus. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) about 15% of diabetic patients develop a foot ulcer in need of medical care. Infection is a serious complication and it is the major responsible cause of lower limb amputation. In this paper the possibility to protect from diabetic foot infection with modified cotton socks. Therefore, the socks made of modified cotton yarn by natural minerals and active carbon were investigated in vitro (fabric hand-friction and adsorption) and in vivo (3 IDDM, 4NIDDM, 3 GDM to sweat and fabric hand) to accomplish highest possible level of comfort for diabetic patients. Antimicrobial protection to Gram positive, Gram negative and micro fungi was determined as well. For durability all the characteristics were investigated after 15 washing cycles.

  18. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  19. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  20. Australia: round module handling and cotton classing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round modules of seed cotton produced via on-board module building harvesters are the reality of the cotton industry, worldwide. Although round modules have been available to the industry for almost a decade, there is still no consensus on the best method to handle the modules, particularly when th...

  1. Resistance and tolerance to nematodes in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloidogyne incognita is widely known as the southern root-knot nematode or the cotton root-knot nematode and Rotylenchulus reniformis is known as the reniform nematode. Most of the cotton-producing areas of the world are at risk form one or both of these nematode species. Although other nematodes a...

  2. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  3. Compressibility Characteristics of Compacted Black Cotton Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One dimensional consolidation studies on compacted black cotton soil treated with up to 16% rice husk ash (RHA) at the British Standard light compactive effort was carried out to access the compressibility characteristics. The consolidation characteristics of black cotton soil containing 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16% RHA were ...

  4. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  5. Chemical free cotton defoliation and dessication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results are presented for new techniques to achieve chemical free means of cotton defoliation and desiccation. Report will cover test results, for several different methods, as tested on; greenhouse, outdoor grown potted plants, and field grown cotton plants, that were grown under commer...

  6. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  7. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  8. Lifetimes and electromagnetic transition strengths in 155Dy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, P.; Yavahchova, M. S.; Möller, O.; Dewald, A.; Tonev, D.; Saha, B.; Fitzler, A.; Jessen, K.; Klug, T.; Heinze, S.; Jolie, J.; von Brentano, P.; Goutev, N.; Bazzacco, D.; Ur, C. A.; Farnea, E.; Axiotis, M.; Lunardi, S.; de Angelis, G.; Napoli, D. R.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Caprio, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Recoil distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurements were carried out for levels in 155Dy through the coincident detection of γ rays. Twenty-six lifetimes, most of them for the first time, were determined using the differential decay curve method for the analysis of the data. At low and medium spins, particle-plus-triaxial-rotor calculations reveal different quadrupole deformations for the one-quasineutron bands in this transitional nucleus. At high spin, the reduced B(E2) transition probabilities confirm with a better precision the results of a previous study implying decreased collectivity with increasing spin.

  9. Phase Transitions above the Yrast Line in {sup 154}Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, W. C. [Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Martin, V. [Analisis Numerico, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28660 Madrid, (Spain); Khoo, T. L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Lauritsen, T. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Egido, J. L. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, (Spain); Ahmad, I. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bhattacharyya, P. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Carpenter, M. P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Daly, P. J. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Grabowski, Z. W. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-06-26

    Spectra of the E2 quasicontinuum {gamma} rays feeding different spin regions of the {sup 154}Dy yrast line have been extracted. These are compared with corresponding theoretical spectra obtained by numerical simulations based on temperature-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, with thermal shape fluctuations. In this manner, different regions of the spin-energy plane can be examined. The results support the predictions of a smeared-out phase transition at high spin above the yrast line. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  10. Metabolic engineering of gossypol in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Zhang, Chengcheng; Wu, Yanmin; Tang, Yixiong

    2013-07-01

    Cotton has long been known as a fiber plant. Besides the cotton fiber, the cottonseed oil and cottonseed protein are two other major products of cotton plants. However, the applications of the cottonseed oil and protein are limited because of the presence of toxic gossypol, which is unsafe for human and monogastric animal consumption. Meanwhile, gossypol in cotton increases the plant defense response to insect herbivores and pathogens. Consequently, gossypol has been extensively used in clinical trials in biomedical science. Over the last few years, major advances have occurred in both understanding and practice with regard to molecular regulation of gossypol pathway in cotton plant or hairy root culture. This review highlights a few major recent and ongoing developments in metabolic engineering of gossypol, as well as suggestions regarding further advances needed.

  11. Basidiomycete DyPs: Genomic diversity, structural-functional aspects, reaction mechanism and environmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Linde; Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas; Elena Fernández-Fueyo; Victor Guallar; Kenneth E. Hammel; Rebecca Pogni; Angel T. Martínez

    2015-01-01

    The first enzyme with dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) activity was described in 1999 from an arthroconidial culture of the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. However, the first DyP sequence had been deposited three years before, as a peroxidase gene from a culture of an unidentified fungus of the family Polyporaceae (probably Irpex lacteus...

  12. Luminescent characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy films obtained by spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, J., E-mail: holand_jeos@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Legaria-IPN, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Mexico, D.F. 11500 (Mexico); Rivera, T.; Lozano, I.B. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Legaria-IPN, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Mexico, D.F. 11500 (Mexico); Sosa, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Alarcon, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Legaria-IPN, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Mexico, D.F. 11500 (Mexico)

    2012-07-15

    The present paper reports the experimental results of dysprosium doped calcium sulphate (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) films deposited by spray pyrolysis method. CaSO{sub 4}:Dy films were deposited on three different surfaces: glass, aluminum and quartz substrates at temperatures in the range from 450 to 600 Degree-Sign C. Structural and morphological characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy films were observed. Thermoluminescent characteristics of films were determined by irradiating ultraviolet energy region. Thermoluminescent glow curve of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy films with glass and aluminum substrates showed a peak under environmental irradiation. Both TL response glow shape and intensity of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy films UV irradiated as a function of substrates were studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We carried out the preparation of calcium sulfate films doped with dysprosium (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) by spray paralysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM and EDS techniques were applied to study the surface topography and chemical composition of the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoluminescent characteristics of films were determined by irradiating ultraviolet energy region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermoluminescent response of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy films as a function of substrate was analyzed.

  13. Beer-Lambert-Law Parametric Model of Reflectance Spectra for Dyed Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no...mode. The Lambda 1050 incorporated a double beam, 150 mm integrating sphere housing a photomultiplier tube ( PMT ) detector for the UV-Vis (175 – 860 nm

  14. Modelling the Effect of Weave Structure and Fabric Thread Density on Mechanical and Comfort Properties of Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqsood Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effects of weave structure and fabric thread density on the comfort and mechanical properties of various test fabrics woven from polyester/cotton yarns. Three different weave structures, that is, 1/1 plain, 2/1 twill and 3/1 twill, and three different fabric densities were taken as input variables whereas air permeability, overall moisture management capacity, tensile strength and tear strength of fabrics were taken as response variables and a comparison is made of the effect of weave structure and fabric density on the response variables. The results of fabric samples were analysed in Minitab statistical software. The coefficients of determinations (R-sq values of the regression equations show a good predictive ability of the developed statistical models. The findings of the study may be helpful in deciding appropriate manufacturing specifications of woven fabrics to attain specific comfort and mechanical properties.

  15. Use of cotton gin trash and compatibilizers in polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ginning of cotton produces 15-42% of foreign materials, called “cotton gin trash”, including cotton burr, stems, leaf fragment, and dirt. In this work we examined the mechanical properties of composites of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and cotton burr. The burr was ground into powder, and se...

  16. Role of secondary metabolites biosynthesis in resistance to cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Disease percentage on six cotton varieties with respect to time for cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) was evaluated. In August 2007 ... cotton leaf curl virus disease causes 30% losses due to the cotton leaf curl disease ..... (148): 2341-2352. Ahamad G, Malik SA Mahmood Z, Iqbal MZ, Ahamad S (2002). Effect.

  17. Minimization of operational impacts on spectrophotometer color measurements for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key cotton quality and processing property that is gaining increasing importance is the color of the cotton. Cotton fiber in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd and +b. Rd and +b are specific to cotton fiber and are not typical ...

  18. Inheritance and segregation of exogenous genes in transgenic cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three transgenic cotton varieties (lines) were chosen for the study of inheritance and segregation of foreign Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) and tfdA genes in cotton. The transformed cotton varieties CCRI 30 and NewCott 33B expressing the Bt cryIA gene, and cotton line TFD expressing the tfdA gene were crossed with ...

  19. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered to...

  20. Inheritance and segregation of exogenous genes in transgenic cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three transgenic cotton varieties (lines) were chosen for the study of inheritance and segregation of foreign Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) and tfdA genes in cotton. The transformed cotton varieties CCRI 30 and NewCott 33B expressing the Bt. cryIA gene, and cotton line TFD expressing the tfdA gene were crossed with ...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible upland...

  2. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the Act...

  3. Increasing cotton stand establishment in soils prone to soil crusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many factors can contribute to poor cotton stand establishment, and cotton is notorious for its weak seedling vigor. Soil crusting can be a major factor hindering cotton seedling emergence in many of the cotton production regions of the US and the world. Crusting is mainly an issue in silty soils ...

  4. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore prescribed...

  5. (Pleurotus pulmonarius) grown on cotton waste and cassava peel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work evaluated the yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius on different mixtures of cotton waste and cassava peel. P. pulmonarius demonstrated significantly higher colonization rate on cotton waste substrate (100 g cotton waste) 3 weeks after inoculation of spawn than any other substrate mixtures. Cotton waste had the ...

  6. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever any...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  8. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this section...

  9. Coercivity enhancement in hot deformed Nd2Fe14B-type magnets by doping low-melting RCu alloys (R = Nd, Dy, Nd + Dy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. I.; Huang, G. Y.; Shih, C. W.; Chang, W. C.; Chang, H. W.; You, J. S.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic properties of the anisotropic NdFeB magnets prepared by hot pressing followed by die-upsetting NdFeB MQU-F powders doped with low-melting RCu alloy powders were explored, where RCu stands for Nd70Cu30, Dy70Cu30 and (Nd0.5Dy0.5)70Cu30, respectively. In addition, the post-annealing at 600 °C was employed to modify the microstructures and the magnetic properties of the hot deformed magnets. It is found that doping RCu alloy powders is effective in enhancing the coercivity of the hot deformed NdFeB magnets from 15.1 kOe to 16.3-19.5 kOe. For Nd70Cu30-doped magnets, the increment of coercivity is only 1.2 kOe. Meanwhile, Dy70Cu30-doped and (Nd0.5Dy0.5)70Cu30-doped magnets show an almost identical enhancement of coercivity of about 4.4 kOe. Importantly, the latter magnet shows a beneficial effect of reducing the usage of Dy from 1.6 wt% to 0.8 wt%. TEM analysis shows that nonmagnetic Nd, Dy and Cu appear at grain boundary and isolate the magnetic grains, leading to an enhancement of coercivity. Doping lower melting point Dy-lean (Nd0.5Dy0.5)70Cu30 powders into commercial MQU-F powders for making high coercivity hot deformed NdFeB magnets might be a potential and economic way for mass production.

  10. Biological Importance of Cotton By-Products Relative to Chemical Constituents of the Cotton Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Egbuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cultivated for over 7000 years, mainly for production of cotton fibre, the cotton plant has not been fully explored for potential uses of its other parts. Despite cotton containing many important chemical compounds, limited understanding of its phytochemical composition still exists. In order to add value to waste products of the cotton industry, such as cotton gin trash, this review focuses on phytochemicals associated with different parts of cotton plants and their biological activities. Three major classes of compounds and some primary metabolites have been previously identified in the plant. Among these compounds, most terpenoids and their derivatives (51, fatty acids (four, and phenolics (six, were found in the leaves, bolls, stalks, and stems. Biological activities, such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities, are associated with some of these phytochemicals. For example, β-bisabolol, a sesquiterpenoid enriched in the flowers of cotton plants, may have anti-inflammatory product application. Considering the abundance of biologically active compounds in the cotton plant, there is scope to develop a novel process within the current cotton fibre production system to separate these valuable phytochemicals, developing them into potentially high-value products. This scenario may present the cotton processing industry with an innovative pathway towards a waste-to-profit solution.

  11. Biological Importance of Cotton By-Products Relative to Chemical Constituents of the Cotton Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbuta, Mary A; McIntosh, Shane; Waters, Daniel L E; Vancov, Tony; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-06

    Although cultivated for over 7000 years, mainly for production of cotton fibre, the cotton plant has not been fully explored for potential uses of its other parts. Despite cotton containing many important chemical compounds, limited understanding of its phytochemical composition still exists. In order to add value to waste products of the cotton industry, such as cotton gin trash, this review focuses on phytochemicals associated with different parts of cotton plants and their biological activities. Three major classes of compounds and some primary metabolites have been previously identified in the plant. Among these compounds, most terpenoids and their derivatives (51), fatty acids (four), and phenolics (six), were found in the leaves, bolls, stalks, and stems. Biological activities, such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities, are associated with some of these phytochemicals. For example, β-bisabolol, a sesquiterpenoid enriched in the flowers of cotton plants, may have anti-inflammatory product application. Considering the abundance of biologically active compounds in the cotton plant, there is scope to develop a novel process within the current cotton fibre production system to separate these valuable phytochemicals, developing them into potentially high-value products. This scenario may present the cotton processing industry with an innovative pathway towards a waste-to-profit solution.

  12. Effects of Different Packing Materials on Cotton Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanzhao; Liu, Wanfu; Ni, Zhaopeng; Wang, Lu; Gao, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different packing materials on cotton fires. After the cotton bale is ignited, the caving area, the mass loss rate and the temperature variation of cotton bales were measured. Through the experiment, it was found that Cotton bale packed with Plastic belt has the phenomenon of collapse, but the cotton bale packed with Steel ribbon does not happen to collapse. The mass loss rate of the Cotton bale packed with Plastic belt is faster than that of the cotton bale packed with Steel ribbon, and the temperature is higher.

  13. Effects of Dy sub lattice dilution on transport and magnetic properties in Dy1-xKxMnO3

    OpenAIRE

    K. Yadagiri; Nithya, R.; Neeraj Shukla; Satya, A. T.

    2017-01-01

    Interaction of multiple oxidation states of manganese ions with rare earth ions in manganites leads to the observation of various magnetic ground states. To understand the effect of average ionic size on electrical conductivity and magnetic ground state properties in Dy1-xKxMnO3 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 & 0.3), we have investigated electron transport as a function of temperature and magnetic properties as a function of temperature, frequency and magnetic field of these compounds. Although mixed valen...

  14. Propolis induced antibacterial activity and other technical properties of cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, S; Higazy, A; Hebeish, A

    2013-08-01

    Propolis is a gum gathered by honey bees from various plants; the honey bees use propolis to seal holes in their honey combs, smooth out the internal wall and protect the entrance against intruders. It is composed of 50% resin (flavonoids and related phenolic acid), 30% wax, 10% essential oils, 5% pollen and 5% various organic components. As a natural mixture, propolis is widely used in medicine, cosmetics and food. So far no attempts have been yet made to make use of propolis in the realm of textile finishing. Current work presents the first systemic study targeted to build up a scientific basis for production of cotton textiles having antibacterial activity and other useful properties by making use of propolis as eco-friendly finish within the scope of green strategy. Propolis extract solution (70/30 ethanol/water) of 10% concentration was prepared as the stock. Different amounts of the latter were used along with a crosslinking agent and catalyst for treatment of cotton fabrics as per pad-dry-cure technique. Antibacterial activity of the so treated fabrics was obtained through monitoring the efficiency of the interaction of propolis with cotton cellulose. This interaction was expressed as inhibition zone diameter after the treated fabrics were exposed to (G+ve) and (G-ve) bacteria. Other properties include crease recovery, tensile strength and elongation at break. Factors affecting these properties such as type, nature and concentration of the crosslinking agent, concentration of propolis, and conditions of curing were investigated. In addition characterization of the propolis containing modified cotton fabrics including demonstration of the antibacterial activity, SEM, FTIR, durability to washing, UV protection and water repellency were performed. Based on results obtained, it is concluded that application of propolis along with glyoxal and Al2(SO4)3catalyst using pad-dry (3min/80°C), cure (5/140°C) bring about cotton textile with superior antibacterial

  15. New approaches to improving thermal regulating property of cellulosic fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassabo, Ahmed G

    2014-01-30

    To enhance the thermoregulation property of cotton fabric, new materials have been prepared to be used for encapsulating phase change materials (PCMs). The new material has been prepared via esterification reaction between different carboxylic acids and different fatty acids crossed with diglycol compounds, these materials were characterised to be used as hosting materials for octadecane, which is heat storing material suitable for textile applications. FT-IR and DSC analysis were used to characterise the prepared hosting material. The prepared materials have special shape which has different cavity distance between its side chains, and also have a reactive group on the backbone of its structure which make these materials able to react chemically with cotton fabric to help it to be not leakage from the treated surface (permanent) and the material will be stable on the fibre surface even after washing. When applied onto textile materials, the treated fabric shows good thermoregulation property. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation and recycling of cotton from cotton/PET blends by depolymerization of PET catalyzed by bases and ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Groeneveld, R.A.J. (Richard); Oelerich, J. (Jens)

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of post consumer cotton textile waste is highly requested, due to the high environmental impact of cotton production. Often cotton is mixed in blends with polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For the generation of high value products from recycled cotton, it essential that PET is

  17. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Production and Marketing of Bt Cotton and Hybrid Cotton in Saurashtra Region of Gujarat State

    OpenAIRE

    Visawadia, H.R.; Fadadu, A.M.; Tarpara, V.D.

    2006-01-01

    The study has revealed that the total cost per hectare is higher in Bt cotton than hybrid cotton. The cost of seeds has been found higher in Bt cotton, whereas hybrid cotton growers incur more cost on insecticides/ pesticides. This shows the effectiveness of the new technology (Bt cotton) for insect resistance. The average total cost of production as well as the bulk line cost have been found lower in Bt cotton. This depicts a reduction in the unit cost of Bt cotton, which is the distinct adv...

  19. An Approach to Mass Customization of Military Uniforms Using Superoleophobic Nonwoven Fabrics (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2010-0051 AN APPROACH TO MASS CUSTOMIZATION OF MILITARY UNIFORMS USING SUPEROLEOPHOBIC NONWOVEN FABRICS POSTPRINT Dnyanada...2010 An Approach to Mass Customization of Military Uniforms Using Superoleophobic Nonwoven Fabrics (POSTPRINT) FA8650-07-1-5916 0602102F GOVT L0...hydroentangled nonwovens and nylon-cotton blended woven fabrics were modified, and made superhydrophobic and superoleophobic to protect soldiers against the

  20. Design of a light weight fabric from natural cellulosic fibers with improved moisture related properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukali Ozturk, M.; Berkalp, O. B.; Nergis, B.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigated moisture related comfort properties of woven fabrics from natural cellulosic fibers, namely cotton, linen, and Crailar. The comfort properties of the fabrics were measured in accordance with the relevant standards, and the results were comparatively discussed. In addition to that, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) together with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed to determine the most preferable fabric based on comfort properties.

  1. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza-Lopez, Martha [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion, Salvador Zubiran, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico DF 14000 (Mexico); Ferro-Flores, Guillermina [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, CP 52045 (Mexico); Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion, Salvador Zubiran, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico DF 14000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: consuelo_murphy@yahoo.com.mx; Morales-Ramirez, Pedro [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, CP 52045 (Mexico); Piedras-Ross, Josefa [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion, Salvador Zubiran, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico DF 14000 (Mexico); Murphy-Stack, Eduardo [Hospital Santaelena, Mexico DF (Mexico); Hernandez-Oviedo, Omar [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, IPN, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-11-01

    Multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies have been treated by myeloablative radiotherapy/chemotherapy and subsequent stem cell transplantation. [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) forms a stable in vivo generator system with selective skeletal uptake in mice; therefore, it could work as a potential and improved agent for marrow ablation. Induced bone marrow cytotoxicity and genotoxicity are determined by the reduction of reticulocytes (RET) and elevation of micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) in peripheral blood and ablation by bone marrow histological studies. The aim of this study was to determine the bone marrow cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system in mice and to evaluate by histopathology its myeloablative potential. Enriched {sup 166}Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} was irradiated and [{sup 166}Dy]DyCl{sub 3} was added to EDTMP in phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) in a molar ratio of 1:1.75. QC was determined by TLC. Dy-EDTMP complex was prepared the same way with nonirradiated dysprosium oxide. A group of BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with the radiopharmaceutical and two groups of control animals were injected with the cold complex and with 0.9% sodium chloride, respectively. A blood sample was taken at the beginning of the experiments and every 48 h for 12 days postinjection. The animals were sacrificed, organs of interest taken out and the radioactivity determined. The femur was used for histological studies. Flow cytometry analysis was used to quantify the frequency of RET and MN-RET in the blood samples. The MCNP4B Monte Carlo computer code was used for dosimetry calculations. Radiochemical purity was 99% and the mean specific activity was 1.3 MBq/mg. The RET and MN-RET frequency were statistically different in the treatment at the end of the 12-day period demonstrating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by the in vivo generator system. The

  2. Yellow laser performance of Dy$^{3+}$ in co-doped Dy,Tb:LiLuF$_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, Giacomo; Calonico, Davide; Costanzo, Giovanni Antonio; Levi, Filippo; Metz, Philip Werner; Kränkel, Christian; Huber, Günter; Tonelli, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    We present laser results obtained from a Dy$^{3+}$-Tb$^{3+}$ co-doped LiLuF$_{4}$ crystal, pumped by a blue emitting InGaN laser diode, aiming for the generation of a compact 578 nm source. We exploit the yellow Dy$^{3+}$ transition $^{4}$F$_{9/2}$ $\\Longrightarrow$ $^{6}$H$_{13/2}$ to generate yellow laser emission. The lifetime of the lower laser level is quenched via energy transfer to co-doped Tb$^{3+}$ ions in the fluoride crystal. We report the growth technique, spectroscopic study and room temperature continuous wave (cw) laser results in a hemispherical cavity at 574 nm and with a highly reflective output coupler at 578 nm. A yellow laser at 578 nm is very relevant for metrological applications, in particular for pumping of the forbidden $^{1}$S$_{0} \\Longrightarrow ^{3}$P$_{0}$ Ytterbium clock transition, which is recommended as a secondary representation of the second in the international system (SI) of units. This paper was published in Optics Letters and is made available as an electronic reprint ...

  3. Estimating genetic diversity among selected cotton genotypes and the identificationof DNA markers associated with resistance to cotton leaf curl disease

    OpenAIRE

    ABBAS, AMMAD; Iqbal, Muhammad Atif; RAHMAN, MEHBOOB-UR; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    To the extent of our knowledge, applications of DNA markers in marker-assisted breeding of cotton are handicapped due to low genetic diversity in cotton germplasm. Cotton leaf curl disease, a disease of viral origin, has substantially depressed cotton production in Pakistan, and this disease is also an emerging threat to the neighboring cotton-growing countries like China and India. The present study was designed to identify DNA markers, predominately simple sequence repeats (SSRs), associate...

  4. Assessing the role of non-cotton refuges in delaying #Helicoverpa armigera# resistance to Bt cotton in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Brévault, Thierry; Nibouche, Samuel; Achaleke, Joseph; Carrière, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Non-cotton host plants without Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins can provide refuges that delay resistance to Bt cotton in polyphagous insect pests. It has proven difficult, however, to determine the effective contribution of such refuges and their role in delaying resistance evolution. Here, we used biogeochemical markers to quantify movement of Helicoverpa armigera moths from non-cotton hosts to cotton fields in three agricultural landscapes of the West African cotton belt (Cameroon) where...

  5. Durable antibacterial and UV-protective Ag/TiO2@ fabrics for sustainable biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhui; Zhu, Tianxue; Huang, Jianying; Guo, Qingqing; Chen, Guoqiang; Lai, Yuekun

    2017-01-01

    A facile method was developed to endow cotton fabric with remarkable antibacterial and ultraviolet (UV)-protective properties. The flower-like TiO2 micro-nanoparticles were first deposited onto cotton fabric surface via hydrothermal deposition method. Then, the Ag NPs with a high deposition density were evenly formed onto TiO2@cotton surface by sodium hydroxide solution pretreatment and followed by in situ reduction of ANO3. This work focused on the influence of different hydrothermal reaction durations and the concentration of AgNO3 on antibacterial activity against relevant microorganisms in medicine as well as on the UV-blocking property. Ag NPs-loaded TiO2@cotton exhibited high antibacterial activity with an inhibition rate higher than 99% against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton fabric coated with Ag NPs and TiO2 NPs demonstrated outstanding UV protective ability with a high ultraviolet protection factor value of 56.39. Morphological image of the cells revealed a likely loss of viability as a result of the synergistically biocidal effects of TiO2 and Ag on attached bacteria. These results demonstrate a facile and robust synthesis technology for fabricating multifunctional textiles with a promising biocidal activity against common Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  6. Functionalisation of fabrics with conducting polymer for tuning capacitance and fabrication of supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz Babu, K; Siva Subramanian, S P; Anbu Kulandainathan, M

    2013-04-15

    Conducting polymer (polypyrrole (PPy) doped with anion) film has been coated on different textile substrates from a mild, room temperature wet in situ chemical polymerisation method exploiting pyrrole as a monomer and ferric chloride as an oxidant and compared their electrochemical capacitive behaviour by assembling as an unit cell supercapacitor. PPy composites were prepared with carbohydrate polymers like cotton, linen (Natural cellulosic fibre), modified cellulosic fibre-viscose rayon and synthetic polymer polyester fabrics to investigate the influence on electrochemical capacitance. The surface morphology and chemistry of these materials were analysed by SEM, FT-IR, and XRD. It reveals that the PPy has greater interaction with the cellulosic fabrics, but whereas surface deposition only has taken place with synthetic fibres. The capacitive behaviour of the PPy coated textiles were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and charge-discharge analysis. A unit cell was fabricated to investigate the capacitive behaviour by assembling two symmetric textile electrodes separated by a solid polymer (PVA/1M H2SO4 gel) electrolyte membrane. The textile electrodes prepared with PPy-Cotton and PPy-Viscose exhibited the highest specific capacitance value of 268 F g(-1) and 244 F g(-1), respectively at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1). The charge-discharge analysis also shows higher specific capacitance value for PPy-Viscose and PPy-Cotton. The focus of this research is to highlight a successful, simple and reproducible method for fabrication of the textile based supercapacitor and the chemistry of surface interaction of PPy molecule with natural and synthetic fabrics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of Dy-doped Bi2Te3: thin film growth and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. E.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Zhang, S.-L.; Baker, A. A.; Figueroa, A. I.; Kellock, A. J.; Pushp, A.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Harris, J. S.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2015-06-01

    Breaking the time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in topological insulators (TIs) through ferromagnetic doping is an essential prerequisite for unlocking novel physical phenomena and exploring potential device applications. Here, we report the successful growth of high-quality (DyxBi1-x)2Te3 thin films with Dy concentrations up to x = 0.355 by molecular beam epitaxy. Bulk-sensitive magnetisation studies using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry find paramagnetic behaviour down to 2 K for the entire doping series. The effective magnetic moment, μeff, is strongly doping concentration-dependent and reduces from ˜12.6 μB Dy-1 for x = 0.023 to ˜4.3 μB Dy-1 for x = 0.355. X-ray absorption spectra and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Dy M4,5 edge are employed to provide a deeper insight into the magnetic nature of the Dy3+-doped films. XMCD, measured in surface-sensitive total-electron-yield detection, gives μeff = 4.2 μB Dy-1. The large measured moments make Dy-doped films interesting TI systems in which the TRS may be broken via the proximity effect due to an adjacent ferromagnetic insulator.

  8. Modeling the effect of elastane linear density, fabric thread density, and weave float on the stretch, recovery, and compression properties of bi-stretch woven fabrics for compression garments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqsood, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of elastane linear density, thread density, and weave float on the stretch, recovery, and compression properties of bi-stretch woven fabrics for compression garments. Fabric samples were produced using elastane core-spun cotton yarns both in the

  9. MAGNETIC WOVEN FABRICS - PHYSICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A coated material is a composite structure that consists of at least two components: base material and coating layer. The purpose of coating is to provide special properties to base material, with potential to be applied in EMI shielding and diverse smart technical fields. This paper reports the results of a study about some physical and magnetic properties of coated woven fabrics made from cotton yarns with fineness of 17 metric count. For this aim, a plain woven fabric was coated with a solution hard magnetic polymer based. As hard magnetic powder, barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 was selected. The plain woven fabric used as base has been coated with five solutions having different amounts of hard magnetic powder (15% - 45% in order to obtain five different magnetic woven fabrics. A comparison of physical properties regarding weight (g/m2, thickness (mm, degree of charging (% and magnetic properties of magnetic woven samples were presented. Saturation magnetizing (emu/g, residual magnetizing (emu/g and coercive force (kA/m of pure hard magnetic powder and woven fabrics have been studied as hysteresis characteristics. The magnetic properties of the woven fabrics depend on the mass percentage of magnetic powder from coating solution. Also, the residual magnetism and coercive field of woven fabrics represents only a part of bulk barium hexafferite residual magnetism and coercive field.

  10. Photoluminescence and energy transfer studies of Dy(3+)-doped fluorophosphate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, R; Vijaya, R; Jayasankar, C K

    2008-08-01

    Dy(3+)-doped fluorophosphate glasses with composition (in mol%) (56-x/2)P(2)O(5)+17K(2)O+(15-x/2)BaO+8Al(2)O(3) + 4AlF(3)+ xDy(2)O(3), x=0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0, have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The luminescence spectra and lifetimes of (4)F(9/2) level of Dy(3+) ions in these glasses have been measured using the 457.9 nm line of argon ion laser as an excitation source. The free-ion calculation and Judd-Ofelt analysis have been performed. The room temperature emission spectra corresponding to (4)F(9/2)-->(6)H(J) (J=7/2, 9/2, 11/2, 13/2 and 15/2) transitions of Dy(3+) ions were measured. The fluorescence decay from (4)F(9/2) level have been measured by monitoring the intense (4)F(9/2)-->(6)H(13/2) transition. The lifetime of the decay is obtained by taking the first e-folding times of the decay curves and is found to decrease with increase in Dy(3+) ions concentration due to concentration quenching. The decay curves are found to be perfectly single exponential for samples with low Dy(3+) ion concentration. The non-exponential decay curves observed for higher concentrations are well fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama model for S=6, which indicates that the energy transfer between the donor and acceptor is of dipole-dipole nature. The energy transfer parameter and donor to acceptor interaction increases with Dy(3+) ions concentration due to increase of energy transfer from Dy(3+) (donor) to unexcited Dy(3+) (acceptor) ions.

  11. Introgression of cotton leaf curl virus-resistant genes from Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum) into upland cotton (G. hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S; Mahmood, K; Hanif, M; Nazeer, W; Malik, W; Qayyum, A; Hanif, K; Mahmood, A; Islam, N

    2011-10-07

    Cotton is under the constant threat of leaf curl virus, which is a major constraint for successful production of cotton in the Pakistan. A total of 3338 cotton genotypes belonging to different research stations were screened, but none were found to be resistant against the Burewala strain of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV). We explored the possibility of transferring virus-resistant genes from Gossypium arboreum (2n = 26) into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) through conventional breeding techniques. Hybridization was done manually between an artificial autotetraploid of G. arboreum and an allotetraploid G. hirsutum, under field conditions. Boll shedding was controlled by application of exogenous hormones, 50 mg/L gibberellic acid and 100 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid. Percentage pollen viability in F(1) hybrids was 1.90% in 2(G. arboreum) x G. hirsutum and 2.38% in G. hirsutum x G. arboreum. Cytological studies of young buds taken from the F(1) hybrids confirmed that they all were sterile. Resistance against CLCuV in the F(1) hybrids was assessed through grafting, using the hybrid plant as the scion; the stock was a virus susceptible cotton plant, tested under field and greenhouse conditions. All F(1) cotton hybrids showed resistance against CLCuV, indicating that it is possible to transfer resistant genes from the autotetraploid of the diploid donor specie G. arboreum into allotetraploid G. hirsutum through conventional breeding, and durable resistance against CLCuV can then be deployed in the field.

  12. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Tayel

    Full Text Available Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE, was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes.

  13. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Abdel-Monem, Omnia A; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M; Alsohim, Abdullah S; El-Refai, Elham M

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE), was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Cotton-made cellulose support for anti-allergic pajamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Cezar-Doru; Salariu, Mihaela; Avadanei, Manuela; Ghiciuc, Cristina; Foia, Lili; Lupusoru, Elena Cătălina; Ferri, Ada; Ulea, Eugen; Lipsa, Florin

    2013-06-05

    The cotton used to produce an interlock knitted fabric is alkaline boiled, bleached and after drying, it is grafted with monochlorotriazinyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCT-β-CD) as a support of an inclusion compound (IC) with natural anti-allergic active principles, in order to improve the curative properties and the comfort. Are used: extract of Viola tricolor Herb (VtH), solution of propolis (P) and of menthol (M), as well as the pharmacologic products: advantan (AD), hydrocortisone (HYD) and pimechrolimus (PI). The dimensions of the active compound molecules were established with software. The textile material grafted with MCT-β-CD and with active principles absorbed in the cyclodextrin cavity is investigated by EDX. The anti-microbial activity of VtH, P and M was tested. Tactile determinations of softness were performed with human appraisers. By assembling the anti-allergic knitted fabric with untreated fabric, therapeutic pajamas were obtained. The manner to process and manufacture the pajamas for patients with contact and atopic (DA) dermatitis (DC) is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New structural form of a tetranuclear lanthanide hydroxo cluster: Dy4 analogue display slow magnetic relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Ananda Kumar; Baskar, Viswanathan; Sañudo, E Carolina

    2013-03-04

    A series of tetranuclear lanthanide (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho) hydroxo clusters has been synthesized by reaction of LnCl3·6H2O (Ln = Tb (1), Dy (2), Ho (3)) with o-vanilin based schiff base ligand 2-(2,3 dihydroxpropyl imino methyl) 6-methoxy phenol (H3L) in methanol and in the presence of triethylamine as base. The solid state structures of all the products were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Magnetism studies reveal that Dy4 analogue exhibits slow magnetic relaxation at low temperatures.

  16. Moessbauer studies of Dy/sub 2/Fesub(17-y)Alsub(y) hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukrowski, J.; Barnasik, A.; Krop, K.; Radwanski, R.; Pszczola, J. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Krakow (Poland)); Suwalski, J.; Kucharski, Z.; Lukasiak, M. (Solid State Physics Department, IBJ, Swierk, Poland)

    1983-12-01

    The X-ray and Moessbauer measurements of both /sup 57/Fe and /sup 161/Dy in Dy/sub 2/Fesub(17-y)Alsub(y) (y = 0, 1.5 and 3) compounds and their hydrides are reported. Hydrogenation slightly increases the lattice parameters. An appreciable increase of the isomer shift and the hyperfine field at /sup 57/Fe nuclei is observed after hydrogenation. The hyperfine field for both the parent compound and its hydride decreases with increasing Al content across the series. Only a small variation of the hyperfine field at /sup 161/Dy nuclei is noticeable after hydrogenation.

  17. Spinning cotton: domestic and industrial novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the ways in which nineteenth-century domestic and industrial novels highlight and suppress different aspects of Britain's involvement in the Indian cotton trade. England's complex and evolving relationship with India is often worked out in Victorian novels through the association of English people and Indian things, but the terms of this relationship shift depending upon novelistic genre. Elizabeth Gaskell's Wives and Daughters and Benjamin Disraeli's Sybil reveal how gendered dress codes in domestic novels position Indian textiles as markers of virtue and good taste, whereas industrial novels frequently evince a concern with cotton as a commodity and the cotton mill as a space in need of benevolent reform. Both genres, however, occlude as much as they reveal about the cotton trade's global reach.

  18. Determining gene flow in transgenic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Gene flow is one of the major concerns associated with the release of transgenic plants into the environment. Unrestricted gene flow can results in super weeds, reduction in species fitness and genetic diversity, and contamination of traditional plants and foods. Thus, it is important and also necessary to evaluate the extent of gene flow in the field for transgenic plants already released or being considered for a release. Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic crops for commercialization, which are widely cultivated around the world. In this chapter, we use transgenic insect resistant cotton and herbicide-tolerant cotton as two examples to present a field practice method for determining transgene flow in cotton. The procedure includes three major sections: (1) field design, (2) seed collection, and (3) field and lab bioassay.

  19. Electroexcitation of rotational vibrations in sup 164 Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, F.G.; Nojarov, R.; Faessler, A. (Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Universitat Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-7400 Tubingen 1, Federal Republic of Germany (DE))

    1989-09-25

    We calculate the {ital M}1 spectrum and the distorted-wave Born-approximation ({ital e},{ital e}{prime}) form factors of the strong {ital K}{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} states in {sup 164}Dy, using a deformed Woods-Saxon potential and the quasiparticle random-phase approximation with quadrupole, spin, and spin-quadrupole interactions. A residual rotation-vibrational coupling ensures the exclusion of the spurious state. We find strongly orbital {ital M}1 states at 3.1 MeV which fit the experimental spectrum very well and exhaust 40% of the collectivity of the 1{sup +} mode. The form factor of the lowest one of these states is also in a good agreement with the experimental form factor.

  20. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC COTTON FOR TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Ulfet; BAYRAKTAR, Meltem; GÜREL, Aynur

    2016-01-01

    Cotton production has been improved in respect to amount and quality with contributions of scientific and technological innovations. Increased sensitivity to health and environmental issues has caused development of new subjects such as organic agriculture. Organic production systems are based on specific standards that combine tradition, innovation and science. It sustains human and animal health and maintains ecosystem and soil quality. The goal of the organic cotton production system is to...