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Sample records for cotton bracts extract

  1. Endothelial cell cytotoxicity of cotton bracts tannin and aqueous cotton bracts extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.M.; Hanson, M.N.; Rohrbach, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    Using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay based on the release of /sup 51/Cr from cultured porcine thoracic aortic and pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, we have demonstrated that cotton bracts tannin is a potent endothelial cell cytotoxin. It produces dose-dependent lethal injury to both types of endothelial cells with the aortic cells, being somewhat more sensitive to tannin-mediated injury than the pulmonary arterial cells. Cytotoxic injury to the cells was biphasic. During the first 3 hr of exposure to tannin, no lethal injury was detected. However, during this period, profound changes in morphology were observed suggesting sublethal injury to the cells preceded the ultimate toxic damage. Comparison of the cytotoxicity dose curves for aqueous bracts extracts with those for tannin demonstrated that tannin was major cytotoxin present in bracts.

  2. Characteristics of Photosystem II Behavior in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Bract and Capsule Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-li; LUO Hong-hai; HU Yuan-yuan; Reto J. Strasser; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2013-01-01

    Though bract and capsule wall of boll in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have different photosynthetic capacities, the features of photosystem II (PS II) in these organs are scarce. In this paper, chlorophyll a lfuorescence emission was measured to investigate the difference in the photosynthetic apparatus of dark-acclimated (JIP-test) and light-acclimated (light-saturation pulse method) bract and capsule wall. Compared with leaves, the oxygen evolving system of non-foliar organs had lower efifciency. The pool size of PS II electron acceptor of non-foliar organs was small, and the photochemical activity of leaves was higher than that of the bract and capsule wall. In regard to the photosystem I (PS I) electron acceptor side, the pool size of end electron acceptors of leaves was larger, and the quantum yield of electron transport from QA (PS II primary plastoquinone acceptor) further than the PS I electron acceptors of leaves was higher than that of bract and capsule wall. In all green organs, the actual quantum yield of photochemistry decreased with light. The thermal dissipation fraction of light absorbed by the PS II antennae was the highest in bract and the lowest in capsule wall relative to leaves. Compared with leaves, capsule wall was characterized by less constitutive thermal dissipation and via dissipation as lfuorescence emission. These results suggested that lower PS II photochemical activity in non-foliar organs may be result from limitations at the donor side of PS II and the acceptor sides of both photosystems.

  3. Cotton dust-mediated lung epithelial injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayars, G H; Altman, L C; O'Neil, C E; Butcher, B T; Chi, E Y

    1986-01-01

    To determine if constituents of cotton plants might play a role in byssinosis by injuring pulmonary epithelium, we added extracts of cotton dust, green bract, and field-dried bract to human A549 and rat type II pneumocytes. Injury was measured as pneumocyte lysis and detachment, and inhibition of protein synthesis. Extracts of cotton dust and field-dried bract produced significant dose- and time-dependent lysis and detachment of both target cells, while green bract extract was less damaging. ...

  4. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose.

  5. Predicting the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oregano bract essential oil

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    Abdolreza Moghadassi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of essential oils using compressed carbon dioxide is a modern technique offering significant advantagesover more conventional methods, especially in particular applications. The prediction of extraction efficiency is a powerful toolfor designing and optimizing the process. The current work proposed a new method based on the artificial neural network(ANN for the estimation of the extraction efficiency of the essential oil oregano bract. In addition, the work used the backpropagationlearning algorithm, incorporating different training methods. The required data were collected; pre-treating wasused for ANN training. The accuracy and trend stability of the trained networks were verified according to their ability to predictunseen data. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm has been found to be the most suitable algorithm, with the appropriatenumber of neurons (i.e., ten neurons in the hidden layer and a minimum average absolute relative error (i.e., 0.019164. Inaddition, some excellent predictions with maximum error of 0.039313 were observed. The results demonstrated the ANN’scapability to predict the measured data. The ANN model performance was also compared to a suitable mathematical model,thereby confirming the superiority of the ANN model.

  6. New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Obtained from Extracted Bracts of Bougainvillea Glabra and Spectabilis Betalain Pigments by Different Purification Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Rodriguez; Susana Vargas; Fracisco Quintanilla; Angel Ramon Hernandez-Martinez; Miriam Estevez

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis’ bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized....

  7. New dye-sensitized solar cells obtained from extracted bracts of Bougainvillea glabra and spectabilis betalain pigments by different purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Angel Ramon; Estevez, Miriam; Vargas, Susana; Quintanilla, Fracisco; Rodriguez, Rogelio

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis' bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized. The materials were characterized using FTIR and UV-Vis. Solar cells were assembled using TiO(2) thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass; a mesoporous film was sensitized with the Bougainvillea extracts. The obtained solar energy conversion efficiency was of 0.48% with a current density J(SC) of 2.29 mA/cm(2) using an irradiation of 100 mW/cm(2) at 25 °C.

  8. New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Obtained from Extracted Bracts of Bougainvillea Glabra and Spectabilis Betalain Pigments by Different Purification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Rodriguez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis’ bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized. The materials were characterized using FTIR and UV-Vis. Solar cells were assembled using TiO2 thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO-coated glass; a mesoporous film was sensitized with the Bougainvillea extracts. The obtained solar energy conversion efficiency was of 0.48% with a current density JSC of 2.29 mA/cm2 using an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C.

  9. 膜下滴灌对棉花生育后期叶片与苞叶光合特性的影响%Effects of Drip Irrigation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Leaves and Bracts in Cotton at Late Growth Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 占东霞; 张亚黎; 罗宏海; 勾玲; 张旺锋

    2015-01-01

    在新疆气候生态条件下,选用新陆早33号和新陆早46号棉花品种,设置2个膜下滴灌量处理,测定棉花叶片和苞叶的光响应曲线、CO2响应曲线、荧光参数等相关光合生理指标,探讨生育后期棉花叶片与苞叶光合能力的差异及对滴灌量的响应。结果表明,棉花生育期间,高温强光下苞叶最大羧化速率与最大电子传递速率的比值(Jmax/Vc,max)较高,气孔导度(Gs)较低。棉花生长发育后期,苞叶面积、含水量、叶绿素含量、净光合速率(Pn)、光系统II实际光化学效率(FPSII)、Rubisco含量显著低于叶片,但随着生育进程降幅显著低于叶片。与常规滴灌处理相比,节水滴灌处理棉花叶片含水量降幅显著高于苞叶;叶片叶绿素含量、Pn和Rubisco含量显著降低,而苞叶的变化不显著。棉花生育后期苞叶面积、含水量、叶绿素含量、Pn、ΦPSII、Rubisco含量的稳定性高于叶片,表明生育后期叶片衰老较快,但苞叶仍能保持较稳定的光合能力,对光合物质的贡献逐渐增大,常规滴灌下达7.22%~8.83%,节水滴灌下达10.24%~12.53%。%Themajority of cotton (Gossypium hirsutumL.) photosynthetic products comes from leaves, but non-foliar green or-gans of cotton such as bracts also contain chlorophyll and may contribute to the yield. We selected Xinluzao 33 and Xinluzao 46 with two irrigation treatments (normal drip irrigation and water-saving drip irrigation) to determine physiological indices includ-ing response curves of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), fluorescence parameters, and water content of cotton bracts and leaves and to explore the difference of photosynthetic capacity between bracts and leaves under drip irrigation conditions. The results showed that bracts showed greater RuBP regenera-tion/RuBP carboxylation capacity ratio (Jmax/Vc,max) and lower stomatal conductance under high

  10. Inhibition effect of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura%板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍雄; 王明月; 王金华; 张敬宜; 思斯; 熊智

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用,为害虫防治及新型植物源生物农药开发提供理论依据.[方法]以10株思茅松毛虫3龄和5龄幼虫肠道细菌为供试菌种,采用牛津杯法测定不同有机溶剂板栗苞壳提取物的抑菌效果.[结果]不同有机溶剂板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌均有一定的抑菌作用,且随着质量浓度的增大抑菌作用逐渐增强,各提取物的抑菌作用大小顺序为乙酸乙酯>乙醇>氯仿>正丁醇>石油醚,其中以乙酸乙酯提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用最强,最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)为6.250 mg/mL,石油醚提取物的抑菌作用不明显或无抑菌作用.[结论]板栗苞壳提取物可作为新型植物源生物农药在思茅松毛虫防治中加以开发利用.%[Objective]This research studied the inhibition effect of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura in order to create new biological pesticides developed from plant sources and to provide theoretical basis for pesticide development. [Method]Using 10 strains of intestinal bacteria extracted from age 3 and age 5 Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura instar larvae as test strains, the inhibition effect of different organic Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract solvents was determined using the Oxford cup method. [Result]Different organic solvents of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract had some inhibition effects on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura. As the quality concentration increased, the inhibition effect became more noticeable; different extractions were arranged in the following rank from the strongest inhibition rate to the weakest inhibition rate: acetic ether> ethanol>chloroform>butyl alcohoblight petroleum. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong inhibition activity on the intestinal bacteria of Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura. The minimum

  11. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of 23 elements from cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezić, I

    2009-01-01

    Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of 23 elements from cotton was performed with different solvent volume ratios. For this purpose nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and water were mixed and applied in a mixture for the extraction of elements adsorbed on cotton material. The elements chosen for the extraction procedure (Al, As, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn, Tl and Zn) were those that are important in textile processing. Some of them cause problems during fiber processing, dyeing or bleaching. The removal of elements from the processed fabric can be successfully done with ultrasonic extraction in the ultrasonic bath. Extraction procedure was optimized by software package Design Expert 6 (DX6) and the optimum of ultrasonic extraction was achieved with the mixture of 1M HCl-1M HNO(3)-H(2)O=3.32/2.83/93.85 (v/v). Ultrasonic extraction was a fast and efficient extraction procedure easily applied on cotton textile material.

  12. Effects of extracts from Tiam seeds on cotton leafworm

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    Chantrapromma, K.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude n-hexane and methanolic extracts from the seeds of Azadirachta excelsa Jack. (Tiam and A. indica var. siamensis Valeton (Neem, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 and permethrin were tested for mortality effect on the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th instar larvae of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera litura F. by topical application and spraying methods. Among the seed extracts, crude methanolic extract from A. excelsa was the most effective. Its LC50, by topical application, at 72 hours after tested on the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th instar larvae was 5.26, 8.83 and 19.69 g/l, respectively, and by feeding was 1.59, 3.67 and 4.72 g/l, respectively. Crude methanolic extract was more effective than the crude n-hexane extract in each particular plant. Among tested samples, permethrin, a semi-synthetic chemical insecticide, showed the highest insecticidal effect. Its LC50, by topical application, at 72 hours after tested on the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th instar larvae was 0.12, 0.18 and 1.44 g/l, respectively, and by feeding was 0.08, 0.11 and 0.34 g/l, respectively. Use of the crude methanolic extract of A. excelsa to reduce the population of the 2nd instar larvae of cotton leafworm on Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey was more effective than that of crude methanolic extract of A. indica var. siamensis.

  13. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract

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    Ahmed A. Tayel

    Full Text Available Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE, was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes.

  14. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Abdel-Monem, Omnia A; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M; Alsohim, Abdullah S; El-Refai, Elham M

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE), was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes.

  15. Extraction and Hydrophobic Modification of Cotton Stalk Bark Fiber

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    Ya-Yu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton stalk bark fiber (CSBF was extracted at high temperature and under high pressure, under the condition of the alkali content of 11 wt%. Experimental results proved that the extraction yield of CSBF was 27.3 wt%, and the residual alkali concentration was 2.1 wt%. Then five kinds of modifiers including methyl methacrylate (MMA, MMA plus initiator, epoxy propane, copper ethanolamine, and silane coupling agent were chosen to modify the surface of CSBF. It was found by measuring water retention value (WRV that these five kinds of modifiers were all effective and the silane coupling agent was best modifier among all. The optimal modifying conditions of silane coupling agent were obtained: modifier concentration was 5%, the mixing temperature was 20°C, the mixing time was 1 h, and vacuum drying time was 1 h. Under the optimal condition, the WRV of the modified CSBF was 89%. It is expected that these modified CSBF may be a filler with strengthening effect in wood plastic composites (WPC fields.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

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    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  17. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

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    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  18. Determination of antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavanoid contents in Bougainvillea glabra bracts at various methanol concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandan, Shalini; Abdullah, Aminah; Musa, Khalid Hamid; Subramaniam, Vimala; Stockham, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The Bougainvillea glabra bract was extracted using three ratios of methanolic solvents at 50%, 70% and 100%. In this study, the methanolic extracts of B. glabra bract were evaluated for antioxidant properties and quantification of phenolics and flavanoids. Methanol at 100% was the highest extraction efficiency among three other methanolic with yield value of 38%. The content of phenolics and flavonoids of B. glabra bracts in methanol 100% were 63.92±0.90 GAE mg/100g and 249.53±26.20 QE mg/100g respectively. The antioxidant activity was measured using three different bioassays namely, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The results were expressed as mg Trolox equivalent per 100 g where Trolox is a vitamin E analog. Among these methanol extracts, highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the pure methanol concentration. Positive correlation was observed in B. glabra bract between DPPH assay and TPC, r2=1.00. The methanol extract at 100% was rich in polyphenolics, which indicating that the B. glabra bract has the potential to be recommended as a good dietary source of natural antioxidants.

  19. Chemical-free Extraction of Cotton Stalk Bark Fibers by Steam Flash Explosion

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    Xiuliang Hou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cotton stalk bark fibers (CSBF were extracted by steam flash explosion, completed within 0.09 s, and the extracted fibers were compared with those obtained by conventional alkaline treatment. Results indicate that the optimum steam pressure was 2.5 MPa when steaming time was set to 2 min for extracting CSBF. Under the optimized conditions, the obtained CSBF had a cellulose content of 72%, length of 48 mm, fineness of 45 dtex, crystallinity index of 68, moisture regain of 8%, water retention of 98%, and tensile strength of 2.4 cN/dtex, which were similar to results obtained by conventional alkaline treatment. Compared with bark of cotton stalks, CSBF had lower moisture regain and water retention, and higher onset decomposition temperature. The results show that moderate steam flash explosion is a chemical-free, quick, and effective method for exploring the industrial applications of bark of cotton stalks as natural cellulose fibers.

  20. Bioactive cotton fabrics containing chitosan and biologically active substances extracted from plants.

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    Mocanu, G; Nichifor, M; Mihai, D; Oproiu, L C

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the obtaining of bioactive textiles using chitosan-coated fabrics, in which biologically active substances contained by Viola Tricolor (VT) - an extract of three Viola species (Violaceae) - were immobilized. Chitosan was applied on cotton fabric or on chemically modified cotton (having reactive -CHO or carboxymethyl groups), as tripolyphosphate (TPP) crosslinked fine particles, or by use of glutaraldehyde crosslinking agent. The amount of VT retained on the fabrics was found to depend on the procedure of chitosan application on the cotton. The obtained bioactive textiles are expected to have antioxidant activity due to the biologically active substances from VT; they can be used for obtaining clothes for people with allergies or other skin problems, assuring a controlled release of biomolecules. The study focuses on the in vitro release of VT retained on the fabrics, as well as on its antioxidant activity.

  1. Genotoxicological assessment of two reactive dyes extracted from cotton fibres using artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Meireles, Gabriela; dos Santos, Tuane Cristina; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2014-02-01

    Human eyes have a remarkable ability to recognize hundreds of colour shades, which has stimulated the use of colorants, especially for clothing, but toxicological studies have shown that some textile dyes can be hazardous to human health. Under conditions of intense perspiration, dyes can migrate from coloured clothes and penetrate into human skin. Garments made from cotton fabrics are the most common clothing in tropical countries, due to their high temperatures. Aiming to identify safe textile dyes for dyeing cotton fabrics, the genotoxicity [in vitro Comet assay with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), Tail Intensity] and mutagenicity [Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay (30min), tester strains TA98, TA100, YG1041 and YG1042] of Reactive Blue 2 (RB2, CAS No. 12236-82-7, C.I. 61211) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19, CAS No. 61931-49-5, C.I. 205075) were evaluated both in the formulated form and as extracted from cotton fibres using different artificial sweats. Both the dyes could migrate from cotton fibres to sweat solutions, the sweat composition and pH being important factors during this extraction. However, the dye sweat solutions showed no genotoxic/mutagenic effects, whereas a weak mutagenic potential was detected by the Ames test for both dyes in their formulated form. These findings emphasize the relevance of textile dyes assessment under conditions that more closely resemble human exposure, in order to recognize any hazard.

  2. Isolation of Gossypol and Analysis of Phytochemicals in Seed Extract of Bt and Non-Bt Varieties of Cotton

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    R.Chandrashekar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to isolate the gossypol (Phenolic compound and screening of phytochemical constituents from seed extract. During this study gossypol was extracted from cotton seeds and cotton seed cake using different organic solvents like acetone, ethanol, methanol, pet ether, chloroform and hot water and screened for phytochemical constituents. Analysis revealed the presence of phenols, glycosides, flavonoids, and steroids. Specific tests were conducted for each group of the phytochemicals. Among the extracts tested polar solvents like acetone, ethanol, methanol extracts showed more phytochemicals than others followed by pet ether, hot water, chloroform. The phytochemicals like saponins, flavonoids, tri-terpenoids, and tannins were not found in seed extract, specifically showed phenols with more quantity in polar solvent extract like acetone, ethanol and methanol cardiac glycosides and steroids are observed in both polar and non-polar solvent of seed extracts. Similar kind of compounds are present in Bt and non-Bt but the appearance of test coloration of seed extracts predicted as is slightly darker for Bt variety. This could be due to more amount of the component may be present in Bt cotton seed extract than non-Bt cotton seed extract. The compound Gossypol was detected in extracts by applying Chromatographic technique as well as chemical tests with antimony chloride (SbCl3, and stannic chloride (SnCl3 and leadacetate (Pb(CH3COO2 . Spectrophotometric techniques were also employed for quantitative analysis by measuring absorbance of samples at wavelength of 290nm.

  3. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Cotton Fiber Development and Protein Extraction Method Comparison in Late Stage Fibers

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    Hana Mujahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The distinct stages of cotton fiber development and maturation serve as a single-celled model for studying the molecular mechanisms of plant cell elongation, cell wall development and cellulose biosynthesis. However, this model system of plant cell development is compromised for proteomic studies due to a lack of an efficient protein extraction method during the later stages of fiber development, because of a recalcitrant cell wall and the presence of abundant phenolic compounds. Here, we compared the quality and quantities of proteins extracted from 25 dpa (days post anthesis fiber with multiple protein extraction methods and present a comprehensive quantitative proteomic study of fiber development from 10 dpa to 25 dpa. Comparative analysis using a label-free quantification method revealed 287 differentially-expressed proteins in the 10 dpa to 25 dpa fiber developmental period. Proteins involved in cell wall metabolism and regulation, cytoskeleton development and carbohydrate metabolism among other functional categories in four fiber developmental stages were identified. Our studies provide protocols for protein extraction from maturing fiber tissues for mass spectrometry analysis and expand knowledge of the proteomic profile of cotton fiber development.

  4. [Cotton identification and extraction using near infrared sensor and object-oriented spectral segmentation technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jin-Song; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Su; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2009-07-01

    The real-time, effective and reliable method of identifying crop is the foundation of scientific management for crop in the precision agriculture. It is also one of the key techniques for the precision agriculture. However, this expectation cannot be fulfilled by the traditional pixel-based information extraction method with respect to complicated image processing and accurate objective identification. In the present study, visible-near infrared image of cotton was acquired using high-resolution sensor. Object-oriented segmentation technique was performed on the image to produce image objects and spatial/spectral features of cotton. Afterwards, nearest neighbor classifier integrated the spectral, shape and topologic information of image objects to precisely identify cotton according to various features. Finally, 300 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. Although errors and confusion exist, this method shows satisfying results with an overall accuracy of 96.33% and a KAPPA coefficient of 0.926 7, which can meet the demand of automatic management and decision-making in precision agriculture.

  5. Effect of cover crop extracts on cotton and radish radicle elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Raper

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that some cover crops are allelopathic and can inhibit weed germination and growth. Additionally, negative allelopathic effects have been documented in cash crops planted into cover crop residue. However, little literature exists comparing relative the allelopathic potential of cover crops producers utilize in conservation-agriculture systems. This study assessed the effects of twelve cover crop extracts on radish (Raphanus sativus L. and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. radicle elongation, in three trials, using an extract-agar bioassay. In Trial 1 the cover crops were black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. SoilSaver, crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L. cv. AU Robin, white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cvs. AU Homer and AU Alpha, rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Elbon, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vigoro Grazer, and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Trical 2700. In Trial 2 the cover crops were forage rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus cv. Licapo, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum spp. arvense L. Poir, black medic (Medicago lupilina L., hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, black oat cv. SoilSaver, and crimson clover cv. AU Robin. Cotton was evaluated using the same bioassay and all of the cover crops mentioned above in a single trial (Trial 3. All cover crop extracts inhibited radicle elongation compared to water. Allelopathic potential was highly variable among cultivars within a cover crop species, and within a cultivar. Allelopathic differences among cover crops give an additional weed control tool in conservation systems. However, winter cover selection may impact on cash crop performance if producers plant their crop into green residue.

  6. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Hemant P Borase; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Rahul K Suryawanshi; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K.; Satish V Patil

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, etha...

  7. Dusky Cotton Bug Oxycarenus spp. (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Hibernating Sites and Management by using Plant Extracts under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Muneer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus spp., has now attained the status of a major pest of cotton crops that affects lint as well as the seed quality of cotton. Surveys were conducted to explore the hibernating sites in the districts Faisalabad, Multan and Bahawalpur. The efficacies of six different plant extracts, i.e. Neem (Azadirachta indica, Milkweed (Calotropis procera, Moringa (Moringa oleifera, Citrus (Citrus sinensis, Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum and Castor (Ricinus communis were tested by using three different concentrations of each plant extract, i.e. 5, 2.5 and 1.5% under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 70±5% RH. The data were recorded 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after treatment application. However, Psidium guajava, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Mangifera indica were graded as host plants heavily infested by Oxycarenus spp. Results (α≤0.05 indicated that increasing the concentration of extracts also increased the mortality. Nicotiana tobacum and Calotropis procera respectively displayed maximum 72 and 71, 84 and 80, 97 and 89% mortality at all concentrations, i.e. 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00%, after 96 hours of application. Two concentrations (2.5 and 5% are the most suitable for obtaining significant control of the dusky cotton bug.

  8. Gamma radiations induced improvement in dyeing properties and colorfastness of cotton fabrics dyed with chicken gizzard leaves extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Fatima; Adeel, Shahid; Azeem, Muhammad; Ahmad Khan, Ali; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Ghaffar, Abdul; Iqbal, Naeem

    2013-08-01

    Cotton fabric and chicken gizzard leaves powder were treated with different absorbed doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Effects of different mordants on dyeing of un-irradiated and irradiated cotton fabrics were investigated in the CIE Lab system using Spectraflash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were followed throughout the study period. The results indicated that color strength of cotton fabric was significantly improved by the gamma ray treatment. Absorbed dose of 10 kGy was proved to be most effective in improving cotton dyeing properties compared with other levels of gamma radiation used in the study. The optimum temperature for dyeing was 60 °C with the time duration of 60 min using 4 g/L of electrolyte with alkali solubilized extract of chicken gizzard. Furthermore, 4% of iron (Fe) as pre-mordant and 1% of tannic acid (TA) as post-mordant proved to be more effective in enhancing the color fastness properties of irradiated cotton fabric.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Perspiration Pads and Cotton Cloth Fabricated with the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterhyacinth is one of the most dangerous aquatic weeds causing various ecological and environmental issues. The plant has several pharmaceutical properties in spite of its harmful nature. In the present study, perspiration pads and cotton cloth fabricated with the ethyl acetate extract of waterhyacinth were evaluated for its activity against Corynebacterium. Perspiration pads and samples of cotton cloth were fabricated with ethyl acetate extract of Eichhornia crassipes by three methods, namely, dipping, sonication, and homogenization. The antimicrobial activity of the fabricated textile materials was tested against Corynebacterium, a microorganism commonly seen in human sweat. Disc diffusion method (AATCC 147 was used for evaluating the antimicrobial nature of the fabricated samples. Sonication was found to be efficient for coating of the extract on the cotton cloth, whereas dipping method was found to be efficient in case of perspiration pads. No bacterial growth was observed under and on the fabricated cloth and perspiration pads indicating that the fabrics possess bacteriostatic property and not bactericidal property and the absence of leaching of the extract. The results showed significant antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Eichhornia crassipes coated onto fabrics against Corynebacterium with no growth under and on the test sample.

  10. Relationships between Different Preparations of Cotton Hollow Yarn and Water Soluble PVA Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hui-ying; XIA Zhao-peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper cotton hollow yarns were obtained from the core spun yarns which were produced on a little modified conventional experiment ring frame with water soluble staple PVA yarn as the core. For comparison, yarns with same linear densities, same twists of the sheath, different linear densities, different twist directions of the core were prepared. The results show that the tensile strengths of the hollow yarns decrease first, then increase and decrease again, at last the tensile strength trends to reach a steady state with the soluble PVA core extraction proceeding. And when the sheath linear densities of the core spun yarns are constant, their twist and twist direction are same as that of the core it will be easier to remove the core of the yarn with a higher core size. When the linear densities of the sheath and the core are all constant, the twists of them are same,it will be easier to remove the core of the yarn with a different twist direction of core to the sheath.

  11. A comparison of DNA collection and retrieval from two swab types (cotton and nylon flocked swab) when processed using three QIAGEN extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Robert J; Dagnall, Kathryn E; Ames, Carole E

    2012-05-01

    The Metropolitan Police Service currently uses cotton swabs to retrieve DNA for forensic profiling. Recently, a new nylon flocked swab type has become available from Copan (MicroRheologics, Brescia, Italy) that it is claimed, offers increased sample recovery and release yields. If true, the flocked swab may have important applications in DNA evidence retrieval. This study examines the DNA retrieval capability of cotton and nylon flocked swabs when extracted using three common extraction platforms (QIAcube, BioRobot EZ1 and manually processed QIAamp DNA investigator kit). Results indicate that both swab types are capable of recovering high percentages of DNA (>50%); however, the extraction platform selected was shown to have a significant effect upon DNA retrieval. Across all experiments, the cotton swab combined with the spin-column extractions was shown to be most effective, with the nylon swab and BioRobot EZ1 combination being the least effective. These findings illustrate the importance of extraction method selection.

  12. Evaluation of Methods to Improve the Extraction and Recovery of DNA from Cotton Swabs for Forensic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Michael S.; Stasulli, Dominique M.; Sobestanovich, Emily M.; Bille, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol’s incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations. PMID:25549111

  13. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Michael S; Stasulli, Dominique M; Sobestanovich, Emily M; Bille, Todd W

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations.

  14. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Adamowicz

    Full Text Available Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations.

  15. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield.

  16. Effects of the Bracts and Bars of Zea mays L.on Blood Coagulation%玉蜀黍轴及苞叶对凝血作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾海鹏; 周大鹏; 顾雪竹; 康文艺

    2013-01-01

    The effect of extracts of the bracts and bars of Zea mays L.on blood coagulation was investigated using Vitamin K1 as coagulant control and breviscapine as anti-coagulant control.Petroleum ether,ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of Z.mays bracts and bars and the total methanol extract of bracts were assayed using plasma recalcification time method in vitro.n-Butanol extract of bars and ethyl acetate extract of bract significantly reduced the plasma recalcification time(P < 0.001).Petroleum ether extract of the bracts significantly prolonged the plasma recalcification time (P < 0.001).The results indicated that the n-butanol extract of bars and bract ethyl acetate extract had better procoagulant effect,and the petroleum ether extract of the bracts had good anticoagulant effect.%采用体外血浆复钙时间法,以维生素k1作为促凝血和灯盏花素作为抗凝血作用阳性对照,对玉蜀黍轴及苞叶石油醚、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇提取物及玉蜀黍苞叶甲醇总浸膏对体外血浆复钙时间的影响进行测定.结果显示玉蜀黍轴正丁醇及苞叶乙酸乙酯提取物,均可显著缩短体外血浆复钙时间(P<0.001);玉蜀黍苞叶石油醚提取物可显著延长体外血浆复钙时间(P<0.001).提示玉蜀黍轴正丁醇及苞叶乙酸乙酯提取物具有较好的促凝血活性,玉蜀黍苞叶石油醚提取物具有较好的抗凝作用.

  17. Dyeing of γ-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-11-01

    Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

  18. Effects of Botrytis and ozone on bracts and flowers of poinsettia cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1972-09-01

    Variability, ranging from complete resistance to extensive susceptibility, was observed when flowers and bracts of 14 cultivars of poinsettia were inoculated with spores of Botrytis cinerea. Flowers and bracts were not visibly injured by exposure to ozone levels up to 45 pphm. Ozone did not have significant fungicidal effects, as measured by visual disease incidence following incubation, when inoculated flowers and bracts were exposed to ozone at 15, 25, 35, and 45 pphm ozone for 4 hr prior to incubation. 8 references, 1 table.

  19. Molecular bases for parallel evolution of translucent bracts in an alpine "glasshouse" plant Rheum alexandrae (Polygonaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Bing LIU; Lars OPGENOORTH; Georg MIEHE; Dong-Yuan ZHANG; Dong-Shi WAN; Chang-Ming ZHAO; Dong-Rui JIA

    2013-01-01

    Parallel evolution provides an excellent framework to infer the genetic bases of adaptive traits and understand the importance of natural selection in shaping current biodiversity.The upper leaves of the "glasshouse plants" transform into translucent bracts that show numerous adaptions in alpine habitats.It remains unknown whether similar molecular changes occur under the parallel bract evolution of different "glasshouse" species.In this study,we compared the results on phenotypic and physiological differences and presented the results of cDNA-AFLP analyses of transcriptional changes between translucent bracts and normal leaves in Rheum alexandrae.We also examined the homologous candidate genes with the same expression changes between this species and another "glasshouse" species,R.nobile.We found that bracts ofR.alexandrae are similar to those ofR.nobile in anatomical features:chloroplasts have degenerated and chlorophyll contents are greatly reduced,which suggests that foliar photosynthetic functions in bracts of both species have been reduced or totally altered.Among the 6000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in bracts and leaves of R.alexandrae,420 (7%) were differentially expressed (up-or downregulated) between bracts and normal leaves.There were a total of 13 homologous TDFs with the same expression changes between R.alexandrae and the previously studied R.nobile.Except for the two that were not functionally annotated,eight of the homologous TDFs were found to be involved in stress and defense responses whereas the other three were related to photosynthesis.The up-or downregulation of these candidate genes was highly congruent with anatomical characteristics and adaptive functions of the bracts found for "glasshouse" plants.These findings suggested that the "glasshouse" phenotypes may have common molecular bases underlying their parallel evolution of similar adaptive functions and highlighted the importance of the natural selection in producing such

  20. Phylogeny and Evolution of Bracts and Bracteoles in Tacca (Dioscoreaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Zhang; Hong-Tao Li; Lian-Ming Gao; Jun-Bo Yang; De-Zhu Li; Charles H. Cannon; Jin Chen; Qing-Jun Li

    2011-01-01

    Most species in the genus Tacca (Dioscoreaceae) feature green to black purple,conspicuous inflorescence involucral bracts with variable shapes,motile filiform appendages (bracteoles),and diverse types of inflorescence morphology.To infer the evolution of these inflorescence traits,we reconstructed the molecular phylogeny of the genus,using DNA sequences from one nuclear,one mitochondrial,and three plastid loci (Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS),atpA,rbcL,trnL-F,and trnH-psbA).Involucres and bracteoles characters were mapped onto the phylogeny to analyze the sequence of inflorescence trait evolution.In all analyses,species with showy involucres and bracteoles formed the most derived clade,while ancestral Tacca had small and plain involucres and short bracteoles,namely less conspicuous inflorescence structures.Two of the species with the most elaborate inflorescence morphologies (T.chantrieri in southeast China and T.integrifolia in Tibet),are predominantly self-pollinated,indicating that these conspicuous floral displays have other functions rather than pollinator attraction.We hypothesize that the motile bracteoles and involucres may facilitate selfing; display photosynthesis in the dim understory,and protect flowers from herbivory.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of cotton and silk fabric with herbal extract by micro encapsulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saraswathi R; Krishnan PN; Dilip C

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore the antimicrobial activity of microcapsules encapsulated with mixture of herbs like neem, tulsi and turmeric, and its application on cellulosic fabric in the form of microcapsules.Methods: The microcapsules were prepared from the mixture of herbs by plain diffusion method, a natural encapsulation technique with yeast and applied on cotton and silk fabric by pad-dry-cure method. The microcapsules were fixed on cotton and silk fabric using the binder UF Silpure FBR-5(PA)B at 120 ℃. The antimicrobial activities of the finished fabric were assessed by using three types of bacteria includingStaphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli andPseudomonas.Results:The results of antimicrobial activity from the tests including parallel streak method and disc diffusion method showed that activity of the mixture of herbs was very effective among the three types of bacteria selected, and the antimicrobial activity of prepared microcapsule againstPseudomonas was very good.Conclusions:The herbal microcapsule treated fabric could be applied in the field of medicine. The scanning electron microscope photographs ensure the fixing of the microcapsules firmly in the yarn structure of plain woven cotton and silk fabric.

  2. Comparisons of minicard ratings to ion chromatography sugar profiles in cotton fiber water extract and minicard sticky spot material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific levels and ratios of the carbohydrates melezitose and trehalulose deposited on the surface of cotton fibers are indicators of whitefly or aphid contamination. These deposits could cause stickiness problems during cotton ginning and textile processing. The concept of cotton stickiness is hi...

  3. Herbicidal activity of volatiles from coriander, winter savory, cotton lavender, and thyme isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Coelho, José A; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M F; Barroso, José G

    2010-10-27

    The volatiles from Coriandrum sativum L., Satureja montana L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were isolated by hydrodistillation (essential oil) and supercritical fluid extraction (volatile oil). Their effect on seed germination and root and shoot growth of the surviving seedlings of four crops ( Zea mays L., Triticum durum L., Pisum sativum L., and Lactuca sativa L.) and two weeds ( Portulaca oleracea L. and Vicia sativa L.) was investigated and compared with those of two synthetic herbicides, Agrocide and Prowl. The volatile oils of thyme and cotton lavender seemed to be promising alternatives to the synthetic herbicides because they were the least injurious to the crop species. The essential oil of winter savory, on the other hand, affected both crop and weeds and can be appropriate for uncultivated fields.

  4. Determination of strobilurin fungicides in cotton seed by combination of acetonitrile extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Li, Huichen; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Wenqing; Chen, Xiaochu

    2014-04-01

    The simultaneous determination of four strobilurin fungicides (picoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, and azoxystrobin) in cotton seed by combining acetonitrile extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed prior to GC with electron capture detection. Several factors, including the type and volume of the extraction and dispersive solvents, extraction condition and time, and salt addition, were optimized. The analytes were extracted with acetonitrile from cotton seed and the clean-up was carried out by primary secondary amine. Afterwards, 60 μL of n-hexane/toluene (1:1, v/v) with a lower density than water was mixed with 1 mL of the acetonitrile extract, then the mixture was injected into 7 mL of distilled water. A 0.1 mL pipette was used to collect a few microliters of n-hexane/toluene from the top of the aqueous solution. The enrichment factors of the analytes ranged from 36 to 67. The LODs were in the range of 0.1 × 10(-3) -2 × 10(-3) mg/kg. The relative recoveries varied from 87.7 to 95.2% with RSDs of 4.1-8.5% for the four fungicides. The good performance of the method, compared with the conventional pretreatments, has demonstrated it is suitable for determining low concentrations of strobilurin fungicide residues in cotton seed.

  5. Investigation on the effect of RF air plasma and neem leaf extract treatment on the surface modification and antimicrobial activity of cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaideki, K.; Jayakumar, S.; Rajendran, R.; Thilagavathi, G.

    2008-02-01

    A thorough investigation on the antimicrobial activity of RF air plasma and azadirachtin (neem leaf extract) treated cotton fabric has been dealt with in this paper. The cotton fabric was given a RF air plasma treatment to improve its hydrophilicity. The process parameters such as electrode gap, time of exposure and RF power have been varied to study their effect in improving the hydrophilicity of the cotton fabric and they were optimized based on the static immersion test results. The neem leaf extract (azadirachtin) was applied on fabric samples to impart antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial efficacy of the samples have been analysed and compared with the efficacy of the cotton fabric treated with the antimicrobial finish alone. The investigation reveals that the RF air plasma has modified the surface of the fabric, which in turn increased the antimicrobial activity of the fabric when treated with azadirachtin. The surface modification due to RF air plasma treatment has been analysed by comparing the FTIR spectra of the untreated and plasma treated samples. The molecular interaction between the fabric, azadirachtin and citric acid which was used as a cross linking agent to increase the durability of the antimicrobial finish has also been analysed using FTIR spectra.

  6. UFO in the Arabidopsis inflorescence apex is required for floral-meristem identity and bract suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Shelley R; Klenz, Jennifer E; Haughn, George W

    2006-03-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene of Arabidopsis encodes an F-box protein required for the determination of floral-organ and floral-meristem identity. Mutation of UFO leads to dramatic changes in floral-organ type which are well-characterized whereas inflorescence defects are more subtle and less understood. These defects include an increase in the number of secondary inflorescences, nodes that alternate between forming flowers and secondary inflorescences, and nodes in which a single flower is subtended by a bract. Here, we show how inflorescence defects correlate with the abnormal development of floral primordia and establish a temporal requirement for UFO in this process. At the inflorescence apex of ufo mutants, newly formed primordia are initially bract-like. Expression of the floral-meristem identity genes LFY and AP1 are confined to a relatively small adaxial region of these primordia with expression of the bract-identity marker FIL observed in cells that comprise the balance of the primordia. Proliferation of cells in the adaxial region of these early primordia is delayed by several nodes such that primordia appear "chimeric" at several nodes, having visible floral and bract components. However, by late stage 2 of floral development, growth of the bract generally ceases and is overtaken by development of the floral primordium. This abnormal pattern of floral meristem development is not rescued by expression of UFO from the AP1 promoter, indicating that UFO is required prior to AP1 activation for normal development of floral primordia. We propose that UFO and LFY are jointly required in the inflorescence meristem to both promote floral meristem development and inhibit, in a non-cell autonomous manner, growth of the bract.

  7. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar D Patil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4(th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively.Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management.

  8. An Efficient Method of Nuclei Extraction in Cotton%一种高效提取棉花细胞核的技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭仁海; 刘方; 宋国立; 王春英; 黎绍惠; 张香娣; 王玉红; 王坤波

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment aimed to study an efficient method of Nuclei extraction of cotton and provided technical support for constructing large-insert genomic library and sequencing complete genome. [Method] The cotton cotyledons germinated in dark moisture chamber for one week were chopped with a sharp sterile scalpel in a Petri dish which contained ice-cold nucleus isolation buffer (10 mmol/L MgSO4, 5 mmol/L KCl, 0.5 mmol/L HEPES, 1 mg/ml DTT, 0.25% Triton X-100 and 2% PVP40), then the nuclei were collected after selected through 100, 50 and 30 μm nylon meshes and centrifugation. Meanwhile, the tender leaves and cotyledons with different germination time in dark were treated by grinding method and sharp scalpel method. [Result] The chopping with a sharp scalpel method was very simple and rapid, which did not need grind and mercaptoethanol treatment and the successful extraction rate was 100%.[Conclusion] An efficient method of nuclei extraction of cotton with simple, high efficiency, rapid reaction and poison free were established.

  9. Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic cotton fibers for selective extraction of Cu(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; Ibrahim, Amr A; Metwally, M M; Badawy, D S

    2015-11-01

    Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic fibers (Cu-ABZ) were manufactured for efficient selective adsorption of Cu(2+) ions. The chemical modification steps had been characterized utilizing elemental analysis; Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) along with wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Also, the morphological structure of the ion-imprinted and the non-imprinted (NI-ABZ) fibers were visualized and compared with that of the native cotton fibers using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the coordination mode by which the Cu(2+) ions bonded to the active sites were examined by both FTIR and X-ray photo electron spectra (XPS). Both Cu-ABZ and NI-ABZ were implemented in batch experiments for optimizing the conditions by which the Cu(2+) ions can be selectively removal from aqueous medium and pH 5 was the optimum for the metal ion extraction. Moreover, the kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption data fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir models with estimated maximum adsorption capacity 93.6mg/g. Also, the reusability studies indicated that the prepared ion-imprinted adsorbent maintains more than 95% of its original activity after fifth generation cycle.

  10. 玉米苞叶中新黄酮类化合物的分离和鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Novel Flavonoids from the Bract of Zea mays L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张沐新; 刘银燕; 孙薇; 杨晓虹; 王广树

    2011-01-01

    从玉米(Zea maysL)苞叶乙醇提取物中分离得到了4个黄酮类化合物,采用UV,IR,MS,1D NMR和2D NMR方法对化合物的结构进行了鉴定,它们分别为苜蓿素(1)、苜蓿素-5-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(2)、苜蓿素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(3)和苜蓿素-7-O-[β-D-呋喃芹糖基-(1-2)]β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(4).其中,化合物4为新化合物,化合物1~3为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Zea mays ( maize) , a member of the Poaceae, is the most economically important crop in China,about 24 million hectares of Zea mays has been cultivated each year in China, there is about 600 kg of the bract of Zea mays per hectare, and thus the resources of the bract of Zea mays is extremely rich. Although there are some pharmacological activity researches about radical scavenging activity against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, reducing blood lipid and inhibiting arteriosclerosis, the studies on phytochemical constituents of the bract of Zea mays have not been reported. In order to utilize the resources of the bract ofZea mays, we investigated the chemical constituents of the bract of Zea mays. The air-dried bract ol Zea mays was extracted with 95% ethanol at room temperature, the extract was subjected to Diaion AB-8 column chro-matography eluated with ethanol-H2O, and the eluate was further chromatographed on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns repeatedly to yield 4 flavonoid compounds. Their structures were identified as tricin( 1) , tricin 5-0-β-D-glucopyranoside(2) , tricin 7-O-/M>-glucopyranoside(3) , tricin 7-0-[β-D-apifuranosyl( 1-+2) ]-β-D-glucopyranoside(4) by spectral analysis(UV, IR, MS and ID, 2D NMR) , respectively. Among them, compound 4 is a new flavonoid compound, compounds 1, 2 and 3 are firstly isolated from this plant.

  11. Dyeing of white and indigo dyed cotton fabrics with Mimosa tenuiflora extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Erkan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora extract has been used in food industry as an additive and in textile and leather industry as a colorant. Two types of fabrics, ready to be dyed white and indigo dyed fabrics, were dyed with M. tenuiflora extract. The fabrics were mordanted after dyeing with six different metal salts. Colorimetric evaluations of fabrics were carried out by spectrophotometer. Colour fastness to washing, rubbing and light were performed. Colour strength of fabrics was calculated from Kubelka–Munk formula. Highest vividness (C∗ values were obtained by Ni mordant. Moderate fastness values were observed. However poor wet rubbing fastness values were observed in the case of indigo dyed fabrics due to lack of good wet rubbing fastness of indigo itself.

  12. Colorimetric Assay and Antibacterial Activity of Cotton, Silk, and Wool Fabrics Dyed with Peony, Pomegranate, Clove, Coptis chinenis and Gallnut Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the antibacterial functionality of natural colorant extracts, five kinds of natural dying aqueous solutions were obtained by extraction from peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut using water at 90 °C for 90 min with a liquor ratio (solid natural colorant material/water, weight ratio of 1:10. The colorimetric assay and antibacterial activity of cotton, silk, and wool fabrics dyed with these natural colorant extracts were examined. It was found that these properties were significantly dependent on the structure of colorant and the kind of fabrics. The hues (H of all fabrics dyed with these natural colorants were in the range of 6.05YR -1.95Y. The order of value (V was wool, silk and cotton. The chroma (C of all samples was found to be at very low levels indicating the natural tone. All the fabrics dyed with the five natural colorants (peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut extracts displayed excellent antibacterial activity (reduction rate: 96.8 - 99.9% against Staphylococcus aureus. However, in the case of Klebsiella pneumoniae, the antibacterial activity was found to depend on the kind of natural colorant extract used.

  13. ON IMAGES FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR LEAVES WITH COTTON MITE DISEASES%棉花红螨病害叶部图像特征提取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋寅卯; 刁智华; 王云鹏; 王欢

    2013-01-01

    Currently,the identification of plant disease in cotton production is mainly relying on visual observation,and the subjective judgement plays a dominant role.To realise timely and reliable diagnosis of the cotton mite disease,we study the images feature extraction of leaves with mite disease based on computer image processing technology.First,the histogram is employed to extract the means and variances of the hue H and G/R of leaves images for the colour features.Secondly,the gray co-matrix algorithm is used to extract the entropy and inertia moment of gray images of leaves for the texture features.Experiments indicate that the feature values mentioned above can well distinguish the cotton mite disease leaves from the normal leaves.Applying the method to cotton mite disease diagnosis will greatly improve the accuracy of disease identification.It also has the significance for effective governance on cotton mite disease.%目前在棉花生产中辨别病害主要以目测为主,主观判断占据主导.为了实现棉花红螨病害及时、可靠的诊断,基于计算机图像处理技术对病害叶部图像特征进行提取研究.首先利用直方图法提取叶片图像G/R和色调H的均值与方差作为颜色特征,其次由灰度共生矩阵法提取叶片灰度图像的熵和惯性矩作为纹理特征.实验表明,以上特征值能较好区分棉花红螨病害叶片和正常叶片.该方法用于棉花红螨病害的诊断,将会大大提高病害识别的准确率,对棉花红螨病害的有效治理有重要意义.

  14. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun

    2004-01-01

    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  15. Quick Extraction and Analysis of Gossypol in Cotton Leaves%棉叶中棉酚的快速提取与测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景伟文; 遆晓南; 陈燕勤; 张坤驰; 刘喜

    2012-01-01

    The terpenoids in cotton contain a unique group of secondary metabolites, which include desoxyhermgossypol (DHG),hemigosaypolone (HGQ) ,hemigossypol (HG) ,goasypol(G) ,and heliocides H1,H2,H3 and H4(H4). These compounds have been shown to be important in protecting the plant from cotton insects. An HPLC method has been utilized for separating individual terpenoid and quantitating gossypol in cotton leaves. Some influencing factors,such as extracting and pre-treating process,were discussed and a set of simple,rapid method was developed. At the same time,the result of the UV-visible spectmphotometry (aniline method) was described and compared. The results showed that HPLC analysis was more reasonable for the insect-resistance investigation in cotton.%棉酚(G)及其相关物甲氧基半棉酚(DHG)、半棉酚酮(HGQ)、半棉酚(HG)、杀实夜蛾素(H1-4)等是棉花中重要的抗虫性萜烯类次生物质.利用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)对棉酚及其相关物进行了分离,测定了棉叶中的棉酚含量,讨论了不同的提取方法和测定条件对结果的影响,给出了一套简便、快速的分析测试方法,同时与紫外-可见分光光度法(苯胺法)的结果进行了对比,认为对于棉花的抗虫性的研究来说,HPLC是比较适宜的方法.

  16. Survey of cotton (Gossypium sp.) for non-polar, extractable hydrocarbons for use as petrochemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ontogenetic study of a commercial cotton cultivar (FiberMax 1320), grown dryland, revealed that the dry weight (DW) of leaves reached a maximum at the 1st flower stage, and then declined as bolls opened. However, % pentane soluble hydrocarbon (HC) yield continued to increase throughout the growi...

  17. 超声波辅助萃取天然绿色棉色素%Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of pigment from natural green cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海祥; 唐志荣; 毛文涛; 周文龙

    2011-01-01

    建立一种对天然绿色棉色素进行相对定量分析的方法,并在此方法的基础上对超声波萃取与普通浸提萃取的效果进行定量分析,通过紫外分光光度法研究了天然绿色棉色素乙醇溶液的紫外光谱性质,分析得出360 nm处的吸收值与色素浓度呈线性关系,R2值达到0.999 2.利用提出的相对定量方法研究了温度、时间、溶剂体积对萃取效果的影响,并与普通浸提进行了对比,结果发现在同等条件下超声波辅助萃取效率明显高于普通浸提,超声波辅助萃取天然绿色棉色素20 min达到普通浸提5h的萃取效果,可缩短色素分析实验的周期.研究发现天然绿色棉色素溶液的颜色随着pH值的增加而加深,具有很强的pH值依赖性.%The goal of this research work is to establish a method for the relative quantitative analysis on the pigment in natural green cotton, and on this basis, the paper made a quantitative analysis on the effects obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and normal extraction separately. The UV spectral character of the pigment of natural green cotton in ethanol solution by UV spectrophotometry was studied. It was found that there is a linear relationship between the absorption value and pigment concentration at 360 nm, R2 = 0. 999 2. The established relative quantitative analysis method was used to investigate the influence of temperature, time and the volume of the solution on the extraction, and comparison results showed that the efficiency of ultrasonic-assisted extraction was significantly higher than that of normal extraction at the same conditions. The efficiency of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of natural green cotton pigment for 20 min was equivalent to that of ordinary extraction for 5 hours, thus shortening the test cycle of the pigment. Research found that the color of pigment solution of natural green cotton darkens with the increase of pH value, and has intensive pH value dependence.

  18. Effect of phosphorus concentration of the nutrient solution on the volatile constituents of leaves and bracts of Origanum dictamnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economakis, C; Skaltsa, Helen; Demetzos, Costas; Soković, M; Thanos, Costas A

    2002-10-23

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the leaves and bracts of hydroponically cultivated Origanum dictamnus were analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Three different concentrations of phosphorus (5, 30, and 60 mg/L) in the nutrient solution were used for the cultivation, using the nutrient film technique (NFT). A total of 46 different compounds were identified and significant differences (qualitative and quantitative) were observed between the samples. Carvacrol and p-cymene were identified as the main compounds in all samples analyzed, whereas thymoquinone was found in higher percentage in the leaves than in bracts. The essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The oils obtained from the bracts were found to be more active. The results obtained from GC-MS analyses were submitted to chemometric analysis.

  19. Developmental genetics of the perianthless flowers and bracts of a paleoherb species, Saururus chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-He Zhao

    Full Text Available Saururus chinensis is a core member of Saururaceae, a perianthless (lacking petals or sepals family. Due to its basal phylogenetic position and unusual floral composition, study of this plant family is important for understanding the origin and evolution of perianthless flowers and petaloid bracts among angiosperm species. To isolate genes involved in S. chinensis flower development, subtracted floral cDNA libraries were constructed by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH on transcripts isolated from developing inflorescences and seedling leaves. The subtracted cDNA libraries contained a total of 1,141 ESTs and were used to create cDNA microarrays to analyze transcript profiles of developing inflorescence tissues. Subsequently, qRT-PCR analyses of eight MADS-box transcription factors and in situ hybridizations of two B-class MADS-box transcription factors were performed to verify and extend the cDNA microarray results. Finally, putative phylogenetic relationships within the B-class MADS-box gene family were determined using the discovered S. chinensis B-class genes to compare K-domain sequences with B genes from other basal angiosperms. Two hundred seventy-seven of the 1,141 genes were found to be expressed differentially between S. chinensis inflorescence tissues and seedling leaves, 176 of which were grouped into at least one functional category, including transcription (14.75%, energy (12.59%, metabolism (9.12%, protein-related function (8.99%, and cellular transport (5.76%. qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization of selected MADS-box genes supported our microarray data. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that a total of six B-class MADS-box genes were isolated from S. chinensis. The differential regulation of S. chinensis B-class MADS-box transcription factors likely plays a role during the development of subtending bracts and perianthless flowers. This study contributes to our understanding of inflorescence development in Saururus, and

  20. Anthocyanins in the bracts of Curcuma species and relationship of the species based on anthocyanin composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshioka, Masaji; Umegaki, Naoko; Boontiang, Kriangsuk; Pornchuti, Witayaporn; Thammasiri, Kanchit; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Tateishi, Akira; Kubota, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Five anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, petunidin 3-O-rutinoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified. Three anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside, were putatively identified based on C18 HPLC retention time, absorption spectrum, including λmax, and comparisons with those of corresponding standard anthocyanins, as the compounds responsible for the pink to purple-red pigmentation of the bracts of Curcuma alismatifolia and five related species. Cluster analysis based on four major anthocyanins formed two clusters. One consisted of only one species, C. alismatifolia, and the other consisted of five. Each cluster further formed sub-clusters depending on either species or habitats.

  1. Purification, properties, and diagnosis of banana bract mosaic potyvirus and its distinction from abaca mosaic potyvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Geering, A D; Gambley, C F; Kessling, A F; White, M

    1997-07-01

    ABSTRACT Using biochemical, serological, and cytopathological evidence, we have confirmed that banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) is a distinct member of the family Potyviridae. Virions of a Philippine isolate of BBrMV were purified from field-infected banana cv. Cardaba. Particles were approximately 725-nm long, banded at a density equivalent to 1.29 to 1.31 g/ml in cesium chloride equilibrium gradients, and had an A(260/280) of 1.17. Yields of about 4 mg/kg were obtained from fresh or frozen leaf midrib or lamina tissue. Three major protein species with sizes of 31, 37, and 39 kDa were resolved from dissociated virions, and all reacted specifically with polyclonal antibodies to BBrMV. Infected leaf cells contained typical pinwheel inclusions. Virus-specific cDNA was amplified from field samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using potyvirus degenerate primers. In plate-trapped antigen-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), weak serological relationships were demonstrated between BBrMV and other members of the family Potyviridae, including abaca mosaic (AbaMV), dasheen mosaic, maize dwarf mosaic, sorghum mosaic, sugarcane mosaic, and wheat streak mosaic viruses. Despite similarities in the symptoms caused by the two viruses, AbaMV was serologically distinct from BBrMV and reacted only weakly, or not at all, with BBrMV antibodies in double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA. No cross reactions were observed when RT-PCR products from the two viruses were examined by Southern blot hybridization using BBrMV- and AbaMV-specific digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes. BBrMV was consistently associated with banana bract mosaic disease, as assessed by DAS-ELISA and Southern blot hybridization using DNA probes. The known geographical distribution of BBrMV was extended to include India (Kokkan disease) and Sri Lanka.

  2. 29 CFR 780.805 - Ginning of “cotton.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Mississippi Levee Com'rs v. Refuge Cotton Oil Co., 91 Miss. 480, 44 So. 828, 829). Mote ginning, the process... a ginning process to extract the short-fiber cotton, is not included in the ginning of cotton unless... cotton waste resulting from spinning or oil mill operations is not included, since such waste is not the...

  3. The Relative Contribution of Non-Foliar Organs of Cotton to Yield and Related Physiological Characteristics Under Water Deifcit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Ya-li; YI Xiao-ping; ZHAN Dong-xia; LUO Hong-hai; Chow Wah Soon; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2014-01-01

    Water deifcit is one of the most important causes of decreased yield in cultivated plants. Non-foliar green organs in cotton play an important role in yield formation at the late growth stage. Although better photosynthetic performance was observed in a non-foliar organ (bract) compared with leaves under water deifcit. However, the physiological response of each organ in cotton to water deifcit has not been comprehensively studied in relation to the water status and photosynthesis characteristics. We studied the maintenance of water status of each organ in cotton by measuring their relative water content, proline content and stomatal characteristics. Water deifcit signiifcantly decreased the surface area of each organ, but to a lesser extent in non-foliar organs. Our results showed that the relative contribution of biomass accumulation of non-foliar organs increased under water deifcit. Non-foliar organs (bracts and capsule wall) showed less ontogenetic decrease in O2 evolution capacity and in RuBPC activity (per dry weight) as well as better antioxidant systems than leaves at various days after anthesis. We conclude that the photosynthesis from non-foliar organs is important for increasing cotton yield especially under water deifcit conditions.

  4. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  5. Analysis of major compositions in ethanol extract from natural green cotton based on GC-MS%基于GC-MS的天然绿色棉乙醇提取物主要成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海祥; 唐志荣; 李维芳; 周文龙

    2012-01-01

    The natural green cotton was extracted with ethanol in order to study its subsidiary compositions. The extract was analyzed with GC-MS and compared with that of white cotton. The chief volatile substances of the two were found to be nearly the same, which include 2-methyl allylamine, 2-cyclohexen-1 -ol,2-methyl-5-( 1 -methylethenyl) -1 -propanoate, diaminomaleonitrile, 2-( acryloyloxy) ethyl methacrylate and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, and 2-methyl-5-( 1-methylethenyl )-l-propanoate has the highest content. Meanwhile, green cotton contains a substance called isobutyl methacrylate which does not exist in white cotton. The results showed that natural green cotton really has components that white cotton dose not contain. How the components affect the color of natural green cotton needs further study.%为研究天然绿色棉附生物的组分,用乙醇萃取绿色棉,通过气质联用(GC-MS)分析乙醇提取物,并与白色棉进行比较,发现二者可挥发性成分基本相同,主要的可挥发性成分为2-甲基烯丙基胺、丙酸香芹酯、2,3-二氨基-2-丁烯二腈、乙酰乙酸基丙烯酸乙酯、2,4二叔丁基苯酚等,其中含量最高的成分为丙酸香芹酯.同时发现天然绿色棉含有一种白色棉不具有的成分甲基丙烯酸异丁酯.结果表明,天然绿色棉的确具有白色棉不具有的成分,该成分对天然绿色棉的色泽有何影响有待进一步研究.

  6. 超声萃取-气相色谱法测定棉花秸秆中邻苯二甲酸酯%Determination of Phthalate Ester in Cotton Stalk by Ultrasonic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑛; 王春燕; 张越锋

    2011-01-01

    为了研究PAEs在棉花秸秆中的含量以及积累,将棉花秸秆分为棉桃壳(上段)、近地段(下段)和远地段(中段)3部分分别进行超声萃取处理后,经过柱分离和固相萃取小柱净化后,采用GC法对其所含环境类激素(PAEs)的含量进行分析.结果表明:6种PAEs采用GC分析法在一定范围内呈良好的线性关系,6种物质分离度高;棉花秸秆中PAEs的最高总量为158.86 mg/kg,其中DEHP、DIBP、DBP在3部分中均存在,DEHP含量在棉花秸秆中达到了125.300 mg/kg,也是6种PAEs中最高的,棉花秸秆中段是PAEs的富集区.%This paper aimed to study and analyze the distribution of PAEs in cotton stalk and biological accumulation process. Cotton stalk (not including cotton peach shell) was divided into three section (Upper, middle and lower), and smashed by the grinder. Each section's PAEs was extracted by ultrasonic method, and Ultrasonic' s extraction was detected respectively by gas chromatography method. The results indicated that each sample Contained PAEs, PAEs had transferred from environment to soil, then to plants. Six kinds of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, DAP, DEHP) using GC analysis had a good linear relationship in a certain range, and a high degree of six kinds of material separation. The different section of cotton stalk had different content PAEs. Cotton stalk of the amount of PAEs arrive 158.86 mg/kg, DEHP in cotton stalk reached 125.300 mg/kg. It was the highest in six kinds of PAEs, cotton stalk of PAEs was rich in the middle section.

  7. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: a case study on non-target effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Deng, Su; Wang, RongJiang; Yan, FengMing; Xu, ChongRen

    2008-02-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  8. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids:A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their pa-rental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids’ searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  9. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kun; DENG Su; WANG RongJiang; YAN FengMing; XU ChongRen

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioessays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines(GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes,were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes.Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches Influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively;and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  10. Ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography in fractionation of a high-molecular weight variation of acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins from purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Jerz, Gerold; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-02-15

    The natural pigment composition of purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae) consists of a highly complex mixture of betacyanins solely differing by the substitution with a variety of acyl-oligoglycoside units. This study was focused on a two-dimensional chromatography approach, a combination of preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and analytical C18-HPLC with ESI-DAD-MS/MS detection which finally enabled a more detailed view into the pigment profile and elucidated the existence of an overwhelming amount of varying betacyanin structures occurring in Bougainvillea bracts. The detected molecular weights of the pigments reached so far unknown high values and ranged up to maximum values of 1653 and 1683 Da for the largest molecules due to oligosaccharide linkage and multiple acyl substitutions. The preparative IP-HSCCC separation yielded 15 complex fractions containing betacyanins of enhanced polarity as well as structures with highly increased lipophilicity. Betacyanin structures extended by large oligosaccharide chains with bigger number of glycoside units and also carrying a reduced number of hydroxycinnamic acid substitutions were characteristic for polar pigments occurring mainly in the early eluting CCC fractions. IP-HSCCC was proven to be extremely effective for fractionating this complex crude betalain pigment extract into more defined 'polarity-windows'. Structural analysis by analytical LC-ESI-MS/MS in the positive ionization mode detected a total sum of 146 different betacyanin pigments in the CCC fractions of reduced complexity.

  11. In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, bioagents and aqueous leaf extracts against Alternaria leaf blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available All the six fungicides viz.,Mancozeb (75% WP; Carbendazim (50WP, Copper oxychloride (50WP, Captan (50 WP, Thiram (75 % WP, Chlorothalonil (75 WP evaluated in vitro (@500, 1000 and 1500 ppm were found effective against A. macrospora and caused significant inhibition of test pathogen over untreated control. However, Thiram was found most effective and recorded significantly highest mean mycelial inhibition (90.42%. This was followed by the fungicides, Captan (82.04%, Mancozeb (79.88%, Carbendazim(77.5%, Chlorothalonil (74.52% and copper oxychloride (71.75%. All the five fungal and one bacterial bioagents/ antagonists evaluated in vitro against A. macrospora were found antifungal/ antagonistic against the test pathogen. However, T. viride was found most effective and recorded least linear mycelial growth (32.72 mm with corresponding significantly highest mycelial inhibition (63.64% of the test pathogen. The second and third best bioagents found were T. koningii and P. fluorescens, which recorded linear mycelial growth, respectively of 33.90 mm and 33.95 mm with corresponding mycelial inhibition, respectively of 62.33 and 62.27 per cent. All the six botanicals/plant extracts evaluated in vitro (@5, 10 and 15 % each were found fungistatic/ fungicidal against. A.macrospora. However, significantly least mean radial mycelial growth (56.18mm and significantly highest mean mycelial inhibition (37.47% was recorded with Garlic. The second and third best botanicals found were onion and Tulsi which recorded second and third least mean radial mycelial growth, respectively of 58.52 mm and 62.51 mm with corresponding mean mycelial inhibition of 34.97 and 32.86 per cent, respectively.

  12. Application of Deep Eutectic Solvent Modified Cotton as a Sorbent for Online Solid-Phase Extraction and Determination of Trace Amounts of Copper and Nickel in Water and Biological Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehdi; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji

    2017-03-01

    Deep eutectic solvent (DES) was used as the extractant to improve the extraction properties of cotton. DES of choline chloride-urea (ChCl-urea) was prepared and immobilized on the surface of cotton fibers. The resulting sorbent was packed on a microcolumn, and a flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry was designed for the online separation and determination of trace amounts of copper and nickel. Various parameters affecting the extraction recovery of analytes such as pH, sample volume, sample loading rate, nature, volume, concentration, and flow rate of eluent were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the method showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.25-50.0 and 4.0-125.0 μg L(-1) with the coefficient of determination (r (2)) of 0.9991 and 0.9990 for copper and nickel, respectively. The method was very sensitive with the detection limits (defined as 3Sb/m) of 0.05 and 0.60 μg L(-1) for Cu and Ni, respectively. It was successfully applied for the determination of Cu and Ni in water and biological samples. The accuracy of the method was evaluated through the recovery experiments and independent analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

  13. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  14. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  15. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  16. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  17. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  18. Multiresidue analysis of cotton defoliant, herbicide, and insecticide residues in water by solid-phase extraction and GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T L; Marti, L; Belflower, S; Truman, C C

    2000-09-01

    A multiresidue procedure was developed for analysis of cotton pesticide and harvest-aid chemicals in water using solid-phase extraction and analysis by GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-DAD. Target compounds included the defoliants tribufos, dimethipin, thidiazuron; the herbicide diuron; and the insecticide methyl parathion. Three solid-phase extraction (SPE) media, octadecylsilyl (ODS), graphitized carbon black (GCB), and a divinylbenzene-N-vinyl pyrollidine copolymer (DVBVP), were evaluated. On GCB and ODS, recoveries varied depending on compound type. Recoveries were quantitative for all compounds on DVBVP, ranging from 87 to 115% in spiked deionized water and surface runoff. The method detection limit was less than 0.1 microg L(-)(1). SPE with DVBVP was applied to post-defoliation samples of surface runoff and tile drainage from a cotton research plot and surface runoff from a commercial field. The research plot was defoliated with a tank mixture of dimethipin and thidiazuron, and the commercial field, with tribufos. Dimethipin was detected (1.9-9.6 microg L(-)(1)) in all research plot samples. In the commercial field samples, tribufos concentration ranged from 0.1 to 135 microg L(-)(1). An exponentially decreasing concentration trend was observed with each successive storm event.

  19. A comparative study on cellulose nanocrystals extracted from bleached cotton and flax and used for casting films with glycerol and sorbitol plasticisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszár, Emilia; Nagy, Sebestyén

    2017-10-15

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were released from bleached cotton and flax by a sulphuric acid hydrolysis with about 40 and 34% yield, respectively. The rod-like cotton-CNC particles were slightly longer and wider and had a less pronounced aggregation ability in aqueous suspension than the flax-CNC ones. Films were cast from the CNC suspensions with sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers. The concept behind this research was to explore how the plasticisers - with similar structure but different molecular weight - and their concentrations affect the perceptible and measured properties of CNC films. Results revealed that the type of plasticiser determined the morphology and the optical and tensile properties of films. The best quality CNC film with an averaged thickness of 50μm was obtained with 20% sorbitol from cotton-CNC. It was proved that behaviour of sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers in CNC films was very similar to that reported previously for starch films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 汽爆棉秆水提物分析及发酵生产乙醇的研究%Analysis of Aqueous Extracts from Steam-exploded Cotton Stalk and Fermentation of Reducing Sugar to Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴; 李艳宾; 何智慧

    2011-01-01

    Cotton stalk was pretreated with steam-explosion, then water extraction method was used to deal with the residues, the aqueous extracts were analyzed, and the reducing sugar of the aqueous extracts was used to produce ethanol. The results showed that when the steam-explosion condition was designed as 2.0 MPa 4 min, the highest cellulose separation degree of cotton stalk was gained,which was of advantage to following utilization of the cellulose. Considering the following utilization and economical purpose of the aqueous extracts and cellulose, the optimized conditions of water extraction and steam-explosion were confirmed: water extraction temperature was 75 ℃, steam-explosion condition was 2.0 MPa 4 min, water extraction concentration was 150 g/L. From the extracts of water extracting solution of cotton stalk, 9 aromatic compounds, 8 fatty acid compounds and 1 furan compound were identified, which made the water extracting solution toxic and present thick colour.After detoxification by Ca(OH)2 and decoloration by macroporous resin, the water extracting solution was used in ethanol fermentation by yeasts, the mixed fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pachysolen tannophilus acquired the highest mass concentration of ethanol expected to achieve (8.59 ±0. 30) g/L.%棉秆蒸汽爆破预处理后水抽提,分析水提产物,将水提糖液用于乙醇发酵生产.结果表明,汽爆条件为2.0 MPa 4 min,棉秆中纤维素分离程度最大,有利于纤维素的后续利用.从水解产物、纤维素后续利用及经济效益方面考虑,最优水提和汽爆工艺条件为75℃水提、2.0 MPa汽爆4 min,水提质量浓度150 g/L.在汽爆棉秆水提液的萃取物中,共鉴别出9种芳香类化合物、8种脂肪酸化合物和1种呋喃化合物,这些化合物使水提液具有一定毒性并呈现较深的颜色.水提液经Ca(OH)2脱毒和大孔吸附树脂脱色用于酵母菌乙醇发酵,以酿酒酵母和管囊酵母混合发酵获得

  1. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov. and Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeasts from flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Anne C; Morais, Camila G; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Luiz H; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-02-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated from nectar of flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae) collected in a Cerrado ecosystem in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov., which is closely related to Candida jalapaonensis, is heterothallic and produces one spheroid ascospore per ascus. Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov. belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and its nearest relative is Candida ubatubensis, but the sequence identity (%) in the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene is low. The type strain of W. pagnoccae is UFMG-F18C1(T) ( = CBS 12178(T) = NRRL Y-48735(T)) and the type strain of C. tocantinsensis is UFMG-F16D1(T) ( = CBS 12177(T) = NRRL Y-48734(T)).

  2. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  3. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  4. A Method of Extracting Total Microbial DNA from Cotton Soil for Microbial Diversity Analysis%用于微生物多样性分析的棉田土壤总DNA的提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静文; 罗明; 徐文修; 肖正群

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨适用于微生物多样性研究的棉田土壤微生物总DNA提取方法.方法:采用4种方法提取不同连作和轮作处理的棉田土壤微生物总DNA,比较其纯度、产率、片段大小,并应用ARDRA技术验证其质量.结果:其中3种方法均可获得23kb的DNA片段,但不同方法提取的DNA的产率和纯度上有明显差异.改良CTAB-SDS法提取的DNA完整性好,得率为24.20μg·g~(-1)干土,纯化后A_(260)/A_(280)和A_(260)/A_(230)为分别为1.80和1.70,纯化回收率可达70.1%,完全适用于后续的PCR分析.结论:采用该法提取棉田土壤总DNA简便而高效.对该法提取获得的棉田土壤微生物总DNA进行ARDRA和DGGE分析,所得图谱能较全面地反映不同处理间微生物多样性及群落结构的差别,为不同栽培体系下棉田土壤微生物的分子生态学研究提供了基础.%Objective:The research aimed to develop a method of extracting total microbial DNA from cotton soil for microbial diversity analysis.Method: Four methods were used to extract total microbial DNA from the cotton soi of different continuou cropping and rotation treatments.The extracted DNA were evaluated comprehencively in DNA purity,yield,fragment size,and the impact on the subsequence by ARDRA and DGGE analysis of the bacterial community.Result: The DNA extracted by three methods from the eight samples were all greater than 23kb in size,but the yields and quality were different significantly.Modified CTAB-SDA method was confirmed that the yield of the extracted DNA was 24.20μg·g~(-1) dry soil.After purified,the A_(260)/A_(280) and A_(260)/A_(230) could be get 1.80,1.70 respectively ,while percent recovery of purification was 70.1%,and the extracted DNA were successfully used for the further molecular analysis.Conclusion: It was suggested that the extracted DNA could reflect the biodiversity and composition of microbial community in the soils,while the genomic fingerprinting of the DNA displayed

  5. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  6. Cotton Demand Dropping in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  7. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  8. Survivorship of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens on cotton plant structures expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommireddy, P L; Leonard, B R

    2008-08-01

    A series of tests quantified bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), larval survival on plant structures of a nontransgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), 'Coker 312', and two transgenic cottons expressing Vip3A protein or both Vip3A + CrylAb proteins (VipCot). Vegetative and reproductive structures including terminal leaves, flower bud (square) bracts, whole debracted squares, flower petals, flower anthers, and intact capsules (bolls) were harvested from plants in field plots. Each structure was infested with 2-d-old larvae from one of the two heliothine species. Larvae were allowed to feed for 96 h on fresh tissue. Survivorship at 96 h after infestation was significantly lower on all structures of Vip3A and VipCot cotton lines compared with similar structures of Coker 312. VipCot plant structures generally resulted in lower larval survivorship compared with similar structures of the Vip3A cotton line. H. zea survivorship ranged from 4 to 28% and from 1 to 18% on Vip3A and VipCot plant structures, respectively. H. virescens survivorship ranged from 10 to 43% and from 2 to 12% on Vip3A and VipCot plant structures, respectively. H. virescens survivorship was higher on VIP3A plant structures compared with that for H. zea on similar structures. These differences between species were not observed on plants from the cotton line expressing VipCot proteins. The results for these plant structures demonstrate that the combination of proteins expressed in VipCot cotton lines are more effective than Vip3A cotton lines against this heliothine complex.

  9. Impact of Bt-cotton on soil microbiological and biochemical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaullah Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic Bt-cotton produces Bt-toxins (Cry proteins which may accumulate and persist in soil due to their binding ability on soil components. In the present study, the potential impacts of Bt- and non-Bt genotypes of cotton on soil microbial activity, substrate use efficiency, viable microbial population counts, and nutrient dynamics were studied. Two transgenic Bt-cotton genotypes (CIM-602 CIM-599 expressing cry1 Ac gene and two non-Bt cotton genotypes (CIM-573 and CIM-591 were used to evaluate their impact on biological and chemical properties of soil across the four locations in Punjab. Field trials were conducted at four locations (Central Cotton Research Institute-Multan, Naseer Pur, Kot Lal Shah, and Cotton Research Station-Bahawalpur of different agro-ecological zones of Punjab. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected by following standard procedure from these selected locations. Results reveled that Bt-cotton had no adverse effect on microbial population (viable counts and enzymatic activity of rhizosphere soil. Bacterial population was more in Bt-cotton rhizosphere than that of non-Bt cotton rhizosphere at all locations. Phosphatase, dehydrogenase, and oxidative metabolism of rhizosphere soil were more in Bt-cotton genotypes compared with non-Bt cotton genotypes. Cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, extractable phosphorous, extractable potassium, active carbon, Fe and Zn contents were higher in rhizosphere of Bt-cotton genotypes compared with non-Bt cotton genotypes. It can be concluded from present study that the cultivation of Bt-cotton expressing cry1 Ac had apparently no negative effect on metabolic, microbiological activities, and nutrient dynamics of soils. Further work is needed to investigate the potential impacts of Bt-cotton on ecology of soil-dwelling insects and invertebrates before its recommendation for extensive cultivation.

  10. Cotton School Tells Us More--The Fourth COTTON USA Cotton School Convened in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the year of 2006, Cotton Council International has already convened the Cotton School for three times in China. This year, in 2012, CCI held the Cotton School in the city of Qingdao for the fourth time, generously shared with international buyers, especially the Chinese domestic purchases, the knowledge of qualified U.S. cotton.

  11. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  12. CottonDB Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; KOHEL Russell; HINZE Lori; FRELICHOWSKI James; XU Zhan-you; YU John Z; PERCY Richard

    2008-01-01

    @@ CottonDB (www.cottondb,org) was initiated in 1995.It is a database that contains genomic,genetic,and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.).It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database,which incorporates new data and user resources.CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station,TX.The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 450,000 gene,EST,and conting sequences; genetic and physical map data; nearly 10,000 DNA primers; and 9,000 germplasm accessions.

  13. STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF VARIOUS COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON CELLULOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and crystalline structure, as well as chemical composition of fibers related to various types and sorts of Israeli cottons, both white and naturally colored, were investigated. The differences in structural parameters and chemical compositions of the cotton fibers were evaluated. Samples of cotton of the “Pima”-type had long, thin and strong fibers with highly ordered supermolecular structure. Fibers of middle-long and hybrid cottons had some lower-ordered structural organization in comparison to long-length cotton, while fibers of naturally colored cotton were characterized with disordered supermolecular and crystalline structure. Dependence of tensile strength on orientation of nano-fibrils towards the fiber axis was found. Conditions of cellulose isolation from the different cotton fibers were studied. Structural characteristics of isolated cotton celluloses and obtained MCC are discussed.

  14. Cornus × elwinortonii and Cornus × rutgersensis (Cornaceae, new names for two artificially produced hybrids of big-bracted dogwoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mattera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Big-bracted dogwoods (Cornus sp. are well-known plants in North America and eastern Asia where they occur as wild, generally spring-flowering understory trees. They are also popular ornamental landscape plants, and many economically important cultivars are propagated and sold across North America, Europe, and Asia. Starting in the late 1960s, Elwin Orton of Rutgers University in New Jersey (USA utilized three geographically disjunct species of dogwoods, C. florida (eastern North America, C. nuttallii (western North America, and C. kousa (East Asia, in an extensive interspecific hybridization program. He was successful in developing the first-ever interspecific F1 hybrids of these species, several of which have become staple items in the ornamental nursery trade due to their enhanced ornamental qualities and resistance to diseases. The original F1 plants are still alive at Rutgers University. While they have been available for decades in horticultural commerce, the interspecific hybrid crosses were never formally described and their scientific hybrid names were never published. For the C. kousa × C. florida hybrids, the name Cornus ‘rutgersensis’ has been used on occasion in the horticultural trade, but without proper citation and description. Here, it is formally named Cornus × rutgersensis Mattera, T. Molnar, & Struwe, hybr. nov. For the C. kousa × C. nuttallii hybrids, no previous name has been used, and it is hereby named Cornus × elwinortonii Mattera, T. Molnar, & Struwe, hybr. nov. The need for providing scientific names for commonly used horticultural hybrids is discussed. Holotype material for both hybrid names was collected from the original F1 hybrids for full documentation, typification, and description. The comparative intermediate development of leaves, inflorescence structures, and fruit types of the hybrids and their parents is discussed and illustrated. Etymology, phenology, and cultivation aspects of these hybrids and

  15. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  16. Cotton, biotechnology, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, cotton prices remained considerably below other agricultural prices (although they recovered toward the end of 2010). Yet, between 2000-04 and 2005-09 world cotton production increased 13 percent. This paper conjectures that biotechnology-induced productivity improvements increased supplies by China and India, which, in addition to keeping cotton prices low, aided t...

  17. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  18. Cotton Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment--A Landmark Benchmark for Cotton Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Cotton Incorporated announced the completion of a comprehensive life cycle inventory and life cycJe analysis of cotton products. The endeavor is part of the Cotton Foundation VlSIQN 21 Project and included the participation of the National Cotton Council, Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated. The two-year study, managed by PE International,

  19. New Cotton Trade Terms Flashed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On May 8th, 2006, China Cotton Import Regulations-Cotton Purchase Contract and General Terms (Applicable to Non-Chinese Cotton Trade), short for China Cotton Association Terms (CCAT) was issued and put into practice, which was welcomed by both China and the countries who trade cotton with China.

  20. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  1. Response of GST in the Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)to the Flavones Extracts and Terpenes Extracted from Artemisia rupestris%棉铃虫中肠谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)对新疆一枝蒿黄酮提取物和萜类提取物的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海; 朱燕; 刘宁; 晁群芳; 刘小宁

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究新疆一枝蒿提取物黄酮及萜类提取物对棉铃虫解毒酶谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)的影响,探明外源有毒物质对该解毒酶表达规律的影响,阐明棉铃虫与植物次生物质相互作用的机制,为发展新型无公害植物源农药提供理论依据.[方法]从新疆一枝蒿中分离提纯黄酮与萜类提取物,以室内饲养棉铃虫(3龄幼虫)为对象,利用生物测定、实时荧光定量PCR及酶联免疫吸附测定法,分别测定新疆一枝蒿中黄酮与萜类提取物对棉铃虫的毒杀效果及其在mRNA水平和蛋白水平上对GST表达的影响.[结果]黄酮和萜类提取物对棉铃虫3龄幼虫在24 h时的半致死浓度LC50分别是21.4和4.1 mg/100 g,在48 h时的半致死浓度LC50分别是19.3和3.1 mg/100 g;实时荧光定量PCR结果表明GST在mRNA水平的表达量受到诱导,时间效应为当黄酮和萜类提取物浓度分别为20和2 mg/100 g时,GST在12 h时能够被两种物质显著诱导表达,而在24 h时表达受到抑制;浓度效应为在18h时,黄酮和萜类提取物浓度分别为20和2 mg/100 g时显著诱导GST的表达,而在40和4 mg/100 g时抑制GST的表达;酶联免疫吸附测定结果表明,萜类和黄酮在时间和浓度效应上都能显著诱导GST蛋白表达,并且蛋白水平在时间与浓度效应中的表达趋势与mRNA水平相类似.[结论]GST对外源物质新疆一枝蒿的黄酮提取物和萜类提取物存在积极响应,低浓度或短时间内黄酮和萜类均能诱导GST的过表达,从而化解外源毒性,而浓度过高或时间过长则抑制其表达.%[Objective] In order to elucidate the roles of detoxification enzyme glutathion S - transferase ( GST) between cotton bollworm and biochemicals, we investigated the expression patterns of GST in the mid-gut from the cotton bollworm induced by flavones and terpenes extract from Artemisia rupestris, which will provide a clue to develop a new pollution - free botanical

  2. Cotton Incorporated Documents Industry Gains at ICAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Those who attack the cotton industry for its perceived impact on the environment will need to have their facts straight, thanks to a major research project undertaken by Cotton Incorporated: a life-cycle assessment (LCA) for cotton.

  3. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  4. Residue Determination and Degradation of Sulfoxaflor in Cotton and Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method with high performance liquid chromatography(HPLCwas established for determining sulfoxaflor residue in soil, cotton seeds and cotton leaves. The field residue decline study and final residue trials of sulfoxaflor in cotton in Tianjin City and Hangzhou City, were designed. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, partitioned by n-hexane, purified using Florisil column, and de-termined by HPLC equipped with a variable wavelength detector(VWD. The results showed that when the spiked levels were 0.05 mg·kg-1 to 2.5 mg·kg-1, the average recovery of sulfoxaflor ranged from 76.81%to 94.43%with relative standard deviation (RSDof 0.54%to 7.20%;the limit of detection(LODof sulfoxaflor was 1 ng, and the limit of quantification(LOQwas 0.05 mg·kg-1 in soil, cotton seeds and cotton leaves. The degradation of sulfoxaflor in soil and cotton leaves could be described with an equation:Ct=C0e-kt. The half-life of sulfoxaflor were 1.36~5.10 d and 6.13~9.37 d in soil and cotton leaves, respectively. The wheat was sprayed with 50%water dispersible granule(WDGat dosage 0.6~0.9 g·30 m-2(2~3 timesat full-bloom stage, the interval period was 7 d, the final residues of sulfoxaflor were lower than LOQ in soil and cotton seeds.

  5. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  6. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertas, Murat [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Acemioglu, Bilal, E-mail: acemioglu@kilis.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000 Kilis (Turkey); Alma, M. Hakki [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Usta, Mustafa [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, cotton stalk (CS), cotton waste (CW) and cotton dust (CD) was used as sorbents to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by batch sorption technique. Effects of initial dye concentration, solution pH, solution temperature and sorbent dose on sorption were studied. It was seen that the removal of methylene blue increased with increasing initial dye concentration (from 25 to 100 mg/l), solution pH (from 5 to 10), solution temperature (from 20 to 50 deg. C) and sorbent dose (from 0.25 to 1.50 g/50 ml). The maximum dye removal was reached at 90 min. Sorption isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models at different temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and 50 deg. C, and the results were discussed in detail. Moreover, the thermodynamics of sorption were also studied. It was found that the values of standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) were positive for cotton stalk and negative for cotton waste and cotton dust. The values of standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were found to be positive, and the obtained results were interpreted in detail. The results of this study showed that cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust could be employed as effective and low-cost materials for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

  7. 叶子花重瓣品种 DOD 基因序列比对分析%Comparison of DOD gene sequence in multi-bracted cultivars of Bougainvillea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏进展; 王想兰; 冯世秀; 王晓明; 胡章立; 陈涛

    2014-01-01

    叶子花品种的苞片色彩丰富艳丽,是研究颜色表达调控的优良材料。对调控甜菜色素合成酶的 DOD 基因进行比对分析,以探讨叶子花的 DOD 基因与其苞片颜色表达的关联。通过对5个具有不同苞片颜色的重瓣叶子花栽培品种 DOD 基因转录组测序,应用软件 ClustalX 2.0进行 DOD cDNA 序列比对分析,结果显示其序列同源性达100%,其调控色素合成的功能基因序列并没有差异。叶子花重瓣栽培品种的不同苞片颜色的表达与 DOD 基因对色素合成的调控可能无直接关联。%The cultivars of Bougainvillea are very rich in bract colors and good materials for studying colour expression.The paper studied the relationship between DOD gene and colour expression in the bracts of Bouga-invillea cultivars by analyzing DOD cDNA sequence that regulate the synthetase of betalain,The DOD cDNA of five Bougainvillea multi-bracted cultivars was cloned and sequenced respectively.The comparison of sequence indicated that there was no difference in DOD cDNA among the 5 cultivars with different bract colours.There-fore,it was preliminarily concluded that colour expression in the bracts of Bougainvillea cultivars is not directly correlated with the DOD gene regulating the pigment biosynthesis.

  8. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  9. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  10. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  11. Cotton Textile: Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang,China's largest cotton growing area,was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation.But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment,upgrading and innovation"is to be shared,discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting.Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities,but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside.China and India are the most important players in this sector,for both are the most populous countries in the world...

  12. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  13. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya, Hainan Province, China. Mr. Wallace L. Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International (CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the "cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  14. Charm of Cotton Art COTTON USA: Naturally Color Your Life: Cotton & Patchwork Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The grand opening of Cotton Council International's (CCI) finale event Naturally Color YourLife: Cotton & Patchwork by CO-FFON USA took place in Beijing's 798 Art Bridge Gallery on May 25th, 2012. The exhibition was a perfect marriage of the constant pursuit of traditional patchwork art with the fantastic imagination of modern design.

  15. Isolation and characterization of gene sequences expressed in cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana de Carvalho Coutinho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cotton fiber are tubular cells which develop from the differentiation of ovule epidermis. In addition to being one of the most important natural fiber of the textile group, cotton fiber afford an excellent experimental system for studying the cell wall. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the genes expressed in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. to be used in future work in cotton breeding. Fiber of the cotton cultivar CNPA ITA 90 II were used to extract RNA for the subsequent generation of a cDNA library. Seventeen sequences were obtained, of which 14 were already described in the NCBI database (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, such as those encoding the lipid transfer proteins (LTPs and arabinogalactans (AGP. However, other cDNAs such as the B05 clone, which displays homology with the glycosyltransferases, have still not been described for this crop. Nevertheless, results showed that several clones obtained in this study are associated with cell wall proteins, wall-modifying enzymes and lipid transfer proteins directly involved in fiber development.

  16. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  17. Sampling nucleotide diversity in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu John Z

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated cotton is an annual fiber crop derived mainly from two perennial species, Gossypium hirsutum L. or upland cotton, and G. barbadense L., extra long-staple fiber Pima or Egyptian cotton. These two cultivated species are among five allotetraploid species presumably derived monophyletically between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Genomic-based approaches have been hindered by the limited variation within species. Yet, population-based methods are being used for genome-wide introgression of novel alleles from G. mustelinum and G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using combinations of backcrossing, selfing, and inter-mating. Recombinant inbred line populations between genetics standards TM-1, (G. hirsutum × 3-79 (G. barbadense have been developed to allow high-density genetic mapping of traits. Results This paper describes a strategy to efficiently characterize genomic variation (SNPs and indels within and among cotton species. Over 1000 SNPs from 270 loci and 279 indels from 92 loci segregating in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense were genotyped across a standard panel of 24 lines, 16 of which are elite cotton breeding lines and 8 mapping parents of populations from six cotton species. Over 200 loci were genetically mapped in a core mapping population derived from TM-1 and 3-79 and in G. hirsutum breeding germplasm. Conclusion In this research, SNP and indel diversity is characterized for 270 single-copy polymorphic loci in cotton. A strategy for SNP discovery is defined to pre-screen loci for copy number and polymorphism. Our data indicate that the A and D genomes in both diploid and tetraploid cotton remain distinct from each such that paralogs can be distinguished. This research provides mapped DNA markers for intra-specific crosses and introgression of exotic germplasm in cotton.

  18. Natural Dyeing and UV Protection of Raw and Bleached/Mercerised Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuk Nina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing with natural dyes extracted from curcuma, green tea, avocado seed, pomegranate peel and horse chestnut bark was studied to evaluate the dyeability and ultraviolet (UV blocking properties of raw and bleached/mercerised cotton fabrics. 20 g/l of powdered plant material was extracted in distilled water and used as a dyeing bath. No mordants were used to obtain ecologically friendly finishing. The colour of samples was measured on a refl ectance spectrophotometer, while UV-blocking properties were analysed with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that dyeing increased UV protection factor (UPF to all samples, however much higher UPF values were measured for the dyed raw cotton samples. The highest UPF values were obtained on both cotton fabrics dyed with pomegranate peel and green tea extracts, giving them excellent protective properties (UPF 50+. The lowest UPF values were obtained by dyeing cotton with avocado seed extract and curcumin. Dyeing with selected dyes is not stable to washing, so the UV-blocking properties worsen after repetitive washing. However, raw cotton samples retain their very good Uvblocking properties, while bleached/mercerised cotton fabrics do not provide even satisfactory UV-blocking properties. No correlation between CIE L*a*b*, K/S and UPF values were found.

  19. Determination of the Extractable Speciation and Total Amount of Zinc and Manganese in Cotton Textiles by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry%火焰原子吸收光谱法测定纯棉纺织品中锌和锰的可提取态与总量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖文川; 李冰宁; 汪雨; 武彦文; 陈舜琮

    2013-01-01

    Zinc and manganese in cotton textiles were extracted into the acidic sweat,and the extractable speciation was then determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry(FAAS). Meanwhile,a method was used to determine the total amount of zinc and manganese in cotton textiles by FAAS assisted by microwave digestion. The detection limits for zinc and manganese were 2. 0 and 3. 0 μg·L-1,respectively. The relative standard deviations for the extractable speciation and total amount determination were in the range of 1. 8%-6. 6 %, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 91. 2% -104. 8%. Five kinds of cotton textiles purchased from the Beijing market were determined. The extractable speciation amount of zinc and manganese were in the range of 0. 31 -3. 26 μg·g-1 and 0. 19 - 1. 39 μg·g-1 ,and the total amount were in the range of 3. 43-13. 31 μg·g-1 and 0. 56 - 3. 17 μg·g -1,respectively.%采用酸性汗液提取纯棉纺织品中锌和锰,火焰原子吸收光谱法(FAAS)测定可提取态含量;同时建立了微波辅助消解溶样,FAAS测定纯棉纺织品中锌和锰总量的方法.锌和锰的检出限分别为2.0和3.0 μg·L-1,可提取态和总量测定结果的相对标准偏差在1.8%~6.6%之间,加标回收率在91.2%~104.8%范围.对5种北京市市售纯棉纺织品测定,锌的可提取态含量在0.31~3.26 μg·g-1之间,总量为3.43~37.93μg·g-1;锰的可提取态含量在0.19~1.39 μg·g-1之间,总量为0.56~3.17 μg·g-1.

  20. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  1. Cotton bollworm resistance to Bt transgenic cotton: A case analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is one of the most serious insect pests of cotton. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry toxins derived from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has been produced to target this pest. Bt cotton has been widely planted around the world, and this has resulted in efficient control of bollworm populations with reduced use of synthetic insecticides. However, evolution of resistance by this pest threatens the continued success of Bt cotton. To date, no field populations of bollworm have evolved significant levels of resistance; however, several laboratory-selected Cry-resistant strains of H. armigera have been obtained, which suggests that bollworm has the capacity to evolve resistance to Bt. The development of resistance to Bt is of great concern, and there is a vast body of research in this area aimed at ensuring the continued success of Bt cotton. Here, we review studies on the evolution of Bt resistance in H. armigera, focusing on the biochemical and molecular basis of Bt resistance. We also discuss resistance management strategies, and monitoring programs implemented in China, Australia, and India.

  2. Scanning Electron Microscopy Coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometric Analysis Reveals for the First Time Weddellite and Sylvite Crystals on the Surface of Involucral Bracts and Petals of two Xeranthemum L. (Compositae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, Milan; Erić, Suzana; Marin, Petar D; Garcia-Jacas, Núria; Susanna, Alfonso; Janaćković, Pedja

    2017-06-01

    In this work, weddellite and sylvite crystals are identified for the first time on the involucral bracts and petals of Xeranthemum annuum and Xeranthemum cylindraceum using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometric (SEM-EDS) analysis. Well-developed crystals of weddellite (CaC2O4·2H2O) occur in the form of a tetragonal bipyramid (hhl), rarely in combination of a bipyramid and tetragonal prism (h00). Indumentum of involucral bracts of X. cylindraceum consists of nonglandular and glandular trichomes. Sylvite (KCl) crystals are observed only on the petal surface of X. cylindraceum. The crystals of sylvite occur in the form of perfect cubes (hexahedrons), but some crystals are deformed, i.e., partially elongated. Taxonomic significance of investigated microcharacters as well as the use of SEM-EDS analysis in taxonomic studies of plants are discussed.

  3. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera. The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012. Four packages of IPM evaluated were cotton varieties, i.e. Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13, and seed treatment with synthetic insecticide (imidacloprid before sowing or spraying molasses (10 ml L-1 water as food for natural enemies. The cotton plants were intercropped with groundnut and sprayed with neem seed extract (NSE at the action threshold level for pest control. These packages were compared among themselves and also with the methods usually used by farmers, i.e. planting cotton variety Kanesia 8 intercropped with groundnut and pest control using synthetic chemical insecticides. Twenty five plants were sampled randomly per plot and measured for their growth, leafhopper and  bollworm populations, as well as cotton seed yield per plot. Observations were made weekly, starting at 30 days after planting (DAP until 120 DAP. The results showed that the use of Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13 intercropped with groundnut and spraying molasses to conserve natural enemies was the best  pest management practice and superior to farmers’ practices. Conserving natural enemies is not only profitable (saving production cost of IDR1,150,000 to IDR1,500,000 ha-1 season-1, but also safe for the environment (no need to spray chemical insecticides.

  4. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton.

  5. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  6. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  7. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Service 7 CFR Part 1205 RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following...

  8. Detection of Cardamom mosaic virus and Banana bract mosaic virus in cardamom using SYBR Green based reverse transcription-quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljo, A; Bhat, A I; Biju, C N

    2014-01-01

    Cardamom being perennial, propagated vegetatively, detecting viruses in planting material is important to check the spread of viruses through infected material. Thus development of effective and sensitive assay for detection of viruses is need of the time. In this view, assay for the detection of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV), infecting cardamom was developed using SYBR Green one step reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The RT-qPCR assay amplified all isolates of CdMV and BBrMV tested but no amplification was obtained with RNA of healthy plants. Recombinant plasmids carrying target virus regions corresponding to both viruses were quantified, serially diluted and used as standards in qPCR to develop standard curve to enable quantification. When tenfold serial dilutions of the total RNAs from infected plants were tested through RT-qPCR, the detection limit of the assay was estimated to be 16 copies for CdMV and 10 copies for BBrMV, which was approximately 1,000-fold higher than the conventional RT-PCR. The RT-qPCR assay was validated by testing field samples collected from different cardamom growing regions of India. This is the first report of RT-qPCR assay for the detection of CdMV and BBrMV in cardamom.

  9. Uncertainties Mounting, Cotton Price Becomes Volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Junfei

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the domestic market, the unre-mitting foul weather has delayed cotton picking by two weeks with downgraded quality; in the inter-national market, factors such as sus-pension of cotton export in India and disaster-affecting cotton yield in Paki-stan have led to such a market anticipa-tion that cotton stock across the world is to show another decline trend in the upcoming year. The unanimous market anticipation has resulted in a surge in cotton price during the Mid-autumn Festival: the transaction price for un-loading cotton inventories has increased by nearly RMB 3,000/ton, the price for purchasing new cotton has gone beyond RMB 25,000/ton and the cost for the imported cotton with owned quota (effect shipment after the next Spring Festival)has exceeded RMB 21,000/ton.

  10. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi, Xinjiang Municipality, China. With the theme "China's Cotton Industry on WTO and It's Implications The Global Market".

  11. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decomposition, end of decomposition, and activation energy of synthesized cotton were higher than original cotton. The activation energy of jute cotton fibers was higher than the original cotton fibers.

  12. Differential Display of Cotton cDNAs Expressed by Salicylic Acid Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骥; 赵广荣; 刘进元

    2003-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is very important in systemic acquired resistance and hypersensitive response in plant defense, and yet its role is not fully understood.This study seeks to clarify the mechanism of SA induced resistance in cotton.Total RNA was extracted from low-gossypol cultivated cotton seedlings treated with exogenous SA and subjected to fluorescent differential display-PCR (FDD-PCR).Seven cDNA fragments were selected from the total ten differential bands.Comparison with Genbank database shows that all seven cDNA sequences are newly discovered in cotton.However, they share high amino acid identity to some registered cDNAs.Among them, three of the cDNAs could be predicted to encode basic chitinase, penicillin-binding 6 b precursor and ATP-dependent DNA helicase RecG, while the functions of the other four cDNAs are undetermined.Dot blot analysis demonstrates that the expression of five cDNAs in cotton seedlings is induced by SA, while SA induction has a negative effect on the transcript accumulation of the other two cDNAs (E13 and E14).Since SA was previously shown to enhance the resistance to cotton wilt disease, the finding of a basic chitinase gene in cotton expressed by SA induction will provide a new insight into induced disease resistance in cotton.

  13. Dissipation of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) residues in pakchoi, cotton crops and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaping; Jiang, Yuting; He, Shun; Zhang, Heli; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    QuEChERS procedure and acetonitrile extraction, oscillation and ultrasonic procedure followed by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS (QqQ) detections were established for determination of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) residues in pakchoi, cotton leaf, cotton seed and soil. At concentration levels of 0.005-1 mg kg(-1), recoveries were in the range of 80.5%-103.3%, with a RSD less than 14.2%. The LOQs of methods were 0.005, 0.003, 0.005 and 0.001 mg kg(-1) for the pakchoi, cotton leaf, soil and cotton seed samples, respectively. DA-6 was applied in supervised field trials at GAP conditions to pakchoi and cotton. It was found that the dissipation half-lives of DA-6 were 5.4-8.2 days and 1.1-2.2 days and 1.5-1.9 days in cotton crop, pakchoi and soil respectively. At harvest, no detectable residues (cotton samples. However, residues was detected in pakchoi (0.007-0.013 mg/kg) in Beijing and soil (0.008-0.014 mg/kg) in Changsha in 2008.

  14. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya,Hainan Province,China.Mr.Wallace L.Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International(CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the"cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  15. Evaluation of learning vector quantization to classify cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Michael A.; Patil, Rajendra B.

    1997-03-01

    The cotton industry needs a method to identify the type of trash [nonlint material (NLM)] in cotton samples; learning vector quantization (LVQ) is evaluated as that method. LVQ is a classification technique that defines reference vectors (group prototypes) in an N-dimensional feature space (RN). Normalized trash object features extracted from images of compressed cotton samples define RN. An unknown NLM object is given the label of the closest reference vector (as defined by Euclidean distance). Different normalized features spaces and NLM classifications are evaluated and accuracies reported for correctly identifying the NLM type. LVQ is used to partition cotton trash into: (1) bark (B), leaf (L), pepper (P), or stick (S); (2) bark and nonbark (N); or (3) bark, combined leaf and pepper (LP), or stick. Percentage accuracy for correctly identifying 139 pieces of test trash placed on laboratory prepared samples for the three scenarios are (B:95, L:87, P:100, S:88), (B:100, N:97), and (B:95, LP:99, S:88), respectively. Also, LVQ results are compared to previous work using backpropagating neural networks.

  16. Sequencing the Cotton Genomes-Gossypium spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genomes of most major crops,including cotton,will be fully sequenced in the next fewyears.Cotton is unusual,although not unique,in that we will need to sequence not only cultivated(tetraploid) genotypes but their diploid progenitors,to understand how elite cottons have surpassedthe productivity and quality of their progenitors.

  17. Dielectric permitivity measurement of cotton lint

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique was developed for making broad band measurements of cotton lint electrical permitivity. The fundamental electrical permitivity value of cotton lint at various densities and moisture contents; is beneficial for the future development of cotton moisture sensors as it provides a...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  20. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  1. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  2. Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...

  3. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  4. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  5. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  6. Application of Purified Lawsone as Natural Dye on Cotton and Silk Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahabub Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The color which is obtained from the leaves of Henna, that is, Lawsonia inermis L., is used frequently in hair coloring. It is the chemical lawsone that is responsible for the reddish brown color. Its content makes it a substantive dye for dyeing the textile materials. This work concerns with the extraction and purification of natural dyestuff from a plant Lawsonia inermis L. and dyeing of cotton and silk fabric in exhaust dyeing method. The dye portion is isolated from the total extract by column chromatography and is evaluated by dyeing cotton and silk under different dyeing conditions. The color strength and fastness properties of the dye are undertaken by changing mordant and techniques of mordanting. The changes of colors have been noticed by using different types of mordant. The dye exhaustion percentage, wash, rubbing, and light fastness results reveal that the extract of henna can be used for coloration of cotton and silk fabric.

  7. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; PENG Ren-hai; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang; LI Shao-hui; ZHANG Xiang-di; WANG Yu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Arabidopsis -type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals were located at all chromosome ends of 7 diploid and 2 tetraploid cotton species.To identify the signals of FISH,the genome DNA of Xinhai 7,digested by Bal31 kinetics,was used in this study.

  8. Trade Statistics: Cotton Yarn & Fabric in Feb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the single most important textile fiber in the world,accounting for nearly 40 percent of total world fiber production.While some 80 countries from around the globe produce cotton,the United States,China,and India together provide over half the world's cotton.This monthly update provides official CNTAC (China National Textile & Apparel Council ) data on China import and export of cotton yarn and cotton fabric,to show a general profile of China's foreign trade in current textile industry.

  9. Cutinase promotes dry esterification of cotton cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoman, Zhao; Teresa, Matama; Artur, Ribeiro; Carla, Silva; Jing, Wu; Jiajia, Fu; Artur, Cavaco-Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Cutinase from Thermobifida fusca was used to esterify the hydroxyl groups of cellulose with the fatty acids from triolein. Cutinase and triolein were pre-adsorbed on cotton and the reaction proceeded in a dry state during 48 h at 35°C. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification of the surface of cotton fabric resulted in the linkage of the oleate groups to the glycoside units of cotton cellulose. The superficial modification was confirmed by performing ATR-FTIR on treated cotton samples and by MALDI-TOF analysis of the liquors from the treatment of the esterified cotton with a crude cellulase mixture. Modified cotton fabric also showed a significant increase of hydrophobicity. This work proposes a novel bio-based approach to obtain hydrophobic cotton.

  10. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  11. Cornus×elwinortonii and Cornus×rutgersensis (Cornaceae), new names for two artificially produced hybrids of big-bracted dogwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, Robert; Molnar, Thomas; Struwe, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Big-bracted dogwoods (Cornus sp.) are well-known plants in North America and eastern Asia where they occur as wild, generally spring-flowering understory trees. They are also popular ornamental landscape plants, and many economically important cultivars are propagated and sold across North America, Europe, and Asia. Starting in the late 1960s, Elwin Orton of Rutgers University in New Jersey (USA) utilized three geographically disjunct species of dogwoods, Cornusflorida (eastern North America), Cornusnuttallii (western North America), and Cornuskousa (East Asia), in an extensive interspecific hybridization program. He was successful in developing the first-ever interspecific F1 hybrids of these species, several of which have become staple items in the ornamental nursery trade due to their enhanced ornamental qualities and resistance to diseases. The original F1 plants are still alive at Rutgers University. While they have been available for decades in horticultural commerce, the interspecific hybrid crosses were never formally described and their scientific hybrid names were never published. For the Cornuskousa × Cornusflorida hybrids, the name Cornus 'rutgersensis' has been used on occasion in the horticultural trade, but without proper citation and description. Here, it is formally named Cornus×rutgersensis Mattera, T. Molnar, & Struwe, hybr. nov. For the Cornuskousa × Cornusnuttallii hybrids, no previous name has been used, and it is hereby named Cornus×elwinortonii Mattera, T. Molnar, & Struwe, hybr. nov. The need for providing scientific names for commonly used horticultural hybrids is discussed. Holotype material for both hybrid names was collected from the original F1 hybrids for full documentation, typification, and description. The comparative intermediate development of leaves, inflorescence structures, and fruit types of the hybrids and their parents is discussed and illustrated. Etymology, phenology, and cultivation aspects of these hybrids and their

  12. Preferência de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em linhagens mutantes de algodoeiro Bemisia tabaci biotype B preference in mutant cotton lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de caracteres mutantes morfológicos do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch.: folha okra, bráctea frego e planta vermelha, em relação à resistência à mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci biótipo B Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, foram avaliados em experimentos com ou sem chance de escolha. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em fatorial 23 + 1, com quatro repetições. O mutante com a característica planta vermelha foi menos atrativo e menos preferido para oviposição, em relação à planta verde, em ambos os ensaios, com ou sem escolha. Não houve preferência quanto à forma da folha e ao tipo de bráctea.The effects of cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch. with mutants morphologic characteristics: okra leaf, frego bract and red plant in relation to host plant resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci bioyipe B Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, were evaluated in choice or no choice assays. The assays were carried out in the greenhouse conditions, according to a completely randomized block design, in a 23 + 1 in a factorial arrangement with four replications. The mutant with red plant characteristic was less attractive and less preferred for oviposition than the normal green plant does, in both, whit or without choice tests. It did not have preference in relation to the form of the leaf and bract type.

  13. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  14. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  15. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ye-hua; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jing; FAN Yu-peng; GAO Da-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct transgenic lines in a cultivar and possibly makes a significant contribution to cultivar improvement.

  16. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  17. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  18. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct

  19. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  20. Cottonseed and cotton plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton plant generates several marketable products as a result of the ginning process. The product that garners the most attention in regards to value and research efforts, is lint with cottonseed being secondary. In addition to lint and cottonseed, the plant material itself has a value that...

  1. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals

  2. Classification of Cotton Leaf Spot Disease Using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Sonal P. Patil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain more value added products, a product quality control is essentially required Many studies show that quality of agriculture products may be reduced from many causes. One of the most important factors of such quality plant diseases. Consequently, minimizing plant diseases allows substantially improving quality of the product Suitable diagnosis of crop disease in the field is very critical for the increased production. Foliar is the major important fungal disease of cotton and occurs in all growing Indian cotton regions. In this paper I express Technological Strategies uses mobile captured symptoms of Cotton Leaf Spot images and categorize the diseases using support vector machine. The classifier is being trained to achieve intelligent farming, including early detection of disease in the groves, selective fungicide application, etc. This proposed work is based on Segmentation techniques in which, the captured images are processed for enrichment first. Then texture and color Feature extraction techniques are used to extract features such as boundary, shape, color and texture for the disease spots to recognize diseases.

  3. Protease and Hemicellulase Assisted Extraction of Dietary Fiber from Wastes of Cynara cardunculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Soria, Marcelo; Rojas, Ana M.; Fissore, Eliana N.; Gerschenson, Lía N.

    2015-01-01

    The action of protease and hemicellulase for the extraction of fractions enriched in soluble fiber from bracts and stems of Cynara cardunculus was evaluated. Using a two-factor simplex design comprising protease amounts of 0–200 μL and hemicellulase amounts of 0–200 mg for 5 g of material, we explored the effect of a 5 h enzymatic treatment at 40 °C on the chemical composition and yield of the fractions isolated. The fractions contained inulin and pectin. In general, the protein, inulin, and polyphenol contents and also the yields were higher for fractions obtained from stems. The most marked effects were observed when enzymes were used at higher concentrations, especially for hemicellulase. The inclusion of a pre-heating step increased the yield and the inulin content for fractions isolated from bracts and stems and decreased the protein and polyphenol contents, and the galacturonic acid for bracts. These fractions, in general, contained the polyphenolic compounds monocaffeoylquinic acid, apigenin, and pinoresinol. PMID:25809605

  4. Protease and Hemicellulase Assisted Extraction of Dietary Fiber from Wastes of Cynara cardunculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Santo Domingo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The action of protease and hemicellulase for the extraction of fractions enriched in soluble fiber from bracts and stems of Cynara cardunculus was evaluated. Using a two-factor simplex design comprising protease amounts of 0–200 μL and hemicellulase amounts of 0–200 mg for 5 g of material, we explored the effect of a 5 h enzymatic treatment at 40 °C on the chemical composition and yield of the fractions isolated. The fractions contained inulin and pectin. In general, the protein, inulin, and polyphenol contents and also the yields were higher for fractions obtained from stems. The most marked effects were observed when enzymes were used at higher concentrations, especially for hemicellulase. The inclusion of a pre-heating step increased the yield and the inulin content for fractions isolated from bracts and stems and decreased the protein and polyphenol contents, and the galacturonic acid for bracts. These fractions, in general, contained the polyphenolic compounds monocaffeoylquinic acid, apigenin, and pinoresinol.

  5. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries.

  6. Use of a Digital Camera to Monitor the Growth and Nitrogen Status of Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method for monitoring cotton growth and N status using a digital camera. Digital images were taken of the cotton canopies between emergence and full bloom. The green and red values were extracted from the digital images and then used to calculate canopy cover. The values of canopy cover were closely correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio vegetation index and were measured using a GreenSeeker handheld sensor. Models were calibrated to describe the relationship between canopy cover and three growth properties of the cotton crop (i.e., aboveground total N content, LAI, and aboveground biomass. There were close, exponential relationships between canopy cover and three growth properties. And the relationships for estimating cotton aboveground total N content were most precise, the coefficients of determination (R2 value was 0.978, and the root mean square error (RMSE value was 1.479 g m−2. Moreover, the models were validated in three fields of high-yield cotton. The result indicated that the best relationship between canopy cover and aboveground total N content had an R2 value of 0.926 and an RMSE value of 1.631 g m−2. In conclusion, as a near-ground remote assessment tool, digital cameras have good potential for monitoring cotton growth and N status.

  7. Morfoanatomia das brácteas em Heliconia (Heliconiaceae ocorrentes no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Morphology and anatomy of the bracts in Heliconia (Heliconiaceae, occurring in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guimarães Simão

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os caracteres morfoanatômicos das brácteas em H. rivularis, H. spathocircinata e H. velloziana (subg. Heliconia e em H. angusta, H. hirsuta e H. subulata subsp. gracilis (subg. Stenochlamys, ocorrentes no Estado de São Paulo. As espécies do subg. Heliconia apresentam brácteas cimbiformes, enquanto as do subg. Stenochlamys apresentam brácteas lanceolado-conduplicadas. Todas as espécies apresentam brácteas com epiderme unisseriada, com células de paredes finas, estômatos tetracíticos em H. hirsuta e H. subulata e policíticos nas demais espécies; feixes vasculares e canais de ar distribuídos em forma de arco; e feixes de fibras situados próximos à superfície abaxial. A forma das brácteas, associada à distribuição e localização dos feixes de fibras na região abaxial e ao tamanho dos canais de ar no mesofilodifere nos dois subgêneros estudados, constituindo caracter de valor taxonômico. Foi elaborada uma chave de identificação usando os caracteres morfoanatômicos.The morphological and anatomical features of the inflorescence bracts were studied in H. rivularis, H. spathocircinata and H. velloziana (subg. Heliconia and in H. angusta, H. hirsuta and H. subulata subsp. gracilis (subg. Stenochlamys. All species are found in São Paulo State. In the subg. Heliconia the bracts are cymbiform and in Stenochlamys they are lanceolate-conduplicated. All species have bracts with uniseriate epidermis, with thin-walled cells, tetracytical stomata in H. hirsuta and H. subulata, and polycytical in the others; the vascular bundles and air canals are distributed in arc-shaped and the fiber bundles are situated close to the abaxial surface. The bract shape, associated with the distribution of the fiber bundles and with the size of the air canals were different in both studied subgenera. An identification key was made based on morphological and anatomical features.

  8. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  9. Digieye Application In Cotton Colour Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour is one of the most important properties of cotton raw materials. It helps in determining and classifying the quality of fibres according to the Universal Cotton Standards. Organoleptic and instrumental techniques are applied to assess the color of cotton. Worldwide, the colour parameters of cotton are measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI, which provides information on reflectance (Rd and yellowness (+b that is specific for cotton, but are not the typical and globally recognized colour characteristics. Usually, worldwide, the colour of textile products and other goods is assessed utilizing the spectrophotometer, which provides the colour data that is widely recognized and accepted by the CIE L*a*b* colour space. This paper discusses utilizing the DigiEye system to measure the colour parameters of cotton samples and compares the results with the colour parameters from the HVI.

  10. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., paper, or non-woven cotton fabric, the payment will be calculated on 25 percent of the weight (gross... further processing, for spinning, papermaking, or manufacture of non-woven cotton fabric, 25 percent of... definitions from the regulations for cotton non-recourse loans and loan deficiency payments. It clarifies...

  11. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  12. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  14. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2 population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208(characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90(characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-locus linkage map was

  15. Shandong’s Cotton Brocade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANDONG Province, also called "Lu," produces traditional hand-woven cotton fabric known as "Lu Jin ("Jin" means brocade in Chinese). Lu Jin has a soft texture and is made in various designs and colors. Although machine-made cotton fabric is easy to buy here, local people, particularly women, prefer this kind of cloth woven in the old style handed down by their ancestors. In the countryside of Southwest Shandong, a girl usually begins learning how to weave cotton brocade as a child and old women are often still busy at the loom. In Jiaxiang County, for example, there are more than 10,400 looms, 74,000 spinning wheels and 90,000 capable weavers, producing 6 million meters of hand-woven fabric annually. Lu Jin is a suitable dowry for local girls. Usually, a girl begins selecting designs and weaving for her dowry two to three years before marriage. When she gets married, she carefully puts the fabric in the cupboards she will bring with

  16. Discernment of lint trash in raw cotton using multivariate analysis of excitation-emission luminescence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excitation-Emission luminescence spectra of basic (pH 12.5) phosphate buffer solution extracts were used to distinguish among botanical components of trash within seed cotton. All components were separated from whole plants removed from a field in southern New Mexico. Unfolded Principal Component An...

  17. Analysis of the products from enzymatic scouring of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-be, Porntip; Sangwatanaroj, Usa; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2007-03-01

    This article discusses the analysis of the hydrolysis products from one-step scouring of cotton using pectinase and two-step scouring of cotton using lipase then cellulase, protease then cellulase, or lipase/protease then cellulase, to improve water absorbency of cotton. UV spectrophotometric analysis indicated that the pectinase scouring process produced approximately 18-fold higher amounts of reducing sugars and galacturonic acid than any of the two-step scouring processes. The production rate of reducing sugars and galacturonic acid from most of the scouring processes showed a decrease with an increase in time. HPLC analysis revealed that the lipase/protease/cellulase scouring processes produced approximately 5-fold higher amounts of 17 amino acids than the pectinase scouring process. GC analysis for 18 fatty acids (C(8)-C(24)) revealed that three major fatty acids, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and behenic acid, were found on both the scoured and the unscoured fabrics. Scoured fabrics were tested for content of proteins, extractable components, waxes, and anionic components including pectins, and some differences among the fabric scoured with different enzyme combinations were found.

  18. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  19. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.1043 - Cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the instrument must have a means of correcting volumes to body temperature saturated with water... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cotton dust. 1910.1043 Section 1910.1043 Labor Regulations...), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee. Equivalent Instrument means a cotton dust...

  1. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  2. China Cotton Situation Report [June 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James H. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The domestic cotton supply plus import quota released in due time can meet with spinners need in this season as can be assured by the fact that the spring sowing of cotton is finished in May, and summer sowing progresses well on its move.

  3. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi,Xinjiang Municipality, China.With the theme"China’s Cotton Industry on WTO and It’s Implications The Global Market".the Conference proceeded with three main sessions,one focusing on the

  4. Australia: round module handling and cotton classing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round modules of seed cotton produced via on-board module building harvesters are the reality of the cotton industry, worldwide. Although round modules have been available to the industry for almost a decade, there is still no consensus on the best method to handle the modules, particularly when th...

  5. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  6. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  7. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  8. Palmer amaranth competition for water in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  9. Import and Export for Cotton Textile Shrinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the National Development and Reform Committee held a meeting to discuss the preparation work of this year's new cotton storage. The meeting declared clearly the policy for this year's new cotton store up, namely starting from September 1, at the fixed price of CNY 19800 per ton, making the purchase without limitation.

  10. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  11. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  12. 77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing assistance loan (MAL) regulations to revise... creates technical problems if the loan schedules and base grade specifications are changed. CCC... cotton industry to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). AMS can and does change...

  13. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  14. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  15. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  16. Cotton Textile:Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang, China’s largest cotton growing area, was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation. But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment, upgrading and innovation" is to be shared, discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting. Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities, but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside. China and India are the most important players in this sector, for both are the most populous countries in the world…

  17. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may request... members to represent cotton importers on the Cotton Board. Such eligibility shall be based, in addition...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317 Cotton-Importer organization. Cotton-Importer organization means any organization which has been certified by the...

  19. Toward Elucidating the Structure of Tetraploid Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wang-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Upland cotton has the highest yield,and accounts for >95% of world cotton production.Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural,functional,and evolutionary studies of the species.Here,we employed GeneTrek and BAC tagging information approaches to predict the general composition and structure of the allotetraploid cotton genome.

  20. After Cotton Prices Hit a 10-Year Peak...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhaofeng

    2010-01-01

    @@ "With the fifth-grade seed cotton being priced at 4.5 yuan per 500 grams and Xinjiang lint cotton at nearly RMB 20,000 per ton, cotton prices have rocketed to a 10-year peak," Gap Chaoshan, President of the Liaocheng Cotton Association, told the reporter on September 26.

  1. Coordination and collaboration to document the global cotton germplasm resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 years to insure the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene ...

  2. What Will We Do with a Cotton Genome Sequence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUBAKER Curt

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the publication of "Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes" [Chen et al.PlantPhysiology,2007,145:1303-1310-] a clear consensus emerged from the cotton genomics community not only that cotton genome sequences were a critical resource for research and commercial innovationin cotton genomics,but that there was a logical means of achieving this goal.

  3. Test of pressure transducer for measuring cotton-mass flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a cotton harvester yield monitor was developed based on the relationship between air pressure and the mass of seed cotton conveyed. The sensor theory was verified by laboratory tests. The sensor was tested on a cotton picker with seed cotton at two moisture contents, 5.9% and 8.5% we...

  4. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan;

    2014-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like...... different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength...... and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan...

  5. Study on Application of Natural Plant Dye Gardenia on Cotton Coloration and the Dyeing Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lan; SHAO Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the structure and properties of gardenia, the gardenia was extracted in neutral bath. The mordant dyeing of cotton, including pre-mordant, one-bath and post-mordant were studied, and the dyeing properties such as dye K/S value and color fastness were investigated.According to the structure and property of mordants including alum, copper sulfate, iron sulfate and rare earth,the interaction mechanisms among gardenia, mordant and cotton fibers were analyzed and the processing factors affecting the mordant dyeing were discussed. As a result,gardenia showed favorable dyeing performance on cotton.The soaping color fastness and crocking fastness were improved by 0.5 - 1 grade after fixation process with the selected dye-fixing agent and optimized process conditions.The dyeing process and fixation process were optimized.

  6. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength......A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like...... and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan...

  7. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-xu; HE Dao-hua; WANG Hong-mei

    2008-01-01

    @@ QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208 (characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90 (characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-1ocus linkage map was constructed covering 5472.3 cM with an average distance of 5.32 cM between two markers.

  8. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in cotton is of great industrial importance due to the demanding consumer market for high performance textiles. It is not only a high value- added characteristic but it also has high commercial use and wide spectra of applications. Super- hydrophobicity... stream_source_info Erasmus1_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7375 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Erasmus1_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile...

  9. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe and Aluminum (Al to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP, Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0 alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-N®, a Nitrogen (N stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further

  10. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  11. About Viscosity of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAGDULLAEV Ahror

    2008-01-01

    @@ The biological variety is mainly connected with presence of the field ecosites,which determine the mechanism of interaction (the symbiosis,pathogenesis,and etc.) that differ typically of such niches of live organism.The biological,forming on sowing of the cultural plants,including cotton plant are the example for this.Their formation is conditioned presence of the separations of aphids,consisting of different sugar,squirrel,ferment,pigment and other component natural substrata.Simultaneously with creation of in natural,it begins shaping the system with determined by balance insect and successes of microorganism.

  12. Transgenic cotton: from biotransformation methods to agricultural application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic plants commercially adopted around the world. Since it was first introduced into the field in the middle of 1990s, transgenic cotton has been quickly adopted by cotton farmers in many developed and developing countries. Transgenic cotton has offered many important environmental, social, and economic benefits, including reduced usage of pesticides, indirect increase of yield, minimizing environmental pollution, and reducing labor and cost. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is the major method for obtaining transgenic cotton. However, pollen tube pathway-mediated method is also used, particularly by scientists in China, to breed commercial transgenic cotton. Although transgenic cotton plants with disease-resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and improved fiber quality have been developed in the past decades, insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant cotton are the two dominant transgenic cottons in the transgenic cotton market.

  13. Antimicrobial fabrication of cotton fabric and leather using green-synthesized nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Cho, Min; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Jung-Hee; Bae, Sunyoung; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-06-15

    This study aims to investigate the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Erigeron annuus (L.) pers flower extract as reducing and capping agent, and evaluation of their antibacterial activities for the first time. The obtained product was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The optimum AgNPs production was achieved at pH 7, metal silver (Ag(+) ion) concentration of 2.0mM, flower extract concentration 4%, and time 335 min. In addition, the antibacterial activity of cotton fabrics and tanned leather loaded with AgNPs, commercial AgNPs, flower extract, Ag(+) ion and blend of flower extract with AgNPs were evaluated against Gram-positive odor causing bacteria Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI) by the cotton fabrics embedded with blend of flower extract and AgNPs against B. linens. The structure and morphology of cotton fabric and leather samples embedded with AgNPs, Ag(+) ion and blend of flower extract with AgNPs were examined under field emission scanning electron microscope.

  14. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past

  15. Examining cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops using natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper is to show the ability of remote sensing image analysis combined with statistical analysis to characterize the environmental risk assessment of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops in two ways: (1) description of rotation period of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops by the observational study or natural experiment; (2) analysis of rotation period calculation of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops. Natural experimental results show that this new method is very promising for determining crop rotation period for estimating regional averages of environmental risk. When it is applied to determining crop rotation period, two requested remote sensing images of regional crop are required at least.

  16. Genetical Genomics Dissection of Cotton Fiber Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LACAPE J M; JACOBS J; LLEWELLYN D

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton fiber is a commodity of key economic importance in both developed and developing countries.The two cultivated species,Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense,are tetraploid (2n=4x=52,2.3 Gb).Cotton fibers are single-celled trichomes of the outermost epidermal layer of the ovule and elongate extensively to 25-50 mm.The final quality of the fiber results from complex developmental processes and improvement of cotton fiber quality remains a challenge for many research groups worldwide.

  17. Development of a novel‐type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants—npf1 and npf2 (with a 120‐bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to for...

  18. 酸提取巯基棉-氢化物发生原子荧光法测定海产品中的甲基汞%Determination of Methyl-mercury in Seafood by HG-AFS After Acidic Sulfhydryl Cotton Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史潜玉; 刘立; 林杰

    2012-01-01

    对国标方法GB/T5009.17—2003进行优化和改进,建立酸提取巯基棉一氢化物发生原子荧光法(hy—dridegeneration—atomicfluorescencespectrometry,HG—AFS)测定海产品中甲基汞的方法。样品研磨均匀后,加入含有Cu2+的盐酸萃取样品中的甲基汞,经离心、过滤后用巯基棉吸附,洗脱后用原子荧光仪检测,外标法定量。结果表明:甲基汞在0~8.0μg/L内,荧光强度与甲基汞质量浓度之间线性关系良好(相关系数为1),以2.0、5.0μg/L2个添加量在样品中添加甲基汞,平均回收率在97.0%-116.5%,相对标准偏差为1.5%~3.O%,方法的检出限为0.1mg/kg。该方法简便快速,机体干扰小,检出限低,精密度、准确性均能满足海产品中甲基汞的测定要求。%Through the optimization and improvement of GB/T5009.17-2003, a method of hydride generation-a- tomic fluorescence spectrometry( HG-AFS) coupled with acidic sulfhydryl cotton extraction was developed for the de- termination of methyl-mercury in seafood. Hydrochloric acid containing Cu2+ was added to the sample and grounded evenly to extract methyl-mercury. After centrifugation, filtration, adsorption, the sample was eluted with the sulfhydr- yl cotton and detected by AFS and quantified by external standard. Under the optimized conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of methyl-mercury quality when the methyl- mercury was in the concentration ranged of 0 - 8.0μg/L. The average recoveries were between 97.0% -116.5% , the RSD were between 1.5% -3.0% and the detection limit of method was 0. 1mg/kg. The method was quick ,easy, less interference, low detection limit and suitable for the determination of methyl-mercury in seafood.

  19. Producing Organic Cotton: A Toolkit - Crop Guide, Projekt guide, Extension tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The CD compiles the following extension tools on organic cotton: Organic Cotton Crop Guide, Organic Cotton Training Manual, Soil Fertility Training Manual, Organic Cotton Project Guide, Record keeping tools, Video "Organic agriculture in the Nimar region", Photos for illustration.

  20. [Ecological regionalization of cotton varieties based on GGE biplot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nai-Yin; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Li, Jian; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2013-03-01

    By using the heritability-adjusted GGE biplot analysis method, and taking the trial sites Anqing, Nanyang, Huanggang, Jingzhou, Wuhan, Xiangyang, Changde, Yueyang, Nanjing, Nantong, Yancheng, Jiujiang, Jianyang, Shehong, and Cixi as the representative cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin, the ecological regionalization of cotton varieties in the basin was made based on the lint cotton yield, and the regionalization results were adjusted by the information ratio (IR) method, aimed to provide scientific basis for the selection of cotton varieties in the cotton-planting areas of the basin. The cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin could be divided into three ecological regions, i.e., the "Sichuan basin cotton region" with Jianyang and Shehong as the representative, the "Nan-Xiang basin cotton region" with Xiangyang and Nanyang as the representative, and the "majority complex cotton region in the Yangtze River basin" including all the other sites in the basin.

  1. Triarylmethane Dyes for Artificial Repellent Cotton Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Ana Maria; Gálvez, Erik; Shafir, Alexandr; Sebastián, Rosa María; Vallribera, Adelina

    2017-03-17

    Families of new hydrophobic and/or oleophobic triarylmethane dyes possessing long hydrocarbon or polyfluorinated chains have been prepared. When covalently grafted on to cotton fabric, these dyes give rise to a new type of colored superhydrophobic fibers.

  2. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-12

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2(-ΔΔCt) analyses revealed that T0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g(-1) fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g(-1) fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness.

  3. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the impacts

  4. SORPTION PROPERTIES OF PERIODATE OXIDIZED COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of periodate oxidation on the chemical and sorption properties of cotton yarn was investigated by determining aldehyde group content, moisture sorption, water retention and iodine sorption. Oxidation of cotton yarn was performed by varying concentration of sodium periodate solution and reaction time. To measure the aldehyde content present in the oxidized cotton, the aldehyde groups were selectively oxidized to carboxyl groups with sodium chlorite at pH 4-5, at room temperature for 48 h, and carboxyl group content was determined by modified calcium-acetate method. Differences in the sorption properties of untreated and oxidized cotton samples were obtained using conventional methods. The aldehyde groups were introduced into the oxidized cotton up to 99.2 µmol/g. Compared to the untreated fibers, oxidized cotton samples exhibited higher moisture sorption (up to 9% and lower water retention values (up to 19% and iodine sorption values (up to 31%. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the crystalline structure of cellulose is not significantly changed by periodate oxidation, which is of great importance for textile material production.

  5. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  6. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... official leaf grade for Upland and Pima cotton. The leaf grade is a part of the official classification.... Currently, the leaf grade is determined by visual examination and comparison to the Official...

  7. American Cotton Council International,Ready for more Cooperation with Chinese Cotton Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ America is a large cotton export country. 85% to 90% of the production is for export. The Council has been established for 50 years. It is a trade platform engaged into promoting the cotton export in the global range, making fashion shows, consumer promotions, etc.

  8. Efeito do extrato aquoso do algodão de seda (Calotropis procera Aiton sobre a eficiência reprodutiva do carrapato bovino Effect of aqueous extract of silk cotton (Calotropis procera Ait. R.Br. on the reproductive performance of Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F Lázaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus é um dos principais parasitos dos rebanhos bovinos. Diferentes grupos de carrapaticidas sintéticos têm sido empregados para o controle desse ácaro, contudo, o uso constante desses produtos tem selecionado populações resistentes. Na tentativa de minimizar esses impactos tem-se buscado avaliar fitoterápicos para o controle desse parasito. Assim, objetivou-se analisar a eficácia in vitro do extrato aquoso do algodão de seda em diferentes concentrações no controle da postura e eclodibilidade dos ovos do R. microplus. Foram avaliados os efeitos das concentrações 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 e 100% do extrato aquoso obtido juntamente com controles com água destilada ou com cipermetrina, 12,5 mg L-1, associada a organofosforado, 150 mg L-1, sobre a eficiência reprodutiva do carrapato. Foi realizado o biocarrapaticidograma sendo que a eficácia acaricida das concentrações 5, 25 e 100% foram superiores àquela observada para o produto comercial utilizado, que correspondeu a 93,98%, indicando a importância de futuras pesquisas para avaliar o potencial toxigênico e a eficácia in vivo dessa planta para o controle do R. microplus .The tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the main parasites of bovine herds. Different groups of synthetic acaricides have been used to control this mite; however, the constant use of these products has selected resistant populations. In an attempt to minimize these impacts, researchers have tried to evaluate herbal remedies to control this parasite. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the in vitro efficacy of aqueous extract of silk cotton at different concentrations to control the hatchability of R. microplus eggs. The effects of the concentrations 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% aqueous extract together with controls with distilled water or with cypermethrin, 12.5 mg L-1, associated with organophosphate, 150 mg L-1, were assessed on the reproductive efficiency of the

  9. [Nitrogen absorption and allocation in cotton plant under effects of double-cropping wheat and cotton root mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhiguo; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Shu, Hongmei

    2006-12-01

    By the methods of 15N-foliar feeding and 15N dilution, a pot experiment of double-cropping wheat and cotton was conducted to study the nitrogen absorption and allocation in cotton plant under effects of wheat and cotton root mass. Three treatments were installed, i.e., no separation of wheat and cotton roots (treatment I), separation with nylon net (treatment II), and separation with plastic film (treatment III). The results showed that both the competition of 15N absorption between wheat and cotton root, and the translocation of absorbed 15N from wheat root to cotton were existed in the wheat-cotton double-cropping system. The absorbed 15N by cotton root was mostly allocated in aboveground part, and less in root. The aboveground part of cotton had the highest N utilization rate (NUR) in treatment I and the lowest one in treatment III, but the Ndff was lower in treatment I than in treatments II and III. At the early flowering stage of cotton when wheat was harvested and its straw was amended in situ, the absorbed nitrogen by cotton was mainly from the applied 15N, but not from the amended wheat straw. The allocation of absorbed 15N in different organs of cotton was quite different, being much higher in reproductive organs than in other organs. The biomass of cotton plant was also higher in treatment I than in treatments II and III.

  10. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER... linters worked into the bale. (g) Mixed packed cotton. Cotton in a bale which, in the sample...

  11. Cotton Industry:Situation Report in March 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rapid development of the textile industry has made China the world’s largest cotton consumer and importer-cotton is the country’s third- largest product import after soybeans and edible oil.Generally

  12. Mali's white revolution: smallholder cotton from 1960 to 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Tefft, James

    2004-01-01

    "One of the pillars of rural development in francophone Africa, the cotton sector serves as a principal motor of economic development, generating benefits to farmers, rural communities, private traders, cotton companies, and national governments.... Government and farmers alike consider cotton a strategic industry.... The Malian cotton model exemplifies the common vertical support system for smallholder agriculture, in which a single entity supplies inputs (usually on credit) in return for gu...

  13. Biotechnological applications of pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2012-01-01

    This work represents a review of applications of alkaline pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, the nature of pectin and pectic supstances, and production of alkaline pectinases from various microorganisms. Over the years alkaline pectinases have been used in several industrial processes, such as textile and plant fiber processing, paper and pulp industry, oil extraction, coffee and tea fermentations,poultry feed and treatment of industrial wastewater containing p...

  14. Mutantes morfológicos de algodoeiro herbáceo como fonte de resistência ao bicudo Morphological mutants of upland cotton as source of boll weevil resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três características morfológicas mutantes de linhagens de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch., isoladas ou combinadas no mesmo genótipo, como fonte de resistência ao bicudo, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, sob infestação natural, com delineamento de blocos ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2´3 com um tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Em teste com chance de escolha, a característica bráctea frego foi a que apresentou maior redução no dano de oviposição pelo bicudo (34,71%, em relação ao equivalente normal. A folha "okra" reduziu o dano apenas quando associada à bráctea frego (40%. A combinação das três características mutantes na mesma planta proporcionou a menor porcentagem de botões com dano de oviposição (23,13%.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of three morphological mutants of upland cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutm L. r. latifolium Hutch., isolated or in combination in the same cotton genotype, as a source of resistance to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. The experiment was carried out in the field, under natural infestation, with a completely randomized block design arranged in a factorial 2´3 plus an additional treatment, with four replications. In a multiple choice test, the character mutant frego bract presented the higher reduction on boll weevil oviposition damage (34.71%, in relation to the normal equivalent. The okra leaf reduced the boll weevil damage only when associated with frego bract (40%. The combination of the three mutant characters in the same plant presented the least square percent with oviposition damage (23.13%.

  15. Anatomia de escapos, folhas e brácteas de Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis (Bong. ex Koern. Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae Anatomy of scapes, leaves, and bracts of Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis (Bong. ex Koern. Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Scatena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a anatomia de escapos, folhas e brácteas de 24 espécimes de Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis, que ocorrem nos campos rupestres do Brasil. Os escapos apresentam número variado de costelas, epiderme unisseriada, com células de paredes totalmente espessadas; córtex com esclerênquima e parênquima clorofiliano alternados; endoderme contínua ou descontínua; periciclo estrelado; feixes vasculares colaterais; medula com células de paredes finas ou espessadas. As folhas e as brácteas apresentam epiderme com células de paredes total ou parcialmente espessadas, estômatos na face abaxial, margem com parênquima clorofiliano ou esclerênquima; mesofilo com hipoderme constituída de esclerênquima ou parênquima aqüífero, feixes vasculares colaterais envolvidos externamente pela endoderme e internamente pelo periciclo. Escapos, folhas e brácteas de Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis apresentam células com paredes espessadas e grande quantidade de esclerênquima, provavelmente como resposta adaptativa dessas plantas ao vento e à radiação excessiva comum nos campos rupestres. Epiderme com células de paredes espessadas, estômatos com câmara subestomática não especializada, presença de hipoderme, esclerênquima, e parênquima clorofiliano compacto, caracterizam anatomicamente escapos, folhas e brácteas de Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis. No geral, os caracteres anatômicos não são consistentes para separar os táxons dentro da seção.The anatomy of scapes leaves and bracts of twenty four taxa included in Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis (Bong. ex Koern. Ruhland from the Brazilian "campos rupestres" was studied. Scapes present a vary number of ribs, thick-walled uniseriate epidermal cells, alternate sclerenchyma, and chlorenchyma in the cortex, continuous or discontinuous endodermis, star-shaped pericycle, collateral vascular bundles, and pith with thin or thick-walled cells. Leaves and bracts have total or partial thick-walled epidermal cells

  16. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion.

  17. More on Cotton Flow on Three Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kilicarslan, Ercan; Tekin, Bayram

    2015-01-01

    Cotton flow tends to evolve a given initial metric on a three manifold to a conformally flat one. Here we expound upon the earlier work on Cotton flow and study the linearized version of it around a generic initial metric by employing a modified form of the DeTurck trick. We show that the flow around the flat space, as a critical point, reduces to an anisotropic generalization of linearized KdV equation with complex dispersion relations one of which is an unstable mode, rendering the the flat space unstable under small perturbations. We also show that Einstein spaces and some conformally flat non-Einstein spaces are linearly unstable. We refine the gradient flow formalism and compute the second variation of the entropy and show that generic critical points are extended Cotton solitons. We study some properties of these solutions and find a Topologically Massive soliton that is built from Cotton and Ricci solitons. In the Lorentzian signature, we also show that the pp-wave metrics are both Cotton and Ricci sol...

  18. Respiratory problems among cotton textile workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mansouri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long term occupational exposure to cotton dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and loss of pulmonary function. Aim: This study was conducted to explore respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and chest radiography of workers, and to evaluate the findings of high resolution computed tomographyand its correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 cotton workers as exposed group and 100 unexposed subjects. Smokers were excluded from the study. All workers were interviewed and examined by the pulmonologist. PFT and chest radiography were conducted for all subjects. HRCT was performed for those with abnormal PFT or chest radiography. Results: A total of 51% and 31% of the cotton textile workers had one or more respiratory symptoms and respiratory signs respectively. 28% of subjects in the exposed group and 5% of subjects in unexposed group had obstructive pattern. Bronchia wall thickening and air trapping were the most frequent chest radiography and HRCT abnormalities respectively. There was a significant correlation between HRCT and the results of PFT. Conclusion: We conclude that long term exposure to cotton dust is associated with obstructive disease that increase with duration of exposure (history of working years, also use of HRCT as a sensitive tool in the assessment of pathologic changes and it's correlation with PFT, confirms the expected pathophysiology of airway obstruction in cotton workers.

  19. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  20. Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dye cotton blue by Penicillium ochrochloron MTCC 517.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedbalkar, Utkarsha; Dhanve, Rhishikesh; Jadhav, Jyoti

    2008-09-15

    Triphenylmethane dyes belong to the most important group of synthetic colorants and are used extensively in the textile industries for dying cotton, wool, silk, nylon, etc. They are generally considered as the xenobiotic compounds, which are very recalcitrant to biodegradation. Penicillium ochrochloron decolorizes cotton blue (50 mg l(-1)) within 2.5 h under static condition at pH 6.5 and temperature 25 degrees C. TLC, FTIR and HPLC analysis confirms biodegradation of cotton blue. FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis indicated sulphonamide and triphenylmethane as the final products of cotton blue degradation. The pH, temperature and maturity of biomass affected the rate of decolorization. Presence of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities in the cell homogenate as well as increase in the extracellular activity of lignin peroxidase suggests the role of these enzymes in the decolorization process. The phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity studies of extracted metabolites suggest the less toxic nature of them.

  1. Toward Elucidating the Structure of Tetraploid Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Upland cotton has the highest yield,and accounts for >95% of world cotton production.Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural,functional,and evolutionary studies of the species.Here,we employed GeneTrek and BAC

  2. Cotton as a World Crop: Origin, History, and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archaeological evidence indicates that cotton has been used by humans for more than 4000 yr. The history of cotton cultivation is at least 3000 yr old. There are four cultivated cotton species, two diploid species and two tetraploid species. In this chapter, the origin and history of these four spec...

  3. farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    on chemical insecticides supplied by their contract cotton companies to ... Plantations Development Ltd.) in the three northern regions through multi-stage random sampling ... level of education, farm size, history of cotton cultivation and objectives. ..... Cotton production and marketing in northern Ghana: the dynamics of ...

  4. Sequencing of the Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOHEL; Russell; J; PERCY; Richard; G; YU; John; Z

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop in the world,and it plays an irreplaceable role in China's national economy.Cultivated upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world's cotton production,but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30000 genes in 2500 Mb

  5. 75 FR 23300 - Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission.../cotton printcloth from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted a review... revocation of the antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from China would be likely...

  6. Main Achievements of Cotton Large-scale Transformation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-guang; LIU Chuan-liang; WU Zhi-xia; ZHANG Chao-jun; ZHANG Xue-yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton large-scale transformation methods system was established based on innovation of cotton transformation methods.It obtains 8000 transgenic cotton plants per year by combining Agrobacteriurn turnefaciens-mediated,pollen-tube pathway and biolistic methods together efficiently.More than 1000 transgenie lines are selected from the transgenic plants with molecular assistant breeding and conventional breeding methods.

  7. Regional Distribution of Cotton Fiber Quality in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fiber quality status is very important for super quality cotton production and diverse requirements of textile industry in China.In this study,the quality of cotton fiber samples which are collected from 13 major cotton production provinces between 2001 to 2005 were analyzed.Eight quality traits

  8. Textiles: Some technocal information and data V: Cotton

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available ................. ............... Senegal South Africa .......... Spain ................ Sudan ................ Syria ................. Tanzania ............. Thailand ............. Togo ................. Turkey (Average) ...... Uganda .............. USSR ................ United... G . arboreum and G. herbaceum cottons. referred to as Asiatic cottons, are the short-staple types and are largely grown in India. China. Iran. Iraq, Turkey and RussiaIi6. Typically the cotton plant appears about one week after planting the seed...

  9. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electricity is a major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significantly decrease e...

  10. Nonwoven greige cotton for wound healing and hygienic product applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential to use greige (non-bleached) cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention. This is due to innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwoven hydroentanglement processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorpt...

  11. Trends in United States cotton yield productivity since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is produced in over 30 countries and provides a major fiber source for textile manufacturers. In 2012, the direct market value of 17.0 million bales of U.S. cotton equated to US$ 8.1 billion. The objective of this study was to document trends in U.S. upland cotton yield productivity since 198...

  12. Main Achievements of Cotton Large-scale Transformation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton large-scale transformation methods system was established based on innovation of cotton transformation methods.It obtains 8000 transgenic cotton plants per year by combining Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated,pollen-tube pathway and biolistic methods together efficiently.More than

  13. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for classification... be effected under the supervision of an exchange inspection agency or a supervisor of...

  14. Recovery of protein from urine specimens collected in cotton wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Taylor, C M

    1992-01-01

    Cotton wool balls have been used to aid the collection of urine from infants. Concentrations of two urinary proteins, albumin and retinol binding protein, decreased by 40 and 80% respectively within 15 minutes of contact with the cotton wool. Cotton wool balls should not be used when investigating proteinuria. PMID:1489230

  15. Sourcing USA Summit Engages Global Cotton Industry Leaders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From November 9-12,the"6th Biennial Sourcing USA Summit,"organized by Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated and with the support of the U.S.cotton industry and USDA, took place at Terranea in Rancho Palos Verdes,

  16. Cotton-based nonwovens and their potential scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the overall use of cotton fiber in modern nonwovens has been limited, certain recent commercial and research developments make the use of cotton and its derivatives more attractive in nonwovens. The commercial developments include the availability of pre-cleaned greige cotton, purified (ble...

  17. Potential development of a new cotton-based antimicrobial wipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of a cationic biocide on various cotton and synthetic nonwoven fabrics was investigated using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results reveal that rayon and greige cotton nonwovens adsorb nearly three times more cationic biocide than comparable bleached cotton substrates. Polyester...

  18. Evaluation of a load measurement system for cotton harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work is to develop and characterize the performance of a system used onboard a cotton harvester for obtaining seed cotton weight data. This system can be used to measure seed cotton weight on a load by load basis, thereby enhancing the ability for a producer to conduct on-farm ...

  19. Fourier transform infrared imaging of Cotton trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the identification of trash types comingled with cotton lint. A good understanding of the specific trash types present can lead to the fabrication of new equipment which can identify and sort cotton trash found with cotton fiber. Conventional methods, including the High Vo...

  20. Application of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton fiber micronaire measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term “micronaire” describes an important cotton fiber property by characterizing the fiber maturity and fineness. In practice, micronaire is regularly measured in laboratories with well established high volume instrumentation (HVITM) protocol. Most often, cotton breeders/geneticists sent cotton ...

  1. Mancha de mirotécio em algodoeiro causada por Myrothecium roridum Myrothecium leaf spot of cotton caused by Myrothecium roridum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Conrado Meyer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha de mirotécio causada por Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. foi observada em lavouras de algodão no sul do Maranhão, causando reduções de produtividade de até 60%. Os sintomas da doença são lesões necróticas, circulares, com estruturas salientes, os esporodóquios, de distribuição irregular. Foram observadas lesões nos pecíolos, brácteas, folhas e maçãs de algodoeiro cv. Deltapine Acala 90, Fibermax 966 e Sure Grow 821. O isolamento do fungo foi realizado em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA. O teste de patogenicidade foi realizado em maçãs sadias, destacadas de algodoeiro cv. Fibermax 966, no estádio vegetativo R6, previamente desinfestadas. Foram testados 13 isolados de M. roridum, oito provenientes de algodão e cinco de soja. Avaliações das estruturas fúngicas foram realizadas com auxílio de microscópio óptico equipado com um micrômetro ocular. Os isolados causaram infecções em maçãs de algodão e destacou-se como mais agressivo o MA-75, proveniente de algodão, apresentando diâmetro médio de lesão de 1,3cm, aos sete DAI e 2,7cm aos 14 DAI. Todos os isolados formaram esporodóquios dispostos concenticamente em meio BDA. Os conídios são unicelulares, hialinos a oliváceos, abundantemente produzidos em massa verde-oliva a preta. Os conídios de isolados provenientes de algodão mediram, em média, 5,1µm x 1,5µm, e os obtidos de soja, 5,8µm x 1,5µm. Estes resultados relatam a ocorrência da mancha de mirotécio, causada por M. roridum, em lavouras comerciais de algodão no Brasil.Myrothecium leaf spot caused by Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. was observed on cotton fields in Maranhão State, Brazil, causing yield reduction of up to 60%. Disease symptoms are lesions with concentric necrotic rings, with salient structures (sporodochia irregularly distributed. Symptoms were observed on petioles, bracts, leaves and bolls of cotton cultivars Deltapine Acala 90, Fibermax 966 and Sure Grow 821

  2. Changes in the sugar composition and molecular mass distribution of matrix polysaccharides during cotton fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Hayato; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-04-01

    Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) fiber development consists of a fiber elongation stage (up to 20 d post-anthesis) and a subsequent cell wall thickening stage. Cell wall analysis revealed that the extractable matrix (pectic and hemicellulosic) polysaccharides accounted for 30-50% of total sugar content in the fiber elongation stage but less than 3% in the cell wall thickening stage. By contrast, cellulose increased dramatically after the fiber elongation ceased. The amounts of extractable xyloglucans and arabinose- and galactose-containing polymers per seed increased in the early fiber elongation stage and decreased thereafter. The amounts of extractable acidic polymers and non-cellulosic beta-glucans (mainly composed of beta-1,3-glucans) increased in parallel with fiber elongation and then decreased. The molecular masses of extractable non-cellulosic beta-glucans, and arabinose- and galactose-containing polymers decreased during both fiber elongation and cell wall thickening stages. The molecular mass of extractable xyloglucans also decreased during the fiber elongation stage, but this decrease ceased during the cell wall thickening stage. Conversely, the molecular size of acidic polymers in the extractable pectic fraction increased during both stages. Thus, not only the amounts but also the molecular size of the extractable matrix polysaccharides showed substantial changes during cotton fiber development.

  3. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, J

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past four decades has brought about a rapid development of insecticide resistance, serious outbreaks of key pests, resurgence of secondary pests, and risk for man and environment. Biological control of ...

  4. Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins.

  5. Predicting cotton yield of small field plots in a cotton breeding program using UAV imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maja, Joe Mari J.; Campbell, Todd; Camargo Neto, Joao; Astillo, Philip

    2016-05-01

    One of the major criteria used for advancing experimental lines in a breeding program is yield performance. Obtaining yield performance data requires machine picking each plot with a cotton picker, modified to weigh individual plots. Harvesting thousands of small field plots requires a great deal of time and resources. The efficiency of cotton breeding could be increased significantly while the cost could be decreased with the availability of accurate methods to predict yield performance. This work is investigating the feasibility of using an image processing technique using a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) camera mounted on a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (sUAV) to collect normal RGB images in predicting cotton yield on small plot. An orthonormal image was generated from multiple images and used to process multiple, segmented plots. A Gaussian blur was used to eliminate the high frequency component of the images, which corresponds to the cotton pixels, and used image subtraction technique to generate high frequency pixel images. The cotton pixels were then separated using k-means cluster with 5 classes. Based on the current work, the calculated percentage cotton area was computed using the generated high frequency image (cotton pixels) divided by the total area of the plot. Preliminary results showed (five flights, 3 altitudes) that cotton cover on multiple pre-selected 227 sq. m. plots produce an average of 8% which translate to approximately 22.3 kgs. of cotton. The yield prediction equation generated from the test site was then use on a separate validation site and produced a prediction error of less than 10%. In summary, the results indicate that a COTS camera with an appropriate image processing technique can produce results that are comparable to expensive sensors.

  6. Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haonan; Yin, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Lin; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Shuwen; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Yidong

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins.

  7. 香蕉苞片花叶病毒CP基因的原核表达及抗血清制备%Prokaryotic expression and antiserum preparation of Banana bract mosaic virus coat protein gene.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福秀; 陈秀; 韩玉春; 李伟东; 徐卫; 蔡波; 林明光

    2012-01-01

    Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) coat protein (CP) gene was cloned, and prokaryotic expression recombinant plasmid pET- CP was constructed by inserting the cloned gene into pET -28b ( + ). Induced by IPTG,E. coli BL21 (DE3) containing pET- CP produced fusion proteins about 34 kDa in size. Soluble analysis of the fusion protein indicated that it was in the inclusion body. The highly purified interest protein was obtained by using the histidine labeling of N - terminus of the protein. The special antibody was generated to the protein through the purified protein immunizing healthy rabbit. Indirect enzyme immunoassay suggested antibody titre was higher than 1:51 200. The available antibody concentration for virus detection from plant material was 1:800 - 1 : 3 200.%本试验成功构建了香蕉苞片花叶病毒(Banana bract mosaicvirus,BBrMV)外壳蛋白(coat protein,CP)基因的原核表达载体,并诱导表达了34kDa的融合蛋白His.CP。对该原核表达蛋白的可溶性分析表明,该融合蛋白以包涵体形式存在。利用组氨酸标签纯化试剂盒对目的蛋白进行了纯化,获得了高纯度的融合蛋白。以纯化的蛋白为抗原免疫健康家兔,成功制备了抗BBrMV CP基因编码蛋白的兔抗血清。Western—blotting结果表明这种抗血清有很强的特异性。血清效价测定的效价在51200倍以上,对植物材料的合适检测浓度为1:800—1:3200。

  8. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on

  9. An opportunistic Pantoea sp. isolated from a cotton fleahopper that is capable of causing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) bud rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea ananatis (Serano) representatives are known to have a broad host range including both humans and plants. The cotton fleahopper (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus, Reuter) is a significant pest that causes cotton bud damage that may result in significant yield losses. In this study, cotton fleahopp...

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    There are many methods and techniques that can be used to transfer foreign genes into cells. In plant biotechnology, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a widely used traditional method for inserting foreign genes into plant genome and obtaining transgenic plants, particularly for dicot plant species. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton involves several important and also critical steps, which includes coculture of cotton explants with Agrobacterium, induction and selection of stable transgenic cell lines, recovery of plants from transgenic cells majorly through somatic embryogenesis, and detection and expression analysis of transgenic plants. In this chapter, we describe a detailed step-by-step protocol for obtaining transgenic cotton plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  11. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  12. Xyloglucan breakdown during cotton fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Hayato; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2003-11-01

    Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) fibers elongated almost linearly up to about 20 days post anthesis. The molecular mass of xyloglucans in fiber cell walls decreased gradually during the elongation stage. When enzymatically active (native) cell wall preparations of fibers were autolyzed, the molecular mass of xyloglucans decreased. The decrease was most prominent in wall preparations obtained from the rapidly elongating fibers. The xyloglucan-degrading activity was recovered from the fiber cell walls with 3 mol/L NaCl, and the activity was high at the stages in which fibers elongated vigorously. These results suggest the possible involvement of xyloglucan metabolism in the regulation of cotton fiber elongation.

  13. Devil's-claw (Proboscidea louisianica), essential oil and its components : Potential allelochemical agents on cotton and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffle, M S; Waller, G R; Murray, D S; Sgaramello, R P

    1990-06-01

    The potential allelopathic activity of devil's-claw [Proboscidea louisianica (Mill.) Thellung] essential oil and a few of the compounds it contains on the elongation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) radicles was studied using a Petri dish bioassay. Essential oil was collected by steam distillation using an all-glass-Teflon assembly. Ether extracts of the steam distillates from fresh devil's-claw were inhibitory to cotton and wheat radicle elongation. The following six components of devil's-claw essential oil identified by CGC-MS-DS were inhibitory to cotton and/or wheat at a concentration of 1 mM: vanillin, piperitenone, δ-cadinene,p-cymen-9-ol, α-bisabolol, and phenethyl alcohol.

  14. Differential Expression of Salinity Resistance Gene on Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Wu-wei; YU Shu-xun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Salinity resistance and differential gene expression associated with salinity in cotton germplasm were studied,because of the large scale area of salinity in China,and its significant negative effects on the cotton production.The salinityresisted genes and their differential expression were studied under the stress of NaCI on cotton.There were found,under the NaCI stress,1644 genes differentially expressed from the salinity-sensitive cotton and only 817 genes differentially expressed from the salinityresisted cotton.

  15. Identification of Conserved Cotton MicroRNAs and Their Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-hong; WANG Qing-lian

    2008-01-01

    @@ No study has been performed on identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets in cotton although cotton is one of the most important fiber and economic crops around the world.In this study,we found 30 potential cotton miRNAs using a comparative genomic approach based on genomic survey sequence analysis and miRNA secondary structure.These cotton miRNAs belong to 22 miRNA families.Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis indicated that the predicted miRNAs were expressed in cotton plants.

  16. MATCHING COTTON GROWERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE VALUE OF INGARD™ COTTON WITH ECONOMIC ANALYSIS BASED ON SAME FARM PAIRED COMPARISONS OF PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Wayne M.; Harrison, Jennifer L.; O'Brian, Dennis T.

    1999-01-01

    The genetically modified INGARD™ cotton seed was released in Australia in 1996 and was greeted with high expectations and enthusiasm within the cotton industry. INGARD™ cotton seed contains the Cry1A(c) gene from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki for the biological control of Helicoverpa armigera and H. punctigera moth larvae in cotton. These are the most serious insect pests of cotton and account for the majority of insecticides applied to cotton in Australia. Significant...

  17. Influence of Tencel/cotton blends on knitted fabric performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Arafa Badr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements in terms of wearing comfort with sportswear, underwear and outerwear are widely linked to the use of new fibers. Today, Tencel fiber is one of the most important developments in regenerated cellulosic fiber. However, the relation between Tencel fiber properties and fabric characteristics has not been enough studied in the literature especially the influence of fiber materials on mechanical, Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF and absorption properties. Therefore, in this study, knitted fabric samples were manufactured with eight different yarns with two fabric types (single jersey and single jersey with Lycra. 30/1-Ne yarns from natural and regenerated cellulosic fibers: 50% Tencel-LF/50% cotton, 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton, 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton, 70% bamboo/30% cotton, 100% bamboo, 100% Modal, 100% Micro-Modal and 100% cotton were employed. Then, all the produced fabrics were subjected to five cycles laundering and then flat dried. The results show that 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton has more flexural rigidity and withdrawing handle force than 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton fabric, while 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton has a merit of durability during bursting test. Blending Egyptian cotton fibers with bamboo and Tencel as in 70/30% bamboo/cotton and 50/50% Tencel-LF/cotton improve UPF of the produced fabric.

  18. Functionalization of cotton fabrics through thermal reduction of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guangming; Xu, Zhenglin; Yang, Mengyun; Tang, Bin; Wang, Xungai

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was in-situ reduced on cotton fabrics by a simple heat treatment, which endowed cotton fabrics with multi-functions. GO was coated on the surface of cotton fabric through a conventional "dip and dry" approach. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained from GO in the presence of cotton by heating under the protection of nitrogen. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize the complexes of RGO and cotton (RGO/cotton). The RGO/cotton fabrics showed good electrical conductivity, surface hydrophobicity and ultraviolet (UV) protection properties. These properties did not deteriorate significantly after repeated fabric bending and washing.

  19. Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diqiu LIU; Xianlong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned and analyzed. On the other hand, identification of stress response genes expressed in cotton was performed by other research groups. The major stress factors were studied including the wilt pathogens Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxy-sporum f. sp. vasinfectum, bacterial blight, root-knot nematode, drought, and salt stress. What is more, a few genes related to the biosynthesis of gossypol, other sesquiterpene phytoalexins and the major seed oil fatty acids were isolated from cotton. In the present review, we focused on the major advances in cotton gene cloning and expression profiling in the recent years.

  20. Identification of semiochemicals released by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, upon infestation by the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Oliveira, Janser N; da Costa, Joao G; Bleicher, Ervino; Santana, Antonio E G; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2011-07-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae), is increasing in importance as a pest worldwide since the introduction of Bt-cotton, which controls lepidopteran but not homopteran pests. The chemical ecology of interactions between cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvaceae), A. gossypii, and the predatory lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), was investigated with a view to providing new pest management strategies. Behavioral tests using a four-arm (Pettersson) olfactometer showed that alate A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the presence of odor from uninfested cotton seedlings compared to clean air, but significantly less time in the presence of odor from A. gossypii infested plants. A. gossypii also spent significantly more time in the presence of headspace samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained from uninfested cotton seedlings, but significantly less time with those from A. gossypii infested plants. VOCs from uninfested and A. gossypii infested cotton seedlings were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the identification of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), methyl salicylate, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT), which were produced in larger amounts from A. gossypii infested plants compared to uninfested plants. In behavioral tests, A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the control (solvent) arms when presented with a synthetic blend of these four compounds, with and without the presence of VOCs from uninfested cotton. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (EAG) recordings with the lacewing C. lucasina showed significant antennal responses to VOCs from A. gossypii infested cotton, suggesting they have a role in indirect defense and indicating a likely behavioral role for these compounds for the predator as well as the aphid.

  1. Development of a novel-type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Zijing; Hou, Guangming; Hua, Jinping; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants-npf1 and npf2 (with a 120-bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to form the mature NPF1 and NPF2 peptides, and they were found to regulate feeding behaviour. Knock down of larval npf with dsNPF in vitro resulted in decreases of food consumption and body weight, and dsNPF also caused a decrease of glycogen and an increase of trehalose. Moreover, we produced transgenic tobacco plants transiently expressing dsNPF and transgenic cotton plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that H. armigera larvae fed on these transgenic plants or leaves had lower food consumption, body size and body weight compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the control of feeding of H. armigera and valuable for production of potential transgenic cotton.

  2. Early detection of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming; Wu, Yidong

    2012-07-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some major insect pests, but pests can evolve resistance and thereby reduce the effectiveness of such Bt crops. The main approach for slowing pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, several countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. This strategy is designed for cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), which attacks many crops and is the primary target of Bt cotton in China, but it does not apply to pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we review evidence of field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by cotton bollworm in northern China and by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. For both pests, results of laboratory diet bioassays reveal significantly decreased susceptibility of field populations to Cry1Ac, yet field control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported. The early detection of resistance summarized here may spur countermeasures such as planting Bt cotton that produces two or more distinct toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

  3. Locally Grown: Examining Attitudes and Perceptions About Organic Cotton Production and Manufacturing Between Mississippi Cotton Growers and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes and perceptions about organic cotton of Mississippi cotton growers and producers in comparison to fashion-conscious consumers, including advantages/disadvantages of growing and production processes, quality control, consumer preferences, and competitive price structures/profit margins. A sample size of 16 local Mississippi growers and/or producers and 44 undergraduate students at a mid-major Southeastern university were chosen to participate in the study. Instruments were developed based on current research and the definition of organic cotton production defined by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results indicate 75% of growers and producers do not perceive a quality difference between organic and conventionally grown cotton, while 72.7% of the consumers report organically grown cotton is capable of producing a higher quality product compared to conventionally grown cotton. Even with an increase in organic cotton prices (25- 40% higher premium, only 25% of growers and producers would be willing to convert, while a majority (52.3% of consumers would not be willing to spend more than 25% extra for an organically grown cotton product. Consumers indicate the negative effects of conventionally grown cotton, yet many report little knowledge about organic cotton production, while growers/producers immediately dismiss organically grown cotton as a retail marketing strategy.

  4. The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

    2012-01-01

    In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

  5. Effect of Transgenic Bt Cotton on Abundance of Cotton Spider Mites and Total Phenolic Content of Leaves and their Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Pei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences of the total phenolic content in leaves and percentage of cotton plants infested with cotton spider mites between in transgenic Bt (Ezamian No. 24F1 and in non-transgenic Bt cotton (Ek 9 parental line of Ezamian No. 24F1 plots with and without spraying acaricides were systematically investigated in Tai Lake farm, Hubei Province, China, over the period 26 May and 11 September 2011. In acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton does not result in a change of the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to that in non-transgenic Bt cotton, however, without acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton significantly increases the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to those of non-transgenic Bt cotton. The number of eggs, larva-nymph-adults, egg-larvanymph- adults and the plant damage index are independent of the total phenolic content in leaves. The results are also discussed in relation to integrated pest management. It was very necessary for nontarget cotton spider mites of transgenic Bt cotton fields to control in wetland agricultural area.

  6. The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

  7. INVESTIGATION or WASTE COTTON FIBRE AS TREATMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cotton samples obtained after modification and the unmodified sample applied as adsorbents in open gravity flow chromatographic columns for treating efiluentfrom a textile factory. .... minimum value or zero”. For this purpose, 3(lml of.

  8. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... assessment is less than the value of $2.00 per line item entry as established by regulations. ...

  9. Biological Method of Cotton Management in Uzbekistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAGDULLAEV; A; MIRZAEVA; G

    2008-01-01

    The weather conditions in 2007 were favorable for development and distribution of some pests,diseases,and weeds of agricultural crops.Thereby the phytosanitary conditions in this area were compounded.In 2007,the cotton was cultivated on the area more than 1.4 million hectares.In 2007,

  10. Silver nanowire-functionalized cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, Mohammad R; Shateri-Khalilabad, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    In this study, general functionalization of cotton fabric by loading silver nanowires (AgNWs) on cotton surface is reported. Initially, AgNWs were synthesized by a polyol process and then were conformal coated onto individual cotton fibers through a simple "dip and dry" process. SEM images revealed a thin and uniform AgNWs coating on the cotton microfibers which was supported by a surface chemical analysis by EDX. The average electrical surface resistivity of the fabric coated with conductive network of AgNWs was measured to be 27.4 Ω/sq. Incubating the modified fabric with either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated that the fabric had substantial antimicrobial capacity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (100% microbial death). The fabric also showed excellent UV-blocking ability with the UV protection factor of 113.14. The fluorosilane coated AgNWs-loaded fabric displayed stable superhydrophobicity with CA and SHA values of 156.2°±3.2° and 7°, respectively.

  11. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  12. Electricity use patterns in cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy costs are the second largest source of variable costs for cotton gins, with electricity accounting for 18% of variable costs. Energy use has typically not been a major consideration in gin design and previous studies of energy use have utilized instantaneous readings or aggregated season-lon...

  13. Precision agriculture approach for improving cotton irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is a vital part of the southeast Missouri economy and while we’re not currently facing problems with groundwater decline, it’s still important to apply the right amount of irrigation at the proper time. We currently have several projects at the Fisher Delta Research Center with that aim. For ...

  14. Green FR Cotton Barrier Nonwovens: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This green barrier fabric is unique in sense that it is from a renewable resource, biodegradable, economical, employing greige (unbleached) cotton, thus, increasing its marketability. The recent open-flame standard (effective since July, 2007) for residential mattresses 16 CFR 1633 from CPSC has l...

  15. Improved prospects of cotton used in nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major difficulties and headwinds encountered by the nonwovens industry in incorporating cotton in their products have been identified. The research was conducted to resolve those major problems facing the industry. The research results have shown that most of those problems can be adequately h...

  16. The Case for Cotton Wipes and Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The significant growth in the volume and number of wipe-based products for a wide variety of applications is consuming ever increasing amounts of fiber as raw material in wipes and other nonwoven products. The United States Department of Agriculture and Cotton Incorporated recognize both the economi...

  17. Development of Cotton-Based Nonwovens Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article briefly describes the planned or projected developments of cotton-based nonwoven products, using state-of-the art technologies and equipment that now, after the devastating hurricane Katrina, have been made available for research at the Southern Regional Reserach Center. Although we sti...

  18. Energy utilization and conservation in cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2013 survey of cotton gins found that energy costs, electricity and dryer fuel, were $6.11 per bale, 25% of the total variable costs of ginning. Recent studies have found that average electricity use at gins is approximately 35 kWh per bale, more efficient than older studies. However, gins must co...

  19. Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-12-18

    This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of θ(a)/θ(r) = 151°/144° (θ(a), advancing contact angle; θ(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation.

  20. Biolistic transformation of cotton zygotic embryo meristem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolistic transformation of cotton meristems, isolated from mature seed is detailed in this book chapter. This method is simple and avoids the necessity to use genotype-dependent regenerable cell cultures. However, identification of germ line transformation using this method is laborious and time-c...

  1. Trivial Sources of Heterosis in Cotton?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAMPBELL B T; BOWMAN D T; WEAVER D B

    2008-01-01

    @@ Historically,re-selection,pedigree,and mass selection breeding methods have been used to develop open-pollinated cultivars of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).Due to the predominance of these breeding methods,we hypothesize that modern cultivars,as opposed to obsolete cultivars,have accumulated additive genetic effects over time.

  2. Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

  3. Molecular tools for contemporary cotton breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among approximately 50 Gossypium (cotton) species are two tetraploids (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense) and two diploids (G. arboreum, and G. herbaceum) that are domesticated to produce raw materials for global textile and oilseed industries with an increasing demand for high-yield and high-quality of co...

  4. A novel monocular visual navigation method for cotton-picking robot based on horizontal spline segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, ShengYong; Wu, JuanJuan; Zhu, Li; Li, WeiHao; Wang, YiTian; Wang, Na

    2015-12-01

    Visual navigation is a fundamental technique of intelligent cotton-picking robot. There are many components and cover in the cotton field, which make difficulties of furrow recognition and trajectory extraction. In this paper, a new field navigation path extraction method is presented. Firstly, the color image in RGB color space is pre-processed by the OTSU threshold algorithm and noise filtering. Secondly, the binary image is divided into numerous horizontally spline areas. In each area connected regions of neighboring images' vertical center line are calculated by the Two-Pass algorithm. The center points of the connected regions are candidate points for navigation path. Thirdly, a series of navigation points are determined iteratively on the principle of the nearest distance between two candidate points in neighboring splines. Finally, the navigation path equation is fitted by the navigation points using the least squares method. Experiments prove that this method is accurate and effective. It is suitable for visual navigation in the complex environment of cotton field in different phases.

  5. Effects of nematicides on cotton root mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R E; Carling, D E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L; Hightower, P

    2004-02-01

    Baseline information on the diversity and population densities of fungi collected from soil debris and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots was determined. Samples were collected from Tifton, GA, and Starkville, MS containing cotton field soil treated with the nematicides 1,3-dichloroproprene (fumigant) and aldicarb (granules). A total of 10,550 and 13,450 fungal isolates were collected from these two study sites, respectively. Of this total, 34 genera of plant pathogenic or saprophytic species were identified. Pathogenic root fungi included Fusarium spp. (40% of all isolations), Macrophomina, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Sclerotium. Fusarium and Rhizoctonia were the most common fungal species identified and included F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides and F. solani, the three Fusarium species pathogenic on cotton plants. Population densities of Fusarium were not significantly different among locations or tissue types sampled. Macrophomina was isolated at greater numbers near the end of the growing seasons. Anastomosis groups of R. solani isolated from roots and soil debris included AG-3, -4, -7, 2-2, and -13 and anastomosis groups of binucleate Rhizoctonia included CAG-2, -3, and -5. Occurrences and frequency of isolations among sampling dates were not consistent. Fluctuations in the frequency of isolation of Rhizoctonia did not correspond with changes in frequency of isolation of the biological control fungus, Trichoderma. When individual or pooled frequencies of the mycobiota were compared to nematicide treatments, no specific trends occurred between treatments, application methods or rates. Results from this study show that use of 1,3-D and aldicarb in cotton fields does not significantly impact plant pathogenic fungi or saprophytic fungal populations. Thus cotton producers need not adjust seedling disease control measures when these two nematicides are used.

  6. An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

    2009-10-15

    In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  7. Ethanol production from cotton gin trash using optimised dilute acid pretreatment and whole slurry fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, S; Vancov, T; Palmer, J; Morris, S

    2014-12-01

    Cotton ginning trash (CGT) collected from Australian cotton gins was evaluated for bioethanol production. CGT composition varied between ginning operations and contained high levels of extractives (26-28%), acid-insoluble material (17-22%) and holocellulose (42-50%). Pretreatment conditions of time (4-20 min), temperature (160-220 °C) and sulfuric acid concentration (0-2%) were optimised using a central composite design. Response surface modelling revealed that CGT fibre pretreated at 180 °C in 0.8% H2SO4 for 12 min was optimal for maximising enzymatic glucose recoveries and achieved yields of 89% theoretical, whilst the total accumulated levels of furans and acetic acid remained relatively low at slurries and (c) simultaneous saccharification fermentations, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  9. Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule.

  10. Laser detection method for cotton orientation in robotic cotton picking%面向采摘机器人的棉花激光定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 刘思瑶; 卢伟; 顾宝兴; 朱镕杰; 朱宏超

    2014-01-01

    In order to detect cotton’s position on a plant, a laser measurement experiment was designed, which included a crossgirder, and beneath which a model LMS291-S05 laser scanner produced by SICK Co., Ltd was fixed. Then the three-dimensional coordinate values of a single cotton plant can be measured with the devices mentioned above, and the acquired distance image was furthermore processed with computer image processing technology and pattern recognition theory and also with the agronomic characteristics of cotton taken into consideration. The sampling interval of the laser sensor on axis X and axis Y was both 0.004 m, and the sampled points formed a image that illustrated the distance from the laser sensor to the plant surface point cloud. For the purpose of removing the unneeded background of the plant in the image, the acquired plant distance image was first processed with binaryzation at the threshold value of 0.9 m, because that 0.9 m happened to be the longest distance from the laser sensor to the bottom part of the cotton plant surface according to the measured data. Observing the cotton plant’s morphological characters in the formerly binarized image, and it was not hard to find out that the cotton part in the image appeared to be circular with a large area, while the stalk part in the image was thin and tiny. On this basis, morphology opening operations were carried out toward the edge of the bimarized image with the structural elements from a circle whose radius ranges from 0.01 m to 0.02 m, which is the usual width of a cotton stalk, in order to remove the unneeded cotton stalk background and extract the binary image of cotton. After a series of comparisons among different distances namely Euclidean, Mahalanobis, Bullock, and Minkowski distances, and considering that the pixel gray value was one-dimensional data, the distance between pixels was found to be insensitive to computing methods. The similarity between pixels in the image was calculated with

  11. Characterization of the natural enemy community attacking cotton aphid in the Bt cotton ecosystem in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Desneux, Nicolas; Lu, Yanhui; Liu, Bing; Wu, Kongming

    2016-04-14

    Planting Bt cotton in China since 1997 has led to important changes in the natural enemy communities occurring in cotton, however their specific effect on suppressing the cotton aphids (being notorious in conventional cotton ecosystem) has not been fully documented yet. We observed strong evidence for top-down control of the aphid population, e.g. the control efficiency of natural enemies on cotton aphid increased significantly in open field cages compared to exclusion cages, accounted for 60.2, 87.2 and 76.7% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 season, respectively. The cotton aphid populations peaked in early June to late July (early and middle growth stages) in open field cotton survey from 2011 to 2013. The population densities of cotton aphids and natural enemies were highest on middle growth stage while lowest densities were recorded on late stage for aphids and on early plant stage for natural enemies. Aphid parasitoids (Trioxys spp., Aphidius gifuensis), coccinellids and spiders were key natural enemies of cotton aphid. Briefly, natural enemies can suppress aphid population increase from early to middle plant growth stages by providing biocontrol services in Chinese Bt cotton.

  12. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  13. Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic

  14. Study on the Handle of Keratin Transgenic Cotton Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋培清; 严文源; 严灏景

    2004-01-01

    Gene of animal keratin can be inoculated into cotton fiber and thus get the keratin transgenic cotton fiber through transgenic technology. Handle of two kinds of pure cotton poplin, one of which is made of the keratin transgenic cotton while the other is made of the ordinary cotton of the same breed as control group and both with absolutely identical spinning, weaving, and dyeing process, was objectively evaluated with KES system. The result of analysis indicates that the principal changes of keratin transgenic cotton fabric are that the bending and shearing property of the fabric are considerably enhanced, KOSHI (Stiffness) and HARI (Anti-drape stiffness) of the fabric are good, while SHINAYAKASA (Flexibility with soft feeling) and SHARI (Crispness) decline.

  15. PRICE RELATIONSHIPS IN THE U.S. FIBER MARKETS: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR COTTON INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Mohanty, Samarendu; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper examined the price relationship between cotton and polyester. The results provide strong evidence of long term price transmissions and granger causality between cotton and polyester price as well as the asymmetry transmissions for cotton on cotton, cotton on polyester, and polyester on polyester price. However, we did not find any evidence that there exists asymmetry transmission for polyester price on cotton price. Our results also did not support the contemporaneous effects hypoth...

  16. Collection,Evaluation,and Utilization of Cotton Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiong-ming; ZHOU Zhong-li; SUN Jun-Ling; PAN Zhao-e; JIA Yin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ A total of 8193 accessions,including 6822 Gossypium hirsutum,350 G.hirsutum race (sub-spe-cies),385 of G.barbadense,378 of G.arboreum,17 of G.herbaceum and 41 wild species,of cotton germplasm are now maintained in China.This germplasm is kept in Beijing National Long-term Genebank and Anyang Cotton Medium-term Genebank.Live plants of the wild species are kept in Cotton garden at Hainan Island.

  17. Transcriptome Profiling and Analysis during Cotton Fiber Cell Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ In this project,we aim to elucidate the molecular mechanism controlling initiation and elongation of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum fiber cells by setting up a high throughput custom-designed cDNA microarray and a systematic gene expression profiling during cotton fiber development.We first constructed a microarray consisting of more than 28,000 cotton UniESTs that we obtained by deep-sequencing of several cotton ovule cDNA libraries.

  18. Molecular Markers in Improvement of Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAVEENDRAN T S; PREETHA S; RAJESWARI S

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the worlds leading natural fiber crop,and it is the cornerstone of textile industries worldwide.The cotton industry is confronted with problems in cost of production and requirements for high quality in the product.It is an industry in which marketing is based on measurable quality factors and where technological changes are being implemented rapidly and constantly.So the breeders have to constantly breed cotton varieties to suit the requirements of the textile industry.

  19. 75 FR 22026 - User Fees for 2010 Crop Cotton Classification Services to Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... storage facility operators, merchants, cooperatives, and textile manufacturers were addressed in various... CFR Part 28 Administrative practice and procedure, Cotton, Cotton samples, Grades, Market news...

  20. Cotton cellulose: enzyme adsorption and enzymic hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrame, P.L.; Carniti, P.; Focher, B.; Marzetti, A.; Cattaneo, M.

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of a crude cellulase complex from Trichoderma viride on variously pretreated cotton cellulose samples was studied in the framework of the Langmuir approach at 2-8 degrees. The saturation amount of adsorbed enzyme was related to the susceptibility of the substrates to hydrolysis. In every case the adsorption process was faster by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the hydrolysis step to give end products. For ZnCl/sub 2/-treated cotton cellulose the Langmuir parameters correlated fairly well with the value of the Michaelis constant, measured for its enzymic hydrolysis, and the adsorptive complex was indistinguishable from the complex of the Michaelis-Menten model for the hydrolysis.

  1. Opening Remarks:Perspectives of the International Cotton Genome Initiative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU John Z; PERCY Richard G

    2008-01-01

    @@ Thanks go to our hosts,the organizers,sponsors,and all participants who have put in great ef-forts to making the 2008 Research Conference of the International Cotton Genome Initiative (ICGI,http.//icgi,tamu.edu/meeting/2008/) possible.Special thanks go to our host here in Anyang,and toour host country,China-the world's largest cotton producer and consumer.The biennial ICGI Re-search Conference is a major venue for the global cotton community to exchange information and toformulate,prioritize,and coordinate future collaborative research efforts in cotton genomics.

  2. Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C. W.; Lam, Y. L.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Luximon, A.; Lau, K. W.; Chen, K. S.

    2013-06-01

    This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  3. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  4. 7 CFR 407.12 - Group risk plan for cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...): (1) Colored cotton lint; (2) Planted into an established grass or legume; (3) Interplanted with..., Guadalupe, Gonzales, De Witt, Lavaca, Colorado, Wharton, and Matagorda Counties, Texas February 28...

  5. The State of the Kenyan Cotton Growing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josphat Igadwa Mwasiagi; HUANG Xiu-bao; WANG Xin-hou; J O Wagala

    2007-01-01

    From the early 1960s to late 1980s, the Kenyan cotton growing industry played a vital role in the Kenyan economy in terms of provision of employment and creation of wealth in the rural areas. It also played a central role in the textile industry which was thriving during the above mentioned period. Over the years, cotton production in Kenya has fallen steadily, such that by the year 2000, the country experienced a severe cotton fiber deficit. This study was undertaken to investigate the trend of the cotton growing industry in Kenya. Selected aspects of the industry like cost of production, cotton seed distribution, the operation of cotton gins and the quality of cotton lint were considered.Kohonen Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and K-means clustering techniques were used in data analysis. The results of this study show that Kenyan cotton farmers produced seed cotton at a break-even price of US$ 0.31 per kilogram, while the price offered was US $ 0.29 per kilogram.c

  6. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Meisner

    Full Text Available Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  7. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  8. Toward Molecular Cytogenetical Characterizations in Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; WANG Kun-bo; PENG Ren-hai; WU Qion; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang; STELLY David

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is viewed as the most important cash crop in the world,and sustains the agricultural economies of many nations by providing a sustainable fiber product for the textile industry.Due to its global economic importance,many molecular tools are being developed.Florescent in situ hybridization (FISH),which allows DNA sequences to be mapped directly on chromosomes,is stressed as one of the most powerful techniques in plant molecular cytogenetics research.

  9. Preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces on cotton textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hua Xue et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated by the complex coating of silica nanoparticles with functional groups onto cotton textiles to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with stearic acid, 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane or their combination. The wettability and morphology of the as-fabricated surfaces were investigated by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. Characterizations by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis were also conducted.

  10. FISHy Analysis of Tetraploid Cotton Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STELLY; David

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH) is an important technique in plant genome research,because it provides integrated information about DNA,chromosomes and genomes.Genomic in situ hybridization(GISH) is a modification of FISH that can be used to rapidly compare genome content,relatedness,organization and/or behavior.GISH results often provide insight into genome evolution and species relationships.The cotton genus Gossypium consists of about 50 species,including 5 AADD

  11. Cotton genotypes selection through artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, E G Silva; Cardoso, D B O; Reis, M C; Nascimento, A F O; Bortolin, D I; Martins, M R; Sousa, L B

    2017-09-27

    Breeding programs currently use statistical analysis to assist in the identification of superior genotypes at various stages of a cultivar's development. Differently from these analyses, the computational intelligence approach has been little explored in genetic improvement of cotton. Thus, this study was carried out with the objective of presenting the use of artificial neural networks as auxiliary tools in the improvement of the cotton to improve fiber quality. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, this research was carried out using the evaluation data of 40 genotypes. In order to classify the genotypes for fiber quality, the artificial neural networks were trained with replicate data of 20 genotypes of cotton evaluated in the harvests of 2013/14 and 2014/15, regarding fiber length, uniformity of length, fiber strength, micronaire index, elongation, short fiber index, maturity index, reflectance degree, and fiber quality index. This quality index was estimated by means of a weighted average on the determined score (1 to 5) of each characteristic of the HVI evaluated, according to its industry standards. The artificial neural networks presented a high capacity of correct classification of the 20 selected genotypes based on the fiber quality index, so that when using fiber length associated with the short fiber index, fiber maturation, and micronaire index, the artificial neural networks presented better results than using only fiber length and previous associations. It was also observed that to submit data of means of new genotypes to the neural networks trained with data of repetition, provides better results of classification of the genotypes. When observing the results obtained in the present study, it was verified that the artificial neural networks present great potential to be used in the different stages of a genetic improvement program of the cotton, aiming at the improvement of the fiber quality of the future cultivars.

  12. Cotton price change and welfare in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anani Nourredine Mensah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the evaluation of net benefit ratios applied to survey data on households to appreciate the effects of international price of cotton on the welfare of producers in Togo. It needs first to trace the difference between international prices and those paid to domestic producers. Furthermore, given that households are producers of these goods, we use a revenue function that depends on the remuneration of labor, other earnings and profit that in turn depends on the price paid to producers and land ownership. For estimates, the effect of welfare, which is captured by the compensating variation, is the result of the share of the average cotton income in average total income multiplied by the change in the price of cotton. Our results with QUIBB 2006 and 2011 survey data reveal that the impact of a price change on the compensating variation gives a welfare change relatively higher for poor households. However, this effect remains low, considering whether a change in producer prices or in international price. A simulation of a potential effect of the change in the producer price of 50% of the differential of the two prices, and the positive impact on social welfare that results appears stronger. This positive change in welfare is reversely associated to the wealth of households.

  13. Propolis induced antibacterial activity and other technical properties of cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, S; Higazy, A; Hebeish, A

    2013-08-01

    Propolis is a gum gathered by honey bees from various plants; the honey bees use propolis to seal holes in their honey combs, smooth out the internal wall and protect the entrance against intruders. It is composed of 50% resin (flavonoids and related phenolic acid), 30% wax, 10% essential oils, 5% pollen and 5% various organic components. As a natural mixture, propolis is widely used in medicine, cosmetics and food. So far no attempts have been yet made to make use of propolis in the realm of textile finishing. Current work presents the first systemic study targeted to build up a scientific basis for production of cotton textiles having antibacterial activity and other useful properties by making use of propolis as eco-friendly finish within the scope of green strategy. Propolis extract solution (70/30 ethanol/water) of 10% concentration was prepared as the stock. Different amounts of the latter were used along with a crosslinking agent and catalyst for treatment of cotton fabrics as per pad-dry-cure technique. Antibacterial activity of the so treated fabrics was obtained through monitoring the efficiency of the interaction of propolis with cotton cellulose. This interaction was expressed as inhibition zone diameter after the treated fabrics were exposed to (G+ve) and (G-ve) bacteria. Other properties include crease recovery, tensile strength and elongation at break. Factors affecting these properties such as type, nature and concentration of the crosslinking agent, concentration of propolis, and conditions of curing were investigated. In addition characterization of the propolis containing modified cotton fabrics including demonstration of the antibacterial activity, SEM, FTIR, durability to washing, UV protection and water repellency were performed. Based on results obtained, it is concluded that application of propolis along with glyoxal and Al2(SO4)3catalyst using pad-dry (3min/80°C), cure (5/140°C) bring about cotton textile with superior antibacterial

  14. Transgenic Bt Cotton Does Not Disrupt the Top-Down Forces Regulating the Cotton Aphid in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong-Sheng; Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Dong, Yong-Cheng; Gao, Xi-Wu; Cui, Jin-Jie; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Top-down force is referred to arthropod pest management delivered by the organisms from higher trophic levels. In the context of prevalent adoption of transgenic Bt crops that produce insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), it still remains elusive whether the top-down forces are affected by the insect-resistant traits that introduced into the Bt crops. We explored how Bt cotton affect the strength of top-down forces via arthropod natural enemies in regulating a non-target pest species, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, using a comparative approach (i.e. Bt cotton vs. conventional cotton) under field conditions. To determine top-down forces, we manipulated predation/parasitism exposure of the aphid to their natural enemies using exclusion cages. We found that the aphid population growth was strongly suppressed by the dominant natural enemies including Coccinellids, spiders and Aphidiines parasitoids. Coccinellids, spiders and the assemblage of other arthropod natural enemies (mainly lacewings and Hemipteran bugs) are similarly abundant in both plots, but with the parasitoid mummies less abundant in Bt cotton plots compared to the conventional cotton plots. However, the lower abundance of parasitoids in Bt cotton plots alone did not translate into differential top-down control on A. gossypii populations compared to conventional ones. Overall, the top-down forces were equally strong in both plots. We conclude that transgenic Bt cotton does not disrupt the top-down forces regulating the cotton aphid in central China. PMID:27870914

  15. In-Field High-Throughput Phenotyping of Cotton Plant Height Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangpeng Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A LiDAR-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP system was developed for cotton plant phenotyping in the field. The HTP system consists of a 2D LiDAR and an RTK-GPS mounted on a high clearance tractor. The LiDAR scanned three rows of cotton plots simultaneously from the top and the RTK-GPS was used to provide the spatial coordinates of the point cloud during data collection. Configuration parameters of the system were optimized to ensure the best data quality. A height profile for each plot was extracted from the dense three dimensional point clouds; then the maximum height and height distribution of each plot were derived. In lab tests, single plants were scanned by LiDAR using 0.5° angular resolution and results showed an R2 value of 1.00 (RMSE = 3.46 mm in comparison to manual measurements. In field tests using the same angular resolution; the LiDAR-based HTP system achieved average R2 values of 0.98 (RMSE = 65 mm for cotton plot height estimation; compared to manual measurements. This HTP system is particularly useful for large field application because it provides highly accurate measurements; and the efficiency is greatly improved compared to similar studies using the side view scan.

  16. A cost of alarm pheromone production in cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A.

    2005-02-01

    The sesquiterpene, (E)-β-farnesene, is used by many aphid species as an alarm pheromone to warn related individuals of predation. Disturbed cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, released (E)-β-farnesene into the air as detected by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS). Solvent extracts of cotton aphids of various life stages and weights also were analyzed by GC MS for sums of ions 69 and 93, which discriminated (E)-β-farnesene from coeluting compounds. Aphids of all life stages and sizes reared on cotton plants in both an environmental chamber and glasshouse contained (E)-β-farnesene in amounts ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 ng per individual. The quantities of (E)-β-farnesene in aphids increased in relation to increasing body weight, and variation in individual weights explained about 82% of the variation in alarm pheromone. However, the concentrations (ng/mg fresh weight) declined exponentially with increasing body weight. These findings indicate that aphid nymphs try to compensate for their smaller size by producing relatively more pheromone per weight than adults but still cannot approach an evolutionary optimal load, as assumed in adults with the greatest total amounts. This suggests that young aphids need to balance costs of growth and maturation with costs of producing the alarm pheromone.

  17. Influences of Cotton Fabric Treatments on Human Physical Responses during Exercise and Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the influences of liquid water transfer property of cotton fabric on human physiological responses, such as ear canal temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, stress hormone, during exercise and recovery.Long sleeves cotton knitted sportswear treated to have special liquid water transfer property were prepared:(1) Hydrophilic; ( 2 ) Hydrophobic; and ( 3 ) Moisture Management (MM). Wearing these garments, human subjects ran on treadmill according to a pre-designed experimental protocol. It was found that during exercise hydrophilic cotton caused significantly higher mean skin temperature than MM and hydrophobic cotton fabrics, while during recovcry, hydrophilic and MM cotton fabrics caused significantly higher mean skin temperature than hydrophobic cotton fabric. Hydrophilic cotton fabric caused significantly lower heart rate than MM cotton fabric, lower systolic blood pressure than MM and hydrophobic cotton fabrics.Hydrophobic cotton fabric caused significantly higher urinary catecholamine volume than hydrophilic and MM cotton fabric, indicating stronger physical stress.Hydrophilic cotton fabric caused significantly stronger thermal and humidity sensations than MM and hydrophobic cotton fabrics at the end of first and second exercise sessions. Hydrophilic cotton fabric caused significantly stronger discomfort sensation than hydrophobic cotton fabric at the end of first session of exercise. In the end of wear trial, MM cotton fabric caused significantly higher tiredness sensation than hydrophilic and hydrophobic cotton fabrics.

  18. Water Use Efficiency in Saline Soils under Cotton Cultivation in the Tarim River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tarim River Basin, the largest area of Chinese cotton production, is receiving increased attention because of serious environmental problems. At two experimental stations (Korla and Aksu, we studied the influence of salinity on cotton yield. Soil chemical and physical properties, soil water content, soil total suction and matric suction, cotton yield and water use efficiency under plastic mulched drip irrigation in different saline soils was measured during cotton growth season. The salinity (mS·cm−1 were 17–25 (low at Aksu and Korla, 29–50 (middle at Aksu and 52–62 (high at Aksu for ECe (Electrical conductivity measured in saturation-paste extract of soil over the 100 cm soil profile. The soil water characteristic curves in different saline soils showed that the soil water content (15%–23% at top 40 cm soil, lower total suction power (below 3500 kPa and lower matric suction (below 30 kPa in low saline soil at Korla had the highest water use efficiency (10 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and highest irrigation water use efficiency (12 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and highest yield (6.64 t·ha−1. Higher water content below 30 cm in high saline soil increased the salinity risk and led to lower yield (2.39 t·ha−1. Compared to low saline soils at Aksu, the low saline soil at Korla saved 110 mm irrigation and 103 mm total water to reach 1 t·ha−1 yield and increased water use efficiency by 5 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and 7 kg·ha−1·mm−1 for water use efficiency (WUE and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE respectively.

  19. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to caterpillar-induced volatiles from cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Zhang, Yongjun; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming; Gao, Xiwu; Guo, Yuyuan

    2010-04-01

    Microplitis mediator Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important larval endoparasitoid of various lepidopteran pests, including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). In China, H. armigera is a key pest of cotton and is currently the focus of several biological control efforts that use M. mediator as principal natural enemy of this pest. To improve the success of biological control efforts, behavioral studies are needed that shed light on the interaction between M. mediator and H. armigera. In this study, we determined M. mediator response to volatile compounds from undamaged, mechanically injured, or H. armigera--damaged plants and identified attractive volatiles. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, we found that mechanically damaged plants and/or plants treated with H. armigera oral secretions did not attract wasps. However, volatiles from H. armigera-damaged plants elicited a strong attraction of both M. mediator sexes. Headspace extracts from H. armigera-damaged cotton were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), and a total of seven different compounds were found to elicit electroantennogram (EAG) responses, including an unknown compound. Six different EAD-active volatiles were identified from caterpillar-damaged cotton plants, of which 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were the principal compounds. Olfactometer assays indicated that individual synthetic compounds of 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and nonanal were attractive to M. mediator. Field cage studies showed that parasitism of H. armigera larvae by M. mediator was higher on cotton plants to which 3,7-dimethyl-1,3, 6-octatriene was applied. Our results show that the combination of terpenoids and green leaf volatiles may not only facilitate host, mate, or food location but may also increase H. armigera parasitism by M. mediator.

  20. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  1. Developing Accurate Spatial Maps of Cotton Fiber Quality Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awareness of the importance of cotton fiber quality (Gossypium, L. sps.) has increased as advances in spinning technology require better quality cotton fiber. Recent advances in geospatial information sciences allow an improved ability to study the extent and causes of spatial variability in fiber p...

  2. Cotton dust exposure: Analysis of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat M Dangi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cotton industry workers are exposed to various hazards in the different departments of textile factories. The major health problems associated with cotton dust are respiratory problems, byssinosis, bronchitis and asthma. Objective: To study the effect of cotton dust exposure on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at cotton mill in the Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: One hundred cotton mill workers of the weaving and spinning area participated in this study while 100 age- and gender-matched male subjects living in the residential area served as the control group. A questionnaire was used to inquire about respiratory symptoms and spirometry was done in both the groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test was used to find the difference between spirometric parameters, and Chi-square test was used to find the difference between respiratory symptoms. Results: Respiratory symptoms were statistically significantly more common in the cotton mill workers compared to control group. Cotton mill workers group also showed significant (P < 0.0001 decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, ratio of FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC and peak expiratory flow rate, and no significant difference of FVC between groups. There was an association of duration of exposure and symptoms with spirometric abnormality. Conclusion: Cotton mill workers showed a significant decrease in spirometric parameters and increase in respiratory symptoms. As the duration of exposure and symptoms increased, spirometric abnormality increased.

  3. Sequencing of the Cultivated Tetraploid CottonGenome-Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-xun; WANG Kun-bo; LI Fu-guang; KOHEL Russell J; PERCY Richard G; YU John Z

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is an important cash crop in the world,and it plays an irreplaceable role in China's nationaleconomy.Cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world's cottonproduction,but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30000 genes in 2500 MbDNA.

  4. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, S.M.; Hansen, K.; Romanish, M.; Thorn, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia

  5. Governing the transnational organic cotton network from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Vodouhè, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to conceptualize the historical development and the governance structure of the transnational organic cotton network from Benin. We aim to discover how the organic cotton production-consumption network is governed locally and internationally. Existing bodies of literature

  6. China Project "973"-Molecular Improvement of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-xun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the main cash crop in China,and plays a very important and irreplaceable role in the national economy.With only 3% of total crop plant area,China accounts for over 10% of the output of the cotton industry.

  7. Nitrogen economy in relay intercropping systems of wheat and cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.Z.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Werf, van der W.

    2008-01-01

    Relay intercropping of wheat and cotton is practiced on a large scale in China. Winter wheat is thereby grown as a food crop from November to June and cotton as a cash crop from April to October. The crops overlap in time, growing as an intercrop, from April till June. High levels of nitrogen are ap

  8. Productivity and resource use in cotton and wheat relay intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Grain yield; lint yield; phenological delay; light use; nitrogen use; resource use efficiency; modelling; profitability; water productivity.   From the early 1980s onwards, farmers in the Yellow River cotton producing region intercropped cotton and winter wheat; currently on more than 60%

  9. 75 FR 42784 - Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On July 2,...

  10. NDRC: Annual Summary of the Cotton Market Conditions 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    National Development and Reform Commission

    2010-01-01

    @@ In his second part of speech at the video and telephone conference on the national cotton work, Zhao Xiaoaiang. deputv director of the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC), summarized the situation of 2010 cotton work and the major work arrangements.

  11. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, S.M.; Hansen, K.; Romanish, M.; Thorn, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia res

  12. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILKINS; Thea; A

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our understanding of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a `white paper' published in 2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated upland cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degree

  13. Role of biotechnology in sustainable development of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prospect of biotechnology to provide cost-efficient sustainable cotton production under a safe environment for the 21st century is enormous. The role of plant biotechnology in the improvement of cotton is a rapidly evolving area and very broad. The specific objective of this paper is to provide...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... further processing, for spinning, papermaking, or production of non-woven fabric; or (4) Re-ginned... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to...

  15. Imazamox Tolerance in Mutation Derived Lines of Upland Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of genes conferring herbicide resistance by mutagenesis could facilitate use of imidazolinone herbicides in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In 1997 and 1998, seeds of eight High Plains cotton cultivars were treated with 2.45% v/v EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate). The resulting M3 and M...

  16. Shortwave infrared hyperspectral Imaging for cotton foreign matter classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various types of cotton foreign matter seriously reduce the commercial value of cotton lint and further degrade the quality of textile products for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of a non-contact technique, i.e., liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) hyperspectral ima...

  17. Determing the feasiblity of chemical imaging of cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is some interest in the textile community about the identity of cotton trash that has become comingled with cotton lint. Currently, trash is identified visually by human “classers” and instrumentally by the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) and the High Volume Instrument (HVI). Although...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organization's active membership; (b) Nature and size of the organization's active membership in the State... county, the number of cotton producers in each such county, and the size of the organization's active... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205...

  19. CMD: a Cotton Microsatellite Database resource for Gossypium genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shaolin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD http://www.cottonssr.org is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing centralized access to publicly available cotton microsatellites, an invaluable resource for basic and applied research in cotton breeding. Description At present CMD contains publication, sequence, primer, mapping and homology data for nine major cotton microsatellite projects, collectively representing 5,484 microsatellites. In addition, CMD displays data for three of the microsatellite projects that have been screened against a panel of core germplasm. The standardized panel consists of 12 diverse genotypes including genetic standards, mapping parents, BAC donors, subgenome representatives, unique breeding lines, exotic introgression sources, and contemporary Upland cottons with significant acreage. A suite of online microsatellite data mining tools are accessible at CMD. These include an SSR server which identifies microsatellites, primers, open reading frames, and GC-content of uploaded sequences; BLAST and FASTA servers providing sequence similarity searches against the existing cotton SSR sequences and primers, a CAP3 server to assemble EST sequences into longer transcripts prior to mining for SSRs, and CMap, a viewer for comparing cotton SSR maps. Conclusion The collection of publicly available cotton SSR markers in a centralized, readily accessible and curated web-enabled database provides a more efficient utilization of microsatellite resources and will help accelerate basic and applied research in molecular breeding and genetic mapping in Gossypium spp.

  20. Cost Effective Approaches to Impart Flame Resistance to Cotton Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent changes in the flammability laws require improvements in the flame resistance of cotton-containing consumer goods such as upholstered furniture, mattresses, and pillows. Cotton, synthetic fibers, fabrics, and foam are the basic constituents of these goods, often the first to engulf by a fire....

  1. High-Volume Utilization of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article briefly explores possible utilization of cotton in volume in the traditional textile sector and in the growing nontraditional nonwovens sector and covers the challenges and opportunities that may exist on the way. Some new concepts in the development of predominantly cotton-based textil...

  2. A novel approach for efficient utilization of cotton into nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a cooperative research and development project with a progressive U.S. cotton producer & ginner, the ARS-USDA has conducted a preliminary investigative study to determine the feasibility of using pre-cleaned cotton for certain nonwoven substrates. This article briefly describes the processing of ...

  3. Silver(I) Antimicrobial Cotton Nonwovens and Printcloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we discuss the preparation and comparative evaluation of silver (I) [Ag(I)] nonwoven and woven antimicrobial barrier fabrics generated from commercial calcium-sodium alginates and laboratory prepared sodium carboxymethyl (CM) cotton nonwovens and CM-cotton printcloth for potential use ...

  4. 76 FR 60388 - Revision of Cotton Futures Classification Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 27 RIN 0581-AD16 Revision of Cotton Futures Classification Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing... using Smith-Doxey classification data in the cotton futures classification process. In...

  5. Gossypolhemiquinone, a dimeric sesquiterpenoid identified in cotton (Gossypium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report that the cotton leaf perforator, Bucculatrix thurberiella, is one of the few insect herbivores to attack Gossypium thurberi prompted an investigation of the terpenoids present in the leaves of this wild species of cotton. Members of Gossypium produce subepidermal pigment glands in their ...

  6. Tracking cotton fiber quality throughout a stipper harvester: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality and higher foreign matter content than picker ...

  7. A harvester based calibration system for cotton yield monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to develop a system for measuring seed cotton weight on a cotton harvester to facilitate on-farm research efforts and provide information for use in semi-real-time calibration of yield monitors. The system tested in 2014 was improved from the original design developed...

  8. Fourier transform infrared macro-imaging of botanical cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The marketability of cotton fiber is directly tied to the trash comingled with it. Trash can contaminate cotton during harvesting, ginning, and processing. Thus, the removal of trash is important from field to fabric. An ideal prerequisite to removing trash from lint is identifying what trash types...

  9. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  10. Potential of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton micronaire determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is one of important cotton properties as it reflects fiber maturity and fineness. Automation-based high volume instrumentation (HVITM) measurement has been well established as a primary and routine tool of providing fiber micronaire and other quality properties to cotton breeders and fibe...

  11. Use of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton micronaire assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is one of important cotton properties as it reflects fiber maturity and fineness. Automation-based high volume instrumentation (HVITM) measurement has been well established as a primary and routine tool of providing fiber micronaire and other quality properties to cotton breeders and fibe...

  12. Scouring Potential of Mesophile Acidic Proteases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for Grey Cotton Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, D.

    2013-04-01

    Mesophile, acidic proteases were produced using the microbial source, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with wider thermal tolerances. Process conditions of scouring treatment were optimized using Taguchi method for optimum temperature, time, pH and concentration of protease. Treatment with the protease lower weight loss values compared to the alkali scouring, however, significant improvement in the absorbency compared to the grey samples was observed. Large amounts of pectin left out in the samples resulted in higher extractable impurities, substantiated by the FTIR results. Relatively, lower reduction in the tear strengths was observed in both warp and weft directions after protease treatment of the cotton fabrics.

  13. 77 FR 20503 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... January 9, 2012 (76 FR 80278). AMS received four comments: One from a national trade organization that... Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the procedures for determining the official leaf grade...

  14. Interactions Between Exogenous Bt Insecticidal Protein and Cotton Terpenoid Aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-jun; GUO Yu-yuan; WU Kong-ming; WANG Wu-gang

    2002-01-01

    The contents of terpenoid aldehydes in Bt transgenic cotton and their non-Bt parental varieties were analyzed by the HPLC method. Statistical analysis of variance showed that Bt insecticidal protein Bt-ICP expression has no negative effect on the synthesis of gossypol, total heliocides and total resistant terpenoids.The results of the combined dosage test of Bt-ICP and gossypoi in vitro showed that there is no interaction between gossypol and Bt-ICP on the mortality of cotton boilworm larvae Helicoverpa armigera (Hubnner). It is indicated that the actions of Bt-ICP and gossypol on cotton bollworm are additive. Therefore, it is advantageous to combine Bt-ICP with cotton terpenoid aldehydes in controlling cotton bollworm.

  15. Somatic embryogenesis in wild relatives of cotton (Gossypium Spp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wild cotton species can contribute a valuable gene pool for agronomically desirable cultivated tetraploid cultivars. In order to exploit diploid cotton a regeneration system is required to achieve transformation based goals. The present studies aimed at optimizing the conditions for regeneration of local varieties as well as wild species of cotton. Different callus induction media were tested with varying concentrations of hormones in which sucrose was used as nutritional source. Different explants (hypocotyls, cotyledon, root) were used to check the regeneration of both local cotton plants and wild relatives using T & G medium,BAP medium, CIM medium, EMMS medium, and cell suspension medium. Different stages of embryogenicity such as early torpedo stage, late torpedo stage, heart stage, globular stage and cotyledonary stage were observed in wild relatives of cotton. The results of this study pave the way for establishing future transformation methods.

  16. RNAi construct of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP82D109 blocks an early step in the biosynthesis of hemigossypolone and gossypol in transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tanya A; Liu, Jinggao; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Bell, Alois A; Williams, Howard; Stipanovic, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    Naturally occurring terpenoid aldehydes from cotton, such as hemigossypol, gossypol, hemigossypolone, and the heliocides, are important components of disease and herbivory resistance in cotton. These terpenoids are predominantly found in the glands. Differential screening identified a cytochrome P450 cDNA clone (CYP82D109) from a Gossypium hirsutum cultivar that hybridized to mRNA from glanded cotton but not glandless cotton. Both the D genome cotton Gossypium raimondii and A genome cotton Gossypium arboreum possessed three additional paralogs of the gene. G. hirsutum was transformed with a RNAi construct specific to this gene family and eight transgenic plants were generated stemming from at least five independent transformation events. HPLC analysis showed that RNAi plants, when compared to wild-type Coker 312 (WT) plants, had a 90% reduction in hemigossypolone and heliocides levels, and a 70% reduction in gossypol levels in the terminal leaves, respectively. Analysis of volatile terpenes by GC-MS established presence of an additional terpene (MW: 218) from the RNAi leaf extracts. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analyses showed this compound was δ-cadinen-2-one. Double bond rearrangement of this compound gives 7-hydroxycalamenene, a lacinilene C pathway intermediate. δ-Cadinen-2-one could be derived from δ-cadinene via a yet to be identified intermediate, δ-cadinen-2-ol. The RNAi construct of CYP82D109 blocks the synthesis of desoxyhemigossypol and increases the induction of lacinilene C pathway, showing that these pathways are interconnected. Lacinilene C precursors are not constitutively expressed in cotton leaves, and blocking the gossypol pathway by the RNAi construct resulted in a greater induction of the lacinilene C pathway compounds when challenged by pathogens.

  17. [Determination of cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric by NIR spectra and variable selection methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Geng, Xiang; Liu, Mu-hua

    2014-12-01

    Rapid detection of textile fiber components is very important for production process of quality control, trading and market surveillance. The objective of this research was to assess cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric quickly by near infrared (NIR) spectrum technology and variable selection methods. Reflectance spectra of samples were acquired by a NIRFlex N-500 Fourier spectroscopy in the range of 4000~10,000 cm(-1), primary election of spectral range and pretreatment analysis were conducted first. Then, three variable selection methods such as UVE (uninformative variables elimination), SPA (successive projections algorithm) and CARS (competitive adaptive reweighted sampling) were used to select sensitive variables. After that, PLS (partial least squares) was used to develop calibration model for cotton content of cotton/ramie blended fabric, and the best calibration model was used to predict cotton content of samples in prediction set. The result indicates that range of 4052~8000 cm(-1) is optimal spectral range for cotton content modeling. CARS method is an efficient method to improve model performance, the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of CARS-PLS for calibration and prediction sets are 0.903, 0.749 and 8.01%, 12.93%, respectively. So NIR spectra combined with CARS method is feasible for assessing cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric, and CARS method can simplify model, improve model performance.

  18. Can other host species of cotton bollworm be non-Bt refuges to prolong the effectiveness of Bt-cotton?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The potential ecological risks of Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) insecticides and Bt-crops have caused increasing concern since their commercial release in the field,among which pests' resistance to Bt-crops is the major ecological risk. Refuge tactic, which can produce sensitive populations, has proved to be a key and sound resistance management strategy in USA and Australia; however, no tactics have been performed in China where Bt-cotton is mostly planted with other host crops of cotton bollworm.Genetic variation and gene flow among different host populations of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera were analyzed using PCR fingerprinting method. The results show that maize and castor-oil plant, as well as cotton can take effect as refuges to prevent resistance of cotton bollworm to Bt-cotton, while peanut and sesame are not as suitable for planting with Bt-cotton as refuges in the field as low gene flow was detected among populations on peanut, sesame and Bt cotton.

  19. Development of simple algorithm for direct and rapid determination of cotton maturity from FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences...

  20. "We Provide You the Right Cooperators!"-- Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated Join Hands to Participate in 2012 Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics%"We Provide You the Right Cooperators!"-- Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated Join Hands to Participate in 2012 Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    During the Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics (China International Trade Fair for Apparel Fabrics and Accessories), which was held from October 22 to 25, 2012, Cotton Council International (COl) and Cotton Incorporated (Cl) joined forces with Central Fabrics Company Limited and Sanyang Textile Company Limited - both "COTTON USA" licensees - to promote U.S. cotton.

  1. 7 CFR 1427.16 - Movement and protection of warehouse-stored cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement and protection of warehouse-stored cotton... Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.16 Movement and protection of warehouse-stored cotton. (a... to the following conditions: (1) The cotton is represented by an electronic warehouse receipt;...

  2. CCI and CI Join Hands:A Better Supply Chain with More Innovations on Cotton Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom; Xue

    2010-01-01

    Cotton Council International("CCI")and Cotton Incorporated("CI") joined forces again,from October 19-22,2010 at Intertextile Shanghai,to promote natural fiber-U.S.cotton.As global textile strategic partners,both organizations were bringing together alliances through the cotton

  3. Transcriptional Analysis of the Relationship of Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis to the Brown Pigmentation in Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yue-hua; LUO Ming; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; YIN Meng-hui; DONG Jing

    2008-01-01

    @@ With increased concern to environment and health in the modern society,naturally colored cotton becomes more and more attractive to textile industry and cotton production.Brown is the most common fiber color in naturally colored cottons.Traditional genetic analyses revealed that brown fiber was controlled by 6 loci (Lc1-6) in cotton.

  4. Marketing policies and economic interests in the cotton sector of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Tjalling

    1990-01-01

    This report, which is based on field research carried out in 1988, examines the marketing arrangements for raw cotton, cotton lint and cotton seed in Kenya, as well as the relationships and conflicts between the actors involved. The report starts with the history of cotton production and marketing i

  5. Steam explosion distinctively enhances biomass enzymatic saccharification of cotton stalks by largely reducing cellulose polymerization degree in G. barbadense and G. hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Shiguang; Liu, Mingyong; Tu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ao; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yanting; Zhang, Xuewen; Tai, Hongzhong; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2015-04-01

    In this study, steam explosion pretreatment was performed in cotton stalks, leading to 5-6 folds enhancements on biomass enzymatic saccharification distinctive in Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum species. Sequential 1% H2SO4 pretreatment could further increase biomass digestibility of the steam-exploded stalks, and also cause the highest sugar-ethanol conversion rates probably by releasing less inhibitor to yeast fermentation. By comparison, extremely high concentration alkali (16% NaOH) pretreatment with raw stalks resulted in the highest hexoses yields, but it had the lowest sugar-ethanol conversion rates. Characterization of wall polymer features indicated that biomass saccharification was enhanced with steam explosion by largely reducing cellulose DP and extracting hemicelluloses. It also showed that cellulose crystallinity and arabinose substitution degree of xylans were the major factors on biomass digestibility in cotton stalks. Hence, this study has provided the insights into cell wall modification and biomass process technology in cotton stalks and beyond.

  6. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  7. COTTON USA"Naturally Color Your Life" Road-show Glittered in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    On March 24, 2012, Cotton Council International ("CCI") successfully held its third national COTTON USA: "Naturally Color Your Life" Road-show following the adjournment of 4th COTTON USA Cotton School at Wanda Plaza in the well-known coastal city of Qingdao, China. Inspired by the colorful and diversified "American Quilt" concept to highlight all the Fresh, Fun, Fashionable and Friendly aspects of natural cotton lifestyle, the COTTON USA "Designer T-Shirt" series took center stage alongside a unique COTTON USA Cabin furnished entirely with cotton products, leaving audiences marveling at the fusion of cotton furnishings together with the colorful and cozy feel of American Quilts showcase all the ways cotton fits into a natural lifestyle.

  8. Cotton Area and Yield Estimation at Zhanhua County of China Using HJ-1 EVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qing-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is a significant cash crop of China. Timely and accurate cotton area and yield estimation is useful for management decisions related to the cotton procurement and sales. This study is a first research on cotton area and yield estimation based on remote sensing at Zhanhua County which is one of the high-quality cotton production demonstration bases of China. After normalization of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI time series derived from Huanjin 1 A/B satellite (HJ-1 A/B, decision tree classifier was used to identify the cotton, and then K-Means classifier was applied to estimate cotton yield. The results indicated an overall accuracy of 95% for the cotton area estimation and 91% for the cotton yield classification. With further validation, it suggests that this method can be used to timely achieve the cotton area and growth information of this region.

  9. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  10. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ) in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt)+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor) cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control) was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1%) and spiders (1.5%). The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma). Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation). The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  11. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact.

  12. Screening cotton genotypes for seedling drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Julio C. Viglioni

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to adapt a screening method previously used to assess seedling drought tolerance in cereals for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and to identify tolerant accessions among a wide range of genotypes. Ninety genotypes were screened in seven growth chamber experiments. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were subjected to four 4-day drought cycles, and plant survival was evaluated after each cycle. Three cycles are probably the minimum required in cotton work. Significant differences (at the 0.05 level or lower among entries were obtained in four of the seven experiments. A "confirmation test" with entries previously evaluated as "tolerant" (high survival and "susceptible" (low survival was run. A number of entries duplicated their earlier performance, but others did not, which indicates the need to reevaluate selections. Germplasms considered tolerant included: `IAC-13-1', `IAC-RM4-SM5', `Minas Sertaneja', `Acala 1517E-1' and `4521'. In general, the technique is simple, though time-consuming, with practical value for screening a large number of genotypes. Results from the screening tests generally agreed with field information. The screening procedure is suitable to select tolerant accessions from among a large number of entries in germplasm collections as a preliminary step in breeding for drought tolerance. This research also demonstrated the need to characterize the internal lack of uniformity in growth chambers to allow for adequate designs of experiments.

  13. TRACTION RESISTANCE IN CHITOSAN TREATED COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOX Wouter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural products interest has increased. However, when some products are included on textile fibers, they have no affinity and need some binders or other kind of auxiliaries to improve the yeld of the process, and some of them are not so natural as the product which are binding and consequently the “bio” definition is missed as some of them can be considered as highly pollutant. Chitosan is a common used bonding agent for cotton. It improves the antimicrobial and antifungal activity, improves wound healing and is a non-toxic bonding agent. The biopolymer used in this work is chitosan, which is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. These properties depend on the amount of deacetylation (DD and the Molecular weight (MW. Along with these improving properties, as it requires some acid pH to ve solved the treatment with chitosan can have some decreasing mechanical properties. The aim of that paper is to evaluate the change in breaking force of the treated samples and a change in elongation of those samples. It compared different amounts of concentration of chitosan with non treated cotton. The traction resistance test were performed on a dynamometer. The test was conducted according to the UNE EN ISO 13934-1 standard.

  14. Enzymes of Trichoderma and other origin in biopreparation of cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita Losonczi; George Szakacs; Emilia Csiszar; Outi Kareela

    2004-01-01

    @@ Preparation and bleaching are among the most energy and chemical intensive steps of the traditional cotton finishing. About 75 % of the organic pollutants arising from textile finishing are derived from the preparation of cotton goods. Biopreparation may be a valuable and environmentally friendly alternative to harsh alkaline chemicals for preparing of cotton. Different enzymes i. e. cellulases,pectinases, lipases and proteases have been tested for biopreparation. Many papers have been published how enzymes effect on the properties of cotton fabrics in respect to their effectiveness to replace alkaline scouring and how enzymes modify the various cell wall components of cotton fibers. However,very few data have been reported on bleachability and dyeing behavior of the bioscoured fabrics. In this work an acidic cellulase (Celluclast 1.5 L, Trichoderma reesei origin), an acidic pectinasehemicellulase (Viscozyme 120 L , Aspergillus aculeatus ) and a cellulase-free xylanase (Pulpzyme HC,Bacillus sp. ) enzymes were used for bioscouring of greige cotton fabric. Selected properties of the pretreated samples, which are important for effective dyeing, are characterized in detail. Effect of hydrogen peroxide bleaching, applied subsequent to the biopretreatment on the bleachability and dyeing properties of the samples is also elucidated. A reactive dye was used at four different concentrations to compare the dyeing behavior of biopretreated as well as biopretreated and subsequently bleached cotton fabrics with that of the alkaline scoured as well as alkaline scoured and bleached fabrics, respectively. Color evenness and uniformity, and wash fastness properties of the dyed samples are also determined[1].

  15. Acoustical evaluation of carbonized and activated cotton nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N; Chen, J Y; Parikh, D V

    2009-12-01

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from a cotton nonwoven fabric. For the ACF acoustic application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glassfiber nonwoven, and the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of cotton fiber nonwoven. Their noise absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss were measured using the Brüel and Kjaer impedance tube instrument. Statistical significance of the differences between the composites was tested using the method of Duncan's grouping. The study concluded that the ACF composite exhibited a greater ability to absorb normal incidence sound waves than the composites with either glassfiber or cotton fiber. The analysis of sound transmission loss revealed that the three composites still obeyed the mass law of transmission loss. The composite with the surface layer of cotton fiber nonwoven possessed a higher fabric density and therefore showed a better sound insulation than the composites with glassfiber and ACF.

  16. Effects of Transgenic Cry 1 Ac plus CpTI Cotton on the Bioecology of Main Parasitoids in Laboratory Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jin-jie; VANDER Weft Wopke; MA Yah; LUO Jun-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Effects of transgenic CrylAc plus CpTI cotton (double genes cotton) on development of main parasitoids were studied in the laboratory.Compared with the traditional cotton,the differences of the moulting rate and adult weight of cotton aphid-Aphydius from double gene cotton field were not obvious.

  17. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  18. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  19. The Economic Effectiveness of the Cotton Checkoff Program

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral; Williams, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    This report is an empirical analysis of the effectiveness of the marketing/promotion, nonagricultural research, and agricultural research activities associated with the cotton checkoff program over the period of 1986/87 through 2004/05. The analysis is based on a multi-equation, econometric, non-spatial, price equilibrium simulation model of U.S. and foreign fiber markets using annual data. The key average annual impacts of the cotton checkoff program on U.S. and foreign cotton and man-made f...

  20. Combined Cellulase and Wrinkle-free Treatment on Cotton Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立明; 杨国荣; 袁进华

    2001-01-01

    1,2, 3,4 - butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) offers an alternative to the conventional N-methlol compounds as a crosslinking agent for cellulose textiles. Cellulase treatment is an effective method to improve the handle of the cotton fabric. Thus it is of particular interest to treat cotton fabric using cellulase and BTCA simultaneously.In this study, BTCA was applied to the cellulase pretreated cotton fabric, and softener was also used. The results show that the treated fabric does not only have good wrinkle-free property but also good handle.

  1. Effect of Eco-finishing on Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英; 宋心远

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies desizing and polishing of naturally colored cotton with different enzyme. The reactivity of cellulases was measured. The percentage of decrement, bulkiness and color difference of fabrics both before and after eco-finishing were tested. The reasons were analyzed. The results indicates that the desizing of amylase can be applied on naturally colored cotton, and cellulases have polishing effect on it. Moreover eco-finishing with enzyme can provide many better properties to naturally colored cotton than that of normal finishing. Also this process has no pollution as enzyme can be degraded by bioreaction.

  2. The effect of dendrimer on cotton dyeability with direct dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakzar Bafrooei F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of cotton fabric with poly(propylene imine dendrimer enhanced its colour strength using C.I. Direct Red 81 and C.I. Direct Blue 78. Application of this dendrimer and the direct dye simultaneously on cotton fabric by the exhaust and the continuous dyeing method were studied; slight improvements in the dyeing results were obtained. Pretreatment of the cotton fabric with dendrimer in an emulsion form using the pad-dry method followed by continuous dyeing markedly increased the colour strength. In addition, level dyeing was obtained, and no negative effects on the fastness properties of the dyes used were observed.

  3. Chromosome Substitution Lines:Useful Genomic Resources in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAHA Sukumar; JENKINS Johnie N; MCARTY Jack C; WU Ji-xiang; STELLY David

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genus Gossypium is a very diverse one with about 50 species.However,a very narrow germplasm base is presently being used for genetic improvement of Upland cotton.The wild tetraploid cotton species are reservoirs of important genes for pest and disease resistance,and for improved agronomic and fiber traits.Two of the most important forces impeding Upland cotton improvement are" 1)the paucity of information about genes that control important traits,and 2) the need for extensive usage of diverse germplasm.

  4. Extraction of cellulose with subcritical and supercritical ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xueren; Li Jian

    1999-01-01

    Cotton cellulose was extracted with ethanol in sub-and supercritical states dynamically. The degree of conversion was 95.4% and the extract yield was 55.2% when cotton cellulose was non-isothermally extracted with ethanol from 20℃ to 400℃. From an engineering standpoint, in the temperature range from 200℃ to 320℃,the rate of extract formation could adequately be described by a second-order reaction kinetics equation with the activation energy of 105.3 k J/mol and the pre-exponential factor of 3.53 × 107 s-1. With the non-isothermal experimental technique, it was possible to determine the kinetic parameters; conversion degree and extract yield by one experiment.

  5. Techniques and long-term outcomes of cotton-clipping and cotton-augmentation strategies for management of cerebral aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Moron, Felix; Sun, Hai; Oppenlander, Mark E; Kalani, M Yashar S; Mulholland, Celene B; Zabramski, Joseph M; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To address the challenges of microsurgically treating broad-based, frail, and otherwise complex aneurysms that are not amenable to direct clipping, alternative techniques have been developed. One such technique is to use cotton to augment clipping ("cotton-clipping" technique), which is also used to manage intraoperative aneurysm neck rupture, and another is to reinforce unclippable segments or remnants of aneurysm necks with cotton ("cotton-augmentation" technique). This study reviews the natural history of patients with aneurysms treated with cotton-clipping and cotton-augmentation techniques. METHODS The authors queried a database consisting of all patients with aneurysms treated at Barrow Neurological Institute in Phoenix, Arizona, between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2014, to identify cases in which cotton-clipping or cotton-augmentation strategies had been used. Management was categorized as the cotton-clipping technique if cotton was used within the blades of the aneurysm clip and as the cotton-clipping technique if cotton was used to reinforce aneurysms or portions of the aneurysm that were unclippable due to the presence of perforators, atherosclerosis, or residual aneurysms. Data were reviewed to assess patient outcomes and annual rates of aneurysm recurrence or hemorrhage after the initial procedures were performed. RESULTS The authors identified 60 aneurysms treated with these techniques in 57 patients (18 patients with ruptured aneurysms and 39 patients with unruptured aneurysms) whose mean age was 53.1 years (median 55 years; range 24-72 years). Twenty-three aneurysms (11 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage) were treated using cotton-clipping and 37 with cotton-augmentation techniques (7 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage). In total, 18 patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The mean Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at the time of discharge was 4.4. At a mean follow-up of 60.9 ± 35.6 months (median 70 months; range 10-126 months

  6. Effect of monosodium methanarsonate application on cuticle wax content of cocklebur and cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keese, Renee J; Camper, N Dwight

    2006-01-01

    Leaf cuticle waxes were extracted from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants at 0, 3, 5, and 7 days after treatment (DAT) following 1x and 2x MSMA applications. Wax constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and compared to alkane and alcohol standards of carbon lengths varying from C21 to C30. Differences in waxes were calculated and reported as change per ng mm2-1. Tricosane (C23) was found to increase following MSMA applications. All other alkanes decreased by 7 DAT, with some showing a linear effect over time in the R-cocklebur. Alcohol constituents were also observed to decrease by 7 DAT. Total arsenic in the extracted wax fraction was determined, with greatest quantities detected in the R-cocklebur. Wax changes are not believed to play a role in cotton tolerance, since changes in cuticle concentrations were minimal. Cocklebur resistance to MSMA is not due to cuticle constituents; the wax changes are a secondary effect in response to herbicide application.

  7. Additive effect of smoking and cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of cotton textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yih-Ming; Su, Jenn-Rong; Sheu, Jia-Yih; Loh, Ching-Hui; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2003-04-01

    One hundred and sixty-nine and 175 cotton textile workers (CTWs) were enrolled in the first (1991) and second (1996) surveys to investigate the prevalence of byssinosis. The synergistic effect of smoking on cotton dust exposure was also evaluated. Although the difference in prevalence of abnormal pulmonary function between the first (38.5%) and second study (38.9%) was not statistically significant, smokers had significantly higher frequency than nonsmokers in both surveys. A significant trend existed between the cotton dust levels and the frequency of abnormal lung function. The significant trend was also noted in both smokers and nonsmokers. The frequency of respiratory symptoms and the prevalence of severe byssinosis in the second survey (14.9% and 12.6%, respectively) were significantly lower than that in the first survey (39.7% and 21.9%, respectively). The reduction of symptoms was due to remodeling of this old cotton mill. The prevalences of respiratory symptoms and byssinosis in smokers being significantly higher than in nonsmokers only found in the first survey, but not found in the second survey. These results indicate that smoking potentiates the effect of cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and byssinosis. The second study reveals high prevalence of byssinosis still existed in Taiwanese cotton mill, although the prevalence was declining. Smoking was found to show an additive effect on cotton dust exposure. Anti-smoking campaign, occupational health program to reduce the dust exposure, and periodical medical examination are measures to prevent from byssinosis.

  8. BASIS WEIGHT UNIFORMITY OF LIGHTLY NEEDLED HYDROENTANGLED COTTON AND COTTON BLEND WEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Parikh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available New nonwoven products containing cotton and Lyocell (Trademarked name Tencel, low temperature thermal-bondable bicomponent olefin/polyester, or comber noils were developed using needlepunching and spunlacing (hydroentanglement. Webs containing five different blends were prepared by either light needlepunching, or light needlepunching followed by hydroentangling. We acquired detailed basis weight uniformity measurements to learn about processing and the influence of fiber blend composition on web uniformity. Basis weight uniformity was evaluated without regard to web direction ("Total" uniformity, along the machine direction (MD uniformity and across the cross direction (CD uniformity at numerous size resolutions. We observed that blending manufactured fibers (either Tencel or olefin/polyester with bleached cotton and comber noils substantially improved basis weight uniformity of both types of nonwovens. We also observed that subjecting needled webs to hydroentangling significantly improved Total and MD uniformities.

  9. Spunlaced Cotton and Cotton Blend Cosmetic Pads and Bed Sheets: Study of Fiber Entanglement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Muenstermann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven webs containing five different blends of bleached cotton with Lyocell rayon, bicomponent core/sheath polyester/polyethylene, or cotton comber noil were prepared by either light needlepunching, or light needlepunching followed by spunlacing (hydroentanglement. We optically acquired fiber bundle size measurements to learn about the pre-needling process, the hydroentangling process and the influence of fiber blend composition on fiber entanglement. Fiber entanglement measurements were compared to basis weight uniformity measurements. One of the bed sheet developments utilized a combination of bonding technologies (spunlacing and thermal bonding that used low energy. Results from this work indicate that spunlacing produced high quality cosmetic pads and economical short-life bed sheeting.

  10. DECOMPOSITION OF BT COTTON AND NON BT COTTON RESIDUES UNDER VARIED SOIL TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kumari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of the insecticidal cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in cotton has raised a number of concerns, including the ecological impact on soil ecosystems.Greenhouse study was conducted during the 2011 wet season (March to August at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Banaras Hindu University. It was carried out on three different soil orders that includedentisol, inceptisol and alfisol. Bt cotton (var.NCS-138 and its non-transgenic isoline (var.NCS-138 were grown until maturity. A no crop pot was maintained for all the three soil orders. The highest rate of decomposition was found in alluvial soil compared to black and red soils in 50 days after incorporation (DAI. Thereafter the rate of decomposition was slowed downby100 DAI and the constant rate of decomposition was found in 150 DAI. The rate of decomposition was higher in non Bt than Bt crop residues.

  11. Cotton leaf curl disease - an emerging threat to cotton production worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M Naeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Saeed, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-04-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton which has characteristic symptoms, the most unusual of which is the formation of leaf-like enations on the undersides of leaves. The disease is caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus) in association with specific, symptom-modulating satellites (betasatellites) and an evolutionarily distinct group of satellite-like molecules known as alphasatellites. CLCuD occurs across Africa as well as in Pakistan and north-western India. Over the past 25 years, Pakistan and India have experienced two epidemics of the disease, the most recent of which involved a virus and satellite that are resistance breaking. Loss of this conventional host-plant resistance, which saved the cotton growers from ruin in the late 1990s, leaves farmers with only relatively poor host plant tolerance to counter the extensive losses the disease causes. There has always been the fear that CLCuD could spread from the relatively limited geographical range it encompasses at present to other cotton-growing areas of the world where, although the disease is not present, the environmental conditions are suitable for its establishment and the whitefly vector occurs. Unfortunately recent events have shown this fear to be well founded, with CLCuD making its first appearance in China. Here, we outline recent advances made in understanding the molecular biology of the components of the disease complex, their interactions with host plants, as well as efforts being made to control CLCuD.

  12. Investigation of Cotton Component Destruction in Cotton/Polyester Blended Textile Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė SANKAUSKAITĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recycling technologies of textile industry waste usually are adjusted for materials manufactured of uniform fibers. Unfortunately, usually materials are manufactured of blended chemical and natural fibers to achieve better wearing properties, i. e. abrasion resistance, durability and etc. This paper presents investigation about the destruction of cotton component and easy separation from non-biodegradable polyester. The pre-treatment (soaking in aqueous solutions of reagents was carried out at different temperatures for blended knitting yarn (50 % cotton / 50 % polyester waste. The waste was pre-treated by aqueous solutions of reagents: MgCl2; Al2(SO43, MgCl2 and Al2(SO43 mixture, MgCl2 and citric acid mixture at 20, 50, 90 and 130 °C. After the pre-treatment all samples were dried at 102 °C and heat-treated at different temperatures: 150, 160 and 180 °C. The investigation results showed that the highest degradation rate (95.47 % of cotton component from 50 % cotton / 50 % polyester blended knitting yarn waste  was achieved by using the pre-treatment at 20 °C temperature by aqueous solution of 20 g/l MgCl2 and 4 g/l Al2(SO43 mixture and heat-treatment of dry samples at 180 °C temperature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.3115

  13. Investigation of Cotton Component Destruction in Cotton/Polyester Blended Textile Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė SANKAUSKAITĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recycling technologies of textile industry waste usually are adjusted for materials manufactured of uniform fibers. Unfortunately, usually materials are manufactured of blended chemical and natural fibers to achieve better wearing properties, i. e. abrasion resistance, durability and etc. This paper presents investigation about the destruction of cotton component and easy separation from non-biodegradable polyester. The pre-treatment (soaking in aqueous solutions of reagents was carried out at different temperatures for blended knitting yarn (50 % cotton / 50 % polyester waste. The waste was pre-treated by aqueous solutions of reagents: MgCl2; Al2(SO43, MgCl2 and Al2(SO43 mixture, MgCl2 and citric acid mixture at 20, 50, 90 and 130 °C. After the pre-treatment all samples were dried at 102 °C and heat-treated at different temperatures: 150, 160 and 180 °C. The investigation results showed that the highest degradation rate (95.47 % of cotton component from 50 % cotton / 50 % polyester blended knitting yarn waste  was achieved by using the pre-treatment at 20 °C temperature by aqueous solution of 20 g/l MgCl2 and 4 g/l Al2(SO43 mixture and heat-treatment of dry samples at 180 °C temperature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.3115

  14. Comparative study to determine food consumption of cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, on some cotton genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedr Mohamad Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was done on the feeding behaviour, development indices, and biochemical response of 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis in which seven cotton genotypes were used: Giza86, Giza88, Giza92, 10229 × Giza 86, H10, Suvin, and Karshenseki. Castor bean leaves were used as the control. All the tested cotton genotypes decreased the feeding behavior of S. littoralis larvae in terms of consumption percentages, consumption rate (CR, growth rates (GR, efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food (ECI and ECD, approximate digestibility (AD, and feeding deterrence (FDI compared to the control. Additionally, all the tested cotton varieties prolonged the time taken for larval and pupal duration and reduced both the pupation percentages and the weight of the resulting pupae, as compared to the control. Giza86 recorded the lowest values of both larval growth index and fitness (7.31 and 1.05, respectively while the genotype Suvin recorded the lowest standardised growth index (0.020 more than other genotypes and the control that gave 10.16, 1.53, and 0.032, respectively. There was a significant inhibition in the level of both total soluble protein and total lipids, and activities of amylase and the trehalase enzymes in all the tested varieties, compared to that found in the control.

  15. PAH and soot emissions from burning components of medical waste: examination/surgical gloves and cotton pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendis, Y A; Atal, A; Carlson, J B; Quintana, M D

    2001-01-01

    This is a laboratory investigation on the emissions from batch combustion of representative infectious ("red bag") medical waste components, such as medical examination latex gloves and sterile cotton pads. Plastics and cloth account for the majority of the red bag wastes by mass and, certainly, by volume. An electrically heated, horizontal muffle furnace was used for batch combustion of small quantities of shredded fuels (0.5-1.5 g) at a gas temperature of approximately 1000 degrees C. The residence time of the post-combustion gases in the furnace was approximately 1 s. At the exit of the furnace, the following emissions were measured: CO, CO2, NOx, particulates and polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs). The first three gaseous emissions were measured with continuous gas analyzers. Soot and PAC emissions were simultaneously measured by passing the furnace effluent through a filter (to collect condensed-phase PACs) and a bed of XAD-4 adsorbent (to capture gaseous-phase PACs). Analysis involved soxhlet extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results were contrasted with previously measured emissions from batch combustion of pulverized coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) under similar conditions. Results showed that the particulate soot) and cumulative PAC emissions from batch combustion of latex gloves were more than an order of magnitude higher than those from cotton pads. The following values are indicative of the relative trends (but not necessarily absolute values) in emission yields: 26% of the mass of the latex was converted to soot, 11% of which was condensed PAC. Only 2% of the mass of cotton pads was converted to soot, and only 3% of the weight of that soot was condensed PAC. The PAC yields from latex were comparable to those from TDF. The PAC yields from cotton were higher than those from coal. A notable exception to this trend was that the three-ring gas-phase PAC yields from cotton were more significant than those from latex

  16. Cotton Genome Manipulations:Exploring Smart Tools,Novel Germplasm,and Elite Genes for Super Cotton Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-long

    2008-01-01

    @@ Plant regeneration is the first step to cotton biotechnology.We screened over 100 genotypes and found two genotypes,YZ-1 and Y668,which are very easy to regenerate.It takes about 5 to 6 months for the two genotypes from explant inoculation to plant regeneration.Meanwhile,we investigated the gene expression patterns during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in cotton.The results suggested that a complicated and concerted mechanism involving multiple pathways is responsible for cotton SE.We constructed a network to show the relationship between genes during SE.

  17. Single corn kernel aflatoxin B1 extraction and analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus that commonly infects crops such as cotton, peanuts, and maize. The goal was to design an effective sample preparation method and analysis for the extraction of afla...

  18. STUDY ON ELIMINATING FLUORESCENCE IN COTTON PULP WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LixinXu; BaoguoSun

    2004-01-01

    This paper has studied processing conditions and the influence of every variable to the pulp when the fluorescence in cotton linter pulp is eliminated with peracetic acid. The suitable variables of the elimination of fluorescence, are found.

  19. STUDY ON ELIMINATING FLUORESCENCE IN COTTON PULP WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin Xu; Baoguo Sun

    2004-01-01

    This paper has studied processing conditions and the influence of every variable to the pulp when the fluorescence in cotton linter pulp is eliminated with peracetic acid. The suitable variables of the elimination of fluorescence. are found.

  20. Xinjiang: Cotton Stalk Fiber Will Bring Profits to Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ On April 19,2007,Seminar on the Development and Application of Xinjiang Cotton Stalk Fiber,hosted by the Economic Operations Bureau of National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),successfully opened in Xinjiang Hotel of Beijing.

  1. anolyte as an alternative bleach for stained cotton fabrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    anolyte, colour change, sodium hypochlorite, bleach, stain ... Cotton is a natural fibre that is high in demand worldwide. ... various dyes are commonly used in the processing and .... prepared an hour before any test was carried out whereby ...

  2. Differential Expression of Salinity Resistance Gene on Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Salinity resistance and differential gene expression associated with salinity in cotton germplasm were studied,because of the large scale area of salinity in China,and its significant negative effects on

  3. Supply Chain Insights: Athletic Socks-A Cotton Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Peng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Accounting for 43% of the total sock offerings at U.S.retailers,athletic socks are gaining attention from industry and consumers.Consumers now view socks as "equipment" and choose socks that enhance their athletic performance.Major athletic brands have capitalized on this trend by expanding their product lines to include performance socks.Following recent trends in athletic apparel,retail offerings of athletic socks have shifted towards synthetic fibers according to data from Cotton Incorporated's Retail MonitorTM,the percentage of cotton-dominant (51%-100% cotton) athletic socks in stores declined from 46% in 2007 to 34% in 2009.This trend runs counter to consumers' preference for cotton in athletic socks,expressed in recent consumer surveys and wear tests.

  4. Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa State Of Nigeria: A Geographic Information System (GIS) ... FUTY Journal of the Environment ... This paper demonstrated the potentials of GIS technique for mapping and ...

  5. Characterization of Developing Cotton Fibers by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cabrales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose deposition in developing cotton fibers has been studied previously with analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Recent technological developments in instrumentation have made Raman microscopy emerge as an extraordinary analytical tool in biological and plant research. The advantage of using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM resides in the lateral spatial resolution and in the fact that Raman spectroscopy provides not only chemical composition information, but also structural information. Cross-sections of cotton fibers harvested at different developmental stages were studied with CRM. The Raman bands assigned to cellulose were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that CRM can be used as a tool to study cellulose deposition in cotton fibers and could provide useful information on cellulose deposition during cotton fiber development.

  6. SCFP, a novel fiber-specific promoter in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lei; LIU Hao; LI JiaBao; YANG Xia; XIAO YueHua; LUO Ming; SONG ShuiQing; YANG GuangWei; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the expression pattern of GhSCFP which was isolated from cotton fiber cDNA library, a 1006 bp upstream fragment of the gene was cloned by chromosome walking and fused to GUSand GFP respectively. Histochemical GUS and GFP fluorescence analysis revealed that the expression of the report genes driven by the promoter sequence was detectable only in outer layer cells during the seed development in the transgentic tobaccos. In transgenic cotton, strong GUS activity was observed in spherical protrusions on 0 dps (days post anthesis) ovule surface, and in the 2-36 dpa fiber cells, while no GUS signals were detected in the root, leaves, stem, corolla, anther and stigma. Our data demon-strated that GhSCFP upstream sequence is a cotton fiber-specific promoter and this promoter will be useful in the molecular research on fiber cell development and in cotton fiber improvements by genetic modification.

  7. Current state of the cotton and textile industry in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfari Azhimetova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry of Kazakhstan is presented basically by enterprises created in period of centrally planned economy and as consequence. Low labor productivity, lacking equipment base and technologies, poor marketing are problems of the current state of industry. But, there are also advantages as a vicinity of potential cotton manufacturers - Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan. A free economic zone (FEZ “Ontustik” has been established and a program of “Ontustik” FEZ development has been adopted for developing the cotton and textile cluster in Kazakhstan. The law “About development of the cotton branch” has been adopted in Kazakhstan to provide the textile enterprises with necessary raw material and to develop the domestic cotton growing.

  8. Nanosilica-Chitosan Composite Coating on Cotton Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharani, Dina Kartika; Kartini, Indriana; Aprilita, Nurul Hidayat

    2010-10-01

    Nanosilica-chitosan composite coating on cotton fabrics has been prepared by sol-gel method. The sol-gel procedure allows coating of material on nanometer scale, which several commonly used coating procedure cannot achieve. In addition, sol-gel coating technique can be applied to system without disruption of their structure functionaly. The coating were produced via hidrolysis and condensation of TEOS and GPTMS and then mixed with chitosan. The composite coating on cotton fabrics were characterized with X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) method. The result showed that the coating not changed or disrupted the cotton stucture. The coating result in a clear transparent thin layer on cotton surface. The nanocomposite coating has new applications in daily used materials, especially those with low heat resistance, such as textiles and plastics, and as an environmentally friendly water-repellent substitute for fluorine compounds.

  9. compressibility characteristics of compacted black cotton soil treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1,21,21,21,2 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY ZARIA,NIGERIA .... Modification of black cotton soil by chemical ...... Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Jan., ... British Standard Institute.

  10. EPG waveform characteristics of solenopsis mealybug stylet penetration on cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, F.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Y.; Lin, J.

    2012-01-01

    The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a polyphagous insect known to cause severe damage to cotton (especially transgenic varieties) in South Asia, and currently poses a serious threat in Asia and potentially elsewhere. Stylet penetration behavior of

  11. Analysis of input demand by smallholder cotton producers in eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of input demand by smallholder cotton producers in eastern Uganda. ... price volatility, weather uncertainty and transaction costs with limited use of ... from the theory of log linear or constant elasticity form of single demand equations.

  12. DNA Sequence Evolution and Rare Homoeologous Conversion in Tetraploid Cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Allotetraploid cotton species are a vital source of spinnable fiber for textiles. The polyploid nature of the cotton genome raises many evolutionary questions as to the relationships between duplicated genomes. We describe the evolution of the cotton genome (SNPs and structural variants with the greatly improved resolution of 34 deeply re-sequenced genomes. We also explore the evolution of homoeologous regions in the AT- and DT-genomes and especially the phenomenon of conversion between genomes. We did not find any compelling evidence for homoeologous conversion between genomes. These findings are very different from other recent reports of frequent conversion events between genomes. We also identified several distinct regions of the genome that have been introgressed between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, which presumably resulted from breeding efforts targeting associated beneficial alleles. Finally, the genotypic data resulting from this study provides access to a wealth of diversity sorely needed in the narrow germplasm of cotton cultivars.

  13. Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications.

  14. Tissue engineering scaffolds electrospun from cotton cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu; Cheng, Long; Zhang, Ximu; Xiao, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2015-01-22

    Nonwovens of cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning of cotton cellulose in its LiCl/DMAc solution. The key factors associated with the electrospinning process, including the intrinsic properties of cellulose solutions, the rotating speed of collector and the applied voltage, were systematically investigated. XRD data indicated the electrospun nanofibers were almost amorphous. When increasing the rotating speed of the collector, preferential alignment of fibers along the drawing direction and improved molecular orientation were revealed by scanning electron microscope and polarized FTIR, respectively. Tensile tests indicated the strength of the nonwovens along the orientation direction could be largely improved when collected at a higher speed. In light of the excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their unique porous structure, the nonwovens were further assessed as potential tissue engineering scaffolds. Cell culture experiments demonstrated human dental follicle cells could proliferate rapidly not only on the surface but also in the entire scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) density effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-yan; WU Han-wen; JIANG Wei-li; MA Ya-jie; MA Yan

    2015-01-01

    Goosegrass is one of the worst agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop ifeld wil provide useful information for weed control programs. Field experiments were conducted during 2010–2012 to determine the inlfuence of goosegrass density on cotton growth at the weed densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 plants m–1 of row. Seed cotton yield tended to decrease with the increase in weed density, and goosegrass at a density of 4 plants m–1 of row signiifcantly reduced cotton yields by 20 to 27%. A density of 11.6–19.2 goosegrass plant m–1 of row would result in a 50%cotton yield loss from the maximum yield according to the hyperbolic decay regression model. Bol production was not affected in the early growing season. But bol numbers per plant were reduced about 25%at the den-sity of 4 plants m–1 of row in the late growing season. Both cotton bol weight and seed numbers per bol were signiifcantly reduced (8%) at 4 goosegrass plants m–1 of row. Cotton plant height, stem diameter and sympodial branch number were not affected as much as cotton yields by goosegrass competition. Seed index, lint percentage and lint ifber properties were unaffected by weed competition. Intraspeciifc competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, 142–387 g dry weight by harvest. Goosegrass biomass m–2 tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a quadratic response. The adverse impact of goosegrass on cotton yield identiifed in this study has indicated the need of effective goosegrass management.

  16. Genetic diversity analysis of salinity related germplasm in cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Zhang; Wuwei Ye; Junjuan Wang; Baoxiang Fan; Delong Wang

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the genetic variation of salinity related cotton germplasm, 47 upland cotton accessions including 23 salinity tolerant materials and 24 salinity sensitive materials were explored using 88 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We detected a total of 338 alleles at 88 SSR loci with an average of 3.841 alleles per locus, 333 of these alleles were detected in salinity tolerant germplasm and 312 alleles in salinity sensitive germplasm. Mean polymorphism information content (PIC),...

  17. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing cotton cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a by product of higher value cotton fibre, cotton seed has been increasingly recognised to have excellent potential as a source of additional food, feed, biofuel stock and even a renewable platform for the production of many diverse biological molecules for agriculture and industrial enterprises. The large size difference between cotyledon and embryo axis that make up a cotton seed results in the under-representation of embryo axis gene transcript levels in whole seed embryo samples. Therefore, the determination of gene transcript levels in the cotyledons and embryo axes separately should lead to a better understanding of metabolism in these two developmentally diverse tissues. RESULTS: A comparative study of transcriptome changes between cotton developing cotyledon and embryo axis has been carried out. 17,384 unigenes (20.74% of all the unigenes were differentially expressed in the two adjacent embryo tissues, and among them, 7,727 unigenes (44.45% were down-regulated and 9,657 unigenes (55.55% were up-regulated in cotyledon. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has provided a comprehensive dataset that documents the dynamics of the transcriptome at the mid-maturity of cotton seed development and in discrete seed tissues, including embryo axis and cotyledon tissues. The results showed that cotton seed is subject to many transcriptome variations in these two tissue types and the differential gene expression between cotton embryo axis and cotyledon uncovered in our study should provide an important starting point for understanding how gene activity is coordinated during seed development to make a seed. Further, the identification of genes involved in rapid metabolite accumulation stage of seed development will extend our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in these developmental processes and provide a foundation for future studies on the metabolism, embryo differentiation of cotton and other dicot oilseed crops.

  18. Synthesis and Application of Sodium Benzoylthioglycollate to Cotton Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tao

    2004-01-01

    The paper discussed the synthesis and application of sodium benzoylthioglycollate (BTG) to cotton cellulose. The main product was proved to be BTG. Dyeing substantivity of modified cotton fibre by BTG with disperse dye were improved. The effect of modification conditions, such as the property of alkali and its using amount, curing temperature and time were discussed. Colour yield and resistance to wash fastness were also measured.

  19. Composting of cotton wastes; Compostaje de residuos de algodon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobao, M.M.; Tejada, M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J.L.

    1997-12-31

    In this article a study on the composting process of residuals of cotton gin is presented crushed and not crushed, previous. The analysis of correlation gotten for each one of the treatments reveals that although common correlations between the parameters studied for both treatment exist, they are presented a great number of correlations between this parameters for the treatment of cotton crushed residuals. (Author) 11 refs.

  20. Cotton-Type and Joint Invariants for Linear Elliptic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aslam

    2013-01-01

    that Cotton-type invariants derived from these two approaches are identical. Furthermore, Cotton-type and joint invariants for a general system of two linear elliptic equations are also obtained from the Laplace-type and joint invariants for a system of two linear hyperbolic equations equivalent to the system of linear elliptic equations by complex changes of the independent variables. Examples are presented to illustrate the results.

  1. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.

  2. Radiation synthesis of silver nanostructures in cotton matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Dagmara; Sartowska, Bożena

    2012-08-01

    Cotton is one of the most popular natural fibres, composed mainly of cellulose, which finds a wide range of applications in paper, textile and health care products industry. Researchers have focused their interest on the synthesis of cotton nanocomposites, which enhances its mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties by the incorporation of various nanoparticles into the cotton matrix. Silver is one of the most popular antimicrobial agents with a wide spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal activity that results from a complex mechanism of its interactions with the cells of harmful microorganism. In this work, electron beam radiation was applied to synthesise silver nanostructures in cotton fibres. Investigations of the influence of the initial silver salt concentration on the size and distribution of the obtained silver nanostructures were carried out. A detailed characterisation of these nanocomposites with SEM-BSE and EDS methods was performed. TGA and DSC analyses were performed to assess the influence of different size silver nanoparticles and the effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties of cotton fibres. A microbiological investigation to determine the antibacterial activity of Ag-cotton nanocomposites was carried out.

  3. Insect resistance management for Syngenta's VipCot transgenic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Ryan W; McCaffery, Alan; O'Reilly, David

    2007-07-01

    Syngenta is seeking commercial registration for VipCot cotton, a pyramided transgenic cotton trait that expresses two insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1Ab. Both proteins are highly effective against two key cotton pests, Helicoverpa zea cotton bollworm; and Heliothis virescens, tobacco budworm. To investigate the role of VipCot cotton in delaying the development of resistance in these pests to transgenic Bt traits, Syngenta has performed studies to determine the dose of proteins expressed in VipCot and evaluate the potential for cross-resistance between the component proteins. Following United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) high dose methods 1 and 4, VipCot was shown to express a high dose of proteins for H. zea and H. virescens. VipCot was also confirmed to express a high dose of proteins for H. zea through US EPA Method 5. Additionally, all the data collected to date verify a lack of cross-resistance between Vip3A and Cry proteins. These two key pieces of information indicate that VipCot cotton should be very durable under the currently mandated high dose plus refuge insect resistance management strategy.

  4. Cotton Rats Alter Foraging in Response to an Invasive Ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darracq, Andrea K; Conner, L Mike; Brown, Joel S; McCleery, Robert A

    We assessed the effects of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta; hereafter fire ant) on the foraging of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). We used a manipulative experiment, placing resource patches with a known amount of millet seed within areas with reduced (RIFA [-]) or ambient (RIFA [+]) numbers of fire ants. We measured giving up densities (the amount of food left within each patch) within the resource patches for 4 days to quantify the effects of fire ants on cotton rat foraging. We assessed the effects of fire ant treatment (RIFA), Day, and their interaction on cotton rat giving up densities. Giving up densities on RIFA [+] grids were nearly 2.2 times greater across all foraging days and ranged from 1.6 to 2.3 times greater from day 1 to day 4 than the RIFA [-] grids. From day 1 to day 4, mean giving up densities decreased significantly faster for the RIFA [-] than RIFA [+] treatments, 58% and 13%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that cotton rats perceive a risk of injury from fire ants, which is likely caused by interference competition, rather than direct predation. Envenomation from ants likely decrease the foraging efficiency of cotton rats resulting in more time spent foraging. Increased time spent foraging is likely stressful in terms of the opportunity for direct injury and encounters with other predators. These indirect effects may reduce an individual cotton rat's fitness and translate into lowered population abundances.

  5. Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimar Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in the production of colored and organic cotton, may result in reduction of water use, and consequent reduction in the disposal of effluents in nature. As the colored and organic cotton is produced by small farmers, governmental agencies need to participate in the effort of improving its production and distribution, providing the needed infrastructure to meet the increasing market. This would slowly encourage the reduction of white cotton consumption in exchange for this naturally colored product. The water used, and consequent polluted discharge in the use of colored cotton in the textile industry might be reduced by 70%, assuming a reduction of environmental impact of 5% per year would represent expressive numbers in the next ten years. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  6. Synthesis of chitosan incorporated neem seed extract (Azadirachta indica) for medical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, T; Thambidurai, S

    2017-11-01

    In present study, eco-friendly biosynthesis of Chitosan-Neem seed (CS-NS) composite was prepared by co-precipitation method using aqueous neem seed extract. Cotton fabrics were treated with two different crosslinking agents (Glutaraldehyde and Citric acid) then the synthesized composite coated on cotton fabric by chemical linkage between the composite and the cellulose structure. As synthesized composite materials and treated cotton fabrics were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for functional groups confirmation, X-ray diffraction for crystalline behavior determination, UV-vis spectroscopy analysis for optical property and High resolution scanning electron microscopy for Surface morphological properties. The antibacterial activity of CS-NS composite coated cotton fabric and CS-NS composite coated cotton fabric with crosslinking agents were tested against the gram-positive and gram negative bacteria by agar well diffusion method. The results demonstrated that CS-NS composite with crosslinked coated cotton fabric has higher antibacterial activity than without crosslinked cotton fabric. Thus the chitosan-neem seed composite may be applied to the medical textiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  8. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  9. Sewage Sludge Usage in Cotton Crop:I.Influence on Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.D.TSADILAN; D.G.DIMOYIANNIS; 等

    1999-01-01

    A field experiment with cotton was conducted on a well drained,calcareous,clay loamy Typic Xerochreph to investigate the utility of sewage sludge as a partial substitute for fertilizers and the influence of tis application on the basic soil properties and heavy metal concentrations.The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with five treatments replicated four times each.Sewage sludge came from the treatment plant of the municipality of Volos,Central Greece,with the following characteristics:organic matter content 36.6%,pH(H2O1:5)6.89,CaCO3 53.4g kg-1,total N 265.g kg-1,ttal P33.5g kg-1,and total K 968mg kg-1 soil.Heavy metal concentrations were Cd 5.24,Pb 442,Ni38,Cu 224,Zn1812,and Mn 260mgkg-1 dry weight,respectively.The soil was high in potassium(K)and poor in available phosphorus(P).The results showed that sewage sludge application increased cotton yield and K and P concentrations in cotton leaves,Soil pH was reduced in the case of higher sewage sludge rate.Electrical conductivity,organic matter content,totalN,and avaiable P were significantly increased.Total concentrations of Zn,Pb,and Cu were slightly increased.DTPA-extractable Zn,Cu,and Mn were also significantly increased.Available forms of all heavy metals,except Cd,were significantly correlated with organic matter content in a positive way and negatively with soil pH.

  10. Primary investigation on GISH-NOR in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sanhong; WANG Kunbo; SONG Guoli; WANG Chunying; LIU Fang; LI Shaohui; ZHANG Xiangdi; WANG Yuhong

    2005-01-01

    Six loci of nucleolar organizer region (NOR) were detected in genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) of cotton (Gossypium). NOR was the characteristic of 45S rDNA but could be generated by genomic DNA (gDNA) extracted from Gossypium species as probe. With twice FISH to the same mitotic cell of G. herbaceum or G. hirsutum, number, position and size for NORs generated from 45S rDNA and gDNA were identified largely similar or even the same. The NORs with gDNA as probe were therefore permanently defined as GISH-NORs. GISH-NORs from G. hirsutum and G. raimondii mitotic images were all terminal types. Four and two GISH-NORs from G. herbaceum (var. africanum) were terminal and centromere types, respectively. Six GISH-NORs in G. hirsutum were chromosome mapped with two in A- and four in D-subgenomes. There were also GISH-NORs in mitotic image of G. raimondii with its own gDNA as probe. From mitotic image of G. herbaceum with its own gDNA as probe, GISH-NOR could not be observed but non-whole- recovery of hybridized signals was distinguished. These non-whole-recovery of hybridized signals were detected on long arm terminals of most chromosomes and especially existed in nearly half long arm of a pair of chromosomes in G. herbaceum gDNA probed itself GISH image, which may be possibly induced by low copy genes within the regions rather than inter-subgenomic segment translocations. GISH-NORs in G. hirsutum mitotic images were dominantly observed when gDNAs from D and A genome species were used as probes and block, respectively, but not when the reverse probe and block gDNA from the two diploid progenitor genomes were designed. There may be two speculations to this special phenomenon: rDNA concerted evolution; content of rDNA in genome D more than genome A.

  11. Within-plant distribution of cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton cultivars with colored fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover within a cotton plant in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus cultivars (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí with colored fiber over the time. Measurements of aphid population dynamics and distribution in the cotton plants were recorded in intervals of seven days. The number of apterous or alate aphids and their specific locations were recorded, using as a reference point the location of nodes on the mainstem of the plant and also those on the leaves present on branches and fruit structures. The number of apterous aphids found on the cultivar BRS Safira (56,515 aphids was greater than that found on BRS Rubí (50,537 aphids. There was no significant difference between the number of alate aphids found on the cultivars BRS Safira (365 aphids/plant and BRS Rubí (477 aphids/plant. There were interactions between cotton cultivar and plant age, between plant region and plant age, and between cultivar and plant region for apterous aphids. The results of this study are of great importance in improving control strategies for A. gossypii in the naturally-colored cotton cultivars BRS Safira and BRS Rubí.Nós descrevemos a distribuição vertical e horizontal do pulgão do algodoeiro Aphis gossypii Glover dentro da planta de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus, em dois cultivares com fibras coloridas (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí ao longo do seu desenvolvimento. Medidas de dinâmicas de populações e distribuição de A. gossypii nas plantas de algodão foram registradas em intervalos de sete dias. O número de afídeos ápteros ou alados e suas localizações específicas foram registrados, usando-se como ponto de referência a localização do nó no caule principal da planta e também aqueles presentes nas folhas de ramos e estruturas frutíferas. O número de afídeos ápteros encontrados na cultivar BRS Safira (56.515 afídeos foi maior do que o encontrado na BRS Rub

  12. Persistence of dicofol residues in cotton lint seed, and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Beena; Duhan, Anil

    2011-11-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted at the CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to assess the residues of dicofol on cotton, during Kharif season, 2008. Dicofol (Kelthane 18.5EC) was applied at 500 g a.i./ha (T(1)) and 1,000 g a.i./ha T(2)) after 105 days of sowing of cotton crop (Varity Cotton/H-1226). Soil samples were collected on 0 (1 h after treatment), 3, 7, 10, 15, 30, and 60 days after spray and cotton samples were collected at harvest. Samples were processed and residues were quantified by GC-ECD system equipped with capillary column. Limit of detection and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.001 and 0.010 mg kg( -1), respectively, for soil and LOQ for cotton lint and seed was 0.020 mg kg( -1). Initial residues of 0.588 and 1.182 mg kg( -1) in soil reached below detectable level (BDL) of 0.010 mg kg( -1) in T(1) and to the level of BDL (0.010 mg kg( -1)) in T(2) at harvest (60 days after treatment). In 60 days, residues dissipated almost completely (100 and >99%) in both the treatments. Half-life period was calculated as 8.57 days at single dose and 8.69 days at double dose in soil. Residues of dicofol were detected in cotton lint to the levels of 0.292 and 0.653 mg kg( -1) and in seed 0.051 and 0.090 mg kg( -1) in T(1) and T(2) doses, respectively at harvest. Residues in cotton seed were below MRL value of 0.01 mg kg( -1) in both the doses.

  13. Toxical effect of Peganum harmala L. leaves on the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its parasitoids Microplitis rufiventris Kok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonouda, Mourad; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    2008-02-15

    The leaf extract and its fractions of Peganum harmala L. have shown pronounced mortal effect, decreased percent pupation and adult emergence of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extract and its ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the leaf fractions of P. harmala showed significant effect on the percentage of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis showed the major constituent in ethyl acetate fraction was (23S) ethylcholest-5-en-3 beta-ol (28.04%) while those of chloroform fraction were hydroxyfuranocoumarin (Bergaptol) (15.68%), piperidinone (12.08%), thymol (11.82%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (9.80%) and trimethyl-nonenol (9.66%). The medicinal plant P. harmala could be carefully applied in integrated pest management due to its strong effect on cotton leaf worm pest.

  14. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Genes Involved in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Response to Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHANG Xian-long; ZHU Long-fu; TU Li-li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Verticillium dahliae Kleb.is a necrotrophic plant pathogen which causes serious soil borne vascular disease in cotton.The molecular basis the defense response of cotton to this pathogen is poorly understood.

  15. COTTON USA Buyers Tour Brings Global Brands and Retailers to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ MEMPHIS - The COTTON USA Buyers Tour to China delivered representatives from 18 global companies - with a combined annual turnover of $18.5 billion - to China from 26-30 March to meet suppliers of pure cotton woven textiles.

  16. Efficacy of Cotton Root Destruction and Winter Cover Crops for Suppression of Hoplolaimus columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R F; Baird, R E; McNeil, R D

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction (i.e., pulling them up) were evaluated in field tests during two growing seasons for Hoplolaimus columbus management in cotton. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass (P Cover crops did not suppress H. columbus population levels or increase subsequent cotton yields. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Cotton root destruction lowered (P cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. columbus management in cotton.

  17. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  18. Cotton Reserves Auctions Touch 57% of Release Plan but Prices Rally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With manufacturing slowly recovering amid improving economic conditions, cotton demand has increased prompting more orders among mills. However, with a deficient supply of cotton in the market, prices extend

  19. Cotton Reserves Auctions Touch 57% of Release Plan but Prices Rally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With manufacturing slowly recovering amid improving economic conditions, cotton demand has increased prompting more orders among mills. However, with a deficient supply of cotton in the market, prices extend gains since Oct. 2009.

  20. Development of hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns with improved absorption properties for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica, E-mail: federica.paladini@unisalento.it; Sannino, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is an overlooked and potentially disabling symptom, which is often seen in social anxiety disorder. In this work an innovative advanced textile material was developed for application in the management of excessive sweating, preparing a drying yarn providing improved comfort. Hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns were obtained by combining cotton with superabsorbent hydrogels through an optimization study focused on the achievement of the most promising product in terms of absorption properties and resistance to washings. Swelling and washing tests were performed using different hydrogels, and the effect of an additional crosslinking on the materials was also evaluated by testing different solutions containing Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. Scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses were adopted to characterize morphology and chemical structure of the hydrogels undergoing different production processes. The biocompatibility of the hybrid fabrics was demonstrated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay (MTT) through the extract method. - Highlights: • Novel textile based on natural fibres and superabsorbent hydrogels was developed. • The swelling ratio and the durability to washings were evaluated. • The effect of the choice of the hydrogel was studied. • The effects of additional crosslinking on hydrogel and fabrics were evaluated. • The optimized parameters determined durable and improved absorption properties.

  1. Immobilization of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans on Cotton Gauze for the Bioleaching of Waste Printed Circuit Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Hongyan; Zhu, Nengwu; Cao, Yanlan; Xu, Zhiguo; Wu, Pingxiao

    2015-10-01

    The bioleaching parameters of metal concentrates from waste printed circuit boards by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans immobilized on cotton gauze in a two-step reactor were investigated in this study. The results indicated that an average ferrous iron oxidation rate of 0.54 g/(L·h) and a ferrous iron oxidation ratio of 96.90 % were obtained after 12 h at aeration rate of 1 L/min in bio-oxidation reactor. After 96 h, the highest leaching efficiency of copper reached 91.68 % under the conditions of the content of the metal powder 12 g/L, the retention time 6 h, and the aeration rate 1 L/min. The bioleaching efficiency of copper could be above 91.12 % under repeated continuous batch operation. Meanwhile, 95.32 % of zinc, 90.32 % of magnesium, 86.31 % of aluminum, and 59.07 % of nickel were extracted after 96 h. All the findings suggested that the recovery of metal concentrates from waste printed circuit boards via immobilization of A. ferrooxidans on cotton gauze was feasible.

  2. Isolation and Structural Characterization of Lignin from Cotton Stalk Treated in an Ammonia Hydrothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sumin; Xiao, Lingping; Meng, Lingyan; Zhang, Xueming; Sun, Runcang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the utilization of cotton stalk, ammonia hydrothermal treatment was applied to fractionate the samples into aqueous ammonia-soluble and ammonia-insoluble portions. The ammonia-soluble portion was purified to yield lignin fractions. The lignin fractions obtained were characterized by wet chemistry (carbohydrate analysis) and spectroscopy methods (FT-IR, 13C and 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectroscopy) as well as gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results showed that the cotton stalk lignin fractions were almost absent of neutral sugars (0.43%–1.29%) and had relatively low average molecular weights (1255–1746 g/mol). The lignin fractions belonged to typical G-S lignin, which was composed predominately of G-type units (59%) and noticeable amounts of S-type units (40%) together with a small amount of H-type units (~1%). Furthermore, the ammonia-extractable lignin fractions were mainly composed of β-O-4′ inter-unit linkages (75.6%), and small quantities of β-β′ (12.2%), together with lower amounts of β-5′ carbon-carbon linkages (7.4%) and p-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol end groups. PMID:23203120

  3. Characterization of vine shoots, cotton stalks, Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, and of their ethyleneglycol pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Luis; Pérez, Antonio; de la Torre, María Jesús; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis

    2007-12-01

    We characterized vine shoots, cotton stalks, Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus as pulping raw materials and found C. proliferus and cotton stalks to be the best for the intended purpose on the grounds of their increased contents in holocellulose (79.73% and 72.86%) and alpha-cellulose (45.37% and 58.48%), and their decreased contents in ethanol-benzene extractables (2.64% and 1.42%), hot water solubles (2.79% and 3.33%) and 1% soda solubles (16.67% and 20.34%). These properties resulted in increased pulp yields and hence in efficient use of these two types of raw material. The previous raw materials were pulped by using an ethyleneglycol concentration of 65% at 180 degrees C for 75min, followed by beating at 1500 revolutions in a PFI refiner. The paper sheets obtained were characterized and those from C. proliferus found to be the best overall as they exhibited an increased breaking length (4644m), stretch (2.87%), burst index (2.46kN/g) tear index (0.33mNm(2)/g) and brightness (49.92% ISO); in addition C. proliferus pulp was obtained with a high-yield (62.88%). On the other hand, vine shoots provided the poorest results among the studied raw materials.

  4. Development of hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns with improved absorption properties for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica; Sannino, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is an overlooked and potentially disabling symptom, which is often seen in social anxiety disorder. In this work an innovative advanced textile material was developed for application in the management of excessive sweating, preparing a drying yarn providing improved comfort. Hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns were obtained by combining cotton with superabsorbent hydrogels through an optimization study focused on the achievement of the most promising product in terms of absorption properties and resistance to washings. Swelling and washing tests were performed using different hydrogels, and the effect of an additional crosslinking on the materials was also evaluated by testing different solutions containing Al(3+) and Ca(2+) ions. Scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses were adopted to characterize morphology and chemical structure of the hydrogels undergoing different production processes. The biocompatibility of the hybrid fabrics was demonstrated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay (MTT) through the extract method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expedited, chemically enhanced sperm cell recovery from cotton swabs for rape kit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jessica V; Manning, Kate; Linke, Sarah J; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2007-07-01

    This report focuses on the development of a method for chemically induced enhancement of cell elution and recovery from cotton swabs. The method exploits the exclusive use of detergents for intact cell removal, and can be utilized in conjunction with, or to circumvent, conventional differential extraction (DE). Samples treated with Sarkosyl (54.4 +/- 1.8%) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (78.5 +/- 0.7%) yielded higher sperm cell recoveries than a conventional DE buffer (39.4 +/- 2.1%). The results indicated that the choice of detergent affected sperm cell yield, with anionic detergents having the greatest effect. Storage time of samples affected the concentration of detergent required for optimal sperm cell recovery, longer times requiring increased detergent concentrations. In addition, the extent of sperm cell lysis by proteinase K digestion was evaluated. The results indicate that the exclusive use of SDS enhances the release of sperm and epithelial cells from a cotton swab as compared with DE buffer, providing for a more effective DNA analysis.

  6. Remote sensing in dryland cotton: relation to yield potential and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John J.; Iqbal, Javed; Thomasson, John A.; Willers, Jeffrey L.; Jenkins, Johnie N.

    2004-01-01

    The use of soil and topography information to explain crop yield variation across fields is often applied for crop management purposes. Remote sensed data is a potential source of information for site-specific crop management, providing both spatial and temporal information about soil and crop condition. Studies were conducted in a 104-acre (42-hectare) dryland cotton field in 2001 and 2002 in order to (1) qualitatively assess the spatial variability of soil physical properties from kriged estimates, (2) compare actual yields with normalized difference vegetation reflectance indices (NDVI) obtained from multispectral imagery and from in situ radiometer data, and (3) predict site-specific cotton yields using a crop simulation model, GOSSYM. An NDVI map of soybean in 2000 obtained from a multispectral image was used to establish four sites in each low, medium and high NDVI class. These 12 sites were studied in 2001 and 12 more sites selected at random were studied in 2002 (n = 24). Site-specific measurements included leaf area index (LAI), canopy hyperspectral reflectance, and three-band multispectral image data for green, red, and near-infrared reflectance wavebands at spatial resolutions of 2 m in 2001 and 0.5 m in 2002. Imagery was imported into the image analysis software Imagine (ERDAS, v. 8.5) for georegistration and image analysis. A 6x6 pixels (144 m2) area of interest was established on top of each field plot site and digital numbers (DN) from reflectance imagery were extracted from each band for derivation of NDVI maps for each of four sampling dates. Lint yield from each plot site was collected by hand and also by a cotton picker equipped with AgLeader yield monitor and OmniStar differential global positioning system. We found plant height, leaf area index, and lint yield were closely associated with NDVI maps and with NIR band values acquired from either an aircraft or handheld (GER-1500) sensor during peak bloom in mid July. Results indicate NDVI and NIR

  7. Double feature selection and cluster analyses in mining of microarray data from cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins Thea A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome of major biological and economic importance. In recent years, genomic approaches such as microarray-based expression profiling were used to study fiber growth and development to understand the developmental mechanisms of fiber at the molecular level. The vast volume of microarray expression data generated requires a sophisticated means of data mining in order to extract novel information that addresses fundamental questions of biological interest. One of the ways to approach microarray data mining is to increase the number of dimensions/levels to the analysis, such as comparing independent studies from different genotypes. However, adding dimensions also creates a challenge in finding novel ways for analyzing multi-dimensional microarray data. Results Mining of independent microarray studies from Pima and Upland (TM1 cotton using double feature selection and cluster analyses identified species-specific and stage-specific gene transcripts that argue in favor of discrete genetic mechanisms that govern developmental programming of cotton fiber morphogenesis in these two cultivated species. Double feature selection analysis identified the highest number of differentially expressed genes that distinguish the fiber transcriptomes of developing Pima and TM1 fibers. These results were based on the finding that differences in fibers harvested between 17 and 24 day post-anthesis (dpa represent the greatest expressional distance between the two species. This powerful selection method identified a subset of genes expressed during primary (PCW and secondary (SCW cell wall biogenesis in Pima fibers that exhibits an expression pattern that is generally reversed in TM1 at the same developmental stage. Cluster and functional analyses revealed that this subset of genes are primarily regulated during the transition stage that overlaps the termination of PCW and onset of SCW biogenesis, suggesting

  8. Steam Explosion Pretreatment of Cotton Gin Waste for Fuel Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jeoh, Tina

    1998-01-01

    Steam Explosion Pretreatment of Cotton Gin Waste for Ethanol Production By Tina Jeoh Foster A. Agblevor, Chair Biological Systems Engineering ABSTRACT The current research investigates the utilization of cotton gin waste as a feedstock to produce a value-added product - fuel ethanol. Cotton gin waste consists of pieces of burs, stems, motes (immature seeds) and cotton fiber, and is considered to be a lignocellulosic material. The three main chemical constituents are ce...

  9. Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Higher yields and reduced pesticide impacts are needed to mitigate the effects of agricultural intensification. A 2-year farm-scale evaluation of 81 commercial fields in Arizona show that use of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton reduced insecticide use, whereas transgenic cotton with Bt protein and herbicide resistance (BtHr) did not affect herbicide use. Transgenic cotton had higher yield than nontransgenic cotton for any given number of insecticide applications. However, nontran...

  10. ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATE LINKED SUBSIDIES FOR NON-PRICE EXPORT PROMOTION: THE CASE OF COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2002-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement framework was developed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate linked subsidies for non-price export promotion for US cotton. Study results show that an increase in promotion expenditure increased the dollar value and producer welfare of cotton growers. The gross gain to the domestic cotton producers from the exchange-rate linked subsidy scheme was positive. These evidences support exchange rate linked subsidies for US cotton export promotion.

  11. Expression Profile Analysis of Genes Involved in Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Pathway in Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming; XIAO Zhong-yi; TAN Kun-ling; HU Ming-yu; LIAO Peng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the leading fiber crop and one of the mainstays of the economy in the world.Cotton fibers,as the main product of cotton plants,are unicellular,linear structures derived from the epidermis of the ovule.Cotton fiber development consists of four discrete yet overlapping developmental stages: initiation,elongation,secondary wall deposition,and maturation.

  12. Diversity, Mutation and Recombination Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Geminiviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Saleem

    Full Text Available The spread of cotton leaf curl disease in China, India and Pakistan is a recent phenomenon. Analysis of available sequence data determined that there is a substantial diversity of cotton-infecting geminiviruses in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that recombination between two major groups of viruses, cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV and cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV, led to the emergence of several new viruses. Recombination detection programs and phylogenetic analyses showed that CLCuMuV and CLCuKoV are highly recombinant viruses. Indeed, CLCuKoV appeared to be a major donor virus for the coat protein (CP gene, while CLCuMuV donated the Rep gene in the majority of recombination events. Using recombination free nucleotide datasets the substitution rates for CP and Rep genes were determined. We inferred similar nucleotide substitution rates for the CLCuMuV-Rep gene (4.96X10-4 and CLCuKoV-CP gene (2.706X10-4, whereas relatively higher substitution rates were observed for CLCuMuV-CP and CLCuKoV-Rep genes. The combination of sequences with equal and relatively low substitution rates, seemed to result in the emergence of viral isolates that caused epidemics in Pakistan and India. Our findings also suggest that CLCuMuV is spreading at an alarming rate, which can potentially be a threat to cotton production in the Indian subcontinent.

  13. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Uzaira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.

  14. Variable selection based cotton bollworm odor spectroscopic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chengxu; Gai, Shasha; Luo, Min; Zhao, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at rapid automatic pest detection based efficient and targeting pesticide application and shooting the trouble of reflectance spectral signal covered and attenuated by the solid plant, the possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) detection on cotton bollworm odor is studied. Three cotton bollworm odor samples and 3 blank air gas samples were prepared. Different concentrations of cotton bollworm odor were prepared by mixing the above gas samples, resulting a calibration group of 62 samples and a validation group of 31 samples. Spectral collection system includes light source, optical fiber, sample chamber, spectrometer. Spectra were pretreated by baseline correction, modeled with partial least squares (PLS), and optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS). Minor counts differences are found among spectra of different cotton bollworm odor concentrations. PLS model of all the variables was built presenting RMSEV of 14 and RV2 of 0.89, its theory basis is insect volatilizes specific odor, including pheromone and allelochemics, which are used for intra-specific and inter-specific communication and could be detected by NIR spectroscopy. 28 sensitive variables are selected by GA, presenting the model performance of RMSEV of 14 and RV2 of 0.90. Comparably, 8 sensitive variables are selected by CARS, presenting the model performance of RMSEV of 13 and RV2 of 0.92. CARS model employs only 1.5% variables presenting smaller error than that of all variable. Odor gas based NIR technique shows the potential for cotton bollworm detection.

  15. A Grey Fuzzy Logic Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Das, Partha Protim; Kumar, Vidyapati

    2017-06-01

    It is a well known fact that the quality of ring spun yarn predominantly depends on various physical properties of cotton fibre. Any variation in these fibre properties may affect the strength and unevenness of the final yarn. Thus, so as to achieve the desired yarn quality and characteristics, it becomes imperative for the spinning industry personnel to identify the most suitable cotton fibre from a set of feasible alternatives in presence of several conflicting properties/attributes. This cotton fibre selection process can be modelled as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a grey fuzzy logic-based approach is proposed for selection of the most apposite cotton fibre from 17 alternatives evaluated based on six important fibre properties. It is observed that the preference order of the top-ranked cotton fibres derived using the grey fuzzy logic approach closely matches with that attained by the past researchers which proves the application potentiality of this method in solving varying MCDM problems in textile industries.

  16. Plant growth regulation of Bt-cotton through Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Sultana, Tasleem; Vootla, Praveen Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Deccan plateau in India periodically experiences droughts due to irregular rain fall and the soil in many parts of the region is considered to be poor for farming. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are originally defined as root-colonizing bacteria, i.e., Bacillus that cause either plant growth promotion or biological control of plant diseases. The study aims at the isolation of novel Bacillus species and to assess the biotechnological potential of the novel species as a biofertilizer, with respect to their plant growth promoting properties as efficient phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. Seven different strains of Bacillus were isolated from cotton rhizosphere soil near boys' hostel of Palamuru University which belongs to Deccan plateau. Among seven isolated strains, Bacillus strain-7 has shown maximum support for good growth of eight cotton cultivars. This bacterial species is named Bacillus sp. PU-7 based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis. Among eight cotton cultivars, Mahyco has shown high levels of IAA, proteins, chlorophyll, sugars and low level of proline. Efficacy of novel Bacillus sp. PU-7 with Mahyco cultivar has been checked experimentally at field level in four different cotton grown agricultural soils. The strains supported plant growth in almost all the cases, especially in the deep black soil, with a clear evidence of maximum plant growth by increased levels of phytohormone production and biochemical analysis, followed by shallow black soil. Hence, it is inferred that the novel isolate can be used as bioinoculant in the cotton fields.

  17. New prospects in pretreatment of cotton fabrics using microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, M; Taleb, M Abou; El-Shall, F N; Haggag, K

    2014-03-15

    As microwaves are known to give fast and rapid volume heating, the present study is undertaken to investigate the use of microwave heating for pretreatment cotton fabrics to reduce the pretreatment time, chemicals and water. The onset of the microwave heating technique on the physicochemical and performance properties of desized, scoured and bleached cotton fabric is elucidated and compared with those obtained on using conventional thermal heating. Combined one-step process for desizing, scouring and bleaching of cotton fabric under microwave heating was also investigated. The dual effect of adding urea, (as microwave absorber and hydrogen peroxide activator) has been exploiting to accelerate the pretreatment reaction of cotton fabric. DSC, FT-IR and SEM have been used to investigate the onset of microwave on the morphological and chemical change of cotton cellulose after pretreatment and bleaching under microwave heating. Results obtained show that, a complete fabric preparation was obtained in just 5 min on using microwave in pretreatments process and the fabric properties were comparable to those obtained in traditional pretreatment process which requires 2.5-3h for completion.

  18. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  19. Cotton-textile wastewater management: investigating different treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, D; Aivasidis, A

    2012-01-01

    The cotton-textile industry consumes significant amounts of water during manufacturing, creating high volumes of wastewater needing treatment. The organic-load concentration of cotton-textile wastewater is equivalent to a medium-strength municipal wastewater; the color of the water, however, remains a significant environmental issue. This research, in cooperation with a cotton-textile manufacturer, investigated different treatment methods and different combinations of methods to identify the most cost-effective approaches to treating textile wastewater. Although activated-sludge is economical, it can only be used as part of an integrated wastewater management system because it cannot decolorize wastewater. Coagulation/flocculation methods are able to decolorize cotton-wastewater; however, this process creates high amounts of wastewater solids, thus significantly increasing total treatment costs. Chemical oxidation is an environmentally friendly technique that can only be used as a polishing step because of high operating costs. Anaerobic digestion in a series of fixed-bed bioreactors with immobilized methanogens using acetic acid as a substrate and a pH-control agent followed by activated-sludge treatment was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally safe cotton-textile wastewater management approach investigated.

  20. 78 FR 9330 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Cotton Research and Promotion Act and to allow for published spot quotes to consider spot prices of... and Promotion Act and to allow for ] published spot quotes to consider spot prices of cotton marketed... Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market definitions will allow for...

  1. Cold disasters: the most serious meteorological disasters to the cotton production in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; He, Qing; Yuan, Yujiang; Tang, Fenglan

    2003-07-01

    After analyzing the heat conditions in the years of serious reduction of cotton yield in the main cotton-growing areas of Xinjiang, it is found that the cold disasters, especially the delaying cold disasters, are the most serious meteorological disasters to the cotton production in Xinjiang.

  2. Temperature-mediated developmental delay may limit yield of cotton in relay intercrops with wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.Z.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Yellow River valley of China, more then 1.4 million ha of cotton are grown as relay intercrops with wheat. Cotton is sown in April when winter wheat is already in the reproductive phase; thus, a wheat crop with a fully developed canopy will compete for resources with cotton plants in the seed

  3. Seminar on“Cotton Price and Market”Outlook and Expectation for 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by Cotton Council International and co-organized by the Hong Kong Association of Textile Bleachers,Dyers,Printers and Finishers and the Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association,the seminar on"Cotton Price and Market:Outlook and Expectation for 2011"was held at the Clothing Industry

  4. King Cotton's Lasting Legacy of Poverty and Southern Region Contemporary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.; Peevely, Gary

    2010-01-01

    One hundred fifty years ago, cotton was considered as the king of all United States' agricultural exports. Cotton's dollar value far exceeded that of any other mid-19th-century United States trade item, much more than tobacco, fish, forest products, raw materials for manufacturing, or manufactured items. Indeed, in the mid-19th century, cotton was…

  5. Low-level hydrogen peroxide generation by unbleached cotton nonwovens: implications for wound healing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greige cotton is an intact plant fiber. The cuticle and primary cell wall near the outer surface of the cotton fiber contains pectin, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and trace metals, which are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation during cotton fiber development. The compon...

  6. High quality yarns from high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highest quality yarns from upland cotton are typically produced by using combing in the textile mill. Combing is a resource-intensive process in which short fibers are removed from cotton before spinning. The improvement in fiber length and length uniformity of upland cotton when high speed ro...

  7. Xinjiang Corps Reduce Cotton Area to 6.5 Million Mu in Three Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As the key fine cotton production base, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC) decided to"reducing the cotton planting and increasing the foodstuff area"and sped up its structure adjustment.It aimed to reduec the cotton planting area to 6.5

  8. Near infrared measurment of cotton fiber micronaire by portable near infrared instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton production and usage is a global enterprise, and the export of U.S. cotton has increased dramatically. In the U.S., cotton is classed (and its primary quality parameters determined) by the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), which must be maintained under tightly controlled laboratory envir...

  9. Molecular research and genetic engineering of resistance to Verticillium wilt in cotton: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium dahliae, a soil-borne pathogen, causes Verticillium wilt, one of the most serious diseases in cotton, deleteriously influencing the crop’s production and quality. Verticillium wilt has become a major obstacle in cotton production since Helicoverpa armigera, the cotton bollworm, became e...

  10. Transcriptional Analysis of the Relationship of Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis to the Brown Pigmentation in Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With increased concern to environment and health in the modern society,naturally colored cotton becomes more and more attractive to textile industry and cotton production.Brown is the most common fiber color in naturally colored cottons.Traditional genetic analyses revealed that brown fiber

  11. Introgression of Bt Genes in Novel Germplasm and Contribution to Indian Cotton Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VIDYASAGAR; Parchuri

    2008-01-01

    Emergence of transgenic Bt-cotton technology has opened up a new chapter in Indian cotton production in 21st century.The cry1Ac gene of Monsanto derived from American Upland Coker-312 background was not directly suitable for varied cotton growing situations in India.Delivery of Bt-gene

  12. Our experience in processing a pre-cleaned greige cotton lint for certain nonwoven base materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally bleached cotton has been used for the production of nonwoven fabrics. One primary reason for this scenario was that there was no greige cotton fiber alternative that would meet the required cotton cleanliness needs of the nonwovens manufacturers. However, today, there are several vers...

  13. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. Cotton or vegetable fibers being transported on a vessel may not be stowed in the same hold with coal. They may be stowed in adjacent holds if...

  14. Interactions between a cotton phytopathogen and the host using a genomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an economic crop grown worldwide. Numerous G. hirsutum polyploids have been sequenced. Bacterial infections of cotton can cause major yield losses. Pantoea ananatis is a known bacterial pathogen of both cotton buds and bolls. Thus, we conducted a whole genome an...

  15. 7 CFR 319.8-14 - Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. 319... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Special Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-14...

  16. Physical processing and emission characteristics of cotton ginning byproducts based firelogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of cotton ginning byproducts for manufacturing firelogs. Cotton burr with stem (CBS) a byproduct from cotton ginning operation was mixed with petroleum based paraffin wax to manufacture firelogs. The impact of varying the formulation of firelogs, an...

  17. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density on cotton boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Xiang-Bin; Xu, Min; Shen, Dan; Jin, Lu-Lu; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-02-01

    Taking cotton cultivars Liaomian 19 and NuCoTN 33B as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrogen fertilization rate (0, 240 and 480 kg x hm(-2)) and planting density (75000, 97500 and 120000 plants x hm(-2)) on the boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in the extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China. With the growth and development of cotton, the biomass and nitrogen accumulation of cotton boll, cotton seed, and cotton fiber varied in 'S' shape. Both nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density had significant effects on the dynamic characteristics of boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation, and on the fiber yield and quality. In treatment 240 kg x hm(-2) and 97500 plants x hm(-2), the biomass of single boll, cotton seed and cotton fiber was the maximum, the starting time and ending time of the rapid accumulation period of the biomass and nitrogen were earlier but the duration of the accumulation was shorter, the rapid accumulation speed of the biomass was the maximum, and the distribution indices of the biomass and nitrogen were the lowest in boll shell but the highest in cotton seed and cotton fiber.

  18. Response of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls, under elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The growth, development and consumption of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2 (double-ambient vs. ambient) in open-top chambers were examined. Significant decreases in protein, total amino acid, water and nitrogen content and increases in free fatty acid were observed in cotton bolls. Changes in quality of cotton bolls affected the growth, development and food utilization of H. armigera. Significantly longer larval development duration in three successive generations and lower pupal weight of the second and third generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower fecundity was also found in successive three generations of H. armigera fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The consumption per larva occurred significant increase in successive three generations and frass per larva were also significantly increased during the second and third generations under elevated CO2. Significantly lower relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and significant higher relative consumption rate in successive three generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower potential female fecundity, larval numbers and population consumption were found in the second and third generations of cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The integrative effect of higher larval mortality rate and lower adult fecundity resulted in significant decreases in potential population consumption in the latter two generations. The results show that elevated CO2 adversely affects cotton bolls quality, which indicates the potential population dynamics and potential population consumption of cotton bollworm will alleviate the harm to the plants in the future rising CO2 atmosphere.

  19. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Zahi El-Zahi Saber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a polyphagous sap sucking insect with a wide geographical and host range causing severe losses in economically important crops. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect attacking cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense var. Giza 86 in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. The insect was noticed on cotton plants for the first time during its growing season of 2014. The mealybug specimens were collected from infested cotton plants and identified as P. solenopsis. In an attempt to control this pest, eight toxic materials viz., imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate, chlorpyrifos, methomyl, deltamethrin and mineral oil (KZ-oil, belonging to different chemical groups, were tested for their influence against P. solenopsis on cotton under field conditions. Methomyl, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and chlorpyrifos showed the highest efficacy against P. solenopsis recording 92.3 to 80.4% reduction of the insect population. Flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate and KZ-oil failed to exhibit sufficient P. solenopsis control.

  20. A carbon nanotube based ammonia sensor on cotton textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Beomseok; Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-05-01

    A single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) based ammonia (NH3) sensor was implemented on a cotton yarn. Two types of sensors were fabricated: Au/sensing CNT/Au and conducting/sensing/conducting all CNT structures. Two perpendicular Au wires were designed to contact CNT-cotton yarn for metal-CNT sensor, whereas nanotubes were used for the electrode as well as sensing material for the all CNT sensor. The resistance shift of the CNT network upon NH3 was monitored in a chemiresistor approach. The CNT-cotton yarn sensors exhibited uniformity and repeatability. Furthermore, the sensors displayed good mechanical robustness against bending. The present approach can be utilized for low-cost smart textile applications.