WorldWideScience

Sample records for cost-effective broad-band electrical

  1. Ultra-broad-band electrical spectroscopy of soils and sediments—a combined permittivity and conductivity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewer, M.; Günther, T.; Igel, J.; Kruschwitz, S.; Martin, T.; Wagner, N.

    2017-09-01

    We combined two completely different methods measuring the frequency-dependent electrical properties of moist porous materials in order to receive an extraordinary large frequency spectrum. In the low-frequency (LF) range, complex electrical resistivity between 1 mHz and 45 kHz was measured for three different soils and sandstone, using the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method with a four electrode cell. In the high-frequency (HF) radio to microwave range, complex dielectric permittivity was measured between 1 MHz and 10 GHz for the same samples using dielectric spectroscopy by means of the coaxial transmission line technique. The combined data sets cover 13 orders of magnitude and were transferred into their equivalent expressions: the complex effective dielectric permittivity and the complex effective electrical conductivity. We applied the Kramers-Kronig relation in order to justify the validity of the data combination. A new phenomenological model that consists of both dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity terms in a Debye- and Cole-Cole-type manner was fitted to the spectra. The combined permittivity and conductivity model accounts for the most common representations of the physical quantities with respect to the individual measuring method. A maximum number of four relaxation processes was identified in the analysed frequency range. Among these are the free water and different interfacial relaxation processes, the Maxwell-Wagner effect, the counterion relaxation in the electrical double layer and the direct-current electrical conductivity. There is evidence that free water relaxation does not affect the electrical response in the SIP range. Moreover, direct current conductivity contribution (bulk and interface) dominates the losses in the HF range. Interfacial relaxation processes with relaxations in the HF range are broadly distributed down to the LF range. The slowest observed process in the LF range has a minor contribution to the HF

  2. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  3. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gopal, Anand R.; Harris, Andrew; Jacobson, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ˜10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of 4.4 M (or 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.

  4. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  5. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Coupler Designs of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Dynamic Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitong Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of coupler designs for wireless power transfer (WPT, meant for electric vehicle (EV dynamic charging. The design comparison of three common types of couplers is first based on the raw material cost, output power, transfer efficiency, tolerance of horizontal offset, and flux density. Then, the optimal cost-effectiveness combination is selected for EV dynamic charging. The corresponding performances of the proposed charging system are compared and analyzed by both simulation and experimentation. The results verify the validity of the proposed dynamic charging system for EVs.

  7. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond......Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  8. Broad-Band Molecular Polarization in White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Piirola, V.; Shapiro, A.

    2007-09-01

    We present novel calculations of broad-band polarization due to the molecular Paschen--Back effect in a strong magnetic field. Based on that, we analyze new spectropolarimetric observations of the cool magnetic helium-rich white dwarf G 99-37 which shows strongly polarized molecular bands in its spectrum. Combining the polarimetric observations with our model calculations for the CH bands at 4300 Å, we deduce a magnetic field of 8 MG on this unique magnetic white dwarf.

  9. Broad-band photometric evolution of star clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi, Leo

    2001-01-01

    I briefly introduce a database of models that describe the evolution of star clusters in several broad-band photometric systems. Models are based on the latest Padova stellar evolutionary tracks - now including the alpha-enhanced case and improved AGB models - and a revised library of synthetic spectra from model atmospheres. As of today, we have revised isochrones in Johnson-Cousins-Glass, HST/WFPC2, HST/NICMOS, Thuan-Gunn, and Washington systems. Several other filter sets are included in a ...

  10. Cost-effective technology advancement directions for electric propulsion transportation systems in earth-orbital missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regetz, J. D., Jr.; Terwilliger, C. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to determine the directions that electric propulsion technology should take to meet the primary propulsion requirements for earth-orbital missions of the next three decades in the most cost-effective manner. Discussed are the mission set requirements, state-of-the-art electric propulsion technology and the baseline system characterized by it, adequacy of the baseline system to meet the mission set requirements, cost-optimum electric propulsion system characteristics for the mission set, and sensitivities of mission costs and design points to system-level electric propulsion parameters. It is found that the efficiency-specific impulse characteristic generally has a more significant impact on overall costs than specific masses or costs of propulsion and power systems.

  11. A prism based magnifying hyperlens with broad-band imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Md. Samiul; Stefani, Alessio; Atakaramians, Shaghik; Fleming, Simon C.; Argyros, Alexander; Kuhlmey, Boris T.

    2017-03-01

    Magnification in metamaterial hyperlenses has been demonstrated using curved geometries or tapered devices, at frequencies ranging from the microwave to the ultraviolet spectrum. One of the main issues of such hyperlenses is the difficulty in manufacturing. In this letter, we numerically and experimentally study a wire medium prism as an imaging device at THz frequencies. We characterize the transmission of the image of two sub-wavelength apertures, observing that our device is capable of resolving the apertures and producing a two-fold magnified image at the output. The hyperlens shows strong frequency dependent artefacts, a priori limiting the use of the device for broad-band imaging. We identify the main source of image aberration as the reflections supported by the wire medium and also show that even the weaker reflections severely affect the imaging quality. In order to correct for the reflections, we devise a filtering technique equivalent to spatially variable time gating so that ultra-broad band imaging is achieved.

  12. Broad Band Photometric Reverberation Mapping of NGC 4395

    CERN Document Server

    Edri, Haim; Chelouche, Doron; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    We present results of broad band photometric reverberation mapping (RM) to measure the radius of the broad line region, and subsequently the black hole mass (M$_{\\rm BH}$), in the nearby, low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN) NGC 4395. Using the Wise Observatory's 1m telescope equipped with the SDSS g$'$, r$'$ and i$'$ broad band filters, we monitored NGC 4395 for 9 consecutive nights and obtained 3 light curves each with over 250 data points. The g$'$ and r$'$ bands include time variable contributions from H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ (respectively) plus continuum. The i$'$ band is free of broad lines and covers exclusively continuum. We show that by looking for a peak in the difference between the cross-correlation and the auto-correlation functions for all combinations of filters, we can get a reliable estimate of the time lag necessary to compute M$_{\\rm BH}$. We measure the time lag for H$\\alpha$ to be $3.6 \\pm 0.8 $ hours, comparable to previous studies using the line resolved spectroscopic RM method. W...

  13. Broad band invisibility cloak made of normal dielectric multilayer

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiaofei; Xiong, Shuai; Fan, Jinlong; Zhao, Jun-Ming; Jiang, Tian

    2011-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and performance test of a quasi three-dimensional carpet cloak made of normal dielectric in the microwave regime. Taking advantage of a simple linear coordinate transformation we design a carpet cloak with homogeneous anisotropic medium and then practically realize the device with multilayer of alternating normal dielectric slabs based on the effective medium theory. As a proof-of-concept example, we fabricate the carpet cloak with multilayer of FR4 dielectric slabs with air spacing. The performance of the fabricated design is verified through full-wave numerical simulation and measurement of the far-field scattering electromagnetic waves in a microwave anechoic chamber. Experimental results have demonstrated pronounced cloaking effect in a very broad band from 8 GHz to 18 GHz (whole X and Ku band) due to the low loss, non-dispersive feature of the multilayer dielectric structure.

  14. Ultra-Broad-Band Optical Parametric Amplifier or Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatolly; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    A concept for an ultra-broad-band optical parametric amplifier or oscillator has emerged as a by-product of a theoretical study in fundamental quantum optics. The study was originally intended to address the question of whether the two-photon temporal correlation function of light [in particular, light produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC)] can be considerably narrower than the inverse of the spectral width (bandwidth) of the light. The answer to the question was found to be negative. More specifically, on the basis of the universal integral relations between the quantum two-photon temporal correlation and the classical spectrum of light, it was found that the lower limit of two-photon correlation time is set approximately by the inverse of the bandwidth. The mathematical solution for the minimum two-photon correlation time also provides the minimum relative frequency dispersion of the down-converted light components; in turn, the minimum relative frequency dispersion translates to the maximum bandwidth, which is important for the design of an ultra-broad-band optical parametric oscillator or amplifier. In the study, results of an analysis of the general integral relations were applied in the case of an optically nonlinear, frequency-dispersive crystal in which SPDC produces collinear photons. Equations were found for the crystal orientation and pump wavelength, specific for each parametric-down-converting crystal, that eliminate the relative frequency dispersion of collinear degenerate (equal-frequency) signal and idler components up to the fourth order in the frequency-detuning parameter

  15. Efficient photon extraction from a quantum dot in a broad-band planar cavity antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yong, E-mail: y.ma@hw.ac.uk; Kremer, Peter E.; Gerardot, Brian D., E-mail: B.D.Gerardot@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, SUPA, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-14

    We analyse the extraction of photons emitted from single InAs quantum dots embedded in planar microcavities. The structures are designed to achieve broad-band operation and high-collection efficiency from a device requiring straightforward fabrication, even with electrical contacts. The designs consist of a quantum dot in a GaAs membrane with asymmetric top and bottom mirrors and a top-side solid immersion lens (SIL). Four separate cases are considered in our design: a GaAs membrane only (case 1), GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top (case 2), a GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top and a back mirror consisting of Au (case 3), a GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top of a distribute Bragg reflector mirror and Au back mirror (case 4). Both finite difference time domain and analytical simulations are used to calculate the electric field, power density, and far-field radiation pattern. For optimized structures (case 4), we obtain significant extraction efficiencies (>50%) with modest Purcell enhancements (∼20%) and a large spectral full-width-half-maximum (>100 nm). The high-extraction efficiency, broad-band operation, and facile fabrication make the proposed structures promising for realistic quantum dot devices.

  16. Broad-band solar bursts of the spike type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakunin, L.M.; Chernov, G.P.

    1985-10-01

    Observations of high-resolution dynamic spectra of solar broad-band spike bursts (BSB), consisting of the instantaneous brightening of the continuum in the entire spectrograph range of 175-235 MHz, are reported. In noise storms events of the BSB type are rarely encountered and have the form of individual bursts with an average duration of 0.1-0.2 sec or groups of such bursts connected with type III bursts at lower frequencies. Series of aperiodic BSB structures unconnected with type III bursts and observed together with one-second pulsations and fiber bursts, predominate in type IV bursts. In noise storms BSB bursts can be emitted by electrons accelerated instantaneously as a result of the reconnection of magnetic fields, both in a small source (about 10 to the 8th cm) with a broad velocity dispersion and in an extended source (about 5 x 10 to the 9th cm). Structures of the BSB type in type IV bursts may be the result of the scattering of Langmuir waves on whistlers in a large height range. 30 references.

  17. Broad-band study with Suzaku of the magnetar class

    CERN Document Server

    Enoto, Teruaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Rea, Nanda; Hurley, Kevein; Shibata, Shinpei

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band (0.8-70 keV) spectra of the persistent X-ray emission from 9 magnetars were obtained with Suzaku, including 3 objects in apparent outburst. The soft X-ray component was detected from all of them, with a typical blackbody temperature of kT ~ 0.5 keV, while the hard-tail component, dominating above ~10 keV, was detected at ~1 mCrab intensity from 7 of them. Therefore, the spectrum composed of a soft emission and a hard-tail component may be considered to be a common property of magnetars, both in their active and quiescent states. Wide-band spectral analyses revealed that the hard-tail component has a 1-60 keV flux, Fh, comparable to or even higher than that carried by the 1-60 keV soft component, Fs. The hardness ratio of these objects, defined as xi=Fh/Fs, was found to be tightly anti-correlated with their characteristic age tau as xi=(3.3+/-0.3)x(tau/1 kyr)^(-0.67+/-0.04) with a correlation coefficient of -0.989, over the range from xi~10 to xi~0.1. Magnetars in outburst states were found to lie o...

  18. A Development Path to the Efficient and Cost-Effective Bulk Storage of Electrical Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R F

    2009-09-24

    Efficient and cost-effective means for storing electrical energy is becoming an increasing need in our electricity-oriented society. For example, for electric utilities an emerging need is for distributed storage systems, that is, energy storage at substations, at solar or wind-power sites, or for load-leveling at the site of major consumers of their electricity. One of the important consequences of distributed storage for the utilities would be the reduction in transmission losses that would result from having a local source of load-leveling power. For applications such as these there are three criteria that must be satisfied by any new system that is developed to meet such needs. These criteria are: (1) high 'turn-around' efficiency, that is, high efficiency of both storing and recovering the stored energy in electrical form, (2) long service life (tens of years), with low maintenance requirements, and, (3) acceptably low capital cost. An additional requirement for these particular applications is that the system should have low enough standby losses to permit operation on a diurnal cycle, that is, storing the energy during a portion of a given day (say during sunlight hours) followed several hours later by its use during night-time hours. One answer to the spectrum of energy storage needs just outlined is the 'electromechanical battery'. The E-M battery, under development for several years at the Laboratory and elsewhere in the world, has the potential to solve the above energy storage problems in a manner superior to the electro-chemical battery in the important attributes of energy recovery efficiency, cycle lifetime, and amortized capital cost. An electromechanical battery is an energy storage module consisting of a high-speed rotor, fabricated from fiber composite, and having an integrally mounted generator/motor. The rotor operates at high speed, in vacuo, inside of a hermetically sealed enclosure, supported by a 'magnetic bearing

  19. Molecular Electronic Angular Motion Transducer Broad Band Self-Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Dmitry; Agafonov, Vadim; Egorov, Egor; Antonov, Alexander; Shabalina, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Modern molecular electronic transfer (MET) angular motion sensors combine high technical characteristics with low cost. Self-noise is one of the key characteristics which determine applications for MET sensors. However, until the present there has not been a model describing the sensor noise in the complete operating frequency range. The present work reports the results of an experimental study of the self-noise level of such sensors in the frequency range of 0.01–200 Hz. Based on the experimental data, a theoretical model is developed. According to the model, self-noise is conditioned by thermal hydrodynamic fluctuations of the operating fluid flow in the frequency range of 0.01–2 Hz. At the frequency range of 2–100 Hz, the noise power spectral density has a specific inversely proportional dependence of the power spectral density on the frequency that could be attributed to convective processes. In the high frequency range of 100–200 Hz, the noise is conditioned by the voltage noise of the electronics module input stage operational amplifiers and is heavily reliant to the sensor electrical impedance. The presented results allow a deeper understanding of the molecular electronic sensor noise nature to suggest the ways to reduce it. PMID:26610502

  20. The characteristic of power flow in broad band dynamic vibration absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Minqing; SHENG Meiping; SUN Jincai; LIU Yi

    2002-01-01

    DVA (dynamic vibration absorber) is good for restrain of the resonance vibration in low frequency, especially under the condition that there are only one mode or two modes in a frequency band. It seems rather difficult to control the resonance vibration of elastic structures in high frequency, since usually there are so many modes in high frequency band. The broad band DVA is brought forward to reduce the resonance vibration of elastic structures. The broad band DVA is designed on the basis of the characteristic of power flow in structure in this paper.The broad band DVA is effective on absorbing the resonance vibration power flow of the mostimportant modes. The ability of absorbing vibration for the broad band DVA is analyzed indetail. The results obtained in this paper provide a basis for the optimization design of thebroad band DVA and the optimization positions on structures.

  1. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  2. System Realization of Broad Band Digital Beam Forming for Digital Array Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad band Digital Beam Forming (DBF is the key technique for the realization of Digital Array Radar (DAR. We propose the method of combination realization of the channel equalization and DBF time delay filter function by using adaptive Sample Matrix Inversion algorithm. The broad band DBF function is realized on a new DBF module based on parallel fiber optic engines and Field Program Gate Array (FPGA. Good performance is achieved when it is used to some radar products.

  3. Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2014-10-01

    We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (˜4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (˜7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices.

  4. Estimating carbon dioxide fluxes from temperate mountain grasslands using broad-band vegetation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wohlfahrt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The broad-band normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and the simple ratio (SR were calculated from measurements of reflectance of photosynthetically active and short-wave radiation at two temperate mountain grasslands in Austria and related to the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE measured concurrently by means of the eddy covariance method. There was no significant statistical difference between the relationships of midday mean NEE with narrow- and broad-band NDVI and SR, measured during and calculated for that same time window, respectively. The skill of broad-band NDVI and SR in predicting CO2 fluxes was higher for metrics dominated by gross photosynthesis and lowest for ecosystem respiration, with NEE in between. A method based on a simple light response model whose parameters were parameterised based on broad-band NDVI allowed to improve predictions of daily NEE and is suggested to hold promise for filling gaps in the NEE time series. Relationships of CO2 flux metrics with broad-band NDVI and SR however generally differed between the two studied grassland sites indicting an influence of additional factors not yet accounted for.

  5. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  6. High broad-band photoresponsivity of mechanically formed InSe-graphene van der Waals heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Garry W; Svatek, Simon A; Hague, Lee; Makarovsky, Oleg; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R; Mellor, Christopher J; Beton, Peter H; Eaves, Laurence; Novoselov, Kostya S; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D; Vdovin, Evgeny E; Marsden, Alex J; Wilson, Neil R; Patanè, Amalia

    2015-07-01

    High broad-band photoresponsivity of mechanically formed InSe-graphene van der Waals heterostructures is achieved by exploiting the broad-band transparency of graphene, the direct bandgap of InSe, and the favorable band line up of InSe with graphene. The photoresponsivity exceeds that for other van der Waals heterostructures and the spectral response extends from the near-infrared to the visible spectrum. © 2015 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Probing the gamma-ray variability in 3C 279 using broad-band observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, B.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Lee, S.-S.; Sokolovsky, K.; Kang, S.; Byun, D.-Y.; Mosunova, D.; Zensus, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a broad-band radio-to-GeV observing campaign organized to get a better understanding of the radiation processes responsible for the γ-ray flares observed in 3C 279. The total intensity and polarization observations of the source were carried out between 2013 December 28 and 2014 January 03 using the Fermi-Large Area Telescope, Swift-XRT, Swift-UVOT, and Korean VLBI Network telescopes. A prominent flare observed in the optical/near-UV passbands was found to be correlated with a concurrent γ-ray flare at a confidence level >95 per cent, which suggests a co-spatial origin of the two. Moreover, the flaring activity in the two regimes was accompanied by no significant spectral variations. A peak in the X-ray light curve coincides with the peaks of the fractional polarization curves at 43 and 86 GHz radio bands. No prominent variation was noticed for the total intensity and the electric vector position angle observations at radio bands during this period. We noticed a possible hint of steepening of the radio spectrum with an increase in percentage polarization, which suggests that the radio polarization variations could be simply due to a spectral change. In a simple scenario, the correlated optical/γ-ray flares could be caused by the same population of emitting particles. The coincidence of the increase in radio polarization with the X-ray flux supports the picture that X-rays are produced via inverse-Compton scattering of radio photons. The observed fractional variability for the γ-ray flare ˜0.23 does not exceed that in the optical regime, which is inconsistent with what we usually observe for 3C 279; it could be due to different dependencies of the magnetic field and the external radiation field energy density profiles along the jet.

  8. Comparing the Mass, Energy, and Cost Effects of Lightweighting in Conventional and Electric Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hofer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effect of weight reduction using advanced lightweight materials on the mass, energy use, and cost of conventional and battery electric passenger vehicles is compared. Analytic vehicle simulation is coupled with cost assessment to find the optimal degree of weight reduction minimizing manufacturing and total costs. The results show a strong secondary weight and cost saving potential for the battery electric vehicles, but a higher sensitivity of vehicle energy use to mass reduction for the conventional vehicle. Generally, light weighting has the potential to lower vehicle costs, however, the results are very sensitive to parameters affecting lifetime fuel costs for conventional and battery costs for electric vehicles. Based on current technology cost estimates it is shown that the optimal amount of primary mass reduction minimizing total costs is similar for conventional and electric vehicles and ranges from 22% to 39%, depending on vehicle range and overall use patterns. The difference between the optimal solutions minimizing manufacturing versus total costs is higher for conventional than battery electric vehicles.

  9. Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China's power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO2 context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has bee

  10. Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China's power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO2 context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has

  11. Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China's power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO2 context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has bee

  12. Design and Fabrication of a Dual-Photoelectrode Fuel Cell towards Cost-Effective Electricity Production from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingqing; Fan, Wenjun; Yao, Tingting; Liao, Shichao; Li, Ailong; Li, Deng; Liu, Mingyao; Shi, Jingying; Liao, Shijun; Li, Can

    2017-01-10

    A photo fuel cell (PFC) offers an attractive way to simultaneously convert solar and biomass energy into electricity. Photocatalytic biomass oxidation on a semiconductor photoanode combined with dark electrochemical reduction of oxygen molecules on a metal cathode (usually Pt) in separated compartments is the common configuration for a PFC. Herein, we report a membrane-free PFC based on a dual electrode, including a W-doped BiVO4 photoanode and polyterthiophene photocathode for solar-stimulated biomass-to-electricity conversion. Air- and water-soluble biomass derivatives can be directly used as reagents. The optimal device yields an open-circuit voltage (VOC ) of 0.62 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC ) of 775 μA cm(-2) , and a maximum power density (Pmax ) of 82 μW cm(-2) with glucose as the feedstock under tandem illumination, which outperforms dual-photoelectrode PFCs previously reported. Neither costly separating membranes nor Pt-based catalysts are required in the proposed PFC architecture. Our work may inspire rational device designs for cost-effective electricity generation from renewable resources. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Uncooled ultrasensitive broad-band solution-processed photodetectors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiong

    2016-09-01

    Sensing from the ultraviolet (UV)-visible to infrared (IR) is critical to environmental monitoring and remote sensing, fibre-optic communication, day and night-time surveillance, and emerging medical imaging modalities. Today, separate sensors or materials are required for different sub-bands within the UV to IR wavelength range. In general, AlGaN, Si, InGaAs and PbS based photodetectors (PDs) are used for the four important sub-bands: 0.25 μm-0.4 μm (UV), 0.45 μm-0.8 μm (visible), 0.9 μm-1.7 μm (near IR), 1.5 μm-2.6 μm (middle IR), respectively. To obtain the desired sensitivity, these detectors must be operated at low temperatures (for example, at 4.2 K). Thus, a "breakthrough" technology would be enabled by a new class of PDs -- PDs that do not require cooling to obtain high detectivity; PDs which are fabricated by solution-processing to enable low-cost multi-color, high quantum efficiency, high sensitivity and high speed response over this broad spectral range. The availability of such PDs for use at room temperature (RT) would offer new and important applications. In this presentation, we would like to share with you how we approach RT operated ultrasensitive broad-band solution-processed PDs. - By developing novel low bandgap semiconducting polymers, we are able to develop RT operated solution-processed polymers PDs with spectral response from 350 nm to 1450 nm, the detectivity over 1013 Jones and linear dynamic range over 100 dB; spectral response from 350 nm to 2500 nm, the detectivity over 1012 Jones; - By using low bandgap semiconducting polymers mixed with high electrical conductivity PbS quantum dots (QDs), inverted polymer hybrid PDs with spectral response from 300 nm to 25000 nm, the detectivity over 1013 Jones and linear dynamic range over 100 dB are realized; - By using novel perovskite hybrid materials incorporated with carbon nanotubes, novel n-type newly developed semiconducting polymers, we are able to realize RT operated solution

  14. Broad-Band Spectral Indices Variability of BL Lacertae by Wavelet Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hao-Jing Zhang; Jing-Ming Bai; Yu-Ying Bao; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    BL Lacertae is one of the famous AGN that shows convincing evidence to support periodic variability. We compile R-band data and radio 22 GHz database from the available literature to build the light curves and to calculate broad-band spectral indices. This paper employs the wavelet periodic estimation method. The analysis results indicate that the most possible period is 7.02–7.36 yr in the selected wave-bands. The broad-band spectral indices have a possible period of 4.11 yr as a half value in selected wave-bands. The results confirm that the variability period in the radio 22 GHz is in agreement with the optical R band of about 7.01 yr, as also mentioned in other literatures.

  15. Broad-band FT-ICR detection at the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, Konstantin; Eibach, Martin; Ketelaer, Jens; Ketter, Jochen; Sturm, Sven [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg Heidelberg (Germany); Block, Michael; Herfurth, Frank [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Repp, Julia [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Smorra, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Ulmer, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The double Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP will perform high-precision mass measurements on exotic neutron-rich nuclides, which are produced via neutron-induced fission of actinide targets at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. In order to determine which ion species are present in the ion bunch delivered to the Penning trap system, a non-destructive ion detection technique will be implemented in the cylindrical purification trap. This so called broad-band Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique is based on the detection of image currents, induced by the ions in the trap electrodes. To this end, a new cryogenic low-noise broad-band amplifier is being designed and tested. With this system the identification of contaminations will be possible without the need to eject ions from the trap as usually done at other facilities. The setup as well as its present status are presented.

  16. Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials: Re(convolution in Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordy Thielen

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs allow users to control devices and communicate by using brain activity only. BCIs based on broad-band visual stimulation can outperform BCIs using other stimulation paradigms. Visual stimulation with pseudo-random bit-sequences evokes specific Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials (BBVEPs that can be reliably used in BCI for high-speed communication in speller applications. In this study, we report a novel paradigm for a BBVEP-based BCI that utilizes a generative framework to predict responses to broad-band stimulation sequences. In this study we designed a BBVEP-based BCI using modulated Gold codes to mark cells in a visual speller BCI. We defined a linear generative model that decomposes full responses into overlapping single-flash responses. These single-flash responses are used to predict responses to novel stimulation sequences, which in turn serve as templates for classification. The linear generative model explains on average 50% and up to 66% of the variance of responses to both seen and unseen sequences. In an online experiment, 12 participants tested a 6 × 6 matrix speller BCI. On average, an online accuracy of 86% was reached with trial lengths of 3.21 seconds. This corresponds to an Information Transfer Rate of 48 bits per minute (approximately 9 symbols per minute. This study indicates the potential to model and predict responses to broad-band stimulation. These predicted responses are proven to be well-suited as templates for a BBVEP-based BCI, thereby enabling communication and control by brain activity only.

  17. Broad Band Spectral Index TeV Blazars Detected by Fermi LAT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Juan Cha; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We collected the radio, K-band, optical, X-ray, and -ray data for 35 TeV blazars detected by Fermi LAT and studied the possible correlation between different broad band spectral indices (r.o, r.x, ir.o, ir.x, o., x.) in all states (average/high/low). Based on our results, we suggested that the seed photons of the -ray drive from the synchrotron radiation themselves.

  18. Cavity Enhanced Optical Vernier Spectroscopy, Broad Band, High Resolution, High Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Gohle, Christoph; Schliesser, Albert; Udem, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2007-01-01

    A femtosecond frequency comb provides a vast number of equidistantly spaced narrow band laser modes that can be simultaneously tuned and frequency calibrated with 15 digits accuracy. Our Vernier spectrometer utilizes all of theses modes in a massively parallel manner to rapidly record both absorption and dispersion spectra with a sensitivity that is provided by a high finesse broad band optical resonator and a resolution that is only limited by the frequency comb line width while keeping the required setup simple.

  19. The range of validity of cluster masses and ages derived from broad-band photometry

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    I analyze the stochastic effects introduced by the sampling of the stellar initial mass function (SIMF) in the derivation of the individual masses and the cluster mass function (CMF) from broad-band visible-NIR unresolved photometry. The classical method of using unweighted UBV photometry to simultaneously establish ages and extinctions of stellar clusters is found to be unreliable for clusters older than approx. 30 Ma, even for relatively large cluster masses. On the other hand, augmenting t...

  20. The broad-band radio spectrum of LSI+61303 in outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, L; Massi, M

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to explore the broad-band radio continuum spectrum of LSI+61303 during its outbursts by employing the available set of secondary focus receivers of the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. Methods: The clear periodicity of the system LSI+61303 allowed observations to be scheduled covering the large radio outburst in March-April 2012. We observed LSI+61303 on 14 consecutive days at 2.6, 4.85, 8.35, 10.45, 14.3, 23, and 32 GHz with a cadence of about 12 hours followed by two additional observations several days later. Based on these observations we obtained a total of 24 quasi-simultaneous broad-band radio spectra. Results: During onset, the main flare shows an almost flat broad-band spectrum, most prominently seen on March 27, 2012, where - for the first time - a flat spectrum (alpha=0.00+/-0.07, S nu^alpha) is observed up to 32 GHz (9 mm wavelength). The flare decay phase shows superimposed 'sub-flares' with the spectral index oscillating between -0.4 and -0.1 in a quasi-regular fashion. Finally, the ...

  1. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, W.; Mai, P. M.

    2013-02-01

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth's crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0-10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2-5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5-10 per cent range

  2. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-12-06

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth\\'s crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0–10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2–5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5–10 per cent

  3. Equivalent-nanocircuit-theory-based design to infrared broad band-stop filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Bai, Lihua; Bai, Zhengyuan; Hu, Pidong; Liu, Chengpu

    2015-04-06

    We theoretically introduced a design paradigm and tool by extending the circuit functionalities from radio frequency to near infrared domain, and a broad band-stop filter, is successfully demonstrated by cascading triple layers of nano-square arrays. The feasibility is confirmed by its consistency with the rigorous FDTD calculation. Moreover, such a third-order Butterworth filter is not only insensitive to the incident angle and but also to input light's polarization. The new paradigm forms a theoretical foundation for designing optical devices and also enriches the classic circuit operations at the optical frequency region.

  4. Dual-etalon cavity ring-down frequency-comb spectroscopy with broad band light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David W; Strecker, Kevin E

    2014-04-01

    In an embodiment, a dual-etalon cavity-ring-down frequency-comb spectrometer system is described. A broad band light source is split into two beams. One beam travels through a first etalon and a sample under test, while the other beam travels through a second etalon, and the two beams are recombined onto a single detector. If the free spectral ranges ("FSR") of the two etalons are not identical, the interference pattern at the detector will consist of a series of beat frequencies. By monitoring these beat frequencies, optical frequencies where light is absorbed may be determined.

  5. Broad-band X-ray observations of CIR X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisack, M.; Staubert, R.; Balucinska-Church, M.; Skinner, G.; Doebereiner, S.; Englhauser, J.; Aref'ev, V. A.; Efremov, V. V.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    1995-08-01

    We present broad-band (2-88 keV) X-ray observations of the X-ray binary Cir X-1 with the TTM and HEXE instruments on board of the Mir space station. The observations were made in January/February 1989. The spectrum is best described by a model with 3 components: a blackbody at low energies, an iron line and a Comptonized hard continuum. The spectrum is variable during our observations; when the Comptonized component becomes harder, the spectrum becomes softer below 15 keV. The high-energy spectrum resembles that of X-ray binary pulsars.

  6. Broad band photometry of solar corona during the total solar eclipse of October 24, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagare, S. P.; Aleem, P. S. M.; Singh, J.; Saxena, A. K.

    A 30 cm coelostat, a red broad band filter, and a 15 cm objective providing an f/15 beam were used to obtain high resolution pictures of the white light solar corona. In one of the frames, the presence of a loop structure is recorded with its top around 2 Rsun, in the near north polar region. The nearest YOHKOH soft X-ray picture shows the presence of a coronal hole with its border apparently beneath the loop structure. The preliminary results are discussed.

  7. A Successful Broad-band Survey for Giant Lya Nebulae II: Spectroscopic Confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    Prescott, Moire K M; Jannuzi, Buell T

    2012-01-01

    Using a systematic broad-band search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Lya nebulae (or Lya "blobs") at 2broad-band imaging to search for the bright e...

  8. Biases and Uncertainties in Physical Parameter Estimates of Lyman Break Galaxies from Broad-band Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Kook; Ferguson, Henry C; Somerville, Rachel S; Wiklind, Tommy; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the biases and uncertainties in estimates of physical parameters of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), such as stellar mass, mean stellar population age, and star formation rate (SFR), obtained from broad-band photometry. By combining LCDM hierarchical structure formation theory, semi-analytic treatments of baryonic physics, and stellar population synthesis models, we construct model galaxy catalogs from which we select LBGs at redshifts z ~ 3.4, 4.0, and 5.0. The broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these model LBGs are then analysed by fitting galaxy template SEDs derived from stellar population synthesis models with smoothly declining SFRs. We compare the statistical properties of LBGs' physical parameters -- such as stellar mass, SFR, and stellar population age -- as derived from the best-fit galaxy templates with the intrinsic values from the semi-analytic model. We find some trends in these distributions: first, when the redshift is known, SED-fitting methods reprodu...

  9. Suzaku broad band observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies Mrk 509 and Mrk 841

    CERN Document Server

    Cerruti, M; Boisson, C; Costantini, E; Longinotti, A L; Matt, G; Mouchet, M; Petrucci, P O

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis and modelling of new Suzaku observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies Mrk509 and Mrk841, taken between April and November 2006, for Mrk509, and January and July 2007, for Mrk841, for a total exposure time of ~100 ks each. Data from XIS and HXD/PIN instruments, going from 0.5 to 60 keV, represent the best resolution simultaneous broad band X-ray spectrum for these objects. We fitted the broad band spectrum of both sources with a double Comptonisation model, adding a neutral reflection from distant material and a two-phase warm absorber. We then studied the two competitive models aimed to explain the soft excess with atomic processes: a blurred ionised disc reflection and an ionised absorption by a high velocity material. When fitting the data in the 3-10 keV range with a power law spectrum, and extrapolating this result to low energies, a soft excess is clearly observed below 2 keV: its strength is however weak compared to past observations of both sources. A moderate hard excess is seen at ...

  10. Unveiling the broad band X-ray continuum and iron line complex in Mkr 841

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, P O; Matt, G; Longinotti, A L; Malzac, J; Mouchet, M; Boisson, C; Maraschi, L; Nandra, K; Ferrando, P

    2007-01-01

    Mkr 841 is a bright Seyfert 1 galaxy known to harbor a strong soft excess and a variable K$\\alpha$ iron line. It has been observed during 3 different periods by XMM for a total cumulated exposure time of $\\sim$108 ks. We present in this paper a broad band spectral analysis of the complete EPIC-pn data sets. We were able to test two different models for the soft excess, a relativistically blurred photoionized reflection (\\r model) and a relativistically smeared ionized absorption (\\a model). The continuum is modeled by a simple cut-off power law and we also add a neutral reflection. These observations reveal the extreme and puzzling spectral and temporal behaviors of the soft excess and iron line. The 0.5-3 keV soft X-ray flux decreases by a factor 3 between 2001 and 2005 and the line shape appears to be a mixture of broad and narrow components. We succeed in describing this complex broad-band 0.5-10 keV spectral variability using either \\r or \\a to fit the soft excess. Both models give statistically equivalen...

  11. The diverse broad-band light-curves of Swift GRBs reproduced with the cannonball model

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo; De Rújula, A

    2009-01-01

    Two radiation mechanisms, inverse Compton scattering (ICS) and synchrotron radiation (SR), suffice within the cannonball (CB) model of long gamma ray bursts (LGRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) to provide a very simple and accurate description of their observed prompt emission and afterglows. Simple as they are, the two mechanisms and the burst environment generate the rich structure of the light curves at all frequencies and times. This is demonstrated for 33 selected Swift LGRBs and XRFs, which are well sampled from early time until late time and well represent the entire diversity of the broad band light curves of Swift LGRBs and XRFs. Their prompt gamma-ray and X-ray emission is dominated by ICS of glory light. During their fast decline phase, ICS is taken over by SR which dominates their broad band afterglow. The pulse shape and spectral evolution of the gamma-ray peaks and the early-time X-ray flares, and even the delayed optical `humps' in XRFs, are correctly predicted. The canonical and non-canonical X-ra...

  12. 11th International Conference On Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xhafa, Fatos; Yim, Kangbin

    2017-01-01

    The success of all-IP networking and wireless technology has changed the ways of living the people around the world. The progress of electronic integration and wireless communications is going to pave the way to offer people the access to the wireless networks on the fly, based on which all electronic devices will be able to exchange the information with each other in ubiquitous way whenever necessary. The aim of the volume is to provide latest research findings, innovative research results, methods and development techniques from both theoretical and practical perspectives related to the emerging areas of broadband and wireless computing. This proceedings volume presents the results of the 11th International Conference on Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication And Applications (BWCCA-2016), held November 5-7, 2016, at Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea. .

  13. Near-infrared broad-band cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a superluminescent light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, W; Hamilton, M L; Hancock, G; Islam, M; Langley, C E; Peverall, R; Ritchie, G A D

    2009-11-01

    A fibre coupled near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode that emits approximately 10 mW of radiation between 1.62 and 1.7 microm is employed in combination with a broad-band cavity enhanced spectrometer consisting of a linear optical cavity with mirrors of reflectivity approximately 99.98% and either a dispersive near-infrared spectrometer or a Fourier transform interferometer. Results are presented on the absorption of 1,3-butadiene, and sensitivities are achieved of 6.1 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the dispersive spectrometer in combination with phase-sensitive detection, and 1.5 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the Fourier transform interferometer (expressed as a minimum detectable absorption coefficient) over several minutes of acquisition time.

  14. Broad-band time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.C.; Pastor, I.; Cal, E. de la; McCarthy, K.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Diaz, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    First experimental results on broad-band, time-resolved Near Infrared (NIR;here loosely defined as covering from 750 to 1650 nm) passive spectroscopy using a high sensitivity InGaAs detector are reported for the TJ-II Stellarator. Experimental set-up is described together with its main characteristics, the most remarkable ones being its enhanced NIR response, broadband spectrum acquisition in a single shot, and time-resolved measurements with up to 1.8 kHz spectral rate. Prospects for future work and more extended physics studies in this newly open spectral region in TJ-II are discussed. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Mapping the Broad-band Spectrum of a New Candidate Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sean

    2014-10-01

    We request joint XMM-Newton & HST observations of a new intermediate mass black hole candidate in the galaxy LEDA 87326 to map the broad-band spectral energy distribution from X-ray to near-IR. Previous observations with the XMM-Newton EPIC and OM cameras detected an X-ray source with an observed 0.2-10 keV luminosity of 6E41 erg/s, with the X-ray spectrum dominated by a hard power law and the UV/optical data consistent with thermal emission from a cool (~0.08 keV) accretion disc. The high X-ray luminosity and low disc temperature imply a black hole mass > 4000 Msun. By observing this source simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the HST we will confirm that the observed optical emission is from an accretion disc and determine whether any reprocessing in the outer disc is present.

  16. Laser induced broad band anti-Stokes white emission from LiYbF4 nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Marciniak; R. Tomala; M. Stefanski; D. Hreniak; W. Strek

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of tetragonal LiYbF4 nanocrystals under high dense NIR excitation at vacuum condition were in-vestigated. White, broad band emission covering whole visible part of the spectrum from LiYbF4 nanocrystals was observed. Its in-tensity strongly depended on the excitation power, excitation wavelength and ambient pressure. Temperature of the nanocrystals un-der 975 nm excitation was determined as a function of excitation power. Strong photo-induced current was observed from LiYbF4 pallet. The emission kinetic was analyzed. The mechanism of the anti-Stokes white emission was discussed in terms of the la-ser-induced charge transfer emission from Yb2+ states.

  17. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cygnus X-2 was observed with the broad-band X-ray spectroscopy experiment, HEAO 1 A-2, in the energy range 0.4-18 keV for four intervals of approximately 31 s over the course of 5 days in 1977. The spectra can be adequately represented by single-temperature thermal bremmstrahlung continua with temperatures ranging from 3.7 x 10 to the 7th K to 6.4 x 10 to the 7th K. An examination of the spectra and the spectra-luminosity relationship effectively rules out one degenerate dwarf model for the X-ray emission. The far-UV continuum emission could be dominated by this continuum component during X-ray high states, an effect which would be detected in optical UV line observations. A Comptonized X-ray cloud around a neutron star remains a viable model for the observed X-ray spectra.

  18. The range of validity of cluster masses and ages derived from broad-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz

    2009-01-01

    I analyze the stochastic effects introduced by the sampling of the stellar initial mass function (SIMF) in the derivation of the individual masses and the cluster mass function (CMF) from broad-band visible-NIR unresolved photometry. The classical method of using unweighted UBV photometry to simultaneously establish ages and extinctions of stellar clusters is found to be unreliable for clusters older than approx. 30 Ma, even for relatively large cluster masses. On the other hand, augmenting the filter set to include longer-wavelength filters and using weights for each filter increases the range of masses and ages that can be accurately measured with unresolved photometry. Nevertheless, a relatively large range of masses and ages is found to be dominated by SIMF sampling effects that render the observed masses useless, even when using UBVRIJHK photometry.

  19. A Soft X-ray Polarimeter Designed for Broad-band X-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Herman L

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach for measuring linear X-ray polarization over a broad-band using conventional imaging optics and cameras is described. A new type of high efficiency grating, called the critical angle transmission grating is used to disperse soft X-rays radially from the telescope axis. A set of multilayer-coated paraboloids re-image the dispersed X-rays to rings in the focal plane. The intensity variation around these rings is measured to determine three Stokes parameters: I, Q, and U. By laterally grading the multilayer optics and matching the dispersion of the gratings, one may take advantage of high multilayer reflectivities and achieve modulation factors over 50% over the entire 0.2 to 0.8 keV band. A sample design is shown that could be used with the Constellation-X optics.

  20. Higher degree moment tensor inversion of Mani earthquake using far-field broad- band recording

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Breakthrough point source model, extended earthquake source model is used to calculate more seismic source parameters in this paper. We express seismic source using higher degree moment tensors, to reduce a large number terms originally presenting in higher degree moment tensor representation, Haskell rupture model is used. We inverted the source parameters of Mani earthquake in Tibet using broad-band body wave of 32 stations of Global Seismograph Network (GSN), the results show that it is a strike-slip fault, rupture direction is 75° , rupture duration is 19 s, the fault plan is f =77° , d =88° , l =0° , the auxiliary plane is f =347° , d =90° , l =178° , and the fault dimension is 47 km′ 28 km. These results will give new quantitative data for earth dynamics and have practical meaning for seismic source tomography research.

  1. Results on the Performance of a Broad Band Focussing Cherenkov Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cester, R.; Fitch, V. L.; Montag, A.; Sherman, S.; Webb, R. C.; Witherell, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of ring imaging (broad band differential) Cherenkov detectors has become a very active area of interest in detector development at several high energy physics laboratories. Our group has previously reported on a method of Cherenkov ring imaging for a counter with large momentum and angular acceptance using standard photo multipliers. Recently, we have applied this technique to the design of a set of Cherenkov counters for use in a particle search experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). This new detector operates over the range 0.998 a delta..beta.. approx. 2 x 10{sup -4}. The acceptance in angle is +- 14 mrad in the horizontal and +- 28 mrad in the vertical. We report here on the performance of this counter.

  2. The range of validity of cluster masses and ages derived from broad-band photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2010-01-01

    I analyze the stochastic effects introduced by sampling the stellar initial mass function (SIMF) in the derivation of the individual masses and the cluster mass function (CMF) from broad-band visible/near-infrared unresolved photometry. The classical method of using unweighted U BV photometry to simultaneously establish ages and extinctions of stellar clusters is found to be unreliable for clusters older than ≈30 Myr, even for relatively large cluster masses. On the other hand, augmenting the filter set to include longer-wavelength filters and using weights for each filter increases the range of masses and ages that can be measured accurately with unresolved photometry. Nevertheless, a relatively large range of masses and ages is found to be dominated by SIMF sampling effects that render the observed masses useless, even when using U BV RI JHK photometry.

  3. Study of LEO-SAT microwave link for broad-band mobile satellite communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Masayuki; Chujo, Wataru; Chiba, Isamu; Furuhama, Yoji; Kawabata, Kazuaki; Konishi, Yoshihiko

    1993-01-01

    In the field of mobile satellite communications, a system based on low-earth-orbit satellites (LEO-SAT's) such as the Iridium system has been proposed. The LEO-SAT system is able to offer mobile telecommunication services in high-latitude areas. Rain degradation, fading and shadowing are also expected to be decreased when the system is operated at a high elevation angle. Furthermore, the propagation delay generated in the LEO-SAT system is less pronounced than that in the geostationary orbit satellite (GEO-SAT) system and, in voice services, the effect of the delay is almost negligible. We proposed a concept of a broad-band mobile satellite communication system with LEO-SAT's and Optical ISL. In that system, a fixed L-band (1.6/1.5 GHz) multibeam is used to offer narrow band service to the mobile terminals in the entire area covered by a LEO-SAT and steerable Ka-band (30/20 GHz) spot beams are used for the wide band service. In this paper, we present results of a study of LEO-SAT microwave link between a satellite and a mobile terminal for a broad-band mobile satellite communication system. First, the results of link budget calculations are presented and the antennas mounted on satellites are shown. For a future mobile antenna technology, we also show digital beamforming (DBF) techniques. DBF, together with modulation and/or demodulation, is becoming a key technique for mobile antennas with advanced functions such as antenna pattern calibration, correction, and radio interference suppression. In this paper, efficient DBF techniques for transmitting and receiving are presented. Furthermore, an adaptive array antenna system suitable for this LEO-SAT is presented.

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  5. [Optimization of broad-band flat-field holographic concave grating without astigmatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peng; Tang, Yu-guo; Bayanheshig; Li, Wen-hao; Cui, Jin-jiang

    2012-02-01

    The desirable imaging locations of the flat-field holographic concave gratings should be in a plane. And the object can be imaged perfectly by the grating when the tangential focal curve and sagittal focal curve both superpose the intersection of the image plane and dispersion plane. But actually, the defocus can not be eliminated over the entire wavelength range, while the astigmatism vanishes when the grating parameters satisfy some conditions. An optimization method for broad-band flat-field holographic concave gratings with absolute astigmatism correction was proposed. The ray tracing software ZEMAX was used for investigating the imaging properties of the grating. And we made a comparison between spectral performance of gratings designed by this new method and that by conventional method, respectively. The results indicated that the spectral performance of gratings designed by using the absolute astigmatism correction method can be as good as gratings designed with the conventional method. And the focusing performance in the sagittal direction is much better, so that the S/N ratio can be greatly improved.

  6. Attenuation structure beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan from broad-band seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanami, Tetsuo; Selwyn Sacks, I.; Hasegawa, Akira

    2000-10-01

    Anelastic structure in the asthenosphere beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan arc is estimated by using the spectral amplitude ratio data of P and S waves from about 100 events which occurred in the subducting Pacific slab below Japan. These earthquakes occurred within a 90 km radius centered about the station Sawauchi (SWU), with focal depths ranging from 60 to 200 km. Waveforms were recorded by the Carnegie broad-band three-component seismograph and were corrected for instrument responses, crustal reverberations, corner frequencies, and superimposed noise. Ray paths and travel times of P and S waves are calculated using a three-dimensional velocity model [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. We find a low- Q region ( QS˜70) extending down to 55 km depth from the lower crust beneath the volcanic front. Using Q-temperature laboratory results [Sato, H., Sacks, I.S., Murase, T., Muncill, G., Fukushima, H., 1989. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 10647-10661], this implies a temperature of about 130°C higher than the eastern forearc region and about 30°C higher than the western backarc region, in good agreement with the tomographic results of Zhao et al. [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. This suggests that low velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath SWU may be explained by a subsolidus temperature increase without partial melting.

  7. Synthetic Stellar Photometry. I-General considerations and new transformations for broad-band systems

    CERN Document Server

    Casagrande, Luca

    2014-01-01

    After a pedagogical introduction to the main concepts of synthetic photometry, colours and bolometric corrections in the Johnson-Cousins, 2MASS, and HST-ACS/WFC3 photometric systems are generated from MARCS synthetic fluxes for various [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe] combinations, and virtually any value of reddening E(B-V) < 0.7. The successes and failures of model fluxes in reproducing the observed magnitudes are highlighted. Overall, extant synthetic fluxes predict quite realistic broad-band colours and bolometric corrections, especially at optical and longer wavelengths: further improvements of the predictions for the blue and ultraviolet spectral regions await the use of hydrodynamic models where the microturbulent velocity is not treated as a free parameter. We show how the morphology of the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) changes for different values of [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe]; in particular, how suitable colour combinations can easily discriminate between red giant branch and lower main sequence populations wit...

  8. Stray light correction and contrast analysis of Hinode broad band images

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, S K; Solanki, S K

    2009-01-01

    The contrasts of features in the quiet Sun are studied using filtergrams recorded by the Broad-band Filter Imager on the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope. In a first step, the scattered light originating in the instrument is modeled using Mercury transit data. Combinations of four two-dimensional Gaussians with different widths and weights were employed to retrieve the point-spread functions (PSF) of the instrument at different wavelengths, which also describe instrumental scattered light. The parameters of PSFs at different wavelengths are tabulated. The observed images were then deconvolved using the PSFs. The corrected images were used to obtain contrasts of features such as bright points and granulation in different wavelength bands. After correction, rms contrasts of the granulation of between 0.11 (at 668 nm) and 0.22 (at 388 nm) are obtained. Similarly, bright point contrasts ranging from 0.07 (at 668 nm) to 0.78 (at 388 nm) are found, which are a factor of 1.8 to 2.8 higher than those obtained before PS...

  9. High sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy of inductively coupled chlorine plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Foucher, Mickaël; Campbell, Ewen; Brouard, Mark; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method to measure the densities of vibrationally excited Cl2(v) molecules in levels up to v  =  3 in pure chlorine inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs). The absorption continuum of Cl2 in the 250-450 nm spectral range is deconvoluted into the individual components originating from the different vibrational levels of the ground state, using a set of ab initio absorption cross sections. It is shown that gas heating at constant pressure is the major depletion mechanism of the Cl2 feedstock in the plasma. In these line-integrated absorption measurements, the absorption by the hot (and therefore rarefied) Cl2 gas in the reactor centre is masked by the cooler (and therefore denser) Cl2 near the walls. These radial gradients in temperature and density make it difficult to assess the degree of vibrational excitation in the centre of the reactor. The observed line-averaged vibrational distributions, when analyzed taking into account the radial temperature gradient, suggest that vibrational and translational degrees of freedom in the plasma are close to local equilibrium. This can be explained by efficient vibrational-translational (VT) relaxation between Cl2 and Cl atoms. Besides the Cl2(v) absorption band, a weak continuum absorption is observed at shorter wavelengths, and is attributed to photodetachment of Cl- negative ions. Thus, line-integrated densities of negative ions in chlorine plasmas can be directly measured using broad-band absorption spectroscopy.

  10. Seven broad absorption line quasars with excess broad band absorption near 2250

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Hongyan; Ma, Jingzhe; Brandt, W N; York, Donald G; Noterdaeme, P; Schneider, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of excess broad band absorption near 2250 A (EBBA) in the spectra of seven broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. By comparing with the statistical results from the control quasar sample, the significance for the detections are all above the > 4{\\sigma} level, with five above > 5{\\sigma}. The detections have also been verified by several other independent methods. The EBBAs present broader and weaker bumps at smaller wavenumbers than the Milky Way, and similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud. The EBBA bump may be related to the 2175 A bump seen in the Local Group and may be a counterpart of the 2175 A bump under different conditions in the early Universe. Furthermore, five objects in this sample show low-ionization broad absorption lines (LoBALs), such as Mg II and Al III, in addition to the high-ionization broad absorption lines (HiBALs) of C IV and Si IV. The fraction of LoBALs in our sample, ~70%, is surprisingly high compared to that of general BAL quasars, ~10%. Although the origin of...

  11. Broad band X-ray spectrum of KS 1947+300 with BeppoSAX

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, S; Dotani, T; Paul, B

    2006-01-01

    We present results obtained from three BeppoSAX observations of the accretion-powered transient X-ray pulsar KS 1947+300 carried out during the declining phase of its 2000 November -- 2001 June outburst. A detailed spectral study of KS 1947+300 across a wide X-ray band (0.1--100.0 keV) is attempted for the first time here. Timing analysis of the data clearly shows a 18.7 s pulsation in the X-ray light curves in the above energy band. The pulse profile of KS 1947+300 is characterized by a broad peak with sharp rise followed by a narrow dip. The dip in the pulse profile shows a very strong energy dependence. Broad-band pulse-phase-averaged spectroscopy obtained with three of the BeppoSAX instruments shows that the energy spectrum in the 0.1--100 keV energy band has three components, a Comptonized component, a ~0.6 keV blackbody component, and a narrow and weak iron emission line at 6.7 keV with a low column density of material in the line of sight. We place an upper limit on the equivalent width of the iron K_\\...

  12. The impact of JWST broad-band filter choice on photometric redshift estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Bisigello, L; Colina, L; Fèvre, O Le; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Pérez-González, P G; Pye, J; van der Werf, P; Ilbert, O; Grogin, N; Koekemoer, A

    2016-01-01

    The determination of galaxy redshifts in James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s blank-field surveys will mostly rely on photometric estimates, based on the data provided by JWST's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) at 0.6-5.0 {\\mu}m and Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) at {\\lambda}>5.0 {\\mu}m. In this work we analyse the impact of choosing different combinations of NIRCam and MIRI broad-band filters (F070W to F770W), as well as having ancillary data at {\\lambda}=10, but the zphot quality significantly degrades at S/N<=5. Adding MIRI photometry with one magnitude brighter depth than the NIRCam depth allows for a redshift recovery of 83-99%, depending on SED type, and its effect is particularly noteworthy for galaxies with nebular emission. The vast majority of NIRCam galaxies with [F150W]=29 AB mag at z=7-10 will be detected with MIRI at [F560W, F770W]<28 mag if these sources are at least mildly evolved or have spectra with emission lines boosting the mid-infrared fluxes.

  13. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B. [ITER-India, IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (United States); Ellis, R. F. [Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  14. Broad band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 in two spectral states with BeppoSAX

    CERN Document Server

    Frontera, F; Zdziarski, A A; Haardt, F; Perola, G C; Chiappetti, L; Cusumano, G; Dal Fiume, D; Del Sordo, S; Orlandini, M; Parmar, A N; Piro, L; Santangelo, A; Segreto, A; Treves, A; Trifoglio, M

    2000-01-01

    We report on the 0.5--200 keV spectral properties of Cyg X-1 observed at different epochs with the Narrow Field Instruments of the BeppoSAX satellite. The source was in its soft state during the first observation of 1996 June. In the second observation of 1996 September, the source had parameters characteristic to its hard state. A soft X-ray excess, a broad Fe K$\\alpha$ line and Compton reflection are clearly detected in both states. The soft-state broad-band continuum is well modeled by a disk blackbody (accounting for the soft excess) and Compton upscattering of the disk photons by a hybrid, thermal/non-thermal, plasma, probably forming a corona above the disk (also giving rise to the Compton-reflection component). In the hard state, the primary hard X-ray spectrum can be well modeled by Compton upscattering of a weak blackbody emission by a thermal plasma at a temperature of $\\sim 60$ keV. The soft excess is then explained by thermal Comptonization of the same blackbody emission by another hot plasma clou...

  15. Toward broad-band x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance in longitudinal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollefs, K. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Meckenstock, R.; Spoddig, D.; Römer, F. M.; Hassel, Ch.; Schöppner, Ch.; Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ney, V.; Ney, A., E-mail: andreas.ney@jku.at [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institut für Halbleiter-und Festkörperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-06-14

    An ultrahigh-vacuum-compatible setup for broad-band X-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance (XFMR) in longitudinal geometry is introduced which relies on a low-power, continuous-wave excitation of the ferromagnetic sample. A simultaneous detection of the conventional ferromagnetic resonance via measuring the reflected microwave power and the XFMR signal of the X-ray absorption is possible. First experiments on the Fe and Co L{sub 3}-edges of a permalloy film covered with Co nanostripes as well as the Fe and Ni K-edges of a permalloy film are presented and discussed. Two different XFMR signals are found, one of which is independent of the photon energy and therefore does not provide element-selective information. The other much weaker signal is element-selective, and the dynamic magnetic properties could be detected for Fe and Co separately. The dependence of the latter XFMR signal on the photon helicity of the synchrotron light is found to be distinct from the usual x-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect.

  16. Broad-band polarization in molecular spectra. [Zeeman effect in magnetic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, R. M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rotational lines of the CN(0,0) red system have been observed to show a strongly asymmetric Zeeman profile. Certain molecules are very susceptible to magnetic perturbation because of the weakness of their spin-rotation coupling; a fairly weak magnetic field can cause a complete Paschen-Back effect. The calculation of transition probabilities incorporating this effect into the Hamiltonian is discussed, and the detailed calculation is then given. The resulting transition probabilities are transformed into synthetic line profiles by using the Unno (1956) model of polarized radiation transfer. The dependence of the net polarized flux on magnetic field and equivalent width is investigated. It is shown that entire band systems may be significantly polarized. Broad-band circular polarization of sunspots may be due, in part, to molecular bands. Analysis of the CH G band indicates a magnetic field of 0.25-0.50 x 10 to the 6th gauss in the white dwarf G99-37, an order of magnitude lower than previous estimates.

  17. Broad Band X-Ray Observations of the Narrow Line X-Ray Galaxy NGC 5506

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T G; Otani, C; Matsuoka, M; Awaki, H

    1999-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of broad band X-ray data of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC5506. 2-10 keV band are detected during a 1-day ASCA observation, while no significant change in the 2-10 keV continuum shape is found. The ASCA spectrum consists of an absorbed power-law, a 'soft excess' below 2 keV, and an Fe K$\\alpha$ emission line at 6.4 keV. The 'soft excess' can be well described by either thermal emission from very low abundance material at a temperature kT$\\simeq$0.8 keV, or scattered/leaking flux from the primary power-law plus a small amount of thermal emission. Analysis of ROSAT HRI data reveals that the soft X-ray emission is extended on kpc scales in this object, and the extended component may account for most of the soft X-ray excess observed by the ASCA. The result suggests that in this type 2 AGN, the 'soft excess' at least partly comes from an extended region, imposing serious problem for the model in which the source is partially covered. Fe K$\\alpha$ profile is complex and can not be satisfac...

  18. Properties of Broad Band Continuum of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a statistical study of the properties of the broadband continuum of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) by collecting ratio,infrared, optical and X-ray continuum data from various databases and comparedthe results with control samples of Broad Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (BLSls). We findthat the fraction (~ 6%) of Radio Loud (RL) NLSls is significantly less than thatof BLS1s (~ 13%), which is caused by the lack of radio-very-loud sources in theformer. The rarity of RL NLS1s, especially radio-very-loud ones, is consistent withthe scenario of small black hole and high accretion rate for NLSls. Six new radio loudNLSls are found and five RL NLS1 candidates are presented. In comparison withthe BLS1s, the NLS1s tend to have stronger far infrared emission, cooler infraredcolors and redder B- K color, which suggests that NLS1s are hosted by dust-richernuclei. The NLS1s also show steeper soft X-ray spectrum and large soft X-rayto optical flux ratio, while a significant fraction show fiat soft X-ray spectra. Atleast two factors can account for this, absorption and spectral variability. We alsoperform a correlation analysis between various broad band data. It is found thatmost correlations identified for NLS1s are also valid for radio quiet BLS1s: (1) theoptical colors are anti-correlated with X-ray spectral index; (2) higher optical, X-ray and NIR luminosity objects show bluer optical colors and red H - K color; (3)higher luminosity objects show warmer IRAS color; (4) the radio loudness correlateswith B - K and X-ray to optical flux ratio. Radio loud objects behave somewhatdifferently in a few correlations.

  19. Broad band spectral analysis of 24 h continuous finger blood pressure: Comparison with intra-arterial recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglioni, P.; Parati, G.; Omboni, S.; Mancia, G.; Imholz, B.P.M.; Wesseling, K.H.; Rienzo, M. di

    1999-01-01

    The present study compares the spectral characteristics of 24-h blood pressure variability estimated invasively at the brachial artery level with those estimated by measurement of blood pressure at the finger artery using the non-invasive Portapres device. Broad-band spectra (from 3 x

  20. A Cost-effective and Emission-aware Power Management System for Ships with Integrated Full Electric Propulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanellos, Fotis D.; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    The extensive exploitation of electric power in ships enables the development of more efficient and environmentally friendlier ships, as it allows for a more flexible ship power system operation and configuration. In this paper, an optimal power management method for ship electric power systems...

  1. A Cost-effective and Emission-aware Power Management System for Ships with Integrated Full Electric Propulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanellos, Fotis D.; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    The extensive exploitation of electric power in ships enables the development of more efficient and environmentally friendlier ships, as it allows for a more flexible ship power system operation and configuration. In this paper, an optimal power management method for ship electric power systems c...

  2. Enlarged broad band photodetection using Indium doped TiO{sub 2} alloy thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Mitra Barun [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Mondal, Aniruddha, E-mail: aniruddhamo@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Choudhuri, Bijit; Mahajan, Bikram Kishore; Chakrabartty, Shubhro [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Ngangbam, Chitralekha [National Institute of Technology Manipur, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Takyelpat, Imphal, Manipur 795001 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • An easy technique has been used to dope Indium (instantaneous source) into TiO{sub 2} TF. • An inhomogeneous layer of In{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub 2} alloy was formed due to doping. • The lattice constant and optical band gap of TiO{sub 2} has increased after In doping. • Enhanced visible light absorption and detection were recorded for In doped TiO{sub 2} TF. • Almost no delay in photo response for In doped photodetector was observed. - Abstract: An instantaneous source of Indium (In) was used to dope the TiO{sub 2} thin film (TF) on the Si substrate. The X-ray diffraction depicted the presence of rutile phases of TiO{sub 2}, which shifted to the lower value 61.7 from 61.9 (2θ). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) reveals that the diffusion of Indium ion yield decreases sharply from the surface, as approached toward the TiO{sub 2} TF–Si substrate interface. The bulk diffusion of In into TiO{sub 2} was observed at a depth of 125–200 nm, up to the edge of TiO{sub 2} TF. An inhomogeneous layer of In{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub 2} alloy was formed during annealing process. An average of two fold enhanced photo absorption was recorded for the In doped TiO{sub 2} TF in the 300–350 nm and 450–800 nm regions respectively. The main band gap of In doped TiO{sub 2} was increased to 3.4 eV, whereas the large absorption edge was observed at 3.1 eV. The leakage current (34 nA at −0.5 V) of In doped TiO{sub 2} TF detector was significantly reduced. A maximum 2.5 times (−3.5 V) enlarged photodetection has been observed for In doped TiO{sub 2} TF device under white light illumination. The In doped TiO{sub 2} TF detector shows the broad band photodetection, with an infinitesimal delay in its photo response time as compared to undoped TiO{sub 2} TF.

  3. Broad-band colours and overall photometric properties of template galaxy models from stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2005-08-01

    the observation (and the interpretation) of high-redshift surveys. In addition to broad-band colours, the modelling of Balmer line emission in disc-dominated systems shows that striking emission lines, like Hα, can very effectively track stellar birth rate in a galaxy. For these features to be useful age tracers as well, however, one should first assess the real change of b versus time on the basis of supplementary (and physically independent) arguments.

  4. Broadening of effective photonic band gaps in biological chiral structures: From intrinsic narrow band gaps to broad band reflection spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, W. E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Libby, E.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Solis, Á.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.

    2015-09-01

    Under normal illumination with non-polarized light, reflection spectra of the cuticle of golden-like and red Chrysina aurigans scarabs show a structured broad band of left-handed circularly polarized light. The polarization of the reflected light is attributed to a Bouligand-type left-handed chiral structure found through the scarab's cuticle. By considering these twisted structures as one-dimensional photonic crystals, a novel approach is developed from the dispersion relation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves traveling through chiral media, to show how the broad band characterizing these spectra arises from an intrinsic narrow photonic band gap whose spectral position moves through visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  5. Design of an Ultra Broad Band YIG-Tuned FET Oscillator Operating within -45~+65℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the design of an ultra broad band YIG-Tuned FET oscillator is briefly presented. These performances of the superior linearity, the pure spectrum and the ultra broad band tuned oscillation have been realized by a common source circuit topology and a dual coupling YIG resonator. Using a BeO substrate and a buffering amplification stage made up of monolithic MIC traveling wave amplifier, the RF output power has been obtained above 13 dBm in the range from 4 to 16.5 GHz; By means of YIG heater and the temperature compensation of the magnetic circuit, the broad temperature operation performance of YTO has been realized within -45~+65℃.

  6. Large-area broad band saturable Bragg reflectors using oxidized AlAs in the circular and inverted mesa geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabanja, Sheila P.; Kolodziejski, Leslie A.; Petrich, Gale S.; Sander, Michelle Y.; Morse, Jonathan L.; Shtyrkova, Katia; Ippen, Erich P.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2013-04-01

    A semiconductor Saturable Bragg Reflector (SBR) is a mirror structure comprising alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials with an incorporated saturable absorber. SBRs can be used to initiate and sustain ultra-short pulses in various laser systems. In order to form ultra-short pulses, SBRs with high reflectivity over a broad wavelength range are required. Furthermore, large-area SBRs facilitate easy integration in a laser cavity. One of the key elements for the realization of broad band SBRs is the development of the thermal oxidation process that creates buried low-index AlxOy layers over large areas. The design, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of broad band, high index contrast III-V/AlxOy SBRs in the form of circular mesas, as well as inverted mesa structures, is presented.

  7. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b: search for a scattering signature in the planetary spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.; Hoyer, S.; Kirk, J.; Wheatley, P. J.; Seeliger, M.; Mackebrandt, F.; von Essen, C.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Granzer, T.; Künstler, A.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Gaitan, J.

    2016-11-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previously published light curves for a homogeneous analysis of the broad-band transmission spectrum from the Sloan u' band to the Sloan z' band. Our results rule out cloud-free planetary atmosphere models of solar metallicity. Furthermore, a discrepancy at reddest wavelengths to previously published results makes a recent tentative detection of a scattering feature less likely. Instead, the available spectral measurements of HAT-P-32 b favour a completely flat spectrum from the near-UV to the near-IR. A plausible interpretation is a thick cloud cover at high altitudes.

  8. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b: Search for a scattering signature in the planetary spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Mallonn, M; Herrero, E; Hoyer, S; Kirk, J; Wheatley, P J; Seeliger, M; Mackebrandt, F; von Essen, C; Strassmeier, K G; Granzer, T; Künstler, A; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gaitan, J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-colour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterise the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previously published light curves for a homogeneous analysis of the broad-band transmission spectrum from the Sloan u' band to the Sloan z' band. Our results rule out cloud-free planetary atmosphere models of solar metallicity. Furthermore, a discrepancy at reddest wavelengths to previously published results makes a recent tentative detection of a scattering feature less likely. Instead, the available spectral measurements of HAT-P-32 b favour a completely flat spectrum from the near-UV to the near-IR. A plausible interpretation is a thick cloud cover at high altitudes.

  9. Broad-band Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps (10-150 s) across the United States from ambient noise data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kaifeng; Luo, Yinhe; Xie, Jun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of imaging broad-band (10-150 s) Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps on a continental scale using ambient noise tomography (ANT). We obtain broad-band Rayleigh waves from cross-correlations of ambient noise data between all station pairs of USArray and measure the dispersion curves from these cross-correlations at a period band of 10-150 s. The large-scale dense USArray enables us to obtain over 500 000 surface wave paths which cover the contiguous United States densely. Using these paths, we generate Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps at 10-150 s periods. Our phase velocity maps are similar to other reported phase velocity maps based on ambient noise data at short periods (phase velocity maps from ANT can be used to construct 3-D lithospheric and asthenospheric velocity structures.

  10. Frequency-dispersive method for improving broad-band SBS phase conjugation of Cr:LiSAF laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanwen Ge(葛传文); Weijun Zhang(张为俊)

    2003-01-01

    After passing through four dispersive-prisms, the Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser with broad frequency band is focused into carbon disulfide (CS2) to produce backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Our experimental results and illustrative analysis have shown that this frequency-dispersive method can efficiently reduce the broad-band SBS intensity threshold, compress its pulsewidth, and improve the beam quality.

  11. Coherent-subspace array processing based on wavelet covariance: an application to broad-band, seismo-volcanic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccorotti, G.; Nisii, V.; Del Pezzo, E.

    2008-07-01

    Long-Period (LP) and Very-Long-Period (VLP) signals are the most characteristic seismic signature of volcano dynamics, and provide important information about the physical processes occurring in magmatic and hydrothermal systems. These events are usually characterized by sharp spectral peaks, which may span several frequency decades, by emergent onsets, and by a lack of clear S-wave arrivals. These two latter features make both signal detection and location a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a processing procedure based on Continuous Wavelet Transform of multichannel, broad-band data to simultaneously solve the signal detection and location problems. Our method consists of two steps. First, we apply a frequency-dependent threshold to the estimates of the array-averaged WCO in order to locate the time-frequency regions spanned by coherent arrivals. For these data, we then use the time-series of the complex wavelet coefficients for deriving the elements of the spatial Cross-Spectral Matrix. From the eigenstructure of this matrix, we eventually estimate the kinematic signals' parameters using the MUltiple SIgnal Characterization (MUSIC) algorithm. The whole procedure greatly facilitates the detection and location of weak, broad-band signals, in turn avoiding the time-frequency resolution trade-off and frequency leakage effects which affect conventional covariance estimates based upon Windowed Fourier Transform. The method is applied to explosion signals recorded at Stromboli volcano by either a short-period, small aperture antenna, or a large-aperture, broad-band network. The LP (0.2 2s) of the explosion recordings from the broad-band network. Source locations obtained this way are fully compatible with those retrieved from application of more traditional (and computationally expensive) time-domain techniques, such as the Radial Semblance method.

  12. Broad-band modelling of short gamma-ray bursts with energy injection from magnetar spin-down and its implications for radio detectability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Gompertz; A.J. van der Horst; P.T. O'Brien; G.A. Wynn; K. Wiersema

    2015-01-01

    The magnetar model has been proposed to explain the apparent energy injection in the X-ray light curves of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs), but its implications across the full broad-band spectrum are not well explored. We investigate the broad-band modelling of four SGRBs with evidence for energy in

  13. Effects of broad band electromagnetic fields on HSP70 expression and ischemia-reperfusion in rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Raffaella; Marano, Lidia; Braidotti, Paola; Bianciardi, Paola; Calamia, Mario; Fiorentini, Cesare; Samaja, Michele

    2004-09-03

    Although exposure to broad band (0.2-20 MHz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) is part of the treatment of several diseases, little is known as to their effects on myocardial protein expression and resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). We exposed Sprague-Dawley rats to either high (H, 10 min/day at 200 V/m, 36.1 microT) or low (L, 2 min/day at 30 V/m, 11.4 microT) intensity broad band EMF for 15 days. At the end of the treatment, myocardial HSP70 was 32 +/- 8% (mean +/- SEM) higher in L (P = 0.01) than in control (C), whereas in H it remained the same as in C. Electron microscopy revealed sporadic ruptures of mitochondrial cristae in H hearts, with no differences in other parameters. Malondialdehyde was increased in treated hearts (P < 0.05), but especially in H (P = 0.008). To assess the protective role of HSP70 during I/R, hearts were Langendorff-perfused with Krebs-Henseleit. After I/R, C hearts displayed depressed rate. pressure (-13 +/- 7%) and increased end-diastolic (+9.2 +/- 2.8 mmHg) and perfusion pressures (+30 +/- 10 mmHg). In H and L, rate. pressure recovery was similar to C (-2 +/- 21% and -12 +/- 16%, respectively, P = NS). In contrast, both end-diastolic and perfusion pressures were higher in L than in H (30.8 +/- 5.4 vs 18.2 +/- 3.5, P = 0.01, and 54 +/- 8 vs 21 +/- 8 mmHg, P = 0.01, respectively) indicating diastolic derangement in L. In conclusion, the effects of broad band EMF on HSP70 appear to be biphasic, and HSP70 overexpression might not be directly related to improved protection against I/R.

  14. A tunable dual-broad-band branch-line coupler utilizing composite right/left-handed transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; HU Li; HE Sai-ling

    2005-01-01

    A tunable dual-broad-band branch-line coupler (BLC) utilizing composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission lines is presented. Two λ/4 segments consisting of CRLH transmission lines are added to each port to broaden the dual bands of the branch-line coupler. Numerical simulation and optimal design of the novel coupler are presented. The dual bands of the novel coupler are tunable and broad. The 1-dB bandwidth of each passband is more than 16% of the central frequency.

  15. Broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometers as high performance refractive index sensors: theory and monolithic implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiakos, K; Raptis, I; Salapatas, A; Makarona, E; Botsialas, A; Hoekman, M; Stoffer, R; Jobst, G

    2014-04-21

    Broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometry is analytically described and experimentally demonstrated as an analytical tool capable of high accuracy refractive index measurements over a wide spectral range. Suitable photonic engineering of the interferometer sensing and reference waveguides result in sinusoidal TE and TM spectra with substantially different eigen-frequencies. This allows for the instantaneous deconvolution of multiplexed polarizations and enables large spectral shifts and noise reduction through filtering in the Fourier Transform domain. Due to enhanced sensitivity, optical systems can be designed that employ portable spectrum analyzers with nm range resolution without compromising the sensor analytical capability. Practical detection limits in the 10(-6)-10(-7) RIU range are achievable, including temperature effects. Finally, a proof of concept device is realized on a silicon microphotonic chip that monolithically integrates broad-band light sources and single mode silicon nitride waveguides. Refractive index detection limits rivaling that of ring resonators with externally coupled laser sources are demonstrated. Sensitivities of 20 μm/RIU and spectral shifts in the tens of a pm are obtained.

  16. 0.8-5.2GHz Broad-Band SiGe-MMIC Quadrature Mixer for Software Defined Radio Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keishi; Suematsu, Noriharu; Tsutsumi, Koji; Kanazawa, Gakushi; Sekine, Tomotsugu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Isota, Yoji

    For the next generation wireless terminals used in the software defined radio (SDR), multi-band / multi-mode transceivers and their MMIC are required which cover the wide RF frequency range from several hundreds MHz up to several GHz. In this paper, 0.8-5.2GHz broad-band SiGe-MMIC quadrature mixer (Q-MIX) for multi-band / multi-mode direct conversion receiver has been developed. By using a static type frequency divider as a 90 degrees local (LO) power divider, measured error vector magnitude (EVM) of less than 3.1% can be achieved in the cases of 0.8/2.1GHz W-CDMA and 5.2GHz wireless Local Area Network (LAN) (IEEE 802.11a) reception. This Q-MIX also shows broad-band characteristic for base-band signal and is applicable for 4G cellular. By using fabricated Q-MIX, a multi-band / multi-mode (1.9GHz (3rd generation cellular (W-CDMA)) / 5.2GHz (4th generation cellular (Multi-Carrier (MC)-CDMA))) receiver has been developed and it has firstly demonstrated the successful reception of motion picture via W-CDMA and MC-CDMA.

  17. Active Noise Control for Narrow-band and Broad-band Signals Using Q-Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raeisy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic noise pollution is one of the serious disasters in the current industrialized life. Though traditional solutions based on noise absorption have many different applications, but these methods have low performance for low frequency noises. Active Noise Control (ANC has been introduced to resolve this problem. In this paper, a new active method is introduced for suppressing acoustic noises based on the reinforcement learning. To achieve this, an algorithm to control periodic noises is suggested. Then, the method is developed further to deal with multi-tonal signals with a large number of harmonics. At the next step, the broad-band signals are considered. The problem is broken into some sub-problems in frequency domain and each is solved via a reinforcement learning approach. In all of the proposed techniques no model for the environment is needed. Combining the reinforcement learning and the traditional methods in ANC for broad-band signals is a new line research considered here. This combination could increase the speed of the response, but some information of the dynamics of the environment is needed. This will cause the system to become compatible with gradual changes of the environment. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Broad-Band Spectrum of The Black Hole Candidate IGR J17497-2821 Studied with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Paizis, A; Takahashi, H; Dotani, T; Kohmura, T; Kokubun, M; Rodríguez, J; Ueda, Y; Walter, R; Yamada, S; Yamaoka, K; Yuasa, T

    2008-01-01

    The broad-band 1-300 keV Suzaku spectrum of IGR J17497-2821, the X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL in September 2006, is presented. Suzaku observed IGR J17497-2821 on September 25, eight days after its discovery, for a net exposure of about 53 ksec. During the Suzaku observation, IGR J17497-2821 is very bright, 2 x 10^37 erg/s at 8 kpc in the 1-300 keV range, and shows a hard spectrum, typical of black hole candidates in the low-hard state. Despite the multi-mission X-ray monitoring of the source, only with Suzaku is it possible to obtain a broad-band spectrum in the 1-300 keV range with a very high signal to noise ratio. A sum of a multi-color disc (DISKBB) and a thermal Comptonization component (COMPPS) with mild reflection is a good representation of our IGR J17497-2821 Suzaku spectrum. The spectral properties of the accretion disc as well as the cut-off energy in the spectrum at about 150 keV are clearly detected and constrained. We discuss the implications on the physical model used to interpret the...

  19. A tunable, linac based, intense, broad-band THz source forpump-probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerge, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Adolphsen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Corbett, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Durr, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fazio, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Frisch, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gaffney, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Guehr, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hettel, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoffmann, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hogan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Holtkamp, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kirchmann, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Limborg, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lindenberg, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Maxwell, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nilsson, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Raubenheimer, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Reis, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ross, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shen, Z. -X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stupakov, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Xiang, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yakimenko, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    We propose an intense THz source with tunable frequency and bandwidth that can directly interact with the degrees of freedom that determine the properties of materials and thus provides a new tool for controlling and directing these ultrafast processes as well as aiding synthesis of new materials with new functional properties. This THz source will broadly impact our understanding of dynamical processes in matter at the atomic-scale and in real time. Established optical pumping schemes using femtosecond visible frequency laser pulses for excitation are extended into the THz frequency regime thereby enabling resonant excitation of bonds in correlated solid state materials (phonon pumping), to drive low energy electronic excitations, to trigger surface chemistry reactions, and to all-optically bias a material with ultrashort electric fields or magnetic fields. A linac-based THz source can supply stand-alone experiments with peak intensities two orders of magnitude stronger than existing laser-based sources, but when coupled with atomic-scale sensitive femtosecond x-ray probes it opens a new frontier in ultrafast science with broad applications to correlated materials, interfacial and liquid phase chemistry, and materials in extreme conditions.

  20. Cost effective solar Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarathna M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy the most efficient, eco-friendly and abundantly available energy source in the nature. It can be converted into electrical energy in cost effective manner. In recent years, the interest in solar energy has risen due to surging oil prices and environmental concern. In many remote or underdeveloped areas, direct access to an electric grid is impossible and a photovoltaic inverter system would make life much simpler and more convenient. With this in mind, it is aimed to design, build, and test a solar panel inverter. This inverter system could be used as backup power during outages, battery charging, or for typical household applications. The main components of this solar system are solar cell, dc to dc boost converters, and inverter. Sine wave push pull inverter topology is used for inverter. In this topology only two MOSFETs are used and isolation requirement between control circuit and power circuit is also less which helps to decrease the cost of solar inverter.

  1. Basic system design of a broad-band real-time phase contrast wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.

    2005-08-01

    The most common wavefront sensor for real-time use in high-order adaptive optics systems is the Shack-Hartmann, in part because it is sensitive to a broad optical band. An alternative possibility is based on Zernike's phase contrast technique. Though quite sensitive in principle, at least for monochromatic light, there had been no simple way to obtain the broadband performance needed for competitive sensitivity in an actual adaptive optics system. Recently, we proposed a general achromatization scheme that relies upon the innate π/2 phase shift between the transmitted and reflected beams in a beam splitter. Here, a more detailed study of this broad-band phase contrast wavefront sensor is presented, along with some practical issues concerning component tolerances. These results offer encouraging indications that broad-wavelength-band implementations will be feasible in practice.

  2. A flexible experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved broad-band ellipsometry and magneto-optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschini, F.; Hedayat, H.; Piovera, C.; Dallera, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gupta, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Carpene, E., E-mail: ettore.carpene@polimi.it [CNR-IFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    A versatile experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements in the visible light range is described. The apparatus is based on the pump-probe technique and combines a broad-band probing beam with an intense near-infrared pump. According to Fresnel scattering matrix formalism, the analysis of the reflected beam at different polarization states of the incident probe light allows one to determine the diagonal and the off-diagonal elements of the dielectric tensor in the investigated sample. Moreover, the pump-probe method permits to study the dynamics of the dielectric response after a short and intense optical excitation. The performance of the experimental apparatus is tested on CrO{sub 2} single crystals as a benchmark.

  3. Which are the youngest protostars? Determining properties of confirmed and candidate Class0 sources by broad-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fröbrich, D

    2004-01-01

    We searched the literature to obtain a complete list of known Class0 sources. A list of 95 confirmed or candidate objects was compiled. To the best of our knowledge, all published broad-band observations from 1mu to 3.5mm have been collected and are assembled in a catalogue. These data were used to determine physical properties (T_bol, L_bol, L_smm/L_bol, M_env) and for a uniform classification. 50 sources possess sufficient observational data and are classified as Class0 or Class0/1 objects. The source properties are compared with different evolutionary models to infer ages and masses, and their correlations are investigated. About 25% of the sources are found to be in a quiet accretion phase or possess a significantly different time evolution of the accretion rate than the average. In Taurus, with its isolated star formation mode, this seems especially to be the case.

  4. An efficient broad-band mid-wave IR fiber optic light source: Design and performance simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Barh, A; Varshney, R K; Pal, B P

    2013-01-01

    Design of a mid-wave IR (MWIR) broad-band fiber-based light source exploiting four-wave mixing (FWM) in a meter long suitably designed highly nonlinear (NL) chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber (MOF) is reported. This superior FWM bandwidth (BW) was obtained through precise tailoring of the fibers dispersion profile so as to realize positive quartic dispersion at the pump wavelength. We consider an Erbium (Er3+) doped continuous wave (CW) ZBLAN fiber laser emitting at 2.8 micron as the pump source with an average power of 5 W. Amplification factor as high as 25 dB is achievable in the 3 to 3.9 microns spectral range with average power conversion efficiency more than 32 percent.

  5. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED

    2016-04-01

    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  6. Phase velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in central and northern Europe from automated, broad-band, interstation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Cristiano, L.; Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; Passeq Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly dense coverage of Europe with broad-band seismic stations makes it possible to image its lithospheric structure in great detail, provided that structural information can be extracted effectively from the very large volumes of data. We develop an automated technique for the measurement of interstation phase velocities of (earthquake-excited) fundamental-mode surface waves in very broad period ranges. We then apply the technique to all available broad-band data from permanent and temporary networks across Europe. In a new implementation of the classical two-station method, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves are determined by cross-correlation of seismograms from a pair of stations. An elaborate filtering and windowing scheme is employed to enhance the target signal and makes possible a significantly broader frequency band of the measurements, compared to previous implementations of the method. The selection of acceptable phase-velocity measurements for each event is performed in the frequency domain, based on a number of fine-tuned quality criteria including a smoothness requirement. Between 5 and 3000 single-event dispersion measurements are averaged per interstation path in order to obtain robust, broad-band dispersion curves with error estimates. In total, around 63,000 Rayleigh- and 27,500 Love-wave dispersion curves between 10 and 350 s have been determined, with standard deviations lower than 2 per cent and standard errors lower than 0.5 per cent. Comparisons of phase-velocity measurements using events at opposite backazimuths and the examination of the variance of the phase-velocity curves are parts of the quality control. With the automated procedure, large data sets can be consistently and repeatedly measured using varying selection parameters. Comparison of average interstation dispersion curves obtained with different degrees of smoothness shows that rough perturbations do not systematically bias the average dispersion measurement. They

  7. Broad-band transmission spectrum and K-band thermal emission of WASP-43b as observed from the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; van Boekel, R.; Wang, H.; Nikolov, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Seemann, U.; Wang, W.; Mancini, L.; Henning, Th.

    2014-03-01

    Aims: WASP-43b is the closest-orbiting hot Jupiter, and it has high bulk density. It causes deep eclipse depths in the system's light curve in both transit and occultation that is attributed to the cool temperature and small radius of its host star. We aim to secure a broad-band transmission spectrum and to detect its near-infrared thermal emission in order to characterize its atmosphere. Methods: We observed one transit and one occultation event simultaneously in the g', r', i', z', J, H, K bands using the GROND instrument on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope, where the telescope was heavily defocused in staring mode. After modeling the light curves, we derived wavelength-dependent transit depths and flux ratios and compared them to atmospheric models. Results: From the transit event, we have independently derived WASP-43's system parameters with high precision and improved the period to be 0.81347437(13) days based on all the available timings. No significant variation in transit depths is detected, with the largest deviations coming from the i'-, H-, and K-bands. Given the observational uncertainties, the broad-band transmission spectrum can be explained by either (i) a flat featureless straight line that indicates thick clouds; (ii) synthetic spectra with absorption signatures of atomic Na/K, or molecular TiO/VO that in turn indicate cloud-free atmosphere; or (iii) a Rayleigh scattering profile that indicates high-altitude hazes. From the occultation event, we detected planetary dayside thermal emission in the K-band with a flux ratio of 0.197 ± 0.042%, which confirms previous detections obtained in the 2.09 μm narrow band and KS-band. The K-band brightness temperature 1878+108-116 K favors an atmosphere with poor day- to nightside heat redistribution. We also have a marginal detection in the i'-band (0.037+0.023-0.021%), corresponding to TB = 2225+139-225 K, which is either a false positive, a signature of non-blackbody radiation at this wavelength, or an

  8. The Seismic Broad Band Western Mediterranean (wm) Network and the Obs Fomar Pool: Current state and Obs activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Davila, Jose Martin; Buforn, Elisa; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun; Mattesini, Mauricio; Caldeira, Bento; Hanka, Winfried; El Moudnib, Lahcen; Strollo, Angelo; Roca, Antoni; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Dahm, Torsten; Cabieces, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean (WM) seismic network started in 1996 as an initiative of the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), with the collaboration of the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) of Potsdam. A first broad band seismic station (SFUC) was installed close to Cádiz (South Spain). Since then, additional stations have been installed in the Ibero-Moghrebian region. In 2005, the "WM" code was assigned by the FDSN and new partners were jointed: Evora University (UEVO, Portugal), the Scientifique Institute of Rabat (ISRABAT, Morocco), and GFZ. Now days, the WM network is composed by 15 BB stations, all of them with Streckaisen STS-2 or STS-2.5 sensors, Quanterra or Earthdata digitizers and SeiscomP. Most them have co-installed a permanent geodetic GPS stations, and some them also have an accelerometer. There are 10 stations deployed in Spanish territory (5 in the Iberian peninsula, 1 in Balearic islands and 4 in North Africa Spanish places) with VSAT or Internet communications, 2 in Portugal (one of them without real time), and 3 in Morocco (2 VSAT and 1 ADSL). Additionally, 2 more stations (one in South Spain and one in Morocco) will be installed along this year. Additionally ROA has deployed a permanent real time VBB (CMG-3T: 360s) station at the Alboran Island. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), ROA and UCM have acquired six broad band "LOBSTERN" OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), conforming the OBS FOMAR pool. Three of them with CMG-40T sensor and the other with Trillium 120. These OBS were deployed along the Gibraltar strait since January to November 2014 to study the microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. In September 2015 FOMAR network has been deployed in SW of the San Vicente Cape for 8 months as a part of

  9. Performance of the NIST goniocolorimeter with a broad-band source and multichannel charged coupled device based spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobedov, V. B.; Miller, C. C.; Nadal, M. E.

    2012-09-01

    The authors describe the NIST high-efficiency instrument for measurements of bidirectional reflectance distribution function of colored materials, including gonioapparent materials such as metallic and pearlescent coatings. The five-axis goniospectrometer measures the spectral reflectance of samples over a wide range of illumination and viewing angles. The implementation of a broad-band source and a multichannel CCD spectrometer corrected for stray light significantly increased the efficiency of the goniometer. In the extended range of 380 nm to 1050 nm, a reduction of measurement time from a few hours to a few minutes was obtained. Shorter measurement time reduces the load on the precise mechanical assembly ensuring high angular accuracy over time. We describe the application of matrix-based correction of stray light and the extension of effective dynamic range of measured fluxes to the values of 106 to 107 needed for the absolute characterization of samples. The measurement uncertainty was determined to be 0.7% (k = 2), which is comparable with similar instruments operating in a single channel configuration. Several examples of reflectance data obtained with the improved instrument indicate a 0.3% agreement compared to data collected with the single channel configuration.

  10. Multi-cavity coupling acoustic metamaterials with low-frequency broad band gaps based on negative mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanhui; Wu, Jiu Hui; Cao, Songhua; Jing, Li

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies a novel kind of low-frequency broadband acoustic metamaterials with small size based on the mechanisms of negative mass density and multi-cavity coupling. The structure consists of a closed resonant cavity and an open resonant cavity, which can be equivalent to a homogeneous medium with effective negative mass density in a certain frequency range by using the parameter inversion method. The negative mass density makes the anti-resonance area increased, which results in broadened band gaps greatly. Owing to the multi-cavity coupling mechanism, the local resonances of the lower frequency mainly occur in the closed cavity, while the local resonances of the higher frequency mainly in the open cavity. Upon the interaction between the negative mass density and the multi-cavity coupling, there exists two broad band gaps in the range of 0-1800 Hz, i.e. the first-order band gap from 195 Hz to 660 Hz with the bandwidth of 465 Hz and the second-order band gap from 1157 Hz to 1663 Hz with the bandwidth of 506 Hz. The acoustic metamaterials with small size presented in this paper could provide a new approach to reduce the low-frequency broadband noises.

  11. Broad-band spectral energy distribution of 3000 Angstroem break quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Meusinger, H; Mirhosseini, A; Pertermann, F

    2016-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) discovered a few unusual quasars with a characteristic break in the continuum around 3000 A that neither shows the typical structure of broad absorption line (BAL) troughs nor is explained by typical intrinsic dust reddening. We used the method of Kohonen self-organising maps for a systematical search for quasars with such properties in the SDSS spectra archive. We constructed a sample of 23 quasars classified as 3000 A break quasars and two comparison samples of quasars with similar properties, to some extent, but also showing typical BAL features. We computed ensemble-averaged broad-band SEDs based on archival data from SDSS, GALEX, 2MASS, UKIDSS, and WISE. The SEDs were corrected for intrinsic dust absorption by the comparison with the average SED of normal quasars. The de-reddened arithmetic median composite SED of the 3000 A break quasars is found to be indistinguishable from that of the unusual BAL quasars. We conclude that 3000 A break quasars are most likely extreme...

  12. Broad Band X-ray Spectra of Atoll Source 4U 1636-536: NuSTAR and Swift Results

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Vivek Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate broad band (1-79 keV) spectral nature of the atoll source 4U 1636-536 using the combined Nu-STAR and SWIFT-XRT data. The spectra are complex and have emission components from the disc, boundary-layer and corona. In addition to that a broad iron line is also observed. A relativistic line model assuming Schwarzchild metric fits this feature. The total flux varies from 1.4 $\\times$ 10$^{-9}$ to 4.36 $\\times$ 10$^{-9}$ $ergs/s/cm^2$. At the highest flux level the source was found in the soft state. In this state the Comptonized component has temperature $kT_e \\sim 3$ keV and optical depth $\\tau \\sim $ 16. We also detect a non-thermal tail with index $\\sim$ 2.4, contributing $\\sim$ 10 \\% of the total flux in the soft state. We also find that the inner disc radius, electron temperature and optical depth vary with the total 0.1-100 keV unabsorbed flux. We discuss the implication of the results in this paper.

  13. Recovering galaxy stellar population properties from broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting II. The case with unknown redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Pforr, Janine; Tonini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) In a recent work we explored the dependence of galaxy stellar population properties derived from broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting on the fitting parameters, e.g. SFHs, age grid, metallicity, IMF, dust reddening, reddening law, filter setup and wavelength coverage. In this paper we consider also redshift as a free parameter in the fit and study whether one can obtain reasonable estimates of photometric redshifts and stellar population properties at once. We use mock star-forming as well as passive galaxies placed at various redshifts (0.5 to 3) as test particles. Mock star-forming galaxies are extracted from a semi-analytical galaxy formation model. We show that for high-z star-forming galaxies photometric redshifts, stellar masses and reddening can be determined simultaneously when using a broad wavelength coverage and a wide template setup in the fit. Masses are similarly well recovered (median ~ 0.2 dex) as at fixed redshift. For old galaxies with little recent star formation masse...

  14. Broad-band transmission spectrum and K-band thermal emission of WASP-43b as observed from the ground

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guo; Wang, Hongchi; Nikolov, Nikolay; Fortney, Jonathan J; Seemann, Ulf; Wang, Wei; Mancini, Luigi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We observed one transit and one occultation of the hot Jupiter WASP-43b simultaneously in the g'r'i'z'JHK bands using the GROND instrument on the MPG/ESO 2.2-meter telescope. From the transit event, we have independently derived WASP-43's system parameters with high precision, and improved the period to be 0.81347437(13) days. No significant variation in transit depths is detected, with the largest deviations coming from the i', H, and K bands. Given the observational uncertainties, the broad-band transmission spectrum can be explained by either a flat featureless straight line that indicates thick clouds, synthetic spectra with absorption signatures of atomic Na/K or molecular TiO/VO that indicate cloud-free atmosphere, or a Rayleigh scattering profile that indicates high-altitude hazes. From the occultation event, we have detected planetary dayside thermal emission in the K-band with a flux ratio of 0.197 +/- 0.042%, which confirms previous detections obtained in the 2.09 micron narrow band and K...

  15. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at z>1

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wel, A; Rix, H -W; Finkelstein, S L; Koekemoer, A M; Weiner, B J; Wuyts, S; Bell, E F; Faber, S M; Trump, J R; Koo, D; Ferguson, H C; Scarlata, C; Hathi, N P; Dunlop, J S; Newman, J A; Dickinson, M; Salmon, B; Kocevski, D F de Mello D D; Lai, K; Grogin, N A; Rodney, S A; Guo, Yicheng; McGrath, E G; Lee, K -S; Calvo, G B; Huang, K -H

    2011-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z=1.6-1.8 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared, broad-band fluxes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines -- with rest-frame equivalent widths ~1000\\AA -- in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are dwarf galaxies with ~10^8 Msol in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/(dM*/dt) of only ~15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7 x 10^-4 Mpc^-3) can produce in ~4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10^8-10^9 Mso...

  16. Real-time monitoring of reactive species in downstream etch reactor by VUV broad-band absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, R.; Vallier, L.; Cunge, G.; Sadeghi, N.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma etching of nanometric size, high aspect-ratio structures is more challenging at each new technological node. Remote plasmas are beginning to find use when damages on nanostructures by ion bombardment become critical or when etching with high selectivity on different materials present on the wafer is necessary (i . e . tungsten oxide etching with fluorine and hydrogen containing plasmas in remote reactor from AMAT). Furthermore, it is expected that downstream plasma will replace many wet chemical etching processes to alleviate the issue of pattern collapses caused by capillary forces when nanometer size high aspect ratio structures are immersed in liquids. In these downstream plasmas, radicals are the main active species and a control of their density is of prime importance. Most of gases used and radicals produced in etching plasmas (HBr, BrCl, Br2, NF3, CH2F2,...) have strong absorption bands in the vacuum UV spectral region and we have shown that very low concentration of these species can be detected by VUV absorption. We have recently improved the technique by using a VUV CCD camera, instead of the PMT, which render possible the Broad-Band absorption spectroscopy in the 120-200 nm range, with a deuterium lamp, or a laser produced xenon arc lamp as light source. The multi-spectral detection ability of the CCD reduces the acquisition time to less than 1 second and can permit the real time control of the process control.

  17. Broad-band spectral changes of the microquasars Cygnus X-1 and SWIFT J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, M C; Rodríguez, J; Chaty, S; Corbel, S; Goldwurm, A; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Ribo, Marc; Rodriguez, Jerome; Chaty, Sylvain; Corbel, Stephane; Goldwurm, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    We report high-energy results obtained with INTEGRAL and Rossi-XTE on two microquasars: the persistent high-mass system Cygnus X-1 and the transient low-mass binary SWIFT J1753.5-0127. INTEGRAL observed Cygnus X-1 from 2002 to 2004: the spectral (5-1000 keV) properties of the source, seen at least in three distinct spectral states, show disc and corona changes. In 2003 June, a high-energy tail at several hundred keV in excess of the thermal Comptonization model was observed, suggesting the presence of an additional non-thermal component. At that time, we detected an unusual correlation between radio data and high-energy hardness. We also report and compare the results obtained with simultaneous observations of the transient source SWIFT J1753.5-0127 performed with Rossi-XTE, INTEGRAL, VLA, REM and NTT on 2005 August 10-12 near its hard X-ray outburst. Broad-band spectra and fast time-variability properties are derived on this source (probably located in the galactic halo) together with radio, IR and optical d...

  18. A physical parameter method for the design of broad-band X-ray imaging systems to do coronal plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S.; Krieger, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    The technique commonly used for the analysis of data from broad-band X-ray imaging systems for plasma diagnostics is the filter ratio method. This requires the use of two or more broad-band filters to derive temperatures and line-of-sight emission integrals or emission measure distributions as a function of temperature. Here an alternative analytical approach is proposed in which the temperature response of the imaging system is matched to the physical parameter being investigated. The temperature response of a system designed to measure the total radiated power along the line of sight of any coronal structure is calculated. Other examples are discussed.

  19. Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markmann, Sergej, E-mail: sergej.markmann@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Nong, Hanond, E-mail: nong.hanond@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Pal, Shovon [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Scholz, Sven; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Dhillon, Sukhdeep; Tignon, Jérôme [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Supérieure, UMR 8551 CNRS, UPMC, Univ. Paris 6, 75005 Paris (France); Marcadet, Xavier [Alcatel-Thales III-V Lab, Route Départementale 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate by injection seeding that the spectral emission of a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) can be modified with broad-band THz pulses whose bandwidths are greater than the QCL bandwidth. Two broad-band THz pulses delayed in time imprint a modulation on the single THz pulse spectrum. The resulting spectrum is used to injection seed the THz QCL. By varying the time delay between the THz pulses, the amplitude distribution of the QCL longitudinal modes is modified. By applying this approach, the QCL emission is reversibly switched from multi-mode to single mode emission.

  20. Broad-band Seismology for Understanding Earthquake Physics and Developing a Modern Practice for Seismic Damage Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H.; Heaton, T. H.

    2003-12-01

    In 1987, immediately after the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake, the Caltech broad-band regional seismic network project, TERRAscope, was launched under the direction of Don Anderson. At the time, UC Berkeley had also embarked on such a project. The objectives included: 1) Collect high-quality seismic data for developing theories of Earth's interior and exterior, 2) Develop a physics-based earthquake damage mitigation method, 3) Provide a test-bed for novel approaches in real-time seismology, 4) Provide an infrastructure for cultivating new directions in seismology. The data from TERRAscope, combined with those from other networks such as GDSN, IDA, IRIS, GeoScope networks were used to study various seismological problems, some of which had not been commonly investigated. We focus on three areas. The interaction between the solid earth and atmosphere had been the subject of considerable interest. The broadband networks detected interesting atmospheric waves from a few Hz (N waves from space shuttles) to 0.001 Hz (Morning-glory waves. At the time it was not recognized as such). Also, it recorded monochromatic (period ˜ 230 sec) Rayleigh waves which were generated by the near source atmospheric oscillations excited by the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. These waves were not immediately recognized as such, because they had not been observed yet. This represents one of few cases in which significant energy transfer occurred from the atmosphere to the solid earth. These observations eventually led to the more ambitious ongoing projects for detecting ionospheric signature of acoustic and internal gravity waves in the atmosphere that couple into the solid earth. Gutenberg, together with Richter, published a series of papers on the energy of earthquakes in the 1940's to 1950's. The intent of these studies was to determine the most important quantity necessary for understanding the fundamental physics of earthquakes. Unfortunately, because of the overwhelming observational

  1. Design of broad-band mixer on V-band%V波段宽带混频器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋翔; 年夫顺; 代秀

    2012-01-01

    Because of broad-band mixer's broad working band and low conversion loss,it is often used in communication, radar and microwave measurement systems. In this paper, the design and the performance of a V-band single balance mixer based on fin-line circuit are described. From the theory of the single balance mixer,the design of the single balance mixer-circuit and the structure of waveguide to fin line are expounded. Finally,the conversion loss of this mixer is less than 10 dBm and has a good flatness when the mixer's RF is sweeping from 50~75 GHz.%宽带混频器由于其工作带宽大,变频损耗低,在通信、雷达以及微波毫米波测试仪器等系统得到广泛的应用.介绍了一种V波段鳍线单平衡混频器的设计过程并给出了测试结果.从单平衡混频器的基本原理出发,阐述了鳍线单平衡混频电路和矩形波导到鳍线的过渡结构的设计.最后制作出的宽带混频器在射频频率为50~75 GHz的整个V波段内,变频损耗小于10 dBm,并有良好的变频损耗平坦度.

  2. Broad-band, radio spectro-polarimetric study of 100 radiative-mode and jet-mode AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, S. P.; Purcell, C. R.; Anderson, C. S.; Farnes, J. S.; Sun, X. H.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results from a broad-band (1 to 3 GHz), spectro-polarimetry study of the integrated emission from 100 extragalactic radio sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, selected to be highly linearly polarized at 1.4 GHz. We use a general-purpose, polarization model-fitting procedure that describes the Faraday rotation measure (RM) and intrinsic polarization structure of up to three distinct polarized emission regions or `RM components' of a source. Overall, 37 per cent/52 per cent/11 per cent of sources are best fitted by one/two/three RM components. However, these fractions are dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in polarization (more RM components more likely at higher S/N). In general, our analysis shows that sources with high integrated degrees of polarization at 1.4 GHz have low Faraday depolarization, are typically dominated by a single RM component, have a steep spectral index and have a high intrinsic degree of polarization. After classifying our sample into radiative-mode and jet-mode AGN, we find no significant difference between the Faraday rotation or Faraday depolarization properties of jet-mode and radiative-mode AGN. However, there is a statistically significant difference in the intrinsic degree of polarization between the two types, with the jet-mode sources having more intrinsically ordered magnetic field structures than the radiative-mode sources. We also find a preferred perpendicular orientation of the intrinsic magnetic field structure of jet-mode AGN with respect to the jet direction, while no clear preference is found for the radiative-mode sources.

  3. X-Ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostorero, L.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Moderski, R.; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Diaferio, A.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Kowalska, I.; /Warsaw U. Observ.; Cheung, C.C.; /NASA, Goddard /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Begelman, M.C.; /JILA, Boulder; Wagner, S.J.; /Heidelberg Observ.

    2010-06-07

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the {gamma}-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N{sub H}) and radio (N{sub HI}) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  4. Synchronous Chaos and Broad Band Gamma Rhythm in a Minimal Multi-Layer Model of Primary Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Demian; Hansel, David

    2011-01-01

    Visually induced neuronal activity in V1 displays a marked gamma-band component which is modulated by stimulus properties. It has been argued that synchronized oscillations contribute to these gamma-band activity. However, analysis of Local Field Potentials (LFPs) across different experiments reveals considerable diversity in the degree of oscillatory behavior of this induced activity. Contrast-dependent power enhancements can indeed occur over a broad band in the gamma frequency range and spectral peaks may not arise at all. Furthermore, even when oscillations are observed, they undergo temporal decorrelation over very few cycles. This is not easily accounted for in previous network modeling of gamma oscillations. We argue here that interactions between cortical layers can be responsible for this fast decorrelation. We study a model of a V1 hypercolumn, embedding a simplified description of the multi-layered structure of the cortex. When the stimulus contrast is low, the induced activity is only weakly synchronous and the network resonates transiently without developing collective oscillations. When the contrast is high, on the other hand, the induced activity undergoes synchronous oscillations with an irregular spatiotemporal structure expressing a synchronous chaotic state. As a consequence the population activity undergoes fast temporal decorrelation, with concomitant rapid damping of the oscillations in LFPs autocorrelograms and peak broadening in LFPs power spectra. We show that the strength of the inter-layer coupling crucially affects this spatiotemporal structure. We predict that layer VI inactivation should induce global changes in the spectral properties of induced LFPs, reflecting their slower temporal decorrelation in the absence of inter-layer feedback. Finally, we argue that the mechanism underlying the emergence of synchronous chaos in our model is in fact very general. It stems from the fact that gamma oscillations induced by local delayed

  5. Synchronous chaos and broad band gamma rhythm in a minimal multi-layer model of primary visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Battaglia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visually induced neuronal activity in V1 displays a marked gamma-band component which is modulated by stimulus properties. It has been argued that synchronized oscillations contribute to these gamma-band activity. However, analysis of Local Field Potentials (LFPs across different experiments reveals considerable diversity in the degree of oscillatory behavior of this induced activity. Contrast-dependent power enhancements can indeed occur over a broad band in the gamma frequency range and spectral peaks may not arise at all. Furthermore, even when oscillations are observed, they undergo temporal decorrelation over very few cycles. This is not easily accounted for in previous network modeling of gamma oscillations. We argue here that interactions between cortical layers can be responsible for this fast decorrelation. We study a model of a V1 hypercolumn, embedding a simplified description of the multi-layered structure of the cortex. When the stimulus contrast is low, the induced activity is only weakly synchronous and the network resonates transiently without developing collective oscillations. When the contrast is high, on the other hand, the induced activity undergoes synchronous oscillations with an irregular spatiotemporal structure expressing a synchronous chaotic state. As a consequence the population activity undergoes fast temporal decorrelation, with concomitant rapid damping of the oscillations in LFPs autocorrelograms and peak broadening in LFPs power spectra. We show that the strength of the inter-layer coupling crucially affects this spatiotemporal structure. We predict that layer VI inactivation should induce global changes in the spectral properties of induced LFPs, reflecting their slower temporal decorrelation in the absence of inter-layer feedback. Finally, we argue that the mechanism underlying the emergence of synchronous chaos in our model is in fact very general. It stems from the fact that gamma oscillations induced by

  6. Imaging P-to-S conversions with broad-band seismic arrays using multichannel time-domain deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Scott L.; Pavlis, Gary L.

    2001-09-01

    reduced and the input model is reliably recovered. Further tests with data from the Lodore broad-band array in Colorado and Wyoming show significant improvement over conventional time domain methods. We image lateral variations in Moho continuity and reflectivity across the array, with significant improvement in resolution in the first 10 seconds of data.

  7. Crustal deformation in the south-central Andes backarc terranes as viewed from regional broad-band seismic waveform modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Patricia; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Araujo, Mario; Triep, Enrique

    2005-11-01

    The convergence between the Nazca and South America tectonic plates generates a seismically active backarc region near 31°S. Earthquake locations define the subhorizontal subducted oceanic Nazca plate at depths of 90-120 km. Another seismic region is located within the continental upper plate with events at depths Sierras Pampeanas and is responsible for the large earthquakes that have caused major human and economic losses in Argentina. South of 33°S, the intense shallow continental seismicity is more restricted to the main cordillera over a region where the subducted Nazca plate starts to incline more steeply, and there is an active volcanic arc. We operated a portable broad-band seismic network as part of the Chile-Argentina Geophysical Experiment (CHARGE) from 2000 December to 2002 May. We have studied crustal earthquakes that occurred in the back arc and under the main cordillera in the south-central Andes (29°S-36°S) recorded by the CHARGE network. We obtained the focal mechanisms and source depths for 27 (3.5 Sierras Pampeanas, over the flat-slab segment is dominated by reverse and thrust fault-plane solutions located at an average source depth of 20 km. One moderate-sized earthquake (event 02-117) is very likely related to the northern part of the Precordillera and the Sierras Pampeanas terrane boundary. Another event located near Mendoza at a greater depth (~26 km) (event 02-005) could also be associated with the same ancient suture. We found strike-slip focal mechanisms in the eastern Sierras Pampeanas and under the main cordillera with shallower focal depths of ~5-7 km. Overall, the western part of the entire region is more seismically active than the eastern part. We postulate that this is related to the presence of different pre-Andean geological terranes. We also find evidence for different average crustal models for those terranes. Better-fitting synthetic seismograms result using a higher P-wave velocity, a smaller average S-wave velocity and a

  8. Cost effectiveness analysis for the substitution of the electrical shower to gas water heaters; Estudo de viabilidade para substituicao do chuveiro eletrico por aquecedores a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br; Monteiro, Jorge Venancio de Freitas [Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo (COMGAS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: venanciocomgas@uol.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The hydropower natural resources for generation of electrical energy at the south part of Brazil has been extinguished at the last years and as a consequence large investments should be made in order to attend the electrical energy demand at this part of country. These paper purposes a comparison between the use gas water heater and the traditional electrical shower largely applied at the Brazilian residences. It will be focused not only the consumer point of view but also the construction enterprise position as well as the advantages for the overall country due to this substitution. (author)

  9. Rate control is more cost-effective than rhythm control for patients with persistent atrial fibrillation - results from the RAte Control versus Electrical cardioversion (RACE) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagens, VE; Vermeulen, KM; TenVergert, EM; Van Veldhuisen, JGP; Bosker, HA; Kamp, O; Kingma, JH; Tijssen, JGP; Crijns, HJGM; Van Gelder, IC

    2004-01-01

    Aims To evaluate costs between a rate and rhythm control strategy in persistent atrial. fibrillation. Methods and results In a prospective substudy of RACE (Rate control versus electrical cardioversion for persistent atrial. fibrillation) in 428 of the total 522 patients (206 rate control and 222 rh

  10. Rate control is more cost-effective than rhythm control for patients with persistent atrial fibrillation - results from the RAte Control versus Electrical cardioversion (RACE) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagens, VE; Vermeulen, KM; TenVergert, EM; Van Veldhuisen, JGP; Bosker, HA; Kamp, O; Kingma, JH; Tijssen, JGP; Crijns, HJGM; Van Gelder, IC

    Aims To evaluate costs between a rate and rhythm control strategy in persistent atrial. fibrillation. Methods and results In a prospective substudy of RACE (Rate control versus electrical cardioversion for persistent atrial. fibrillation) in 428 of the total 522 patients (206 rate control and 222

  11. COMPARING BROAD-BAND AND RED EDGE-BASED SPECTRAL VEGETATION INDICES TO ESTIMATE NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF CROPS USING CASI DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many spectral vegetation indices (SVIs have been proposed to estimate the leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC of crops. However, most of these indices were based on the field hyperspectral reflectance. To test whether they can be used in aerial remote platform effectively, in this work a comparison of the sensitivity between several broad-band and red edge-based SVIs to LNC is investigated over different crop types. By using data from experimental LNC values over 4 different crop types and image data acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI sensor, the extensive dataset allowed us to evaluate broad-band and red edge-based SVIs. The result indicated that NDVI performed the best among the selected SVIs while red edge-based SVIs didn’t show the potential for estimating the LNC based on the CASI data due to the spectral resolution. In order to search for the optimal SVIs, the band combination algorithm has been used in this work. The best linear correlation against the experimental LNC dataset was obtained by combining the 626.20nm and 569.00nm wavebands. These wavelengths correspond to the maximal chlorophyll absorption and reflection position region, respectively, and are known to be sensitive to the physiological status of the plant. Then this linear relationship was applied to the CASI image for generating an LNC map, which can guide farmers in the accurate application of their N fertilization strategies.

  12. Improving the Estimation of Star-formation Rates and Stellar Population Ages of High-redshift Galaxies from Broad-band Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Kook; Somerville, Rachel S; Wiklind, Tommy; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We explore methods to improve the estimates of star-formation rates and mean stellar population ages from broad-band photometry of high redshift star-forming galaxies. We use synthetic spectral templates with a variety of simple parametric star-formation histories to fit broad-band spectral-energy distributions. These parametric models are used to infer ages, star-formation rates and stellar masses for a mock data set drawn from a hierarchical semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution. Traditional parametric models generally assume an exponentially declining rate of star-formation after an initial instantaneous rise. Our results show that star-formation histories with a much more gradual rise in the star-formation rate are likely to be better templates, and are likely to give better overall estimates of the age distribution and star-formation rate distribution of Lyman-break galaxies. For B- and V-dropouts, we find the best simple parametric model to be one where the star-formation rate increases linearly with ...

  13. Comparing Broad-Band and Red Edge-Based Spectral Vegetation Indices to Estimate Nitrogen Concentration of Crops Using Casi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Liao, Qinhong; Yang, Guijun; Feng, Haikuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Yue, Jibo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, many spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) have been proposed to estimate the leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) of crops. However, most of these indices were based on the field hyperspectral reflectance. To test whether they can be used in aerial remote platform effectively, in this work a comparison of the sensitivity between several broad-band and red edge-based SVIs to LNC is investigated over different crop types. By using data from experimental LNC values over 4 different crop types and image data acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) sensor, the extensive dataset allowed us to evaluate broad-band and red edge-based SVIs. The result indicated that NDVI performed the best among the selected SVIs while red edge-based SVIs didn't show the potential for estimating the LNC based on the CASI data due to the spectral resolution. In order to search for the optimal SVIs, the band combination algorithm has been used in this work. The best linear correlation against the experimental LNC dataset was obtained by combining the 626.20nm and 569.00nm wavebands. These wavelengths correspond to the maximal chlorophyll absorption and reflection position region, respectively, and are known to be sensitive to the physiological status of the plant. Then this linear relationship was applied to the CASI image for generating an LNC map, which can guide farmers in the accurate application of their N fertilization strategies.

  14. Optical, electrical and dielectric properties of TiO2-SiO2 films prepared by a cost effective sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, M; Rao, K Narasimha; Gowda, K V Arjuna; Chakradhar, R P S

    2011-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) thin films and their mixed films were synthesized by the sol-gel spin coating method using titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) and tetra ethyl ortho silicate (TEOS) as the precursor materials for TiO(2) and SiO(2) respectively. The pure and composite films of TiO(2) and SiO(2) were deposited on glass and silicon substrates. The optical properties were studied for different compositions of TiO(2) and SiO(2) sols and the refractive index and optical band gap energies were estimated. MOS capacitors were fabricated using TiO(2) films on p-silicon (100) substrates. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were studied and the electrical resistivity and dielectric constant were estimated for the films annealed at 200°C for their possible use in optoelectronic applications.

  15. Ultra-broad band and dual-band highly efficient polarization conversion based on the three-layered chiral structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai-kai; Xiao, Zhong-yin; Tang, Jing-yao; Liu, De-jun; Wang, Zi-hua

    2016-07-01

    In the paper, a novel three-layered chiral structure is proposed and investigated, which consists of a split-ring resonator sandwiched between two layers of sub-wavelength gratings. This designed structure can achieve simultaneously asymmetric transmission with an extremely broad bandwidth and high amplitude as well as multi-band 90° polarization rotator with very low dispersion. Numerical simulations adopted two kinds of softwares with different algorithms demonstrate that asymmetric parameter can reach a maximum of 0.99 and over than 0.8 from 4.6 to 16.8 GHz, which exhibit magnitude and bandwidth improvement over previous chiral metamaterials in microwave bands (S, C, X and Ku bands). Specifically, the reason of high amplitude is analyzed in detail based on the Fabry-perot like resonance. Subsequently, the highly efficient polarization conversion with very low dispersion between two orthogonal linearly polarized waves is also analyzed by the optical activity and ellipticity. Finally, the electric fields are also investigated and further demonstrate the correctness of the simulated and calculated results.

  16. Investigation of Relative Time Constant Influence of Inertial Part of Superheater on Quality of Steam Temperature Control Behind Boiler in Broad Band of Loading Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to computational investigation of influence relative time constant of an object which changes in broad band on quality of steam temperature control behind a boiler with due account of value of regulating action in the system with PI- and PID- regulator. The simulation has been based on a single-loop automatic control system (ACS. It has been revealed that the less value of the relative time constant of an object leads to more integral control error in system with PID- regulator while operating external ACS perturbation. Decrease of numerical value of relative time constant of an object while operating external perturbation causes decrease of relative time concerning appearance of maximum dynamic control error from common relative control time.

  17. Enhancement of broad-band light absorption in monolayer MoS2 using Ag grating hybrid with distributed Bragg reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jintao; Wang, Jin; Yang, Guofeng; Lu, Yann; Sun, Rui; Yan, Pengfei; Gao, Shumei

    2017-10-01

    A hybrid novel structure of monolayer MoS2 with Ag nanograting and DBR on Si substrate has been proposed to obtain broad-band absorption response for two-dimensional (2D) materials. It is effective to reduce light loss and reflect the incident light efficiently for monolayer MoS2 absorption with DBR dielectric layers. Moreover, by combining Ag nanograting with DBR structure, the average absorption achieves as high as 59% within broad wavelength ranging from 420 to 700 nm, which is attributed to the plasmonic resonant effect of metal nanostripes. The absorption would be affected by the duty ratio and period of the Ag nanograting, and shows incident angle dependent characteristics, while an average absorption higher than 60% has been obtained at the incident angle around 40°. These results indicate that 2D MoS2 in combination with DBR and metal nanograting have a promising potential applications for optical nano-devices.

  18. The advantage of linear viscoelastic material behavior in passive damper design-with application in broad-banded resonance dampers for industrial high-precision motion stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbaan, Cornelis A. M.; Peters, Gerrit W. M.; Steinbuch, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the advantage of applying viscoelastic materials instead of purely viscous materials as damping medium in mechanical dampers. Although the loss modulus decreases as function of frequency in case of viscoelastic behavior, which can be interpreted as a decrease of damping, the viscoelastic behavior still leads to an increased modal damping for mechanical structures. This advantage holds for inertial-mass-type dampers that are tuned for broad-banded resonance damping. It turns out that an increase of the storage modulus as function of frequency contributes to the effectiveness of mechanical dampers with respect to energy dissipation at different mechanical resonance frequencies. It is shown that this phenomenon is medium specific and is independent of the amount of damper mass.

  19. The broad-band X-ray spectra of Mrk 926, 4U 1344-60 and ESO 141-G055

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohfink, Anne; Fabian, Andrew C.; Buisson, Douglas; Kara, Erin; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2017-08-01

    Mrk 926, 4U 1344-60 and ESO 141-G055 are bright Seyfert 1 galaxies that contrary to many of the Seyfert 1s studied in-depth with NuSTAR do not show signs of relativistic reflection. We present results from the spectroscopic analyses of simultaneous Swift-NuSTAR or in case of Mrk 926 XMM-NuSTAR observations of these three AGN. The broad-band spectral coverage and the simplicity of the spectra allows us to measure the primary emission with great accuracy. We use the results from our spectral studies and others in the literature to explore whether the differences in reflection-strength in bright Seyfert 1s coincide with any differences in the Comptonization parameters. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the detection of a relativistic reflection component is geometry-driven.

  20. Imaging of the reaction zone in a 100 kW oil-burning furnace by use of a broad-band excimer laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, P. P.; Mischler, B.; Gerber, T.; Dreher, H.; Lehmann, B.; Ochs, M.

    1996-01-01

    The reaction zone in the hostile combustion environment of a 100 kW oil-burning furnace has been imaged by laser-induced fluorescence using a broad-band XeCl-excimer laser. Upon excitation, the averaged images obtained by using an interference filter around 320 nm (FWHM of 10 nm) show three distinct areas along the direction of the gas flow. An intense emission spreads around the spray axis and is attributed to the fluorescence of large hydrocarbons in the unburned fuel. Approximately 12 cm downstream of the nozzle, a narrow dark region is displayed suggesting the preheat zone of the combustion process where large hydrocarbons are considerably degraded. The third distinct region is characterized by a strong onset of the fluorescence intensity localized downstream of the dark region. This feature is strongly suppressed by replacing the interference filter by a broad-band transmission filter passing light from 350 to 500 nm. Since OH strongly absorbs at the laser wavelength and its fluorescence is significantly lower above 345 nm, the findings imply that the major contribution to the observed intensity in this region originates from the OH radical. This molecule reaches its maximum concentration immediately downstream of the flame front. However, a contribution from other flame species fluorescing around 320 nm cannot be ruled out. Nevertheless, the combined spatial and spectral information obtained imply that the reaction zone of the combustion process can be localized accurately. The results are compared with simultaneously performed numerical simulations of the burner and are in reasonable agreement.

  1. Cost effectiveness of new roadway lighting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate and adequate lighting at select locations on roadways is essential for roadway safety. As the lighting technologies advance, many types of new lighting devices have been developed for roadway lightings. The most promising new lighting technologies for roadway lighting include light emitting diode, induction, plasma, and metal halide lighting systems. A study was conducted to compare the new systems with the conventional high pressure sodium systems that are currently used on the Indiana roadway systems. In this study, the engineering issues, were analyzed such as illuminance, color rendering, power usage, cost effectiveness, and approval procedures for new roadway lighting systems. This paper, however, presents only the study findings related to cost effectiveness of the evaluated roadway lighting systems. Illustrated in this paper are the main features of the roadway lighting systems under evaluations, installations of the new lighting systems, measurements of power consumptions, and life cycle cost analyses of the lighting systems. Through this study, experience and knowledge have been obtained on the installations, power measurements, and cost effectiveness of the new types of the roadway lighting devices. The actual power values of various luminaires were obtained by measuring the electric current with a multi-meter. It was found that the differences between the rated and measured power values could be significant. The results of the life cycle cost analysis indicate that the lower life cycle costs of some of the alternative lighting devices are attributed to their relatively lower electricity usages and longer lamp/emitter replacement cycles.

  2. 基于可避免购电成本的持续负荷转移成本有效性分析%Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Continuous Load Transfer Based on Avoidable Cost of Electricity Purchase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华; 刘洋; 周飞; 曾鸣

    2012-01-01

    为使实时电价制度下电力供应紧缺时用户可通过可中断负荷合同自觉选择中断用电,避免一定的购电成本,建立了基于可避免成本的总购电成本模型,考虑了可再生能源投资标准约束和输配电容量约束对可避免成本估算的影响,提出逐时可避免成本影响下的持续负荷转移的成本有效性分析模型及年可避免购电成本的计算模型,并分析了持续负荷转移实现的成本效益.%When encountering the shortage of electricity supply,the user can consciously choose to interrupt the elec tricity through an interruptible load contract,which avoids the cost of power purchase in real-time pricing system. Based on the avoidable cost,this paper establishes a model of total cost of power purchase. Consdiering the impact of the standard constraints for renewable energy investment and capacity constraints on transmission and distribution on the estima tion of avoidable cost,it puts forward the cost-effectiveness analysis model for continuous load transfer under the influence of the avoidable cost and the calculation model for annual avoided electricity purchase cost is proposed. Finally,the cost benefit of continuous load transfer is analyzed.

  3. Virial Black Hole Mass Estimates for 280,000 AGNs from the SDSS Broad-Band Photometry and Single Epoch Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kozłowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Data Release 12 (DR12Q), containing nearly 300,000 AGNs, to calculate the monochromatic luminosities at 5100\\AA, 3000\\AA, and 1350\\AA, derived from the broad-band extinction-corrected SDSS magnitudes. After matching them to their counterparts based on spectra and published in the SDSS Quasar Data Release 7 (DR7Q), we find perfect correlations with minute mean offsets ($\\sim$0.01 dex) and dispersions of differences of 0.11, 0.10, 0.12 dex, respectively, across a 2.5 dex luminosity range. We then estimate the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) black hole masses using the broad line region radius--luminosity relations and the FWHM of the MgII and CIV emission lines, to provide a catalog of 283,032 virial black hole mass estimates (132,451 for MgII, 213,068 for CIV, and 62,487 for both) along with the bolometric luminosity and the Eddington ratio estimates for $0.1

  4. Comparison of broad band time series recorded parallel by FGI type interferometric water level and Lippmann type pendulum tilt meters at Conrad observatory, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Hannu; Papp, Gabor; Leonhardt, Roman; Ban, Dora; Szücs, Eszter; Benedek, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) the progenitor of Finnish Geospatial Research Institute of NLS designed and built a 5.5m long prototype of interferometric water level tiltmeter (iWT) in early 2014. Geodetic and Geophysical Institute (GGI), Sopron, Hungary bought the instrument and started tilt measurement in August 2014 at the Conrad observatory (COBS), Austria to monitor geodynamical phenomena like microseisms, free oscillations of the Earth, earth tides, mass loading effects and crustal deformations in cooperation with Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the FGI. On the July 16 2015 a Lippmann-type 2D tilt sensor (LTS) was also installed by GGI on the 6 m long pier where iWT was set up previously. This situation opens a possibility to do broad band (from secular to seismic variations up to 15 Hz) geophysical signal analysis comparing the responses of long (several meters) and short (a few decimeters) base instruments implementing different physical principles (relative height change of a level surface and inclination change of the plumb line). The characteristics of the sensors are studied by the evaluation of the spectra of recorded signals dominated by microseisms. The iWT has internal interferometric calibration and it can be compared to Lippmanns tilt meter one. Both instruments show good long term ( > 1 day) stability when earth tides and ocean and air mass loading tilts are modelled.

  5. Contamination of Broad-Band Photometry by Nebular Emission in High Redshift Galaxies: Investigations with Keck's MOSFIRE Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Schenker, Matthew A; Konidaris, Nick P; Stark, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ~ 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared those derived assuming broad-band photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground-based facilities, we examine the near-infrared spectra of a representative sample of 20 3.0 < z < 3.8 Lyman break galaxies using the newly-commissioned MOSFIRE near-infrared spectrograph at the Keck I telescope. We use this data to derive the rest-frame equivalent widths (EW) of [O III] emission and show that these are comparable to estimates derived using the SED fitting technique introduced for sources of known redshift by Stark et al (2013). Although our current sample is modest, its [O III] EW distribution is consisten...

  6. Sensitivity of broad-band ground-motion simulations to earthquake source and Earth structure variations: an application to the Messina Straits (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ground-motion variability due to different faulting approximations and crustal-model parametrizations in the Messina Straits area (Southern Italy). Considering three 1-D velocity models proposed for this region and a total of 72 different source realizations, we compute broad-band (0-10 Hz) synthetics for Mw 7.0 events using a fault plane geometry recently proposed. We explore source complexity in terms of classic kinematic (constant rise-time and rupture speed) and pseudo-dynamic models (variable rise-time and rupture speed). Heterogeneous slip distributions are generated using a Von Karman autocorrelation function. Rise-time variability is related to slip, whereas rupture speed variations are connected to static stress drop. Boxcar, triangle and modified Yoffe are the adopted source time functions. We find that ground-motion variability associated to differences in crustal models is constant and becomes important at intermediate and long periods. On the other hand, source-induced ground-motion variability is negligible at long periods and strong at intermediate-short periods. Using our source-modelling approach and the three different 1-D structural models, we investigate shaking levels for the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake adopting a recently proposed model for fault geometry and final slip. Our simulations suggest that peak levels in Messina and Reggio Calabria must have reached 0.6-0.7 g during this earthquake.

  7. Evidence for a change in the radiation mechanism in the hard state of GRO J1655-40. Hysteresis in the broad-band noise components

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, P; Sobolewska, M A; Malzac, J

    2013-01-01

    We have analysed RXTE archival data to study the aperiodic variability of the black-hole binary GRO J1655-40 during the hard state of the 2005 outburst. We computed the 0.008-64 Hz power spectral density during the rise and decay of the 2005 outburst, and we found that they were reasonably well modelled by the sum of two, broad Lorenztian functions in most cases (plus a narrow QPO) which correspond to three different variability components. Our aim is to study the evolution of the timing properties of the source during the outburst, by studying the correlation between the characteristics of the broad-band noise components in the power spectra and the source luminosity. Our results suggest that the whole power spectrum shifts to high (low) frequencies as the source luminosity increases (decreases), in agreement with previous studies of other black hole binaries. However, we also detect a strong "hysteresis" pattern in the "frequency-luminosity" plots, and show that the "critical" luminosity limit, above which ...

  8. High-resolution Fourier-transform cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near-infrared using an incoherent broad-band light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphal, Johannes; Ruth, Albert A

    2008-11-10

    An incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption (IBB-CEA) set-up was used in combination with a Fourier-transform (FT) spectrometer in order to explore the potential of this technique for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy in the near-infrared region. Absorption spectra of overtone bands of CO2, OCS, and HD18O were measured between 5800 and 7000 cm(-1) using a small sampling volume (1100 cm3, based on a 90 cm cavity length). The quality of the spectra in this study is comparable to that obtained with Fourier transform spectrometers employing standard multi-pass reflection cells, which require substantially larger sampling volumes. High-resolution methods such as FT-IBB-CEAS also provide an elegant way to determine effective mirror reflectivities (R(eff), i.e. a measure of the inherent overall cavity loss) by using a calibration gas with well-known line strengths. For narrow absorption features and non-congested spectra this approach does not even require a zero-absorption measurement with the empty cavity. Absolute cross-sections or line strengths of a target species can also be determined in one single measurement, if gas mixtures with known partial pressures are used. This feature of FT-IBB-CEAS reduces systematic errors significantly; it is illustrated based on CO2 as calibration gas.

  9. Broad-band spectrophotometry of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-12b from the near-UV to the near-IR

    CERN Document Server

    Mallonn, M; Weingrill, J; von Essen, C; Strassmeier, K G; Piotto, G; Pagano, I; Scandariato, G; Csizmadia, Sz; Herrero, E; Sada, P V; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Künstler, A; Bernt, I; Granzer, T

    2015-01-01

    The detection of trends or gradients in the transmission spectrum of extrasolar planets is possible with observations at very low spectral resolution. Transit measurements of sufficient accuracy using selected broad-band filters allow for an initial characterization of the atmosphere of the planet. We obtained time series photometry of 20 transit events and analyzed them homogeneously, along with eight light curves obtained from the literature. In total, the light curves span a range from 0.35 to 1.25 microns. During two observing seasons over four months each, we monitored the host star to constrain the potential influence of starspots on the derived transit parameters. We rule out the presence of a Rayleigh slope extending over the entire optical wavelength range, a flat spectrum is favored for HAT-P-12b with respect to a cloud-free atmosphere model spectrum. A potential cause of such gray absorption is the presence of a cloud layer at the probed latitudes. Furthermore, in this work we refine the transit pa...

  10. A Decade of Short-duration Gamma-ray Burst Broad-band Afterglows: Energetics, Circumburst Densities, and Jet Opening Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Wen-fai; Margutti, Raffaella; Zauderer, B Ashley

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive catalog and analysis of broad-band afterglow observations for 103 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comprised of all short GRBs from November 2004 to March 2015 with prompt follow-up observations in the X-ray, optical, near-infrared and/or radio bands. These afterglow observations have uncovered 71 X-ray detections, 30 optical/NIR detections, and 4 radio detections. Employing the standard afterglow synchrotron model, we perform joint probability analyses for a subset of 38 short GRBs with well-sampled light curves to infer the burst isotropic-equivalent energies and circumburst densities. For this subset, we find median isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of E_gamma,iso~2x10^51 erg, and E_K,iso~(1-3)x10^51 erg, respectively, depending on the values of the model input parameters. We further find that short GRBs occur in low-density environments, with a median density of n~(3-15)x10^-3 cm^-3, and that ~80-95% of bursts have densities of less than 1 cm^-3. We inve...

  11. Modelling the variable broad-band optical/UV/X-ray spectrum of PG1211+143: Implications for the ionized outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Papadakis, I E; Panagiotou, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from a detailed analysis of the 2007 Swift monitoring campaign of the quasar PG1211+143. We constructed broad-band, optical/UV/X-ray spectral energy distributions over three X-ray flux intervals. We fitted them with a model which accounts for the disc and the X-ray coronal emission and the warm absorber (well established in this source). The three flux spectra are well fitted by the model we considered. The disc inner temperature remains constant at ~2 eV, while X-rays are variable both in spectral slope and normalization. The absorber covers almost 90% of the central source. It is outflowing with a velocity less than 2.3*10^4 km/s (3sigma upper limit), and has a column density of ~10^23.2. Its ionization parameter varies by a factor of 1.6, and it is in photo-ionizing equilibrium with the ionizing flux. It is located at a distance of less than 0.35 pc from the central source and its relative thickness, DR/R is less than 0.1. The absorber' s ionization parameter variations can explain t...

  12. A jet-dominated model for a broad-band spectral energy distribution of the nearby low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in M94

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Pieter; Markoff, Sera; Uttley, Phil; McHardy, Ian; van der Laan, Tessel; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Connors, Riley

    2017-06-01

    We have compiled a new multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) for the closest obscured low-ionization emission-line region active galactic nucleus (AGN), NGC 4736, also known as M94. The SED comprises mainly high-resolution (mostly sub-arcsecond, or, at the distance to M94, ≲23 pc from the nucleus) observations from the literature, archival data, as well as previously unpublished sub-millimetre data from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, in conjunction with new electronic MultiElement Radio Interferometric Network (e-MERLIN) L-band (1.5 GHz) observations. Thanks to the e-MERLIN resolution and sensitivity, we resolve for the first time a double structure composed of two radio sources separated by ˜1 arcsec, previously observed only at higher frequency. We explore this data set, which further includes non-simultaneous data from the Very Large Array, the Gemini telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray observatory, in terms of an outflow-dominated model. We compare our results with previous trends found for other AGN using the same model (NGC 4051, M81*, M87 and Sgr A*), as well as hard- and quiescent-state X-ray binaries. We find that the nuclear broad-band spectrum of M94 is consistent with a relativistic outflow of low inclination. The findings in this work add to the growing body of evidence that the physics of weakly accreting black holes scales with mass in a rather straightforward fashion.

  13. Surface wave tomography of North America and the Caribbean using global and regional broad-band networks: Phase velocity maps and limitations of ray theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godey, S.; Snieder, R.; Villasenor, A.; Benz, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    We present phase velocity maps of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves across the North American and Caribbean plates. Our data set consists of 1846 waveforms from 172 events recorded at 91 broad-band stations operating in North America. We compute phase velocity maps in four narrow period bands between 50 and 150 s using a non-linear waveform inversion method that solves for phase velocity perturbations relative to a reference Earth model (PREM). Our results show a strong velocity contrast between high velocities beneath the stable North American craton, and lower velocities in the tectonically active western margin, in agreement with other regional and global surface wave tomography studies. We perform detailed comparisons with global model results, which display good agreement between phase velocity maps in the location and amplitude of the anomalies. However, forward modelling shows that regional maps are more accurate for predicting waveforms. In addition, at long periods, the amplitude of the velocity anomalies imaged in our regional phase velocity maps is three time larger than in global phase velocity models. This amplitude factor is necessary to explain the data accurately, showing that regional models provide a better image of velocity structures. Synthetic tests show that the raypath coverage used in this study enables one to resolve velocity features of the order of 800-1000 km. However, only larger length-scale features are observed in the phase velocity maps. The limitation in resolution of our maps can be attributed to the wave propagation theory used in the inversion. Ray theory does not account for off-great-circle ray propagation effects, such as ray bending or scattering. For wavelengths less than 1000 km, scattering effects are significant and may need to be considered.

  14. Seismic source study of the 1989, October 29, Chenoua (Algeria earthquake from aftershocks, broad-band and strong ground motion records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rivera

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The broad-band teleseismics records of the earthquake of October 29,1989 in Algeria (MW = 6.0 allow a detailed study of the rupture process of this earthquake. The focal mechanism obtained by P and SH modeling corresponds to reverse faulting with a small amount of left-lateral movement along a fault striking 246° and dipping 56°. The rupture is found to be complex with two sub-events separated in time but occurring on the same plane. The lowfrequency records of an accelerometer located some 25 km to the west of the main shock are also better fi tted when the rupture is composed of a double pulse. In the two cases, there is strong evidence for the rupture to propagate from south-west towards north-east.The relocalisation of the main shock by using a master-event technique and the data from Italian and Spanish stations led to the same conclusions. Soon after the main event, a temporary seimic network was installed in the epicentral area. The aftershock clouds defi ne a SW-NE fault dipping to the NW compatible with the results of the modelisations of the teleseismic body-waves and the accelerogram. The focal mechanisms correspond mainly to reverse faulting. The maximum principal direction of the stress tensor obtained from the inversion is about N-S and the minimum is vertical, typical of a compressive regime. The Chenoua earthquake took place on a fault which was not recognized as active. Repeated comparable seismic events on this fault and on the fault that borders the massif to the south explain this intriguing topographic feature.

  15. Broad-band strong motion simulations coupling k-square kinematic source models with empirical Green's functions: the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gaudio, Sergio; Causse, Mathieu; Festa, Gaetano

    2015-10-01

    The use of simulated accelerograms may improve the evaluation of the seismic hazard when an accurate modelling of both source and propagation is performed. In this paper, we performed broad-band simulations of the 2009, M 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, coupling a k-2 kinematic model for the seismic source with empirical Green's functions (EGFs) as propagators. We extracted 10 EGFs candidates from a database of aftershocks satisfying quality criteria based on signal-to-noise ratio, fault proximity, small magnitude, similar focal mechanism and stress drop. For comparison with real observations, we also derived a low-frequency kinematic model, based on inversion of ground displacement as integrated from strong motion data. Kinematic properties of the inverted model (rupture velocity, position of the rupture nucleation, low-frequency slip and roughness degree of slip heterogeneity) were used as constraints in the k-2 model, to test the use of a single specific EGF against the use of the whole set of EGFs. Comparison to real observations based on spectral and peak ground acceleration shows that the use of all available EGFs improves the fit of simulations to real data. Moreover the epistemic variability related to the selection of a specific EGF is significantly larger (two to three times) than recent observations of between event variability, that is the variability associated with the randomness of the rupture process. We finally performed `blind' simulations releasing all the information on source kinematics and only considering the fault geometry and the magnitude of the target event as known features. We computed peak ground acceleration, acceleration Fourier and response spectra. Simulations follow the same trend with distance as real observations. In most cases these latter fall within one sigma from predictions. Predictions with source parameters constrained at low frequency do not perform better than `blind' simulations, showing that extrapolation of the low

  16. Simulation of broad-band strong ground motion for a hypothetical Mw 7.1 earthquake on the Enriquillo Fault in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, Roby; Mavroeidis, George P.; Calais, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The devastating 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake demonstrated the need to improve mitigation and preparedness for future seismic events in the region. Previous studies have shown that the earthquake did not occur on the Enriquillo Fault, the main plate boundary fault running through the heavily populated Port-au-Prince region, but on the nearby and previously unknown transpressional Léogâne Fault. Slip on that fault has increased stresses on the segment of Enriquillo Fault to the east of Léogâne, which terminates in the ˜3-million-inhabitant capital city of Port-au-Prince. In this study, we investigate ground shaking in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince, if a hypothetical rupture similar to the 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred on that segment of the Enriquillo Fault. We use a finite element method and assumptions on regional tectonic stress to simulate the low-frequency ground motion components using dynamic rupture propagation for a 52-km-long segment. We consider eight scenarios by varying parameters such as hypocentre location, initial shear stress and fault dip. The high-frequency ground motion components are simulated using the specific barrier model in the context of the stochastic modeling approach. The broad-band ground motion synthetics are subsequently obtained by combining the low-frequency components from the dynamic rupture simulation with the high-frequency components from the stochastic simulation using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. Results show that rupture on a vertical Enriquillo Fault generates larger horizontal permanent displacements in Léogâne and Port-au-Prince than rupture on a south-dipping Enriquillo Fault. The mean horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA), computed at several sites of interest throughout Port-au-Prince, has a value of ˜0.45 g, whereas the maximum horizontal PGA in Port-au-Prince is ˜0.60 g. Even though we only consider a limited number of rupture scenarios, our results suggest more intense ground

  17. Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Stephen Y; Ding, Wei

    2013-01-14

    Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trapping and absorption in a sub-absorption-length-thick active layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) transparent electrode used in thin-film devices. Here, we report a proposal and the first experimental study and demonstration of a new ultra-thin high-efficiency organic solar cell (SC), termed "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH) solar cell", that offers a solution to all three issues with unprecedented performances. The ultrathin PlaCSH-SC is a thin plasmonic cavity that consists of a 30 nm thick front metal-mesh electrode with subwavelength hole-array (MESH) which replaces ITO, a thin (100 nm thick) back metal electrode, and in-between a polymer photovoltaic active layer (P3HT/PCBM) of 85 nm thick (1/3 average absorption-length). Experimentally, the PlaCSH-SCs have achieved (1) light coupling-efficiency/absorptance as high as 96% (average 90%), broad-band, and Omni acceptance (light coupling nearly independent of both light incident angle and polarization); (2) an external quantum efficiency of 69% for only 27% single-pass active layer absorptance; leading to (3) a 4.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE) at standard-solar-irradiation, which is 52% higher than the reference ITO-SC (identical structure and fabrication to PlaCSH-SC except MESH replaced by ITO), and also is among the highest PCE for the material system that was achievable previously only by using thick active materials and/or optimized polymer compositions and treatments. In harvesting scattered light, the Omni acceptance can increase PCE by additional 81% over ITO-SC, leading to a total 175% increase (i.e. 8% PCE). Furthermore, we found that (a) after formation of PlaCSH the light reflection and absorption by MESH are reduced by 2 to 6 fold from the values when it is alone; and (b) the sheet resistance of a 30 nm thick MESH is 2.2 ohm/sq or less-4.5 fold or more lower

  18. Dynamics of the 2007 Eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise and the Related Caldera Collapse from a Single Very Broad-band Seismic Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Roult, Geneviève; Michon, Laurent; Barruol, Guilhem; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Di Muro, Andrea; Reymond, Dominique; Peltier, Aline; Staudacher, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Seismic records from the RER very broad-band seismic station (La Réunion Island) belonging to the GEOSCOPE network are investigated to understand the eruptive succession (February to May) of Piton de la Fournaise and the caldera collapse episode of April 2007. Data first indicate that the short-lived, small volume, summit eruption of February 18 occurred during a phase of continuous inflation initiated in January 2007. Inflation decelerated around 2 weeks before a second short-lived small volume eruption on March 30-31 on the SE flank, almost simultaneous with a sudden, large deflation of the edifice. Deflation rate, which had stabilized at a relatively low level, increased anew on April 1 while no magma was emitted, followed on April 2 by a more distant and one of the most voluminous eruptions of the last two centuries at La Réunion Island. The RER station shows that very long period (VLP) and ultra long period (ULP) events developed during this period. Seven ULP events preceded the caldera collapse and 48 ones occurred during the caldera collapse over 9 days, most of which during the first 30 hours. A thorough examination of the seismic signals corrected for tide effects shows that each collapse event was coeval with VLP and ULP signals. Each individual collapse showed similar ULP and VLP signals characterized by periods of ~ 500 s and ~ 7 s, respectively. The back-azimuth of most ULP signals related to the caldera collapse points clearly toward the Dolomieu caldera. The strikingly constant duration of the VLP signals (around 20 s) related to the collapse events and their occurrence before the collapse initiation suggest a physical control of the volcanic edifice. Waveforms and spectrograms of the various caldera collapse events show very homogeneous patterns, suggesting a similar and repeating volcano-tectonic process for the formation of the VLP signals events. Although tilt may be responsible of part of the ULP signals observed during the collapse events, we

  19. Optimization of Rowland Circle Mounts for Broad-Band Spectrographs%宽波段全息罗兰光栅的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔鹏; 巴音贺希格; 李文昊; 唐玉国; 崔锦江

    2011-01-01

    罗兰光栅存在的主要像差是像散和弧矢彗差,影响其光通量和光谱分辨率.根据凹面全息光栅的几何像差理论,分析了记录光源点在罗兰圆外所制作的全息罗兰光栅的宽波段像差特性.发现像散和弧矢彗差能够在两个波长处被同时消除;并且在两波长之间的波段范围内,像散和弧矢彗差相对传统光栅均得到明显改善.基于此像差特性提出一种设计宽波段高分辨罗兰光栅的方法,通过选择适当的使用结构和校正波长,能够在整个使用波段有效地校正像散和弧矢彗差.利用这种优化方法设计了工作波段为160~600 nm的罗兰光栅.光线追迹结果显示,所设计光栅的光谱分辨率和能量集中度在整个使用波段较传统光栅均有显著提高.%The main residual aberrations of Rowland circle mounts are astigmatism and sagittal coma, which seriously deteriorates the throughput and spectral resolution.An analytic study on the aberration property of a Rowland circle mount which is recorded with the off-Rowland recording geometry is presented.It is found that the astigmatism and sagittal coma can be simultaneously eliminated for two wavelengths, between which the aberrations are both greatly reduced.The Rowland-circle mounts used for broad-band spectrographs can be optimized by properly choosing the using geometry and correction wavelength.A grating working in the wavelength range of 160~600 nm is designed and compared with a conventional grating.The result indicates that significant reduction of the astigmatism and improvement of resolution are both achieved over a wide wavelength range.

  20. Cost-effective wearable sensor to detect EMF

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, Joseph A.; Vaucelle, Catherine Nicole; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of a cost-effective wearable sensor to detect and indicate the strength and other characteristics of the electric field emanating from a laptop display. Our Electromagnetic Field Detector Bracelet can provide an immediate awareness of electric fields radiated from an object used frequently. Our technology thus supports awareness of ambient background emanation beyond human perception. We discuss how detection of such radiation mig...

  1. Novel use of UV broad-band excitation and stretched exponential function in the analysis of fluorescent dissolved organic matter: study of interaction between protein and humic-like components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Suraj Kumar; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2017-09-01

    A combination of broad-band UV radiation (UV A and UV B; 250-400 nm) and a stretched exponential function (StrEF) has been utilised in efforts towards convenient and sensitive detection of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM). This approach enables accessing the gross fluorescence spectral signature of both protein-like and humic-like components in a single measurement. Commercial FDOM components are excited with the broad-band UV excitation; the variation of spectral profile as a function of varying component ratio is analysed. The underlying fluorescence dynamics and non-linear quenching of amino acid moieties are studied with the StrEF (exp(-V[Q] β )). The complex quenching pattern reflects the inner filter effect (IFE) as well as inter-component interactions. The inter-component interactions are essentially captured through the ‘sphere of action’ and ‘dark complex’ models. The broad-band UV excitation ascertains increased excitation energy, resulting in increased population density in the excited state and thereby resulting in enhanced sensitivity.

  2. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  3. A Departmental Cost-Effectiveness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Thomas, Jr.

    In establishing a departmental cost-effectiveness model, the traditional cost-effectiveness model was discussed and equipped with a distant and deflation equation for both benefits and costs. Next, the economics of costing was examined and program costing procedures developed. Then, the model construct was described as it was structured around the…

  4. CT colonography and cost-effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia [University College London, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, Centre for Outcomes Research and Effectiveness, Sub-department of Clinical Health Psychology, London (United Kingdom); East, James E. [St Marks Hospital, Imperial College London, Wolfson Unit for Endoscopy, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Stuart A. [University College Hospital, Specialist X-Ray, London (United Kingdom); University College Hospital, Department of Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    CT colonography (CTC) is increasingly advocated as an effective initial screening tool for colorectal cancer. Nowadays, policy-makers are increasingly interested in cost-effectiveness issues. A number of studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of CTC have been published to date. The majority of findings indicate that CTC is probably not cost-effective when colonoscopy is available, but this conclusion is sensitive to a number of key parameters. This review discusses the findings of these studies, and considers those factors which most influence final conclusions, notably intervention costs, compliance rates, effectiveness of colonoscopy, and the assumed prevalence and natural history of diminutive advanced polyps. (orig.)

  5. Green Infrastructure Siting and Cost Effectiveness Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Parcel scale green infrastructure siting and cost effectiveness analysis. You can find more details at the project's website.

  6. Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Gordon F.

    1980-01-01

    Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

  7. Development of a Cost Effective Power Generation System: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Prakash Bihari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on development of cost effective power generation system and motivates for development of a model for hybrid system with wind to investigate the combined operation of wind with different sources to cater to wind’s stochastic nature for imbalance minimization and optimal operation. Development of model for trading power in competitive electricity market and development of strategies for trading in electricity markets (wind energy and reserves markets to investigate the effects of real time pricing tariffs on electricity market operation has been illustrated in this paper. Dynamic modelling related studies to investigate the wind generator’s kinetic energy for primary frequency support using simulink and simulation studies on doubly fed induction generator to study its capability during small disturbances / fluctuations on power system have been described.

  8. Biosimilar medicines and cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven SimoensResearch Centre for Pharmaceutical Care and Pharmaco-economics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Given that biosimilars are agents that are similar but not identical to the reference biopharmaceutical, this study aims to introduce and describe specific issues related to the economic evaluation of biosimilars by focusing on the relative costs, relative effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of biosimilars. Economic evaluation assesses the cost-effectiveness of a medicine by comparing the costs and outcomes of a medicine with those of a relevant comparator. The assessment of cost-effectiveness of a biosimilar is complicated by the fact that evidence needed to obtain marketing authorization from a registration authority does not always correspond to the data requirements of a reimbursement authority. In particular, this relates to the availability of adequately powered equivalence or noninferiority studies, the need for comparative data about the effectiveness in a real-world setting rather than the efficacy in a structured setting, and the use of health outcome measures instead of surrogate endpoints. As a biosimilar is likely to be less expensive than the comparator (eg, the reference biopharmaceutical, the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of a biosimilar depends on the relative effectiveness. If appropriately designed and powered clinical studies demonstrate equivalent effectiveness between a biosimilar and the comparator, then a cost-minimization analysis identifies the least expensive medicine. If there are differences in the effectiveness of a biosimilar and the comparator, other techniques of economic evaluation need to be employed, such as cost-effectiveness analysis or cost-utility analysis. Given that there may be uncertainty surrounding the long-term safety (ie, risk of immunogenicity and rare adverse events and effectiveness of a biosimilar, the cost-effectiveness

  9. Noise in Broad-Band Hydrophones

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    accolertion and pressure in water A• / , ILLUS’.RATIONrs (coat 1d ) 22 Aaplifiar and titrisi nOise backgnnumd JMT 1 BUTION’ . ... . .. t. .* .*. . *. . *** o. o...Then, Z (fros equation (49c)) W 2 1 S2 2n,- - 2(69)QU 2ni(69 This appriisate relationship has boon used in the following ezW , even wtare the element is

  10. Broad band antennas and feed methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzel, David M.; Twogood, Richard E.

    2017-04-18

    Two or more Vivaldi antennas, consisting of two plates each, each with the antenna's natural impedance of approximately 100 ohms, are placed in parallel to achieve a 50 ohm impedance in the case of two antennas or other impedances (100/n ohms) for more than two antennas. A single Vivaldi antenna plate (half Vivaldi antenna) over a ground plane can also be used to achieve a 50 ohm impedance, or two or more single plates over a ground plane to achieve other impedances. Unbalanced 50 ohm transmission lines, e.g. coaxial cables, can be used to directly feed, the dual Vivaldi (four plate) antenna in a center fed angled center departure, or more desirably, a center fed offset departure configuration.

  11. Broad band antennas and feed methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzel, David M.; Twogood, Richard E.

    2017-04-18

    Two or more Vivaldi antennas, consisting of two plates each, each with the antenna's natural impedance of approximately 100 ohms, are placed in parallel to achieve a 50 ohm impedance in the case of two antennas or other impedances (100/n ohms) for more than two antennas. A single Vivaldi antenna plate (half Vivaldi antenna) over a ground plane can also be used to achieve a 50 ohm impedance, or two or more single plates over a ground plane to achieve other impedances. Unbalanced 50 ohm transmission lines, e.g. coaxial cables, can be used to directly feed, the dual Vivaldi (four plate) antenna in a center fed angled center departure, or more desirably, a center fed offset departure configuration.

  12. Broad Band/MILS Listening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-03-02

    underwater speed sensor, Model 460, shown in Figure 8, is made by Hydro Products. The unit is a precision balanced, high impact *, polystyrene Savonius ...ocean environment. Tiie operation of the unit is as follows: water movement past the underwater sensor rotates the Savonius rotor at an angular rate

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Peter Manekas

    2005-03-18

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 and contains the following discussions: (1) Direct Electrical Connection for Rotary Shoulder Tool Joints; (2) Conductors for inclusion in the pipe wall (ER/DW-CDP); (3) Qualify fibers from Zoltek; (4) Qualify resin from Bakelite; (5) First commercial order for SR-CDP from Integrated Directional Resources (SR-CDP); and (6) Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  14. Broad-band X-ray emission and the reality of the broad iron line from the neutron star-white dwarf X-ray binary 4U 1820-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pahari, M.; Misra, R.; Kembhavi, A. K.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-09-01

    Broad relativistic iron lines from neutron star X-ray binaries are important probes of the inner accretion disc. The X-ray reflection features can be weakened due to strong magnetic fields or very low iron abundances such as is possible in X-ray binaries with low mass, first generation stars as companions. Here, we investigate the reality of the broad iron line detected earlier from the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1820-30 with a degenerate helium dwarf companion. We perform a comprehensive, systematic broad-band spectral study of the atoll source using Suzaku and simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observations. We have used different continuum models involving accretion disc emission, thermal blackbody and thermal Comptonization of either disc or blackbody photons. The Suzaku data show positive and negative residuals in the region of Fe K band. These features are well described by two absorption edges at 7.67 ± 0.14 keV and 6.93 ± 0.07 keV or partial covering photoionized absorption or by blurred reflection. Though, the simultaneous Swift and NuSTAR data do not clearly reveal the emission or absorption features, the data are consistent with the presence of either absorption or emission features. Thus, the absorption based models provide an alternative to the broad iron line or reflection model. The absorption features may arise in winds from the inner accretion disc. The broad-band spectra appear to disfavour continuum models in which the blackbody emission from the neutron-star surface provides the seed photons for thermal Comptonization. Our results suggest emission from a thin accretion disc (kTdisc ˜ 1 keV), Comptonization of disc photons in a boundary layer most likely covering a large fraction of the neutron-star surface and innermost parts of the accretion disc, and blackbody emission (kTbb ˜ 2 keV) from the polar regions.

  15. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps in specific buildings in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greyvenstein, G.P.; Meyer, J.P. (Potchefstroom Univ. for CHE (South Africa). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    Water heating heat pumps are extremely energy efficient and large savings can be realized when they are compared to direct electrical resistance heaters. In spite of the energy efficiency of heat pumps, a large number of residential buildings in South Africa still use electrical heaters to heat water. The reason for this is that heat pumps are considerably more expensive than electrical heaters. Building owners tend to choose the system with the smallest initial cost and do not compare the two systems on the basis of life-cycle cost. It is also difficult to calculate the life-cycle cost of a heat pump because it depends on many factors like climatological conditions and water temperature. In this paper a methodology is developed to calculate the life-cycle cost of a heat pump hot water installation. The model is used to investigate the effect of daily runtime, electricity tariff, hot water consumption and geographical location on the cost-effectiveness of heat pumps. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps increases with daily run time, water consumption and electricity tariff. Heat pumps are more cost-effective near the coast than in the interior. If sized correctly, heat pumps are more cost-effective than electrical heaters for all major cities in South Africa. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps for two specific buildings, one a university student hostel in Potchefstroom and the other a hotel in Durban, is also investigated. For both cases it was found that heat pumps are more cost-effective than direct electrical resistance heaters. (author)

  16. Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan Torres Edejer, Tessa

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI PART ONE: METHODS COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR GENERALIZED ANALYSIS 1. 2. What is Generalized Cost-Effectiveness Analysis? . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Undertaking...

  17. Electrochemical Journals, AIP's Scitation, Cost-Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dana L

    2004-01-01

    A review of the relative subscription costs, page & article counts of Electrochemical Society journals compared with commercial counterparts. A description of the AIP's Scitation database. The relative cost-effectiveness (normalized cost/article/Impact Factor) of society and commercial journals related to electrochemistry.

  18. Cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Moolenaar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine. Firstly, we evaluated the methodologic quality of studies in reproductive medicine. Insight into the quality of economical analysis in reproductive medicine is important for valuing the performed studies and to assess whether these

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Philipson, Tomas J

    2008-09-01

    While cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis has provided a guide to allocating often scarce resources spent on medical technologies, less emphasis has been placed on the effect of such criteria on the behavior of innovators who make health care technologies available in the first place. A better understanding of the link between innovation and cost-effectiveness analysis is particularly important given the large role of technological change in the growth in health care spending and the growing interest of explicit use of CE thresholds in leading technology adoption in several Westernized countries. We analyze CE analysis in a standard market context, and stress that a technology's cost-effectiveness is closely related to the consumer surplus it generates. Improved CE therefore often clashes with interventions to stimulate producer surplus, such as patents. We derive the inconsistency between technology adoption based on CE analysis and economic efficiency. Indeed, static efficiency, dynamic efficiency, and improved patient health may all be induced by the cost-effectiveness of the technology being at its worst level. As producer appropriation of the social surplus of an innovation is central to the dynamic efficiency that should guide CE adoption criteria, we exemplify how appropriation can be inferred from existing CE estimates. For an illustrative sample of technologies considered, we find that the median technology has an appropriation of about 15%. To the extent that such incentives are deemed either too low or too high compared to dynamically efficient levels, CE thresholds may be appropriately raised or lowered to improve dynamic efficiency.

  20. Broad-band spectroscopy of the transient X-ray binary pulsar KS 1947+300 during 2013 giant outburst: Detection of pulsating soft X-ray excess component

    CERN Document Server

    Epili, Prahlad; Jaisawal, Gaurava K

    2016-01-01

    We present the results obtained from detailed timing and spectral studies of the Be/X-ray binary pulsar KS 1947+300 during its 2013 giant outburst. We used data from Suzaku observations of the pulsar at two epochs i.e. on 2013 October 22 (close to the peak of the outburst) and 2013 November 22. X-ray pulsations at $\\sim$18.81 s were clearly detected in the light curves obtained from both observations. Pulse periods estimated during the outburst showed that the pulsar was spinning up. The pulse profile was found to be single-peaked up to $\\sim$10 keV beyond which a sharp peak followed by a dip-like feature appeared at hard X-rays. The dip-like feature has been observed up to $\\sim$70 keV. The 1-110 keV broad-band spectroscopy of both observations revealed that the best-fit model comprised of a partially absorbed Negative and Positive power law with EXponential cutoff (NPEX) continuum model along with a blackbody component for the soft X-ray excess and two Gaussian functions at 6.4 and 6.7 keV for emission line...

  1. Synthesis and luminescence properties of a broad-band red phosphor Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} for warm white light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Fengjiao [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Fu Renli, E-mail: renlifu@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Agathopoulos, Simeon [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Ioannina, GR-451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Gu Xiguang; Song Xiufeng [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Single-phase broad-band red-emitting Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors, with photoluminescence features that qualify them as candidates for white light-emitting diodes applications, were successfully synthesized via a modified solid-state reaction method that employed H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as a flux. The phosphors produced have an intense broad red emission band, with a peak at 603 nm, a full width at half maximum of 110 nm, and color coordinates of (0.550, 0.438). Concentration quenching occurred at 0.01 mol Eu{sup 2+}. The discussion of the results shows that Eu{sup 2+} ions should be accommodated at the Ca-sites of the lattice, dipole-dipole interactions should predominantly govern the energy transfer mechanism among them, and the critical distance between them is {approx}31 A. - Highlights: > Pure Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor was successfully synthesized by adding H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} . > Effects of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} on phase formation and emission intensity were presented. > Luminescence properties in conjunction with Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} structure were studied. > Energy transfer mechanism of Eu{sup 2+} and its critical distance were proposed.

  2. The Design of the Broad-Band Microwave Amplifier DC Bias Circuits%一种宽带微波放大器偏置电路的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚波; 张永慧

    2009-01-01

    本文利用微波平面结构谐振模式情况下场等效的方法,对单扇形微带传输线电路进行了分析,并在此基础上介绍了一种宽带直流偏置电路的分析和设计方法.此种形式的偏置电路应用于一种C波段的微波放大器上,仿真和实验结果证明了这种宽带直流偏置电路是有效的.%In this paper, the analysis of the microstrip radial-line stubs is presented. The method is based on the electromagnetic field expansion in terms of resonant modes of the planar structure. Using this theory, the analysis and design of a kind of broad-band de bias circuit is presented. The bias circuit is used in a C-Band microwave amplifier. Simulation and testing result prove that the bias circuit is good.

  3. Cost effectiveness of a medical digital library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, F; Darmoni, S J; Thirion, B

    2001-01-01

    The rapid increase in the price of electronic journals has made the optimization of collection management an urgent task. As there is currently no standard procedure for the evaluation of this problem, we applied the Reading Factor (RF), an electronically computed indicator used for consultation of individual articles. The aim of our study was to assess the cost effective impact of modifications in our digital library (i.e. change of access from the Intranet to the Internet or change in editorial policy). The digital OVID library at Rouen University Hospital continues to be cost-effective in comparison with the interlibrary loan costs. Moreover, when electronic versions are offered alongside a limited amount of interlibrary loans, a reduction in library costs was observed.

  4. Sampling: Making Electronic Discovery More Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luoma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the huge volumes of electronic data subject to discovery in virtually every instance of litigation, time and costs of conducting discovery have become exceedingly important when litigants plan their discovery strategies.  Rather than incurring the costs of having lawyers review every document produced in response to a discovery request in search of relevant evidence, a cost effective strategy for document review planning is to use statistical sampling of the database of documents to determine the likelihood of finding relevant evidence by reviewing additional documents.  This paper reviews and discusses how sampling can be used to make document review more cost effective by considering issues such as an appropriate sample size, how to develop a sampling strategy, and taking into account the potential value of the litigation in relation to the costs of additional discovery efforts. 

  5. Hip Fracture Prevention: Cost-Effective Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Vestergaard; Lars Rejnmark; Leif Mosekilde

    2001-01-01

    The available literature on cost benefit, cost effectiveness and cost utility of different drug and non-drug regimens in preventing hip fractures was reviewed. The cost of a hip fracture and of the different treatment regimens varied considerably from one country to another. In primary prevention, potential savings only exceeded costs in women over the age of 70 years treated with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). In the case of HRT, treating those with low bone mineral density levels (seco...

  6. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Meester, Reinier G S; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal adenoma, and pancreatic neoplasms. This review aims to provide an overview of the evidence on cost-effectiveness of surveillance of individuals with GI conditions predisposing them to cancer, specifically focussing on the aforementioned conditions. We searched the literature and reviewed 21 studies. Despite heterogeneity of studies in terms of settings, study populations, surveillance strategies and outcomes, most reviewed studies suggested at least some surveillance of patients with these GI conditions to be cost-effective. For some high-risk conditions frequent surveillance with 3-month intervals was warranted, while for other conditions, surveillance may only be cost-effective every 10 years. Further studies based on more robust effectiveness evidence are needed to inform and optimise surveillance programmes for GI cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Cost effectiveness and health sector reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, P

    1995-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a health intervention is an estimate of the relation between what it costs to be provided, and the improvement in health which results from such intervention. Health may improve because the incidence of illness or injury is reduced, because death is avoided or delayed, or because the duration or severity of disability is limited. The calculation of this health benefit combines objective factors, such as the age at incidence and whether or not the outcome is death, with subjective factors such as the severity of disability, the judgement as to the value of life lived at different ages, and the rate at which the future is discounted. The construction and interpretation of the estimate are explained. Also, the paper examines whether the concept of cost-effectiveness is consistent with ethical norms such as equity, and concludes that they are not in conflict. Finally, it addresses the question of how to incorporate cost-effectiveness into a health sector reform, and possible ways to implement it.

  8. Influence of offshore wind farms layout on electrical resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Koldby, Erik;

    2014-01-01

    cause resonances between cables and transformers, which might lead to potentially harmful overvoltages / currents. This paper shows how the topology of the collection grid of offshore wind farms influences the occurrence of electrical resonances in medium- and high-frequency region. Broad band models...

  9. Tectonic and Kinematic Regime along the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary: New Insights from Broad-band Modeling of the May 25, 1992, Ms = 6.9 Cabo Cruz, Cuba, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, J.; Calais, E.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.

    On May 25th, 1992, an Ms = 6.9 earthquake occurred off the southwestern tip of Cuba, along the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates. This earthquake was the largest to strike southern Cuba since 1917 and the largest ever recorded in that region by global seismic networks. It is therefore a key element for our understanding of the tectonic and kinematic regime along the northern Caribbean plate boundary. In order to test the previously proposed source parameters of the Cabo Cruz earthquake and to better constrain its focal mechanism, we derived a new set of source parameters from unfiltered broad-band teleseismic records. We used a hybrid ray tracing method that allows us to take into account propagation effects of seismic waves in a realistic crustal model around the source. Our solution is consistent with the long-period focal mechanism solution of Virieux et al. (1992). Our solution also models the higher frequency crustal and water layer phases. The primarily strike-slip focal mechanism has a small thrust component. Its shows an east-west trending nodal plane dipping 55° to the north that we interpret as the rupture plane since it corresponds to the geometry of the major active fault in that area. The displacement on this plane is a left-lateral strike-slip combined with a small amount of southward thrust. The result is in good agreement with the active tectonic structures observed along the Oriente fault south of Cuba. The small thrust component demonstrates that, contrary to prior belief, the transpressive regime extends along this whole segment of the Caribbean/North American plate boundary. Together with historical seismicity, it suggests that most of the stress accumulated by the Caribbean/North American plate motion is released seismically along the southern Cuban margin during relatively few but large earthquakes.

  10. Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, J

    1977-01-01

    Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

  11. A cost effective CO2 strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by the Ministry of Transport, with the Technical University of Denmark as one of the main contributors. The CO2-strategy was to be based on the principle of cost-effectiveness. A model was set up to assist in the assessment. The model consists of a projection of CO2-emissions from road and rail modes from 2020...... are evaluated according to CO2 reduction potential and according to the ‘shadow price’ on a reduction of one ton CO2. The shadow price reflects the costs (and benefits) of the different measures. Comparing the measures it is possible to identify cost effective measures, but these measures are not necessarily......, a scenario-part and a cost-benefit part. Air and sea modes are not analyzed. The model adopts a bottom-up approach to allow a detailed assessment of transport policy measures. Four generic areas of intervention were identified and the likely effect on CO2 emissions, socioeconomic efficiency and other...

  12. OPCAB Surgery is cost-effective for elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Susanne Juel; Jensen Beck, Søren; Houlind, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    To determine the cost-effective operative strategy for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients above 70 years.......To determine the cost-effective operative strategy for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients above 70 years....

  13. Cost-Effective Fuel Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, J.; Thompson, M.; Vaillant, N.

    2014-12-01

    The cost of fighting large wildland fires in the western United States has grown dramatically over the past decade. This trend will likely continue with growth of the WUI into fire prone ecosystems, dangerous fuel conditions from decades of fire suppression, and a potentially increasing effect from prolonged drought and climate change. Fuel treatments are often considered the primary pre-fire mechanism to reduce the exposure of values at risk to wildland fire, and a growing suite of fire models and tools are employed to prioritize where treatments could mitigate wildland fire damages. Assessments using the likelihood and consequence of fire are critical because funds are insufficient to reduce risk on all lands needing treatment, therefore prioritization is required to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatment budgets. Cost-effectiveness, doing the most good per dollar, would seem to be an important fuel treatment metric, yet studies or plans that prioritize fuel treatments using costs or cost-effectiveness measures are absent from the literature. Therefore, to explore the effect of using costs in fuel treatment planning we test four prioritization algorithms designed to reduce risk in a case study examining fuel treatments on the Sisters Ranger District of central Oregon. For benefits we model sediment retention and standing biomass, and measure the effectiveness of each algorithm by comparing the differences among treatment and no treat alternative scenarios. Our objective is to maximize the averted loss of net benefits subject to a representative fuel treatment budget. We model costs across the study landscape using the My Fuel Treatment Planner software, tree list data, local mill prices, and GIS-measured site characteristics. We use fire simulations to generate burn probabilities, and estimate fire intensity as conditional flame length at each pixel. Two prioritization algorithms target treatments based on cost-effectiveness and show improvements over those

  14. [Intensified insulin treatment is cost-effective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, P; Alm, C; Andersson, E; Wärn, I; Rosenqvist, U

    1999-01-20

    Both the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) in USA/Canada, and Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS) showed intensified insulin treatment and reduced glycaemia to prevent complications in patients with insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus. In the DCCT, the intensified treatment was considered cost-effective. In the SDIS, investigation of the direct increase in costs due to the intensified insulin treatment showed the saving in direct costs due to the reduction in photocoagulation requirements, and in the prevalence of renal insufficiency and of amputation, to correspond to 10 years' intensive insulin treatment. Thus, as intensified insulin treatment in type I diabetes reduces direct suffering at a low cost, it may be regarded as 'evidence-based' and mandatory.

  15. Custom LSI plus hybrid equals cost effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. N.

    The possibility to combine various technologies, such as Bi-Polar linear and CMOS/Digital makes it feasible to create systems with a tailored performance not available on a single monolithic circuit. The custom LSI 'BLOCK', especially if it is universal in nature, is proving to be a cost effective way for the developer to improve his product. The custom LSI represents a low price part in contrast to the discrete components it will replace. In addition, the hybrid assembly can realize a savings in labor as a result of the reduced parts handling and associated wire bonds. The possibility of the use of automated system manufacturing techniques leads to greater reliability as the human factor is partly eliminated. Attention is given to reliability predictions, cost considerations, and a product comparison study.

  16. Cost-effective ultrasound PACS solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.

    1995-05-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) have been quite successful at the University of Florida in the areas of CT, MR, and nuclear medicine. In each case, although we have not always been able to provide the optimal level of performance, we have been able to solve a problem and the systems are used extensively. Ultrasound images are required in a number of locations and the multiformat camera print capability was no longer adequate for the growing volume in the ultrasound section. Although we were certain we could successfully implement PACS for ultrasound, new forces in health care dictate that we justify our system in terms of cost. We analyzed the feasibility of a PACS solution for ultrasound and designed a system that meets our needs and is cost effective. We evaluated the ultrasound operation in terms of image acquisition patterns and throughput requirements. An inventory of existing and PACS equipment was made to determine the feasibility of interfacing the two systems. Commercial systems were evaluated for functionality and cost and a system was designed to meet our needs. The only way to achieve our goal of installing a cost effective ultrasound PACS was to eliminate film and use the cost savings to offset the cost of new equipment and development. We designed a system that could be produced using inexpensive components and existing hardware and software to meet our needs. A commercial vendor was chosen to provide the ultrasound acquisition. The Radiology Information System interface used at the University provides the necessary data to build a DICOM header, and an existing DICOM server routes the images to the appropriate workstations, archives, and printers. Additional storage is added to an existing archive to accommodate the ultrasound images and two existing workstations are evaluated for use in ultrasound.

  17. Standard practice: Estimating the cost-effectiveness of coordinated DSM programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.; Brown, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe and illustrate a methodology for estimating the cost-effectiveness of coordinated demand-side management (DSM) programs, extending California {open_quotes}standard practice{close_quotes} to address the special evaluation challenges arising from these programs. A coordinated DSM program is one that is co-administered by a state or local government agency and a gas or electric utility. Although the primary subject of this document is coordinated low-income programs, the principles are easily extended to estimating the cost-effectiveness of all coordinated programs.

  18. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  19. Cost effectiveness of robotic mitral valve surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Significant technological advances have led to an impressive evolution in mitral valve surgery over the last two decades, allowing surgeons to safely perform less invasive operations through the right chest. Most new technology comes with an increased upfront cost that must be measured against postoperative savings and other advantages such as decreased perioperative complications, faster recovery, and earlier return to preoperative level of functioning. The Da Vinci robot is an example of such a technology, combining the significant benefits of minimally invasive surgery with a “gold standard” valve repair. Although some have reported that robotic surgery is associated with increased overall costs, there is literature suggesting that efficient perioperative care and shorter lengths of stay can offset the increased capital and intraoperative expenses. While data on current cost is important to consider, one must also take into account future potential value resulting from technological advancement when evaluating cost-effectiveness. Future refinements that will facilitate more effective surgery, coupled with declining cost of technology will further increase the value of robotic surgery compared to traditional approaches. PMID:28203539

  20. Cost-effective nursing practice: cost-awareness and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, P

    1993-12-01

    Cost-effective nursing practice is essential to succeed today as resources allocated to health care are declining. Realizing that any change poses a threat to our security, it is imperative that stakeholders be permitted to participate in decision-making processes affecting their work. An honest, open exchange of ideas towards cost-effective practices should be encouraged. Cost-effective behaviours are influenced significantly by negative attitudes with regard to loss of human resources, increased workload, and potential pay cuts. This article describes innovative strategies which could promote successful cost-effective nursing practice, including working smarter, not working harder. Topics addressed are attitude, awareness and empowerment.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of climate change policies for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rudd, Anne Elizabeth Sally

    2012-01-01

    This research project applies a hybrid energy-economy model to compare the cost-effectiveness of different climate change mitigation policies for the United States. Five policies are compared: (1) a technology regulation phasing out coal and natural gas generation, (2) Clean Electricity Standard, (3) Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standard, (4) Vehicles Emissions Standard, (5) economy-wide GHG tax. The cost of these policies is estimated using three different methodologies. The first methodol...

  2. A cost-effective climastrategy; En omkostningseffektiv klimastrategi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    As a consequence of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the subsequent 1998 EU Burden Sharing Agreement, Denmark is committed to reducing its average annual greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008-2012 by 21% in relation to the basis year, 1990. Excess emissions in relation to the reduction commitments are expected to be 25 million tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents per year, corresponding to approximately 30% of expected emissions in the period 2008-2012, if calculations are based on Denmark's legal commitment under the EU Burden Sharing Agreement, which is significantly more than previously estimated. The legal commitment is based on figures not corrected for the especially large import of electricity in the basis year, 1990. At the Council meeting in connection with ratification of the Kyoto Protocol on 4 March 2002, Denmark did however achieve agreement on a political declaration. According to the declaration, Denmark's claim for adjusted electricity imports for the basis year, 1990, will be considered when individual Member State reductions in tonnes are finally determined in 2006. If the claimed correction is fully taken account of, Danish excess emissions will be reduced by 5 million tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents per year. Flexible mechanisms, i.e. trading in the so-called credits from CO{sub 2} reduction projects in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe as well as trading in CO{sub 2} quotas, may contribute to fulfilling Denmark's reduction commitments. This reflects the fact that greenhouse gas emissions are a global problem that must be solved by ensuring the most cost-effective reduction at global level. Furthermore, flexible mechanisms can contribute to developing the countries in question through the transfer of know-how and capital. (ba)

  3. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act : Legislative History of the Act to Assist the Electrical Consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal Columbia River Power System to Achieve Cost-Effective Energy Conservation : P.L. 96-501, 94 Stat. 2697.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act became effective when it was signed into law by President Carter on December 5, 1980. This ended a four-year debate over legislation designed to plan and coordinate the region's energy future. This legislative history is an abbreviated version taken from the larger historical file maintained by the BPA Law Library. It is intended to assist BPA personnel and others who are studying the Northwest Power Act and working on its implementation. The documents included were selected for their value in determining what Congress meant in enacting the statute and to provide the researcher with a starting point for further investigation. These documents include: a history of the Act, a chronology of the legislative action leading to passage of the law; a section-by-section analysis of the Act; the Congressional Records of Senate and House debates on the bill and its amendments, and a list of Congressional committee hearings.

  4. The Cost-Effectiveness of NBPTS Teacher Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2010-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) program suggests that Board certification is less cost-effective than a range of alternative approaches for raising student achievement, including comprehensive school reform, class size reduction, a 10% increase in per pupil expenditure, the use of…

  5. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Pieter T; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common disease among elderly, which may develop into a severe pain syndrome labeled postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live-attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence and burden of illness of HZ and PHN, providing the opportunity to prevent significant health-related and financial consequences of HZ. In this review, we summarize the available literature on cost-effectiveness of HZ vaccination and discuss critical parameters for cost-effectiveness results. A search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify full cost-effectiveness studies published before April 2013. Fourteen cost-effectiveness studies were included, all performed in western countries. All studies evaluated cost-effectiveness among elderly above 50 years and used costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained as primary outcome. The vast majority of studies showed vaccination of 60- to 75-year-old individuals to be cost-effective, when duration of vaccine efficacy was longer than 10 years. Duration of vaccine efficacy, vaccine price, HZ incidence, HZ incidence and discount rates were influential to the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). HZ vaccination may be a worthwhile intervention from a cost-effectiveness point of view. More extensive reporting on methodology and more detailed results of sensitivity analyses would be desirable to address uncertainty and to guarantee optimal comparability between studies, for example regarding model structure, discounting, vaccine characteristics and loss of quality of life due to HZ and PHN.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of online positive psychology: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Majo, Cristina; Smit, Filip; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Haverman, Merel; Walburg, J.A.; Riper, Heleen; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As yet, no evidence is available about the cost-effectiveness of positive psychological interventions. When offered via the Internet, these interventions may be particularly cost-effective, because they are highly scalable and do not rely on scant resources such as therapists’ time. Alongside a rand

  7. The Kyoto Protocol Is Cost-effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio A. De Leo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances, there is a high degree of uncertainty concerning the climate change that would result from increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Also, opponents of the Kyoto Protocol raised the key objection that reducing emissions would impose an unacceptable economic burden on businesses and consumers. Based on an analysis of alternative scenarios for electricity generation in Italy, we show that if the costs in terms of damage to human health, material goods, agriculture, and the environment caused by greenhouse gas emissions are included in the balance, the economic argument against Kyoto is untenable. Most importantly, the argument holds true even if we exclude global external costs (those due to global warming, and account for local external costs only (such as those due to acidic precipitation and lung diseases resulting from air pollution.

  8. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Landis, Florian [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Tovar Reanos, Miguel Angel [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of renewable energy promotion could be ameliorated by alternative subsidy financing mechanisms which achieve the same level of electricity generation from renewable energy sources.

  9. Reliable and cost effective micro hydro power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-03-01

    A 14 kW hydroelectric power plant in British Columbia that generates enough power to run a small farm was described. It was developed as an alternative to bringing in power from BC Hydro, which would have cost about the same initially, but would also have entailed about $300 per month of utility bills. The system operates at a fraction of its capacity at practically no operating cost and the capital outlay will have been recovered in six to seven years. The system uses a Lima generator directly coupled to a pelton turbine. Some 1,400 feet of five inch PCV pipe running down a hillside provides 136 psi of static pressure. The pressurized water in the pipeline squirts through a nozzle and the jet of water strikes the buckets of the pelton turbine. The energy in the water is transferred to the turbine and provides the shaft power to drive the generator. Two electrically heated dwellings, a workshop and a barn containing 300 pigs are supplied by the power plant.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of adjunct non-pharmacological interventions for osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Beth; Manca, Andrea; Weatherly, Helen; Saramago, Pedro; Sideris, Eleftherios; Giannopoulou, Christina; Rice, Stephen; Corbett, Mark; Vickers, Andrew; Bowes, Matthew; MacPherson, Hugh; Sculpher, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on the costs and benefits of alternative adjunct non-pharmacological treatments for knee osteoarthritis and little guidance on which should be prioritised for commissioning within the NHS. This study estimates the costs and benefits of acupuncture, braces, heat treatment, insoles, interferential therapy, laser/light therapy, manual therapy, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, pulsed electrical stimulation, pulsed electromagnetic fields, static magnets and transcutaneous electrical nerve Stimulation (TENS), based on all relevant data, to facilitate a more complete assessment of value. Data from 88 randomised controlled trials including 7,507 patients were obtained from a systematic review. The studies reported a wide range of outcomes. These were converted into EQ-5D index values using prediction models, and synthesised using network meta-analysis. Analyses were conducted including firstly all trials and secondly only trials with low risk of selection bias. Resource use was estimated from trials, expert opinion and the literature. A decision analytic model synthesised all evidence to assess interventions over a typical treatment period (constant benefit over eight weeks or linear increase in effect over weeks zero to eight and dissipation over weeks eight to 16). When all trials are considered, TENS is cost-effective at thresholds of £20-30,000 per QALY with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £2,690 per QALY vs. usual care. When trials with a low risk of selection bias are considered, acupuncture is cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £13,502 per QALY vs. TENS. The results of the analysis were sensitive to varying the intensity, with which interventions were delivered, and the magnitude and duration of intervention effects on EQ-5D. Using the £20,000 per QALY NICE threshold results in TENS being cost-effective if all trials are considered. If only higher quality trials are considered, acupuncture

  11. Cost-effectiveness of Lung Cancer Screening in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, John R; Flanagan, William M; Miller, Anthony B; Fitzgerald, Natalie R; Memon, Saima; Wolfson, Michael C; Evans, William K

    2015-09-01

    The US National Lung Screening Trial supports screening for lung cancer among smokers using low-dose computed tomographic (LDCT) scans. The cost-effectiveness of screening in a publically funded health care system remains a concern. To assess the cost-effectiveness of LDCT scan screening for lung cancer within the Canadian health care system. The Cancer Risk Management Model (CRMM) simulated individual lives within the Canadian population from 2014 to 2034, incorporating cancer risk, disease management, outcome, and cost data. Smokers and former smokers eligible for lung cancer screening (30 pack-year smoking history, ages 55-74 years, for the reference scenario) were modeled, and performance parameters were calibrated to the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). The reference screening scenario assumes annual scans to age 75 years, 60% participation by 10 years, 70% adherence to screening, and unchanged smoking rates. The CRMM outputs are aggregated, and costs (2008 Canadian dollars) and life-years are discounted 3% annually. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Compared with no screening, the reference scenario saved 51,000 quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CaD $52,000/QALY. If smoking history is modeled for 20 or 40 pack-years, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of CaD $62,000 and CaD $43,000/QALY, respectively, were generated. Changes in participation rates altered life years saved but not the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is sensitive to changes in adherence. An adjunct smoking cessation program improving the quit rate by 22.5% improves the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio to CaD $24,000/QALY. Lung cancer screening with LDCT appears cost-effective in the publicly funded Canadian health care system. An adjunct smoking cessation program has the potential to improve outcomes.

  12. The clinical utility and cost effectiveness of routine thyroid screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depression, cognitive impairment, and psychosis, while ... the utility and cost effectiveness of the current protocol used in thyroid testing in adult psychiatric patients presenting at .... Antidepressants were prescribed to 302 (28%) of patients,.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Mectizan treatment Programmes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of Mectizan treatment Programmes for Onchocerciasis Control: Operational Experiences in two districts of Southwestern Nigeria. ... Vol 8, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management approaches under intensive farming systems. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Kamuliand Iganga districts with one hand-hoe weeding (1hh) as the control.

  15. Improving cost-effectiveness of hypertension management at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving cost-effectiveness of hypertension management at a community health centre. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... drugs on prescribing patterns, costs of drug treatment and blood pressure (BP) control. Design ...

  16. Costs and cost-effectiveness of alternative tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Costs and cost-effectiveness of alternative tuberculosis management strategies in South ... important national implications, supporting the goals of the new tuberculosis control programme. ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  17. Optoelectronic properties of graphene oxide thin film processed by cost-effective route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Farzana A. [Experimental Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, 4, Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Morisaki, Takuya; Otsuki, Joe [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Alam, M. Sahabul, E-mail: alam@univdhaka.edu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantage of a cost-effective mass production of graphene oxide (GO) with less defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal reduction of GO at a temperature as low as 170 Degree-Sign C without any reagent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desired optical and electrical properties in a cost effective path to be applicable as a potential candidate for optoelectronic applications. - Abstract: We present large area graphene oxide (GO) thin films as a potential transparent electrode fabricated by using simple route. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographies showed a uniform film texture that is wrinkle-free with roughness as low as {approx}1.4 nm. Desired optical and electrical properties were achieved by thermal reduction at a temperature as low as 170 Degree-Sign C without any reagent; which is an important factor in practical application field. Microstructural perfection is quite evident from the abrupt descent around specific energy of photons in the transmittance spectrum. In particular, we explore that device-quality GO thin films can be obtained via a low-cost scalable technique in comparison with other previous works. Urbach energy and different electrical parameters are addressed. The nature and extent of the band gap are analyzed. The findings are very significant in view of an optimized use of GO thin films in electrical and photoelectric applications.

  18. Cost-effective conservation of an endangered frog under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lucy E; Heard, Geoffrey W; Chee, Yung En; Wintle, Brendan A

    2016-04-01

    How should managers choose among conservation options when resources are scarce and there is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of actions? Well-developed tools exist for prioritizing areas for one-time and binary actions (e.g., protect vs. not protect), but methods for prioritizing incremental or ongoing actions (such as habitat creation and maintenance) remain uncommon. We devised an approach that combines metapopulation viability and cost-effectiveness analyses to select among alternative conservation actions while accounting for uncertainty. In our study, cost-effectiveness is the ratio between the benefit of an action and its economic cost, where benefit is the change in metapopulation viability. We applied the approach to the case of the endangered growling grass frog (Litoria raniformis), which is threatened by urban development. We extended a Bayesian model to predict metapopulation viability under 9 urbanization and management scenarios and incorporated the full probability distribution of possible outcomes for each scenario into the cost-effectiveness analysis. This allowed us to discern between cost-effective alternatives that were robust to uncertainty and those with a relatively high risk of failure. We found a relatively high risk of extinction following urbanization if the only action was reservation of core habitat; habitat creation actions performed better than enhancement actions; and cost-effectiveness ranking changed depending on the consideration of uncertainty. Our results suggest that creation and maintenance of wetlands dedicated to L. raniformis is the only cost-effective action likely to result in a sufficiently low risk of extinction. To our knowledge we are the first study to use Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis to explicitly incorporate parametric and demographic uncertainty into a cost-effective evaluation of conservation actions. The approach offers guidance to decision makers aiming to achieve cost-effective

  19. Cost-effectiveness of opportunistic salpingectomy for ovarian cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Sarah E; Havrilesky, Laura J; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie; Cohn, David E; Michael Straughn, J; Caughey, Aaron B; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2017-08-01

    Data suggesting a link between the fallopian tube and ovarian cancer have led to an increase in rates of salpingectomy at the time of pelvic surgery, a practice known as opportunistic salpingectomy (OS). However, the potential benefits, risks and costs for this new practice are not well established. Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of opportunistic salpingectomy at the time of laparoscopic permanent contraception or hysterectomy for benign indications. We created two models to compare the cost-effectiveness of salpingectomy versus usual care. The hypothetical study population is 50,000 women aged 45 undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy with ovarian preservation for benign indications, and 300,000 women aged 35 undergoing laparoscopic permanent contraception. SEER data were used for probabilities of ovarian cancer cases and deaths. The ovarian cancer risk reduction, complication rates, utilities and associated costs were obtained from published literature. Sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulation were performed, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated to determine the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. In the laparoscopic hysterectomy cohort, OS is cost saving and would yield $23.9 million in health care dollars saved. In the laparoscopic permanent contraception cohort, OS is cost-effective with an ICER of $31,432/QALY compared to tubal ligation, and remains cost-effective as long as it reduces ovarian cancer risk by 54%. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated cost-effectiveness with hysterectomy and permanent contraception in 62.3% and 55% of trials, respectively. Opportunistic salpingectomy for low-risk women undergoing pelvic surgery may be a cost-effective strategy for decreasing ovarian cancer risk at time of hysterectomy or permanent contraception. In our model, salpingectomy was cost-effective with both procedures, but the advantage greater at time of hysterectomy. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  20. Cost-Effective ERT Technique for Oil-in-Water Measurement for Offshore Hydrocyclone Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... principle is to measure the resistivity of substances from multiple electrodes and from these measurements create a 2-D image of the oil and gas component in the water. This technique requires the measured components to have different electrical resistances, such as seawater which has a lower electrical...... resistance than hydrocarbon oil and gas. This work involves construction of a pilot plant, for testing the feasibility of ERT for OiW measurements, and further exploring if this measured signal can be applied as a reliable feedback signal in optimization of the hydrocyclone's efficiency. Different algorithms...

  1. Analyses of Blood Bank Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen

    In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sandhill crane habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Andrew C.; Merchant, James W.; Shultz, Steven D.; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often threaten native wildlife populations and strain the budgets of agencies charged with wildlife management. We demonstrate the potential of cost-effectiveness analysis to improve the efficiency and value of efforts to enhance sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) roosting habitat. We focus on the central Platte River in Nebraska (USA), a region of international ecological importance for migrating avian species including sandhill cranes. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a valuation process designed to compare alternative actions based on the cost of achieving a pre-determined objective. We estimated costs for removal of invasive vegetation using geographic information system simulations and calculated benefits as the increase in area of sandhill crane roosting habitat. We generated cost effectiveness values for removing invasive vegetation on 7 land parcels and for the entire central Platte River to compare the cost-effectiveness of management at specific sites and for the central Platte River landscape. Median cost effectiveness values for the 7 land parcels evaluated suggest that costs for creating 1 additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat totaled US $1,595. By contrast, we found that creating an additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat could cost as much as US $12,010 for some areas in the central Platte River, indicating substantial cost savings can be achieved by using a cost effectiveness analysis to target specific land parcels for management. Cost-effectiveness analysis, used in conjunction with geographic information systems, can provide decision-makers with a new tool for identifying the most economically efficient allocation of resources to achieve habitat management goals.

  3. Dengue dynamics and vaccine cost-effectiveness in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, David P; Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Medlock, Jan; Luz, Paula M; Meyers, Lauren A; Paltiel, A David; Galvani, Alison P

    2013-08-20

    Recent Phase 2b dengue vaccine trials have demonstrated the safety of the vaccine and estimated the vaccine efficacy with further trials underway. In anticipation of vaccine roll-out, cost-effectiveness analysis of potential vaccination policies that quantify the dynamics of disease transmission are fundamental to the optimal allocation of available doses. We developed a dengue transmission and vaccination model and calculated, for a range of vaccination costs and willingness-to-pay thresholds, the level of vaccination coverage necessary to sustain herd-immunity, the price at which vaccination is cost-effective and is cost-saving, and the sensitivity of our results to parameter uncertainty. We compared two vaccine efficacy scenarios, one a more optimistic scenario and another based on the recent lower-than-expected efficacy from the latest clinical trials. We found that herd-immunity may be achieved by vaccinating 82% (95% CI 58-100%) of the population at a vaccine efficacy of 70%. At this efficacy, vaccination may be cost-effective for vaccination costs up to US$ 534 (95% CI $369-1008) per vaccinated individual and cost-saving up to $204 (95% CI $39-678). At the latest clinical trial estimates of an average of 30% vaccine efficacy, vaccination may be cost-effective and cost-saving at costs of up to $237 (95% CI $159-512) and $93 (95% CI $15-368), respectively. Our model provides an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination in Brazil and incorporates the effect of herd immunity into dengue vaccination cost-effectiveness. Our results demonstrate that at the relatively low vaccine efficacy from the recent Phase 2b dengue vaccine trials, age-targeted vaccination may still be cost-effective provided the total vaccination cost is sufficiently low.

  4. Groundwater remediation and the cost effectiveness of phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, T; Van Passel, S; Weyens, N; Vangronsveld, J; Lebbe, L; Thewys, T

    2012-10-01

    In 1999, phytoremediation was applied at the site of a Belgian car factory to contain two BTEX plumes. This case study evaluates the cost effectiveness of phytoremediation compared to other remediation options, applying a tailored approach for economic evaluation. Generally, when phytoremediation is addressed as being cost effective, the cost effectiveness is only determined on an average basis. This study however, demonstrates that an incremental analysis may provide a more nuanced conclusion. When the cost effectiveness is calculated on an average basis, in this particular case, the no containment strategy (natural attenuation) has the lowest cost per unit mass removed and hence, should be preferred. However, when the cost effectiveness is determined incrementally, no containment should only be preferred if the value of removing an extra gram of contaminant mass is lower than 320 euros. Otherwise, a permeable reactive barrier should be adopted. A similar analysis is provided for the effect determined on the basis of remediation time. Phytoremediation is preferred compared to 'no containment' if reaching the objective one year earlier is worth 7 000 euros.

  5. Cost-effectiveness and pricing of antibacterial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of 'value', which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. © 2015 The Authors. Chemical Biology & Drug Design Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cost effectiveness of type 2 diabetes screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Behzad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Hadian, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Although studies reported diabetes mellitus screening cost effective, the mass screening for type2 diabetes remains controversial. In this study we reviewed the recently evidence about the cost effectiveness of mass screening systematically. We reviewed the MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), and Cochrane library databases by MeSH terms to identify relevant studies from 2000 to 2013. We had 4 inclusion and 6 exclusion criteria and used the Drummond's checklist for appraising the quality of studies. The initial search yielded 358 potentially related studies from selected databases. 6 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria and included in final review. 3 and 2 of them were conducted in Europe and America and only one of them in Asia. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was the main outcome to appraise the effectiveness in the studies. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was computed in range from $516.33 to $126,238 per QALY in the studies. A review of previous diabetes screening cost effectiveness analysis showed that the studies varied in some aspects but reached similar conclusions. They concluded that the screening may be cost effective, however further studies is required to support the diabetes mass screening.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    . Objective: To evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management compared with standard management. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cost-effectiveness analysis conducted from September 2015 to August 2016 used a Markov cohort model to estimate cost-effectiveness...... of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age....... Interventions: Treatment of hypertension to a systolic blood pressure goal of 120 mm Hg (intensive management) or 140 mm Hg (standard management). Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), discounted at 3% annually. Results: Standard management yielded 9.6 QALYs...

  8. A Layered Decision Model for Cost-Effective System Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Huaqiang; Alves-Foss, James; Soule, Terry; Pforsich, Hugh; Zhang, Du; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2008-10-01

    System security involves decisions in at least three areas: identification of well-defined security policies, selection of cost-effective defence strategies, and implementation of real-time defence tactics. Although choices made in each of these areas affect the others, existing decision models typically handle these three decision areas in isolation. There is no comprehensive tool that can integrate them to provide a single efficient model for safeguarding a network. In addition, there is no clear way to determine which particular combinations of defence decisions result in cost-effective solutions. To address these problems, this paper introduces a Layered Decision Model (LDM) for use in deciding how to address defence decisions based on their cost-effectiveness. To validate the LDM and illustrate how it is used, we used simulation to test model rationality and applied the LDM to the design of system security for an e-commercial business case.

  9. Bayesian cost-effectiveness analysis with the R package BCEA

    CERN Document Server

    Baio, Gianluca; Heath, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a description of the process of health economic evaluation and modelling for cost-effectiveness analysis, particularly from the perspective of a Bayesian statistical approach. Some relevant theory and introductory concepts are presented using practical examples and two running case studies. The book also describes in detail how to perform health economic evaluations using the R package BCEA (Bayesian Cost-Effectiveness Analysis). BCEA can be used to post-process the results of a Bayesian cost-effectiveness model and perform advanced analyses producing standardised and highly customisable outputs. It presents all the features of the package, including its many functions and their practical application, as well as its user-friendly web interface. The book is a valuable resource for statisticians and practitioners working in the field of health economics wanting to simplify and standardise their workflow, for example in the preparation of dossiers in support of marketing authorisation, or acade...

  10. Cost effectiveness and efficiency in assistive technology service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C G

    1993-01-01

    In order to develop and maintain a viable service delivery program, the realities of cost effectiveness and cost efficiency in providing assistive technology must be addressed. Cost effectiveness relates to value of the outcome compared to the expenditures. Cost efficiency analyzes how a provider uses available resources to supply goods and services. This paper describes how basic business principles of benefit/cost analysis can be used to determine cost effectiveness. In addition, basic accounting principles are used to illustrate methods of evaluating a program's cost efficiency. Service providers are encouraged to measure their own program's effectiveness and efficiency (and potential viability) in light of current trends. This paper is meant to serve as a catalyst for continued dialogue on this topic.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of computer-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Loewenberger

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for more cost-effective and pedagogically acceptable combinations of teaching and learning methods to sustain increasing student numbers means that the use of innovative methods, using technology, is accelerating. There is an expectation that economies of scale might provide greater cost-effectiveness whilst also enhancing student learning. The difficulties and complexities of these expectations are considered in this paper, which explores the challenges faced by those wishing to evaluate the costeffectiveness of computer-based assessment (CBA. The paper outlines the outcomes of a survey which attempted to gather information about the costs and benefits of CBA.

  12. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Optimal Malaria Control Strategies in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Otieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the children under five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is preventable and controllable provided current recommended interventions are properly implemented. Better utilization of malaria intervention strategies will ensure the gain for the value for money and producing health improvements in the most cost effective way. The purpose of the value for money drive is to develop a better understanding (and better articulation of costs and results so that more informed, evidence-based choices could be made. Cost effectiveness analysis is carried out to inform decision makers on how to determine where to allocate resources for malaria interventions. This study carries out cost effective analysis of one or all possible combinations of the optimal malaria control strategies (Insecticide Treated Bednets—ITNs, Treatment, Indoor Residual Spray—IRS and Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Pregnant Women—IPTp for the four different transmission settings in order to assess the extent to which the intervention strategies are beneficial and cost effective. For the four different transmission settings in Kenya the optimal solution for the 15 strategies and their associated effectiveness are computed. Cost-effective analysis using Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER was done after ranking the strategies in order of the increasing effectiveness (total infections averted. The findings shows that for the endemic regions the combination of ITNs, IRS, and IPTp was the most cost-effective of all the combined strategies developed in this study for malaria disease control and prevention; for the epidemic prone areas is the combination of the treatment and IRS; for seasonal areas is the use of ITNs plus treatment; and for the low risk areas is the use of treatment only. Malaria transmission in Kenya can be minimized through tailor-made intervention strategies for malaria control

  13. Privacy Enforcement in a Cost-Effective Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren Aagaard

    In this technical report we present the current state of the research conducted during the first part of the PhD period. The PhD thesis “Privacy Enforcement in a Cost-Effective Smart Grid” focuses on ensuring privacy when generating market for energy service providers that develop web services...... and privacy challenges that emerge when designing a system architecture and infrastructure. The resulting architecture is a consumer-centric and agent-based design and uses open Internet-based communication protocols for enabling interoperability while being cost-effective. Finally, the PhD report present...

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Family Planning Services Offered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Keywords: Mobile clinics; Staic clinic; Family planning; Cost-effectiveness. Résumé ... revealed surprisingly low use of mobile clinic services ... provider point of view. Cost data ..... this is an even more attractive strategy than tying free IUDs to ...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis a vaccination in indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwantika, A.A.; Beutels, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia, including an explicit comparison between one-dose and twodose vaccines. Methods: An age-structured cohort model based on a decision tree was developed for the 2012 Indonesia birth cohort. Using the

  16. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwantika, Auliya A.; Beutels, Philippe; Postma, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A immunization in Indonesia, including an explicit comparison between one-dose and two-dose vaccines. Methods: An age-structured cohort model based on a decision tree was developed for the 2012 Indonesia birth cohort. Using the

  17. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion...

  18. The Cost Effectiveness of Hepatitis Immunization for US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R. Jake; Saab, Sammy; Meyerhoff, Allen S.

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B immunization is recommended for all American children, and hepatitis A immunization is recommended for children who live in areas with elevated disease rates. Because hepatitis A and B occur most commonly in young adults, the authors examined the cost effectiveness of college-based vaccination. They developed epidemiologic models to…

  19. Cost-effectiveness of private umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Anjali J; Smith, Catherine C; Laros, Russell K; Caughey, Aaron B; Cheng, Yvonne W

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the cost-effectiveness of private umbilical cord blood banking. A decision-analytic model was designed comparing private umbilical cord blood banking with no umbilical cord blood banking. Baseline assumptions included a cost of $3,620 for umbilical cord blood banking and storage for 20 years, a 0.04% chance of requiring an autologous stem cell transplant, a 0.07% chance of a sibling requiring an allogenic stem cell transplant, and a 50% reduction in risk of graft-versus-host disease if a sibling uses banked umbilical cord blood. Private cord blood banking is not cost-effective because it cost an additional $1,374,246 per life-year gained. In sensitivity analysis, if the cost of umbilical cord blood banking is less than $262 or the likelihood of a child needing a stem cell transplant is greater than 1 in 110, private umbilical cord blood banking becomes cost-effective. Currently, private umbilical cord blood banking is cost-effective only for children with a very high likelihood of needing a stem cell transplant. Patients considering private blood banking should be informed of the remote likelihood that a unit will be used for a child or another family member. III.

  20. Methods for analyzing cost effectiveness data from cluster randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Allan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of individuals' costs and outcomes in randomized trials allows uncertainty about cost effectiveness to be quantified. Uncertainty is expressed as probabilities that an intervention is cost effective, and confidence intervals of incremental cost effectiveness ratios. Randomizing clusters instead of individuals tends to increase uncertainty but such data are often analysed incorrectly in published studies. Methods We used data from a cluster randomized trial to demonstrate five appropriate analytic methods: 1 joint modeling of costs and effects with two-stage non-parametric bootstrap sampling of clusters then individuals, 2 joint modeling of costs and effects with Bayesian hierarchical models and 3 linear regression of net benefits at different willingness to pay levels using a least squares regression with Huber-White robust adjustment of errors, b a least squares hierarchical model and c a Bayesian hierarchical model. Results All five methods produced similar results, with greater uncertainty than if cluster randomization was not accounted for. Conclusion Cost effectiveness analyses alongside cluster randomized trials need to account for study design. Several theoretically coherent methods can be implemented with common statistical software.

  1. Flipping the Calculus Classroom: A Cost-Effective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a cost-effective approach to flipping the calculus classroom. In particular, the emphasis is on low-cost choices, both monetarily and with regards to faculty time, that make the daunting task of flipping a course manageable for a single instructor. Student feedback and overall impressions are also presented.

  2. The Cost-Effectiveness of Atypicals in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeg, Bart; Buskens, Erik; Botteman, Marc; Caleo, Sue; Ingham, Mike; Damen, Joep; de Charro, Frank; van Hout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), recommended atypical antipsychotics over conventional ones for first-line schizophrenia treatment, based on their lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms. Objective: To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of

  3. Flipping the Calculus Classroom: A Cost-Effective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a cost-effective approach to flipping the calculus classroom. In particular, the emphasis is on low-cost choices, both monetarily and with regards to faculty time, that make the daunting task of flipping a course manageable for a single instructor. Student feedback and overall impressions are also presented.

  4. Systemic cost-effectiveness analysis of food hazard reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    stage are considered. Cost analyses are conducted for different risk reduction targets and for three alternative scenarios concerning the acceptable range of interventions. Results demonstrate that using a system-wide policy approach to risk reduction can be more cost-effective than a policy focusing...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening - An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); H. Brenner (Hermann)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThere are several modalities available for a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program. When determining which CRC screening program to implement, the costs of such programs should be considered in comparison to the health benefits they are expected to provide. Cost-effectiveness analysi

  6. Is population screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm cost-effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lotte

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is responsible for 1–2% of all male deaths over the age of 65 years. Early detection of AAA and elective surgery can reduce the mortality risk associated with AAA. However, many patients will not be diagnosed with AAA and have therefore an increased death risk due to the untreated AAA. It has been suggested that population screening for AAA in elderly males is effective and cost-effective. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of published cost-effectiveness analyses of screening elderly men for AAA. Methods We performed a systematic search for economic evaluations in NHSEED, EconLit, Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Cinahl and two Scandinavian HTA data bases (DACEHTA and SBU. All identified studies were read in full and each study was systematically assessed according to international guidelines for critical assessment of economic evaluations in health care. Results The search identified 16 cost-effectiveness studies. Most studies considered only short term cost consequences. The studies seemed to employ a number of "optimistic" assumptions in favour of AAA screening, and included only few sensitivity analyses that assessed less optimistic assumptions. Conclusion Further analyses of cost-effectiveness of AAA screening are recommended.

  7. Cost-effectiveness modelling in diagnostic imaging: a stepwise approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, A.M.; Zwam, W.H. van; Wildberger, J.E.; Grutters, J.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging (DI) is the fastest growing sector in medical expenditures and takes a central role in medical decision-making. The increasing number of various and new imaging technologies induces a growing demand for cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in imaging technology assessment. In this ar

  8. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  9. Cost-effectiveness of periconceptional supplementation of folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, MJ; Londeman, J; Veenstra, M; de Walle, HEK; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    2002-01-01

    Background: Supplementation of folic acid prior to and in the beginning of pregnancy may prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) in newborns - such as spina bifida - and possibly other congenital malformations. Objective. To estimate cost effectiveness of periconceptional supplementation of folk: acid us

  10. Cost-effective utilisation of basic biochemical laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effective use of laboratory investigations is vital in primary care. Tahir Pillay, MB ChB, ... He is passionate about strengthening the role of the generalist in healthcare in South Africa. Correspondence to: .... Laboratories can bill for this extra ...

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Affirmative Reading Skills Program, 1984-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Michael P.

    The 1984-85 cost-effects study represents the third annual analysis of the components of Cleveland's Affirmative Reading Skills Plan, which offers three instructional strands--developmental (regular reading/language arts), support (additional enrichment, corrective or remedial), and compensatory (instruction for students having reading scores in…

  12. Priority Setting, Cost-Effectiveness, and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Govind

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) may be the most important health law statute in American history, yet much of the most prominent legal scholarship examining it has focused on the merits of the court challenges it has faced rather than delving into the details of its priority-setting provisions. In addition to providing an overview of the ACA's provisions concerning priority setting and their developing interpretations, this Article attempts to defend three substantive propositions. First, I argue that the ACA is neither uniformly hostile nor uniformly friendly to efforts to set priorities in ways that promote cost and quality. Second, I argue that the ACA does not take a single, unified approach to priority setting; rather, its guidance varies depending on the aspect of the healthcare system at issue (Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Medicare, essential health benefits) and the factors being excluded from priority setting (age, disability, life expectancy). Third, I argue that cost-effectiveness can be achieved within the ACA's constraints, but that doing so will require adopting new approaches to cost-effectiveness and priority setting. By limiting the use of standard cost-effectiveness analysis, the ACA makes the need for workable rivals to cost-effectiveness analysis a pressing practical concern rather than a mere theoretical worry.

  13. Cost Effectiveness of Current Awareness Sources in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmole, R. F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of several commercial data bases, journal scanning by information scientists, and the impact of private communication are compared in this study. A previously developed technique for measuring the usefulness of commercial data bases is utilized. (21 references) (Author/KE)

  14. Final report: Compiled MPI. Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, William Douglas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This is the final report on Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development, and summarizes the results under this project. The project investigated runtime enviroments that improve the performance of MPI (Message-Passing Interface) programs; work at Illinois in the last period of this project looked at optimizing data access optimizations expressed with MPI datatypes.

  15. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of professional oral hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesov, E E; Shaĭmieva, N I; Kononenko, V I; Bersanov, R U; Monakova, N E

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal status and oral hygiene indexes were studied in 125 young employee of Kurchatov Institute. Oral hygiene values dynamic was assessed after professional oral hygiene in persons with unsatisfactory oral hygiene at baseline examination. When compared with the same values in the absence of professional oral hygiene procedures the results allowed calculating cost-effectiveness rate for biannual professional oral hygiene.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of PET and PET/Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Hermansson, Ronnie; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    measure by means of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios when considering the replacement of the standard regimen by a new diagnostic procedure. This article discusses economic assessments of PET and PET/computed tomography reported until mid-July 2014. Forty-seven studies on cancer and noncancer...

  17. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  18. Study on electrical impedance matching for broadband ultrasonic transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Woo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Bok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Safety Measurement, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Kwang Sae [Elache Co., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Ultrasonic transducers with high resolution and resonant frequency are required to detect small defects (less than hundreds of μm) by ultrasonic testing. The resonance frequency and resolution of an ultrasonic transducer are closely related to the thickness of piezo-electric materials, backing materials, and the electric impedance matching technique. Among these factors, electrical impedance matching plays an important role because it can reduce the loss and reflection of ultrasonic energy differences in electrical impedance between an ultrasonic transducer and an ultrasonic defects detecting system. An LC matching circuit is the most frequently used electric matching method. It is necessary for the electrical impedance of an ultrasonic transducer to correspond to approximately 50 Ω to compensate the difference in electrical impedance between both connections. In this study, a 15 MHz immersion ultrasonic transducer was fabricated and an LC electrical impedance circuit was applied to that for having broad-band frequency characteristic.

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma: cost-effectiveness of screening. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggeri M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Matteo RuggeriFacoltà di Economia, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore – sede di Roma, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common tumors worldwide. HCC is a potential target for cancer surveillance (or screening as it occurs in well-defined, at-risk populations. Curative therapy is possible only for small tumors and screening strategy has been recommended by the US, Italian, and other international liver societies and is practiced widely, but its benefits are not clearly established. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence with respect to the cost-effectiveness of key technologies in the prevention HCC. The literature search was conducted with the support of PubMed. Firstly we selected articles by reading the abstracts. Secondly, we read the articles and the revision was further restricted, with the following as inclusion criteria: (1 full economic evaluation of HCC screening programs; (2 comparison between HCC techniques; (3 outcome measures expressed in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALY; (4 full text availability. The initial review of the literature yielded 346 articles. Of those, 288 were excluded at the first stage. Of those excluded, 108 did not meet the target, 106 did not present the cost analysis, 33 did not analyze the treatment of the disease, and in 41 the abstract was not available. Of the 58 included in the first step, seven examined the cost-effectiveness of different HCC screening techniques, seven investigated the cost-effectiveness of HCC screening versus no screening, and one looked at the cost-effectiveness of timing for HCC surveillance and monitoring, while 43 were about HBV vaccination and screening. We included only the seven articles examining the cost-effectiveness of different HCC screening techniques. In general, incidence is the key parameter which determines the cost-effectiveness of HCC screening. Discrepancies in the results exist when

  20. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos Theo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of interventions to treat schizophrenia can assist health policy decision making, particularly given the lack of health resources in developing countries like Thailand. This study aims to determine the optimal treatment package, including drug and non-drug interventions, for schizophrenia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of typical antipsychotics, generic risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine and family interventions. Health outcomes were measured in disability adjusted life years. We evaluated intervention benefit by estimating a change in disease severity, taking into account potential side effects. Intervention costs included outpatient treatment costs, hospitalization costs as well as time and travel costs of patients and families. Uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. A sensitivity analysis of the expected range cost of generic risperidone was undertaken. Results Generic risperidone is more cost-effective than typicals if it can be produced for less than 10 baht per 2 mg tablet. Risperidone was the cheapest treatment with higher drug costs offset by lower hospital costs in comparison to typicals. The most cost-effective combination of treatments was a combination of risperidone (dominant intervention. Adding family intervention has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1,900 baht/DALY with a 100% probability of a result less than a threshold for very cost-effective interventions of one times GDP or 110,000 baht per DALY. Treating the most severe one third of patients with clozapine instead of risperidone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 320,000 baht/DALY with just over 50% probability of a result below three times GDP per capita. Conclusions There are good economic arguments to recommend generic risperidone as first line treatment in combination with family intervention. As the uncertainty interval indicates

  1. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  2. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  3. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  4. Broad-Band EUV Multilayer Coatings For Solar Physics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and commercialize a new class of aperiodic multilayer coating that is designed to provide high normal-incidence reflectance over a wide...

  5. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  6. Ultra-broad band supercontinuum produced by terawatt femtosecond laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟力; 王清月; 邢岐荣; 柴路; K.M.Yoo

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of supercontinuum produced by high-intensity femtosecond pulses were investigated under different interaction lengths, various pump intensities, different pump wavelengths at the fundamental 800 nm and its second-harmonic 400 nm. High transfer-efficiency supercontinuum with flat-top in liquid media was produced. As the main nonlinear mechanisms, the effects of self-phase modulation (SPM) and four-photon parametric emission were also investigated.

  7. Parallel Processing of Broad-Band PPM Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew; Kang, Edward; Lay, Norman; Vilnrotter, Victor; Srinivasan, Meera; Lee, Clement

    2010-01-01

    A parallel-processing algorithm and a hardware architecture to implement the algorithm have been devised for timeslot synchronization in the reception of pulse-position-modulated (PPM) optical or radio signals. As in the cases of some prior algorithms and architectures for parallel, discrete-time, digital processing of signals other than PPM, an incoming broadband signal is divided into multiple parallel narrower-band signals by means of sub-sampling and filtering. The number of parallel streams is chosen so that the frequency content of the narrower-band signals is low enough to enable processing by relatively-low speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronic circuitry. The algorithm and architecture are intended to satisfy requirements for time-varying time-slot synchronization and post-detection filtering, with correction of timing errors independent of estimation of timing errors. They are also intended to afford flexibility for dynamic reconfiguration and upgrading. The architecture is implemented in a reconfigurable CMOS processor in the form of a field-programmable gate array. The algorithm and its hardware implementation incorporate three separate time-varying filter banks for three distinct functions: correction of sub-sample timing errors, post-detection filtering, and post-detection estimation of timing errors. The design of the filter bank for correction of timing errors, the method of estimating timing errors, and the design of a feedback-loop filter are governed by a host of parameters, the most critical one, with regard to processing very broadband signals with CMOS hardware, being the number of parallel streams (equivalently, the rate-reduction parameter).

  8. Free space optical networks for ultra-broad band services

    CERN Document Server

    Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V

    2011-01-01

    "Free Space Optical Network is a next generation communication network which uses optical waves instead of microwaves, potentially offering faster communication with ultra band width, meaning more complex communication services can be simultaneously offered. This book describes the network concepts in simple language starting with point-to-point free space optics basics and discusses networking, interoperability with existing communication network, and security. An ideal resource for communication professionals just entering the free space optical communication field and graduate students majoring in optical communications"--Provided by publisher.

  9. Broad Band Properties of the BAT Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard; Winter, Lisa; Tueller, Jack

    2008-01-01

    I will present the x-ray spectral properties of approx.150 BAT selected ACN focusing on the issues of spectral complexity, x-ray absorption and its distribution and that contribution of sources to the x-ray background. If time permits we will also present the nature of the host galaxies of the ACN and their relationship to merger candidates.

  10. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  11. Broad band polarimetric investigation of Type IIP supernova 2013ej

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Brajesh; Eswaraiah, C; Kawabata, K S

    2015-01-01

    We present results based on follow-up observations of the Type II-plateau supernova (SN) 2013ej at 6 epochs spanning a total duration of $\\sim$37 d. The $R_{c}$-band linear polarimetric observations were carried out between the end of the plateau and the beginning of the nebular phases as noticed in the photometric light curve. The contribution due to interstellar polarization (ISP) was constrained by using couple of approaches, i.e. based upon the observations of foreground stars lying within 5\\arcmin\\, and 10$\\degr$ radius of the SN location and also investigating the extinction due to the Milky Way and host galaxy towards the SN direction. Our analysis revealed that in general the intrinsic polarization of the SN is higher than the polarization values for the foreground stars and exhibits an increasing trend during our observations. After correcting the ISP of $\\sim$0.6 per cent, the maximum intrinsic polarization of SN~2013ej is found to be 2.14 $\\pm$ 0.57 per cent. Such a strong polarization has rarely b...

  12. Computer-aided design of broad band reflection type amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershaimb, Edgar; Jeppesen, Palle; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Microwave negative resistance reflection type amplifiers using stable transferred electron devices (TED's) are optimized by numerical optimization techniques programmed for an interactive graphic datascreen. The small signal impedance of packaged TED's is measured on an automatic network analyzer....... At the same time the impedance of unpackaged devices are obtained by on-line correction for the package parasitics. The microwave circuit chosen is a multiple slug coaxial cavity, that is modelled by sections of lossy transmission lines including step susceptances. The measured small signal impedance...... of the packaged TED's and the cavity model are used in a direct optimization procedure, in which the calculated minimum gain in the prescribed frequency range is progressively maximized by adjusting the lengths, characteristic impedances and positions of the slugs. The computed results are displayed...

  13. High Reflectivity, Broad-Band Silver Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future space telescopes such as the Super Nova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) require exceptionally reflective coatings applied to mirrors several meters in diameter. In...

  14. A broad-band microseismometer for planetary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Vanzandt, T.; Kaiser, W. J.; Kenny, T. W.

    1993-06-01

    There has recently been renewed interest in the development of instrumentation for making measurements on the surface of Mars. This is due to the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Mission, for which approximately 16 small, long-lived (2-10 years), relatively inexpensive surface stations will be deployed in a planet-wide network. This will allow the investigation of processes (such as seismology and meteorology) which require the simultaneous measurement of phenomena at many widely spaced locations on the surface over a considerable length of time. Due to the large number of vehicles involved, the mass, power, and cost of the payload will be severely constrained. A seismometer has been identified as one of the highest priority instruments in the MESUR straw-man payload. The requirements for an effective seismic experiment on Mars place a number of constraints on any viable sensor design. First, a large number of sensors must be deployed in a long-lived global network in order to be able to locate many events reliably, provide good spatial sampling of the interior, and increase the probability of seismic detection in the event of localized seismicity and/or high attenuation. From a practical standpoint, this means that individual surface stations will necessarily be constrained in terms of cost, mass, and power. Landing and thermal control systems will probably be simple, in order to minimize cost, resulting in large impact accelerations and wide daily and seasonal thermal swings. The level of seismic noise will determine the maximum usable sensitivity for seismometer. Unfortunately, the ambient seismic noise level for Mars is not well known. However lunar seismic noise levels are several orders of magnitude below that of the Earth. Sensitivities on the order of 10(exp -11)g over a bandwidth of .04 to 20 Hz are thought to be necessary to fulfill the science objectives for a seimometer placed on the Martian surface. Silicon micromachined sensor technology offers techniques for the fabrication of monolithic, robust, compact, lower power and mass accelerometers. Conventional micro-machined accelerometers have been developed and are commercially available for high frequency and large acceleration measurements. The new seismometer we are developing incorporates certain principles of conventional silicon micromachined accelerometer technology. However, currently available silicon micromachined sensors offer inadequate sensitivity and bandwidth for the Mars seismometer application. Our implementation of an advanced silicon micromachined seismometer is based on principles recently developed at JPL for high-sensitivity position sensor technology.

  15. A prism based magnifying hyperlens with broad-band imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Md. Samiul; Stefani, Alessio; Atakaramians, Shaghik

    2017-01-01

    Magnification in metamaterial hyperlenses has been demonstrated using curved geometries or tapered devices, at frequencies ranging from the microwave to the ultraviolet spectrum. One of the main issues of such hyperlenses is the difficulty in manufacturing. In this letter, we numerically and expe...

  16. High Reflectivity, Broad-Band Silver Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silver coatings for optics greater than 2-meters in diameter are sought by NASA for future space telescope systems. In the Phase I research, Surface Optics...

  17. Cost-effectiveness of automated external defibrillators on airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, P W; Kwong, J L; Liu, Y; Rodriguez, A J; Jones, M P; Sanders, G D; Garber, A M

    2001-09-26

    Installation of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) on passenger aircraft has been shown to improve survival of cardiac arrest in that setting, but the cost-effectiveness of such measures has not been proven. To examine the costs and effectiveness of several different options for AED deployment in the US commercial air transportation system. Decision and cost-effectiveness analysis of a strategy of full deployment on all aircraft as well as several strategies of partial deployment only on larger aircraft, compared with a baseline strategy of no AEDs on aircraft (but training flight attendants in basic life support) for a hypothetical cohort of persons experiencing cardiac arrest aboard US commercial aircraft. Estimates for costs and outcomes were obtained from the medical literature, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Air Transport Association of America, a population-based cohort of Medicare patients, AED manufacturers, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Quality-adjusted survival after cardiac arrest; costs of AED deployment on aircraft and of medical care for cardiac arrest survivors. Adding AEDs on passenger aircraft with more than 200 passengers would cost $35 300 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Additional AEDs on aircraft with capacities between 100 and 200 persons would cost an additional $40 800 per added QALY compared with deployment on large-capacity aircraft only, and full deployment on all passenger aircraft would cost an additional $94 700 per QALY gained compared with limited deployment on aircraft with capacity greater than 100. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the quality of life, annual mortality rate, and the effectiveness of AEDs in improving survival were the most influential factors in the model. In 85% of Monte Carlo simulations, AED placement on large-capacity aircraft produced cost-effectiveness ratios of less than $50 000 per QALY. The cost-effectiveness of placing AEDs on commercial aircraft compares favorably

  18. Cost-effectiveness of Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Matthew J; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Nudel, Jacob D; Corey, Kathleen E; Kaplan, Lee M; Hur, Chin

    2017-02-01

    Severe obesity affects 4% to 6% of US youth and is increasing in prevalence. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity is becoming more common, but data on cost-effectiveness are limited. To assess the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for adolescents with obesity using recently published results from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. A state-transition model was constructed to compare 2 strategies: no surgery and bariatric surgery. In the no surgery strategy, patients remained at their initial body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) over time. In the bariatric surgery strategy, patients were subjected to risks of perioperative mortality and complications as well as initial morbidity but also experienced longer-term quality-of-life improvements associated with weight loss. Cohort demographic information-of the 228 patients included, the mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years, the mean (range) body mass index was 53 (34-88), and 171 (75.0%) were female-surgery-related outcomes, and base case time horizon (3 years) were based on data from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), total costs (in US dollars adjusted to 2015-year values using the Consumer Price Index), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). A willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY was used to assess cost-effectiveness. After 3 years, surgery led to a gain of 0.199 QALYs compared with no surgery at an incremental cost of $30 747, yielding an unfavorable ICER of $154 684 per QALY. When the clinical study results were extrapolated to 4 years, the ICER decreased to $114 078 per QALY and became cost-effective by 5 years with an ICER of $91 032 per QALY. Outcomes were robust in most 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Bariatric surgery incurs

  19. Evaluation of the cost effectiveness model being developed for the component improvement programs of the Air Force and the Navy

    OpenAIRE

    Crowder, Gerald L.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) model used by the Air Force to assist with the decision making process of their Component Improvement Program (CIP). The emphasis was on studying the model for its use in the Naval Component Improvement Program. With an example provided by General Electric, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the cost drivers of the model. For the example, the major cost driver...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of telemonitoring of diabetic foot ulcer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasterholdt, Iben; Gerstrøm, Marie; Rasmussen, Benjamin Schnack Brandt

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the cost-effectiveness of telemonitoring with standard monitoring for patients with diabetic foot ulcers. The economic evaluation was nested within a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. A total of 374 patients were randomised to either telemonitoring or standard monitoring....... Telemonitoring consisted of two tele-consultations in the patient's own home and one consultation at the outpatient clinic; standard monitoring consisted of three outpatient clinic consultations. Total healthcare costs were estimated over a 6-month period at individual patient level, from a healthcare sector...... perspective. The bootstrap method was used to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, and one-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Telemonitoring costs were found to be €2039 less per patient compared to standard monitoring; however, this difference was not statistically significant...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of telemonitoring of diabetic foot ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasterholdt, Iben; Gerstrøm, Marie; Rasmussen, Benjamin Schnack Brandt; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Kidholm, Kristian; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller

    2016-09-16

    This study compared the cost-effectiveness of telemonitoring with standard monitoring for patients with diabetic foot ulcers. The economic evaluation was nested within a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. A total of 374 patients were randomised to either telemonitoring or standard monitoring. Telemonitoring consisted of two tele-consultations in the patient's own home and one consultation at the outpatient clinic; standard monitoring consisted of three outpatient clinic consultations. Total healthcare costs were estimated over a 6-month period at individual patient level, from a healthcare sector perspective. The bootstrap method was used to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, and one-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Telemonitoring costs were found to be €2039 less per patient compared to standard monitoring; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Amputation rate was similar in the two groups. In conclusion, a telemonitoring service in this form had similar costs and effects as standard monitoring. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. [Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening policies in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2009-01-01

    Generate cost-effectiveness information to allow policy makers optimize breast cancer (BC) policy in Mexico. We constructed a Markov model that incorporates four interrelated processes of the disease: the natural history; detection using mammography; treatment; and other competing-causes mortality, according to which 13 different strategies were modeled. Strategies (starting age, % of coverage, frequency in years)= (48, 25, 2), (40, 50, 2) and (40, 50, 1) constituted the optimal method for expanding the BC program, yielding 75.3, 116.4 and 171.1 thousand pesos per life-year saved, respectively. The strategies included in the optimal method for expanding the program produce a cost per life-year saved of less than two times the GNP per capita and hence are cost-effective according to WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria.

  3. An fMRI study on sunk cost effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianmin; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Changming; Yu, Rongjun; Gong, Qiyong

    2013-06-26

    Sunk cost effect (also called escalation of commitment, etc) is a pervasive, interesting and famous decision bias, which has been intensively discussed in psychology, economics, management, political science, zoology, etc. To date, little has been known about the neural basis of this phenomenon. We investigated it by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor healthy subjects' brain activities when they made decisions in a task wherein sunk cost and incremental cost were systematically manipulated. Higher sunk cost only increased activity of some brain areas (mainly lateral frontal and parietal cortices, which are involved in risk-taking), whereas lower incremental cost mainly increased activity of some brain areas (including striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, which are sensitive to rewards). No overlapping brain areas were found to respond to both sunk cost and incremental cost. These results favor certainty effect over self-justification or diminishing sensitivity as account of sunk cost effect.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis in Chagas' disease vectors control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Oliveira Filho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available After a large scale field trial performed in central Brazil envisaging the control of Chagas' disease vectors in an endemic area colonized by Triatoma infestans and T. sordida the cost-effectiveness analysis for each insecticide/formulation was performed. It considered the operational costs and the prices of insecticides and formulations, related to the activity and persistence of each one. The end point was considered to be less than 90% of domicilliary unitis (house + annexes free of infestation. The results showed good cost-effectiveness for a slow-release emulsifiable suspension (SRES based on PVA and containing malathion as active ingredient, as well as for the pyrethroids tested in this assay-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin.

  5. Power and sample size in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, E M; Meisner, M; Siegel, C

    1999-01-01

    For resource allocation under a constrained budget, optimal decision rules for mutually exclusive programs require that the treatment with the highest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) below a willingness-to-pay (WTP) criterion be funded. This is equivalent to determining the treatment with the smallest net health cost. The designer of a cost-effectiveness study needs to select a sample size so that the power to reject the null hypothesis, the equality of the net health costs of two treatments, is high. A recently published formula derived under normal distribution theory overstates sample-size requirements. Using net health costs, the authors present simple methods for power analysis based on conventional normal and on nonparametric statistical theory.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of Voriconasole in treatment of invasive aspregillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Climko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is widespread infectious implication in immunodeficient patients, characterized by severe clinical manifestations and high mortality. This article presents the first case of pharmacoeconomical analysis of Voriconasole in treatment of IA compared with alternative therapies in Russia. Using mathematic modeling methods, we evalued total costs (including costs of IA treatment, clinical effectiveness and IA-related mortality in each therapy group. Obtained results showed the dominating of Voriconasole because of its high effectiveness and lower costs compared with caspofungine or amphotericine B. Total costs of therapy with Voricinasole were up to 30% lower compared with caspofungine and up to 70% lower compared with amphotericine B. Performed univariate sensitivity analysis showed that cost-effectiveness of anti-IA treatment depends mostly on clinical effectiveness of antimycotics rather than drug costs. Thus, treatment with Voriconasole is cost-effective in IA patients.

  7. Above Bonneville Passage and Propagation Cost Effectiveness Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region.

  8. Methodological considerations in the analysis of cost effectiveness in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antczak-Bouckoms, A A; Tulloch, J F; White, B A; Capilouto, E I

    1989-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is a technique applied with increasing frequency to help make rational decisions in health care resource allocation. This article reviews the ten general principles of cost-effectiveness analysis outlined by the Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress and describes a model for such analyses used widely in medicine, but only recently applied in dentistry. The imperative for the formulation of the best current information on both the effectiveness of dental practices and their costs is made more urgent because of the now universally recognized belief that resources available to meet the demands for health care are limited. Today's environment requires critical allocation decisions within categorical health problems, across diseases, or relative to other health problems. If important health benefits or cost savings are to be realized, then these analytic approaches must become widely understood, accepted, and appropriately applied by key decision makers in the dental health sector.

  9. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services.

  10. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of preventive zinc supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Günther; Heitner, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Even though the WHO currently recommends zinc for diarrhea management, no consensus has been reached with respect to routine distribution of zinc for preventive reasons. We reviewed the health impact of preventive zinc interventions, and evaluated the relative cost effectiveness of currently feasible interventions. Methods Using the latest relative risk estimates reported in the literature, we parameterized a health impact model, and calculated the expected benefits of zinc supplem...

  11. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of preventive zinc supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Günther; Heitner, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background: Even though the WHO currently recommends zinc for diarrhea management, no consensus has been reached with respect to routine distribution of zinc for preventive reasons. We reviewed the health impact of preventive zinc interventions, and evaluated the relative cost effectiveness of currently feasible interventions. Methods: Using the latest relative risk estimates reported in the literature, we parameterized a health impact model, and calculated the expected benefits of zinc suppl...

  12. Cost-effectiveness of early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamholz, Karen L; Cole, Cynthia H; Gray, James E; Zupancic, John A F

    2009-01-01

    The Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial demonstrated that peripheral retinal ablation of eyes with high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (early treatment) is associated with improved visual outcomes at 9 months' corrected gestational age compared with treatment at threshold disease (conventional management). However, early treatment increased the frequency of laser therapy, anesthesia with intubation, treatment-related systemic complications, and the need for repeat treatments. To determine the cost-effectiveness of an early treatment strategy for retinopathy of prematurity compared with conventional management. We developed a stochastic decision analytic model to assess the incremental cost of early treatment per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. We derived resource-use and efficacy estimates from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial's published outcome data. We used a third-party payer perspective. Our primary analysis focused on outcomes from birth through 9 months' corrected gestational age. A secondary analysis used a lifetime horizon. Parameter uncertainty was quantified by using probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness of early treatment was $14,200 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. There was a 90% probability that the cost-effectiveness of early treatment would be less than $40,000 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented and a 0.5% probability that early treatment would be cost-saving (less costly and more effective). Limiting early treatment to more severely affected eyes (eyes with "type 1 retinopathy of prematurity" as defined by the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial) had a cost-effectiveness of $6,200 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. Analyses that considered long-term costs and outcomes found that early treatment was cost-saving. Early treatment of retinopathy of prematurity is both

  13. Modified Transverse Thoracosternotomy and Cost-Effective Reinforced Sternal Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joseph; Sonett, Joshua R; D'Ovidio, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The bilateral transverse thoracosternotomy clamshell incision provides excellent exposure to the mediastinal structures in double lung transplantation. The use of a modified transverse sternotomy and a figure of 8 configuration with one monofilament metal wire, along with two longitudinal wires across the sternal division, results in greater stability and equally distributed oblique tension. Our described technique was more cost effective and resulted in no incidence of dehiscence. We present our experience using a modified transverse sternotomy and reinforced sternal closure method.

  14. Cost effectiveness of routine duodenal biopsies in iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, Efrat; Matalon, Shay; Kriger-Sharabi, Ofra; Richter, Vered; Shirin, Haim; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the cost effectiveness of routine small bowel biopsies (SBBs) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) independent of their celiac disease (CD) serology test results. METHODS We used a state transition Markov model. Two strategies were compared: routine SBBs during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in all patients with IDA regardless their celiac serology status (strategy A) vs SBBs only in IDA patients with positive serology (strategy B). The main outcomes were quality adjusted life years (QALY), average cost and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). One way sensitivity analysis was performed on all variables and two way sensitivity analysis on selected variables were done. In order to validate the results, a Monte Carlo simulation of 100 sample trials with 10, and an acceptability curve were performed. RESULTS Strategy A of routine SBBs yielded 19.888 QALYs with a cost of $218.10 compared to 19.887 QALYs and $234.17 in strategy B. In terms of cost-effectiveness, strategy A was the dominant strategy, as long as the cost of SBBs stayed less than $67. In addition, the ICER of strategy A was preferable, providing the cost of biopsy stays under $77. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that strategy A yielded the same QALY but with lower costs than strategy B. CONCLUSION Our model suggests that EGD with routine SBBs is a cost-effective approach with improved QALYs in patients with IDA when the prevalence of CD is 5% or greater. SBBs should be a routine screening tool for CD among patients with IDA, regardless of their celiac antibody status. PMID:27678365

  15. Cost-effectiveness of the Norwegian breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2017-02-15

    The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) has a nation-wide coverage since 2005. All women aged 50-69 years are invited biennially for mammography screening. We evaluated breast cancer mortality reduction and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using our microsimulation model, calibrated to most recent data. The microsimulation model allows for the comparison of mortality and costs between a (hypothetical) situation without screening and a situation with screening. Breast cancer incidence in Norway had a steep increase in the early 1990s. We calibrated the model to simulate this increase and included recent costs for screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and travel and productivity loss. We estimate a 16% breast cancer mortality reduction for a cohort of women, invited to screening, followed over their complete lifetime. Cost-effectiveness is estimated at NOK 112,162 per QALY gained, when taking only direct medical costs into account (the cost of the buses, examinations, and invitations). We used a 3.5% annual discount rate. Cost-effectiveness estimates are substantially below the threshold of NOK 1,926,366 as recommended by the WHO guidelines. For the Norwegian population, which has been gradually exposed to screening, breast cancer mortality reduction for women exposed to screening is increasing and is estimated to rise to ∼30% in 2020 for women aged 55-80 years. The NBCSP is a highly cost-effective measure to reduce breast cancer specific mortality. We estimate a breast cancer specific mortality reduction of 16-30%, at the cost of 112,162 NOK per QALY gained. © 2016 UICC.

  16. Assessing cost-effectiveness in the management of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri J Phillips

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceri J Phillips, Ioan HumphreysInstitute for Health Research, School of Health Science, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, UKAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young and middle-aged adults, with current prevalence rates estimated to be 30 per 100,000 populations. Women are approximately twice as susceptible as males, but males are more likely to have progressive disease. The onset of the disease normally occurs between 20 and 40 years of age, with a peak incidence during the late twenties and early thirties, resulting in many years of disability for a large proportion of patients, many of whom require wheelchairs and some nursing home or hospital care. The aim of this study is to update a previous review which considered the cost-effectiveness of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs, such as interferons and glatiramer acetate, with more up to date therapies, such as mitaxantrone hydrochloride and natalizumab in the treatment of MS. The development and availability of new agents has been accompanied byan increased optimism that treatment regimens for MS would be more effective; that the number, severity and duration of relapses would diminish; that disease progression would be delayed; and that disability accumulation would be reduced. However, doubts have been expressed about the effectiveness of these treatments, which has only served to compound the problems associated with endeavors to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of such interventions.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, disease management, immunomodulatory drugs, cost-effectiveness, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis

  17. Cost Effective Evaluation of Companies’ Storytelling on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Vendelø, Morten

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a cost effective and simple procedure for evaluating company web sites. Our assumption is that such sites are places for companies’ self-presentation and that customers are readers of these texts. Web site texts with narrative qualities, e.g. scenes, actors, acts, initiate the customers’ imagination and narrative mind and hence their decision making. These ideas are investigated in a qualitative study of two companies’ self-presentation as future work places for stude...

  18. Cost Effective Evaluation of Companies’ Storytelling on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Vendelø, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we present a cost effective and simple procedure for evaluating company web sites. Our assumption is that such sites are places for companies’ self-presentation and that customers are readers of these texts. Web site texts with narrative qualities, e.g. scenes, actors, acts, initiate the customers’ imagination and narrative mind and hence their decision making. These ideas are investigated in a qualitative study of two companies’ self-presentation as future work places...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of asthma therapy: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Ortega, Javier; Phillips-Anglés, Elsa; Barranco, Pilar; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Asthma has an important impact in terms of both direct and indirect costs. In Europe, the disease costs € 19 000 million a year. Moreover, the cost is greater among patients with severe uncontrolled asthma and is even higher when the work productivity is also taken into account. Improved control of the disease results in cost savings. In this context, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility studies offer important information for clinicians in deciding the best treatment options for asthmatic patients and contribute to ensure an efficient use of the available healthcare resources. An English and Spanish literature search using electronic search engines (PubMed and EMBASE) was conducted in peer-review journals, from 2009 to June 2014. In order to perform the search for the most suitable and representative articles, key words were selected ("asthma", "cost-effectiveness", "cost-utility", "QALY", "cost-benefit", "economic impact of asthma" "healthcare cost", "asthma treatment" and "work productivity with asthma"). Two-hundred forty-three titles and abstracts were identified by the primary literature search. The full text of the potentially 76 eligible papers was reviewed, and 22 articles were qualified to be finally included. This article provides a comprehensive review on the evidence of cost-effectiveness of asthma treatments derived from the published literature and offers an overall summary of the socioeconomic burden of asthma and its relationship with the degree of disease control. Management alternatives, such as the use of combination therapy with ICS/LABA or omalizumab, when administered according to their current therapeutic indications, have been shown to be cost-effective.

  20. Data Center Storage Cost-Effective Strategies, Implementation, and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Hubbert

    2011-01-01

    We overspend on data center storage ! yet, we fall short of business requirements. It's not about the technologies. It's about the proper application of technologies to deliver storage services efficiently and affordably. It's about meeting business requirements dependent on data center storage. Spend less, deliver more. Data Center Storage: Cost-Effective Strategies, Implementation, and Management provides an industry insider's insight on how to properly scope, plan, evaluate, and implement storage technologies to maximize performance, capacity, reliability, and power savings. It provides bus

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Family-Based Obesity Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrin, Teresa; Cao, Ying; Paluch, Rocco A; Roemmich, James N; Ecker, Michelle A; Epstein, Leonard H

    2017-09-01

    We translated family-based behavioral treatment (FBT) to treat children with overweight and obesity and their parents in the patient-centered medical home. We reported greater reductions in child and parent weight at 6 and 24 months compared with an attention-controlled information control (IC) group. This article reports the cost-effectiveness of long-term weight change for FBT compared with IC. Ninety-six children 2 to 5 years of age with overweight or obesity and with parents who had a BMI ≥25 were randomly assigned to FBT or IC, and both received diet and activity education (12-month treatment and 12-month follow-up). Weight loss and cost-effectiveness were assessed at 24 months. Intention-to-treat, completers, and sensitivity analyses were performed. The average societal cost per family was $1629 for the FBT and $886 for the IC groups at 24 months. At 24 months, child percent over BMI (%OBMI) change decreased by 2.0 U in the FBT group versus an increase of 4.4 U in the IC group. Parents lost 6.0 vs 0.2 kg at 24 months in the FBT and IC groups, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for children and parents' %OBMI were $116.1 and $83.5 per U of %OBMI, respectively. Parental ICERs were also calculated for body weight and BMI and were $128.1 per 1, and $353.8/ per kilogram, respectively. ICER values for child %OBMI were similar in the intention-to-treat group ($116.1/1 U decrease) compared with completers ($114.3). For families consisting of children and parents with overweight, FBT presents a more cost-effective alternative than an IC group. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The clinical observation of 1100~1800 nm broad band infrared intense pulsed light for the treatment of periorbital wrinkle%1100~1800 nm宽波红外强光治疗眶周皱纹的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董依云; 周国瑜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigated the broad band infrared intense pulsed light (IPL) instrument for periorbital wrinkle. Methods 1100~1800 nm broad band infrared IPL (Titan, Cutera, Brisbane, CA) was used for periorbital wrinkle therapy of 31 chinese with modiifed Fitzpatrick wrinkle score (MFWS) 0.5-2.5. Energy range was 26~34 J/cm², the interval was 4 weeks, 3 to 5 times as a course. Two treatment-independent evaluators conifrmed efifcacy at baseline, the last treatment, 1 and 3 months’ follow up. The patients were asked to rate the pain level during the treatment and their satisfactory by questionnaires at 3 months’ follow up. Results An average of 0.85 class and 0.75 class was achieved at 1 and 3 months follow up respectively, which had statistical difference (P<0.05). No dissatisfactory and no adverse effect was observed. 93.54%(29/31) patients rated painless during the session. Conclusion The broad band infrared IPL technology is safe and effective for periorbital wrinkle, painless is a main advantage.%目的:验证宽波红外强光治疗眶周皱纹的有效性和安全性。方法31例治疗前改良的Fitzpatrick皱纹分型(MFWS)眶周皱纹处于0.5~2.5级的患者被纳入研究。采用1100~1800 nm宽波红外强脉冲光进行治疗,能量26~34 J/cm2,4周1次,3~5次为1个疗程。由两位独立的第三方专家同时对患者眶周皱纹治疗前、疗程结束后、疗程结束后1个月和3个月的疗效进行分析。通过问卷形式由患者对术中疼痛度和术后3个月疗效满意度进行评分。结果治疗后1个月、3个月随访中患者Fitzpatrick 皱纹分型平均值分别由治疗前的1.5级下降到0.85级和0.75级,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。93.54%(29/31)的患者认为治疗过程中无疼痛,无明显不良反应。结论宽波红外强脉冲光技术治疗眶周皱纹安全有效,疼痛感少是其优点。

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Health Coaching: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rachel; Giese, Jeannie

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate published literature to distinguish how health coaching influences the cost of chronic disease management in insured adults with chronic conditions. An integrated literature review was conducted. MEDLINE, Business Source Complete, and OneSearch were searched for the years 2001-2016 utilizing the following key words: health coaching, health coaching AND insurance companies, health coaching AND cost, health coaching AND health insurance, and health coaching AND insurance cost. A total of 67 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed for applicability. Of those, 27 articles were found to be relevant to the research question. The practice settings of these articles are mostly primary care and wellness programs. Throughout the literature, health coaching has been found effective in chronic disease management such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of health coaching are limited. The current literature does not clearly demonstrate that health coaching lowers expenditures and patient copayments in the short term but projects future savings. Health coaching has the potential to improve chronic disease management and lower health care expenditures. Further long-term research is needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health coaching. It has been projected that the cost-effectiveness of health coaching will be long-term or over 12 months after initiating the health coaching program.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urueña, Analía; Pippo, Tomás; Betelu, María Sol; Virgilio, Federico; Hernández, Laura; Giglio, Norberto; Gentile, Ángela; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5. In Argentina, the most affected regions are the Northeast and Northwest, where hospitalizations and deaths are more frequent. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of adding either of the two licensed rotavirus vaccines to the routine immunization schedule. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model from the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative (Version 2.0) was used to assess health benefits, costs savings, life-years gained (LYGs), DALYs averted, and cost/DALY averted of vaccinating 10 successive cohorts, from the health care system and societal perspectives. Two doses of monovalent (RV1) rotavirus vaccine and three doses of pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccine were each compared to a scenario assuming no vaccination. The price/dose was US$ 7.50 and US$ 5.15 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. We ran both a national and sub-national analysis, discounting all costs and benefits 3% annually. Our base case results were compared to a range of alternative univariate and multivariate scenarios. The number of LYGs was 5962 and 6440 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. The cost/DALY averted when compared to no vaccination from the health care system and societal perspective was: US$ 3870 and US$ 1802 for RV1, and US$ 2414 and US$ 358 for RV5, respectively. Equivalent figures for the Northeast were US$ 1470 and US$ 636 for RV1, and US$ 913 and US$ 80 for RV5. Therefore, rotavirus vaccination was more cost-effective in the Northeast compared to the whole country; and, in the Northwest, health service's costs saved outweighed the cost of introducing the vaccine. Vaccination with either vaccine compared to no vaccination was highly cost-effective based on WHO guidelines and Argentina's 2011 per capita GDP of US$ 9090. Key variables influencing results were vaccine efficacy, annual loss of efficacy, relative coverage of deaths, vaccine price, and discount rate. Compared to no

  5. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwantika, Auliya A; Beutels, Philippe; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A immunization in Indonesia, including an explicit comparison between one-dose and two-dose vaccines. An age-structured cohort model based on a decision tree was developed for the 2012 Indonesia birth cohort. Using the model, we made a comparison on the use of two-dose and one-dose vaccines. The model involved a 70-year time horizon with 1-month cycles for children less than 2 years old and annually thereafter. Monte Carlo simulations were used to examine the economic acceptability and affordability of the hepatitis A vaccination. Vaccination would save US$ 3,795,148 and US$ 2,892,920 from the societal perspective, for the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules, respectively, in the context of hepatitis A treatment. It also would save 8917 and 6614 discounted quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), respectively. With the vaccine price of US$ 3.21 per dose, the implementation of single dose vaccine would yield an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$ 4933 per QALY gained versus no vaccination, whereas the two-dose versus one-dose schedule would cost US$ 14 568 per QALY gained. Considering the 2012 gross-domestic-product (GDP) per capita in Indonesia of US$ 3557, the results indicate that hepatitis A vaccination would be a cost-effective intervention, both for the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules in isolation, but two-dose vaccination would no longer be cost-effective if one-dose vaccination is a feasible option. Vaccination would be 100% affordable at budgets of US$ 71,408 000 and US$ 37,690,000 for the implementation of the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules, respectively. The implementation of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia would be a cost-effective health intervention under the market vaccine price. Given the budget limitations, the use of a one-dose-vaccine schedule would be more realistic to be applied than a two-dose schedule. The vaccine price, mortality rate and

  6. Cost-effectiveness and Economic Incidence of a Clean Energy Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignone, Bryan K.; Alfstad, Thomas; Bergman, Aaron; Dubin, Kenneth; Duke, Richard; Friley, Paul; Martinez, Andrew; Mowers, Matthew; Palmer, Karen; Paul, Anthony; Showalter, Sharon; Steinberg, Daniel; Woerman, Matt; Wood, Frances

    2012-07-01

    A Clean Energy Standard (CES) is a flexible, market-based policy instrument that could be adopted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. electricity system over time. This paper uses several well-known energy system and electricity models to analyze a CES that reflects broad principles outlined in President Obama's January 2011 State of the Union Address and in the Administration's subsequent Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future. 1 In particular, it examines three different design options for a CES that would each lead to approximately 80% clean electricity by 2035. These different design options provide broadly similar economic incentives for clean energy deployment and yield similar overall welfare impacts, but they exhibit different distributional outcomes. The most inclusive CES crediting approach favors producers over consumers in competitive electricity markets as well as regions with larger initial endowments of clean energy. On the other hand, the most restrictive crediting approach favors consumers over producers and reduces preferences for regions with larger initial endowments of clean energy. While specific technology outcomes vary across the four models used in this study, key insights about cost-effectiveness and economic incidence are largely robust to the underlying modeling platform. These insights may be important considerations in future CES policy design efforts.

  7. Acceptance of health technology assessment submissions with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios above the cost-effectiveness threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths EA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Griffiths, Janek K Hendrich, Samuel DR Stoddart, Sean CM Walsh HERON™ Commercialization, PAREXEL International, London, UK Objectives: In health technology assessment (HTA agencies where cost-effectiveness plays a role in decision-making, an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER threshold is often used to inform reimbursement decisions. The acceptance of submissions with ICERs higher than the threshold was assessed across different agencies and across indications, in order to inform future reimbursement submissions. Methods: All HTA appraisals from May 2000 to May 2014 from National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE, Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC, Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC, and Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH were assessed. Multiple technology appraisals, resubmissions, vaccination programs, and requests for advice were excluded. Submissions not reporting an ICER, or for which an ICER could not be determined were also excluded. The remaining appraisals were reviewed, and the submitted ICER, recommendation, and reasoning behind the recommendation were extracted. Results: NICE recommended the highest proportion of submissions with ICERs higher than the threshold (34% accepted without restrictions; 20% with restrictions, followed by PBAC (16% accepted without restrictions; 4% with restrictions, SMC (11% accepted without restrictions; 14% accepted with restrictions, and CADTH (0% accepted without restrictions; 26% with restrictions. Overall, the majority of higher-than-threshold ICER submissions were classified into the "malignant disease and immunosuppression" therapeutic category; however, there was no notable variation in acceptance rates by disease area. Reasons for accepting submissions reporting ICERs above the threshold included high clinical benefit over the standard of care, and addressing an unmet therapeutic need. Conclusion: Acceptance of submissions

  8. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of photovoltaic systems for telecommunications in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparaku, O. U.

    2002-03-01

    Developing countries seeking relevance in the international community have to adopt programmes in order to achieve cost-effective economic growth. Telecommunications is one area where emphasis must be laid because of its impact on development. Since the power supply forms an essential part of any communication system it is important to chose the power supply option that has the lowest life-cycle cost. The life-cycle costs of several power supply alternatives to some telecommunication systems in Nigeria have been evaluated. A hybrid (Solar/Gen. Set) power supply option is shown to be cost-effective when compared with diesel generating systems powering telecommunication equipment and airconditioning loads. The cost of PV power supply option used for a celluphone system is about 10% of the cost of the alternative of daily battery replacement and haulage. The low teledensity in the country creates a need for bold initiatives to incorporate solar power in telecommunications network, particularly in the remote rural communities where conventional electricity is not only unavailable, but is unreliable and very costly to maintain.

  9. Cost effectiveness of adopted quality requirements in hospital laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alneil; Ahmed-Abakur, Eltayib; Abugroun, Elsir; Bakhit, Siham; Holi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed in quasi-experiment to assess adoption of the essential clauses of particular clinical laboratory quality management requirements based on international organization for standardization (ISO 15189) in hospital laboratories and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of compliance to ISO 15189. The quality management intervention based on ISO 15189 was conceded through three phases; pre - intervention phase, Intervention phase and Post-intervention phase. In pre-intervention phase the compliance to ISO 15189 was 49% for study group vs. 47% for control group with P value 0.48, while the post intervention results displayed 54% vs. 79% for study group and control group respectively in compliance to ISO 15189 and statistically significant difference (P value 0.00) with effect size (Cohen's d) of (0.00) in pre-intervention phase and (0.99) in post - intervention phase. The annual average cost per-test for the study group and control group was 1.80 ± 0.25 vs. 1.97 ± 0.39, respectively with P value 0.39 whereas the post-intervention results showed that the annual average total costs per-test for study group and control group was 1.57 ± 0.23 vs 2.08 ± 0.38, P value 0.019 respectively, with cost-effectiveness ratio of (0.88) in pre -intervention phase and (0.52) in post-intervention phase. The planned adoption of quality management requirements (QMS) in clinical laboratories had great effect to increase the compliance percent with quality management system requirement, raise the average total cost effectiveness, and improve the analytical process capability of the testing procedure.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy to reduce obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lennert Veerman

    Full Text Available AIMS: Obesity causes a high disease burden in Australia and across the world. We aimed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of weight reduction with pharmacotherapy in Australia, and to assess its potential to reduce the disease burden due to excess body weight. METHODS: We constructed a multi-state life-table based Markov model in Excel in which body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, post-menopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer. We use data on effectiveness identified from PubMed searches, on mortality from Australian Bureau of Statistics, on disease costs from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and on drug costs from the Department of Health and Ageing. We evaluate 1-year pharmacological interventions with sibutramine and orlistat targeting obese Australian adults free of obesity-related disease. We use a lifetime horizon for costs and health outcomes and a health sector perspective for costs. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs below A$50 000 per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY averted are considered good value for money. RESULTS: The ICERs are A$130 000/DALY (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 93 000-180 000 for sibutramine and A$230 000/DALY (170 000-340 000 for orlistat. The interventions reduce the body weight-related disease burden at the population level by 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Modest weight loss during the interventions, rapid post-intervention weight regain and low adherence limit the health benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sibutramine or orlistat is not cost-effective from an Australian health sector perspective and has a negligible impact on the total body weight-related disease burden.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, Leslie; Janusz, Cara Bess; Clark, Andrew David; Prieto, Elise; Waight, Eufemia; Largaespada, Natalia

    2015-05-07

    Among women in Belize, cervical cancer is both the leading cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths. Both the quadrivalent and bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are licensed in Belize. The Ministry of Health of Belize convened a multidisciplinary team to estimate the costs, health benefits, and cost-effectiveness of adding an HPV vaccine to the national immunization schedule. The CERVIVAC cost-effectiveness model (Version 1.123) was used to assess the lifetime health and economic outcomes of vaccinating one cohort of girls aged 10 years against HPV. The comparator was no HPV vaccination. The PAHO Revolving Fund negotiated price of US$ 13.79 per dose was used (for the quadrivalent vaccine) and national data sources were used to define demography, cervical cancer incidence and mortality, cervical cancer treatment costs, and vaccine delivery costs. Estimates from international agencies were used in scenario analysis. In a cohort of ∼4000 Belizean girls tracked over a lifetime, HPV vaccination is estimated to prevent 69 new cases of cervical cancer (undiscounted), and 51 cervical cancer deaths (undiscounted). Considering the potential cervical cancer treatment costs and lost wages avoided by households (societal perspective), the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted was estimated to be US$ 429. This increased to US$ 1320 when cervical cancer treatment costs and lost wages were excluded from the analysis. Both estimates are far below the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of Belize (US$ 4795). The lifetime health care costs saved by the women and their families represent more than 60% of the investment cost needed by the Government for the vaccine. Routine HPV vaccination would be highly cost-effective in Belize. If affordable, efforts should be made to expedite the introduction of this vaccine into the Belizean national immunization program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comprehensive overview: efficacy, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness of irbesartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gialama F

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fotini Gialama, Nikos ManiadakisHealth Services Organisation and Management, National School of Public Health, Athens, GreeceBackground: Hypertension represents a major health problem, affecting more than one billion adults worldwide. Irbesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, is considered to be a highly effective treatment in the management of hypertension. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability profile, and cost-effectiveness of treatment with irbesartan in hypertension.Methods: A review of the literature was conducted using the electronic PubMed and Cochrane Library databases and the Health Economic Evaluations Database of search terms relating to irbesartan efficacy, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness, and the results were utilized.Results: Findings from the present analysis show that irbesartan either as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents can achieve significant reductions in blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, compared with alternative treatment options. Irbesartan was also found to have a renoprotective effect independent of its blood pressure-lowering in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Furthermore, irbesartan demonstrated an excellent safety and tolerability profile, with either lower or equal adverse events compared with placebo and other alternative treatments. In terms of economic analyses, compared with other antihypertensive therapy alternatives, irbesartan was found to be a preferred option, that is less costly and more effective.Conclusion: The evidence indicates that treating patients with hypertension alone or with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy using irbesartan can control hypertension, prolong life, and reduce costs in relation to existing alternatives.Keywords: irbesartan, tolerability, safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, economic evaluation

  13. Cost-effective framework for basic surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deng-Jin; Wen, Chan; Yang, Ai-Jun; Zhu, Zhi-Li; Lei, Yan; Lan, Yang-Jun; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Hou, Xiao-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The importance of basic surgical skills is entirely agreed among surgical educators. However, restricted by ethical issues, finance etc, the basic surgical skills training is increasingly challenged. Increasing cost gives an impetus to the development of cost-effective training models to meet the trainees' acquisition of basic surgical skills. In this situation, a cost-effective training framework was formed in our department and introduced here. Each five students were assigned to a 'training unit'. The training was implemented weekly for 18 weeks. The framework consisted of an early, a transitional, an integrative stage and a surgical skills competition. Corresponding training modules were selected and assembled scientifically at each stage. The modules comprised campus intranet databases, sponge benchtop, nonliving animal tissue, local dissection specimens and simulating reality operations. The training outcomes used direct observation of procedural skills as an assessment tool. The training data of 50 trainees who were randomly selected in each year from 2006 to 2011 year, were retrospectively analysed. An excellent and good rate of the surgical skills is from 82 to 88%, but there is no significant difference among 6 years (P > 0.05). The skills scores of the contestants are markedly higher than those of non-contestants (P < 0.05). The average training cost per trainee is about $21.85-34.08. The present training framework is reliable, feasible, repeatable and cost-effective. The skills competition can promote to improve the surgical skills level of trainees. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Cost effectiveness analysis of hemiarthroplasty and total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C; Watters, Tyler S; Orlando, Lori A; Bolognesi, Michael P; Moorman, Claude T

    2010-04-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) are two viable surgical treatment options for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Recent systematic reviews and randomized trials suggest that TSA, while more costly initially, may have superior outcomes with regard to pain, function and quality of life with lower revision rates. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of TSA with HA. A Markov decision model was constructed for a cost-utility analysis of TSA compared to HA in a cohort of 64-year-old patients. Outcome probabilities and effectiveness were derived from the literature. Costs were estimated from the societal perspective using the national average Medicare reimbursement for the procedures in 2008 US dollars. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Principal outcome measures were average incremental costs, incremental effectiveness, incremental QALYs, and net health benefits. In the base case, HA resulted in a lower number of average QALYs gained at a higher average cost to society and was, therefore, dominated by the TSA strategy for the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis. The cost effectiveness ratio for TSA and HA were $957/QALY and $1,194/QALY respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that if the utility of TSA is equal to, or revision rate lower than HA, TSA continues to be a dominant strategy. Total shoulder arthroplasty with a cemented glenoid is a cost-effective procedure, resulting in greater utility for the patient at a lower overall cost to the payer. These findings suggest that TSA is the preferred treatment for certain populations from both a patient and payer perspective. 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Address Health Equity Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard; Mirelman, Andrew J; Griffin, Susan; Asaria, Miqdad; Dawkins, Bryony; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Verguet, Stéphane; J Culyer, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    This articles serves as a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to address health equity concerns. We first introduce the "equity impact plane," a tool for considering trade-offs between improving total health-the objective underpinning conventional CEA-and equity objectives, such as reducing social inequality in health or prioritizing the severely ill. Improving total health may clash with reducing social inequality in health, for example, when effective delivery of services to disadvantaged communities requires additional costs. Who gains and who loses from a cost-increasing health program depends on differences among people in terms of health risks, uptake, quality, adherence, capacity to benefit, and-crucially-who bears the opportunity costs of diverting scarce resources from other uses. We describe two main ways of using CEA to address health equity concerns: 1) equity impact analysis, which quantifies the distribution of costs and effects by equity-relevant variables, such as socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, sex, and severity of illness; and 2) equity trade-off analysis, which quantifies trade-offs between improving total health and other equity objectives. One way to analyze equity trade-offs is to count the cost of fairer but less cost-effective options in terms of health forgone. Another method is to explore how much concern for equity is required to choose fairer but less cost-effective options using equity weights or parameters. We hope this article will help the health technology assessment community navigate the practical options now available for conducting equity-informative CEA that gives policymakers a better understanding of equity impacts and trade-offs.

  16. The cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Yuzbashyan, Ruzanna; Sahakyan, Gayane; Avagyan, Tigran; Mosina, Liudmila

    2011-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness of introducing infant rotavirus vaccination in Armenia in 2012 using Rotarix(R) was evaluated using a multiple birth cohort model. The model considered the cost and health implications of hospitalisations, primary health care consultations and episodes not leading to medical care in children under five years old. Rotavirus vaccination is expected to cost the Ministry of Health $220,000 in 2012, rising to $830,000 in 2016 following termination of GAVI co-financing, then declining to $260,000 in 2025 due to vaccine price maturity. It may reduce health care costs by $34,000 in the first year, rising to $180,000 by 2019. By 2025, vaccination may be close to cost saving to the Ministry of Health if the vaccine purchase price declines as expected. Once coverage has reached high levels, vaccination may prevent 25,000 cases, 3000 primary care consultations, 1000 hospitalisations and 8 deaths per birth cohort vaccinated. The cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved is estimated to be about $650 from the perspective of the Ministry of Health, $850 including costs accrued to both the Ministry and to GAVI, $820 from a societal perspective excluding indirect costs and $44 from a societal perspective including indirect costs. Since the gross domestic product per capita of Armenia in 2008 was $3800, rotavirus vaccination is likely to be regarded as "very cost-effective" from a WHO standpoint. Vaccination may still be "very cost-effective" if less favourable assumptions are used regarding vaccine price and disease incidence, as long as DALYs are not age-weighted.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy to reduce obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J; Forster, Megan; Vos, Theo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity causes a high disease burden in Australia and across the world. We aimed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of weight reduction with pharmacotherapy in Australia, and to assess its potential to reduce the disease burden due to excess body weight. We constructed a multi-state life-table based Markov model in Excel in which body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, post-menopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer. We use data on effectiveness identified from PubMed searches, on mortality from Australian Bureau of Statistics, on disease costs from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and on drug costs from the Department of Health and Ageing. We evaluate 1-year pharmacological interventions with sibutramine and orlistat targeting obese Australian adults free of obesity-related disease. We use a lifetime horizon for costs and health outcomes and a health sector perspective for costs. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) below A$50 000 per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted are considered good value for money. The ICERs are A$130 000/DALY (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 93 000-180 000) for sibutramine and A$230 000/DALY (170 000-340 000) for orlistat. The interventions reduce the body weight-related disease burden at the population level by 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Modest weight loss during the interventions, rapid post-intervention weight regain and low adherence limit the health benefits. Treatment with sibutramine or orlistat is not cost-effective from an Australian health sector perspective and has a negligible impact on the total body weight-related disease burden.

  18. Dynamic modeling of cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben de Blasio, Birgitte; Flem, Elmira; Latipov, Renat; Kuatbaeva, Ajnagul; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2014-01-01

    The government of Kazakhstan, a middle-income country in Central Asia, is considering the introduction of rotavirus vaccination into its national immunization program. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination spanning 20 years by using a synthesis of dynamic transmission models accounting for herd protection. We found that a vaccination program with 90% coverage would prevent ≈880 rotavirus deaths and save an average of 54,784 life-years for children vaccine cost at vaccination program costs would be entirely offset. To further evaluate efficacy of a vaccine program, benefits of indirect protection conferred by vaccination warrant further study.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination of prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria; Meltzer, Martin Isaac; Lyerla, Rob

    2002-12-13

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating inmates against hepatitis B. From the prison perspective, vaccinating inmates at intake is not cost-saving. It could be economically beneficial when the cost of a vaccine dose is 1.6 and 50%, respectively. The health care system realizes net savings even when there is no incidence in prison, or there is no cost of chronic liver disease, or when only one dose of vaccine is administered. Thus, while prisons might not have economic incentives to implement hepatitis B vaccination programs, the health care system would benefit from allocating resources to them.

  20. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie, II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2006-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 and contains the following discussions: Qualification Testing; Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; Field Test Demonstration; Development of Ultra-Short Radius Composite Drill Pipe (USR-CDP); and Development of Smart USR-CDP.

  1. Cost effectiveness of a protocol using palivizumab in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Hernández-Gago

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of protocol use of palivizumab in premature established by consensus in our Hospital comparing it based on the recommendations of various Scientific Societies. As a secondary objective risk factors and severity of hospitalized patients attending the established protocol in our Hospital were analyzed. Methods: The study period was 4 seasons with the expanded protocol (retrospective data versus 2 with restricted or agreed protocol (prospective data. The perspective of the study was the Health System, including the costs of hospitalization and palivizumab our center. The calculation of the effectiveness was determined with the admission rate of premature patients stratified by weeks of gestational age <29, <32; and <35. For the analysis of risk factors and severity in patients admitted seasons with the new protocol are collected prospectively clinical data and environmental and social factors. Results: In the range of gestational age <29 years old and <32 greater effectiveness of the extended protocol was not demonstrated against the consensus. Only more effective for EG <35 in the accumulated data and comparing seasons 12/13 and 08/09 to 13/14 for individual data was observed. This range has an associated incremental cost effectiveness ratio of € 53 250,07 (range: € 14 793,39 to € 90 446,47 for singles data and € 50 525,53 (€ 28 688.22 to € 211 575,65 for accumulated. The establishment of this protocol in our center meant an average saving per season € 169 911,51. A cost- effectiveness of the extended protocol appropriate relationship is found if the cost of palivizumab per patient was less than € 1 206,67 (calculated for maximum use of the vial and a higher rate of hospitalization of 9.21%. Children entering the season with the new protocol (season 12/13 and 13/14 are 63.4% in children under 3 months and 90% are term infants who do not belong to any population at

  2. Global cost-effectiveness of GDM screening and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Louise K K; Kahn, James G; Marseille, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    and intervention approaches, and outcomes (e.g., inclusion or exclusion of long-term type 2 diabetes risk and associated costs). We concluded that incorporation of long-term benefits of GDM screening and treatment has huge impact on cost-effectiveness estimates. Based on the large methodological heterogeneity...... and varying results in the existing body of evidence, we find it unreasonable to outline any global recommendations. For future economic studies, we recommend inclusion of long-term outcomes and adaptation to local preferences, as well as examination of the impact of the diagnostic criteria recently proposed...

  3. Cost-effective wound management: a survey of 1717 nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Heather

    2017-06-22

    Delivering high-quality wound care requires a mix of knowledge and skills, which nurses aim to update by attending educational events such as conferences and study days. This article describes the data obtained from 30 educational study days, which took place across England, Scotland and Wales. It will explore nurses' knowledge in relation to the cost-effectiveness and clinical efficacy of current wound care practices, based on the answers of 1717 delegates that attended the events. It will also outline the results in relation to reducing expenditure on wound dressings and the importance of performing an accurate wound assessment.

  4. Cost Effective Polymer Solar Cells Research and Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing [Norfolk State Univ, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The technical or research objective of this project is to investigate and develop new polymers and polymer based optoelectronic devices for potentially cost effective (or cost competitive), durable, lightweight, flexible, and high efficiency solar energy conversion applications. The educational objective of this project includes training of future generation scientists, particularly young, under-represented minority scientists, working in the areas related to the emerging organic/polymer based solar energy technologies and related optoelectronic devices. Graduate and undergraduate students will be directly involved in scientific research addressing issues related to the development of polymer based solar cell technology.

  5. Key aspects of cost effective collector and solar field design

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reeken, Finn; Nicodemo, Dario; Keck, Thomas; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    A study has been performed where different key parameters influencing solar field cost are varied. By using levelised cost of energy as figure of merit it is shown that parameters like GoToStow wind speed, heliostat stiffness or tower height should be adapted to respective site conditions from an economical point of view. The benchmark site Redstone (Northern Cape Province, South Africa) has been compared to an alternate site close to Phoenix (AZ, USA) regarding site conditions and their effect on cost-effective collector and solar field design.

  6. Operating Dedicated Data Centers - Is It Cost-Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, M.; Hogue, R.; Hollowell, C.; Strecker-Kellog, W.; Wong, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2014-06-01

    The advent of cloud computing centres such as Amazon's EC2 and Google's Computing Engine has elicited comparisons with dedicated computing clusters. Discussions on appropriate usage of cloud resources (both academic and commercial) and costs have ensued. This presentation discusses a detailed analysis of the costs of operating and maintaining the RACF (RHIC and ATLAS Computing Facility) compute cluster at Brookhaven National Lab and compares them with the cost of cloud computing resources under various usage scenarios. An extrapolation of likely future cost effectiveness of dedicated computing resources is also presented.

  7. Privacy Enforcement in a Cost-Effective Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren Aagaard

    In this technical report we present the current state of the research conducted during the first part of the PhD period. The PhD thesis “Privacy Enforcement in a Cost-Effective Smart Grid” focuses on ensuring privacy when generating market for energy service providers that develop web services...... for the residential domain in the envisaged smart grid. The PhD project is funded and associated to the EU project “Energy Demand Aware Open Services for Smart Grid Intelligent Automation” (Smart HG) and therefore introduces the project on a system-level. Based on this, we present some of the integration, security...

  8. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial.

  9. Cost-Effective Helicopter Options for Partner Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    elevation feature MGTOW maximum gross takeoff weight MOB main operating base MoD Ministry of Defense MoI Ministry of Interior nm nautical miles NSRW...we provided a main operat- ing base ( MOB ) or forward operating base (FOB) from which operations would be conducted. In these instances, the...RAND RR141z1-2.2 MOB /FOB MOB /FOB X Y Z LZs Alternate LZs 23 nmPrimary LZ Bor der Bor der 120º 120º 10 Cost-Effective Helicopter Options for Partner

  10. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher DJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Cher,1 Melissa A Frasco,2 Renée JG Arnold,2,3 David W Polly4,5 1Clinical Affairs, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA; 2Division of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Quorum Consulting, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 5Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Background: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ disorders are common in patients with chronic lower back pain. Minimally invasive surgical options have been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Methods: Data from two prospective, multicenter, clinical trials were used to inform a Markov process cost-utility model to evaluate cumulative 5-year health quality and costs after minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants or non-surgical treatment. The analysis was performed from a third-party perspective. The model specifically incorporated variation in resource utilization observed in the randomized trial. Multiple one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: SIJ fusion was associated with a gain of approximately 0.74 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs at a cost of US$13,313 per QALY gained. In multiple one-way sensitivity analyses all scenarios resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER <$26,000/QALY. Probabilistic analyses showed a high degree of certainty that the maximum ICER for SIJ fusion was less than commonly selected thresholds for acceptability (mean ICER =$13,687, 95% confidence interval $5,162–$28,085. SIJ fusion provided potential cost savings per QALY gained compared to non-surgical treatment after a treatment horizon of greater than 13 years. Conclusion: Compared to traditional non-surgical treatments

  11. COST-EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION OF PREHOSPITAL THROMBOLYSIS WITH TENECTEPLASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Omel'yanovskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate clinical and cost effectiveness of different reperfusion strategies in myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation (STEMI, including pre-hospital thrombolysis with tenecteplase.  Material and methods. Methods of cost-effectiveness analysis and economic modeling were used to calculate the costs of reperfusion in STEMI, expected number of life gains, the cost of life gains depending on reperfusion strategy (no reperfusion, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, prehospital thrombolysis, hospital thrombolysis.  Results. In accordance to analysis results and from economic point of view, the most effective strategy is primary PCI in patients within "therapeutic window" and pre-hospital thrombolysis in the remaining patients with STEMI. More complex strategy of patients flow control with patient division into groups of primary PCI, pre-hospital thrombolysis and hospital thrombolysis lead to decrease in reperfusion costs efficacy.  Conclusion. The reperfusion model with primary PCI in the first 120 minutes after STEMI symptoms onset, and pre-hospital thrombolysis with bolus thrombolytic administration, when PCI is not possible in this period, is the most effective economically and in respect on mortality reduction in patients with STEMI.

  12. COST-EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION OF PREHOSPITAL THROMBOLYSIS WITH TENECTEPLASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Omel'yanovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate clinical and cost effectiveness of different reperfusion strategies in myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation (STEMI, including pre-hospital thrombolysis with tenecteplase.  Material and methods. Methods of cost-effectiveness analysis and economic modeling were used to calculate the costs of reperfusion in STEMI, expected number of life gains, the cost of life gains depending on reperfusion strategy (no reperfusion, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, prehospital thrombolysis, hospital thrombolysis.  Results. In accordance to analysis results and from economic point of view, the most effective strategy is primary PCI in patients within "therapeutic window" and pre-hospital thrombolysis in the remaining patients with STEMI. More complex strategy of patients flow control with patient division into groups of primary PCI, pre-hospital thrombolysis and hospital thrombolysis lead to decrease in reperfusion costs efficacy.  Conclusion. The reperfusion model with primary PCI in the first 120 minutes after STEMI symptoms onset, and pre-hospital thrombolysis with bolus thrombolytic administration, when PCI is not possible in this period, is the most effective economically and in respect on mortality reduction in patients with STEMI.

  13. Cost-effectiveness assessment in outpatient sinonasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortuaire, G; Theis, D; Fackeure, R; Chevalier, D; Gengler, I

    2017-09-15

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of outpatient sinonasal surgery in terms of clinical efficacy and control of expenses. A retrospective study was conducted from January 2014 to January 2016. Patients scheduled for outpatient sinonasal surgery were systematically included. Clinical data were extracted from surgical and anesthesiology computer files. The cost accounting methods applied in our institution were used to evaluate logistic and technical costs. The standardized hospital fees rating system based on hospital stay and severity in diagnosis-related groups (Groupes homogènes de séjours: GHS) was used to estimate institutional revenue. Over 2years, 927 outpatient surgical procedures were performed. The crossover rate to conventional hospital admission was 2.9%. In a day-1 telephone interview, 85% of patients were very satisfied with the procedure. All outpatient cases showed significantly lower costs than estimated for conventional management with overnight admission, while hospital revenue did not differ between the two. This study confirmed the efficacy of outpatient surgery in this indication. Lower costs could allow savings for the health system by readjusting the rating for the procedure. More precise assessment of cost-effectiveness will require more fine-grained studies based on micro costing at hospital level and assessment of impact on conventional surgical activity and post-discharge community care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of a ROPS retrofit education campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M L; Cole, H P; Westneat, S C

    2004-05-01

    A community educational campaign implemented in two Kentucky counties was effective in influencing farmers to retrofit their tractors with rollover protective structures (ROPS) to protect tractor operators from injury in the event of an overturn. This article reports on the cost-effectiveness of this program in the two counties when compared to no program in a control county. A decision analysis indicated that it would be effective at averting 0.27 fatal and 1.53 nonfatal injuries over a 20-year period, and when this analysis was extended statewide, 7.0 fatal and 40 nonfatal injuries would be averted in Kentucky. Over the 20-year period, the cost-per-injury averted was calculated to be $172,657 at a 4% annual discount rate. This cost compared favorably with a national cost of $489,373 per injury averted despite the additional program cost in Kentucky. The principle reason for the increased cost-effectiveness of the Kentucky program was the three-fold higher propensity for tractors to overturn in Kentucky. The cost-per-injury averted in one of the two counties was $112,535. This lower cost was attributed principally to incentive awards financed locally for farmers to retrofit their tractors with ROPS.

  15. Strengthening Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louise B; Sinha, Anushua

    2016-05-01

    Although the U.S. spends more on medical care than any country in the world, Americans live shorter lives than the citizens of other high-income countries. Many important opportunities to improve this record lie outside the health sector and involve improving the conditions in which Americans live and work: safe design and maintenance of roads, bridges, train tracks, and airports; control of environmental pollutants; occupational safety; healthy buildings; a safe and healthy food supply; safe manufacture of consumer products; a healthy social environment; and others. Faced with the overwhelming array of possibilities, U.S. decision makers need help identifying those that can contribute the most to health. Cost-effectiveness analysis is designed to serve that purpose, but has mainly been used to assess interventions within the health sector. This paper briefly reviews the objective of cost-effectiveness analysis and its methodologic evolution and discusses the issues that arise when it is used to evaluate interventions that fall outside the health sector under three headings: structuring the analysis, quantifying/measuring benefits and costs, and valuing benefits and costs.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis in markets with high fixed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Ericson, Keith M Marzilli

    2010-01-01

    We consider how to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis when the social cost of a resource differs from the posted price. From the social perspective, the true cost of a medical intervention is the marginal cost of delivering another unit of a treatment, plus the social cost (deadweight loss) of raising the revenue to fund the treatment. We focus on pharmaceutical prices, which have high markups over marginal cost due to the monopoly power granted to pharmaceutical companies when drugs are under patent. We find that the social cost of a branded drug is approximately one-half the market price when the treatment is paid for by a public insurance plan and one-third the market price for mandated coverage by private insurance. We illustrate the importance of correctly accounting for social costs using two examples: coverage for statin drugs and approval for a drug to treat kidney cancer (sorafenib). In each case, we show that the correct social perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis would be more lenient than researcher recommendations.

  17. Can aging in place be cost effective? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Erin M; McMeekin, Peter; Wildman, John

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review cost, cost-minimization and cost-effectiveness studies for assisted living technologies (ALTs) that specifically enable older people to 'age in place' and highlight what further research is needed to inform decisions regarding aging in place. People aged 65+ and their live-in carers (where applicable), using an ALT to age in place at home opposed to a community-dwelling arrangement. Studies were identified using a predefined search strategy on two key economic and cost evaluation databases NHS EED, HEED. Studies were assessed using methods recommended by the Campbell and Cochrane Economic Methods Group and presented in a narrative synthesis style. Eight eligible studies were identified from North America spread over a diverse geographical range. The majority of studies reported the ALT intervention group as having lower resource use costs than the control group; though the low methodological quality and heterogeneity of the individual costs and outcomes reported across studies must be considered. The studies suggest that in some cases ALTs may reduce costs, though little data were identified and what there were was of poor quality. Methods to capture quality of life gains were not used, therefore potential effects on health and wellbeing may be missed. Further research is required using newer developments such as the capabilities approach. High quality studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of ALTs for ageing in place are required before robust conclusion on their use can be drawn.

  18. Can aging in place be cost effective? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Graybill

    Full Text Available PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To systematically review cost, cost-minimization and cost-effectiveness studies for assisted living technologies (ALTs that specifically enable older people to 'age in place' and highlight what further research is needed to inform decisions regarding aging in place. DESIGN: People aged 65+ and their live-in carers (where applicable, using an ALT to age in place at home opposed to a community-dwelling arrangement. METHODS: Studies were identified using a predefined search strategy on two key economic and cost evaluation databases NHS EED, HEED. Studies were assessed using methods recommended by the Campbell and Cochrane Economic Methods Group and presented in a narrative synthesis style. RESULTS: Eight eligible studies were identified from North America spread over a diverse geographical range. The majority of studies reported the ALT intervention group as having lower resource use costs than the control group; though the low methodological quality and heterogeneity of the individual costs and outcomes reported across studies must be considered. IMPLICATIONS: The studies suggest that in some cases ALTs may reduce costs, though little data were identified and what there were was of poor quality. Methods to capture quality of life gains were not used, therefore potential effects on health and wellbeing may be missed. Further research is required using newer developments such as the capabilities approach. High quality studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of ALTs for ageing in place are required before robust conclusion on their use can be drawn.

  19. [Cost-effectiveness analysis on colorectal cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q C; Ye, D; Jiang, X Y; Li, Q L; Yao, K Y; Wang, J B; Jin, M J; Chen, K

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening program in different age groups from the view of health economics. Methods: The screening compliance rates, detection rates in different age groups were calculated by using the data from colorectal cancer screening program in Jiashan county, Zhejiang province. The differences in indicator among age groups were analyzed with χ(2) test or trend χ(2) test. The ratios of cost to the number of case were calculated according to cost statistics. Results: The detection rates of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) positivity, advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer and early stage cancer increased with age, while the early diagnosis rates were negatively associated with age. After exclusion the younger counterpart, the cost-effectiveness of individuals aged >50 years could be reduced by 15%-30%. Conclusion: From health economic perspective, it is beneficial to start colorectal cancer screening at age of 50 years to improve the efficiency of the screening.

  20. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wyoming. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wyoming.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Dakota.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in West Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in West Virginia.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Texas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Texas.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Utah. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 Utah State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Utah.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Tennessee. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Tennessee.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Rhode Island. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Rhode Island.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Oklahoma. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Oklahoma.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Vermont. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Vermont.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Pennsylvania. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Pennsylvania.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Virginia.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Illinois. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Illinois.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Mississippi. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Mississippi.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Missouri. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Missouri.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nevada. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nevada.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Idaho. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 Idaho State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Idaho.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Louisiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Louisiana.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kansas.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Minnesota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Minnesota.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Mexico. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Mexico.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Indiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Indiana.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Michigan. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Michigan.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kentucky. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kentucky.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Hawaii. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Hawaii.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nebraska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nebraska.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Massachusetts. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Massachusetts.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Florida. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Florida.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Connecticut. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Connecticut.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alaska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alaska.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arizona. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arizona.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New York. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New York.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maine. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maine.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Ohio. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Ohio.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Iowa. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Iowa State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Iowa.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maryland. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maryland.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alabama. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alabama.

  5. REVASCULARIZATION FOR FEMOROPOPLITEAL DISEASE - A DECISION AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUNINK, MGM; WONG, JB; DONALDSON, MC; MEYEROVITZ, MF; DEVRIES, J; HARRINGTON, DP

    1995-01-01

    Objective.-To evaluate the relative benefits and cost-effectiveness of revascularization for femoropopliteal disease using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or bypass surgery. Design.-Decision analysis using a multistate transition simulation model (Markov process) and cost-effectiveness analysi

  6. Cost-effective therapy in patients with idiopathic hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, Franco; Zulian, Elisa; Scaroni, Carla

    2004-06-01

    Hirsutism affects 10% of women. Hirsute women with normal circulating androgen levels and normal ovarian function (i.e., regular and ovulatory menstrual cycles) are defined as having idiopathic hirsutism, which may affect more than 20% of all hirsute women. In the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism, different medical therapies, alone or in combination, have been reported. The drugs currently available are oral contraceptives, cyproterone acetate androgen receptors blockers (i.e., spironolactone and flutamide), 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (e.g., finasteride [Proscar, Aventis]) and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogs. After 1 year of treatment, each drug may improve hirsutism and reduce the Ferriman-Gallwey score by 35-40%. This review analyses the causes of hirsutism and provides information on each therapy and the cost-effective results in patients with idiopathic hirsutism.

  7. Cost Effective Evaluation of Companies' Storytelling on the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we present a cost effective and simple procedure for evaluating company web sites. Our assumption is that such sites are places for companies' self-presentation and that customers are readers of these texts. Web site texts with narrative qualities, e.g. scenes, actors, acts......, initiate the customers' imagination and narrative mind and hence their decision making. These ideas are investigated in a qualitative study of two companies' self-presentation as future work places for students. The results demonstrate that the students choose the company that has a web site with rich...... narrative qualities above the company that has a web site with good graphical appearance, but poor narrative qualities. In conclusion, we suggest that user centred evaluation of commercial web sites by using the suggested method can pay attention to deep, narrative structures in both the company's self...

  8. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen D; Smed, Sinne

    2007-04-04

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10-30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  9. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may....... The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range...... of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn....

  10. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may...... be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively....... The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range...

  11. A Cost- Effective Design of Reversible Programmable Logic Array

    CERN Document Server

    Singla, Pradeep; 10.5120/5619-7911

    2012-01-01

    In the recent era, Reversible computing is a growing field having applications in nanotechnology, optical information processing, quantum networks etc. In this paper, the authors show the design of a cost effective reversible programmable logic array using VHDL. It is simulated on xilinx ISE 8.2i and results are shown. The proposed reversible Programming logic array called RPLA is designed by MUX gate [10] & Feynman gate for 3- inputs, which is able to perform any reversible 3- input logic function or Boolean function. Furthermore the quantized analysis with camparitive finding is shown for the realized RPLA against the existing one. The result shows improvement in the quantum cost and total logical caculation in proposed RPLA.

  12. Cost effectiveness of rural development programme instruments in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    support (e.g. 10 million €/year) for the respective instruments, and in turn assess the geographically distributed effects on farm income and employment, on production, value-added and employment in related upstream and downstream industries, on income and employment in the municipalities, and on a number......The objective of this study is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of selected instruments of the Danish Rural Development Programme 2007-2013, which constitutes the Danish implementation of the EU Rural Development Programme under Pillar Two of the Common Agricultural Policy. The Programme aims...... (micro-based “National Accounts” for municipalities, municipality economic model) and national level (national economic model), which enables analysis at a fairly detailed geographical level and hence to evaluate the spatially distributed effects of the considered policy instruments, while at the same...

  13. Cost effectiveness of rural development programme instruments in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of selected instruments of the Danish Rural Development Programme 2007-2013, which constitutes the Danish implementation of the EU Rural Development Programme under Pillar Two of the Common Agricultural Policy. The Programme aims...... (micro-based “National Accounts” for municipalities, municipality economic model) and national level (national economic model), which enables analysis at a fairly detailed geographical level and hence to evaluate the spatially distributed effects of the considered policy instruments, while at the same...... time incorporating economic interactions between different geographical areas, via inter-regional trade, commuting and influences via prices and wages. In order to make results for different policy instruments comparable, we use the simulation models to assess the effects of a given amount of public...

  14. Simple and cost-effective fluorescent labeling of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahal, Tamar; Green, Ori; Hananel, Uri; Michaeli, Yael; Shabat, Doron; Ebenstein, Yuval

    2016-12-01

    The nucleobase 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), a modified form of cytosine, is an important epigenetic mark related to regulation of gene expression. 5-hmC levels are highly dynamic during early development and are modulated during the progression of neurodegenerative disease and cancer. We describe a spectroscopic method for the global quantification of 5-hmC in genomic DNA. This method relies on the enzymatic glucosylation of 5-hmC, followed by a glucose oxidation step that results in the formation of aldehyde moieties that are covalently linked to a fluorescent reporter by oxime ligation. The fluorescence intensity of the labeled sample is directly proportional to its 5-hmC content. We show that this simple and cost-effective technique is suitable for quantification of 5-hmC content in different mouse tissues.

  15. Cost effectiveness of ergonomic redesign of electronic motherboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rabindra Nath; Yeow, Paul H P

    2003-09-01

    A case study to illustrate the cost effectiveness of ergonomic redesign of electronic motherboard was presented. The factory was running at a loss due to the high costs of rejects and poor quality and productivity. Subjective assessments and direct observations were made on the factory. Investigation revealed that due to motherboard design errors, the machine had difficulty in placing integrated circuits onto the pads, the operators had much difficulty in manual soldering certain components and much unproductive manual cleaning (MC) was required. Consequently, there were high rejects and occupational health and safety (OHS) problems, such as, boredom and work discomfort. Also, much labour and machine costs were spent on repairs. The motherboard was redesigned to correct the design errors, to allow more components to be machine soldered and to reduce MC. This eliminated rejects, reduced repairs, saved US dollars 581495/year and improved operators' OHS. The customer also saved US dollars 142105/year on loss of business.

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2003-03-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents accomplishments made from October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: Metal-to-Composite Interface (MCI) redesign and testing; Successful demonstration of MCI connection for both SR and ER/DW CDP; Specifications for a 127mm (5 inch) ID by 152.4 mm (6 inch) OD composite drill pipe have been finalized for Extended Reach/Deep Water applications (ER/DW); Field testing of Short Radius CDP (SR); Sealing composite laminate to contain high pressure; Amendments; Amendment for ''Smart'' feature added to ER/DW development along with time and funding to complete battery of qualification tests with option for field demonstration; and Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  17. Development of a cost effective microscope heater stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugre, Joshua; Prayaga, Chandra; Wade, Aaron

    Utilizing 3D printing technology, a heater stage has been developed and implemented for microscopic systems. Due to the flexibility of 3D printing,the heater stage can be easily modified to fit any sample size with only slight modifications to the heating element being required. The sample in contact with the heating element can also easily be secured in a thermal insulator, such as aluminum foil. The thermal gradient of the heater stage has been recorded to be less than 1°C and has been compared to more expensive designs, and the cost effectiveness of the system has been determined. The system has been tested with a sample of the liquid crystal 8CB in order to determine the exact temperatures of the phase transitions of the crystal to verify that the system is applicable to a wide range of experimental physics. UWF Quality Enhancement Plan Award.

  18. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  19. Cost-effective unilateral climate policy design: Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Fischer, Carolyn; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-07-01

    Given the bleak prospects for a global agreement on mitigating climate change, pressure for unilateral abatement is increasing. A major challenge is emissions leakage. Border carbon adjustments and output-based allocation of emissions allowances can increase effectiveness of unilateral action but introduce distortions of their own. We assess antileakage measures as a function of abatement coalition size. We first develop a partial equilibrium analytical framework to see how these instruments affect emissions within and outside the coalition. We then employ a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use to assess the strategies as the coalition grows. We find that full border adjustments rank first in global cost-effectiveness, followed by import tariffs and output-based rebates. The differences across measures and their overall appeal decline as the abatement coalition grows. In terms of cost, the coalition countries prefer border carbon adjustments; countries outside the coalition prefer output-based rebates.(Author)

  20. An Improved, Efficient and Cost Effective Software Inspection Meeting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilawar Ali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normally, the inspection process is seemed to be just finding defects in software during software development process lifecycle. Software inspection is considered as a most cost effective technique, but if these defects are not properly corrected or handled it would cost you more than double later in the project. This paper focus on the last phase of inspection meeting process showing the importance of Follow-Up Stage in software inspection meeting process. This paper also suggests a set of activities that should be performed during the Rework and Follow-Up Stages so to get inspection meeting results productive and efficient. In this paper we focus on the over the shoulder reviews so to ensure the software quality having less impact on the total software cost.

  1. Guideline Standardisation, Cost Effectiveness, Industry Needs and Conflict of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. A Conference on Guideline Standardization (COGS was convened in April 2002 'to define a standard for guideline reporting that would promote guideline quality and facilitate implementation'. It includes items for standardization, conceptual issues, up gradation, conflict of interest, patient interest and systematization. Even items for individual preferences, choice or values are not neglected. Special mention must be made of items which specify disclosure of conflict of interest both in the Developer (including the organization that develops and the individuals involved in the guideline's formulation, as well as in the sponsor or funding source (and its role in developing and/or reporting the guideline. 2. Recommendations of CPGs and CDR panels are conflicting. One considers effectiveness, the other considers cost-effectiveness. However, CPGs do not adhere to established methodological standards, critical information that would attest to validity is regularly absent, explicit criteria to grade the scientific evidence that supports their recommendations is absent from 82% of guidelines, 87% are not in a position to report whether a systematic literature search was performed, 67% do not describe the type of professionals used in guidelines development, there is such marked variation in the quality of guidelines. Moreover, CPG guideline layers often are conflicted in their interests. The problem can be resolved to a large extent by taking a simple step: making CPG panelists go into cost effectiveness along with recommending Guidelines. What then happens is that they have to consider not only effectiveness but also costs. Now effectiveness can be fudged, cost cannot. Why? Because, what is the cost is well known. Therapies in Guidelines should be recommended and graded according to whether they are Most, Moderately or Least Cost Effective. For that CPGs will have to perform economic analysis as well. This will meet with resistance for obvious

  2. RTM: Cost-effective processing of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasko, Greg; Dexter, H. Benson

    1991-01-01

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a promising method for cost effective fabrication of high strength, low weight composite structures from textile preforms. In this process, dry fibers are placed in a mold, resin is introduced either by vacuum infusion or pressure, and the part is cured. RTM has been used in many industries, including automotive, recreation, and aerospace. Each of the industries has different requirements of material strength, weight, reliability, environmental resistance, cost, and production rate. These requirements drive the selection of fibers and resins, fiber volume fractions, fiber orientations, mold design, and processing equipment. Research is made into applying RTM to primary aircraft structures which require high strength and stiffness at low density. The material requirements are discussed of various industries, along with methods of orienting and distributing fibers, mold configurations, and processing parameters. Processing and material parameters such as resin viscosity, perform compaction and permeability, and tool design concepts are discussed. Experimental methods to measure preform compaction and permeability are presented.

  3. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  4. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Practice: Interventions to Improve High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Fiona; Bowden, A. Brooks; Belfield, Clive; Levin, Henry M.; Cheng, Henan; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Hanisch-Cerda, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we perform cost-effectiveness analysis on interventions that improve the rate of high school completion. Using the What Works Clearinghouse to select effective interventions, we calculate cost-effectiveness ratios for five youth interventions. We document wide variation in cost-effectiveness ratios between programs and between…

  6. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Simulation Modalities: A Case Study of Peripheral Intravenous Catheterization Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Brydges, Ryan; Carnahan, Heather; Backstein, David; Dubrowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    While the ultimate goal of simulation training is to enhance learning, cost-effectiveness is a critical factor. Research that compares simulation training in terms of educational- and cost-effectiveness will lead to better-informed curricular decisions. Using previously published data we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of three…

  7. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian Kroo

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Decision Support Strategies in Acute Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelidis, Constantinos I; Kern, Melissa S; Smith, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    A recent clinical trial suggests that printed (PDS) and computer decision support (CDS) interventions are safe and effective in reducing antibiotic use in acute bronchitis relative to usual care (UC). Our aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of decision support interventions in reducing antibiotic use in acute bronchitis. We conducted a clinical trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing UC, PDS and CDS for management of acute bronchitis. We assumed a societal perspective, 5-year program duration and 30-day time horizon. The U.S. population aged 13-64 years presenting with acute bronchitis in the ambulatory setting. Printed and computer decision support interventions relative to usual care. Cost per antibiotic prescription safely avoided. In the base case, PDS dominated UC and CDS, with lesser total costs (PDS: $2,574, UC: $2,768, CDS: $2,805) and fewer antibiotic prescriptions (PDS: 3.79, UC: 4.60, CDS: 3.95) per patient over 5 years. In one-way sensitivity analyses, PDS dominated UC across all parameter values, except when antibiotics reduced work loss by ≥ 1.9 days or the probability of hospitalization within 30 days was ≥ 0.9 % in PDS (base case: 0.2 %) or ≤ 0.4 % in UC (base case: 1.0 %). The dominance of PDS over CDS was sensitive both to probability of hospitalization and plausible variation in the adjusted odds of antibiotic use in both strategies. A PDS strategy to reduce antibiotic use in acute bronchitis is less costly and more effective than both UC and CDS strategies, although results were sensitive to variation in probability of hospitalization and the adjusted odds of antibiotic use. This simple, low-cost, safe, and effective intervention would be an economically reasonable component of a multi-component approach to address antibiotic overuse in acute bronchitis.

  9. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl R Krull

    Full Text Available Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control, with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Maintenance Hemodialysis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takura, Tomoyuki; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Kawanishi, Hideki; Nitta, Kosaku; Akizawa, Tadao; Hiramatsu, Makoto; Kawasaki, Tadayuki; Kukita, Kazutaka; Soejima, Hidehisa; Hirakata, Hideki; Yoshida, Toyohiko; Miyamoto, Takashi; Takahashi, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The cost-effectiveness according to primary disease or dialysis duration has never been analyzed with respect to maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Study candidates were > 20 years of age and had received hemodialysis for at least 6 months. Hemodialysis patients were prospectively observed for 36 months, and patient utility was assessed based on the Euro-QOL 5-dimensions (EQ-5D), from which the quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated. Medical costs were calculated based on medical service fees. The cost-effectiveness defined as the incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR) was analyzed from a social perspective. A total of 29 patients (mean age; 59.9 ± 13.1 years) undergoing 437 dialysis sessions were analyzed. Utility based upon the EQ-5D score was 0.75 ± 0.21, and the estimated total medical cost for one year of MHD treatment was 4.52 ± 0.88 US$10 000. ICUR was 6.88 ± 4.47 US$10 000/QALY on average, and when comparing ICUR based on the causes of kidney failure, the value for diabetic nephropathy was found to be higher than that for glomerulonephritis (8.17 ± 6.28 vs. 6.82 ± 4.07). ICUR after 36 months observation increased mainly in the patients below 65 years of age (All; P MHD is a treatment that could improve the socioeconomic state of elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), but the ICUR for diabetic nephropathy was higher than that for glomerulonephritis.

  11. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Cheryl R; Stanley, Margaret C; Burns, Bruce R; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return.

  12. Specialty-specific admission: a cost-effective intervention?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Slattery, E

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cost effectiveness of healthcare has become an important component in its delivery. Current practices need to be assessed and measured for variations that may lead to financial savings. Speciality specific admission is known not only to lead improved clinical outcomes but also to lead important cost reductions. METHODS: All patients admitted to an Irish teaching hospital via the emergency department over a 2-year period with a gastroenterology (GI) related illness were included in this analysis.GI illness was classified using the Disease related grouping (DRG) system. Mean length of stay (LOS) and patient level costing (PLC) were calculated. Differences between DRGs with respect to speciality (i.e. specialist vs. non-specialist) were calculated for the five commonest DRGs. RESULTS: Significant variations in LOS and PLC were demonstrated in the DRGs. Mean LOS varied with increasing complexity, from 3.2 days for non-complex GI haemorrhage to 14.4 days for complex alcohol related cirrhosis as expected. A substantial difference in LOS within DRG groups was demonstrated by large standard deviations in the mean (up to 8.1 days in some groups) and was independent of complexity of cases. PLC also varied widely in both complex and non-complex cases with standard deviations of up to 17,342 noted. Specialty-specific admission was associated with shorter LOS for most GI admissions. CONCLUSION: Significant disparity exists for both LOS and PLC for most GI diagnoses. Specialty-specific admissions are associated with reduced LOS. Specialty-specific admission would appear to be cost-effective which may also lead to improved clinical outcomes.

  13. An alternative safer and cost effective surface sterilization method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... 110 countries and 50% of the production occurs in Brazil and India (FAO, 2008). ... bution, foreign exchange earnings and savings, electric ... contamination from explants, the stock plants were raised by planting seed canes ...

  14. Health Economic Assessment: Cost-Effectiveness Thresholds and Other Decision Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An article published in this Journal argued that New Zealand does not apply a cost-effectiveness threshold because medicines are funded within a fixed budget and because cost-effectiveness is only one of nine criteria that inform decisions. This Comment has explained that, from a theoretical perspective, the cost-effectiveness threshold model is not inconsistent with these two arguments. The observed annual variation in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in New Zealand may originate from yearly differences in new medicines that request reimbursement and in the budget size, and from the fact that decision makers take into account other decision criteria in addition to cost-effectiveness.

  15. Sacrificing power for more cost-effective treatment: A techno-economic approach for engineering microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Zachary A; Ma, Zhaokun; Trivedi, Christopher B; Spear, John R; Xu, Pei

    2016-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising energy-positive wastewater treatment technology, however, the system's cost-effectiveness has been overlooked. In this study, two new anode materials - hard felt (HF) and carbon foam (CF) - were evaluated against the standard graphite brush (GB) to determine if using inexpensive materials with less than ideal properties can achieve more cost-effective treatment than high-cost, high-performing materials. Using domestic wastewater as the substrate, power densities for the GB, HF and CF-MFCs were 393, 339 and 291 mW m(-2) normalized by cathodic surface area, respectively. Higher power densities correlated with larger anodic surface areas and anodic current densities but not with electrical conductivity. Cyclic voltammetry revealed that redox systems used for extracellular electron transport in the GB, HF and CF-MFCs were similar (-0.143 ± 0.046, -0.158 ± 0.004 and -0.100 ± 0.014 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and that the electrochemical kinetics of the MFCs showed no correlation with their respective electrical conductivity. 16S rRNA sequencing showed the GB, HF and CF microbial community compositions were not statistically different while organic removal rates were nearly identical for all MFCs. The HF-MFC generated a power output to electrode cost (W $(-1)) 1.9 times greater than the GB-MFC, despite producing 14% less power and 15% less anodic current, while having 2.6 times less anodic surface area, 2.1 times larger charge transfer resistance and an electrical conductivity three orders of magnitude lower. The results demonstrate that inexpensive materials are capable of achieving more cost-effective treatment than high-performing materials despite generating lower power when treating real wastewater.

  16. Rural Single Wire Earth Return distribution networks - Associated problems and cost-effective solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, N. [Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Vic 3122 (Australia); Mayer, J.E. [Aurecon Australia Pty Ltd., Brisbane (Australia); Wolfs, P.J. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) systems are used for supplying electricity at low cost, where electricity supply is required for small populations of people dispersed across wide geographical areas. It is principally used for rural electrification, but is also used for other isolated loads and light rail. The existing SWER distribution systems have been stretched with the sharp growth of their loads because of customers' change of lifestyle, which has introduced additional load of air conditioning equipment, motors driven by variable-speed drives and inverters. This paper proposes cost-effective solutions to address the problem of voltage regulation and compensation of the unbalancing effect of SWER lines on the three-phase feeder of these lines, which have been exacerbated by this load growth. To improve the voltage regulation problem, a LV switchable reactor has been designed, a prototype made and tested in the field. Also, an unbalance compensator has been designed to reduce the unbalancing effect of SWER lines. Two case networks have been used to perform simulation studies on the effectiveness of both proposed solutions. At first, a case study is used to demonstrate the impact of a switchable reactor on improving voltage regulation. Then, another case study shows that installation of a switchable reactor and an unbalance compensator simultaneously on a SWER distribution system effectively improves voltage regulation and reduces unbalancing effects. (author)

  17. Critical Research for Cost-Effective Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liwei [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Deng, Xunming [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Abken, Anka [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Cao, Xinmin [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Du, Wenhui [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Vijh, Aarohi [Xunlight Corporation, Toledo, OH (United States); Ingler, William [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Chen, Changyong [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Fan, Qihua [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Collins, Robert [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Compaan, Alvin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Yan, Yanfa [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Giolando, Dean [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-10-29

    The objective of this project is to develop critical technologies required for cost-effective production of hydrogen from sunlight and water using a-Si triple junction solar cell based photo-electrodes. In this project, Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE) and its collaborating organizations utilize triple junction a-Si thin film solar cells as the core element to fabricate photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. Triple junction a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe solar cell is an ideal material for making cost-effective PEC system which uses sun light to split water and generate hydrogen. It has the following key features: 1) It has an open circuit voltage (Voc ) of ~ 2.3V and has an operating voltage around 1.6V. This is ideal for water splitting. There is no need to add a bias voltage or to inter-connect more than one solar cell. 2) It is made by depositing a-Si/a-SiGe/aSi-Ge thin films on a conducting stainless steel substrate which can serve as an electrode. When we immerse the triple junction solar cells in an electrolyte and illuminate it under sunlight, the voltage is large enough to split the water, generating oxygen at the Si solar cell side (for SS/n-i-p/sunlight structure) and hydrogen at the back, which is stainless steel side. There is no need to use a counter electrode or to make any wire connection. 3) It is being produced in large rolls of 3ft wide and up to 5000 ft long stainless steel web in a 25MW roll-to-roll production machine. Therefore it can be produced at a very low cost. After several years of research with many different kinds of material, we have developed promising transparent, conducting and corrosion resistant (TCCR) coating material; we carried out extensive research on oxygen and hydrogen generation catalysts, developed methods to make PEC electrode from production-grade a-Si solar cells; we have designed and tested various PEC module cases and carried out extensive outdoor testing; we were able to obtain a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH

  18. Renal transplantation vs hemodialysis: Cost-effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Saša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI, diabetes, hypertension, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD are the main reasons for starting dialysis treatment in patients having kidney function failure. At present, dialysis treatments are performed in about 4,100 patients at 46 institutions in Serbia, out of which 90% are hemodialyses. At end-stage renal disease (ESRD the only correct selection is kidney transplatation. The basic aim of the planned research was to compare ratio of costs and effects (Cost Effectiveness Analysis - CEA of hemodialysis and kidney transplantation in patients at ESRD. Methods. As the main issue of treatment in patients from both groups the life quality measured by the validated McGill Questionary, was used. The study included 150 patients totally, divided into two groups. The study group consisted of 50 patients with kidney transplantation performed at the Clinical Center of Serbia and the control group consisted of 100 patients on hemodialysis at Clinical Center of Serbia, Clinical Hospital Center Zemun, Clinical Hospital Center 'Zvezdara', Clinical Center Kragujevac and Health Center 'Studenica', Kraljevo, comparable with respect to sex, age and length of treatment with the study group. Results. Effect of kidney transplantation in relation to hemodialysis being selection of treatment is expressed in the form of incremental ratio of costs and effects (Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio - ICER. It is clear from the enclosed tables that the strategy of kidney transplantation is far more profitable considering the fact that it represents saving of EUR 132,256.25 per one year of contribution Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY within the period of 10 years. According to all aspects of live quality (physical symptoms and problems, physical well-being, psychological symptoms, existential well-being and support, difference is statistically important in favor of transplant patents. Conclusion. The costs

  19. Cost effective processes by using negative-tone development application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Kato, Keita; Ou, Keiyu; Shirakawa, Michihiro; Kamimura, Sou

    2015-03-01

    The high volume manufacturing with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is delaying due to its light source issue. Therefore, ArF-immersion lithography has still been the most promising technology for down scaling of device pitch. As the limitation of ArF-immersion single patterning is considered to be nearly 40nm half pitch (hp), ArF-immersion lithography has necessity to be extended by combining processes to achieve sub- 20nm hp patterning. Recently, there are many reports about the extension of ArF-immersion lithography, e.g., self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) and litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) process. These methods have been realized by the combination of lithography, deposition, and etching. On the other aspect, 1-D layout is adopted for leading devices, which contains additional cut or block litho and etch processes to form 2-D like layout. Thus, according to the progress of down scaling technologies, number of processes increases and the cost of ownership (CoO) can not be neglected. Especially, the number of lithography steps and etching steps has been expanded by the combination of processes, and it has come to occupy a large portion of total manufacturing cost. We have reported that negative tone development (NTD) system using organic solvent developer have enough resolution to achieve fine narrow trench or contact hole patterning, since negative tone imaging enables to apply bright mask for these pattern with significantly high optical image contrast compared to positive tone imaging, and it has contributed high throughput multiple patterning. On the other hand, NTD system is found to be useful not only for leading device node, but also for cost effective process. In this report, we propose the cost effective process using NTD application. In the viewpoint of cost down at exposure tool, we have developed KrF-NTD resist which is customized for organic solvent developer. Our KrF-NTD resist has resolution comparable with ArF positive tone development

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Infrapopliteal Drug-Eluting Stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: katsanos@med.upatras.gr; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Siablis, Dimitris [Patras University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Greece)

    2013-02-15

    IntroductionThere are no cost-utility data about below-the-knee placement of drug-eluting stents. The authors determined the cost-effectiveness of infrapopliteal drug-eluting stents for critical limb ischemia (CLI) treatment. The event-free individual survival outcomes defined by the absence of any major events, including death, major amputation, and target limb repeat procedures, were reconstructed on the basis of two published infrapopliteal series. The first included spot Bail-out use of Sirolimus-eluting stents versus bare metal stents after suboptimal balloon angioplasty (Bail-out SES).The second was full-lesion Primary Everolimus-eluting stenting versus plain balloon angioplasty and bail-out bare metal stenting as necessary (primary EES). The number-needed-to-treat (NNT) to avoid one major event and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for a 3-year postprocedural period for both strategies. Overall event-free survival was significantly improved in both strategies (hazard ratio (HR) [confidence interval (CI)]: 0.68 [0.41-1.12] in Bail-out SES and HR [CI]: 0.53 [0.29-0.99] in Primary EES). Event-free survival gain per patient was 0.89 (range, 0.11-3.0) years in Bail-out SES with an NNT of 4.6 (CI: 2.5-25.6) and a corresponding ICER of 6,518 Euro-Sign (range 1,685-10,112 Euro-Sign ). Survival gain was 0.91 (range 0.25-3.0) years in Primary EES with an NNT of 2.7 (CI: 1.7-5.8) and an ICER of 11,581 Euro-Sign (range, 4,945-21,428 Euro-Sign ) per event-free life-year gained. Two-way sensitivity analysis showed that stented lesion length >10 cm and/or DES list price >1000 Euro-Sign were associated with the least economically favorable scenario in both strategies. Both strategies of bail-out SES and primary EES placement in the infrapopliteal arteries for CLI treatment exhibit single-digit NNT and relatively low corresponding ICERs.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a PVGS on the Electrical Power Supply of a Small Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ting Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study of a large simulated stadium-scale photovoltaic generation system (PVGS on a small island. Both the PVGS contribution to the energy demand on the island and its financial analysis were analysed in this study. The maximum allowable PVGS installation capacity is obtained by executing load flow analysis without violating the voltage magnitude and voltage variation ratio limits. However, the estimated power generation of PVGS is applied to know its impact on the power system according to the hourly solar irradiation and temperature. After that, the cost-benefit analysis of payback years (PBY and net present value (NPV method is derived considering the cash flow from utilities annual fuel and loss saving, the operation and maintenance (O&M cost, and the capital investment cost. The power network in Kiribati (PUB DNST is selected for study in this paper. The simulation results are very valuable and can be applied to the other small islands for reducing the usage of fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Victor Adrian Maxwell; Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2015-01-01

    energy sectors may be an effective means of dealing with these concerns. The following article takes the case of a community owned renewable energy project as a microcosm for the entire Danish energy system. The local project seeks to integrate energy sectors so as to create physical and financial...

  3. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Victor Adrian Maxwell; Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2015-01-01

    energy sectors may be an effective means of dealing with these concerns. The following article takes the case of a community owned renewable energy project as a microcosm for the entire Danish energy system. The local project seeks to integrate energy sectors so as to create physical and financial...

  4. Solar Thermoelectricity via Advanced Latent Heat Storage: A Cost-Effective Small-Scale CSP Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Rea, J.; Olsen, Michele L.; Oshman, C.; Hardin, C.; Alleman, Jeff; Sharp, J.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Hoeschele, G.; Parilla, Philip A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, Eric S.; Ginley, David S.

    2017-06-27

    We are developing a novel concentrating solar electricity-generating technology that is both modular and dispatchable. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) uses concentrated solar flux to generate high-temperature thermal energy, which directly converts to electricity via thermoelectric generators (TEGs), stored within a phase-change material (PCM) for electricity generation at a later time, or both allowing for simultaneous charging of the PCM and electricity generation. STEALS has inherent features that drive its cost-competitive scale to be much smaller than current commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Most obvious is modularity of the solid-state TEG, which favors smaller scales in the kilowatt range as compared to CSP steam turbines, which are minimally 50 MWe for commercial power plants. Here, we present techno-economic and market analyses that show STEALS can be a cost-effective electricity-generating technology with particular appeal to small-scale microgrid applications. We evaluated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STEALS and for a comparable photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. For STEALS, we estimated capital costs and the LCOE as functions of the type of PCM including the use of recycled aluminum alloys, and evaluated the cost tradeoffs between plasma spray coatings and solution-based boron coatings that are applied to the wetted surfaces of the PCM subsystem. We developed a probabilistic cost model that accounts for uncertainties in the cost and performance inputs to the LCOE estimation. Our probabilistic model estimated LCOE for a 100-kWe STEALS system that had 5 hours of thermal storage and 8-10 hours of total daily power generation. For these cases, the solar multiple for the heliostat field varied between 1.12 and 1.5. We identified microgrids as a likely market for the STEALS system. We characterized microgrid markets in terms of nominal power, dispatchability, geographic location, and

  5. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage: A cost-effective small-scale CSP application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.; Rea, J.; Olsen, M. L.; Oshman, C.; Hardin, C.; Alleman, J.; Sharp, J.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Hoeschele, G.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2017-06-01

    We are developing a novel concentrating solar electricity-generating technology that is both modular and dispatchable. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) uses concentrated solar flux to generate high-temperature thermal energy, which directly converts to electricity via thermoelectric generators (TEGs), stored within a phase-change material (PCM) for electricity generation at a later time, or both allowing for simultaneous charging of the PCM and electricity generation. STEALS has inherent features that drive its cost-competitive scale to be much smaller than current commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Most obvious is modularity of the solid-state TEG, which favors smaller scales in the kilowatt range as compared to CSP steam turbines, which are minimally 50 MWe for commercial power plants. Here, we present techno-economic and market analyses that show STEALS can be a cost-effective electricity-generating technology with particular appeal to small-scale microgrid applications. We evaluated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STEALS and for a comparable photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. For STEALS, we estimated capital costs and the LCOE as functions of the type of PCM including the use of recycled aluminum alloys, and evaluated the cost tradeoffs between plasma spray coatings and solution-based boron coatings that are applied to the wetted surfaces of the PCM subsystem. We developed a probabilistic cost model that accounts for uncertainties in the cost and performance inputs to the LCOE estimation. Our probabilistic model estimated LCOE for a 100-kWe STEALS system that had 5 hours of thermal storage and 8-10 hours of total daily power generation. For these cases, the solar multiple for the heliostat field varied between 1.12 and 1.5. We identified microgrids as a likely market for the STEALS system. We characterized microgrid markets in terms of nominal power, dispatchability, geographic location, and

  6. Cost-Effective Marine Protection--A Pragmatic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soile Oinonen

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a framework for probabilistic and holistic cost-effectiveness analysis to provide support in selecting the least-cost set of measures to reach a multidimensional environmental objective. Following the principles of ecosystem-based management, the framework includes a flexible methodology for deriving and populating criteria for effectiveness and costs and analyzing complex ecological-economic trade-offs under uncertainty. The framework is applied in the development of the Finnish Programme of Measures (PoM for reaching the targets of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. The numerical results demonstrate that substantial cost savings can be realized from careful consideration of the costs and multiple effects of management measures. If adopted, the proposed PoM would yield improvements in the state of the Baltic Sea, but the overall objective of the MSFD would not be reached by the target year of 2020; for various environmental and administrative reasons, it would take longer for most measures to take full effect.

  7. Hospitalization for pelvic inflammatory disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth J; Ness, Roberta B; Roberts, Mark S

    2007-02-01

    Nulliparous women are frequently hospitalized for treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The goal of this study was to determine the economic feasibility of hospitalizing adolescents and young women for PID. The authors conducted a Markov decision model, estimating the cost-effectiveness of hospitalization compared with outpatient therapy for mild to moderate PID for adolescents and young women, calculating costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained under various assumptions about hospitalization effects on complications. If hospitalization decreases PID complications by 10%, 20%, or 30%, the cost/QALY gained is 145,000 dollars, 67,400 dollars, or 42,400 dollars, respectively, compared with outpatient therapy. Assumptions about hospitalization effects on the development of chronic pelvic pain heavily weight the analysis; costs/QALY gained by hospitalization increase considerably if chronic pain is unaffected. Hospitalization for PID treatment to possibly preserve fertility in nulliparous young women and adolescents is unlikely to be economically reasonable even if substantial improvements in PID complication rates are assumed.

  8. A more cost-effective method of preoperative computerized imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, W B

    1989-07-01

    Stimulated by the explosive expansion of the computerized desk top publishing industry during the past few years, microcomputer hardware and software are evolving at a staggering rate. Memory is rapidly increasing, and prices are declining. I have found that with the hardware and software described in this paper, I was able to obtain, in a much more cost-effective manner, as useful preoperative information for my practice as I could obtain with more expensive "turnkey" (only one use) computerized imaging systems. This type of microcomputer, of course, is not limited to just the imaging system, but can be used for a variety of other programs as well, such as word processing, slide labeling and production, spreadsheet functions, billing and filing, and numerous business and other applications. The ease of use with readily available 35-mm slides of my patients has greatly enhanced the appeal of this system. Computerized imaging, when used as an educational tool, can be very helpful in preoperative planning, resident teaching, and for illustration and discussion of a patient's proposed surgery. The electronic imaging disclaimer compiled by the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons has been extremely helpful in clarifying the limits of computerized imaging and reducing any false expectations that my patients might have. All of us are experiencing the dawn of a very exciting evolution.

  9. The High Value CVT Concept--Cost Effective and Powerful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Englisch,; A. Teubert; A. Gotz; E. Muller; E. Simon; B. Walter; A. Baumgartner

    2011-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive comparison of vehicle performance in economy,engine power,driving smoothness,and efficiency cost as well as pollutant emission etc,the paper discussed the high value CVT concept from an angle of the cost effective and powerful for vehicle.In the paper,it researched the related technical detail in CVT.By means of realizing the continuous change in transmission ratio,it could obtain the optimal matching between transmission system and engine operating mode,and enhance the characteristic of fuel oil in economy,and also improve the convenience in manipulation for driver and make passenger comfortable.For easy to understand the concept,the paper made the comparison analysis in many aspects such as performance,transmission specification,high value CVT hybrid,orifice torque sensor,hydraulic system,high value CVT em,new chain portfolio and assessment of the high value CVT on the NEDC.Finally it showed the potential advantages of CVT technology development,and proposed future developing trends to realize technical scheme of high value CVT.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong

    2001-10-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report discusses and illustrates all progress in the first two years of this NETL/DOE supported program. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: (1) Specifications for both 5 5/16 inch and 3 3/8 inch composite drill pipe have been finalized. (2) All basic laboratory testing has been completed and has provide sufficient data for the selection of materials for the composite tubing, adhesives, and abrasion coatings. (3) Successful demonstration of composite/metal joint interfacial connection. (4) Upgrade of facilities to provide a functional pilot plant manufacturing facility. (5) Arrangements to have the 3 3/8 inch CDP used in a drilling operation early in C.Y. 2002. (6) Arrangements to have the 5 5/16 inch CDP marketed and produced by a major drill pipe manufacturer.

  11. Good practices on cost - effective road infrastructure safety investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Evgenikos, Petros; Dragomanovits, Anastasios

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the findings of a research project aiming to quantify and subsequently classify several infrastructure-related road safety measures, based on the international experience attained through extensive and selected literature review and additionally on a full consultation process including questionnaire surveys addressed to experts and relevant workshops. Initially, a review of selected research reports was carried out and an exhaustive list of road safety infrastructure investments covering all types of infrastructure was compiled. Individual investments were classified according to the infrastructure investment area and the type of investment and were thereafter analysed on the basis of key safety components. These investments were subsequently ranked in relation to their safety effects and implementation costs and on the basis of this ranking, a set of five most promising investments was selected for an in-depth analysis. The results suggest that the overall cost effectiveness of a road safety infrastructure investment is not always in direct correlation with the safety effect and is recommended that cost-benefit ratios and safety effects are always examined in conjunction with each other in order to identify the optimum solution for a specific road safety problem in specific conditions and with specific objectives.

  12. The challenge of paying for cost-effective cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Patricia J; Fuse Brown, Erin C

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we consider the problem of financing highly effective and cost-effective prescription drugs within a value-based pricing system. Precisely because these drugs are highly effective, their value-based prices may be quite expensive; and moreover, the value-based price of a cure ought to be set high enough to create incentives for innovation, otherwise these beneficial therapies may be underdeveloped. However, in our fragmented health insurance system, where patients move frequently between payers, these payers generally lack the incentives to pay value-based prices for cures because they cannot ensure that they will reap the long-term economic benefits. Therefore, we argue that there is a need for mechanisms to spread the burden of financing of cures across payers to maximize patient access and the public good. We suggest that risk adjustment, reinsurance, and risk corridors are familiar policy options that merit consideration to address the problem and create incentives for value-based pricing.

  13. Climate targets and cost-effective climate stabilization pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, H.

    2015-08-01

    Climate economics has developed two main tools to derive an economically adequate response to the climate problem. Cost benefit analysis weighs in any available information on mitigation costs and benefits and thereby derives an "optimal" global mean temperature. Quite the contrary, cost effectiveness analysis allows deriving costs of potential policy targets and the corresponding cost- minimizing investment paths. The article highlights pros and cons of both approaches and then focusses on the implications of a policy that strives at limiting global warming to 2 °C compared to pre-industrial values. The related mitigation costs and changes in the energy sector are summarized according to the IPCC report of 2014. The article then points to conceptual difficulties when internalizing uncertainty in these types of analyses and suggests pragmatic solutions. Key statements on mitigation economics remain valid under uncertainty when being given the adequate interpretation. Furthermore, the expected economic value of perfect climate information is found to be on the order of hundreds of billions of Euro per year if a 2°-policy were requested. Finally, the prospects of climate policy are sketched.

  14. Cost effectiveness of Aedes aegypti control programmes: participatory versus vertical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baly, A; Toledo, M E; Boelaert, M; Reyes, A; Vanlerberghe, V; Ceballos, E; Carvajal, M; Maso, R; La Rosa, M; Denis, O; Van der Stuyft, P

    2007-06-01

    We conducted an economic appraisal of two strategies for Aedes aegypti control: a vertical versus a community-based approach. Costs were calculated for the period 2000-2002 in three pilot areas of Santiago de Cuba where a community intervention was implemented and compared with three control areas with routine vertical programme activities. Reduction in A. aegypti foci was chosen as the measure of effectiveness. The pre-intervention number of foci (614 vs. 632) and economical costs for vector control (US$243746 vs. US$263486) were comparable in the intervention and control areas. During the intervention period (2001-2002), a 13% decrease in recurrent costs for the health system was observed. Within the control areas, these recurrent relative costs remained stable. The number of A. aegypti foci in the pilot areas and the control areas fell by 459 and 467, respectively. The community-based approach was more cost effective from a health system perspective (US$964 vs. US$1406 per focus) as well as from society perspective (US$1508 vs. US$1767 per focus).

  15. Time Overrun and Cost Effectiveness in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The project management technique of planning and scheduling using tools and devices are helpful in comparing the project with stipulated cost, time and quality. Resource tracking, Minimize the uncertainty and Cost Effectiveness is focused in this project. The software tool used for planning and scheduling is Primavera project planner enterprise for construction. The study covers three case studies of the process of planning, scheduling the activities and monitoring. A general re sequencing model had been proposed to overcome the delay factor from the critical area, to minimize the delay of the construction and to reduce the time, cost and it also helpful to concentrate on the major areas in the project. Re sequencing model leads the management to cost savings and make entire project success. Resource planning is one aspect, which decides the systematic execution of the project at worksite. This study is to have hands- on experience in an ongoing project, and evaluation of schedule of equipment, staff, Labor and Materials. It helps to plan and evaluate the resources for the Construction of the building project. This study also compares the cost variation due to the delay of the project and re scheduling the project by crashing process. KEYWORDS:

  16. (Correcting misdiagnoses of asthma: a cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandemheen Katherine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of physician-diagnosed-asthma has risen over the past three decades and misdiagnosis of asthma is potentially common. Objective: to determine whether a secondary-screening-program to establish a correct diagnosis of asthma in those who report a physician diagnosis of asthma is cost effective. Method Randomly selected physician-diagnosed-asthmatic subjects from 8 Canadian cities were studied with an extensive diagnostic algorithm to rule-in, or rule-out, a correct diagnosis of asthma. Subjects in whom the diagnosis of asthma was excluded were followed up for 6-months and data on asthma medications and heath care utilization was obtained. Economic analysis was performed to estimate the incremental lifetime costs associated with secondary screening of previously diagnosed asthmatic subjects. Analysis was from the perspective of the Canadian healthcare system and is reported in Canadian dollars. Results Of 540 randomly selected patients with physician diagnosed asthma 150 (28%; 95%CI 19-37% did not have asthma when objectively studied. 71% of these misdiagnosed patients were on some asthma medications. Incorporating the incremental cost of secondary-screening for the diagnosis of asthma, we found that the average cost savings per 100 individuals screened was $35,141 (95%CI $4,588-$69,278. Conclusion Cost savings primarily resulted from lifetime costs of medication use averted in those who had been misdiagnosed.

  17. Reliable and cost-effective serodiagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pieter W A; Ally, Mahmood M T M; Anderson, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    Early diagnosis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) optimises therapeutic benefit and the probability of achieving disease remission. Notwithstanding clinical acumen, early diagnosis is dependent on access to reliable serodiagnostic procedures, as well as on the discerning application and interpretation of these. In the case of RA, however, no disease-specific serodiagnostic procedure is available due to the multi-factorial and polygenic nature of this autoimmune disorder. This has resulted in the development of an array of serodiagnostic procedures based on the detection of autoantibodies reactive with various putative autoantigens. Other procedures based on measurement of elevations in the concentrations of systemic biomarkers of inflammation, most commonly acute phase reactants and cytokines/chemokines, are used as objective indices of disease activity. Following a brief overview of RA research in African populations, the current review is focused on those autoantibodies/biomarkers, specifically rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies and C-reactive protein, which are currently recognised as being the most reliable and cost-effective with respect to disease prediction and diagnosis, as well as in monitoring activity and outcome.

  18. Cost-Effective Marine Protection--A Pragmatic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oinonen, Soile; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Ahlvik, Lassi; Laamanen, Maria; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Salojärvi, Joona; Virtanen, Jarno

    2016-01-01

    This paper puts forward a framework for probabilistic and holistic cost-effectiveness analysis to provide support in selecting the least-cost set of measures to reach a multidimensional environmental objective. Following the principles of ecosystem-based management, the framework includes a flexible methodology for deriving and populating criteria for effectiveness and costs and analyzing complex ecological-economic trade-offs under uncertainty. The framework is applied in the development of the Finnish Programme of Measures (PoM) for reaching the targets of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The numerical results demonstrate that substantial cost savings can be realized from careful consideration of the costs and multiple effects of management measures. If adopted, the proposed PoM would yield improvements in the state of the Baltic Sea, but the overall objective of the MSFD would not be reached by the target year of 2020; for various environmental and administrative reasons, it would take longer for most measures to take full effect.

  19. Mobile source emission control cost-effectiveness: Issues, uncertainties, and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research

    1994-12-01

    Emissions from mobile sources undoubtedly contribute to US urban air pollution problems. Consequently, mobile source control measures, ranging from vehicle emission standards to reducing vehicle travel, have been adopted or proposed to help attain air quality standards. To rank various mobile source control measures, various government agencies and private organizations calculate cost-effectiveness in dollars per ton of emissions reduced. Arguments for or against certain control measures are often made on the basis of the calculated cost-effectiveness. Yet, different studies may yield significantly different cost-effectiveness results, because of the various methodologies used and assumptions regarding the values of costs and emission reductions. Because of the methodological differences, the cost-effectiveness results may not be comparable between studies. Use of incomparable cost-effectiveness results may result in adoption of ineffective control measures. This paper first discusses some important methodological issues involved in cost-effectiveness calculation for mobile sources and proposes appropriate, systematic methods for dealing with these issues. Various studies have been completed recently to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mobile source emission control measures. These studies resulted in wide variations in the cost-effectiveness for same control measures. Methodological assumptions used in each study are presented and, based on the proposed methods for cost-effectiveness calculation, adjustments are applied to the original estimates in each study to correct inappropriate methodological assumptions and to make the studies comparable. Finally, mobile source control measures are ranked on the basis of the adjusted cost-effectiveness estimates.

  20. The Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities for Ureteral Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Ji-Yuen Siu MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Additional intervention and medical treatment of complications may follow the primary treatment of a ureteral stone. We investigated the cost of the treatment of ureteral stone(s within 45 days after initial intervention by means of retrospective analysis of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. All patients of ages ≥20 years diagnosed with ureteral stone(s( International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification/ICD-9-CM: 592.1 from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled. We included a comorbidity code only if the diagnosis appeared in at least 2 separate claims in a patient’s record. Treatment modalities (code included extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL; 98.51, ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL; 56.31, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL; 55.04, (open ureterolithotomy (56.20, and laparoscopy (ie, laparoscopic ureterolithotomy; 54.21. There were 28 513 patients with ureteral stones (13 848 men and 14 665 women in the randomized sample of 1 million patients. The mean cost was 526.4 ± 724.1 United States Dollar (USD. The costs of treatment were significantly increased in patients with comorbidities. The costs of treatment among each primary treatment modalities were 1212.2 ± 627.3, 1146.7 ± 816.8, 2507.4 ± 1333.5, 1533.3 ± 1137.1, 2566.4 ± 2594.3, and 209.8 ± 473.2 USD in the SWL, URSL, PNL, (open ureterolithotomy, laparoscopy (laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, and conservative treatment group, respectively. In conclusion, URSL was more cost-effective than SWL and PNL as a primary treatment modality for ureteral stone(s when the possible additional costs within 45 days after the initial operation were included in the calculation.

  1. Chromogenic media for urine cultures can be cost-effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž J. Retelj

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromogenic media for diagnostic urinary bacteriology have several advantages over traditional media, such as cysteine-lactose-electrolyte deficient (CLED medium. Chromogenic media allow for easier recognition of mixed growth, save time, reduce workload and provide higher detection rates. However, the cost of chromogenic media is significantly higher compared to CLED and performance of chromogenic media varies depending on the manufacturer. In the present study, performance, turn-around time and cost of Uriselect4 chromogenic medium was compared to CLED.Methods: For performance analysis, 351 midstream urine (MSU samples from September 2005 to December 2005 were directly plated in parallel on Uriselect4 and CLED agar using the calibrated loop technique. Isolates on Uriselect4 were presumptively identified according to the product insert. For cost-effectiveness analysis, we included 1,972 consecutive MSU samples from May 2005 to July 2006. We compared the cost of required materials as well as technologists’ or specialists’ time for each medium examined.Results: No significant differences were found between the isolation rates of urinary pathogens on the studied media. The procedure using chromogenic media for uropathogens is slightly cheaper than the procedure using CLED, considering the proportion of bacteriuria positive samples (50.5 % and the distribution of taxa among isolates (namely Escherichia coli with 59.6 % observed in our laboratory. At the current isolation proportion in MSU samples processed in our laboratory, the average time to reporting results could be decreased by 0.3 days.Conclusions: Use of chromogenic media for urine investigations offers multiple advantages without increasing costs compared to procedures using CLED.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Old and New Technologies for Aneuploidy Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkey, Rachel G; Odibo, Anthony O

    2016-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses allow assessment of whether marginal gains from new technology are worth increased costs. Several studies have examined cost-effectiveness of Down syndrome (DS) screening and found it to be cost-effective. Noninvasive prenatal screening also appears to be cost-effective among high-risk women with respect to DS screening, but not for the general population. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is a genetic sequencing method superior to but more expensive than karyotype. In light of CMAs greater ability to detect genetic abnormalities, it is cost-effective when used for prenatal diagnosis of an anomalous fetus. This article covers methodology and salient issues of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. (Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  4. Design and Development of a Cost Effective Prototype Cellulitus Remover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulite is a topographic skin change that is nearly ubiquitous in postpubertal women. This article describes a complete prototype system that can be used in electrotherapy treatments, that is, in medical treatments involving electric currents. Most systems have been made in the treatment of cellulite disconnect shock or wave applied to the patient, requires an external factor. But in this system, this process is done Automatically.

  5. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT in rehabilitation after lumbar spinal fusion: a low-cost, behavioural approach is cost-effective over individual exercise therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Laurberg, Ida; Christensen, Finn B

    2008-01-01

    (indicated by chronic low back pain and localized pathology) were randomized 3 months after their spinal fusion. Validated pain- and disability index scales were applied at baseline and at 2 years postoperative. Costs were measured in a full-scale societal perspective. The probability of the behavioural...... approach being cost-effective was close to 1 given pain as the prioritized effect measure, and 0.8 to 0.6 (dependent on willingness to pay per effect unit) given disability as the prioritized effect measure. The probability of the exercise therapy approach being cost-effective was modest due to inferior...... cost-effective, whereas the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency and guidance of a traditional physiotherapeutic regimen was unlikely in present trial setting. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  6. Cost-effectiveness of early intervention in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Kronborg, Christian; Bertelsen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information about the cost-effectiveness of early intervention programmes for first-episode psychosis is limited. AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an intensive early-intervention programme (called OPUS) (trial registration NCT00157313) consisting of enriched assertive...... community treatment, psychoeducational family treatment and social skills training for individuals with first-episode psychosis compared with standard treatment. METHOD: An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised controlled trial, adopting a public sector perspective was undertaken. RESULTS...

  7. Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, A S H; Goh, S H

    2002-03-01

    Palm oil is an excellent choice for food manufacturers because of its nutritional benefits and versatility. The oil is highly structured to contain predominantly oleic acid at the sn2-position in the major triacylglycerols to account for the beneficial effects described in numerous nutritional studies. Oil quality and nutritional benefits have been assured for the variety of foods that can be manufactured from the oil directly or from blends with other oils while remaining trans-free. The oxidative stability coupled with the cost-effectiveness is unparalleled among cholesterol-free oils, and these values can be extended to blends of polyunsaturated oils to provide long shelf-life. Presently the supply of genetic-modification-free palm oil is assured at economic prices, since the oil palm is a perennial crop with unparalleled productivity. Numerous studies have confirmed the nutritional value of palm oil as a result of the high monounsaturation at the crucial 2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, making the oil as healthful as olive oil. It is now recognized that the contribution of dietary fats to blood lipids and cholesterol modulation is a consequence of the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of the fats. Lipolytic hydrolysis of palm oil glycerides containing predominantly oleic acid at the 2 position and palmitic and stearic acids at the 1 and 3 positions allows for the ready absorption of the 2-monoacrylglycerols while the saturated free fatty acids remain poorly absorbed. Dietary palm oil in balanced diets generally reduced blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides while raising the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Improved lipoprotein(a) and apo-A1 levels were also demonstrated from palm oil diets; an important benefits also comes from the lowering of blood triglycerides (or reduced fat storage) as compared with those from polyunsaturated fat diets. Virgin palm oil also provides carotenes apart from

  8. How to develop renewable power in China? A cost-effective perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2014-01-01

    To address the problems of climate change and energy security, Chinese government strived to develop renewable power as an important alternative of conventional electricity. In this paper, the learning curve model is employed to describe the decreasing unit investment cost due to accumulated installed capacity; the technology diffusion model is used to analyze the potential of renewable power. Combined with the investment cost, the technology potential, and scenario analysis of China social development in the future, we develop the Renewable Power Optimization Model (RPOM) to analyze the optimal development paths of three sources of renewable power from 2009 to 2020 in a cost-effective way. Results show that (1) the optimal accumulated installed capacities of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will reach 169000, 20000, and 30000 MW in 2020; (2) the developments of renewable power show the intermittent feature; (3) the unit investment costs of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will be 4500, 11500, and 5700 Yuan/KW in 2020; (4) the discounting effect dominates the learning curve effect for solar and biomass powers; (5) the rise of on-grid ratio of renewable power will first promote the development of wind power and then solar power and biomass power.

  9. How to Develop Renewable Power in China? A Cost-Effective Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Gang Cong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To address the problems of climate change and energy security, Chinese government strived to develop renewable power as an important alternative of conventional electricity. In this paper, the learning curve model is employed to describe the decreasing unit investment cost due to accumulated installed capacity; the technology diffusion model is used to analyze the potential of renewable power. Combined with the investment cost, the technology potential, and scenario analysis of China social development in the future, we develop the Renewable Power Optimization Model (RPOM to analyze the optimal development paths of three sources of renewable power from 2009 to 2020 in a cost-effective way. Results show that (1 the optimal accumulated installed capacities of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will reach 169000, 20000, and 30000 MW in 2020; (2 the developments of renewable power show the intermittent feature; (3 the unit investment costs of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will be 4500, 11500, and 5700 Yuan/KW in 2020; (4 the discounting effect dominates the learning curve effect for solar and biomass powers; (5 the rise of on-grid ratio of renewable power will first promote the development of wind power and then solar power and biomass power.

  10. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  11. On the potential cost effectiveness of scientific audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, J L

    1989-09-01

    inefficient process for uncovering scientific fraud (5, 6, 9). Data from a survey of university scientists was also presented, indicating ". . . a reluctance to take prompt, corrective action not only when an investigator suspects another of misconduct but also should the investigator discover flaws in his or her own published reports-whether the flaws were the result of honest error or fraud"; (10). The uncritical acceptance by established scientists that the self-correcting process works compounds the problem. The Editor of Science has written that";. . . 99.9999 percent of reports are accurate and truthful. . ."; (8). If indeed only 0.0001% of published reports were inaccurate or untruthful, there would be little justification for scientific audits. However, congressional testimony from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) revealed that";. . . the NIH Director's office has handled an average of 15-20 allegations and reports of misconduct annually in its extramural programs, which supports the work of approximately 50,000 scientists"; (11). As I shall attempt to demonstrate, since NIH alone receives fraud-related complaints concerning the work of at least 0.03% of scientists it supports in other institutions, and since evidence indicates that the incidence of fraud is considerably greater than 0.03% (10, 12), the need to audit data is justifiable on the basis of being cost effective.

  12. New tools for cost-effective delivery of breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gerald R

    2002-01-01

    Breast imaging has a deserved reputation as a very difficult financial proposition for hospitals. Regulation, low reimbursement, costly new technologies and staff shortages all combine to create an operational environment that is difficult, at best. While it may not be possible for every hospital to make breast imaging profitable, it is the obligation of every hospital to make this and all service lines as cost-effective as possible. While the typical care episode in a hospital will include several different services or procedures, the breast-imaging patient is typically in the department or breast center for a single procedure. Consequently, all of the administrative and facility costs of the patient encounter must be borne by the reimbursement for the single procedure. Breast imaging involves relatively expensive technology and highly-trained, and costly, technologists in its delivery. The costs of these inputs are relatively fixed; therefore material improvement can only be realized through the redesign of process. Analysis of the process of care delivery is critical to any discussion of the economics of breast imaging. Breast imaging can basically be divided into two categories: screening mammography and diagnostic procedures. This is a very important distinction, because screening mammography requires only general supervision, while the balance of breast imaging requires the direct supervision of the physician. Decoupling the physician from the examination allows the organization of screening delivery programs in highly efficient, high-throughput systems. On the diagnostic side of breast imaging, the primary economic enhancement that can be realized is from the delivery of more than one procedure during the patient visit. Mammography has high fixed costs (technology and technologist) and, where high fixed costs are found, profitability is determined by process and volume. Where process can be optimized to a level that will allow a positive return for each

  13.  Cost-effectiveness of medicine vs. endoscopy for dyspeptic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Hans Christian; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christensen, Bo

      Background: Decision analyses conclude that empirical anti-secretory therapy is more cost-effective than endoscopy for managing patients with dyspepsia however RCTs including economic evaluation come to diverging results Aim: to compare the cost-effectiveness of two strategies for management of...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Fennema, JSA; Postma, MJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV screening of patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam. Design: Cost effectiveness analysis. Methods: A Bernoulli model for the secondary transmission of HIV was linked with epidemiological data on

  15. Cost-effectiveness of a randomised trial of physical activity in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopina, Elizaveta; Sørensen, Jan; Beyer, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore the cost-effectiveness of a supervised moderate-To-high intensity aerobic exercise programme in people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) using participant-reported and proxy-reported measures of health...

  16. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle...

  17. Universal HIV screening of pregnant women in England : cost effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Beck, E J; Mandalia, S; Sherr, L; Walters, M D; Houweling, H; Jager, Johannes C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of universal, voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women in England. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. Cost estimates of caring for HIV positive children were based on the stage of HIV infection and calculated using data obtained from a London hospital

  18. Prevention, screening and treatment of colorectal cancer: a global and regional generalized cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Benjamin P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional generalized cost-effectiveness estimates of prevention, screening and treatment interventions for colorectal cancer are presented. Methods Standardised WHO-CHOICE methodology was used. A colorectal cancer model was employed to provide estimates of screening and treatment effectiveness. Intervention effectiveness was determined via a population state-transition model (PopMod that simulates the evolution of a sub-regional population accounting for births, deaths and disease epidemiology. Economic costs of procedures and treatment were estimated, including programme overhead and training costs. Results In regions characterised by high income, low mortality and high existing treatment coverage, the addition of screening to the current high treatment levels is very cost-effective, although no particular intervention stands out in cost-effectiveness terms relative to the others. In regions characterised by low income, low mortality with existing treatment coverage around 50%, expanding treatment with or without screening is cost-effective or very cost-effective. Abandoning treatment in favour of screening (no treatment scenario would not be cost effective. In regions characterised by low income, high mortality and low treatment levels, the most cost-effective intervention is expanding treatment. Conclusions From a cost-effectiveness standpoint, screening programmes should be expanded in developed regions and treatment programmes should be established for colorectal cancer in regions with low treatment coverage.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Fennema, JSA; Postma, MJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV screening of patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam. Design: Cost effectiveness analysis. Methods: A Bernoulli model for the secondary transmission of HIV was linked with epidemiological data on

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Hampshire. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2010 New Hampshire State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Hampshire.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Jersey. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 New Jersey State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Jersey.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of renal denervation therapy for the treatment of resistant hypertension in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Thea L.; de Brouwer, Bonnie F.E.; van Keep, Marjolein M.L.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bots, Michiel L.; Koffijberg, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Safety and efficacy data for catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) in the treatment of resistant hypertension have been used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of this approach. However, there are no Dutch-specific analyses. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of RDN from the

  4. Cost-effectiveness of renal denervation therapy for the treatment of resistant hypertension in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Thea L.; De Brouwer, Bonnie F E; Van Keep, Marjolijn M L; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bots, Michiel L.; Koffijberg, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Safety and efficacy data for catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) in the treatment of resistant hypertension have been used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of this approach. However, there are no Dutch-specific analyses. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of RDN from the

  5. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: Cytology versus human papillomavirus DNA testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine the most cost-effective screening programme for cervical cancer. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. Setting The Netherlands. Population Dutch women who have not been invited for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods We calibra

  6. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: Cytology versus human papillomavirus DNA testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine the most cost-effective screening programme for cervical cancer. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. Setting The Netherlands. Population Dutch women who have not been invited for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods We calibra

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  8. Cost-effectiveness of salpingotomy and salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy (a randomized controlled trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, FJM; Mol, F.; Mello, N.M.; Strandell, Annika; Strandell, Karin; Jurkovic, Davor; Ross, Jackie; Barnhart, K.; Yalcinkaya, Tamer; Verhoeve, H.R.; Graziosi, G.C.M.; Koks, Carolien A M; Klinte, Ingmar; Hogstrom, Lars; Janssen, Ineke; Kragt, Harry; Hoek, Annemieke; Trimbos-Kemper, Trudy; Willemsen, Wim; Ankum, W.M.; Mol, Benwillem; Wely, M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Hajenius, Petra J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is salpingotomy cost effective compared with salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy and a healthy contralateral tube? SUMMARY ANSWER: Salpingotomy is not cost effective over salpingectomy as a surgical procedure for tubal pregnancy, as its costs are higher without a better ongoi

  9. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of blood donations in Accra (Ghana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Marinus; Sagoe, Kwamena W. C.; Vermande, Jacobien E.; van der Schaaf, Ido P.; Adriani, Willem P. A. van der Tuuk; Torpey, Kwasi; Ansah, Justina; Mingle, Julius A. A.; Sibinga, Cees Th. Smit; Postma, Maarten J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Areas with high HIV-incidence rates compared to the developed world may benefit from additional testing in blood banks and may show more favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of adding p24 antigen, mini pool nucleic acid amplification testing (MP-NAT),

  10. Implementing a Cost Effectiveness Analyzer for Web-Supported Academic Instruction: A Campus Wide Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a quantitative cost effectiveness analyzer for Web-supported academic instruction that was developed in Tel Aviv University during a long term study. The paper presents the cost effectiveness analysis of Tel Aviv University campus. Cost and benefit of 3,453 courses were analyzed, exemplifying campus-wide…

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community-Based Exercise Programme in COPD Self-Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerink, Marlies; Effing, Tanja; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van der Valk, Paul; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Palen, Job

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Information regarding cost-effectiveness of community-based exercise programmes in COPD is scarce. Therefore, we have investigated whether a community-based exercise programme is a cost-effective component of self-management for patients with COPD after 2 years of follow-up. Methods: A

  12. Living renal donors: optimizing the imaging strategy--decision- and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); M.C.J.M. Kock (Marc); W. Weimar (Willem); K. Visser (Karen); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To determine the most cost-effective strategy for preoperative imaging performed in potential living renal donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a decision-analytic model, the societal cost-effectiveness of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), gadolinium-enhanced

  13. Cost effectiveness of guideline advice for children with asthma : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Talitha L; Rutten-Van Mölken, Maureen P M H; Jager, Johannes C; Van Essen-Zandvliet, Liesbeth E M

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is an important chronic disease among children. This study reviews the cost effectiveness of interventions in the long-term care of asthmatic children and compares these results with treatment advice in four current guidelines. Cost-effectiveness studies were searched for in Medline, Embase,

  14. Universal HIV screening of pregnant women in England : cost effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Beck, E J; Mandalia, S; Sherr, L; Walters, M D; Houweling, H; Jager, Johannes C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of universal, voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women in England. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. Cost estimates of caring for HIV positive children were based on the stage of HIV infection and calculated using data obtained from a London hospital

  15. Cost-effectiveness of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis determined with real-life data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Vernooij-van Langen, A.M.M.; Elvers, L.H.; Gille, J.J.P.; Verkerk, P.H.; Dankert-Roelse, J.E.; Loeber, J.G.; Triepels, R.H.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dompeling, E.; Pals, G.; Gulmans, V.A.M.; Oey-Spauwen, M.J.W.; Wijnands, Y.H.H.M.; Castricum, L.M.; Arets, H.G.M.; Ent, C.K. van der; Tiddens, H.A.W.M.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Yntema, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous cost-effectiveness studies using data from the literature showed that newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (NBSCF) is a good economic option with positive health effects and longer survival. METHODS: We used primary data to compare cost-effectiveness of four screening strategie

  16. Cost-effectiveness of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis determined with real-life data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, C. P B; van den Akker-van Marle, M. E.; Vernooij-van Langen, A. M M; Elvers, L. H.; Gille, J. J P; Verkerk, P. H.; Dankert-Roelse, J. E.; Dankert-Roelse, J. E.; Vernooij-van Langen, A. M M; Loeber, J. G.; Elvers, L. H.; Triepels, R. H.; Gille, J. J P; Van der Ploeg, C. P B; van der Pal, S. M.; Dompeling, E.; Pals, G.; van den Akker van Marle, M. E.; Gulmans, V. A M; Oey-Spauwen, M. J W; Wijnands, Y. H H M; Castricum, L. M.; Arets, H. G M; van der Ent, C. K.; Tiddens, H. A W M; de Rijke, Y. B.; Yntema, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous cost-effectiveness studies using data from the literature showed that newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (NBSCF) is a good economic option with positive health effects and longer survival. Methods: We used primary data to compare cost-effectiveness of four screening strategie

  17. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  18. Cost-effectiveness of renal denervation therapy for the treatment of resistant hypertension in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Thea L.; Brouwer, de Bonnie F.E.; Keep, van Marjolein M.L.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bots, Michiel L.; Koffijberg, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Safety and efficacy data for catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) in the treatment of resistant hypertension have been used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of this approach. However, there are no Dutch-specific analyses. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of RDN from the per

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Various Methods of Instruction in Developmental Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Robert A.

    This paper examined in a critical fashion the existing applications of cost-effectiveness analysis in education, particularly the study of instructional effectiveness in the community college. Various schemes for measuring costs of instruction such as cost benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and planning programming budgeting systems…

  20. Manual on Cost-Effectiveness of Training Modalities in Population Education. Population Education Programme Service Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This manual is the result of a regional training workshop on the cost-effectiveness of different training strategies in population education by Unesco in Kathmandu, Nepal, June 1-8, 1987. The purpose of the manual is to enable project staff to initiate studies to determine cost-effective training strategies in population growth control education.…

  1. Cost-effectiveness and evidence-based policy : Steering on social Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Yperen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Introduction - The cost-effectiveness of many services is unknown. Because the demand for services is growing, whereas budgets are cut, the issue how to enhance the cost-effectiveness of Child and Youth Care is urgent in day to day politics and practice. The NJi developed a working model that helps

  2. Practical implications of differential discounting in cost-effectiveness analyses with varying numbers of cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Mahony, J.F.; de Kok, I.M.; van Rosmalen, Joost; Habbema, J.D.; Brouwer, Werner; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To call attention to the influence of the number of birth-cohorts used in cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) under differential discounting. METHODS: The consequences of increasing the number of birth-cohorts are demonstrated using a

  3. Cost effectiveness of abdominal aortic aneurysm screening and rescreening in men in a modern context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Laustsen, Jesper; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2012-01-01

    To assess the cost effectiveness of different screening strategies for abdominal aortic aneurysm in men, from the perspective of a national health service.......To assess the cost effectiveness of different screening strategies for abdominal aortic aneurysm in men, from the perspective of a national health service....

  4. A cost-effective self-sensing biosensor for detection of biological species at ultralow concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faegh, Samira; Jalili, Nader; Yavuzcetin, Ozgur; Nagesha, Dattatri; Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2013-06-01

    Detection of ultrasmall masses and identification of biological molecules have been made possible as a result of advances in nanotechnology. Development of biosensing tools has significantly contributed to high-throughput diagnosis and analytical sensing exploiting high affinity of biomolecules. MicroCantilever (MC)-based detection has emerged as a promising biosensing tool for offering label-free and cost-effective sensing capabilities. One of the main criteria determining the success of each biosensor is the capability of the sensing platform to operate in aqueous media. Although being characterized with high sensitivity and simplicity, MCs do not provide an effective tool for measurement of marker proteins in liquid media due to large hydrodynamic damping and losses in the surrounding liquid. In this study, we describe two approaches to high sensitivity biomolecular detection using piezoelectric microcantilevers. (i) Immobilized Mass Detection in Air using electro-mechanical resonance: a unique self-sensing measurement technique is reported utilizing a self-sensing circuit consisting of a piezoelectric MC to address the mentioned limitation. The capability of the self-sensing measurement technique was first verified by detecting ultrasmall biological masses immobilized over the surface of MC by monitoring the shift in fundamental mechanical resonance frequency of the system in air and comparing it with optical-based measurement. This was further utilized for calibration of mass detection in liquid media. (ii) Immobilized Mass Detection in Liquid using the electrical self-sensing circuit's resonance: Once the capability to detect adsorbed mass was verified, the self-sensing platform was implemented to detect different concentrations of target molecule (glucose in this study) in liquid media by adopting the highly sensitive resonance frequency of the whole circuit instead of the mechanical response of MC. Molecular binding occurring over the surface of MC changes

  5. Cost effectiveness of treatments for wet age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Paul; Annemans, Lieven; White, Richard; Gallagher, Meghan; Thomas, Simu

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in people aged ≥50 years. Wet AMD in particular has a major impact on patient quality of life and imposes substantial burdens on healthcare systems. This systematic review examined the cost-effectiveness data for current therapeutic options for wet AMD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for all articles reporting original cost-effectiveness analyses of wet AMD treatments. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Cochrane Library databases were searched for all wet AMD health technology assessments (HTAs). Overall, 44 publications were evaluated in full and included in this review. A broad range of cost-effectiveness analyses were identified for the most commonly used therapies for wet AMD (pegaptanib, ranibizumab and photodynamic therapy [PDT] with verteporfin). Three studies evaluated the cost effectiveness of bevacizumab in wet AMD. A small number of analyses of other treatments, such as laser photocoagulation and antioxidant vitamins, were also found. Ranibizumab was consistently shown to be cost effective for wet AMD in comparison with all the approved wet AMD therapies (four of the five studies identified showed ranibizumab was cost effective vs usual care, PDT or pegaptanib); however, there was considerable variation in the methodology for cost-effectiveness modelling between studies. Findings from the HTAs supported those from the PubMed and EMBASE searches; of the seven HTAs that included ranibizumab, six (including HTAs for Australia, Canada and the UK) concluded that ranibizumab was cost effective for the treatment of wet AMD; most compared ranibizumab with PDT and/or pegaptanib. By contrast, HTAs at best generally recommended pegaptanib or PDT for restricted use in subsets of patients with wet AMD. In the literature analyses, pegaptanib was found to be cost effective versus usual/best supportive care (including PDT) or no treatment in one of five studies; the other four

  6. Cost-effectiveness of conservation upgrades in manufactured homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conner, C.C.; Englin, J.E.; Hadley, D.L.; Lucas, R.G.; Miller, N.E.; Monroe, W.H.

    1988-09-01

    This study addresses the costs of upgrading the efficiency of electrically heated manufactured homes in the Bonneville Power Administration's (Bonneville's) service territory. It was prepared by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Bonneville under a Related Services Agreement with the US Department of Energy, Contract AC06-76RLO1830. Manufactured homes (commonly called mobile homes) represent a significant lost conservation resource in the region. Manufactured homes are required to meet national energy standards that do not reflect the recent increases in energy prices, and the preemptive nature of the national standards prevents local jurisdictions from establishing stricter requirements. Bonneville has undertaken several programs to analyze the efficiency of manufactured homes and encourage the industry to produce more efficient homes and consumers to increase their demand for efficient units. This study constitutes one portion of Bonneville's overall strategy. 45 refs.

  7. Cost Effective System Modeling of Active Micro- Module Solar Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faisal Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interests in using renewable energies are coming from solar thermal energy and solar photovoltaic systems to the micro production of electricity. Usually we already have considered the solar tracking topology in large scale applications like power plants and satellite but most of small scale applications don’t have any solar tracker system, mainly because of its high cost and complex circuit design. From that aspect, this paper confab microcontroller based one dimensional active micro-module solar tracking system, in which inexpensive LDR is used to generate reference voltage to operate microcontroller for functioning the tracking system. This system provides a fast response of tracking system to the parameters like change of light intensity as well as temperature variations. This micro-module model of tracking system can be used for small scale applications like portable electronic devices and running vehicles.

  8. Sea water air conditioning : a cost effective alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsafty, A.F. [Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology; Saeid, L. [National Gas Company, Cairo (Egypt). GIS and Design Section

    2009-07-01

    The 2 main types of air conditioning systems are vapor compression systems which are electrically operated, and absorption systems which are heat operated. This paper presented a new air conditioning technique for use in the Middle East. The Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) system uses deep cold ocean and sea water as a renewable energy source to air-condition buildings. A technical and economical assessment was performed to determine the advantages of the SWAC system over conventional vapor compression systems to air-condition hotels and resorts at a new tourists resort in Egypt. Meteorological data for the region was used to estimate the gross cooling load for the hotels using the HVAC Load Explorer program. The major components of the SWAC system were sized and analyzed to the determine its operational performance and to estimate the probable costs. The economic analysis was based on two different methods, notably the net present value (NPV) and the simple pay back method. Three options were investigated in the economic study. The first was the use of a conventional air conditioning system to provide a baseline for the other options being investigated. The second option was the use of deep sea water only, and the third option involved the use of a hybrid system using both a sea water air conditioning system and a conventional chiller in series. The SWAC system was the preferred option for its minimum net present value as well as the short pay back period. The energy savings approached 80 per cent of conventional air-conditioners. It was concluded that in addition to reducing electricity use, the SWAC systems can contribute to a reduction in greenhouse gases. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Long-term cost-effectiveness of single indirect restorations in selected dental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P G; Smales, R J

    2004-05-22

    To determine the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative methods for restoring large tooth substance loss in adults. Long-term survival estimates and discounted costs for 245 large indirect restorations were used to calculate their incremental cost-effectiveness over 15 years when compared with direct placement Class II cusp-overlay amalgams and Class IV multisurface resin composites, placed in 100 patients from three private dental practices. The direct placement restorations were more cost-effective than the indirect restorations at all time intervals over the 15-year study period. The full gold crown and the ceramometal crown were the most cost-effective indirect posterior and anterior restorations respectively. The cast gold onlay and the porcelain jacket crown were the least cost-effective indirect posterior and anterior restorations respectively. When clinically practicable, large direct placement restorations should be placed initially in preference to indirect restorations.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of Acupuncture for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Penny; Pezzullo, Lynne; Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Cost-effectiveness is a major criterion underpinning decisions in mainstream health care. Acupuncture is increasingly used in patients with chronic lower back pain (LBP), but there is a lack of evidence on cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture in alleviating chronic LBP either alone or in conjunction with standard care compared with patients receiving routine care, and/or sham. To determine effectiveness, we undertook meta-analyses which found a significant improvement in pain in those receiving acupuncture and standard care compared with those receiving standard care alone. For acupuncture and standard care vs. standard care and sham, a weak positive effect was found for weeks 12 to 16, but this was not significant. For acupuncture alone vs. standard care alone, a significant positive effect was found at week 8, but not at weeks 26 or 52. The main outcome parameters for our cost-effectiveness analysis were the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of acupuncture treatment presented as cost (A$) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) saved. The WHO benchmark for a very highly cost-effective intervention is one that costs less than gross domestic product per capita per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained or DALY averted, or less than around $A52,000 in 2009 (the base year for the analysis). According to this threshold, acupuncture as a complement to standard care for relief of chronic LBP is highly cost-effective, costing around $48,562 per DALY avoided. When comorbid depression is alleviated at the same rate as pain, cost is around $18,960 per DALY avoided. Acupuncture as a substitute for standard care was not found to be cost-effective unless comorbid depression was included. According to the WHO cost-effectiveness threshold values, acupuncture is a cost-effective treatment strategy in patients with chronic LBP.

  11. Maximizing cost-effectiveness by adjusting treatment strategy according to glaucoma severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Ricardo Augusto Paletta; Guedes, Vanessa Maria Paletta; Gomes, Carlos Eduardo de Mello; Chaoubah, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study is to determine the most cost-effective strategy for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Brazil, from the payer's perspective (Brazilian Public Health System) in the setting of the Glaucoma Referral Centers. Methods: Study design was a cost-effectiveness analysis of different treatment strategies for POAG. We developed 3 Markov models (one for each glaucoma stage: early, moderate and advanced), using a hypothetical cohort of POAG patients, from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and a horizon of the average life expectancy of the Brazilian population. Different strategies were tested according to disease severity. For early glaucoma, we compared observation, laser and medications. For moderate glaucoma, medications, laser and surgery. For advanced glaucoma, medications and surgery. Main outcome measures were ICER (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio), medical direct costs and QALY (quality-adjusted life year). Results: In early glaucoma, both laser and medical treatment were cost-effective (ICERs of initial laser and initial medical treatment over observation only, were R$ 2,811.39/QALY and R$ 3,450.47/QALY). Compared to observation strategy, the two alternatives have provided significant gains in quality of life. In moderate glaucoma population, medical treatment presented the highest costs among treatment strategies. Both laser and surgery were highly cost-effective in this group. For advanced glaucoma, both tested strategies were cost-effective. Starting age had a great impact on results in all studied groups. Initiating glaucoma therapy using laser or surgery were more cost-effective, the younger the patient. Conclusion: All tested treatment strategies for glaucoma provided real gains in quality of life and were cost-effective. However, according to the disease severity, not all strategies provided the same cost-effectiveness profile. Based on our findings, there should be a

  12. Cost-effectiveness of integrated collaborative care for comorbid major depression in patients with cancer☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, A.; Walker, J.; Walker, S.; Richardson, G.; Holm Hansen, C.; Martin, P.; Murray, G.; Sculpher, M.; Sharpe, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Comorbid major depression is associated with reduced quality of life and greater use of healthcare resources. A recent randomised trial (SMaRT, Symptom Management Research Trials, Oncology-2) found that a collaborative care treatment programme (Depression Care for People with Cancer, DCPC) was highly effective in treating depression in patients with cancer. This study aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of DCPC compared with usual care from a health service perspective. Methods Costs were estimated using UK national unit cost estimates and health outcomes measured using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness of DCPC compared with usual care was calculated and scenario analyses performed to test alternative assumptions on costs and missing data. Uncertainty was characterised using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. The probability of DCPC being cost-effective was determined using the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's (NICE) cost-effectiveness threshold range of £20,000 to £30,000 per QALY gained. Results DCPC cost on average £631 more than usual care per patient, and resulted in a mean gain of 0.066 QALYs, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £9549 per QALY. The probability of DCPC being cost-effective was 0.9 or greater at cost-effectiveness thresholds above £20,000 per QALY for the base case and scenario analyses. Conclusions Compared with usual care, DCPC is likely to be cost-effective at the current thresholds used by NICE. This study adds to the weight of evidence that collaborative care treatment models are cost-effective for depression, and provides new evidence regarding their use in specialist medical settings. PMID:26652589

  13. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of simulation modalities: a case study of peripheral intravenous catheterization training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Brydges, Ryan; Carnahan, Heather; Backstein, David; Dubrowski, Adam

    2014-05-01

    While the ultimate goal of simulation training is to enhance learning, cost-effectiveness is a critical factor. Research that compares simulation training in terms of educational- and cost-effectiveness will lead to better-informed curricular decisions. Using previously published data we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of three simulation-based programs. Medical students (n = 15 per group) practiced in one of three 2-h intravenous catheterization skills training programs: low-fidelity (virtual reality), high-fidelity (mannequin), or progressive (consisting of virtual reality, task trainer, and mannequin simulator). One week later, all performed a transfer test on a hybrid simulation (standardized patient with a task trainer). We used a net benefit regression model to identify the most cost-effective training program via paired comparisons. We also created a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve to visually represent the probability that one program is more cost-effective when compared to its comparator at various 'willingness-to-pay' values. We conducted separate analyses for implementation and total costs. The results showed that the progressive program had the highest total cost (p willingness-to-pay value, the progressive training program was generally most educationally- and cost-effective. Our analyses suggest that a progressive program that strategically combines simulation modalities provides a cost-effective solution. More generally, we have introduced how a cost-effectiveness analysis may be applied to simulation training; a method that medical educators may use to investment decisions (e.g., purchasing cost-effective and educationally sound simulators).

  14. Moving Beyond GDP: Cost Effectiveness of Cochlear Implantation and Deaf Education in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Susan D; Tucci, Debara L; Bento, Ricardo F; Garcia, Juan M; Juman, Solaiman; Chiossone-Kerdel, Juan A; Liu, Ta J; de Muñoz, Patricia Castellanos; Ullauri, Alejandra; Letort, Jose J; Mansilla, Teresita; Urquijo, Diana P; Aparicio, Maria L; Gong, Wenfeng; Francis, Howard W; Saunders, James E

    2016-09-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) and deaf education are cost effective management strategies of childhood profound sensorineural hearing loss in Latin America. CI has been widely established as cost effective in North America and Europe and is considered standard of care in those regions, yet cost effectiveness in other economic environments has not been explored. With 80% of the global hearing loss burden existing in low- and middle-income countries, developing cost effective management strategies in these settings is essential. This analysis represents the continuation of a global assessment of CI and deaf education cost effectiveness. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela participated in the study. A Disability Adjusted Life Years model was applied with 3% discounting and 10-year length of analysis. Experts from each country supplied cost estimates from known costs and published data. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of device cost, professional salaries, annual number of implants, and probability of device failure. Cost effectiveness was determined using the World Health Organization standard of cost effectiveness ratio/gross domestic product per capita (CER/GDP)GDP 0.07-0.93). CI was cost effective in all countries (CER/GDP 0.69-2.96), with borderline cost effectiveness in the Guatemalan sensitivity analysis (Max CER/GDP 3.21). Both cochlear implantation and deaf education are widely cost effective in Latin America. In the lower-middle income economy of Guatemala, implant cost may have a larger impact. GDP is less influential in the middle- and high-income economies included in this study.

  15. Screening, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer -- a global and regional generalized cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary Michael; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Lauer, Jeremy A; Sepulveda, Cecilia

    2009-10-09

    The paper calculates regional generalized cost-effectiveness estimates of screening, prevention, treatment and combined interventions for cervical cancer. Using standardised WHO-CHOICE methodology, a cervical cancer model was employed to provide estimates of screening, vaccination and treatment effectiveness. Intervention effectiveness was determined via a population state-transition model (PopMod) that simulates the evolution of a sub-regional population accounting for births, deaths and disease epidemiology. Economic costs of procedures and treatment were estimated, including programme overhead and training costs. In regions characterized by high income, low mortality and high existing treatment coverage, the addition of any screening programme to the current high treatment levels is very cost-effective. However, based on projections of the future price per dose (representing the economic costs of the vaccination excluding monopolistic rents and vaccine development cost) vaccination is the most cost-effective intervention. In regions characterized by low income, low mortality and existing treatment coverage around 50%, expanding treatment with or without combining it with screening appears to be cost-effective or very cost-effective. Abandoning treatment in favour of screening in a no-treatment scenario would not be cost-effective. Vaccination is usually the most cost-effective intervention. Penta or tri-annual PAP smears appear to be cost-effective, though when combined with HPV-DNA testing they are not cost-effective. In regions characterized by low income, high mortality and low treatment levels, expanding treatment with or without adding screening would be very cost-effective. A one off vaccination plus expanding treatment was usually very cost-effective. One-off PAP or VIA screening at age 40 are more cost-effective than other interventions though less effective overall. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, consideration should be given to implementing

  16. Fabrication of highly active and cost effective SERS plasmonic substrates by electrophoretic deposition of gold nanoparticles on a DVD template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leordean, Cosmin; Marta, Bogdan; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Focsan, Monica; Botiz, Ioan; Astilean, Simion, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Simple and cost effective electrophoretic method to fabricate plasmonic substrates. • SERS performance at three different excitation laser lines. • Promising applicability in SERS based biosensing. - Abstract: In this work we present a simple, rapid and cost effective method to fabricate highly active SERS substrates. This method consists in an electrophoretic deposition of gold nanoparticles on a metallic nanostructured template of a commercial digital versatile disk (DVD). The negatively charged gold nanoparticles self-assemble on the positively charged DVD metallic film connected to a positive terminal of a battery, due to the influence of the electric field. When gold nanoparticles self-assembled on DVD metallic film, a 10-fold additional enhancement of Raman signal was observed when compared with the case of GNPs self-assembled on a polycarbonate DVD substrate only. Finite-difference time-domain simulations demonstrated that the additional electromagnetic field arising in the hot-spots created between gold nanoparticles and DVD metallic film induces an additional enhancement of the Raman signal. SERS efficiency of the fabricated plasmonic substrate was successfully demonstrated through detection of para-aminothiophenol molecule with three different excitation laser lines (532, 633 and 785 nm). The enhancement factor was calculated to be 10{sup 6} and indicates that plasmonic substrates fabricated through this method could be a promising platform for future SERS based sensors.

  17. Using propensity scores to estimate the cost-effectiveness of medical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indurkhya, Alka; Mitra, Nandita; Schrag, Deborah

    2006-05-15

    The cost-effectiveness ratio is a popular statistic that is used by policy makers to decide which programs are cost-effective in the public health sector. Recently, the net monetary benefit has been proposed as an alternative statistical summary measure to overcome the limitations associated with the cost-effectiveness ratio. Research on using the net monetary benefit to assess the cost-effectiveness of therapies in non-randomized studies has yet to be done. Propensity scores are useful in estimating adjusted effectiveness of programs that have non-randomized or quasi-experimental designs. This article introduces the use of propensity score adjustment in cost-effectiveness analyses to estimate net monetary benefits for non-randomized studies. The uncertainty associated with the net monetary benefit estimate is evaluated using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Our method is illustrated by applying it to SEER-Medicare data for muscle invasive bladder cancer to determine the most cost-effective treatment protocol.

  18. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Gomes-da-Silva, Monica Maria; Veroneze, Izelandia

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardship programs and had 30-day mortality as main outcome. Selected costs included: workload, cost of defined daily doses, length of stay, laboratory and imaging resources used to diagnose infections. Data were analyzed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess model's robustness, tornado diagram and Cost-Effectiveness Acceptability Curve. Bundled Strategy was more expensive (Cost difference US$ 2119.70), however, it was more efficient (US$ 27,549.15 vs 29,011.46). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that critical variables did not alter final Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio. Bundled Strategy had higher probabilities of being cost-effective, which was endorsed by cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. As health systems claim for efficient technologies, this study conclude that Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program was more cost-effective, which means that stewardship strategies with such characteristics would be of special interest in a societal and clinical perspective.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent HIV and STDs among women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Ng, Nora Y; Luekens, Craig; Cottler, Linda

    2014-10-01

    Injection drug use is a leading transmission route of HIV and STDs, and disease prevention among drug users is an important public health concern. This study assesses cost-effectiveness of behavioral interventions for reducing HIV and STDs infections among injection drug-using women. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from societal and provider perspectives for randomized trial data and Bernoullian model estimates of infections averted for three increasingly intensive interventions: (1) NIDA's standard intervention (SI); (2) SI plus a well woman exam (WWE); and (3) SI, WWE, plus four educational sessions (4ES). Trial results indicate that 4ES was cost-effective relative to WWE, which was dominated by SI, for most diseases. Model estimates, however, suggest that WWE was cost-effective relative to SI and dominated 4ES for all diseases. Trial and model results agree that WWE is cost-effective relative to SI per hepatitis C infection averted ($109 308 for in trial, $6 016 in model) and per gonorrhea infection averted ($9 461 in trial, $14 044 in model). In sensitivity analysis, trial results are sensitive to 5 % change in WWE effectiveness relative to SI for hepatitis C and HIV. In the model, WWE remained cost-effective or cost-saving relative to SI for HIV prevention across a range of assumptions. WWE is cost-effective relative to SI for preventing hepatitis C and gonorrhea. WWE may have similar effects as the costlier 4ES.

  20. The cost-effectiveness of health communication programs: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Paul; Wheeler, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    While a considerable body of evidence has emerged supporting the effectiveness of communication programs in augmenting health, only a very small subset of studies has examined also whether these programs are cost-effective, that is, whether they achieve greater health gains for available financial resources than alternative interventions. In this article, we examine the available literature on the cost-effectiveness of health behavior change communication programs, focusing on communication interventions involving mass media, and, to a lesser extent, community mobilization and interpersonal communication or counseling. Our objective is to identify the state of past and current research efforts of the cost-effectiveness of behavior change communication programs. This review makes three principal conclusions. First, the analysis of the cost-effectiveness of health communication programs commonly has not been performed. Second, the studies reviewed here have utilized a considerable diversity of methods and have reflected varying levels of quality and adherence to standard cost-effectiveness methodologies. This leads to problems of transparency, comparability, and generalizability. Third, while the available studies generally are indicative of the cost-effectiveness of communication interventions relative to alternatives, the evidence base clearly needs to be expanded by additional rigorous cost-effectiveness analyses.