WorldWideScience

Sample records for cost traveling wave

  1. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for generating a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content wherein a gain medium is pumped into a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  2. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    The invention broadly involves a method and means for generating a traveling wave laser pulse and is basically analogous to a single pass light amplifier system. However, the invention provides a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content, wherein a gain medium is pumped in a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  3. Traveling-wave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  4. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  5. Traveling wave tube and method of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, Bernard K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A traveling wave tube includes a glass or other insulating envelope having a plurality of substantially parallel glass rods supported therewithin which in turn support an electron gun, a collector and an intermediate slow wave structure. The slow wave structure itself provides electrostatic focussing of a central electron beam thereby eliminating the need for focussing magnetics and materially decreasing the cost of construction as well as enabling miniaturization. The slow wave structure advantageously includes cavities along the electron beam through which the r.f. energy is propagated, or a double, interleaved ring loop structure supported by dielectric fins within a ground plane cylinder disposed coaxially within the glass envelope.

  6. Traveling-Wave Membrane Photomixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, R. A.; Martin, S. C.; Nakamura, B. J.; Neto, A.; Pasqualini, D.; Siegel, P. H.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Traveling-wave photomixers have superior performance when compared with lumped area photomixers in the 1 to 3 THz frequency range. Their large active area and distributed gain mechanism assure high thermal damage threshold and elimination of the capacitive frequency roll-off. However, the losses experienced by the radio frequency wave traveling along the coplanar strips waveguide (due to underlying semi-infinite GaAs substrate) were a serious drawback. In this paper we present device designs and an experimental setup that make possible the realization of photomixers on membranes which eliminate the losses.

  7. Travelling-wave-sustained discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Hans; Shivarova, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    This review is on discharges maintained by travelling waves: new plasma sources, discovered in 1974 and considered as a prototype of the gas discharges according to their definition as nonlinear systems which unify in a self-consistent manner plasmas and fields. In the presentation here of the fluid-plasma models of the diffusion-controlled regime of the travelling-wave-sustained discharges (TWSDs), the basic features of the discharge maintenance-the discharge self-consistency and the electron heating in the high-frequency field-are stressed. Operation of stationary and pulsed discharges, discharge maintenance without and in external magnetic fields as well as discharge production in different gases (argon, helium, helium-argon gas mixtures and hydrogen) are covered. Modulation instability of diffusion-controlled discharges and discharge filamentation at higher gas pressures are also included in the review. Experimental findings which motivate aspects of the reported modelling are pointed out

  8. Geometric scaling as traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Peschanski, R.

    2003-01-01

    We show the relevance of the nonlinear Fisher and Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (KPP) equation to the problem of high energy evolution of the QCD amplitudes. We explain how the traveling wave solutions of this equation are related to geometric scaling, a phenomenon observed in deep-inelastic scattering experiments. Geometric scaling is for the first time shown to result from an exact solution of nonlinear QCD evolution equations. Using general results on the KPP equation, we compute the velocity of the wave front, which gives the full high energy dependence of the saturation scale

  9. Travelling waves in heterogeneous media

    OpenAIRE

    Boden, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we study the existence of travelling wave type solutions for a reaction diffusion equation in R2 with a nonlinearity which depends periodically on the spatial variable. Specifically we will consider a particular class of nonlinearities where we treat the coefficient of the linear term as a parameter. For this class of nonlinearities we formulate the problem as a spatial dynamical system and use a centre manifold reduction to find conditions on the parameter and nonlinearity for...

  10. Parametric form of QCD travelling waves

    OpenAIRE

    Peschanski, R.

    2005-01-01

    We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.

  11. Traveling-Wave Maser for 32 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, James; Clauss, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The figure depicts a traveling-wave ruby maser that has been designed (though not yet implemented in hardware) to serve as a low-noise amplifier for reception of weak radio signals in the frequency band of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz. The design offers significant improvements over previous designs of 32-GHz traveling-wave masers. In addition, relative to prior designs of 32-GHz amplifiers based on high-electron-mobility transistors, this design affords higher immunity to radio-frequency interference and lower equivalent input noise temperature. In addition to the basic frequency-band and low-noise requirements, the initial design problem included a requirement for capability of operation in a closed-cycle helium refrigerator at a temperature .4 K and a requirement that the design be mechanically simplified, relative to prior designs, in order to minimize the cost of fabrication and assembly. Previous attempts to build 32- GHz traveling-wave masers involved the use of metallic slow-wave structures comprising coupled transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-mode resonators that were subject to very tight tolerances and, hence, were expensive to fabricate and assemble. Impedance matching for coupling signals into and out of these earlier masers was very difficult. A key feature of the design is a slow-wave structure, the metallic portions of which would be mechanically relatively simple in that, unlike in prior slow-wave structures, there would be no internal metal steps, irises, or posts. The metallic portions of the slow-wave structure would consist only of two rectangular metal waveguide arms. The arms would contain sections filled with the active material (ruby) alternating with evanescent-wave sections. This structure would be transparent in both the signal-frequency band (the aforementioned range of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz) and the pump-frequency band (65.75 to 66.75 GHz), and would impose large slowing factors in both frequency bands. Resonant ferrite isolators would be placed in the

  12. Nonlinear interactions of counter-travelling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuuchi, Kazuo

    1980-01-01

    Nonlinear interactions between two waves travelling in opposite directions are investigated. When a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation is adopted as a model equation, it is shown that such a wave system is governed by a simple set of equations for their complex amplitudes. Steady progressive waves governed by this set are investigated for various cases classified according to the signs of the coefficients. It is then found that one wave travelling in one direction appears from a certain point and the other travelling in the opposite direction has a constant amplitude from that point. This phenomenon may be regarded as a sort of reflection in spite of no rigid boundary. (author)

  13. Kapitza–Dirac effect with traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrapetyan, Armen G; Götte, Jörg B; Grigoryan, Karen K; Petrosyan, Rubik G

    2015-01-01

    We report on the possibility of diffracting electrons from light waves traveling inside a dielectric medium. We show that, in the frame of reference which moves with the group velocity of light, the traveling wave acts as a stationary diffraction grating from which electrons can diffract, similar to the conventional Kapitza–Dirac effect. To characterize the Kapitza–Dirac effect with traveling light waves, we make use of the Hamiltonian Analogy between electron optics and quantum mechanics and apply the Helmholtz–Kirchhoff theory of diffraction. (fast track communication)

  14. Travelling wave solutions in delayed cooperative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bingtuan; Zhang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    We establish the existence of travelling wave solutions for delayed cooperative recursions that are allowed to have more than two equilibria. We define an important extended real number that is used to determine the speeds of travelling wave solutions. The results can be applied to a large class of delayed cooperative reaction–diffusion models. We show that for a delayed Lotka–Volterra reaction–diffusion competition model, there exists a finite positive number c * + that can be characterized as the slowest speed of travelling wave solutions connecting two mono-culture equilibria or connecting a mono-culture with the coexistence equilibrium

  15. EXACT TRAVELLING WAVE SOLUTIONS TO BBM EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Abundant new travelling wave solutions to the BBM (Benjamin-Bona-Mahoni) equation are obtained by the generalized Jacobian elliptic function method. This method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations.

  16. Traveling-wave synchronous coil gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a traveling-wave synchronous coil gun which permits independent adjustment of the magnetic field and armature current for high velocity at low armature mass fraction. Magnetic field energy is transferred from the rear of the wave to the front without passing through the power supply. Elaborate switching is required

  17. Traveling Theta Waves in the Human Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghui

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal theta oscillation is strongly correlated with behaviors such as memory and spatial navigation, but we do not understand its specific functional role. One hint of theta's function came from the discovery in rodents that theta oscillations are traveling waves that allow parts of the hippocampus to simultaneously exhibit separate oscillatory phases. Because hippocampal theta oscillations in humans have different properties compared with rodents, we examined these signals directly using multielectrode recordings from neurosurgical patients. Our findings confirm that human hippocampal theta oscillations are traveling waves, but also show that these oscillations appear at a broader range of frequencies compared with rodents. Human traveling waves showed a distinctive pattern of spatial propagation such that there is a consistent phase spread across the hippocampus regardless of the oscillations' frequency. This suggests that traveling theta oscillations are important functionally in humans because they coordinate phase coding throughout the hippocampus in a consistent manner. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show for the first time in humans that hippocampal theta oscillations are traveling waves, moving along the length of the hippocampus in a posterior–anterior direction. The existence of these traveling theta waves is important for understanding hippocampal neural coding because they cause neurons at separate positions in the hippocampus to experience different theta phases simultaneously. The theta phase that a neuron measures is a key factor in how that cell represents behavioral information. Therefore, the existence of traveling theta waves indicates that, to fully understand how a hippocampal neuron represents information, it is vital to also account for that cell's location in addition to conventional measures of neural activity. PMID:26354915

  18. New exact travelling wave solutions of bidirectional wave equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea. ∗ ... exact travelling wave solutions of system (1) using the modified tanh–coth function method ... The ordinary differential equation is then integrated.

  19. OPEN SPACE ALLOCATION AND TRAVEL COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, Kent F.

    2003-01-01

    The gain from dividing parks into smaller pieces to reduce travel costs is weighed against the loss in services the parks provide since they are smaller. The optimal number of parks is dependent on whether travel costs are concentrated in parts of the town.

  20. QCD traveling waves beyond leading logarithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.; Sapeta, S.

    2006-01-01

    We derive the asymptotic traveling-wave solutions of the nonlinear 1-dimensional Balitsky-Kovchegov QCD equation for rapidity evolution in momentum space, with 1-loop running coupling constant and equipped with the Balitsky-Kovchegov-Kuraev-Lipatov kernel at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, conveniently regularized by different resummation schemes. Traveling waves allow us to define ''universality classes'' of asymptotic solutions, i.e. independent of initial conditions and of the nonlinear damping. A dependence on the resummation scheme remains, which is analyzed in terms of geometric scaling properties

  1. Topological horseshoes in travelling waves of discretized nonlinear wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Chiuan; Chen, Shyan-Shiou; Yuan, Juan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Applying the concept of anti-integrable limit to coupled map lattices originated from space-time discretized nonlinear wave equations, we show that there exist topological horseshoes in the phase space formed by the initial states of travelling wave solutions. In particular, the coupled map lattices display spatio-temporal chaos on the horseshoes

  2. Topological horseshoes in travelling waves of discretized nonlinear wave equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi-Chiuan, E-mail: YCChen@math.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Mathematics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shyan-Shiou, E-mail: sschen@ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Yuan, Juan-Ming, E-mail: jmyuan@pu.edu.tw [Department of Financial and Computational Mathematics, Providence University, Shalu, Taichung 43301, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-15

    Applying the concept of anti-integrable limit to coupled map lattices originated from space-time discretized nonlinear wave equations, we show that there exist topological horseshoes in the phase space formed by the initial states of travelling wave solutions. In particular, the coupled map lattices display spatio-temporal chaos on the horseshoes.

  3. New exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear physical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir, Ahmet; Cevikel, Adem C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we established abundant travelling wave solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations. This method was used to construct travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The travelling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions. The ((G ' )/G )-expansion method presents a wider applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations.

  4. Travelling Waves in Hyperbolic Chemotaxis Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Chuan; Hwang, Hyung Ju; Painter, Kevin J.; Erban, Radek

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models of bacterial populations are often written as systems of partial differential equations for the densities of bacteria and concentrations of extracellular (signal) chemicals. This approach has been employed since the seminal work of Keller and Segel in the 1970s (Keller and Segel, J. Theor. Biol. 30:235-248, 1971). The system has been shown to permit travelling wave solutions which correspond to travelling band formation in bacterial colonies, yet only under specific criteria, such as a singularity in the chemotactic sensitivity function as the signal approaches zero. Such a singularity generates infinite macroscopic velocities which are biologically unrealistic. In this paper, we formulate a model that takes into consideration relevant details of the intracellular processes while avoiding the singularity in the chemotactic sensitivity. We prove the global existence of solutions and then show the existence of travelling wave solutions both numerically and analytically. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  5. Travelling Waves in Hyperbolic Chemotaxis Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Chuan

    2010-10-16

    Mathematical models of bacterial populations are often written as systems of partial differential equations for the densities of bacteria and concentrations of extracellular (signal) chemicals. This approach has been employed since the seminal work of Keller and Segel in the 1970s (Keller and Segel, J. Theor. Biol. 30:235-248, 1971). The system has been shown to permit travelling wave solutions which correspond to travelling band formation in bacterial colonies, yet only under specific criteria, such as a singularity in the chemotactic sensitivity function as the signal approaches zero. Such a singularity generates infinite macroscopic velocities which are biologically unrealistic. In this paper, we formulate a model that takes into consideration relevant details of the intracellular processes while avoiding the singularity in the chemotactic sensitivity. We prove the global existence of solutions and then show the existence of travelling wave solutions both numerically and analytically. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  6. BROADBAND TRAVELLING WAVE SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Broadband travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) for amplification of light, wherein the amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) comprises a waveguide region (101, 201, 301, 401, 801) for providing confinement of the light in transverse directions and adapted...

  7. NIKHEF traveling wave monitor: user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluijk, T.

    1984-01-01

    The NIKHEF Travelling Wave Monitor (TWM) is a sensitive, non intercepting device to measure beam displacement. The measurement is independent of the beam intensity. The TWM consists of a waveguide assembly and separate electronics assembly. Specifications are given, as well as instructions for use. (Auth./G.J.P.)

  8. Stability of post-fertilization traveling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gilberto; Plaza, Ramón G.

    This paper studies the stability of a family of traveling wave solutions to the system proposed by Lane et al. [D.C. Lane, J.D. Murray, V.S. Manoranjan, Analysis of wave phenomena in a morphogenetic mechanochemical model and an application to post-fertilization waves on eggs, IMA J. Math. Appl. Med. Biol. 4 (4) (1987) 309-331], to model a pair of mechanochemical phenomena known as post-fertilization waves on eggs. The waves consist of an elastic deformation pulse on the egg's surface, and a free calcium concentration front. The family is indexed by a coupling parameter measuring contraction stress effects on the calcium concentration. This work establishes the spectral, linear and nonlinear orbital stability of these post-fertilization waves for small values of the coupling parameter. The usual methods for the spectral and evolution equations cannot be applied because of the presence of mixed partial derivatives in the elastic equation. Nonetheless, exponential decay of the directly constructed semigroup on the complement of the zero eigenspace is established. We show that small perturbations of the waves yield solutions to the nonlinear equations decaying exponentially to a phase-modulated traveling wave.

  9. Travelling Waves in Hybrid Chemotaxis Models

    KAUST Repository

    Franz, Benjamin

    2013-12-18

    Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant), which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybrid models shows good agreement in the case of weak chemotaxis and qualitative agreement for the strong chemotaxis case. In the case of slow cell adaptation, we detect oscillating behaviour of the wave, which cannot be explained by mean-field approximations. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  10. Traveling-Wave Tube Efficiency Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, James A., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) are used to amplify microwave communication signals on virtually all NASA and commercial spacecraft. Because TWT's are a primary power user, increasing their power efficiency is important for reducing spacecraft weight and cost. NASA Glenn Research Center has played a major role in increasing TWT efficiency over the last thirty years. In particular, two types of efficiency optimization algorithms have been developed for coupled-cavity TWT's. The first is the phase-adjusted taper which was used to increase the RF power from 420 to 1000 watts and the RF efficiency from 9.6% to 22.6% for a Ka-band (29.5 GHz) TWT. This was a record efficiency at this frequency level. The second is an optimization algorithm based on simulated annealing. This improved algorithm is more general and can be used to optimize efficiency over a frequency bandwidth and to provide a robust design for very high frequency TWT's in which dimensional tolerance variations are significant.

  11. Progress on traveling-wave reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilleland, John

    2009-01-01

    TerraPower LLC is leading a collaborative effort to develop physics and engineering designs for several kinds of sodium-cooled traveling-wave reactors. This collaboration includes nuclear engineering groups at TerraPower, M.I.T., U.N.L.V., Argonne National Laboratory, and the Columbia River Basin Consulting Group, as well as individual consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.C. Berkeley, and several other institutions. The goal of this initiative is to develop innovative technologies that will enable cost-effective breed-and-burn reactors, which produce electricity from fuel composed almost wholly of depleted uranium. We will present conceptual designs ranging in reactor vessel size from five meters to 13 meters and in output from about 100 MWe to more than 1,000 MWe. Our Monte Carlo simulations for these reactors predict refueling intervals ranging from 40 to 125 years. Scaling designs from small to large sizes requires a shift in basic design approach; lessons learned from this effort will be discussed. We will also share our evolving understanding of the ways in which the core design can be simplified by improvements to certain limiting technologies. (author)

  12. New travelling wave solutions for nonlinear stochastic evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    expansion method to look for travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. It is interesting to mention that, in this method the sign of the parameters can be used to judge the numbers and types of travelling wave solutions.

  13. Multiple pulse traveling wave excitation of neon-like germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, J. C.; Nilsen, J.; Silva, L. B. da

    1995-01-01

    Traveling wave excitation has been shown to significantly increase the output intensity of the neon-like germanium x-ray laser. The driving laser pulse consisted of three 100 ps Gaussian laser pulses separated by 400 ps. Traveling wave excitation was employed by tilting the wave front of the driving laser by 45 degrees to match the propagation speed of the x-ray laser photons along the length of the target. We show results of experiments with the traveling wave, with no traveling wave, and against the traveling wave and comparisons to a numerical model. Gain was inferred from line intensity measurements at two lengths

  14. Research on backward traveling wave electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huaibi; Zheng Shuxin; Ding Xiaodong; Lin Yuzheng

    1999-01-01

    Future electron linacs require high gradient acceleration. The studies on the high shunt impedance backward traveling wave electron linac accelerating structure (BTW) are presented. At first, the characteristics of BTW are researched. The option of mode and optimal design methods of accelerating cavity for BTW are studied. A physical design method for BTW accelerators, including longitudinal and transversal particle dynamics, is given. Based on above studies, a 9 MeV BTW accelerating tube at 3π/4 mode with frequency 2856 MHz for inspecting large container as radiation source at customs is designed, and a comparison with disk-loaded waveguide accelerating tube is made. The result of research leads to the conclusion that backward traveling wave accelerating structure is preferable. Because BTW has higher effective shunt impedance, shorter filling time and more stable operation

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Travel costs. 31.205-46....205-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs for transportation, lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. (1) Costs... at the time of travel as set forth in the— (i) Federal Travel Regulation, prescribed by the General...

  16. Inter-temporal variation in the travel time and travel cost parameters of transport models

    OpenAIRE

    Börjesson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The parameters for travel time and travel cost are central in travel demand forecasting models. Since valuation of infrastructure investments requires prediction of travel demand for future evaluation years, inter-temporal variation of the travel time and travel cost parameters is a key issue in forecasting. Using two identical stated choice experiments conducted among Swedish drivers with an interval of 13 years, 1994 and 2007, this paper estimates the inter-temporal variation in travel time...

  17. Space-Qualified Traveling-Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Krawczyk, Richard; Simons, Rainee N.; Williams, Wallace D.; Robbins, Neal R.; Dibb, Daniel R.; Menninger, William L.; Zhai, Xiaoling; Benton, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    The L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. Model 999HA traveling-wave tube (TWT), was developed for use as a high-power microwave amplifier for high-rate transmission of data and video signals from deep space to Earth (see figure). The 999HA is a successor to the 999H a non-space qualified TWT described in High-Power, High-Efficiency Ka-Band Traveling-Wave Tube (LEW-17900-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 2 (February 2007), page 32. Operating in the 31.8-to-32.3 GHz frequency band, the 999HA has been shown to generate 252 W of continuous- wave output power at 62 percent overall power efficiency a 75-percent increase in output power over the 999H. The mass of the 999HA is 35 percent less than that of the 999H. Moreover, taking account of the elimination of a Faraday cage that is necessary for operation of the 999H but is obviated by a redesign of high-voltage feed-throughs for the 999HA, the overall reduction in mass becomes 57 percent with an 82 percent reduction in volume. Through a series of rigorous tests, the 999HA has been qualified for operation aboard spacecraft with a lifetime exceeding seven years. Offspring of the 999HA will fly on the Kepler and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter missions.

  18. Contact Frequency, Travel Time, and Travel Costs for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate travel time, and travel cost related to contacts with health care providers for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during a three-month period. Methods. Patient-reported travel time and travel cost were obtained from 2847 patients with RA. Eleven outpatient clinics across Denmark recruited patients to the study. Data collected included frequency, travel time and travel costs for contacts at rheumatology outpatient clinics, other outpatient clinics, general prac...

  19. Travelling water waves with compactly supported vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatah, Jalal; Walsh, Samuel; Zeng, Chongchun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of two-dimensional, travelling, capillary-gravity, water waves with compactly supported vorticity. Specifically, we consider the cases where the vorticity is a δ-function (a point vortex), or has small compact support (a vortex patch). Using a global bifurcation theoretic argument, we construct a continuum of finite-amplitude, finite-vorticity solutions for the periodic point vortex problem. For the non-periodic case, with either a vortex point or patch, we prove the existence of a continuum of small-amplitude, small-vorticity solutions. (paper)

  20. Combline antennas for launching traveling fast waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Gould, R.W.; Phelps, D.A.; Pinsker, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    The combline structure shows promise for launching traveling fast magnetosonic waves with adjustable n parallel (3 ≤ n parallel ≤ 6) for current drive. In this paper, the dispersion and damping properties of the combline antenna with and without a Faraday shield are given. The addition of a Faraday shield which eliminates the electrostatic coupling between current straps as well as between the straps and plasma offers the advantage of eliminating the need for the lumped capacitors which are otherwise required with this structure. The results of vacuum dispersion and damping measurements on a low power model antenna are also given. (author)

  1. ICRF Traveling Wave launcher for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragona, R

    2017-01-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive is a method that has the ability to heat directly the ions in the Deuterium-Tritrium fuel to the high temperature needed for the fusion reaction to works. The capability of efficiently couple the Radio Frequency power to the plasma plays a big role in the overall performance of a fusion device. A Traveling Wave Antenna in a resonant ring configuration is a good candidate for an Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive system. It has the capability to increase the coupled power with respect to present designs and to have a highly selective power spectrum that can be peaked around the maximally absorbed wave. It is also insensitive to the loading variations due to fluctuation of the plasma edge increasing the reliability and the efficiency of the system. It works as a low power density launcher due to the possible large number of current carrying elements. (paper)

  2. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-46 - Travel costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Travel costs. 970.3102-05....3102-05-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs for transportation, lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. (1... rates in effect at the time of travel as set forth in the— (i) Federal Travel Regulation, prescribed by...

  3. Bifurcations and new exact travelling wave solutions for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-17

    Oct 17, 2016 ... Abstract. By using the method of dynamical system, the bidirectional wave equations are considered. Based on this method, all kinds of phase portraits of the reduced travelling wave system in the parametric space are given. All possible bounded travelling wave solutions such as dark soliton solutions, ...

  4. Bifurcations and new exact travelling wave solutions for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using the method of dynamical system, the bidirectional wave equations are considered. Based on this method, all kinds of phase portraits of the reduced travelling wave system in the parametric space are given. All possible bounded travelling wave solutions such as dark soliton solutions, bright soliton solutions and ...

  5. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  6. Boundary mediated position control of traveling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Steffen; Ziepke, Alexander; Engel, Harald

    Reaction control is an essential task in biological systems and chemical process industry. Often, the excitable medium supporting wave propagation exhibits an irregular shape and/or is limited in size. In particular, the analytic treatment of wave phenomena is notoriously difficult due to the spatial modulation of the domain's. Recently, we have provided a first systematic treatment by applying asymptotic perturbation analysis leading to an approximate description that involves a reduction of dimensionality; the 3D RD equation with spatially dependent NFBCs on the reactants reduces to a 1D reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Here, we present a novel method to control the position ϕ (t) of traveling waves in modulated domains according to a prespecified protocol of motion. Given this protocol, the ``optimal'' geometry of reactive domains Q (x) is found as the solution of the perturbatively derived equation of motion. Noteworthy, such a boundary control can be expressed in terms of the uncontrolled wave profile and its propagation velocity, rendering detailed knowledge of the reaction kinetics unnecessary. German Science Foundation DFG through the SFB 910 ''Control of Self-Organizing Nonlinear Systems''.

  7. Theory analysis and simple calculation of travelling wave burnup scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian; Yu Hong; Gang Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Travelling wave burnup scheme is a new burnup scheme that breeds fuel locally just before it burns. Based on the preliminary theory analysis, the physical imagine was found. Through the calculation of a R-z cylinder travelling wave reactor core with ERANOS code system, the basic physical characteristics of this new burnup scheme were concluded. The results show that travelling wave reactor is feasible in physics, and there are some good features in the reactor physics. (authors)

  8. Costs of travel time uncertainty and benefits of travel time information: Conceptual model and numerical examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    A negative effect of congestion that tends to be overlooked is travel time uncertainty. Travel time uncertainty causes scheduling costs due to early or late arrival. The negative effects of travel time uncertainty can be reduced by providing travellers with travel time information, which improves

  9. The Traveling Wave Reactor: Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gilleland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The traveling wave reactor (TWR is a once-through reactor that uses in situ breeding to greatly reduce the need for enrichment and reprocessing. Breeding converts incoming subcritical reload fuel into new critical fuel, allowing a breed-burn wave to propagate. The concept works on the basis that breed-burn waves and the fuel move relative to one another. Thus either the fuel or the waves may move relative to the stationary observer. The most practical embodiments of the TWR involve moving the fuel while keeping the nuclear reactions in one place−sometimes referred to as the standing wave reactor (SWR. TWRs can operate with uranium reload fuels including totally depleted uranium, natural uranium, and low-enriched fuel (e.g., 5.5% 235U and below, which ordinarily would not be critical in a fast spectrum. Spent light water reactor (LWR fuel may also serve as TWR reload fuel. In each of these cases, very efficient fuel usage and significant reduction of waste volumes are achieved without the need for reprocessing. The ultimate advantages of the TWR are realized when the reload fuel is depleted uranium, where after the startup period, no enrichment facilities are needed to sustain the first reactor and a chain of successor reactors. TerraPower's conceptual and engineering design and associated technology development activities have been underway since late 2006, with over 50 institutions working in a highly coordinated effort to place the first unit in operation by 2026. This paper summarizes the TWR technology: its development program, its progress, and an analysis of its social and economic benefits.

  10. Travelling Wave Solutions to Stretched Beam's Equation: Phase Portraits Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betchewe, Gambo; Victor, Kuetche Kamgang; Thomas, Bouetou Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, following the phase portraits analysis, we investigate the integrability of a system which physically describes the transverse oscillation of an elastic beam under end-thrust. As a result, we find that this system actually comprises two families of travelling waves: the sub- and super-sonic periodic waves of positive- and negative-definite velocities, respectively, and the localized sub-sonic loop-shaped waves of positive-definite velocity. Expressing the energy-like of this system while depicting its phase portrait dynamics, we show that these multivalued localized travelling waves appear as the boundary solutions to which the periodic travelling waves tend asymptotically. (general)

  11. expansion method and travelling wave solutions for the perturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we construct the travelling wave solutions to the perturbed nonlinear. Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law non-linearity by the extended (G /G)-expansion method. Based on this method, we obtain abundant exact travelling wave solutions of NLSE with. Kerr law nonlinearity with arbitrary ...

  12. The extended (G/G)-expansion method and travelling wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we construct the travelling wave solutions to the perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law non-linearity by the extended (′/)-expansion method. Based on this method, we obtain abundant exact travelling wave solutions of NLSE with Kerr law nonlinearity with arbitrary parameters.

  13. Coupler tuning for constant gradient travelling wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xingkun; Ma Yanyun; Wang Xiulong

    2013-01-01

    The method of the coupler tuning for the constant gradient traveling wave accelerating structure was described and the formula of coupling coefficient p was deduced on the basis of analyzing the existing methods for the constant impedance traveling wave accelerating structures and coupling-cavity chain equivalent circuits. The method and formula were validated by the simulation result by CST and experiment data. (authors)

  14. Bifurcation analysis and the travelling wave solutions of the Klein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we investigate the bifurcations and dynamic behaviour of travelling wave solutions of the Klein–Gordon–Zakharov equations given in Shang et al, Comput. Math. Appl. 56, 1441 (2008). Under different parameter conditions, we obtain some exact explicit parametric representations of travelling wave solutions by ...

  15. Exact traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shuangshuang; Zhao Xiqiang

    2006-01-01

    The repeated homogeneous balance method is used to construct exact traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation, in which the homogeneous balance method is applied to solve the Riccati equation and the reduced nonlinear ordinary differential equation, respectively. Many new exact traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation are successfully obtained

  16. Vacillations induced by interference of stationary and traveling planetary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salby, Murry L.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1987-01-01

    The interference pattern produced when a traveling planetary wave propagates over a stationary forced wave is explored, examining the interference signature in a variety of diagnostics. The wave field is first restricted to a diatomic spectrum consisting of two components: a single stationary wave and a single monochromatic traveling wave. A simple barotropic normal mode propagating over a simple stationary plane wave is considered, and closed form solutions are obtained. The wave fields are then restricted spatially, providing more realistic structures without sacrificing the advantages of an analytical solution. Both stationary and traveling wave fields are calculated numerically with the linearized Primitive Equations in a realistic basic state. The mean flow reaction to the fluctuating eddy forcing which results from interference is derived. Synoptic geopotential behavior corresponding to the combined wave and mean flow fields is presented, and the synoptic signature in potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces is examined.

  17. 77 FR 67366 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...; Information Collection; Travel Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA... requirement concerning Travel Costs. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of...- 0088, Travel Costs by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov...

  18. Use of travel cost models in planning: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan Marsinko; William T. Zawacki; J. Michael Bowker

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the use of the travel cost, method in tourism-related decision making in the area of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation. A travel cost model of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation, developed by Zawacki, Maninko, and Bowker, is used as a case study for this analysis. The travel cost model estimates the demand for the activity...

  19. Persistence of travelling waves in a generalized Fisher equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrychko, Yuliya N.; Blyuss, Konstantin B.

    2009-01-01

    Travelling waves of the Fisher equation with arbitrary power of nonlinearity are studied in the presence of long-range diffusion. Using analogy between travelling waves and heteroclinic solutions of corresponding ODEs, we employ the geometric singular perturbation theory to prove the persistence of these waves when the influence of long-range effects is small. When the long-range diffusion coefficient becomes larger, the behaviour of travelling waves can only be studied numerically. In this case we find that starting with some values, solutions of the model lose monotonicity and become oscillatory

  20. Non-dispersive traveling waves in inclined shallow water channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2009-01-01

    Existence of traveling waves propagating without internal reflection in inclined water channels of arbitrary slope is demonstrated. It is shown that traveling non-monochromatic waves exist in both linear and nonlinear shallow water theories in the case of a uniformly inclined channel with a parabolic cross-section. The properties of these waves are studied. It is shown that linear traveling waves should have a sign-variable shape. The amplitude of linear traveling waves in a channel satisfies the same Green's law, which is usually derived from the energy flux conservation for smoothly inhomogeneous media. Amplitudes of nonlinear traveling waves deviate from the linear Green's law, and the behavior of positive and negative amplitudes are different. Negative amplitude grows faster than positive amplitude in shallow water. The phase of nonlinear waves (travel time) is described well by the linear WKB approach. It is shown that nonlinear traveling waves of any amplitude always break near the shoreline if the boundary condition of the full absorption is applied.

  1. Traveling wave behavior for a generalized fisher equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaosheng

    2008-01-01

    There is the widespread existence of wave phenomena in physics, chemistry and biology. This clearly necessitates a study of traveling waves in depth and of the modeling and analysis involved. In the present paper, we study a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation, which can be regarded as a generalized Fisher equation. Applying the Cole-Hopf transformation and the first integral method, we obtain a class of traveling solitary wave solutions for this generalized Fisher equation

  2. Traveling waves in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.V.; Vakulenko, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    We have described a novel reorientation mechanism in the form of the traveling waves, under influence of an external electric field, directed parallel to both glass plates, which occur in the twisted nematic cell (TNC). It is found that the slowest velocity of the traveling front is proportional to the field strength, and, approximately, in three times higher than the front velocity corresponding to the non-traveling solution. The value of the critical electric field E cr which may excite the traveling waves in the TNC in π times less than the value of the threshold electric field E th corresponding to the untwisted geometry

  3. Bifurcations of traveling wave solutions for an integrable equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jibin; Qiao Zhijun

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the following equation m t =(1/2)(1/m k ) xxx -(1/2)(1/m k ) x , which is proposed by Z. J. Qiao [J. Math. Phys. 48, 082701 (2007)] and Qiao and Liu [Chaos, Solitons Fractals 41, 587 (2009)]. By adopting the phase analysis method of planar dynamical systems and the theory of the singular traveling wave systems to the traveling wave solutions of the equation, it is shown that for different k, the equation may have infinitely many solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions, kink/antikink wave solutions, cusped solitary wave solutions, and breaking loop solutions. We discuss in a detail the cases of k=-2,-(1/2),(1/2),2, and parametric representations of all possible bounded traveling wave solutions are given in the different (c,g)-parameter regions.

  4. Traveling waves in the discrete fast buffered bistable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Je-Chiang; Sneyd, James

    2007-11-01

    We study the existence and uniqueness of traveling wave solutions of the discrete buffered bistable equation. Buffered excitable systems are used to model, among other things, the propagation of waves of increased calcium concentration, and discrete models are often used to describe the propagation of such waves across multiple cells. We derive necessary conditions for the existence of waves, and, under some restrictive technical assumptions, we derive sufficient conditions. When the wave exists it is unique and stable.

  5. Traveling waves in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Ji Hantao; Goodman, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    We investigate numerically a traveling wave pattern observed in experimental magnetized Taylor-Couette flow at low magnetic Reynolds number. By accurately modeling viscous and magnetic boundaries in all directions, we reproduce the experimentally measured wave patterns and their amplitudes. Contrary to previous claims, the waves are shown to be transiently amplified disturbances launched by viscous boundary layers, rather than globally unstable magnetorotational modes

  6. Traveling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry of protein complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salbo, Rune; Bush, Matthew F; Naver, Helle

    2012-01-01

    The collision cross-section (Ω) of a protein or protein complex ion can be measured using traveling-wave (T-wave) ion mobility (IM) mass spectrometry (MS) via calibration with compounds of known Ω. The T-wave Ω-values depend strongly on instrument parameters and calibrant selection. Optimization ...

  7. 48 CFR 731.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Travel costs. 731.205-46 Section 731.205-46 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL....205-46 Travel costs. It is USAID policy to require prior written approval of international travel by...

  8. Predicting travel time variability for cost-benefit analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer, S.; Koopmans, C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Unreliable travel times cause substantial costs to travelers. Nevertheless, they are not taken into account in many cost-benefit-analyses (CBA), or only in very rough ways. This paper aims at providing simple rules on how variability can be predicted, based on travel time data from Dutch highways.

  9. Contact frequency, travel time, and travel costs for patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate travel time, and travel cost related to contacts with health care providers for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during a three-month period. Methods. Patient-reported travel time and travel cost were obtained from 2847 patients with RA. Eleven outpatient clinics...... across Denmark recruited patients to the study. Data collected included frequency, travel time and travel costs for contacts at rheumatology outpatient clinics, other outpatient clinics, general practitioners, privately practicing medical specialists, inpatient hospitals and accident and emergency...... and 13 € on travelling per contact, corresponding to a total of 4.6 hours and 56 € during the 3-month period. There was great variation in patient travel time and costs, but no statistically significant associations were found with clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion. The results...

  10. The cost-constrained traveling salesman problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokkappa, P.R.

    1990-10-01

    The Cost-Constrained Traveling Salesman Problem (CCTSP) is a variant of the well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). In the TSP, the goal is to find a tour of a given set of cities such that the total cost of the tour is minimized. In the CCTSP, each city is given a value, and a fixed cost-constraint is specified. The objective is to find a subtour of the cities that achieves maximum value without exceeding the cost-constraint. Thus, unlike the TSP, the CCTSP requires both selection and sequencing. As a consequence, most results for the TSP cannot be extended to the CCTSP. We show that the CCTSP is NP-hard and that no K-approximation algorithm or fully polynomial approximation scheme exists, unless P = NP. We also show that several special cases are polynomially solvable. Algorithms for the CCTSP, which outperform previous methods, are developed in three areas: upper bounding methods, exact algorithms, and heuristics. We found that a bounding strategy based on the knapsack problem performs better, both in speed and in the quality of the bounds, than methods based on the assignment problem. Likewise, we found that a branch-and-bound approach using the knapsack bound was superior to a method based on a common branch-and-bound method for the TSP. In our study of heuristic algorithms, we found that, when selecting modes for inclusion in the subtour, it is important to consider the neighborhood'' of the nodes. A node with low value that brings the subtour near many other nodes may be more desirable than an isolated node of high value. We found two types of repetition to be desirable: repetitions based on randomization in the subtour buildings process, and repetitions encouraging the inclusion of different subsets of the nodes. By varying the number and type of repetitions, we can adjust the computation time required by our method to obtain algorithms that outperform previous methods.

  11. The classification of the single travelling wave solutions to the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The discrimination system for the polynomial method is applied to variant Boussinesq equations to classify single travelling wave solutions. In particular, we construct corresponding solutions to the concrete parameters to show that each solution in the classification can be realized.

  12. A generic travelling wave solution in dissipative laser cavity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... Abstract. A large family of cosh-Gaussian travelling wave solution of a complex Ginzburg–Landau equation ... pling, wherein the real part represents diffusive coupling ... knowledge, this is the first time that cosh-Gaussian pro-.

  13. Travelling wave solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arshad

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we constructed different form of new exact solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations by utilizing the modified extended direct algebraic method. New exact traveling wave solutions for both equations are obtained in the form of soliton, periodic, bright, and dark solitary wave solutions. There are many applications of the present traveling wave solutions in physics and furthermore, a wide class of coupled nonlinear evolution equations can be solved by this method. Keywords: Traveling wave solutions, Elliptic solutions, Generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation, Dispersive long wave equation, Modified extended direct algebraic method

  14. Traveling wave interferometry particularly for solar power satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, J.H.; Rice, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for use in scientific measurement analysis and control. Travelling interference fringes are generated by radiating at least two different periodic waves at two different frequencies, one from each of two different radiators. The waves are received, mixed and filtered to detect at least one beat signal from these waves which represents the travelling interference fringe. The phase of that beat signal is detected relative to a reference signal of the same frequency as the beat signal. The radiated waves may be received at a second antenna and the phase of the beat of the waves at the first antenna is compared to the phase of the beat as observed at the second antenna. A third wave may be radiated from the first antenna to provide a reference signal which is the beat generated by the third wave and the other wave from the same radiator

  15. A note on poroacoustic traveling waves under Forchheimer's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic traveling waves in a gas that saturates a rigid porous medium is investigated under the assumption that the drag experienced by the gas is modeled by Forchheimer's law. Exact traveling wave solutions (TWS)s, as well as approximate and asymptotic expressions, are obtained; decay rates are determined; and acceleration wave results are presented. In addition, special cases are considered, critical values of the wave variable and parameters are derived, and comparisons with predictions based on Darcy's law are performed. It is shown that, with respect to the Darcy case, most of the metrics that characterize such waveforms exhibit an increase in magnitude under Forchheimer's law

  16. Travelling waves in expanding spatially homogeneous space–times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, George

    2015-01-01

    Some classes of the so-called ‘travelling wave’ solutions of Einstein and Einstein–Maxwell equations in general relativity and of dynamical equations for massless bosonic fields in string gravity in four and higher dimensions are presented. Similarly to the well known plane-fronted waves with parallel rays (pp-waves), these travelling wave solutions may depend on arbitrary functions of a null coordinate which determine the arbitrary profiles and polarizations of the waves. However, in contrast with pp-waves, these waves do not admit the null Killing vector fields and can exist in some curved (expanding and spatially homogeneous) background space–times, where these waves propagate in certain directions without any scattering. Mathematically, some of these classes of solutions arise as the fixed points of Kramer–Neugebauer transformations for hyperbolic integrable reductions of the above mentioned field equations or, in other cases, after imposing the ansatz that these waves do not change the part of the spatial metric transverse to the direction of wave propagation. It is worth noting that the strikingly simple forms of all the solutions presented prospectively make possible the consideration of the nonlinear interaction of these waves with the background curvature and singularities, as well as the collision of such wave pulses with solitons or with each other in the backgrounds where such travelling waves may exist. (paper)

  17. Contact Frequency, Travel Time, and Travel Costs for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate travel time, and travel cost related to contacts with health care providers for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA during a three-month period. Methods. Patient-reported travel time and travel cost were obtained from 2847 patients with RA. Eleven outpatient clinics across Denmark recruited patients to the study. Data collected included frequency, travel time and travel costs for contacts at rheumatology outpatient clinics, other outpatient clinics, general practitioners, privately practicing medical specialists, inpatient hospitals and accident and emergency departments. Results. Over a 3-month period, patients with RA had on average 4.4 (sd 5.7 contacts with health care providers, of which 2.8 (sd 4.0 contacts were with rheumatology outpatient clinics. Private car and public travel were the most frequent modes of travel. The average patient spent 63 minutes and 13 € on travelling per contact, corresponding to a total of 4.6 hours and 56 € during the 3-month period. There was great variation in patient travel time and costs, but no statistically significant associations were found with clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion. The results show that patients with RA spend private time and costs on travelling when they seek treatment. These findings are particularly important when analyzing social costs associated with RA.

  18. Contact frequency, travel time, and travel costs for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate travel time, and travel cost related to contacts with health care providers for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during a three-month period. Methods. Patient-reported travel time and travel cost were obtained from 2847 patients with RA. Eleven outpatient clinics across Denmark recruited patients to the study. Data collected included frequency, travel time and travel costs for contacts at rheumatology outpatient clinics, other outpatient clinics, general practitioners, privately practicing medical specialists, inpatient hospitals and accident and emergency departments. Results. Over a 3-month period, patients with RA had on average 4.4 (sd 5.7) contacts with health care providers, of which 2.8 (sd 4.0) contacts were with rheumatology outpatient clinics. Private car and public travel were the most frequent modes of travel. The average patient spent 63 minutes and 13 € on travelling per contact, corresponding to a total of 4.6 hours and 56 € during the 3-month period. There was great variation in patient travel time and costs, but no statistically significant associations were found with clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion. The results show that patients with RA spend private time and costs on travelling when they seek treatment. These findings are particularly important when analyzing social costs associated with RA.

  19. Traveling waves of the regularized short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y; Horikis, T P; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the so-called regularized short pulse equation (RSPE) are explored with a particular focus on the traveling wave solutions of this model. We theoretically analyze and numerically evolve two sets of such solutions. First, using a fixed point iteration scheme, we numerically integrate the equation to find solitary waves. It is found that these solutions are well approximated by a finite sum of hyperbolic secants powers. The dependence of the soliton's parameters (height, width, etc) to the parameters of the equation is also investigated. Second, by developing a multiple scale reduction of the RSPE to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we are able to construct (both standing and traveling) envelope wave breather type solutions of the former, based on the solitary wave structures of the latter. Both the regular and the breathing traveling wave solutions identified are found to be robust and should thus be amenable to observations in the form of few optical cycle pulses. (paper)

  20. Plasma particle drifts due to traveling waves with cyclotron frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Sato, Naoyuki; Sato, Noriyoshi

    1991-01-01

    A particle orbit theory yields that traveling waves with cyclotron frequencies give rise to charged particle drifts perpendicular both to the wave propagation and external magnetic field lines. The result is applicable to particle-flux control of magnetized plasmas. (author)

  1. Traveling Wave Accelerating Structure for a Superconducting Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kanareykin, Alex; Solyak, Nikolay

    2005-01-01

    We are presenting a superconducting traveling wave accelerating structure (STWA) concept, which may prove to be of crucial importance to the International Linear Collider. Compared to the existing design of a TESLA cavity, the traveling wave structure can provide ~20-40% higher accelerating gradient for the same aperture and the same peak surface magnetic RF field. The recently achieved SC structure gradient of 35 MV/m can be increased up to ~50 MV/m with the new STWA structure design. The STWA structure is supposed to be installed into the superconducting resonance ring and is fed by the two couplers with appropriate phase advance to excite a traveling wave inside the structure. The system requires two independent tuners to be able to adjust the cavity and feedback waveguide frequencies and hence to reduce the unwanted backward wave. In this presentation we discuss the structure design, optimization of the parameters, tuning requirements and plans for further development.

  2. Traveling waves in lattice differential equations with distributed maturation delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Niu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we derive a lattice model with infinite distributed delay to describe the growth of a single-species population in a 2D patchy environment with infinite number of patches connected locally by diffusion and global interaction. We consider the existence of traveling wave solutions when the birth rate is large enough that each patch can sustain a positive equilibrium. When the birth function is monotone, we prove that there exists a traveling wave solution connecting two equilibria with wave speed $c>c^*(\\theta$ by using the monotone iterative method and super and subsolution technique, where $\\theta\\in [0,2\\pi]$ is any fixed direction of propagation. When the birth function is non-monotone, we prove the existence of non-trivial traveling wave solutions by constructing two auxiliary systems satisfying quasi-monotonicity.

  3. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].

  4. Development of a fishbone travelling wave antenna for LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Shiraiwa, S.

    2002-10-01

    A travelling wave antenna in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is being developed for LHD, motivated by the need to provide a capability for rotational transform profile control by noninductively driven current. Stability calculations suggest that it is possible to increase the beta limit and obtain access to the second stability regime by controlling the rotational transform profile. Current drive by the ICRF fast wave (magnetosonic wave) can be used for such a purpose. (author)

  5. A traveling wave approach to plasma pumping for X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in high-brightness excimer lasers and in optical angular multiplexing of excimer lasers presents an opportunity to provide very intense pumping of X-ray sources, both in favorable geometry and in travelling waves, all at low cost. The traveling-wave strategy can be tailored to the parameters of the system to be pumped. This design option can be of great importance for systems lasing at wavelengths in the kilovolt regime where upper level lifetimes are short, and where mirror technology is presently tenuous. Features of several design strategies are explored. (author)

  6. Periodic travelling and non-travelling wave solutions of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with imaginary mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyan; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2008-01-01

    Exact solutions, including the periodic travelling and non-travelling wave solutions, are presented for the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with imaginary mass. Some arbitrary functions are permitted in the periodic non-travelling wave solutions, which contribute to various high dimensional nonlinear structures

  7. Hybrid Modelling of a Traveling Wave Piezoelectric Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El, Ghouti N.

    a theoretical model is derived. Since the dynamic characteristics of the real motor are difficult to capture in an analytical model, and the parameters of the motor are time varying and highly nonlinear, then some assumptions are required in order to simplify the modeling task and thus provide a suitable model......This thesis considers the modeling of the traveling wave piezoelectric motor (PEM). The rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor "Shinsei type USR60" is the case study considered in this work. The traveling wave PEM has excellent performance and many useful features such as high holding torque, high....... Despite many attempts a lumped motor model of the PEM is unavailable so far. The dynamical characteristics of the PEM are complicated, highly nonlinear, and the motor parameters are time varying due to temperature rise and changes in motor drive operating conditions. Therefore it is difficult to predict...

  8. Tuning gain and bandwidth of traveling wave tubes using metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Robert; Polizzi, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    We employ metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures for tuning the gain and bandwidth of short traveling wave tubes. The interaction structures are made from metal rings of uniform cross section, which are periodically deployed along the length of the traveling wave tube. The aspect ratio of the ring cross sections is adjusted to control both gain and bandwidth. The frequency of operation is controlled by the filling fraction of the ring cross section with respect to the size of the period cell.

  9. Traveling wave fronts and the transition to saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Peschanski, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a general method to study the solutions to nonlinear QCD evolution equations, based on a deep analogy with the physics of traveling waves. In particular, we show that the transition to the saturation regime of high energy QCD is identical to the formation of the front of a traveling wave. Within this physical picture, we provide the expressions for the saturation scale and the gluon density profile as a function of the total rapidity and the transverse momentum. The application to the Balitskii-Kovchegov equation for both fixed and running coupling constants confirms the effectiveness of this method

  10. Counting states of black strings with traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Marolf, D.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a family of solutions to string theory which depend on arbitrary functions and contain regular event horizons. They describe six-dimensional extremal black strings with traveling waves and have an inhomogeneous distribution of momentum along the string. The structure of these solutions near the horizon is studied and the horizon area computed. We also count the number of BPS string states at weak coupling whose macroscopic momentum distribution agrees with that of the black string. It is shown that the number of such states is given by the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black string with traveling waves. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Dispersion-Engineered Traveling Wave Kinetic Inductance Parametric Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas (Inventor); Day, Peter K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier comprises a superconducting transmission line and a dispersion control element. The transmission line can include periodic variations of its dimension along its length. The superconducting material can include a high normal state resistivity material. In some instances the high normal state resistivity material includes nitrogen and a metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, niobium and vanadium. The traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier is expected to exhibit a noise temperature below 100 mK/GHz.

  12. Traveling wave solutions for reaction-diffusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhigui; Pedersen, Michael; Tian, Canrong

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with traveling waves of reaction–diffusion systems. The definition of coupled quasi-upper and quasi-lower solutions is introduced for systems with mixed quasimonotone functions, and the definition of ordered quasi-upper and quasi-lower solutions is also given for systems...... with quasimonotone nondecreasing functions. By the monotone iteration method, it is shown that if the system has a pair of coupled quasi-upper and quasi-lower solutions, then there exists at least a traveling wave solution. Moreover, if the system has a pair of ordered quasi-upper and quasi-lower solutions...

  13. The propagation of travelling waves for stochastic generalized KPP equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elworthy, K.D.; Zhao, H.Z.

    1993-09-01

    We study the existence and propagation of approximate travelling waves of generalized KPP equations with seasonal multiplicative white noise perturbations of Ito type. Three regimes of perturbation are considered: weak, milk, and strong. We show that weak perturbations have little effect on the wave like solutions of the unperturbed equations while strong perturbations essentially destroy the wave and force the solutions to die down. For mild perturbations we show that there is a residual wave form but propagating at a different speed to that of the unperturbed equation. In the appendix J.G. Gaines illustrates these different regimes by computer simulations. (author). 27 refs, 13 figs

  14. Theoretical investigation of a travelling-wave rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J.

    1991-12-01

    A travelling-wave type rf gun (TW gun) is investigated theoretically. Analytical formulae concerning energy gain, energy spread, and transverse emittance are derived. After showing the corresponding formulae for the standing-wave rf gun (SW gun), comparisons are made between the two types of rf gun. Finally, some numerical results are calculated to demonstrate further the behaviours of the TW gun, and to compare with those from analytical formulae. (author) 11 refs.; 27 figs

  15. Traveling wave accelerating structures with a large phase advance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramonov, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    The cells RF parameters for the well known Disk Loaded Waveguide (DLW) are considered in higher pass bands of TM01 wave, providing operating phase advance between 180 o - 1230 o per cell. With an appropriate shape optimization and some additional elements proposed traveling wave structures with such large phase advance overlap the classical first band DLW in RF efficiency. Examples of proposed structures together with RF and dispersion properties are presented.

  16. Traveling wave front solutions in lateral-excitatory neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittipong Ruktamatakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the shape of traveling wave front solutions to a neuronal model with the connection function to be of lateral excitation type. This means that close connecting cells have an inhibitory influence, while cells that aremore distant have an excitatory influence. We give results on the shape of the wave fronts solutions, which exhibit different shapes depend ing on the size of a threshold parameter.

  17. Traveling Wave Modes of a Plane Layered Anelastic Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    grant, “Coupled Modes in Elastic Bottoms” (1) is the publication “Traveling wave modes of a plane layered anelastic earth ” accepted for...anelastic earth Robert I. Odom Applied Physics Laboratory and Department of Earth and Space Sciences University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St., Seattle...contrast to a similar standing wave problem for the earth free oscillations (Tromp and Dahlen, 1990). Attenuation is commonly incorporated into synthetic

  18. Traveling Wave Resonance and Simplified Analysis Method for Long-Span Symmetrical Cable-Stayed Bridges under Seismic Traveling Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-ye Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic responses of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under uniform excitation and traveling wave excitation in the longitudinal direction are, respectively, computed. The numerical results show that the bridge’s peak seismic responses vary significantly as the apparent wave velocity decreases. Therefore, the traveling wave effect must be considered in the seismic design of long-span bridges. The bridge’s peak seismic responses do not vary monotonously with the apparent wave velocity due to the traveling wave resonance. A new traveling wave excitation method that can simplify the multisupport excitation process into a two-support excitation process is developed.

  19. Mechanism of travelling-wave transport of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Hiroyuki; Seki, Kyogo; Kuromiya, Naoyuki

    2006-01-01

    Numerical and experimental investigations have been carried out on transport of particles in an electrostatic travelling field. A three-dimensional hard-sphere model of the distinct element method was developed to simulate the dynamics of particles. Forces applied to particles in the model were the Coulomb force, the dielectrophoresis force on polarized dipole particles in a non-uniform field, the image force, gravity and the air drag. Friction and repulsion between particle-particle and particle-conveyer were included in the model to replace initial conditions after mechanical contacts. Two kinds of experiments were performed to confirm the model. One was the measurement of charge of particles that is indispensable to determine the Coulomb force. Charge distribution was measured from the locus of free-fallen particles in a parallel electrostatic field. The averaged charge of the bulk particle was confirmed by measurement with a Faraday cage. The other experiment was measurements of the differential dynamics of particles on a conveyer consisting of parallel electrodes to which a four-phase travelling electrostatic wave was applied. Calculated results agreed with measurements, and the following characteristics were clarified. (1) The Coulomb force is the predominant force to drive particles compared with the other kinds of forces, (2) the direction of particle transport did not always coincide with that of the travelling wave but changed partially. It depended on the frequency of the travelling wave, the particle diameter and the electric field, (3) although some particles overtook the travelling wave at a very low frequency, the motion of particles was almost synchronized with the wave at the low frequency and (4) the transport of some particles was delayed to the wave at medium frequency; the majority of particles were transported backwards at high frequency and particles were not transported but only vibrated at very high frequency

  20. The extended (G/G)-expansion method and travelling wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 6. The extended (′/)-expansion method and travelling wave solutions for the perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger's equation with Kerr law nonlinearity. Zaiyun Zhang Jianhua Huang Juan Zhong Sha-Sha Dou Jiao Liu Dan Peng Ting Gao. Research Articles ...

  1. The classification of single travelling wave solutions to the Camassa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Classifications of single travelling wave solutions to some nonlinear differential equations have been obtained extensively by the complete discrimination system for polynomial method proposed by Liu [1–7]. Furthermore, Wang and Li [8] used Liu's method and factorization method proposed by Cornejo-Pérez ...

  2. The classification of the single travelling wave solutions to the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a large number of methods for finding exact solutions have been established and devel ... Painleve method [1] and transformed rational function method for finding ... travelling wave transformation and integrating it, the nonlinear differential ...... The project is supported by Scientific Research Fund of Education Department of.

  3. The classification of the single travelling wave solutions to the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... For example,. Fan used Liu's method [11,12] to invest the generalized equal width equation and Pochhammer–Chree equa- tion, and she obtained all the possible travelling wave solutions including elliptic functions and hyperelliptic functions. In this paper, we consider the variant Boussinesq equations [13].

  4. Exact travelling wave solutions for some important nonlinear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The two-dimensional nonlinear physical models and coupled nonlinear systems such as Maccari equations, Higgs equations and Schrödinger–KdV equations have been widely applied in many branches of physics. So, finding exact travelling wave solutions of such equations are very helpful in the theories and numerical ...

  5. On The Travelling Wave Solution For An SEIR Epidemic Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the travelling wave solution for a Susceptible, Exposed, Infective and Removed (SEIR) epidemic disease model. For this SEIR model, the disease is driven by both the latent and infective class (the diffusion term is included in both classes). The population is closed. Keywords: Epidemic model, spatial spread, ...

  6. New travelling wave solutions for nonlinear stochastic evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nonlinear stochastic evolution equations have a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry, biology, economics and finance from various points of view. In this paper, the (′/)-expansion method is implemented for obtaining new travelling wave solutions of the nonlinear (2 + 1)-dimensional stochastic ...

  7. Travelling wave solutions to nonlinear physical models by means

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the first integral method to carry out the integration of nonlinear partial differential equations in terms of travelling wave solutions. For illustration, three important equations of mathematical physics are analytically investigated. Through the established first integrals, exact solutions are successfully ...

  8. Symbolic computation and abundant travelling wave solutions to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The method is reliable and useful, and gives more general exact travelling wave solutions than the existing methods. The solutions obtained are in the form of hyperbolic, trigonometricand rational functions including solitary, singular and periodic solutions which have many potential applications in physical science and ...

  9. Symbolic computation and abundant travelling wave solutions to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-09

    Dec 9, 2016 ... Abstract. In this article, the novel (G /G)-expansion method is successfully applied to construct the abundant travelling wave solutions to the KdV–mKdV equation with the aid of symbolic computation. This equation is one of the most popular equation in soliton physics and appear in many practical scenarios ...

  10. Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the travelling wave solution for an SIR endemic disease model with no disease related death when the spatial spread of the susceptible is not negligible. In this case the disease is driven by both the susceptible and the infective classes. The population is open since the disease is habitually prevalent in ...

  11. Emergence of traveling density waves in cyclic multiparticle transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannellopoulos, G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; van der Weele, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Multiparticle flow through a cyclic array of connected compartments with a preferential direction is found to be able to organize itself in traveling waves. This behavior is connected with the transition between uniform flow and cluster formation. When the bias in the system is large, the particles

  12. K-Band Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Dale A.; Simons, Rainee N.; Peterson, Todd T.; Spitsen, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    A new space-qualified, high-power, high-efficiency, K-band traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) will provide high-rate, high-capacity, direct-to-Earth communications for science data and video gathered by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) during its mission. Several technological advances were responsible for the successful demonstration of the K-band TWTA.

  13. Travelling wave solutions to the perturbed Π4 equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geicke, J.

    1985-01-01

    Exact travelling wave solutions to the Π 4 equation, perturbed by a dissipative force and a constant external field η, are presented. For |η| 3 -λ 2 and λ 2 -λ 1 where λ 1 2 3 are the real roots of λ 3 -λ+η=O. The class with |v/ 3 -λ 1 . The stability of the solutions is discussed. (author) [pt

  14. Shielded serpentine traveling wave tube deflection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C.L.; Spector, J.

    1994-12-27

    A shielded serpentine slow wave deflection structure is disclosed having a serpentine signal conductor within a channel groove. The channel groove is formed by a serpentine channel in a trough plate and a ground plane. The serpentine signal conductor is supported at its ends by coaxial feed through connectors. A beam interaction trough intersects the channel groove to form a plurality of beam interaction regions wherein an electron beam may be deflected relative to the serpentine signal conductor. 4 figures.

  15. The cost of travel time variability: three measures with properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between three types of measures of the cost of travel time variability: measures based on scheduling preferences and implicit departure time choice, Bernoulli type measures based on a univariate function of travel time, and mean-dispersion measures. We...

  16. High-frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Milton, Graeme W; Craster, Richard V

    2016-07-01

    We consider high-frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schrödinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω 1 plus a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω 2 . We derive effective equations for the modulating functions, and then prove that there is no coupling in the effective equations between the two different waves both in the scalar and the system cases. To be precise, we prove that there is no coupling unless ω 1 = ω 2 and [Formula: see text] where Λ =(λ 1 λ 2 …λ d ) is the periodicity cell of the medium and for any two vectors [Formula: see text] the product a ⊙ b is defined to be the vector ( a 1 b 1 , a 2 b 2 ,…, a d b d ). This last condition forces the carrier waves to be equivalent Bloch waves meaning that the coupling constants in the system of effective equations vanish. We use two-scale analysis and some new weak-convergence type lemmas. The analysis is not at the same level of rigour as that of Allaire and co-workers who use two-scale convergence theory to treat the problem, but has the advantage of simplicity which will allow it to be easily extended to the case where there is degeneracy of the Bloch eigenvalue.

  17. Detuning effect in a traveling wave type linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Shigeaki.

    1981-10-01

    Detailed measurement of acceleration characteristics has been performed on a 15 MeV electron linac as the injector of the electron synchrotron at Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Remarkable feature of the results is that the energy gain as well as the energy spread of the output beam, are optimized when the linac is operated with the microwave whose frequency is higher than the resonant frequency of the accelerator waveguide. The difference of this operating frequency from the resonant frequency grows up as the beam intensity is increased, and amounts to 250 KHz when the beam intensity is 350 mA. In order to clarify the mechanism of the phenomena, the interaction of electron beam with the microwave in the accelerator structure of traveling wave type, is examined on the linac and also on a test accelerator structure. For the analysis of the experimental results, the normal mode method which has been used for standing wave cavities, is developed so as to be applied to the accelerator structure of traveling wave type. The results of analysis show that the observed phenomena at INS linac are caused by the resonant frequency shift, detuning, due to the reactive beam loading and this detuning effects are compensated by use of the microwave of higher frequency. Thus the detuning effects are significant even in the traveling wave type linac composed of buncher and regular sections as well as in the standing wave type accelerator structure. (author)

  18. Heat driven thermoacoustic cooler based on traveling-standing wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Huifang; Zhou Gang; Li Qing

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a heat driven thermoacoustic cooler system without any moving part. It consists of a thermoacoustic engine and a thermoacoustic cooler, and the former is the driving source of the latter. Both the engine and the cooler are located in one loop tube coupled with a resonator tube, and the acoustic power produced by the engine is used to drive the cooler directly. Both regenerators of the engine and the cooler are located in the near region of the pressure antinode, and operate in traveling-standing wave phase region. In the engine's regenerator, both components of the standing wave and the traveling wave realize the conversion from heat to acoustic energy. This improves the efficiency of the engine. In the cooler's regenerator, both components of the traveling wave and the standing wave pump heat from the cold end. This improves the efficiency of the cooler. At the operating point with a mean pressure of 22 bar, helium as working gas, a frequency of 234 Hz, and a heating power of 300 W, the experimental cooler provides a no-load temperature of -30 deg. C and a cooling power of 40 W at the cooling temperature of 0 deg. C. The total length of this cooler system is less than 1 m, which shows a good prospect for the domestic cooler system in room-temperature cooling such as food refrigeration and air-conditioning.

  19. Parsimonious wave-equation travel-time inversion for refraction waves

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei

    2017-02-14

    We present a parsimonious wave-equation travel-time inversion technique for refraction waves. A dense virtual refraction dataset can be generated from just two reciprocal shot gathers for the sources at the endpoints of the survey line, with N geophones evenly deployed along the line. These two reciprocal shots contain approximately 2N refraction travel times, which can be spawned into O(N2) refraction travel times by an interferometric transformation. Then, these virtual refraction travel times are used with a source wavelet to create N virtual refraction shot gathers, which are the input data for wave-equation travel-time inversion. Numerical results show that the parsimonious wave-equation travel-time tomogram has about the same accuracy as the tomogram computed by standard wave-equation travel-time inversion. The most significant benefit is that a reciprocal survey is far less time consuming than the standard refraction survey where a source is excited at each geophone location.

  20. The origin of traveling waves in an emperor penguin huddle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerum, R C; Fabry, B; Metzner, C; Zitterbart, D P; Beaulieu, M; Ancel, A

    2013-01-01

    Emperor penguins breed during the Antarctic winter and have to endure temperatures as low as −50 °C and wind speeds of up to 200 km h −1 . To conserve energy, they form densely packed huddles with a triangular lattice structure. Video recordings from previous studies revealed coordinated movements in regular wave-like patterns within these huddles. It is thought that these waves are triggered by individual penguins that locally disturb the huddle structure, and that the traveling wave serves to remove the lattice defects and restore order. The mechanisms that govern wave propagation are currently unknown, however. Moreover, it is unknown if the waves are always triggered by the same penguin in a huddle. Here, we present a model in which the observed wave patterns emerge from simple rules involving only the interactions between directly neighboring individuals, similar to the interaction rules found in other jammed systems, e.g. between cars in a traffic jam. Our model predicts that a traveling wave can be triggered by a forward step of any individual penguin located within a densely packed huddle. This prediction is confirmed by optical flow velocimetry of the video recordings of emperor penguins in their natural habitat. (paper)

  1. A RECREATION OPTIMIZATION MODEL BASED ON THE TRAVEL COST METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Hof, John G.; Loomis, John B.

    1983-01-01

    A recreation allocation model is developed which efficiently selects recreation areas and degree of development from an array of proposed and existing sites. The model does this by maximizing the difference between gross recreation benefits and travel, investment, management, and site-opportunity costs. The model presented uses the Travel Cost Method for estimating recreation benefits within an operations research framework. The model is applied to selection of potential wilderness areas in C...

  2. Anisotropy, propagation failure, and wave speedup in traveling waves of discretizations of a Nagumo PDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, Christopher E.; Vleck, Erik S. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is concerned with effect of spatial and temporal discretizations on traveling wave solutions to parabolic PDEs (Nagumo type) possessing piecewise linear bistable nonlinearities. Solution behavior is compared in terms of waveforms and in terms of the so-called (a,c) relationship where a is a parameter controlling the bistable nonlinearity by varying the potential energy difference of the two phases and c is the wave speed of the traveling wave. Uniform spatial discretizations and A(α) stable linear multistep methods in time are considered. Results obtained show that although the traveling wave solutions to parabolic PDEs are stationary for only one value of the parameter a,a 0 , spatial discretization of these PDEs produce traveling waves which are stationary for a nontrivial interval of a values which include a 0 , i.e., failure of the solution to propagate in the presence of a driving force. This is true no matter how wide the interface is with respect to the discretization. For temporal discretizations at large wave speeds the set of parameter a values for which there are traveling wave solutions is constrained. An analysis of a complete discretization points out the potential for nonuniqueness in the (a,c) relationship

  3. Neutronic design of a traveling wave reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez S, R. C.; Francois L, J. L.

    2010-10-01

    The traveling wave reactor is an innovative kind of fast breeder reactor, capable of operate for decades without refueling and whose operation requires only a small amount of enriched fuel for the ignition. Also, one of its advantages is its versatility; it can be designed as small modules of about 100 M We or large scale units of 1000 M We. In this paper the behaviour of the traveling wave reactor core is studied in order to determine whether the traveling breeding/burning wave moves (as theoretically predicted) or not. To achieve this, we consider a two pieces cylinder, the first one, the ignition zone, containing highly enriched fuel and the second, the breeding zone, which is the larger, containing natural or depleted uranium or thorium. We consider that both zones are homogeneous mixtures of fuel, sodium as coolant and iron as structural material. We also include a reflector material outside the cylinder to reduce the neutron leakages. Simulations were run with MCNPX version 2.6 code. We observed that the wave does move as time passes as predicted by theory, and reactor remains supercritical in the time we have simulated (3000 days). Also, we found that thorium does not perform as well as uranium for breeding in this type of reactor. Further test with different reflectors are planned for both U-Pu and Th-U fuel cycles. (Author)

  4. Longitudinal traveling waves bifurcating from Vlasov plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic equations governing longitudinal motion along a straight magnetic field in a multi-species collisionless plasma are investigated. A necessary condition for the existence of small amplitude spatially periodic equilibria and traveling waves near a given spatially uniform background equilibrium is derived, and the wavelengths which such solutions must approach as their amplitude decreases to zero are discussed. A sufficient condition for the existence of these small amplitude waves is also established. This is accomplished by studying the nonlinear ODE for the potential which arises when the distribution functions are represented in a BGK form; the arbitrary functions of energy that describe the BGK representation are tested as an infinite dimensional set of parameters in a bifurcation theory for the ODE. The positivity and zero current condition in the wave frame of the BGK distribution functions are maintained. The undamped small amplitude nonlinear waves so constructed can be made to satisfy the Vlasov dispersion relation exactly, but in general they need only satisfy it approximately. Numerical calculations reveal that even a thermal equilibrium electron-proton plasma with equal ion and electron temperatures will support undamped traveling waves with phase speeds greater than 1.3 times the electron velocity; the dispersion relation for this case exhibits both Langmuir and ion-acoustic branches as long wavelength limits, and shows how these branches are in fact connected by short wavelength waves of intermediate frequency. In apparent contradiction to the linear theory of Landau, these exact solutions of the kinetic equations do not damp; this contradiction is explained by observing that the linear theory is, in general, fundamentally incapable of describing undamped traveling waves

  5. Travelling wave solutions to the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, J.

    2007-01-01

    Combining the approaches given by Baldwin [Baldwin D et al. Symbolic computation of exact solutions expressible in hyperbolic and elliptic functions for nonlinear PDEs. J Symbol Comput 2004;37:669-705], Peng [Peng YZ. A polynomial expansion method and new general solitary wave solutions to KS equation. Comm Theor Phys 2003;39:641-2] and by Schuermann [Schuermann HW, Serov VS. Weierstrass' solutions to certain nonlinear wave and evolution equations. Proc progress electromagnetics research symposium, 28-31 March 2004, Pisa. p. 651-4; Schuermann HW. Traveling-wave solutions to the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Phys Rev E 1996;54:4312-20] leads to a method for finding exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear wave and evolution equations (NLWEE). The first idea is to generalize ansaetze given by Baldwin and Peng to find elliptic solutions of NLWEEs. Secondly, conditions used by Schuermann to find physical (real and bounded) solutions and to discriminate between periodic and solitary wave solutions are used. The method is shown in detail by evaluating new solutions of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation

  6. Numerical simulation of single bubble dynamics under acoustic travelling waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojian; Huang, Biao; Li, Yikai; Chang, Qing; Qiu, Sicong; Su, Zheng; Fu, Xiaoying; Wang, Guoyu

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply CLSVOF method to investigate the single bubble dynamics in acoustic travelling waves. The Naiver-Stokes equation considering the acoustic radiation force is proposed and validated to capture the bubble behaviors. And the CLSVOF method, which can capture the continuous geometric properties and satisfies mass conservation, is applied in present work. Firstly, the regime map, depending on the dimensionless acoustic pressure amplitude and acoustic wave number, is constructed to present different bubble behaviors. Then, the time evolution of the bubble oscillation is investigated and analyzed. Finally, the effect of the direction and the damping coefficient of acoustic wave propagation on the bubble behavior are also considered. The numerical results show that the bubble presents distinct oscillation types in acoustic travelling waves, namely, volume oscillation, shape oscillation, and splitting oscillation. For the splitting oscillation, the formation of jet, splitting of bubble, and the rebound of sub-bubbles may lead to substantial increase in pressure fluctuations on the boundary. For the shape oscillation, the nodes and antinodes of the acoustic pressure wave contribute to the formation of the "cross shape" of the bubble. It should be noted that the direction of the bubble translation and bubble jet are always towards the direction of wave propagation. In addition, the damping coefficient causes bubble in shape oscillation to be of asymmetry in shape and inequality in size, and delays the splitting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Bridges, Jacob; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rectilinear locomotion, snakes propel themselves using unidirectional travelling waves of muscular contraction, in a style similar to earthworms. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we film rectilinear locomotion of three species of snakes, including red-tailed boa constrictors, Dumeril's boas and Gaboon vipers. The kinematics of a snake's extension–contraction travelling wave are characterized by wave frequency, amplitude and speed. We find wave frequency increases with increasing body size, an opposite trend than that for legged animals. We predict body speed with 73–97% accuracy using a mathematical model of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler that uses friction as the dominant propulsive force. We apply our model to show snakes have optimal wave frequencies: higher values increase Froude number causing the snake to slip; smaller values decrease thrust and so body speed. Other choices of kinematic variables, such as wave amplitude, are suboptimal and appear to be limited by anatomical constraints. Our model also shows that local body lifting increases a snake's speed by 31 per cent, demonstrating that rectilinear locomotion benefits from vertical motion similar to walking. PMID:23635494

  8. Tunnel pressure waves - A smartphone inquiry on rail travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Hirth, Michael; Kuhn, Jochen

    2016-02-01

    When traveling by rail, you might have experienced the following phenomenon: The train enters a tunnel, and after some seconds a noticeable pressure change occurs, as perceived by your ears or even by a rapid wobbling of the train windows. The basic physics is that pressure waves created by the train travel down the tunnel, are reflected at its other end, and travel back until they meet the train again. Here we will show (i) how this effect can be well understood as a kind of large-scale outdoor case of a textbook paradigm, and (ii) how, e.g., a prediction of the tunnel length from the inside of a moving train on the basis of this model can be validated by means of a mobile phone measurement.

  9. Parsimonious wave-equation travel-time inversion for refraction waves

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a parsimonious wave-equation travel-time inversion technique for refraction waves. A dense virtual refraction dataset can be generated from just two reciprocal shot gathers for the sources at the endpoints of the survey line, with N

  10. Traveling waves in a continuum model of 1D schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Anand; Kanso, Eva; Shelley, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We construct and analyze a continuum model of a 1D school of flapping swimmers. Our starting point is a delay differential equation that models the interaction between a swimmer and its upstream neighbors' wakes, which is motivated by recent experiments in the Applied Math Lab at NYU. We coarse-grain the evolution equations and derive PDEs for the swimmer density and variables describing the upstream wake. We study the equations both analytically and numerically, and find that a uniform density of swimmers destabilizes into a traveling wave. Our model makes a number of predictions about the properties of such traveling waves, and sheds light on the role of hydrodynamics in mediating the structure of swimming schools.

  11. On the maximal noise for stochastic and QCD travelling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, Robi

    2008-01-01

    Using the relation of a set of nonlinear Langevin equations to reaction-diffusion processes, we note the existence of a maximal strength of the noise for the stochastic travelling wave solutions of these equations. Its determination is obtained using the field-theoretical analysis of branching-annihilation random walks near the directed percolation transition. We study its consequence for the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. For the related Langevin equation modeling the quantum chromodynamic nonlinear evolution of gluon density with rapidity, the physical maximal-noise limit may appear before the directed percolation transition, due to a shift in the travelling-wave speed. In this regime, an exact solution is known from a coalescence process. Universality and other open problems and applications are discussed in the outlook

  12. A tuning method for nonuniform traveling-wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Cunkui; Zheng Shuxin; Shao Jiahang; Jia Xiaoyu; Chen Huaibi

    2013-01-01

    The tuning method of uniform traveling-wave structures based on non-resonant perturbation field distribution measurement has been widely used in tuning both constant-impedance and constant-gradient structures. In this paper, the method of tuning nonuniform structures is proposed on the basis of the above theory. The internal reflection coefficient of each cell is obtained from analyzing the normalized voltage distribution. A numerical simulation of tuning process according to the coupled cavity chain theory has been done and the result shows each cell is in right phase advance after tuning. The method will be used in the tuning of a disk-loaded traveling-wave structure being developed at the Accelerator Laboratory, Tsinghua University. (authors)

  13. Detuning effect in a traveling wave type linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Tojyo, E.; Yoshida, K.

    1979-01-01

    A 15-MeV traveling wave type electron linac is used as the injector for the 1.3-GeV electron synchrotron at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. The resonant frequency of this accelerator waveguide is 2758.00 MHz at 30 0 C. The performance of the linac,however, is improved when it is operated with a frequency which is higher than the design value by 200 to 400 KHz. It is shown that the detuning due to the beam loading is serious in such an accelerator waveguide in which the buncher and regular sections are combined, and the detuning effect can approximately be compensated by changing the operating frequency. The detuning effect in the traveling wave-type accelerator waveguide was studied both from experimental and theoretical aspects by using a short test waveguide

  14. On Traveling Waves in Lattices: The Case of Riccati Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Zlatinka

    2012-09-01

    The method of simplest equation is applied for analysis of a class of lattices described by differential-difference equations that admit traveling-wave solutions constructed on the basis of the solution of the Riccati equation. We denote such lattices as Riccati lattices. We search for Riccati lattices within two classes of lattices: generalized Lotka-Volterra lattices and generalized Holling lattices. We show that from the class of generalized Lotka-Volterra lattices only the Wadati lattice belongs to the class of Riccati lattices. Opposite to this many lattices from the Holling class are Riccati lattices. We construct exact traveling wave solutions on the basis of the solution of Riccati equation for three members of the class of generalized Holling lattices.

  15. Traveling wave deflector design for femtosecond streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Luo, Duan; Wen, Wenlong; Xu, Junkai; Tian, Jinshou; Zhang, Minrui; Chen, Pin; Chen, Jianzhong; Liu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a traveling wave deflection deflector (TWD) with a slow-wave property induced by a microstrip transmission line is proposed for femtosecond streak cameras. The pass width and dispersion properties were simulated. In addition, the dynamic temporal resolution of the femtosecond camera was simulated by CST software. The results showed that with the proposed TWD a femtosecond streak camera can achieve a dynamic temporal resolution of less than 600 fs. Experiments were done to test the femtosecond streak camera, and an 800 fs dynamic temporal resolution was obtained. Guidance is provided for optimizing a femtosecond streak camera to obtain higher temporal resolution.

  16. Traveling wave deflector design for femtosecond streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Luo, Duan [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wen, Wenlong [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Xu, Junkai [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Jinshou, E-mail: tianjs@opt.ac.cn [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Zhang, Minrui; Chen, Pin [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jianzhong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Rong [Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710021 (China)

    2017-05-21

    In this paper, a traveling wave deflection deflector (TWD) with a slow-wave property induced by a microstrip transmission line is proposed for femtosecond streak cameras. The pass width and dispersion properties were simulated. In addition, the dynamic temporal resolution of the femtosecond camera was simulated by CST software. The results showed that with the proposed TWD a femtosecond streak camera can achieve a dynamic temporal resolution of less than 600 fs. Experiments were done to test the femtosecond streak camera, and an 800 fs dynamic temporal resolution was obtained. Guidance is provided for optimizing a femtosecond streak camera to obtain higher temporal resolution.

  17. Nonlinearly driven oscillations in the gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C. C.; Pao, K. F.; Yan, Y. C.; Chu, K. R.; Barnett, L. R.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.

    2008-01-01

    By delivering unprecedented power and gain, the gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWT) offers great promise for advanced millimeter wave radars. However, the underlying physics of this complex nonlinear system is yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we report a new phenomenon in the form of nonlinearly driven oscillations. A zero-drive stable gyro-TWT is shown to be susceptible to a considerably reduced dynamic range at the band edge, followed by a sudden transition into driven oscillations and then a hysteresis effect. An analysis of this unexpected behavior and its physical interpretation are presented.

  18. Modeling traveling-wave Thomson scattering using PIConGPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debus, Alexander; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas; Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Steiniger, Klaus; Pausch, Richard; Huebl, Axel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) laser pulses are pulse-front tilted and dispersion corrected beams that enable all-optical free-electron lasers (OFELs) up to the hard X-ray range. Electrons in such a side-scattering geometry experience the TWTS laser field as a continuous plane wave over centimeter to meter interaction lengths. After briefly discussing which OFEL scenarios are currently numerically accessible, we detail implementation and tests of TWTS beams within PIConGPU (3D-PIC code) and show how numerical dispersion and boundary effects are kept under control.

  19. Chaotic operation and chaos control of travelling wave ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingzhuo; Zhao, Fujie; Shen, Xiaoxi; Wang, Xiaojie

    2013-08-01

    The travelling wave ultrasonic motor, which is a nonlinear dynamic system, has complex chaotic phenomenon with some certain choices of system parameters and external inputs, and its chaotic characteristics have not been studied until now. In this paper, the preliminary study of the chaos phenomenon in ultrasonic motor driving system has been done. The experiment of speed closed-loop control is designed to obtain several groups of time sampling data sequence of the amplitude of driving voltage, and phase-space reconstruction is used to analyze the chaos characteristics of these time sequences. The largest Lyapunov index is calculated and the result is positive, which shows that the travelling wave ultrasonic motor has chaotic characteristics in a certain working condition Then, the nonlinear characteristics of travelling wave ultrasonic motor are analyzed which includes Lyapunov exponent map, the bifurcation diagram and the locus of voltage relative to speed based on the nonlinear chaos model of a travelling wave ultrasonic motor. After that, two kinds of adaptive delay feedback controllers are designed in this paper to control and suppress chaos in USM speed control system. Simulation results show that the method can control unstable periodic orbits, suppress chaos in USM control system. Proportion-delayed feedback controller was designed following and arithmetic of fuzzy logic was used to adaptively adjust the delay time online. Simulation results show that this method could fast and effectively change the chaos movement into periodic or fixed-point movement and make the system enter into stable state from chaos state. Finally the chaos behavior was controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High frequency single mode traveling wave structure for particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyan, M.I.; Danielyan, V.A.; Grigoryan, B.A.; Grigoryan, A.H. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Tsakanian, A.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut TEMF, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Vardanyan, A.S.; Zakaryan, S.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2016-09-01

    The development of the new high frequency slow traveling wave structures is one of the promising directions in accomplishment of charged particles high acceleration gradient. The disc and dielectric loaded structures are the most known structures with slowly propagating modes. In this paper a large aperture high frequency metallic two-layer accelerating structure is studied. The electrodynamical properties of the slowly propagating TM{sub 01} mode in a metallic tube with internally coated low conductive thin layer are examined.

  1. Control of Spiral Waves and Spatiotemporal Chaos by Exciting Travel Wave Trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guoyong; Wang Guangrui; Chen Shigang

    2005-01-01

    Spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos usually are harmful and need to be suppressed. In this paper, a method is proposed to control them. Travel wave trains can be generated by periodic excitations near left boundary, spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos can be eliminated by the trains for some certain excitation periods. Obvious resonant behavior can be observed from the relation between the periods of the trains and excitation ones. The method is against noise.

  2. TERRAPOWER, LLC TRAVELING WAVE REACTOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL HEJZLAR

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is a topic of high importance to many countries throughout the world. Countries with access to vast energy supplies enjoy all of the economic and political benefits that come with controlling a highly sought after commodity. Given the desire to diversify away from fossil fuels due to rising environmental and economic concerns, there are limited technology options available for baseload electricity generation. Further complicating this issue is the desire for energy sources to be sustainable and globally scalable in addition to being economic and environmentally benign. Nuclear energy in its current form meets many but not all of these attributes. In order to address these limitations, TerraPower, LLC has developed the Traveling Wave Reactor (TWR which is a near-term deployable and truly sustainable energy solution that is globally scalable for the indefinite future. The fast neutron spectrum allows up to a ∼30-fold gain in fuel utilization efficiency when compared to conventional light water reactors utilizing enriched fuel. When compared to other fast reactors, TWRs represent the lowest cost alternative to enjoy the energy security benefits of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle without the associated proliferation concerns of chemical reprocessing. On a country level, this represents a significant savings in the energy generation infrastructure for several reasons 1 no reprocessing plants need to be built, 2 a reduced number of enrichment plants need to be built, 3 reduced waste production results in a lower repository capacity requirement and reduced waste transportation costs and 4 less uranium ore needs to be mined or purchased since natural or depleted uranium can be used directly as fuel. With advanced technological development and added cost, TWRs are also capable of reusing both their own used fuel and used fuel from LWRs, thereby eliminating the need for enrichment in the longer term and reducing the overall societal waste

  3. Traveling waves and their tails in locally resonant granular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Stefanov, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we revisit the theme of wave propagation in locally resonant granular crystal systems, also referred to as mass-in-mass systems. We use three distinct approaches to identify relevant traveling waves. In addition, the first consists of a direct solution of the traveling wave problem. The second one consists of the solution of the Fourier tranformed variant of the problem, or, more precisely, of its convolution reformulation (upon an inverse Fourier transform) in real space. Finally, our third approach will restrict considerations to a finite domain, utilizing the notion of Fourier series for important technical reasons, namely the avoidance of resonances, which will be discussed in detail. All three approaches can be utilized in either the displacement or the strain formulation. Typical resulting computations in finite domains result in the solitary waves bearing symmetric non-vanishing tails at both ends of the computational domain. Importantly, however, a countably infinite set of anti-resonance conditions is identified for which solutions with genuinely rapidly decaying tails arise

  4. Photo-induced travelling waves in condensed Langmuir monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabe, Y [Yokoyama Nano-Structured Liquid Crystal Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 5-9-9 Tokodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-2635, Japan (Japan); Yamamoto, T [Yokoyama Nano-Structured Liquid Crystal Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 5-9-9 Tokodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-2635, Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, H [Yokoyama Nano-Structured Liquid Crystal Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 5-9-9 Tokodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-2635, Japan (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    We report the detailed properties of photo-induced travelling waves in liquid crystalline Langmuir monolayers composed of azobenzene derivatives. When the monolayer, in which the constituent rodlike molecules are coherently tilted from the layer normal, is weakly illuminated to undergo the trans-cis photo-isomerization, spatio-temporal periodic oscillations of the molecular azimuth begin over the entire excited area and propagate as a two-dimensional orientational wave. The wave formation takes place only when the film is formed at an asymmetric interface with broken up-down symmetry and when the chromophores are continuously excited near the long-wavelength edge of absorption to induce repeated photo-isomerizations between the trans and cis forms. Under proper illumination conditions, Langmuir monolayers composed of a wide variety of azobenzene derivatives have been confirmed to exhibit similar travelling waves with velocity proportional to the excitation power irrespective of the degree of amphiphilicity. The dynamics can be qualitatively explained by the modified reaction-diffusion model proposed by Reigada, Sagues and Mikhailov.

  5. Wilderness Recreation Demand: A Comparison of Travel Cost and On-Site Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Bowker; A. Askew; L. Seymour; J.P. Zhu; D. English; C.M. Starbuck

    2009-01-01

    This study used travel cost and on-site day cost models, coupled with the Forest Service’s National Visitor Use Monitoring data, to examine the demand for and value of recreation access to designated Wilderness.

  6. Nonlinear time-dependent simulation of helix traveling wave tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wei-Feng; Yang Zhong-Hai; Hu Yu-Lu; Li Jian-Qing; Lu Qi-Ru; Li Bin

    2011-01-01

    A one-dimensional nonlinear time-dependent theory for helix traveling wave tubes is studied. A generalized electromagnetic field is applied to the expression of the radio frequency field. To simulate the variations of the high frequency structure, such as the pitch taper and the effect of harmonics, the spatial average over a wavelength is substituted by a time average over a wave period in the equation of the radio frequency field. Under this assumption, the space charge field of the electron beam can be treated by a space charge wave model along with the space charge coefficient. The effects of the radio frequency and the space charge fields on the electrons are presented by the equations of the electron energy and the electron phase. The time-dependent simulation is compared with the frequency-domain simulation for a helix TWT, which validates the availability of this theory. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Traveling wave antenna for fast wave heating and current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezi, H.; Phelps, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    The traveling wave antenna for heating and current drive in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies is shown theoretically to have loading and wavenumber spectrum which are largely independent of plasma conditions. These characteristics have been demonstrated in low power experiments on the DIII-D tokamak, in which a standard four-strap antenna was converted to a traveling wave antenna through use of external coupling elements. The experiments indicate that the array maintains good impedance matching without dynamic tuning during abrupt changes in the plasma, such as during L- to H-mode transitions, edge localized mode activity, and disruptions. An analytic model was developed which exhibits the features observed in the experiments. Guidelines for the design of traveling wave antennas are derived from the validated model

  8. Traveling-wave antenna for fast-wave heating and current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezi, H.; Phelps, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The travelling-wave antenna for heating and current drive in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies is shown theoretically to have loading and wavenumber spectra that are largely independent of plasma conditions. These characteristics have been demonstrated in low-power experiments on the DIII-D tokamak, in which a standard four-strap antenna was converted to a traveling-wave antenna through use of external coupling elements. The experiments indicate that the array maintains good impedance matching without dynamic tuning during abrupt changes in the plasma, such as during L- to H-mode transitions, edge-localized mode activity, and disruptions. An analytic model was developed that exhibits the features observed in the experiments. Guidelines for the design of travelling-wave antennas are derived from the validated model. 11 refs., 14 figs

  9. Concepts and limitations of macroparticle accelerators using travelling magnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of an accelerator using a travelling magnetic wave acting on magnetized projectiles is discussed. Although superconductors have a high potential as projectile material, their low critical temperature makes them unsuitable. Among ferromagnetic materials dysprosium seems to be superior. For stable suspension and guidance a high conductivity, preferably superconducting, guide sheet is necessary. Magnetic field gradients of 10 9 A/m 2 travelling at 10 6 m/s should be achievable using present state-of-the-art components; resulting accelerations are greater than or equal to 500 km/s 2 . A linear accelerator for final speeds of 50 km/s needs a length of 2.5 km. Guidance forces sufficient to produce acceleration of 2 x 10 6 m/s 2 allow circular accelerators of reasonable size to achieve hypervelocities for small (50 to 100 mg) projectiles. An accelerator of 170 m diameter would surpass the best results from light gas guns. Travelling waves suitable for accelerations of the order of 10 4 m/s 2 can be produced without switching, by means of flux displacing rotors, easily adapted to circular accelerators

  10. Electron detector with a traVelling wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.S.; Kazakov, V.M.; Kozlov, O.V.

    1979-01-01

    Basic principles of operation of a travelling-wave detector designed to measure the shapes of nanosecond electron pulses are discussed. Propagation of electrons through the input window into the detector results in spreading of TEM waves to both sides. The energy of the wave propagating towards resistor R is absorbed by the latter, while the wave propagating in the opposite direction hits a register. Thus good matching of all the detector elements results in the absence of reflection and standing waves which provides extremely high time resolution and minimum distortion of the electron pulse shape. The detector constitutes a piece of a cylindrical coaxial line whose impedance is equal to the impedance of a transmission line. On one side the detector is loaded onto resistor R equal to the wave resistance of the detector. On the other side the detector is loaded onto the transmission line which connects the detector with a wide-range register. The design and calculation of a detector having a time resolution of about 0.1 ns are presented. The results of testing the coaxial detector When measuring electron pulses with a duration of 60 ns and frequency of 1818 MHz have shown that the developed detector (external diameter being 63 mm, internal diameter 18 mm, length 400 mm) provides the 0.2 ns time resolution

  11. Advantages of traveling wave resonant antennas for fast wave heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, D.A.; Callis, R.W.; Grassie, J.S. de

    1997-04-01

    The resilience of a maximally flat externally coupled traveling wave antenna (TWA) is contrasted with the sensitivity of a simple directly driven resonant loop array to vacuum and plasma conditions in DIII-D. We find a unique synergy between standing and traveling wave resonant TWA components. This synergy extends TWA operation to several passbands between 60 and 120 MHZ, provides 60 degrees- 120 degrees tunability between elements within a 1-2 MHZ bandwidth and permits efficient and continuous operation during ELMing H-mode

  12. Spike-like solitary waves in incompressible boundary layers driven by a travelling wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Peihua; Zhang, Jiazhong; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear waves produced in an incompressible boundary layer driven by a travelling wave are investigated, with damping considered as well. As one of the typical nonlinear waves, the spike-like wave is governed by the driven-damped Benjamin-Ono equation. The wave field enters a completely irregular state beyond a critical time, increasing the amplitude of the driving wave continuously. On the other hand, the number of spikes of solitary waves increases through multiplication of the wave pattern. The wave energy grows in a sequence of sharp steps, and hysteresis loops are found in the system. The wave energy jumps to different levels with multiplication of the wave, which is described by winding number bifurcation of phase trajectories. Also, the phenomenon of multiplication and hysteresis steps is found when varying the speed of driving wave as well. Moreover, the nature of the change of wave pattern and its energy is the stability loss of the wave caused by saddle-node bifurcation.

  13. Quantum information processing with a travelling wave of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Takahiro; Shiozawa, Yu; Ogawa, Hisashi; Takanashi, Naoto; Takeda, Shuntaro; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Furusawa, Akira

    2018-02-01

    We exploit quantum information processing on a traveling wave of light, expecting emancipation from thermal noise, easy coupling to fiber communication, and potentially high operation speed. Although optical memories are technically challenging, we have an alternative approach to apply multi-step operations on traveling light, that is, continuous-variable one-way computation. So far our achievement includes generation of a one-million-mode entangled chain in time-domain, mode engineering of nonlinear resource states, and real-time nonlinear feedforward. Although they are implemented with free space optics, we are also investigating photonic integration and performed quantum teleportation with a passive liner waveguide chip as a demonstration of entangling, measurement, and feedforward. We also suggest a loop-based architecture as another model of continuous-variable computing.

  14. Conceptual design of an L-band recirculating superconducting traveling wave accelerating structure for ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrakhov, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Liu, Z.; Kazakov, S.; KEK, Tsukuba; Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; Gai, W.

    2007-01-01

    With this paper, we propose the conceptual design of a traveling wave accelerating structure for a superconducting accelerator. The overall goal is to study a traveling wave (TW) superconducting (SC) accelerating structure for ILC that allows an increased accelerating gradient and, therefore reduction of the length of the collider. The conceptual studies were performed in order to optimize the acceleration structure design by minimizing the surface fields inside the cavity of the structure, to make the design compatible with existing technology, and to determine the maximum achievable gain in the accelerating gradient. The proposed solution considers RF feedback system redirecting the accelerating wave that passed through the superconducting traveling wave acceleration (STWA) section back to the input of the accelerating structure. The STWA structure has more cells per unit length than a TESLA structure but provides an accelerating gradient higher than a TESLA structure, consequently reducing the cost. In this paper, the STWA cell shape optimization, coupler cell design and feedback waveguide solution are considered. We also discuss the field flatness in the superconducting TW structure, the HOM modes and multipactor performance have been studied as well. The proposed TW structure design gives an overall 46% gain over the SW ILC structure if the 10 m long TW structure is employed

  15. Relative merits of travelling-wave and resonant operation of linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoffstall, D.R.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of the relative merits of so-called standing wave vis-a-vis travelling wave operation of linear accelerator waveguides is complicated by various considerations. In the first instance, standing wave should be distinguished from resonant operation. Standing wave operation is exactly the same as travelling wave, excepting that the waveguide is terminated by a total reflection of power instead of a matched load. In resonant operation a length of slow wave structure is terminated, theoretically at reflection planes of symmetry; the discrete modes of resonance consist of two oppositely directed travelling wave ensembles, one of which will provide a space harmonic of an intended phase velocity

  16. Exact traveling wave solutions of modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation and viscous Burgers equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Hamidul; Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali; Salam, Md Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of many physical systems leads to nonlinear evolution equations because most physical systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. The investigation of traveling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) plays a significant role in the study of nonlinear physical phenomena. In this article, we construct the traveling wave solutions of modified KDV-ZK equation and viscous Burgers equation by using an enhanced (G '/G) -expansion method. A number of traveling wave solutions in terms of unknown parameters are obtained. Derived traveling wave solutions exhibit solitary waves when special values are given to its unknown parameters. 35C07; 35C08; 35P99.

  17. Multidimensional traveling waves in the Allen–Cahn cellular automaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Ultradiscretization is a limiting procedure transforming a given difference equation into a cellular automaton. The cellular automaton constructed by this procedure preserves the essential properties of the original equation, such as the structure of exact solutions for integrable equations. In this article, a cellular automaton analog of the multidimensional Allen–Cahn equation which is not an integrable system is constructed by the ultradiscretization. Moreover, the traveling wave solutions for the resulting cellular automaton are given. The shape, behavior and stability of the solutions in ultradiscrete systems are similar to those in continuous systems. (paper)

  18. Traveling wave solution of the Reggeon field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, Robi

    2009-01-01

    We identify the nonlinear evolution equation in impact-parameter space for the 'Supercritical Pomeron' in Reggeon field theory as a two-dimensional stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovski-Piscounov equation. It exactly preserves unitarity and leads in its radial form to a high-energy traveling wave solution corresponding to a 'universal' behavior of the impact-parameter front profile of the elastic amplitude; its rapidity dependence and form depend only on one parameter, the noise strength, independently of the initial conditions and of the nonlinear terms restoring unitarity. Theoretical predictions are presented for the three typical distinct regimes corresponding to zero, weak, and strong noise.

  19. Travelling wave solutions for a surface wave equation in fluid mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a non-linear wave equation arising in fluid mechanics. The exact traveling wave solutions of this equation are given by using G'/G-expansion method. This process can be reduced to solve a system of determining equations, which is large and difficult. To reduce this process, we used Wu elimination method. Example shows that this method is effective.

  20. Nonlinear travelling waves in rotating Hagen–Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, Benoît; Govindarajan, Rama

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of viscous flow through a rotating pipe is considered. Small-amplitude stability characteristics are obtained by linearizing the Navier–Stokes equations around the base flow and solving the resulting eigenvalue problems. For linearly unstable configurations, the dynamics leads to fully developed finite-amplitude perturbations that are computed by direct numerical simulations of the complete Navier–Stokes equations. By systematically investigating all linearly unstable combinations of streamwise wave number k and azimuthal mode number m, for streamwise Reynolds numbers {{Re}}z ≤slant 500 and rotational Reynolds numbers {{Re}}{{Ω }} ≤slant 500, the complete range of nonlinear travelling waves is obtained and the associated flow fields are characterized.

  1. Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.

    2017-09-01

    A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.

  2. Travelling waves in models of neural tissue: from localised structures to periodic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Coombes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We consider travelling waves (fronts, pulses and periodics) in spatially extended one dimensional neural field models. We demonstrate for an excitatory field with linear adaptation that, in addition to an expected stable pulse solution, a stable anti-pulse can exist. Varying the adaptation strength

  3. The Direct Digital Modulation of Traveling Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhamohan, Ranjan S.

    2004-01-01

    Traveling wave tube (TWT) technology, first described by Rudolf Kompfner in the early 1940s, has been a key component of space missions from the earliest communication satellites in the 1960s to the Cassini probe today. TWTs are essentially signal amplifiers that have the special capability of operating at microwave frequencies. The microwave frequency range, which spans from approximately 500 MHz to 300 GHz, is shared by many technologies including cellular phones, satellite television, space communication, and radar. TWT devices are superior in reliability, weight, and efficiency to solid-state amplifiers at the high power and frequency levels required for most space missions. TWTs have three main components -an electron gun, slow wave structure, and collector. The electron gun generates an electron beam that moves along the length of the tube axis, inside of the slow wave circuit. At the same time, the inputted signal is slowed by its travel through the coils of the helical slow wave circuit. The interaction of the electron beam and this slowed signal produces a transfer of kinetic energy to the signal, and in turn, amplification. At the end of its travel, the spent electron beam moves into the collector where its remaining energy is dissipated as heat or harnessed for reuse. TWTs can easily produce gains in the tens of decibels, numbers that are suitable for space missions. To date, however, TWTs have typically operated at fixed levels of gain. This gain is determined by various, unchanging, physical factors of the tube. Traditionally, to achieve varying gain, an input signal s amplitude has had to first be modulated by a separate device before being fed into the TWT. This is not always desirable, as significant distortion can occur in certain situations. My mentor, Mr. Dale Force, has proposed an innovative solution to this problem called direct digital modulation . The testing and implementation of this solution is the focus of my summer internship. The

  4. Numerical study of traveling-wave solutions for the Camassa-Holm equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisch, Henrik; Lenells, Jonatan

    2005-01-01

    We explore numerically different aspects of periodic traveling-wave solutions of the Camassa-Holm equation. In particular, the time evolution of some recently found new traveling-wave solutions and the interaction of peaked and cusped waves is studied

  5. Bistable traveling waves for a competitive-cooperative system with nonlocal delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanling; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2018-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of bistable traveling waves for a competitive-cooperative reaction and diffusion system with nonlocal time delays. The existence of bistable waves is established by appealing to the theory of monotone semiflows and the finite-delay approximations. Then the global stability of such traveling waves is obtained via a squeezing technique and a dynamical systems approach.

  6. Traveling waves in a spring-block chain sliding down a slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J. E.; James, G.; Tonnelier, A.

    2017-07-01

    Traveling waves are studied in a spring slider-block model. We explicitly construct front waves (kinks) for a piecewise-linear spinodal friction force. Pulse waves are obtained as the matching of two traveling fronts with identical speeds. Explicit formulas are obtained for the wavespeed and the wave form in the anticontinuum limit. The link with localized waves in a Burridge-Knopoff model of an earthquake fault is briefly discussed.

  7. Travelling Wave Solutions in Multigroup Age-Structured Epidemic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Arnaut; Magal, Pierre; Ruan, Shigui

    2010-01-01

    Age-structured epidemic models have been used to describe either the age of individuals or the age of infection of certain diseases and to determine how these characteristics affect the outcomes and consequences of epidemiological processes. Most results on age-structured epidemic models focus on the existence, uniqueness, and convergence to disease equilibria of solutions. In this paper we investigate the existence of travelling wave solutions in a deterministic age-structured model describing the circulation of a disease within a population of multigroups. Individuals of each group are able to move with a random walk which is modelled by the classical Fickian diffusion and are classified into two subclasses, susceptible and infective. A susceptible individual in a given group can be crisscross infected by direct contact with infective individuals of possibly any group. This process of transmission can depend upon the age of the disease of infected individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide sufficient conditions that ensure the existence of travelling wave solutions for the age-structured epidemic model. The case of two population groups is numerically investigated which applies to the crisscross transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and some sexual transmission diseases.

  8. Low power RF measurements of travelling wave type linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Sivananda; Wanmode, Yashwant; Bhisikar, A.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    RRCAT is engaged in the development of travelling wave (TW) type linear accelerator for irradiation of industrial and agricultural products. TW accelerator designed for 2π/3 mode to operate at frequency of 2856 MHz. It consists of input coupler, buncher cells, regular cells and output coupler. Low power measurement of this structure includes measurement of resonant frequency of the cells for different resonant modes and quality factor, tuning of input-output coupler and measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Steele's non-resonant perturbation technique has been used for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Kyhl's method has been used for the tuning of input-output coupler. Computer based automated bead pull set-up has been developed for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field profile in the structure. All the codes are written in Python for interfacing of Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) , stepper motor with computer. These codes also automate the measurement process. This paper describes the test set- up for measurement and results of measurement of travelling wave type linear accelerating structure. (author)

  9. Simulation of Noise in a Traveling Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboncoeur, J. P.; Christenson, P. J.; Smith, H. B.

    1999-11-01

    Low frequency noise, manifested as close-in sidebands, has long been a significant limit to the performance of many traveling wave tubes. In this study, we investigate oscillations in the gun region due to the presence of plasma formed by electron-impact ionization of a background gas. The gun region of a coupled-cavity traveling wave tube is modeled using the two-dimensional XOOPIC particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code (J. P. Verboncoeur et al. Comput. Phys. Comm.) 87, 199-211 (1995). (available via the web: http://ptsg.eecs.berkeley.edu). The beam is 20.5 kV, 2.8 A, in near-confined flow in a solenoidal magnetic field with peak axial value of 0.263 T. Beam scalloping leads to trapping of plasma generated via electron-impact ionization of a background gas. The trapped plasma periodically leaves the system rapidly, and the density begins regenerating at a slow rate, leading to characteristic sawtooth oscillations. Plasma electrons are observed to exit the system axially about 20 ns before the ions exit primarily radially.

  10. Power System Transient Diagnostics Based on Novel Traveling Wave Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Reza Jalilzadeh

    Modern electrical power systems demand novel diagnostic approaches to enhancing the system resiliency by improving the state-of-the-art algorithms. The proliferation of high-voltage optical transducers and high time-resolution measurements provide opportunities to develop novel diagnostic methods of very fast transients in power systems. At the same time, emerging complex configuration, such as multi-terminal hybrid transmission systems, limits the applications of the traditional diagnostic methods, especially in fault location and health monitoring. The impedance-based fault-location methods are inefficient for cross-bounded cables, which are widely used for connection of offshore wind farms to the main grid. Thus, this dissertation first presents a novel traveling wave-based fault-location method for hybrid multi-terminal transmission systems. The proposed method utilizes time-synchronized high-sampling voltage measurements. The traveling wave arrival times (ATs) are detected by observation of the squares of wavelet transformation coefficients. Using the ATs, an over-determined set of linear equations are developed for noise reduction, and consequently, the faulty segment is determined based on the characteristics of the provided equation set. Then, the fault location is estimated. The accuracy and capabilities of the proposed fault location method are evaluated and also compared to the existing traveling-wave-based method for a wide range of fault parameters. In order to improve power systems stability, auto-reclosing (AR), single-phase auto-reclosing (SPAR), and adaptive single-phase auto-reclosing (ASPAR) methods have been developed with the final objectives of distinguishing between the transient and permanent faults to clear the transient faults without de-energization of the solid phases. However, the features of the electrical arcs (transient faults) are severely influenced by a number of random parameters, including the convection of the air and plasma

  11. New exact travelling wave solutions for two potential coupled KdV equations with symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zonghang

    2007-01-01

    We find new exact travelling wave solutions for two potential KdV equations which are presented by Foursov [Foursov MV. J Math Phys 2000;41:6173-85]. Compared with the extended tanh-function method, the algorithm used in our paper can obtain some new kinds of exact travelling wave solutions. With the aid of symbolic computation, some novel exact travelling wave solutions of the potential KdV equations are constructed

  12. Absolute instabilities of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, P. N.; van Heijster, P.; Marangell, R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spectral stability of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model of bacterial chemotaxis with a logarithmic chemosensitivity function and a constant, sublinear, and linear consumption rate. Linearising around the travelling wave solutions, we locate the essential and absolute spectrum of the associated linear operators and find that all travelling wave solutions have essential spectrum in the right half plane. However, we show that in the case of constant or sublinea...

  13. Existence and exponential stability of traveling waves for delayed reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Tzi-Sheng; Yu, Zhixian

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the existence and exponential stability of traveling wave solutions for general delayed multi-component reaction-diffusion systems. Following the monotone iteration scheme via an explicit construction of a pair of upper and lower solutions, we first obtain the existence of monostable traveling wave solutions connecting two different equilibria. Then, applying the techniques of weighted energy method and comparison principle, we show that all solutions of the Cauchy problem for the considered systems converge exponentially to traveling wave solutions provided that the initial perturbations around the traveling wave fronts belong to a suitable weighted Sobolev space.

  14. Design of traveling wave windows for the PEP-II RF coupling network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, N.M.; Ng, C.K.; Judkins, J.; Neubauer, M.

    1995-05-01

    The waveguide windows in the PEP-II RF coupling network have to withstand high power of 500 kW. Traveling wave windows have lower power dissipation than conventional self-matched windows, thus rendering the possibility of less stringent mechanical design. The traveling wave behavior is achieved by providing a reflecting iris on each side of the window, and depending on the configuration of the irises, traveling wave windows are characterized as inductive or capacitive types. A numerical design procedure using MAFIA has been developed for traveling wave windows. The relative advantages of inductive and capacitive windows are discussed. Furthermore, the issues of bandwidth and multipactoring are also addressed

  15. Existence, uniqueness, monotonicity and asymptotic behaviour of travelling waves for epidemic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Tzi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the existence, uniqueness, monotonicity and asymptotic behaviour of travelling wave solutions for a general epidemic model arising from the spread of an epidemic by oral–faecal transmission. First, we apply Schauder's fixed point theorem combining with a supersolution and subsolution pair to derive the existence of positive monotone monostable travelling wave solutions. Then, applying the Ikehara's theorem, we determine the exponential rates of travelling wave solutions which converge to two different equilibria as the moving coordinate tends to positive infinity and negative infinity, respectively. Finally, using the sliding method, we prove the uniqueness result provided the travelling wave solutions satisfy some boundedness conditions. (paper)

  16. Wave-particle interaction and Hamiltonian dynamics investigated in a traveling wave tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doveil, Fabrice; Macor, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    For wave-particle interaction studies, the one-dimensional (1-D) beam-plasma system can be advantageously replaced by a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT). This led us to a detailed experimental analysis of the self-consistent interaction between unstable waves and a small either cold or warm beam. More recently, a test electron beam has been used to observe its non-self-consistent interaction with externally excited wave(s). The velocity distribution function of the electron beam is investigated with a trochoidal energy analyzer that records the beam energy distribution at the output of the TWT. An arbitrary waveform generator is used to launch a prescribed spectrum of waves along the slow wave structure (a 4 m long helix) of the TWT. The nonlinear synchronization of particles by a single wave responsible for Landau damping is observed. The resonant velocity domain associated to a single wave is also observed, as well as the transition to large-scale chaos when the resonant domains of two waves and their secondary resonances overlap leading to a typical 'devil's staircase' behavior. A new strategy for the control of chaos is tested

  17. Simplified dynamic simulation of a traveling wave nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez M, H.; Espinosa P, G.; Francois, J. L.; Lopez S, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this work the nuclear fuel burn wave in a fast traveling wave reactor (TWR) is presented, using the reduced model of the neutron diffusion equation, considering only the axial component, and the equations of the transuranic dynamics of U-Pu and a radionuclide of Pu. Two critical zones of the reactor are considered, one enriched with U-Pu called ignition zone and the other impoverished zone or of U-238, named breeding zone. Occupying Na as refrigerant within TWR, and Fe as structural material; both are present in the ignition and breeding zones. Considering as a fissile material the Pu, since by neutron capture the U is transformed into Pu, thus increasing the quantity of Pu more than that of U; in this way the fuel burn stability with the wave dynamics is understood. The calculation of the results was approached numerically to determine the temporal space evolution of the neutron flux in this system and of the main isotopes involved in the burning process. (Author)

  18. Mean field effects for counterpropagating traveling wave solutions of reaction-diffusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernoff, A.J.; Kuske, R.; Matkowsky, B.J.; Volpert, V.

    1995-01-01

    In many problems, one observes traveling waves that propagate with constant velocity and shape in the χ direction, say, are independent of y, and z and describe transitions between two equilibrium states. As parameters of the system are varied, these traveling waves can become unstable and give rise to waves having additional structure, such as traveling waves in the y and z directions, which can themselves be subject to instabilities as parameters are further varied. To investigate this scenario the authors consider a system of reaction-diffusion equations with a traveling wave solution as a basic state. They determine solutions bifurcating from the basic state that describe counterpropagating traveling wave in directions orthogonal to the direction of propagation of the basic state and determine their stability. Specifically, they derive long wave modulation equations for the amplitudes of the counterpropagating traveling waves that are coupled to an equation for a mean field, generated by the translation of the basic state in the direction of its propagation. The modulation equations are then employed to determine stability boundaries to long wave perturbations for both unidirectional and counterpropagating traveling waves. The stability analysis is delicate because the results depend on the order in which transverse and longitudinal perturbation wavenumbers are taken to zero. For the unidirectional wave they demonstrate that it is sufficient to consider the cases of (1) purely transverse perturbations, (2) purely longitudinal perturbations, and (3) longitudinal perturbations with a small transverse component. These yield Eckhaus type, zigzag type, and skew type instabilities, respectively

  19. Traveling waves in a free-electron laser with an electromagnetic wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olumi, Mohsen; Maraghechi, B; Rouhani, M H

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic traveling wave in a free-electron laser (FEL) with an electromagnetic wiggler is investigated using the relativistic fluid-Maxwell formulation. By adapting the traveling-wave ansatz, three coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations are obtained describing the nonlinear propagation of the coupled wave. These equations may be used to study saturation in FELs. By linearizing the nonlinear equations dispersion relations for the traveling wave are obtained. Numerical solution of the small-signal traveling dispersion relation reveals the coupling of radiation to both slow and fast space-charge waves. It is shown that the traveling wave, which is not a normal mode in a laboratory frame, becomes a normal mode in terms of a transformed variable.

  20. Numerical simulation of travelling wave induced electrothermal fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R; Green, Nicolas G; Wolff, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Many microdevices for manipulating particles and cells use electric fields to produce a motive force on the particles. The movement of particles in non-uniform electric fields is called dielectrophoresis, and the usual method of applying this effect is to pass the particle suspension over a microelectrode structure. If the suspension has a noticeable conductivity, one important side effect is that the electric field drives a substantial conduction current through the fluid, causing localized Joule-heating. The resulting thermal gradient produces local conductivity and permittivity changes in the fluid. Dielectrophoretic forces acting upon these pockets of fluid will then produce motion of both the fluid and the particles. This paper presents a numerical solution of the electrical force and the resulting electrothermal driven fluid flow on a travelling wave structure. This common electrode geometry consists of interdigitated electrodes laid down in a long array, with the phase of the applied potential shifted by 90 0 on each subsequent electrode. The resulting travelling electric field was simulated and the thermal field and electrical body force on the fluid calculated, for devices constructed from two typical materials: silicon and glass. The electrothermal fluid flow in the electrolyte over the electrode array was then numerically simulated. The model predicts that the thermal field depends on the conductivity and applied voltage, but more importantly on the geometry of the system and the material used in the construction of the device. The velocity of the fluid flow depends critically on the same parameters, with slight differences in the thermal field for glass and silicon leading to diametrically opposite flow direction with respect to the travelling field for the two materials. In addition, the imposition of slight external temperature gradients is shown to have a large effect on the fluid flow in the device, under certain conditions leading to a reversal of

  1. Travelling Wave Structure of an SPS RF Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The RF cavities for acceleration of particles in the SPS have a travelling-wave structure. They operate at a fixed frequency of 200 MHz (h = 4620). With a quality factor of Q = 100, the bandwidth covers the small frequency swing for the acceleration of protons from as low as 10 GeV to the top energy of 450 GeV. Later on, for the acceleration of ions, with a larger frequency swing, turn-to-turn phase jumps did the trick. Two cavities, each consisting of 5 tank sections, were installed in long straight section 3. Each cavity is driven by a power amplifier of 750 kW CW (1 MW pulsed). Another 2 cavities were added later on. See also 7411033 and 7802190.

  2. Existence of traveling waves for diffusive-dispersive conservation laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar I. Kondo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show the existence existence and uniqueness of traveling waves for diffusive-dispersive conservation laws with flux function in $C^{1}(mathbb{R}$, by using phase plane analysis. Also we estimate the domain of attraction of the equilibrium point attractor corresponding to the right-hand state. The equilibrium point corresponding to the left-hand state is a saddle point. According to the phase portrait close to the saddle point, there are exactly two semi-orbits of the system. We establish that only one semi-orbit come in the domain of attraction and converges to $(u_{-},0$ as $yo -infty$. This provides the desired saddle-attractor connection.

  3. Preliminary research on design of traveling wave reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Mingyu; Chen Bin; Feng Linna; Zhang Yong

    2015-01-01

    An engineering feasible conceptual core design of large scale (e.g. 1OOOMWe output) TWR is proposed with investigation and qualitative optimization on the proper design of fuel element structure, fuel pellet, liquid metal filling gap, fuel assembly structure, core reflector and shielding and shutdown control rods. The optimized design presents a flatten radial neutron flux with a better equivalent state distribution, which means the long term burning state could be defined by initial core design and further corrected by the travelling wave progress. The optimized fuel structure improves the flow distribution between the central, parallel and corner channels. Furthermore, the power control of TWR could be implemented by the adjusting of coolant pump rotation speed as the change of coolant flow. Though the load rejection and power control between 15% to 100% nominal power could not be fulfilled by flow control without the participation of bank A control rods. (authors)

  4. Thermal analysis of gyrotron traveling-wave tube collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhiqing; Luo Yong; Jiang Wei; Tang Yong

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve cooling problem of the gyrotron traveling-wave tube(TWT) collector and guarantee the gyrotron TWT's reliability and stability, the electron trajectories in the gyrotron TWT are simulated using CST electron simulation software. Thermal analysis of the collector with finite element software ANSYS is performed. The ways of applying boundary that affects the distribution of collector temperature are compared. The influence of the water temperature and flow rate on collector temperature distribution under actual heat fluxes (boundary condition) is researched. The size and number of collector fins are optimized, and a relatively perfect structure is obtained finally. The result estimated by simulation is consistent with the experiment and proves that the model and method employed in this work are suitable. (authors)

  5. Traveling-wave device with mass flux suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.; Gardner, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A traveling-wave device is provided with the conventional moving pistons eliminated. Acoustic energy circulates in a direction through a fluid within a torus. A side branch may be connected to the torus for transferring acoustic energy into or out of the torus. A regenerator is located in the torus with a first heat exchanger located on a first side of the regenerator downstream of the regenerator relative to the direction of the circulating acoustic energy; and a second heat exchanger located on an upstream side of the regenerator. The improvement is a mass flux suppressor located in the torus to minimize time-averaged mass flux of the fluid. In one embodiment, the device further includes a thermal buffer column in the torus to thermally isolate the heat exchanger that is at the operating temperature of the device.

  6. Inter renewal travelling wave reactor with rotary fuel columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, Yuzo

    2016-01-01

    To realize the COP21 decision, this paper proposes Inter Renewal Travelling Wave Reactor that bear high burn-up rate 50% and product TRU fuel efficiently. The reactor is based on 4S Fast Reactor and has Reactor Fuel Columns as fuel assemblies that equalize temperature in the fuel assembly so that fewer structure is need to restrain thermal transformation. To equalize burn-up rate of all fuel assemblies in the reactor, each rotary fuel column has each motor-lifter. The rotary fuel column has two types (Cylinder type and Heat Pipe type using natrium at 15 kPa which supply high temperature energy for Ultra Super Critical power plant). At 4 years cycle all rotary fuel columns of the reactor are renewed by the metallurgy method (vacuum re-smelting) and TRU fuel is gotten from the water fuel. (author)

  7. Surface impedance of travelling--Wave antenna in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, I.B.; Ostrikov, K.N.

    1993-01-01

    Wave properties of metal antennas immersed in a magnetoactive plasma are intensively studied nowadays with the objects of radio communications in ionosphere, plasma heating, gas discharge technique. Many papers are devoted to studies of sheath waves (SW) in magnetoplasma, which are surface by nature and propagate along the metal-low-density sheath-plasma waveguide structure. The results of these papers suggest that the existence of these waves makes significant contribution in antenna impedance. Note that the impedance measurement is one of possible ways of experimental surface waves characterization. In the present report the surface impedance of travelling SW antenna immersed in magnetoactive plasma is calculated and its dependence on the waveguide structure parameters such as plasma density, external magnetic field H 0 and electrons collisional frequency values, sheath region width, conductivity of metal surface is studied. The calculations have been carried out in a quasiplane approximation, when antenna radius greatly exceeds the SW skin depth. Note that the finite conductivity of metal is necessary to be taken into account to provide a finite surface impedance value. The surface impedance is calculated in two cases, namely when SW propagate along (Ζ parallel ) and across (Ζ perpendicular ) the external magnetic field. The relation between the values Ζ parallel and Ζ perpendicular is obtained. This relation shows that the values Ζ parallel and Ζ parallel may satisfy both inequalities Ζ parallel much-gt Ζ perpendicular and Ζ perpendicular approx-gt Ζ perpendicular dependent on the parameters of the structure. The comparison of dispersion properties of the SW propagating along Η 0 with the experimental results is carried out. The results are shown to satisfactorily correspond to the experimental results

  8. Travelling Solitary Wave Solutions for Generalized Time-delayed Burgers-Fisher Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xijun; Han Libo; Li Xi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, travelling wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation are studied. By using the first-integral method, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra, we obtain a class of travelling solitary wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation. A minor error in the previous article is clarified. (general)

  9. Bifurcations of Exact Traveling Wave Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional HNLS Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuanfen

    2012-01-01

    For the (2+1)-Dimensional HNLS equation, what are the dynamical behavior of its traveling wave solutions and how do they depend on the parameters of the systems? This paper will answer these questions by using the methods of dynamical systems. Ten exact explicit parametric representations of the traveling wave solutions are given. (general)

  10. Travelling wave solutions of the generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, P.G.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A class of particular travelling wave solutions of the generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation is studied systematically using the factorization technique. Then, the general travelling wave solutions of Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation, and of its modified version, are also recovered.

  11. Exact travelling wave solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional mKdV-ZK ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the new generalized (′/)-expansion method is executed to find the travelling wave solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional mKdV-ZK equation and the (1+1)-dimensional compound KdVB equation. The efficiency of this method for finding exact and travelling wave solutions has been demonstrated. It is shown ...

  12. New Exact Travelling Wave and Periodic Solutions of Discrete Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qin; Dai Chaoqing; Zhang Jiefang

    2005-01-01

    Some new exact travelling wave and period solutions of discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation are found by using a hyperbolic tangent function approach, which was usually presented to find exact travelling wave solutions of certain nonlinear partial differential models. Now we can further extend the new algorithm to other nonlinear differential-different models.

  13. Fifth-order amplitude equation for traveling waves in isothermal double diffusive convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, S.; Becerril, R.

    2009-01-01

    Third-order amplitude equations for isothermal double diffusive convection are known to hold the tricritical condition all along the oscillatory branch, predicting that stable traveling waves exist Only at the onset of the instability. In order to properly describe stable traveling waves, we perform a fifth-order calculation and present explicitly the corresponding amplitude equation.

  14. Instability of traveling waves of the convective-diffusive Cahn-Hilliard equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hongjun; Liu Changchun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the instability of the traveling waves of the convective-diffusive Cahn-Hilliard equation. We prove that it is nonlinearly unstable under H 2 perturbations, for some traveling wave solution that is asymptotic to a constant as x→∞

  15. 78 FR 31550 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Travel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Travel Costs AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... collection requirement concerning Travel Costs. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 67366..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0088, Travel Costs by any...

  16. Effects of travel cost and participation in recreational activities on national forest visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong-Hoon Cho; J.M. Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Roland K. Roberts; Taeyoung Kim

    2014-01-01

    In the face of higher travel costs due to rising gasoline prices and scarce budget resources,we explored differences in the impacts of travel costs on recreational demand for visitors participating in various recreational activities. Five individual travel cost models were estimated, one for each of 5 national forests (i.e., Allegheny, Coconino, Mount Baker-Snoqualmie...

  17. Sensitivity of whitewater rafting consumers surplus to pecuniary travel cost specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker

    1996-01-01

    Considerable research has examined how different ways of accounting for onsite and travel time affect surplus estimates from travel cost models. However, little has been done regarding different definitions of out-of-pocket costs. Estimates of per trip consumer surplus are developed for a zonal travel cost model for outfitted rafting on the Chattooga River. Nine price...

  18. Recent developments in guided wave travel time tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zon, Tim van; Volker, Arno [TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, P.O. box 155 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-18

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography had been developed to create a map of the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. It can be used for both monitoring and for inspection of pipe-segments that are difficult to access, for instance at the location of pipe-supports. An important outcome of the tomography is the minimum remaining wall thickness, as this is critical in the scheduling of a replacement of the pipe-segment. In order to improve the sizing accuracy we have improved the tomography scheme. A number of major improvements have been realized allowing to extend the application envelope to pipes with a larger wall thickness and to larger distances between the transducer rings. Simulation results indicate that the sizing accuracy has improved and that is now possible to have a spacing of 8 meter between the source-ring and the receiver-ring. Additionally a reduction of the number of sensors required might be possible as well.

  19. rf traveling-wave electron gun for photoinjectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, Mattia; Citterio, Alessandro; Craievich, Paolo; Reiche, Sven; Stingelin, Lukas; Zennaro, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    The design of a photoinjector, in particular that of the electron source, is of central importance for free electron laser (FEL) machines where a high beam brightness is required. In comparison to standard designs, an rf traveling-wave photocathode gun can provide a more rigid beam with a higher brightness and a shorter pulse. This is illustrated by applying a specific optimization procedure to the SwissFEL photoinjector, for which a brightness improvement up to a factor 3 could be achieved together with a double gun output energy compared to the reference setup foreseeing a state-of-the-art S-band rf standing-wave gun. The higher brightness is mainly given by a (at least) double peak current at the exit of the gun which brings benefits for both the beam dynamics in the linac and the efficiency of the FEL process. The gun design foresees an innovative coaxial rf coupling at both ends of the structure which allows a solenoid with integrated bucking coil to be placed around the cathode in order to provide the necessary focusing right after emission.

  20. rf traveling-wave electron gun for photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Schaer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a photoinjector, in particular that of the electron source, is of central importance for free electron laser (FEL machines where a high beam brightness is required. In comparison to standard designs, an rf traveling-wave photocathode gun can provide a more rigid beam with a higher brightness and a shorter pulse. This is illustrated by applying a specific optimization procedure to the SwissFEL photoinjector, for which a brightness improvement up to a factor 3 could be achieved together with a double gun output energy compared to the reference setup foreseeing a state-of-the-art S-band rf standing-wave gun. The higher brightness is mainly given by a (at least double peak current at the exit of the gun which brings benefits for both the beam dynamics in the linac and the efficiency of the FEL process. The gun design foresees an innovative coaxial rf coupling at both ends of the structure which allows a solenoid with integrated bucking coil to be placed around the cathode in order to provide the necessary focusing right after emission.

  1. TRAVELING WAVE SOLUTIONS OF SOME FRACTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERIFE MUGE EGE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The modified Kudryashov method is powerful, efficient and can be used as an alternative to establish new solutions of different type of fractional differential equations applied in mathematical physics. In this article, we’ve constructed new traveling wave solutions including symmetrical Fibonacci function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions and rational solutions of the space-time fractional Cahn Hillihard equation D_t^α u − γD_x^α u − 6u(D_x^α u^2 − (3u^2 − 1D_x^α (D_x^α u + D_x^α(D_x^α(D_x^α(D_x^α u = 0 and the space-time fractional symmetric regularized long wave (SRLW equation D_t^α(D_t^α u + D_x^α(D_x^α u + uD_t^α(D_x^α u + D_x^α u D_t^α u + D_t^α(D_t^α(D_x^α(D_x^α u = 0 via modified Kudryashov method. In addition, some of the solutions are described in the figures with the help of Mathematica.

  2. Algebraic Traveling Wave Solutions of a Non-local Hydrodynamic-type Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Aiyong; Zhu, Wenjing; Qiao, Zhijun; Huang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the algebraic traveling wave solutions of a non-local hydrodynamic-type model. It is shown that algebraic traveling wave solutions exist if and only if an associated first order ordinary differential system has invariant algebraic curve. The dynamical behavior of the associated ordinary differential system is analyzed. Phase portraits of the associated ordinary differential system is provided under various parameter conditions. Moreover, we classify algebraic traveling wave solutions of the model. Some explicit formulas of smooth solitary wave and cuspon solutions are obtained

  3. Spreading speed and travelling waves for a spatially discrete SIS epidemic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kate Fang; Zhao Xiaoqiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the asymptotic speed of spread and travelling waves for a spatially discrete SIS epidemic model. By appealing to the theory of spreading speeds and travelling waves for monotonic semiflows, we establish the existence of asymptotic speed of spread and show that it coincides with the minimal wave speed for monotonic travelling waves. This also gives an affirmative answer to an open problem presented by Rass and Radcliffe (2003 Spatial Deterministic Epidemics (Mathematical Surveys and Monographs vol 102) (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society)) in the case of discrete spatial habitat

  4. New exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The generalized F-expansion method with a computerized symbolic computation is used for constructing a new exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a source. As a result, many exact travelling wave solutions are obtained which include new periodic wave solution, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. The method is straightforward and concise, and it can also be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in physics

  5. The (′/-Expansion Method for Abundant Traveling Wave Solutions of Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibun Naher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the traveling wave solutions of the fifth-order Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon (CDG equation by the (/-expansion method. Abundant traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are successfully obtained by this method and the wave solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic, the trigonometric, and the rational functions. It is shown that the (/-expansion method is a powerful and concise mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

  6. Evoked traveling alpha waves predict visual-semantic categorization-speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellinger, Robert; Gruber, Walter; Zauner, Andrea; Freunberger, Roman; Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we have tested the hypothesis that evoked traveling alpha waves are behaviorally significant. The results of a visual-semantic categorization task show that three early ERP components including the P1–N1 complex had a dominant frequency characteristic in the alpha range and behaved like traveling waves do. They exhibited a traveling direction from midline occipital to right lateral parietal sites. Phase analyses revealed that this traveling behavior of ERP components could be explained by phase-delays in the alpha but not theta and beta frequency range. Most importantly, we found that the speed of the traveling alpha wave was significantly and negatively correlated with reaction time indicating that slow traveling speed was associated with fast picture-categorization. We conclude that evoked alpha oscillations are functionally associated with early access to visual-semantic information and generate – or at least modulate – the early waveforms of the visual ERP. PMID:22100769

  7. Time and travel costs incurred by women attending antenatal tests: A costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Chitty, Lyn S; Morris, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    to estimate the costs to women, their friends and family for different antenatal tests in the Down's syndrome (DS) screening pathway. questionnaire-based costing study. eight maternity clinics across the UK. pregnant women (n=574) attending an appointment for DS screening, NIPT or invasive testing between December 2013 and September 2014. using data collected from the questionnaires we calculated the total costs to women by multiplying the time spent at the hospital and travelling to and from it by the opportunity costs of the women and accompanying person and adding travel and childcare costs. Assumptions about the value of opportunity costs were tested in one-way sensitivity analyses. The main outcome measure was the mean cost to the women and friends/family for each test (DS screening, NIPT, and invasive testing). mean costs to women and their family/friend were £33.96 per visit, of which £22.47 were time costs, £9.15 were travel costs and £2.34 were childcare costs. Costs were lowest for NIPT (£22), £32 for DS screening (£44 if combined with NIPT), and highest for invasive testing (£60). Sensitivity analysis revealed that variations around the value of leisure time opportunity costs had the largest influence on the results. there are considerable costs to women, their friends and family when attending different tests in the DS screening pathway. when assessing the cost-effectiveness of changes to this pathway, costs to women should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of Technical Feasibility of Traveling Wave Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Ji; Yoo, Jae Woon; Bae, In Ho

    2011-01-01

    The status and trend of TWR, patent status and its major technical characteristics were examined in this study. Main technical features of traveling wave reactor can be characterized as a reactor operation without refueling up to the reactor life more than 60 years and TWR utilizes depleted uranium which would be produced from the enrichment process as a byproduct. Enriched fuel is only loaded to an igniter which is required for initiation of burning wave. In this study, quantitative analysis of TWR arising from the technical features was carried out in terms of resource utilization, safety and integrity, and proliferation resistance. In parallel with the concept review of TerraPower SWR design concepts, independent analysis of SWR design by altering a design specification and operation strategy was done in this study. The fuel rod design of SWR was also investigated based on the current database of fuel irradiation and performance. The technical issues of TWR or SWR which should be prior to detailed research and development can be summarized as follows: ·Strong physical protection is required during the shuffling or in-service inspection period to improve the proliferation resistance. ·New flow control logic or device is required for distributing the assembly-wise flow to be corresponded with power swing of fuel assembly. ·High integrity cladding material need to be developed for covering the high fast neutron fluence more than three times of current limit which result from the high burnup and long fuel cycle. The metal fuel under the high burnup condition should be validated through the irradiation test

  9. Effects of traveling waves on flow separation and turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Amir Mahdi; Borazjani, Iman; scientific computing; biofluids laboratory Team

    2017-11-01

    Stable leading edge vortex (LEV) is observed in many flying, hovering and also some aquatic creatures. However, the LEV stability in aquatic animal, in contrast to hovering ones, is not well understood. Here, we study the flow over an inclined plate with an undulatory motion inspired from aquatic swimmers using our immersed boundary, large-eddy simulations (LES). The angle of attack is five degrees and Reynolds number (Re) is 20,000. The undulation is a traveling wave, which has a constant amplitude of 0.01 with respect to chord length and a different wavelength and Strouhal number (St =fA/U, f: frequency, A: amplitude, and U: free stream velocity) for each case. Over a fixed plate the LEV becomes unstable as it reaches the trailing edge and sheds to the wake, whereas over the undulating plate with St =0.2 the LEV becomes stable. The visualization of time average results shows there is a favorable pressure gradient along the tangential direction in cases the LEV becomes stable, which we explain analytically by showing the correlation between the average pressure gradient, St, and wavelength. Finally, the effects of undulatory moving walls of a channel flow on the turbulent statistics is shown. This work was partly supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Grant CBET 1453982, and the Center of Computational Research (CCR) of University at Buffalo.

  10. Traveling wave model for laser-guided discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, Martin; Fernsler, Richard F.; Slinker, Steven P.; Gordon, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an easily solvable 1D traveling wave model for laser-guided discharges. By assuming constant propagation speed u, the hydro/electrodynamic/chemistry equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations in retarded time τ. Negative discharges are shown to propagate only if u>μE b , where μ is electron mobility and E b is the breakdown field; positive discharges propagate only if the channel preconductance exceeds ∼6x10 -11 m/Ω. The axial electric field E is shown to spike up to several times E b and then relax to ∼E b for as long as the gas remains cold. In this streamer region, the channel conductance, current, and potential all increase linearly with τ. The transition to the leader stage, where E is much smaller, occurs in two steps: excitation of vibrational and low-lying electronic states, then gas heating. The propagation range decreases as a function of initial radius and (for given maximum voltage) of the voltage rise rate. Expansion of the hot channel is shown to increase the range.

  11. Experimental Results of Guided Wave Travel Time Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; Mast, Arjan; Bloom, Joost

    2010-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Both economical and social requirements are pushing the industry to even higher levels of availability, reliability and safety of installations. The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections reducing uncertainty and extending inspection intervals. Guided wave travel time tomography is a promising method to monitor the wall thickness quantitatively over large areas. Obviously the robustness and reliability of such a monitoring system is of paramount importance. Laboratory experiments have been carried out on a 10″ pipe with a nominal wall thickness of 8 mm. Multiple, inline defects have been created with a realistic morphology. The depth of the defects was increased stepwise from 0.5 mm to 2 mm. Additionally the influences of the presence of liquid inside the pipe and surface roughness have been evaluated as well. Experimental results show that this method is capable of providing quantitative wall thickness information over a distance of 4 meter, with a sufficient accuracy such that results can be used for trending. The method has no problems imaging multiple defects.

  12. Travelling waves and their bifurcations in the Lorenz-96 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kekem, Dirk L.; Sterk, Alef E.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of the monoscale Lorenz-96 model using both analytical and numerical means. The bifurcations for positive forcing parameter F are investigated. The main analytical result is the existence of Hopf or Hopf-Hopf bifurcations in any dimension n ≥ 4. Exploiting the circulant structure of the Jacobian matrix enables us to reduce the first Lyapunov coefficient to an explicit formula from which it can be determined when the Hopf bifurcation is sub- or supercritical. The first Hopf bifurcation for F > 0 is always supercritical and the periodic orbit born at this bifurcation has the physical interpretation of a travelling wave. Furthermore, by unfolding the codimension two Hopf-Hopf bifurcation it is shown to act as an organising centre, explaining dynamics such as quasi-periodic attractors and multistability, which are observed in the original Lorenz-96 model. Finally, the region of parameter values beyond the first Hopf bifurcation value is investigated numerically and routes to chaos are described using bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. The observed routes to chaos are various but without clear pattern as n → ∞.

  13. Design of hybrid electron linac with standing wave buncher and traveling wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsaev, S.V.; Sobenin, N.P.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Kamenschikov, D.S.; Gusarova, M.A.; Nikolskiy, K.I.; Zavadtsev, A.A.; Lalayan, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    A disk-loaded waveguide (DLW) is the most common structure for compact linear accelerators working in a traveling wave (TW) regime. Among its advantages are high shunt impedance and manufacturing simplicity. The other popular structure is an on-axis coupled bi-periodical accelerating structure (BAS) that works in standing wave (SW) regime. Both the standing and the traveling wave regimes have their own advantages and disadvantages. The design of the hybrid accelerator with SW buncher and TW accelerating section presented in this paper unites the advantages of both regimes. For example, the buncher in the hybrid accelerator is shorter than in a pure TW accelerator, and it requires no solenoid; this structure is more technologically convenient as it does not require a circulator. The other way to combine the advantages of DLW and BAS is to design a magnetic coupled disk-loaded waveguide (DLW-M). This paper also presents the results of a survey study that analyzed the electrodynamical parameters of such a structure and compared them with those of DLW. The experimental data is also presented. Higher order modes, multipacting discharge and thermal simulations show that DLW-M structure is more preferable to classical DLW.

  14. A traveling wave direct energy converter for a D-3He fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Katayama, H.; Miyawaki, F.; Tajima, T.

    1994-01-01

    A concept of a traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC) is developed for 14.7-MeV fusion protons based on the principle of a backward wave oscillator. Separation of fusion protons from thermal ions is accomplished by using ExB ion drift. Energy conversion rate up to 0.87 is attained by applying three-stage modulation of the proton beam. A one-dimensional particle-circuit code is developed to examine self-excitation of the traveling wave and its stability under loading. Electrostatic wave with a fixed frequency is excited spontaneously, and stability of the wave is ensured under loading. (author)

  15. Effect of switching-off of a plasma medium on a traveling wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalluri, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    It is known that a sudden creation of a plasma medium of plasma frequency ω ρ splits a traveling wave of frequency ω o into two new waves of frequencies. The negative value for the frequency here indicates a reflected wave. The effect of a sudden collapse of the plasma medium, on a travelling wave of frequency ω o is shown to be the creation of two new waves of frequencies. A numerical solution is obtained for the case of a gradual collapse of the plasma medium. For the case of a slow decay of the particle density an approximate WKB type solution is obtained. Several results are presented

  16. Applications of exact traveling wave solutions of Modified Liouville and the Symmetric Regularized Long Wave equations via two new techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dianchen; Seadawy, Aly R.; Ali, Asghar

    2018-06-01

    In this current work, we employ novel methods to find the exact travelling wave solutions of Modified Liouville equation and the Symmetric Regularized Long Wave equation, which are called extended simple equation and exp(-Ψ(ξ))-expansion methods. By assigning the different values to the parameters, different types of the solitary wave solutions are derived from the exact traveling wave solutions, which shows the efficiency and precision of our methods. Some solutions have been represented by graphical. The obtained results have several applications in physical science.

  17. Stability of a family of travelling wave solutions in a feedforward chain of phase oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanford, O E III; Mintchev, S M

    2015-01-01

    Travelling waves are an important class of signal propagation phenomena in extended systems with a preferred direction of information flow. We study the generation of travelling waves in unidirectional chains of coupled oscillators communicating via a phase-dependent pulse-response interaction borrowed from mathematical neuroscience. Within the context of such systems, we develop a widely applicable, jointly numerical and analytical methodology for deducing existence and stability of periodic travelling waves. We provide careful numerical studies that support the existence of a periodic travelling wave solution as well as the asymptotic relaxation of a single oscillator to the wave when it is forced with the wave profile. Using this evidence as an assumption, we analytically prove global stability of waves in the infinite chain, with respect to initial perturbations of downstream sites. This rigorous stability result suggests that asymptotic relaxation to the travelling wave occurs even when the forcing is perturbed from the wave profile, a property of the motivating system that is supported by previous work as well as the convergence of the more sophisticated numerical algorithm that we propose in order to compute a high-precision approximation to the solution. We provide additional numerical studies that show that the wave is part of a one-parameter family, and we illustrate the structural robustness of this family with respect to changes in the coupling strength. (paper)

  18. Revisiting the difference between traveling-wave and standing-wave thermoacoustic engines - A simple analytical model for the standing-wave one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Yasuoka, Masaki; Kato, Kazumi

    2015-11-01

    There are two major categories in a thermoacoustic prime-mover. One is the traveling-wave type and the other is the standing-wave type. A simple analytical model of a standing-wave thermoacoustic prime-mover is proposed at relatively low heat-flux for a stack much shorter than the acoustic wavelength, which approximately describes the Brayton cycle. Numerical simulations of Rott's equations have revealed that the work flow (acoustic power) increases by increasing of the amplitude of the particle velocity (| U|) for the traveling-wave type and by increasing cosΦ for the standing-wave type, where Φ is the phase difference between the particle velocity and the acoustic pressure. In other words, the standing-wave type is a phase-dominant type while the traveling-wave type is an amplitude-dominant one. The ratio of the absolute value of the traveling-wave component (| U|cosΦ) to that of the standing-wave component (| U|sinΦ) of any thermoacoustic engine roughly equals the ratio of the absolute value of the increasing rate of | U| to that of cosΦ. The different mechanism between the traveling-wave and the standing-wave type is discussed regarding the dependence of the energy efficiency on the acoustic impedance of a stack as well as that on ωτα, where ω is the angular frequency of an acoustic wave and τα is the thermal relaxation time. While the energy efficiency of the traveling-wave type at the optimal ωτα is much higher than that of the standing-wave type, the energy efficiency of the standing-wave type is higher than that of the traveling-wave type at much higher ωτα under a fixed temperature difference between the cold and the hot ends of the stack.

  19. Travelling waves above the canopy of aquatic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimov, D.; Lyubimova, T.; Baidina, D.

    2012-04-01

    When fluid moves over a saturated porous medium with high permeability and porosity, the flow partially involves the fluid in porous medium, however, because of the great resistance force there arises sharp drop of tangential velocity. This leads to the development of instability similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on discontinuity surface of the tangential velocities of homogeneous fluids. Analogy becomes even more complete if we take into account the deformability of porous medium under the influence of pressure changes. Intensive vortices above the canopy of aquatic vegetation can lead to the coherent oscillations of vegetation, such traveling waves are called monami [1]. In the present paper we investigate stability of steady flow over a saturated porous medium. The importance of this problem is related to the applications to the dynamics of pollutants in the bottom layer of vegetation: the accumulation at low flow and salvo emissions with increasing velocity. We consider a two-layer system consisting of a layer of a viscous incompressible fluid and porous layer saturated with the same fluid located underneath. The lower boundary of the system is assumed to be rigid, the upper boundary - free and non-deformable. Weak slope of the river is taken into account. The problem is solved within the framework of single approach in which a two-layer system is described by a single system of equations for saturated porous medium and the presence of two layers is modeled by introducing variable permeability and porosity, depending on vertical coordinate. The flow in a saturated porous medium is described by the Brinkman model. Solution of the problem for steady flow shows that the velocity profile has two inflection points, which leads to the instability. The neutral curves are obtained for different values of the ratio d of porous layer thickness to full thickness. It is found that the dependence of critical Reynolds number on d is non-monotonic and the wave

  20. Traveling waves in a diffusive predator-prey model with holling type-III functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wantong; Wu Shiliang

    2008-01-01

    We establish the existence of traveling wave solutions and small amplitude traveling wave train solutions for a reaction-diffusion system based on a predator-prey model with Holling type-III functional response. The analysis is in the three-dimensional phase space of the nonlinear ordinary differential equation system given by the diffusive predator-prey system in the traveling wave variable. The methods used to prove the results are the shooting argument, invariant manifold theory and the Hopf bifurcation theorem

  1. Dynamics and bifurcations of travelling wave solutions of R (m, n ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The qualitative change in the physical structures of these waves is shown to depend on the systemic parameters. Under different regions of parametric spaces, various sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of the above waves are given. Moreover, some explicit exact parametric representations of travelling wave ...

  2. Full-Wave Analysis of Traveling-Wave Field-Effect Transistors Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Narahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear transmission lines, which define transmission lines periodically loaded with nonlinear devices such as varactors, diodes, and transistors, are modeled in the framework of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. Originally, some root-finding routine is needed to evaluate the contributions of nonlinear device currents appropriately to the temporally advanced electrical fields. Arbitrary nonlinear transmission lines contain large amount of nonlinear devices; therefore, it costs too much time to complete calculations. To reduce the calculation time, we recently developed a simple model of diodes to eliminate root-finding routines in an FDTD solver. Approximating the diode current-voltage relation by a piecewise-linear function, an extended Ampere's law is solved in a closed form for the time-advanced electrical fields. In this paper, we newly develop an FDTD model of field-effect transistors (FETs, together with several numerical examples that demonstrate pulse-shortening phenomena in a traveling-wave FET.

  3. Existence and Stability of Traveling Waves for Degenerate Reaction-Diffusion Equation with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Jin, Chunhua; Mei, Ming; Yin, Jingxue

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the existence and stability of traveling wave solutions for a degenerate reaction-diffusion equation with time delay. The degeneracy of spatial diffusion together with the effect of time delay causes us the essential difficulty for the existence of the traveling waves and their stabilities. In order to treat this case, we first show the existence of smooth- and sharp-type traveling wave solutions in the case of c≥c^* for the degenerate reaction-diffusion equation without delay, where c^*>0 is the critical wave speed of smooth traveling waves. Then, as a small perturbation, we obtain the existence of the smooth non-critical traveling waves for the degenerate diffusion equation with small time delay τ >0 . Furthermore, we prove the global existence and uniqueness of C^{α ,β } -solution to the time-delayed degenerate reaction-diffusion equation via compactness analysis. Finally, by the weighted energy method, we prove that the smooth non-critical traveling wave is globally stable in the weighted L^1 -space. The exponential convergence rate is also derived.

  4. Existence and Stability of Traveling Waves for Degenerate Reaction-Diffusion Equation with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Jin, Chunhua; Mei, Ming; Yin, Jingxue

    2018-06-01

    This paper deals with the existence and stability of traveling wave solutions for a degenerate reaction-diffusion equation with time delay. The degeneracy of spatial diffusion together with the effect of time delay causes us the essential difficulty for the existence of the traveling waves and their stabilities. In order to treat this case, we first show the existence of smooth- and sharp-type traveling wave solutions in the case of c≥c^* for the degenerate reaction-diffusion equation without delay, where c^*>0 is the critical wave speed of smooth traveling waves. Then, as a small perturbation, we obtain the existence of the smooth non-critical traveling waves for the degenerate diffusion equation with small time delay τ >0. Furthermore, we prove the global existence and uniqueness of C^{α ,β }-solution to the time-delayed degenerate reaction-diffusion equation via compactness analysis. Finally, by the weighted energy method, we prove that the smooth non-critical traveling wave is globally stable in the weighted L^1-space. The exponential convergence rate is also derived.

  5. Multimegawatt relativistic harmonic gyrotron traveling-wave tube amplifier experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menninger, W.L.; Danly, B.G.; Temkin, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The first multimegawatt harmonic relativistic gyrotron traveling-wave tube (gyro-twt) amplifier experiment has been designed, built, and tested. Results from this experimental setup, including the first ever reported third-harmonic gyro-twt results, are presented. Operation frequency is 17.1 GHz. Detailed phase measurements are also presented. The electron beam source is SNOMAD-II, a solid-state nonlinear magnetic accelerator driver with nominal parameters of 400 kV and 350 A. The flat-top pulsewidth is 30 ns. The electron beam is focused using a Pierce geometry and then imparted with transverse momentum using a bifilar helical wiggler magnet. Experimental operation involving both a second-harmonic interaction with the TE 21 mode and a third-harmonic interaction with the TE 31 mode, both at 17 GHz, has been characterized. The third-harmonic interaction resulted in 4-MW output power and 50-dB single-pass gain, with an efficiency of up to ∼8%. The best measured phase stability of the TE 31 amplified pulse was ±10 degree over a 9-ns period. The phase stability was limited because the maximum RF power was attained when operating far from wiggler resonance. The second harmonic, TE 21 had a peak amplified power of 2 MW corresponding to 40-dB single-pass gain and 4% efficiency. The second-harmonic interaction showed stronger superradiant emission than the third-harmonic interaction. Characterizations of the second- and third-harmonic gyro-twt experiments presented here include measurement of far-field radiation patterns, gain and phase versus interaction length, phase stability, and output power versus input power

  6. Limiting Behavior of Travelling Waves for the Modified Degasperis-Procesi Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuli Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an improved qualitative method which combines characteristics of several methods, we classify all travelling wave solutions of the modified Degasperis-Procesi equation in specified regions of the parametric space. Besides some popular exotic solutions including peaked waves, and looped and cusped waves, this equation also admits some very particular waves, such as fractal-like waves, double stumpons, double kinked waves, and butterfly-like waves. The last three types of solutions have not been reported in the literature. Furthermore, we give the limiting behavior of all periodic solutions as the parameters trend to some special values.

  7. Absolute instabilities of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P. N.; van Heijster, P.; Marangell, R.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the spectral stability of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model of bacterial chemotaxis with a logarithmic chemosensitivity function and a constant, sublinear, and linear consumption rate. Linearising around the travelling wave solutions, we locate the essential and absolute spectrum of the associated linear operators and find that all travelling wave solutions have parts of the essential spectrum in the right half plane. However, we show that in the case of constant or sublinear consumption there exists a range of parameters such that the absolute spectrum is contained in the open left half plane and the essential spectrum can thus be weighted into the open left half plane. For the constant and sublinear consumption rate models we also determine critical parameter values for which the absolute spectrum crosses into the right half plane, indicating the onset of an absolute instability of the travelling wave solution. We observe that this crossing always occurs off of the real axis.

  8. Study on monostable and bistable reaction-diffusion equations by iteration of travelling wave maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Taishan; Chen, Yuming

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, based on the iterative properties of travelling wave maps, we develop a new method to obtain spreading speeds and asymptotic propagation for monostable and bistable reaction-diffusion equations. Precisely, for Dirichlet problems of monostable reaction-diffusion equations on the half line, by making links between travelling wave maps and integral operators associated with the Dirichlet diffusion kernel (the latter is NOT invariant under translation), we obtain some iteration properties of the Dirichlet diffusion and some a priori estimates on nontrivial solutions of Dirichlet problems under travelling wave transformation. We then provide the asymptotic behavior of nontrivial solutions in the space-time region for Dirichlet problems. These enable us to develop a unified method to obtain results on heterogeneous steady states, travelling waves, spreading speeds, and asymptotic spreading behavior for Dirichlet problem of monostable reaction-diffusion equations on R+ as well as of monostable/bistable reaction-diffusion equations on R.

  9. Traveling Wave Solutions of ZK-BBM Equation Sine-Cosine Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Bibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Travelling wave solutions are obtained by using a relatively new technique which is called sine-cosine method for ZK-BBM equations. Solution procedure and obtained results re-confirm the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  10. Waves on the surface of a magnetic fluid layer in a traveling magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Zeidis, I.; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    The plane flow of a layer of incompressible viscous magnetic fluid with constant magnetic permeability under the action of a traveling magnetic field is analyzed. The strength of the magnetic field producing a sinusoidal traveling small-amplitude wave on the surface of a magnetic fluid is found. This flow can be used in designing mobile robots

  11. Qualitative analysis and traveling wave solutions for the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger's equation with Kerr law nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zaiyun; Liu Zhenhai; Miao Xiujin; Chen Yuezhong

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law nonlinearity. All explicit expressions of the bounded traveling wave solutions for the equation are obtained by using the bifurcation method and qualitative theory of dynamical systems. These solutions contain bell-shaped solitary wave solutions, kink-shaped solitary wave solutions and Jacobi elliptic function periodic solutions. Moreover, we point out the region which these periodic wave solutions lie in. We present the relation between the bounded traveling wave solution and the energy level h. We find that these periodic wave solutions tend to the corresponding solitary wave solutions as h increases or decreases. Finally, for some special selections of the energy level h, it is shown that the exact periodic solutions evolute into solitary wave solution.

  12. Speed ot travelling waves in reaction-diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benguria, R.D.; Depassier, M.C.; Mendez, V.

    2002-01-01

    Reaction diffusion equations arise in several problems of population dynamics, flame propagation and others. In one dimensional cases the systems may evolve into travelling fronts. Here we concentrate on a reaction diffusion equation which arises as a simple model for chemotaxis and present results for the speed of the travelling fronts. (Author)

  13. Traveling waves in a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and nonlinear incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-Peng; Yang, Yun-Rui; Zhou, Yong-Hui

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with traveling waves of a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and a general nonlinear incidence. The existence and nonexistence of traveling waves of the system are established respectively by Schauder's fixed point theorem and two-sided Laplace transform. It is also shown that the spread speed c is influenced by the dispersal rate of the infected individuals and the delay τ.

  14. Concentration field in traveling-wave and stationary convection in fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, K.D.; Ohlsen, D.R.; Yamamoto, S.Y.; Surko, C.M.; Barten, W.; Luecke, M.; Kamps, M.; Kolodner, P.

    1991-01-01

    By comparison of measurements of shadowgraph images of convection in ethanol-water mixtures with the results of recent numerical calculations, we study the role of the concentration field in traveling-wave and stationary convection. The results confirm the existence of a large concentration contrast between adjacent traveling-wave convection rolls. This concentration modulation, which decreases as the Rayleigh number is increased and the transition to stationary convection is approached, is fundamental to the translation of the pattern

  15. Classification of All Single Travelling Wave Solutions to Calogero-Degasperis-Focas Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2007-01-01

    Under the travelling wave transformation, Calogero-Degasperis-Focas equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Using a symmetry group of one parameter, this ODE is reduced to a second-order linear inhomogeneous ODE. Furthermore, we apply the change of the variable and complete discrimination system for polynomial to solve the corresponding integrals and obtained the classification of all single travelling wave solutions to Calogero-Degasperis-Focas equation.

  16. Exact traveling wave solutions of the bbm and kdv equations using (G'/G)-expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddique, I.; Nazar, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the traveling wave solutions involving parameters of the Benjamin Bona-Mahony (BBM) and KdV equations in terms of the hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions by using the (G'/G)-expansion method, where G = G(zeta) satisfies a second order linear ordinary differential equation. When the parameters are taken special values, the Solitary was are derived from the traveling waves. (author)

  17. 45 CFR 1303.3 - Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs... AGENCIES General § 1303.3 Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs. (a) All parties to... delegate agency may use current operating funds to pay these costs. The fees of only one attorney may be...

  18. 10 CFR 719.34 - What is the treatment for travel costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the treatment for travel costs? 719.34 Section 719.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Reimbursement of Costs Subject to This Part § 719.34 What is the treatment for travel costs? Travel and related expenses must at a minimum comply with the restrictions set fort...

  19. Microscale anechoic architecture: acoustic diffusers for ultra low power microparticle separation via traveling surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Jan; Langelier, Sean; Rezk, Amgad R; Lindner, Gerhard; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2015-01-07

    We present a versatile and very low-power traveling SAW microfluidic sorting device able to displace and separate particles of different diameter in aqueous suspension; the travelling wave propagates through the fluid bulk and diffuses via a Schröder diffuser, adapted from its typical use in concert hall acoustics to be the smallest such diffuser to be suitable for microfluidics. The effective operating power range is two to three orders of magnitude less than current SAW devices, uniquely eliminating the need for amplifiers, and by using traveling waves to impart forces directly upon suspended microparticles, they can be separated by size.

  20. Construction of road network vulnerability evaluation index based on general travel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-qiang; Zhai, Jing; Li, Qian-wen; Zhao, Lin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of China's economy and the continuous improvement of her urban road network, the vulnerability of the urban road network has attracted increasing attention. Based on general travel cost, this work constructs the vulnerability evaluation index for the urban road network, and evaluates the vulnerability of the urban road network from the perspective of user generalised travel cost. Firstly, the generalised travel cost model is constructed based on vehicle cost, travel time, and traveller comfort. Then, the network efficiency index is selected as an evaluation index of vulnerability: the network efficiency index is composed of the traffic volume and the generalised travel cost, which are obtained from the equilibrium state of the network. In addition, the research analyses the influence of traffic capacity decrease, road section attribute value, and location of road section, on vulnerability. Finally, the vulnerability index is used to analyse the local area network of Harbin and verify its applicability.

  1. Smooth and non-smooth travelling waves in a nonlinearly dispersive Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianwei; Xu Wei; Lei Youming

    2005-01-01

    The dynamical behavior and special exact solutions of nonlinear dispersive Boussinesq equation (B(m,n) equation), u tt -u xx -a(u n ) xx +b(u m ) xxxx =0, is studied by using bifurcation theory of dynamical system. As a result, all possible phase portraits in the parametric space for the travelling wave system, solitary wave, kink and anti-kink wave solutions and uncountably infinite many smooth and non-smooth periodic wave solutions are obtained. It can be shown that the existence of singular straight line in the travelling wave system is the reason why smooth waves converge to cusp waves, finally. When parameter are varied, under different parametric conditions, various sufficient conditions guarantee the existence of the above solutions are given

  2. Low-noise kinetic inductance traveling-wave amplifier using three-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissers, M. R.; Erickson, R. P.; Ku, H.-S.; Vale, Leila; Wu, Xian; Hilton, G. C.; Pappas, D. P., E-mail: David.Pappas@NIST.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    We have fabricated a wide-bandwidth, high dynamic range, low-noise cryogenic amplifier based on a superconducting kinetic inductance traveling-wave device. The device was made from NbTiN and consisted of a long, coplanar waveguide on a silicon chip. By adding a DC current and an RF pump tone, we are able to generate parametric amplification using three-wave mixing (3WM). The devices exhibit gain of more than 15 dB across an instantaneous bandwidth from 4 to 8 GHz. The total usable gain bandwidth, including both sides of the signal-idler gain region, is more than 6 GHz. The noise referred to the input of the devices approaches the quantum limit, with less than 1 photon excess noise. We compare these results directly to the four-wave mixing amplification mode, i.e., without DC-biasing. We find that the 3WM mode allows operation with the pump at lower RF power and at frequencies far from the signal. We have used this knowledge to redesign the amplifiers to utilize primarily 3WM amplification, thereby allowing for direct integration into large scale qubit and detector applications.

  3. Low-noise kinetic inductance traveling-wave amplifier using three-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, M. R.; Erickson, R. P.; Ku, H.-S.; Vale, Leila; Wu, Xian; Hilton, G. C.; Pappas, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated a wide-bandwidth, high dynamic range, low-noise cryogenic amplifier based on a superconducting kinetic inductance traveling-wave device. The device was made from NbTiN and consisted of a long, coplanar waveguide on a silicon chip. By adding a DC current and an RF pump tone, we are able to generate parametric amplification using three-wave mixing (3WM). The devices exhibit gain of more than 15 dB across an instantaneous bandwidth from 4 to 8 GHz. The total usable gain bandwidth, including both sides of the signal-idler gain region, is more than 6 GHz. The noise referred to the input of the devices approaches the quantum limit, with less than 1 photon excess noise. We compare these results directly to the four-wave mixing amplification mode, i.e., without DC-biasing. We find that the 3WM mode allows operation with the pump at lower RF power and at frequencies far from the signal. We have used this knowledge to redesign the amplifiers to utilize primarily 3WM amplification, thereby allowing for direct integration into large scale qubit and detector applications.

  4. Conditions for sustaining low-pressure plasma columns by travelling electromagnetic UHF waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the conditions for sustaining low-pressure plasma columns by travelling electromagnetic waves in symmetric and dipolar modes, respectively. The treatment is fully electrodynamic. It is shown that the wave energy flux along the plasma column determines the conditions for sustaining the discharge. In particular as the plasma is sustained by a symmetric wave whose flux depends mainly on the radial distribution of the wave electric field whilst for a dipolar wave sustained plasma the flux is specified by the magnitude of the axial wave field component at the plasma-dielectric interface. (orig.)

  5. Radiofrequency experiments in JFT-2M: Demonstration of innovative applications of a travelling wave antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Hoshino, K.; Kanazawa, S.

    2001-01-01

    Several innovative applications of a travelling wave (combline) antenna designed for fast wave current drive have been demonstrated for the first time in the JFT-2M tokamak. High energy electrons of at least 10 keV were produced in the plasma core by highly directional fast waves in electron cyclotron heated plasmas. The ponderomotive potential of the beat wave, produced by fast waves at two different frequencies, was directly measured for the first time by a heavy ion beam probe. Plasma production was demonstrated using the wave fields excited by the combline antenna over a wide range of toroidal magnetic fields (0.5-2.2 T). (author)

  6. Treatment of Travel Expenses by Golf Course Patrons: Sunk or Bundled Costs and the First and Third Laws of Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, Brown; Daniel, Rascher; Chad, McEvoy; Mark, Nagel

    2007-01-01

    To attract golf patrons, sport managers must understand consumption patterns of the golfer. Importantly, the treatment of travel costs must be understood. According to the Alchian-Allen (1964) theorem, golfers treat travel costs as bundled costs (third law of economic demand) whereas classical consumer theory indicates that golfers treat travel costs as sunk costs (first law of economic demand). The purpose of this study was to determine if golf patrons treated travel costs as sunk costs o...

  7. 41 CFR 301-70.505 - May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical treatment? 301-70.505 Section 301-70.505 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

  8. Discrete-State Simulated Annealing For Traveling-Wave Tube Slow-Wave Circuit Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bulson, Brian A.; Kory, Carol L.; Williams, W. Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Algorithms based on the global optimization technique of simulated annealing (SA) have proven useful in designing traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits for high RF power efficiency. The characteristic of SA that enables it to determine a globally optimized solution is its ability to accept non-improving moves in a controlled manner. In the initial stages of the optimization, the algorithm moves freely through configuration space, accepting most of the proposed designs. This freedom of movement allows non-intuitive designs to be explored rather than restricting the optimization to local improvement upon the initial configuration. As the optimization proceeds, the rate of acceptance of non-improving moves is gradually reduced until the algorithm converges to the optimized solution. The rate at which the freedom of movement is decreased is known as the annealing or cooling schedule of the SA algorithm. The main disadvantage of SA is that there is not a rigorous theoretical foundation for determining the parameters of the cooling schedule. The choice of these parameters is highly problem dependent and the designer needs to experiment in order to determine values that will provide a good optimization in a reasonable amount of computational time. This experimentation can absorb a large amount of time especially when the algorithm is being applied to a new type of design. In order to eliminate this disadvantage, a variation of SA known as discrete-state simulated annealing (DSSA), was recently developed. DSSA provides the theoretical foundation for a generic cooling schedule which is problem independent, Results of similar quality to SA can be obtained, but without the extra computational time required to tune the cooling parameters. Two algorithm variations based on DSSA were developed and programmed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet graphical user interface (GUI) to the two-dimensional nonlinear multisignal helix traveling-wave amplifier analysis program TWA3

  9. Travelling wave solutions in a class of generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianwei; Xu Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a new generalization of KdV equation u t = u x u l-2 + α[2u xxx u p + 4pu p-1 u x u xx + p(p - 1)u p-2 (u x ) 3 ] and investigate its bifurcation of travelling wave solutions. From the above analysis, we know that there exists compacton and cusp waves in the system. We explain the reason that these non-smooth travelling wave solution arise by using the bifurcation theory

  10. Electron and VLF travel time differences for wave-particle interactions at L=4: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rash, J.P.S.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Dougherty, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclotron resonance or gyroresonance interaction has been widely invoked as a generation mechanism for discrete VLF emissions and plasmaspheric hiss. This interaction involves electrons and VLF waves travelling in opposite directions along a geomagnetic field line. We examine, for an interaction region in the equatorial plane at L=4, the energy of the resonant electrons as a function of VLF wave frequency and ambient equatorial electron density. Then for two different spatial configurations of the interaction and two standard plasma distribution models we examine the difference in travel times to a ground-based observer in the Southern hemisphere for the electrons and waves taking part in the interaction. This difference in travel times is shown as a function of VLF wave frequency and equatorial electron density. The results, and their significance for observations of auroral electrons and VLF at Sanae, Antarctica, are discussed and compared with similar results for the Cerenkov interaction discussed in an earlier paper

  11. The non-local Fisher–KPP equation: travelling waves and steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berestycki, Henri; Nadin, Grégoire; Perthame, Benoit; Ryzhik, Lenya

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Fisher–KPP equation with a non-local saturation effect defined through an interaction kernel φ(x) and investigate the possible differences with the standard Fisher–KPP equation. Our first concern is the existence of steady states. We prove that if the Fourier transform φ-circumflex(ξ) is positive or if the length σ of the non-local interaction is short enough, then the only steady states are u ≡ 0 and u ≡ 1. Next, we study existence of the travelling waves. We prove that this equation admits travelling wave solutions that connect u = 0 to an unknown positive steady state u ∞ (x), for all speeds c ≥ c * . The travelling wave connects to the standard state u ∞ (x) ≡ 1 under the aforementioned conditions: φ-circumflex(ξ) > 0 or σ is sufficiently small. However, the wave is not monotonic for σ large

  12. Monostable traveling waves for a time-periodic and delayed nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panxiao; Wu, Shi-Liang

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with a time-periodic and delayed nonlocal reaction-diffusion population model with monostable nonlinearity. Under quasi-monotone or non-quasi-monotone assumptions, it is known that there exists a critical wave speed c_*>0 such that a periodic traveling wave exists if and only if the wave speed is above c_*. In this paper, we first prove the uniqueness of non-critical periodic traveling waves regardless of whether the model is quasi-monotone or not. Further, in the quasi-monotone case, we establish the exponential stability of non-critical periodic traveling fronts. Finally, we illustrate the main results by discussing two types of death and birth functions arising from population biology.

  13. Diffraction of ultracold fermions by quantized light fields: Standing versus traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiser, D.; Search, C.P.; Meystre, P.

    2005-01-01

    We study the diffraction of quantum-degenerate fermionic atoms off of quantized light fields in an optical cavity. We compare the case of a linear cavity with standing-wave modes to that of a ring cavity with two counterpropagating traveling wave modes. It is found that the dynamics of the atoms strongly depends on the quantization procedure for the cavity field. For standing waves, no correlations develop between the cavity field and the atoms. Consequently, standing-wave Fock states yield the same results as a classical standing wave field while coherent states give rise to a collapse and revivals in the scattering of the atoms. In contrast, for traveling waves the scattering results in quantum entanglement of the radiation field and the atoms. This leads to a collapse and revival of the scattering probability even for Fock states. The Pauli exclusion principle manifests itself as an additional dephasing of the scattering probability

  14. Fundamental investigation on electrostatic travelling-wave transport of a liquid drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Basic research has been carried out on the transport of a liquid drop and a soft body in an electrostatic travelling field. A conveyer consisting of parallel electrodes was constructed and a four-phase electrostatic travelling wave was applied to the electrodes to transport the drop on the conveyer. The following were clarified by the experiment. (1) Drops and soft bodies can be transported by virtue of the travelling wave in an insulative liquid that is insoluble to the drop, because the drop was charged on the conveyer by friction and driven by the Coulomb force. (2) A drop that covered less than three arrays of the parallel electrode can be transported in the travelling wave field. (3) A threshold voltage exists for the transport. (4) Although the transport was possible not only for insulative but also for conductive drops, the insulative drop can be transported efficiently. (5) The modes of transport can be classified into three categories, namely, a synchronous region where the motion of the liquid drop is in synchrony with the travelling wave, a delayed response regime, and a regime where transport does not occur. (6) Mixing of drops for a chemical reaction was demonstrated on the conveyer with scroll electrodes. A simple model was proposed to simulate the dynamics of the drop in the electrostatic travelling field

  15. On weakly singular and fully nonlinear travelling shallow capillary–gravity waves in the critical regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsotakis, Dimitrios, E-mail: dmitsot@gmail.com [Victoria University of Wellington, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Dutykh, Denys, E-mail: Denys.Dutykh@univ-savoie.fr [LAMA, UMR 5127 CNRS, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Campus Scientifique, F-73376 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex (France); Assylbekuly, Aydar, E-mail: asylbekuly@mail.ru [Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh–Turkish University, Faculty of Natural Science, Department of Mathematics, 161200 Turkestan (Kazakhstan); Zhakebayev, Dauren, E-mail: daurjaz@mail.ru [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Department of Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 050000 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-05-25

    In this Letter we consider long capillary–gravity waves described by a fully nonlinear weakly dispersive model. First, using the phase space analysis methods we describe all possible types of localized travelling waves. Then, we especially focus on the critical regime, where the surface tension is exactly balanced by the gravity force. We show that our long wave model with a critical Bond number admits stable travelling wave solutions with a singular crest. These solutions are usually referred to in the literature as peakons or peaked solitary waves. They satisfy the usual speed-amplitude relation, which coincides with Scott–Russel's empirical formula for solitary waves, while their decay rate is the same regardless their amplitude. Moreover, they can be of depression or elevation type independent of their speed. The dynamics of these solutions are studied as well. - Highlights: • A model for long capillary–gravity weakly dispersive and fully nonlinear water waves is derived. • Shallow capillary–gravity waves are classified using phase plane analysis. • Peaked travelling waves are found in the critical regime. • The dynamics of peakons in Serre–Green–Naghdi equations is studied numerically.

  16. A new sub-equation method applied to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of some complex nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqun

    2009-01-01

    By using a new coupled Riccati equations, a direct algebraic method, which was applied to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of some complex nonlinear equations, is improved. And the exact travelling wave solutions of the complex KdV equation, Boussinesq equation and Klein-Gordon equation are investigated using the improved method. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to construct exact travelling wave solutions for other nonlinear complex equations.

  17. Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Second Harmonic as Millimeter-Wave Beacon Source for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a CW millimeter-wave satellite beacon source, based on the second harmonic from a traveling-wave tube amplifier and utilizes a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler. A potential application of the beacon source is for investigating the atmospheric effects on Q-band (37-42 GHz) and V/W-band (71- 76 GHz) satellite-to-ground signals.

  18. Some Further Results on Traveling Wave Solutions for the ZK-BBM( Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the traveling wave solutions for the ZK-BBM( equations by using bifurcation method of dynamical systems. Firstly, for ZK-BBM(2, 2 equation, we obtain peakon wave, periodic peakon wave, and smooth periodic wave solutions and point out that the peakon wave is the limit form of the periodic peakon wave. Secondly, for ZK-BBM(3, 2 equation, we obtain some elliptic function solutions which include periodic blow-up and periodic wave. Furthermore, from the limit forms of the elliptic function solutions, we obtain some trigonometric and hyperbolic function solutions which include periodic blow-up, blow-up, and smooth solitary wave. We also show that our work extends some previous results.

  19. Tuberculosis screening of travelers to higher-incidence countries: A cost-effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzies Dick

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Travelers to countries with high tuberculosis incidence can acquire infection during travel. We sought to compare four screening interventions for travelers from low-incidence countries, who visit countries with varying tuberculosis incidence. Methods Decision analysis model: We considered hypothetical cohorts of 1,000 travelers, 21 years old, visiting Mexico, the Dominican Republic, or Haiti for three months. Travelers departed from and returned to the United States or Canada; they were born in the United States, Canada, or the destination countries. The time horizon was 20 years, with 3% annual discounting of future costs and outcomes. The analysis was conducted from the health care system perspective. Screening involved tuberculin skin testing (post-travel in three strategies, with baseline pre-travel tests in two, or chest radiography post-travel (one strategy. Returning travelers with tuberculin conversion (one strategy or other evidence of latent tuberculosis (three strategies were offered treatment. The main outcome was cost (in 2005 US dollars per tuberculosis case prevented. Results For all travelers, a single post-trip tuberculin test was most cost-effective. The associated cost estimate per case prevented ranged from $21,406 for Haitian-born travelers to Haiti, to $161,196 for US-born travelers to Mexico. In all sensitivity analyses, the single post-trip tuberculin test remained most cost-effective. For US-born travelers to Haiti, this strategy was associated with cost savings for trips over 22 months. Screening was more cost-effective with increasing trip duration and infection risk, and less so with poorer treatment adherence. Conclusion A single post-trip tuberculin skin test was the most cost-effective strategy considered, for travelers from the United States or Canada. The analysis did not evaluate the use of interferon-gamma release assays, which would be most relevant for travelers who received BCG

  20. Traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor part II: experiment and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yung; Li, Chun-Chung; Chen, Liang-Chiang; Yang, Chieh-Min

    2007-04-01

    This article continues the discussion of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. Part I of this article dealt with the design and analysis of the stator of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. In this part, the discussion focuses on the structure and modeling of the contact layer and the carriage. In addition, the performance analysis and evaluation of the linear motor also are dealt with in this study. The traveling wave is created by stator, which is constructed by a series of bimorph actuators arranged in a line and connected to form a meander-line structure. Analytical and experimental results of the performance are presented and shown to be almost in agreement. Power losses due to friction and transmission are studied and found to be significant. Compared with other types of linear motors, the motor in this study is capable of supporting heavier loads and provides a larger thrust force.

  1. Pierce gain analysis for a sheet beam in a rippled waveguide traveling-wave tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    A Pierce-type mode analysis is presented for a planar electron beam in a rippled planar waveguide. This analysis describes the gain of a traveling-wave tube consisting of that geometry. The dispersion relation is given by the determinant of a matrix based on the coupling of different free-space modes through the boundary conditions. For the case of high-frequency, low-power amplifiers, the dispersion relation reduces to a simple cubic expression for the Compton regime, leading to three roots analogous to the Pierce solution of a standard traveling-wave tube. The analysis shows that this type of traveling-wave tube is capable of very high gain at extremely high frequencies

  2. Development of Traveling Wave Actuators Using Waveguides of Different Geometrical Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutis Bansevicius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the research and development of piezoelectric traveling wave actuators using different types of the waveguides. The introduced piezoelectric actuators can be characterized by specific areas of application, different resolution, and torque. All presented actuators are ultrasonic resonant devices and they were developed to increase amplitudes of the traveling wave oscillations of the contact surface. Three different waveguides are introduced, that is, symmetrical, asymmetrical, and cone type waveguide. A piezoelectric ring with the sectioned electrodes is used to excite traveling wave oscillations for all actuators. Operating principle, electrode pattern, and excitation regimes of piezoelectric actuators are described. A numerical modelling of the actuators was performed to validate the operating principle and to calculate trajectories of the contact points motion. Prototype actuators were made and experimental study was performed. The results of numerical and experimental analysis are discussed.

  3. Pn seismic wave travel time at the Semipalatinsk Test Site - Borovoe seismic station trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, V.A.; Kaazik, P.B.; Ovchinnikov, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper preparation involved 160 explosions at the Degelen Site conducted in 1961-1989 and 89 explosions at the Balapan Site conducted in 1968-1989. Pn wave travel time was tied to the sea level in accordance with velocity characteristics of the explosion hypocenter medium; and to average epicentral distance for every site basing on their local travel time curves of Pn wave relative to Borovoe station. Maximum amplitude of mean-year travel times variations is 0.3-0.5 s as at the Nevada Test Site - Borovoe trace and Mirniy (Antarctica). However, the linear trend in contrast to previous traces has negative sign (0.08 s for Degelen and 0.1 s for Balapan). Thus, Pn wave velocity increases with calendar time. (author)

  4. Traveling wave tube oscillator/amplifier with superconducting rf circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasper, L.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a device comprising: an electron gun for producing an electron beam; a collector for collecting the electron beam; a vacuum housing surrounding the electron beam and having an integral slow wave circuit, the circuit being made from superconducting ceramic material; means for maintaining the temperature of the superconducting ceramic below its critical temperature; means for extracting an output signal from the slow wave circuit; means for creating a magnetic field within the vacuum housing so that interaction between the electron beam and the slow wave circuit produces the output signal

  5. New traveling wave solutions to AKNS and SKdV equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Teoman

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the traveling wave solutions of Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) and Schwarz-Korteweg-de Vries (SKdV) equations. As the solution method for differential equations we consider the improved tanh approach. This approach provides to transform the partial differential equation into the ordinary differential equation and then obtain the new families of exact solutions based on the solutions of the Riccati equation. The different values of the coefficients of the Riccati equation allow us to obtain new type of traveling wave solutions to AKNS and SKdV equations.

  6. Study of a high-order-mode gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C. C.; Tsai, C. Y.; Kao, S. H.; Chu, K. R.; Barnett, L. R.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Physics and performance issues of a TE 01 -mode gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier are studied in theory. For a high order mode, absolute instabilities on neighboring modes at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonic frequencies impose severe constraints to the device capability. Methods for their stabilization are outlined, on the basis of which the performance characteristics are examined in a multidimensional parameter space under the marginal stability criterion. The results demonstrate the viability of a high-order-mode traveling-wave amplifier and provide a roadmap for design tradeoffs among power, bandwidth, and efficiency. General trends are observed and illustrated with specific examples.

  7. A new auxiliary equation and exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirendaoreji

    2006-01-01

    A new auxiliary ordinary differential equation and its solutions are used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the auxiliary equation which has more new exact solutions. More new exact travelling wave solutions are obtained for the quadratic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, the combined KdV and mKdV equation, the sine-Gordon equation and the Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations

  8. Variable coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equations and travelling waves in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baby, B.V.

    1987-04-01

    The well-known Korteweg-de Vries equations with the coefficients as two arbitrary functions of the time variable, is studied in this paper. The Painleve property analysis provides the conditions on the two variable coefficients, in order to form the Lax pairs associated with this equation. The similarity analysis shows the non-existence of travelling wave solutions when the equation has variable coefficients. These results are used to show the non-existence of travelling waves in an inhomogeneous medium. (author). 33 refs

  9. New binary travelling-wave periodic solutions for the modified KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equations with the focusing (+) and defocusing (-) branches are investigated, respectively. Many new types of binary travelling-wave periodic solutions are obtained for the mKdV equation in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions such as sn(ξ,m)cn(ξ,m)dn(ξ,m) and their extensions. Moreover, we analyze asymptotic properties of some solutions. In addition, with the aid of the Miura transformation, we also give the corresponding binary travelling-wave periodic solutions of KdV equation

  10. Leisure and the Opportunity Cost of Travel Time in Recreation Demand Analysis: A Re-Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Amoako-Tuffour, Joe; Martınez-Espineira, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using count data models that account for zero-truncation, overdispersion, and endogenous stratification, this paper estimates the value of access to recreational parks. The focus is on the valuation of the opportunity cost of travel time within the cost of the trip and its effects on estimated consumer surplus. The fraction of hourly earnings that corresponds to the opportunity cost of travel time is endogenously estimated as a function of visitor characteristics, rather than fixed exogenousl...

  11. Orbital stability of periodic traveling-wave solutions for the log-KdV equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Fábio; Pastor, Ademir; Cristófani, Fabrício

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we establish the orbital stability of periodic waves related to the logarithmic Korteweg-de Vries equation. Our motivation is inspired in the recent work [3], in which the authors established the well-posedness and the linear stability of Gaussian solitary waves. By using the approach put forward recently in [20] to construct a smooth branch of periodic waves as well as to get the spectral properties of the associated linearized operator, we apply the abstract theories in [13] and [25] to deduce the orbital stability of the periodic traveling waves in the energy space.

  12. Deltons, peakons and other traveling-wave solutions of a Camassa-Holm hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaochun; Dai Huihui

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, we study an integrable Camassa-Holm hierarchy whose high-frequency limit is the Camassa-Holm equation. Phase plane analysis is employed to investigate bounded traveling wave solutions. An important feature is that there exists a singular line on the phase plane. By considering the properties of the equilibrium points and the relative position of the singular line, we find that there are in total three types of phase planes. Those paths in phase planes which represented bounded solutions are discussed one-by-one. Besides solitary, peaked and periodic waves, the equations are shown to admit a new type of traveling waves, which concentrate all their energy in one point, and we name them deltons as they can be expressed as some constant multiplied by a delta function. There also exists a type of traveling waves we name periodic deltons, which concentrate their energy in periodic points. The explicit expressions for them and all the other traveling waves are given.

  13. Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morichetti, Francesco; Canciamilla, Antonio; Ferrari, Carlo; Samarelli, Antonio; Sorel, Marc; Melloni, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Wave mixing inside optical resonators, while experiencing a large enhancement of the nonlinear interaction efficiency, suffers from strong bandwidth constraints, preventing its practical exploitation for processing broad-band signals. Here we show that such limits are overcome by the new concept of travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing (FWM). This approach combines the efficiency enhancement provided by resonant propagation with a wide-band conversion process. Compared with conventional FWM in bare waveguides, it exhibits higher robustness against chromatic dispersion and propagation loss, while preserving transparency to modulation formats. Travelling-wave resonant FWM has been demonstrated in silicon-coupled ring resonators and was exploited to realize a 630-μm-long wavelength converter operating over a wavelength range wider than 60 nm and with 28-dB gain with respect to a bare waveguide of the same physical length. Full compatibility of the travelling-wave resonant FWM with optical signal processing applications has been demonstrated through signal retiming and reshaping at 10 Gb s(-1).

  14. First tests of a traveling-wave chopper for the ATLAS positive ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    A ten segment traveling-wave chopper has been constructed and successfully tested at 5% of the design 12 MHz repetition rate. The chopper must remove unbunched tails from a partially bunched heavy-ion beam in order to avoid undue emittance growth in the linac and the production of undesirable satellite beam bunches. When poorly bunched beams traverse the traditional sine-wave chopper, it produces unacceptable transverse emittance growth and unnecessary beam loss. These effects are expected to be much reduced in the traveling wave chopper. First tests have confirmed the validity of these claims, clearly showing much reduced transverse emittance growth as compared to the original sine wave chopper and excellent selectivity for the desired beam. Details of these tests will be presented and compared to calculations. Operation of the new chopper at the full 12 MHz rate is the next goal. Development of a driver power supply capable of full CW operation will also be described

  15. Acoustic tweezing of particles using decaying opposing travelling surface acoustic waves (DOTSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jia Wei; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Neild, Adrian

    2017-10-11

    Surface acoustic waves offer a versatile and biocompatible method of manipulating the location of suspended particles or cells within microfluidic systems. The most common approach uses the interference of identical frequency, counter propagating travelling waves to generate a standing surface acoustic wave, in which particles migrate a distance less than half the acoustic wavelength to their nearest pressure node. The result is the formation of a periodic pattern of particles. Subsequent displacement of this pattern, the prerequisite for tweezing, can be achieved by translation of the standing wave, and with it the pressure nodes; this requires changing either the frequency of the pair of waves, or their relative phase. Here, in contrast, we examine the use of two counterpropagating traveling waves of different frequency. The non-linearity of the acoustic forces used to manipulate particles, means that a small frequency difference between the two waves creates a substantially different force field, which offers significant advantages. Firstly, this approach creates a much longer range force field, in which migration takes place across multiple wavelengths, and causes particles to be gathered together in a single trapping site. Secondly, the location of this single trapping site can be controlled by the relative amplitude of the two waves, requiring simply an attenuation of one of the electrical drive signals. Using this approach, we show that by controlling the powers of the opposing incoherent waves, 5 μm particles can be migrated laterally across a fluid flow to defined locations with an accuracy of ±10 μm.

  16. Phase Defects as a Measure of Disorder in Traveling-Wave Convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Porta, A.; Surko, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Spatiotemporal disorder is studied in traveling-wave convection in an ethanol-water mixture. A technique for calculating the complex order parameter of the pattern is described, and the identification of phase defects is demonstrated. Point defects, domain boundaries, and standing wave patterns are shown to produce unique defect structures. The transition from a disordered state to a more ordered pattern is described in terms of the dynamics of defects and their statistics. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Nonstationary behavior in a delayed feedback traveling wave tube folded waveguide oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskin, N.M.; Titov, V.N.; Han, S.T.; So, J.K.; Jang, K.H.; Kang, Y.B.; Park, G.S.

    2004-01-01

    Folded waveguide traveling-wave tubes (FW TWT) are among the most promising candidates for powerful compact amplifiers and oscillators in millimeter and submillimeter wave bands. In this paper, the nonstationary behavior of a FW TWT oscillator with delayed feedback is investigated. Starting conditions of the oscillations are derived analytically. Results of numerical simulation of single-frequency, self-modulation (multifrequency) and chaotic generation regimes are presented. Mode competition phenomena, multistability and hysteresis are discussed

  18. A Novel Multimode Waveguide Coupler for Accurate Power Measurement of Traveling Wave Tube Harmonic Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler fabricated from two dissimilar waveguides is capable of isolating the power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT). In addition to accurate power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave frequencies.

  19. The cost of simplifying air travel when modeling disease spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lessler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Air travel plays a key role in the spread of many pathogens. Modeling the long distance spread of infectious disease in these cases requires an air travel model. Highly detailed air transportation models can be over determined and computationally problematic. We compared the predictions of a simplified air transport model with those of a model of all routes and assessed the impact of differences on models of infectious disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using U.S. ticket data from 2007, we compared a simplified "pipe" model, in which individuals flow in and out of the air transport system based on the number of arrivals and departures from a given airport, to a fully saturated model where all routes are modeled individually. We also compared the pipe model to a "gravity" model where the probability of travel is scaled by physical distance; the gravity model did not differ significantly from the pipe model. The pipe model roughly approximated actual air travel, but tended to overestimate the number of trips between small airports and underestimate travel between major east and west coast airports. For most routes, the maximum number of false (or missed introductions of disease is small (<1 per day but for a few routes this rate is greatly underestimated by the pipe model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If our interest is in large scale regional and national effects of disease, the simplified pipe model may be adequate. If we are interested in specific effects of interventions on particular air routes or the time for the disease to reach a particular location, a more complex point-to-point model will be more accurate. For many problems a hybrid model that independently models some frequently traveled routes may be the best choice. Regardless of the model used, the effect of simplifications and sensitivity to errors in parameter estimation should be analyzed.

  20. On "new travelling wave solutions" of the KdV and the KdV-Burgers equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    The Korteweg-de Vries and the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equations are considered. Using the travelling wave the general solutions of these equations are presented. "New travelling wave solutions" of the KdV and the KdV-Burgers equations by Wazzan [Wazzan L Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat

  1. Polarization of concave domains by traveling wave pinning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Bialecki

    Full Text Available Pattern formation is one of the most fundamental yet puzzling phenomena in physics and biology. We propose that traveling front pinning into concave portions of the boundary of 3-dimensional domains can serve as a generic gradient-maintaining mechanism. Such a mechanism of domain polarization arises even for scalar bistable reaction-diffusion equations, and, depending on geometry, a number of stationary fronts may be formed leading to complex spatial patterns. The main advantage of the pinning mechanism, with respect to the Turing bifurcation, is that it allows for maintaining gradients in the specific regions of the domain. By linking the instant domain shape with the spatial pattern, the mechanism can be responsible for cellular polarization and differentiation.

  2. Travelling wave and convergence in stage-structured reaction-diffusion competitive models with nonlocal delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rui; Chaplain, M.A.J.; Davidson, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we first investigate a stage-structured competitive model with time delays, harvesting, and nonlocal spatial effect. By using an iterative technique recently developed by Wu and Zou (Wu J, Zou X. Travelling wave fronts of reaction-diffusion systems with delay. J Dynam Differen Equat 2001;13:651-87), sufficient conditions are established for the existence of travelling front solution connecting the two boundary equilibria in the case when there is no positive equilibrium. The travelling wave front corresponds to an invasion by a stronger species which drives the weaker species to extinction. Secondly, we consider a stage-structured competitive model with time delays and nonlocal spatial effect when the domain is finite. We prove the global stability of each of the nonnegative equilibria and demonstrate that the more complex model studied here admits three possible long term behaviors: coexistence, bistability and dominance as is the case for the standard Lotka-Voltera competitive model

  3. Friction Factor Correlation for Regenerator Working in a Travelling-Wave Thermoacoustic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah A. Z. Mohd Saat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerator is a porous solid structure which is important in the travelling-wave thermoacoustic system. It provides the necessary contact surface and thermal capacity for the working gas to undergo a thermodynamic cycle under acoustic oscillatory flow conditions. However, it also creates a pressure drop that could degrade the overall system performance. Ideally, in a travelling-wave system, the phase angle between oscillating pressure and velocity in the regenerator should be zero, or as close to zero as possible. In this study, the hydrodynamic condition of a regenerator has been investigated both experimentally (in a purpose-built rig providing a travelling-wave phasing and numerically. A two-dimensional ANSYS FLUENT CFD model, capturing the important features of the experimental conditions, has been developed. The findings suggest that a steady-state correlation, commonly used in designing thermoacoustic systems, is applicable provided that the travelling-wave phase angle is maintained. However, for coarse mesh regenerators, the results show interesting “phase shifting” phenomena, which may limit the correlation validity. Current experimental and CFD studies are important for predicting the viscous losses in future models of thermoacoustic systems.

  4. Continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox with traveling-wave second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum entanglement are at the heart of quantum mechanics. Here we show that single-pass traveling-wave second-harmonic generation can be used to demonstrate both entanglement and the paradox with continuous variables that are analogous to the position and momentum of the original proposal

  5. Measurements on the SPS 200 MHz Travelling Wave Cavity towards an Impedance Model

    CERN Document Server

    Roggen, Toon; Caspers, Fritz; Vollinger, Christine; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This note discusses the contribution of the SPS 200 MHz TWC (Travelling Wave Cavity) to the SPS longitudinal impedance model. The measurement method and setup is briefly explained and a comparison with simulations is discussed for both the fundamental pass band (FPB) as well as the Higher Order Modes (HOMs). In addition a number of improvements to the measurement setup are discussed.

  6. A New Scheme for Experimental-Based Modeling of a Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojallali, Hamed; Amini, R.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for equivalent circuit modeling of a traveling wave ultrasonic motor is presented. The free stator of the motor is modeled by an equivalent circuit containing complex circuit elements. A systematic approach for identifying the elements of the equivalent circuit...

  7. Transverse kick in misaligned traveling wave structures driven at the fundamental mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-04-01

    Fabrication errors in traveling wave structures result in non-axisymmetric RF fields that couple to the rf drive at the fundamental mode frequency. The authors calculate the excitation of the dipole mode and the integrated effect on the beam, using the thin iris and small hole approximation

  8. Exact traveling wave solutions for a new nonlinear heat transfer equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new non-linear partial differential equation to de-scribe the heat transfer problems at the extreme excess temperatures. Its exact traveling wave solutions are obtained by using Cornejo-Perez and Rosu method.

  9. The SPS acceleration system: travelling wave drift-tube structure for the CERN SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dome, G.

    1976-01-01

    The SPS accelerating structure is essentially a high energy proton linac, except for a small frequency swing during the acceleration cycle. It is operated almost CW with a travelling wave giving an energy gain around 0.1 MeV/m. The guide-lines for the design of such a structure are explained, and practical solutions are described. (author)

  10. Equivalent circuit modelling of integrated traveling-wave optical modulator in InP foundry platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an electro-optical model for traveling-wave modulator devices utilizing measurement-based equivalent circuit model extraction in conjunction with microwave CAD simulation techniques. Model verification is performed with frequencydomain and time-domain characterization of an

  11. Design and performance verification of advanced multistage depressed collectors. [traveling wave tubes for ECM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmahl, H.; Ramins, P.

    1975-01-01

    Design and performance of a small size, 4-stage depressed collector are discussed. The collector and a spent beam refocusing section preceding it are intended for efficiency enhancement of octave bandwidth, high CW power traveling wave tubes for use in ECM.

  12. Exact explicit travelling wave solutions for (n + 1)-dimensional Klein-Gordon-Zakharov equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jibin

    2007-01-01

    Using the methods of dynamical systems for the (n + 1)-dimensional KGS nonlinear wave equations, five classes of exact explicit parametric representations of the bounded travelling solutions are obtained. To guarantee the existence of the above solutions, all parameter conditions are given

  13. Ex situ themo-catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors using a traveling wave microwave reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave heating offers a number of advantages over conventional heating methods, such as, rapid and volumetric heating, precise temperature control, energy efficiency and lower temperature gradient. In this article we demonstrate the use of 2450 MHz microwave traveling wave reactor to heat the cat...

  14. System Identification of Mistuned Bladed Disks from Traveling Wave Response Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, D. M.; Griffin, J. H.; Jones, K. W.; Kenyon, J. A.; Mehmed, O.; Kurkov, A. P.

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to modal analysis is presented. By applying this technique to bladed disk system identification methods, one can determine the mistuning in a rotor based on its response to a traveling wave excitation. This allows system identification to be performed under rotating conditions, and thus expands the applicability of existing mistuning identification techniques from integrally bladed rotors to conventional bladed disks.

  15. Emergence of traveling wave endothermic reaction in a catalytic fixed bed under microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasev, Alexander P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new phenomenon in a packed bed catalytic reactor under microwave heating - traveling wave (moving reaction zones) endothermic chemical reaction. A two-phase model is developed to simulate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the packed bed catalytic reactor with an irreversible first-order chemical reaction. The absorbed microwave power was obtained from Lambert's law. The structure of traveling wave endothermic chemical reaction was explored. The effects of the gas velocity and microwave power on performance of the packed bed catalytic reactor were presented. Finally, the effects of the change in the location of the microwave source at the packed bed reactor was demonstrated. - Highlights: • A new phenomenon - traveling waves of endothermic reaction - is predicted. • The physical and mathematical model of a packed bed catalytic reactor under microwave heating is presented. • The structure of the traveling waves is explored. • The configuration of heating the packed bed reactor via microwave plays a key role.

  16. Travelling wave solutions for a singularly perturbed Burgers–KdV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper concerns with the existence problem of travelling wave solutions to a singularly perturbed Burgers–KdV equation. For this, we use the dynamical systems approach, specifically, the geometric singular perturbation theory and centre manifold theory. We also numerically show approximations, in particular, for ...

  17. Physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW travelling wave electron linac

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW S-band (2856 MHz) electron linear accelerator (linac), which has been recently built and successfully operated at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. The accelerating structure is a 2 π / 3 mode constant impedance travelling wave structure, which ...

  18. Atom-field interaction in the single-quantum limit in a two dimensional travelling-wave cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Sun Hyun; Chough, Young Tak; An, Kyung Won

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of an atom with two dimensional travelling-wave cavity modes in the strong coupling region, with the quantized atomic center of mass motion taken into account. Analytic and numerical calculation shows that the atom in two independent pairs of travelling wave modes can be made to interact only with a particular travelling mode by matching the initial momentum and the detuning of the cavities. We also numerically investigate the atomic momentum deflection in the cavities

  19. Ultra-High-Speed Travelling Wave Protection of Transmission Line Using Polarity Comparison Principle Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional polarity comparison based travelling wave protection, using the initial wave information, is affected by initial fault angle, bus structure, and external fault. And the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave is ignored. Because of the protection tripping and malfunction, the further application of this protection principle is affected. Therefore, this paper presents an ultra-high-speed travelling wave protection using integral based polarity comparison principle. After empirical mode decomposition of the original travelling wave, the first-order intrinsic mode function is used as protection object. Based on the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of using travelling wave magnitude which contains polar information as direction criterion. And the paper integrates the direction criterion in a period after fault to avoid wave head detection failure. Through PSCAD simulation with the typical 500 kV transmission system, the reliability and sensitivity of travelling wave protection were verified under different factors’ affection.

  20. Acoustic field characteristics and performance analysis of a looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, T.; Yang, R.; Wang, Y.; Feng, Y.; Tang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues for a highly efficient thermoacoustic conversion are analyzed. • A looped thermoacoustic refrigerator with one engine stage and one refrigerator stage is proposed. • Effective refrigeration powered by heat sources below 250 °C is demonstrated in the simulation. • Impact of cooling/heating temperatures on system performance is analyzed in view of acoustic field. - Abstract: This paper focuses on a looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator powered by thermal energy. Based on a simplified model for the regenerator, key issues for a highly efficient thermoacoustic conversion, including both thermal-to-acoustic and heat-pumping processes, are summarized. A looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator with one engine stage and one refrigerator stage is proposed, with emphasis on high normalized acoustic impedance, sufficient volumetric velocity and appropriate phase relation close to travelling wave in the regenerators of both engine and refrigerator. Simulation results indicate that for the ambient temperature of 30 °C, the looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator can be powered by the heat at 210–250 °C to achieve the refrigeration at −3 °C with the overall coefficient of performance above 0.4 and the relative Carnot coefficient of performance over 13%. The characteristics of the acoustic field inside the loop configuration are analyzed in detail to reveal the operation mechanism of the looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator. Additional analyses are conducted on the impact of the cooling and the heating temperatures, which are of great concern to the refrigeration applications and the utilization of low-grade thermal energy.

  1. Modular Low-Heater-Power Cathode/Electron Gun Assembly for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Traveling Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost, low-mass, electrically efficient, modular cathode/electron gun assembly has been developed by FDE Inc. of Beaverton, Oregon, under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This new assembly offers significant improvements in the design and manufacture of microwave and millimeter wave traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) used for radar and communications. It incorporates a novel, low-heater-power, reduced size and mass, high-performance barium dispenser type thermionic cathode and provides for easy integration of the cathode into a large variety of conventional TWT circuits. Among the applications are TWT's for Earth-orbiting communication satellites and for deep space communications, where future missions will require smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (a hybrid microwave/millimeter wave amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid-state driver, a small TWT, and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package), where electrical efficiency and thermal loading are critical factors and lower cost is needed for successful commercialization. The design and fabrication are based on practices used in producing cathode ray tubes (CRT's), which is one of the most competitive and efficient manufacturing operations in the world today. The approach used in the design and manufacture of thermionic cathodes and electron guns for CRT's has been optimized for fully automated production, standardization of parts, and minimization of costs. It is applicable to the production of similar components for microwave tubes, with the additional benefits of low mass and significantly lower cathode heater power (less than half that of dispenser cathodes presently used in TWT s). Modular cathode/electron gun assembly. The modular

  2. Reduced field TE01 X-Band traveling wave window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Callin, R.S.; Tantawi, S.G.; Wright, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The RF electric field is reduced by more than a factor of two using a pair of symmetrically located irises in a new type of klystron window operating in the TE 01 mode at X-Band. The advantages of this window over the usual TE 01 half-wave resonant window are discussed as well as theory and operating results. Ultra high purity alumina formed by the HIP process is used. This window has been successfully tested at 100 MW with a 1.5 microsecond RF pulse width and is being used on the XL series klystrons

  3. Valuing urban open space using the travel-cost method and the implications of measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, Merlin M; Reid, John

    2017-08-01

    Urbanization has placed pressure on open space within and adjacent to cities. In recent decades, a greater awareness has developed to the fact that individuals derive multiple benefits from urban open space. Given the location, there is often a high opportunity cost to preserving urban open space, thus it is important for both public and private stakeholders to justify such investments. The goals of this study are twofold. First, we use detailed surveys and precise, accessible, mapping methods to demonstrate how travel-cost methods can be applied to the valuation of urban open space. Second, we assess the degree to which typical methods of estimating travel times, and thus travel costs, introduce bias to the estimates of welfare. The site we study is Taylor Mountain Regional Park, a 1100-acre space located immediately adjacent to Santa Rosa, California, which is the largest city (∼170,000 population) in Sonoma County and lies 50 miles north of San Francisco. We estimate that the average per trip access value (consumer surplus) is $13.70. We also demonstrate that typical methods of measuring travel costs significantly understate these welfare measures. Our study provides policy-relevant results and highlights the sensitivity of urban open space travel-cost studies to bias stemming from travel-cost measurement error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulating nonlinear steady-state traveling waves on the falling liquid film entrained by a gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tsvelodub, O

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the simulation of nonlinear waves on a liquid film flowing under gravity in the known stress field at the interface. In the case of small Reynolds numbers the problem is reduced to the consideration of solutions of the nonlinear integral-differential equation for film thickness deviation from the undisturbed level. Weakly nonlinear steady-state traveling solutions of the equation with wave numbers in a vicinity of neutral wave numbers are constructed analytically. The nature of the wave branching from the undisturbed solution is investigated. Steady-state traveling solutions, whose wave numbers within the instability area are far from neutral wave numbers, are found numerically. (paper)

  5. Travelling wave solutions for an infection-age structured epidemic model with external supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducrot, Arnaud; Magal, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the spatial invasion of some infectious disease. The contamination process is described by the age since infection. Compared with the classical Kermack and McKendrick's model, the vital dynamic is not omitted, and we allow some constant input flux into the population. This problem is rather natural in the context of epidemic problems and it has not been studied. Here we prove an existence and non-existence result for travelling wave solutions. We also describe the minimal wave speed. We are able to construct a suitable Lyapunov like functional decreasing along the travelling wave allowing to derive some qualitative properties, namely their convergence towards equilibrium points at x = ±∞

  6. Estimating time and travel costs incurred in clinic based screening: flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, E; Wolstenholme, J L; Atkin, W; Whynes, D K

    1999-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of mode of travel to screening clinics; to estimate the time and travel costs incurred in attending; to investigate whether such costs are likely to bias screening compliance. Twelve centres in the trial of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer, drawn from across Great Britain. Analysis of 3525 questionnaires completed by screening subjects while attending clinics. Information supplied included sociodemographic characteristics, modes of travel, expenses, activities foregone owing to attendance, and details of companions. More than 80% of subjects arrived at the clinics by car, and about two thirds were accompanied. On average, the clinic visit involved a 14.4 mile (22.8 km) round trip, requiring 130 minutes. Mean travel costs amounted to 6.10 Pounds per subject. The mean gross direct non-medical and indirect cost per subject amounted to 16.90 Pounds, and the mean overall gross cost per attendance was 22.40 Pounds. Compared with the Great Britain population as a whole, non-manual classes were more strongly represented, and the self employed less strongly represented, among the attendees. In relation to direct medical costs, the time and travel costs of clinic based screening can be substantial, may influence the overall cost effectiveness of a screening programme, and may deter potential subjects from attending.

  7. An examination of sources of sensitivity of consumer surplus estimates in travel cost models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Thomas W; Lichtkoppler, Frank R; Bader, Timothy J; Hartman, Travis J; Lucente, Joseph E

    2015-03-15

    We examine sensitivity of estimates of recreation demand using the Travel Cost Method (TCM) to four factors. Three of the four have been routinely and widely discussed in the TCM literature: a) Poisson verses negative binomial regression; b) application of Englin correction to account for endogenous stratification; c) truncation of the data set to eliminate outliers. A fourth issue we address has not been widely modeled: the potential effect on recreation demand of the interaction between income and travel cost. We provide a straightforward comparison of all four factors, analyzing the impact of each on regression parameters and consumer surplus estimates. Truncation has a modest effect on estimates obtained from the Poisson models but a radical effect on the estimates obtained by way of the negative binomial. Inclusion of an income-travel cost interaction term generally produces a more conservative but not a statistically significantly different estimate of consumer surplus in both Poisson and negative binomial models. It also generates broader confidence intervals. Application of truncation, the Englin correction and the income-travel cost interaction produced the most conservative estimates of consumer surplus and eliminated the statistical difference between the Poisson and the negative binomial. Use of the income-travel cost interaction term reveals that for visitors who face relatively low travel costs, the relationship between income and travel demand is negative, while it is positive for those who face high travel costs. This provides an explanation of the ambiguities on the findings regarding the role of income widely observed in the TCM literature. Our results suggest that policies that reduce access to publicly owned resources inordinately impact local low income recreationists and are contrary to environmental justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Slip-stick excitation and travelling waves excite silo honking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warburton Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silo honking is the harmonic sound generated by the discharge of a silo filled with a granular material. In industrial storage silos, the acoustic emission during discharge of PET-particles forms a nuisance for the environment and may ultimately result in structural failure. This work investigates the phenomenon experimentally using a laboratory-scale silo, and successfully correlates the frequency of the emitted sound with the periodicity of the mechanical motion of the grains. The key driver is the slip-stick interaction between the wall and the particles, characterized as a wave moving upwards through the silo. A quantitative correlation is established for the first time between the frequency of the sound, measured with an electret microphone, and the slip-frequency, measured with a high-speed camera. In the lower regions of the tube, both the slip-stick motion and the honking sound disappear.

  9. Slip-stick excitation and travelling waves excite silo honking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Katarzyna; Porte, Elze; Vriend, Nathalie

    2017-06-01

    Silo honking is the harmonic sound generated by the discharge of a silo filled with a granular material. In industrial storage silos, the acoustic emission during discharge of PET-particles forms a nuisance for the environment and may ultimately result in structural failure. This work investigates the phenomenon experimentally using a laboratory-scale silo, and successfully correlates the frequency of the emitted sound with the periodicity of the mechanical motion of the grains. The key driver is the slip-stick interaction between the wall and the particles, characterized as a wave moving upwards through the silo. A quantitative correlation is established for the first time between the frequency of the sound, measured with an electret microphone, and the slip-frequency, measured with a high-speed camera. In the lower regions of the tube, both the slip-stick motion and the honking sound disappear.

  10. Human seizures couple across spatial scales through travelling wave dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, L.-E.; Fiddyment, G.; Madsen, J. R.; Eskandar, E. N.; Truccolo, W.; Eden, U. T.; Cash, S. S.; Kramer, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    Epilepsy--the propensity toward recurrent, unprovoked seizures--is a devastating disease affecting 65 million people worldwide. Understanding and treating this disease remains a challenge, as seizures manifest through mechanisms and features that span spatial and temporal scales. Here we address this challenge through the analysis and modelling of human brain voltage activity recorded simultaneously across microscopic and macroscopic spatial scales. We show that during seizure large-scale neural populations spanning centimetres of cortex coordinate with small neural groups spanning cortical columns, and provide evidence that rapidly propagating waves of activity underlie this increased inter-scale coupling. We develop a corresponding computational model to propose specific mechanisms--namely, the effects of an increased extracellular potassium concentration diffusing in space--that support the observed spatiotemporal dynamics. Understanding the multi-scale, spatiotemporal dynamics of human seizures--and connecting these dynamics to specific biological mechanisms--promises new insights to treat this devastating disease.

  11. Travel Cost Inference from Sparse, Spatio-Temporally Correlated Time Series Using Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Guo, Chenjuan; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    of such time series offers insight into the underlying system and enables prediction of system behavior. While the techniques presented in the paper apply more generally, we consider the case of transportation systems and aim to predict travel cost from GPS tracking data from probe vehicles. Specifically, each...... road segment has an associated travel-cost time series, which is derived from GPS data. We use spatio-temporal hidden Markov models (STHMM) to model correlations among different traffic time series. We provide algorithms that are able to learn the parameters of an STHMM while contending...... with the sparsity, spatio-temporal correlation, and heterogeneity of the time series. Using the resulting STHMM, near future travel costs in the transportation network, e.g., travel time or greenhouse gas emissions, can be inferred, enabling a variety of routing services, e.g., eco-routing. Empirical studies...

  12. Travelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homes very soon becomes a misplaced sentiment. However well planned a journey may be and how- ever important and tiring the attendances at meet- ings are, at some stage of every day the traveller finds himself in an hotel room and loneliness starts closing in from all four walls. No matter how luxu- rious the hotel may ...

  13. Optimal Design of a Traveling-Wave Kinetic Inductance Amplifier Operated in Three-Wave Mixing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert; Bal, Mustafa; Ku, Ksiang-Sheng; Wu, Xian; Pappas, David

    In the presence of a DC bias, an injected pump, of frequency fP, and a signal, of frequency fS, undergo parametric three-way mixing (3WM) within a traveling-wave kinetic inductance (KIT) amplifier, producing an idler product of frequency fI =fP -fS . Periodic frequency stops are engineered into the coplanar waveguide of the device to enhance signal amplification. With fP placed just above the first frequency stop gap, 3WM broadband signal gain is achieved with maximum gain at fS =fP / 2 . Within a theory of the dispersion of traveling waves in the presence of these engineered loadings, which accounts for this broadband signal gain, we show how an optimal frequency-stop design may be constructed to achieve maximum signal amplification. The optimization approach we describe can be applied to the design of other nonlinear traveling-wave parametric amplifiers. This work was supported by the Army Research Office and the Laboratory for Physical Sciences under EAO221146, EAO241777, and the NIST Quantum Initiative. RPE acknowledges Grant 60NANB14D024 from the US Department of Commerce, NIST.

  14. The nuclear news interview. John Gilleland. On the traveling-wave reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, Rick; Blake, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The traveling-wave reactor, in concept, would use depleted uranium to produce vast amounts of energy without the need for enrichment plants and reprocessing facilities, which is why billionaire Bill Gates is interested in developing it. TerraPower LLC has been launched by the company Intellectual Ventures to design a traveling-wave nuclear reactor that could run for 100 years without refueling or removing spent fuel. So convincing is the science behind the concept that billionaire Bill Gates has gotten involved to help finance the project. Led by John Gilleland, TerraPower's chief executive officer, a team of researchers has run computer simulations and is doing engineering studies that have produced evidence that a wave of fission moving slowly through a fuel core could generate a billion watts of electricity continuously without refueling. Gilleland noted that these new reactors could reduce the amount of nuclear waste by using existing stockpiles of depleted uranium as fuel. ''By extracting centuries' worth of energy from waste at enrichment plants, these reactors would turn a social and financial liability into an asset,'' he said. Gilleland, a member of the American Nuclear Society, talked about the traveling-wave reactor with Nuclear News editors Rick Michal and E. Michael Blake. (orig.)

  15. Compact toroidal energy storage device with relativistically densified electrons through the use of travelling magnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new concept for a small compact multimegajoule energy storage device utilizing relativistically densified electron beam circulating in a torus is presented. The electron cloud is produced through inductive charge injection by a travelling magnetic wave circulating the torus. Parameters are given for two representative toroidal energy storage devices, consisting of 1 m and 32 m in radius respectively, which could store more than 4 x 10 17 electrons and 30' MJ in energy. The concept utilizes the idea that large electric and magnetic fields can be produced by a partially space-charge neutralized intense relativistic electron beam which could become many orders of magnitude greater than the externally applied field confining the beam. In the present approach, the electron cloud densification can be achieved gradually by permitting multiple traversals of the magnetic wave around the torus. The magnetic mirror force acts on the orbital magnetic electron dipole moment and completely penetrates the entire electron cloud. As the electrons gain relativistic energies, the beam can be continuously densified at the front of the travelling wave, where the magnetic field is rising with time. The use of travelling magnetic wave to accelerate an electron cloud and the use of large electric field at the thusly accelerated cloud form the basis for a high beam intensity and hence high energy storage. Technical considerations and several potential applications, which include the driving of a powerful gyrotron, are discussed

  16. Benchmark on traveling wave fast reactor with negative reactivity feedback obtained with MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gann, V.V.; Gann, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of traveling wave fast reactor with negative reactivity feedback. The results were obtained using MCNPX code combined with CINDER90 subroutine for depletion calculations. We considered 1-D model of TWR containing 4 m long core made of mixture of 66 at. % 238 U and 34 at. % 10 B. Ignitor made of 235 U was located in the center of the core. Boron was included as imitator of structural in-core materials and coolant. Negative reactivity feedback was adjusted to reactor power of 500 MW. In this case two burning waves originated from the igniter and travel to the ends of the core during the following 40 years; coefficient of utilization of 238 U reached 80 %. Distribution of specific power in traveling wave, isotope concentration of fission products and actinides, neutron flux, fast neutron spectrum, specific activity were calculated. Data of the computer simulation is in qualitative agreement with theoretical results obtained in slow burning wave approximation

  17. Energy Flux in the Cochlea: Evidence Against Power Amplification of the Traveling Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P C

    2015-10-01

    Traveling waves in the inner ear exhibit an amplitude peak that shifts with frequency. The peaking is commonly believed to rely on motile processes that amplify the wave by inserting energy. We recorded the vibrations at adjacent positions on the basilar membrane in sensitive gerbil cochleae and tested the putative power amplification in two ways. First, we determined the energy flux of the traveling wave at its peak and compared it to the acoustic power entering the ear, thereby obtaining the net cochlear power gain. For soft sounds, the energy flux at the peak was 1 ± 0.6 dB less than the middle ear input power. For more intense sounds, increasingly smaller fractions of the acoustic power actually reached the peak region. Thus, we found no net power amplification of soft sounds and a strong net attenuation of intense sounds. Second, we analyzed local wave propagation on the basilar membrane. We found that the waves slowed down abruptly when approaching their peak, causing an energy densification that quantitatively matched the amplitude peaking, similar to the growth of sea waves approaching the beach. Thus, we found no local power amplification of soft sounds and strong local attenuation of intense sounds. The most parsimonious interpretation of these findings is that cochlear sensitivity is not realized by amplifying acoustic energy, but by spatially focusing it, and that dynamic compression is realized by adjusting the amount of dissipation to sound intensity.

  18. Actuating mechanism and design of a cylindrical traveling wave ultrasonic motor using cantilever type composite transducer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic motors (USM are based on the concept of driving the rotor by a mechanical vibration excited on the stator via piezoelectric effect. USM exhibit merits such as simple structure, quick response, quiet operation, self-locking when power off, nonelectromagnetic radiation and higher position accuracy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cylindrical type traveling wave ultrasonic motor using cantilever type composite transducer was proposed in this paper. There are two cantilevers on the outside surface of cylinder, four longitudinal PZT ceramics are set between the cantilevers, and four bending PZT ceramics are set on each outside surface of cantilevers. Two degenerate flexural vibration modes spatially and temporally orthogonal to each other in the cylinder are excited by the composite transducer. In this new design, a single transducer can excite a flexural traveling wave in the cylinder. Thus, elliptical motions are achieved on the teeth. The actuating mechanism of proposed motor was analyzed. The stator was designed with FEM. The two vibration modes of stator were degenerated. Transient analysis was developed to gain the vibration characteristic of stator, and results indicate the motion trajectories of nodes on the teeth are nearly ellipses. CONCLUSIONS: The study results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. The wave excited in the cylinder isn't an ideal traveling wave, and the vibration amplitudes are inconsistent. The distortion of traveling wave is generated by the deformation of bending vibration mode of cylinder, which is caused by the coupling effect between the cylinder and transducer. Analysis results also prove that the objective motions of nodes on the teeth are three-dimensional vibrations. But, the vibration in axial direction is minute compared with the vibrations in circumferential and radial direction. The results of this paper can guide the development of this new type of motor.

  19. Actuating mechanism and design of a cylindrical traveling wave ultrasonic motor using cantilever type composite transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2010-04-02

    Ultrasonic motors (USM) are based on the concept of driving the rotor by a mechanical vibration excited on the stator via piezoelectric effect. USM exhibit merits such as simple structure, quick response, quiet operation, self-locking when power off, nonelectromagnetic radiation and higher position accuracy. A cylindrical type traveling wave ultrasonic motor using cantilever type composite transducer was proposed in this paper. There are two cantilevers on the outside surface of cylinder, four longitudinal PZT ceramics are set between the cantilevers, and four bending PZT ceramics are set on each outside surface of cantilevers. Two degenerate flexural vibration modes spatially and temporally orthogonal to each other in the cylinder are excited by the composite transducer. In this new design, a single transducer can excite a flexural traveling wave in the cylinder. Thus, elliptical motions are achieved on the teeth. The actuating mechanism of proposed motor was analyzed. The stator was designed with FEM. The two vibration modes of stator were degenerated. Transient analysis was developed to gain the vibration characteristic of stator, and results indicate the motion trajectories of nodes on the teeth are nearly ellipses. The study results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. The wave excited in the cylinder isn't an ideal traveling wave, and the vibration amplitudes are inconsistent. The distortion of traveling wave is generated by the deformation of bending vibration mode of cylinder, which is caused by the coupling effect between the cylinder and transducer. Analysis results also prove that the objective motions of nodes on the teeth are three-dimensional vibrations. But, the vibration in axial direction is minute compared with the vibrations in circumferential and radial direction. The results of this paper can guide the development of this new type of motor.

  20. Conjugate observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves associated with traveling convection vortex events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin; Clauer, C. Robert; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Hartinger, Michael D.; Lessard, Marc R.; Matzka, Jürgen; Sibeck, David G.; Singer, Howard J.; Stolle, Claudia; Weimer, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhonghua

    2017-07-01

    We report on simultaneous observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves associated with traveling convection vortex (TCV) events caused by transient solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd) impulse events. The Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft located near the magnetopause observed radial fluctuations of the magnetopause, and the GOES spacecraft measured sudden compressions of the magnetosphere in response to sudden increases in Pd. During the transient events, EMIC waves were observed by interhemispheric conjugate ground-based magnetometer arrays as well as the GOES spacecraft. The spectral structures of the waves appear to be well correlated with the fluctuating motion of the magnetopause, showing compression-associated wave generation. In addition, the wave features are remarkably similar in conjugate hemispheres in terms of bandwidth, quasiperiodic wave power modulation, and polarization. Proton precipitation was also observed by the DMSP spacecraft during the wave events, from which the wave source region is estimated to be 72°-74° in magnetic latitude, consistent with the TCV center. The confluence of space-borne and ground instruments including the interhemispheric, high-latitude, fluxgate/induction coil magnetometer array allows us to constrain the EMIC source region while also confirming the relationship between EMIC waves and the TCV current system.

  1. Travelling wave solutions to the K-P-P equation at supercritical wave speeds: a parallel to Simon Harris' probabilistic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyprianou, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Recently Harris using probabilistic methods alone has given new proofs for the known existence asymptotics and unique ness of travelling wave solutions to the KPP equation Following in this vein we outline alternative probabilistic proofs for wave speeds exceeding the critical minimal wave speed

  2. Travel costs associated with flood closures of state highways near Centralia/Chehalis, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report discusses the travel costs associated with the closure of roads in the greater : Centralia/Chehalis, Washington region due to 100-year flood conditions starting on the Chehalis River. The costs : were computed for roadway closures on I-5,...

  3. 200 MW S-band traveling wave resonant ring development at IHEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zu-Sheng; Chi, Yun-Long; Git, Meng-Ping; Pei, Guo-Xi

    2010-03-01

    The resonant-ring is a traveling wave circuit, which is used to produce high peak power with comparatively smaller stored energy. The application to be considered is its use as a high power simulator mainly for testing the klystron ceramic output window, as well as for high power microwave transmission devices. This paper describes the principle of a resonant ring and introduces the structure and property of the newly constructed traveling wave resonant ring at IHEP. Our goal is to produce a 200 MW class resonant ring at 2.856 GHz with a pulse length of 2 μs and repetition rate of 25 Hz. The installation, commissioning and testing of the ring have been completed and a peak power of 200 MW at 3 μs has been achieved. The conditioning results show that all the parameters of the resonant ring reach the design goals.

  4. An analytical solution for stationary distribution of photon density in traveling-wave and reflective SOAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totović, A R; Crnjanski, J V; Krstić, M M; Gvozdić, D M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze two semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) structures, traveling-wave and reflective, with the active region made of the bulk material. The model is based on the stationary traveling-wave equations for forward and backward propagating photon densities of the signal and the amplified spontaneous emission, along with the stationary carrier rate equation. We start by introducing linear approximation of the carrier density spatial distribution, which enables us to find solutions for the photon densities in a closed analytical form. An analytical approach ensures a low computational resource occupation and an easy analysis of the parameters influencing the SOA’s response. The comparison of the analytical and numerical results shows high agreement for a wide range of the input optical powers and bias currents. (paper)

  5. Comparison of Walking and Traveling-Wave Piezoelectric Motors as Actuators in Kinesthetic Haptic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Pontus; Nysjo, Fredrik; Carlbom, Ingrid B; Johansson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors offer an attractive alternative to electromagnetic actuators in portable haptic interfaces: they are compact, have a high force-to-volume ratio, and can operate with limited or no gearing. However, the choice of a piezoelectric motor type is not obvious due to differences in performance characteristics. We present our evaluation of two commercial, operationally different, piezoelectric motors acting as actuators in two kinesthetic haptic grippers, a walking quasi-static motor and a traveling wave ultrasonic motor. We evaluate each gripper's ability to display common virtual objects including springs, dampers, and rigid walls, and conclude that the walking quasi-static motor is superior at low velocities. However, for applications where high velocity is required, traveling wave ultrasonic motors are a better option.

  6. Traveling wave linear accelerator with RF power flow outside of accelerating cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgashev, Valery A.

    2016-06-28

    A high power RF traveling wave accelerator structure includes a symmetric RF feed, an input matching cell coupled to the symmetric RF feed, a sequence of regular accelerating cavities coupled to the input matching cell at an input beam pipe end of the sequence, one or more waveguides parallel to and coupled to the sequence of regular accelerating cavities, an output matching cell coupled to the sequence of regular accelerating cavities at an output beam pipe end of the sequence, and output waveguide circuit or RF loads coupled to the output matching cell. Each of the regular accelerating cavities has a nose cone that cuts off field propagating into the beam pipe and therefore all power flows in a traveling wave along the structure in the waveguide.

  7. Feasibility of Traveling Wave Direct Energy Conversion of Fission Reaction Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; George, J. A.; Miley, G. H.; Scott, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fission fragment direct energy conversion has been considered in the past for the purpose of increasing nuclear power plant efficiency and for advanced space propulsion. Since the fragments carry electric charge (typically in the order of 20 e) and have 100 MeV-range kinetic energy, techniques utilizing very high-voltage DC electrodes have been considered. This study is focused on a different approach: the kinetic energy of the charged fission fragments is converted into alternating current by means of a traveling wave coupling scheme (Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter, TWDEC), thereby not requiring the utilization of high voltage technology. A preliminary feasibility analysis of the concept is introduced based on a conceptual level study and on a particle simulation model of the beam dynamics.

  8. Nonlinear traveling waves in rotating Rayleigh-Bacute enard convection: Stability boundaries and phase diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    We present experimental measurements of a sidewall traveling wave in rotating Rayleigh-Bacute enard convection. The fluid, water with Prandtl number about 6.3, was confined in a 1-cm-high cylindrical cell with radius-to-height ratio Γ=5. We used simultaneous optical-shadowgraph, heat-transport, and local temperature measurements to determine the stability and characteristics of the traveling-wave state for dimensionless rotation rates 60<Ω<420. The state is well described by the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation for which the linear and nonlinear coefficients were determined for Ω=274. The Eckhaus-Benjamin-Feir-stability boundary was established and the phase-diffusion coefficient and nonlinear group velocity were determined in the stable regime. Higher-order corrections to the CGL equation were also investigated. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  9. Manipulating Traveling Brain Waves with Electric Fields: From Theory to Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Bruce J.

    2004-03-01

    Activity waves in disinhibited neocortical slices have been used as a biological model for epileptic seizure propagation [1]. Such waves have been mathematically modeled with integro-differential equations [2] representing non-local reaction diffusion dynamics of an excitable medium with an excitability threshold. Stability and propagation speed of traveling pulse solutions depend strongly on the threshold in the following manner: propagation speed should decrease with increased threshold over a finite range, beyond which the waves become unstable. Because populations of neurons can be polarized with an applied electric field that effectively shifts their threshold for action potential initiation [3], we predicted, and have experimentally verified, that electric fields could be used globally or locally to speed up, slow down and even block wave propagation. [1] Telfeian and Conners, Epilepsia, 40, 1499-1506, 1999. [2] Pinto and Ermentrout, SIAM J. App. Math, 62, 206-225, 2001. [3] Gluckman, et. al. J Neurophysiol. 76, 4202-5, 1996.

  10. Traveling Wave-Guide Channels of a New Coupled Integrable Dispersionless System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souleymanou, Abbagari; Kuetche, Victor K.; Bouetou, Thomas B.; Kofane, Timoleon C.

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the recent investigation of new coupled integrable dispersionless equations by means of the Darboux transformation [Zhaqilao, et al., Chin. Phys. B 18 (2009) 1780], we carry out the initial value analysis of the previous system using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta's computational scheme. As a result, while depicting its phase portraits accordingly, we show that the above dispersionless system actually supports two kinds of solutions amongst which the localized traveling wave-guide channels. In addition, paying particular interests to such localized structures, we construct the bilinear transformation of the current system from which scattering amongst the above waves can be deeply studied. (general)

  11. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit on gravitational-wave physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Marka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H; Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  12. The supergravity fields for a D-brane with a travelling wave from string amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, William; Russo, Rodolfo; Turton, David

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the supergravity fields sourced by a D-brane with a null travelling wave from disk amplitudes in type IIB string theory compactified on T 4 xS 1 . The amplitudes reproduce all the non-trivial features of the previously known two-charge supergravity solutions in the D-brane/momentum duality frame, providing a direct link between the microscopic bound states and their macroscopic descriptions.

  13. Travelling wave solutions of the homogeneous one-dimensional FREFLO model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B.; Hong, J. Y.; Jing, G. Q.; Niu, W.; Fang, L.

    2018-01-01

    Presently there is quite few analytical studies in traffic flows due to the non-linearity of the governing equations. In the present paper we introduce travelling wave solutions for the homogeneous one-dimensional FREFLO model, which are expressed in the form of series and describe the procedure that vehicles/pedestrians move with a negative velocity and decelerate until rest, then accelerate inversely to positive velocities. This method is expect to be extended to more complex situations in the future.

  14. Symmetries, Traveling Wave Solutions, and Conservation Laws of a (3+1-Dimensional Boussinesq Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letlhogonolo Daddy Moleleki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the (3+1-dimensional Boussinesq equation, which has applications in fluid mechanics. We find exact solutions of the (3+1-dimensional Boussinesq equation by utilizing the Lie symmetry method along with the simplest equation method. The solutions obtained are traveling wave solutions. Moreover, we construct the conservation laws of the (3+1-dimensional Boussinesq equation using the new conservation theorem, which is due to Ibragimov.

  15. Traveling-wave solutions in continuous chains of unidirectionally coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu; Rozov, N. Kh

    2017-12-01

    Proposed is a mathematical model of a continuous annular chain of unidirectionally coupled generators given by certain nonlinear advection-type hyperbolic boundary value problem. Such problems are constructed by a limit transition from annular chains of unidirectionally coupled ordinary differential equations with an unbounded increase in the number of links. It is shown that any preassigned finite number of stable periodic motions of the traveling-wave type can coexist in the model.

  16. Travelling wave solutions for some time-delayed equations through factorizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we use factorization method to find explicit particular travelling wave solutions for the following important nonlinear second-order partial differential equations: The generalized time-delayed Burgers-Huxley, time-delayed convective Fishers, and the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher. Using the particular solutions for these equations we find the general solutions, two-parameter solution, as special cases

  17. Generation and growth rates of nonlinear distortions in a traveling wave tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehlbier, John G.; Dobson, Ian; Booske, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of a steady state multifrequency model of a traveling wave tube amplifier is exploited to describe the generation of intermodulation frequencies and calculate their growth rates. The model describes the evolution of Fourier coefficients of circuit and electron beam quantities and has the form of differential equations with quadratic nonlinearities. Intermodulation frequencies are sequentially generated by the quadratic nonlinearities in a series solution of the differential equations. A formula for maximum intermodulation growth rates is derived and compared to simulation results

  18. Exact traveling wave solution of nonlinear variants of the RLW and the PHI-four equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, A.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education (AL-Arish), Suez Canal University, AL-Arish 45111 (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Teacher' s College, Bisha, P.O. Box 551 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: asoliman_99@yahoo.com

    2007-08-27

    By means of the modified extended tanh-function (METF) method the multiple traveling wave solutions of some different kinds of nonlinear partial differential equations are presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system. The solutions for the nonlinear equations such as variants of the RLW and variant of the PHI-four equations are exactly obtained and so the efficiency of the method can be demonstrated.

  19. Analytical approach and scaling laws in the design of disk-loaded travelling wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J.

    1993-09-01

    Starting from a single resonant rf cavity, disk-loaded travelling (forward or backward) wave accelerating structures' properties are determined by rather simple analytical formulae. They include the coupling coefficient K in the dispersion relation, group velocity v g , shunt impedance R, wake potential W (longitudinal and transverse), the coupling coefficient β of the coupler cavity and the coupler cavity axis shift δ r which is introduced to compensate the asymmetry caused by the coupling aperture. (author) 12 refs., 18 figs

  20. Power efficiency optimization of disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure of electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinghe; Li Jinhai; Li Chunguang

    2014-01-01

    Disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure (TWS), which is widely used in scientific research and industry, is a vital accelerating structure in electron linear accelerator. The power efficiency is an important parameter for designing TWS, which greatly effects the expenses for the fabrication and commercial running. The key parameters related with power efficiency were studied for TWS optimization. The result was proved by experiment result, and it shows some help for accelerator engineering. (authors)

  1. A New Method for Constructing Travelling Wave Solutions to the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Mao, Wang; Miao, Zhang; Wen-Liang, Zhang; Rui, Zhang; Jia-Hua, Han

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method to find the exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, with the aid of the symbolic computation. Based on this method, we successfully solve the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney equation, and obtain some new solutions which can be expressed by trigonometric functions and hyperbolic functions. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective and can be used for many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. (general)

  2. Abundant families of new traveling wave solutions for the coupled Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yuqin

    2005-01-01

    The generalized Jacobi elliptic function method is further improved by introducing an elliptic function φ(ξ) as a new independent variable and it is easy to calculate the over-determined equations. Abundant new traveling wave solutions of the coupled Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation are obtained. The solutions obtained include the kink-shaped solutions, bell-shaped solutions, singular solutions and periodic solutions

  3. 2D Traveling Wave Array Employing a Trapezoidal Dielectric Wedge for Beam Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranada, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation addresses the progress made so far in the development of an antenna array with reconfigurable transmission line feeds connecting each element in series. In particular, 2D traveling wave array employing trapezoidal Dielectric Wedge for Beam Steering will be discussed. The presentation includes current status of the effort and suggested future work. The work is being done as part of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist's Space Technology Research Fellowship (NSTRF).

  4. Progress Towards the Development of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter for Aneutronic Fusion Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; Chap, A.; Wolinsky, J.; Scott, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and theory/simulation effort has been carried out to investigate the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), a scheme that has been proposed in the past for the direct conversion into electricity of the kinetic energy of an ion beam generated from fusion reactions. This effort has been focused in particular on the TWDEC process in the high density beam regime, thus accounting for the ion beam expansion due to its space charge.

  5. Conservation Laws and Traveling Wave Solutions of a Generalized Nonlinear ZK-BBM Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijo Rashid Adem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a generalized two-dimensional nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (ZK-BBM equation, which is in fact Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation formulated in the ZK sense. Conservation laws for this equation are constructed by using the new conservation theorem due to Ibragimov and the multiplier method. Furthermore, traveling wave solutions are obtained by employing the (G'/G-expansion method.

  6. Traveling Wave Solutions of Reaction-Diffusion Equations Arising in Atherosclerosis Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa Apreutesei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this short review article, two atherosclerosis models are presented, one as a scalar equation and the other one as a system of two equations. They are given in terms of reaction-diffusion equations in an infinite strip with nonlinear boundary conditions. The existence of traveling wave solutions is studied for these models. The monostable and bistable cases are introduced and analyzed.

  7. Design and fabrication of a traveling-wave muffin-tin accelerating structure at 90 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, P.J.; Bowden, G.B.; Copeland, M.R.; Menegat, A.; Siemann, R.H.

    1997-05-01

    A prototype of a muffin-tin accelerating structure operating at 32 times the SLAC frequency (2.856 GHz) was built for research in high gradient acceleration. A traveling-wave design with single input and output feeds was chosen for the prototype which was fabricated by wire electrodischarge machining. Features of the mechanical design for the prototype are described. Design improvements are presented including considerations of cooling and vacuum

  8. Exact travelling wave solutions of the Whitham-Broer-Kaup and Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guiqiong; Li Zhibin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an interesting fact is found that the auxiliary equation method is also applicable to a coupled system of two different equations involving both even-order and odd-order partial derivative terms. Furthermore, singular travelling wave solutions can also be obtained by considering other types of exact solutions of auxiliary equation. The Whitham-Broer-Kaup and the (2 + 1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt equations are chosen as examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the auxiliary equation method

  9. Effects and costs of requiring child-restraint systems for young children traveling on commercial airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Thomas B; Johnston, Brian D; Grossman, David C

    2003-10-01

    The US Federal Aviation Administration is planning a new regulation requiring children younger than 2 years to ride in approved child-restraint seats on airplanes. To estimate the annual number of child air crash deaths that might be prevented by the proposed regulation, the threshold proportion of families switching from air to car travel above which the risks of the policy would exceed its benefits, and the cost per death prevented. Risk and economic analyses. Child-restraint seat use could prevent about 0.4 child air crash deaths per year in the United States. Increased deaths as a result of car travel could exceed deaths prevented by restraint seat use if the proportion of families switching from air to car travel exceeded about 5% to 10%. The estimate for this proportion varied with assumptions about trip distance, driver characteristics, and the effectiveness of child-restraint seats but is unlikely to exceed 15%. Assuming no increase in car travel, for each dollar increase in the cost of implementing the regulation per round trip per family, the cost per death prevented would increase by about $6.4 million. Unless space for young children in restraint seats can be provided at low cost to families, with little or no diversion to automobile travel, a policy requiring restraint seat use could cause a net increase in deaths. Even excluding this possibility, the cost of the proposed policy per death prevented is high.

  10. Multiple travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations using a unified algebraic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2002-01-01

    A new direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of general nonlinear evolution equations is presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system. Compared with most of the existing tanh methods, the Jacobi elliptic function method or other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only gives new and more general solutions, but also provides a guideline to classify the various types of the travelling wave solutions according to the values of some parameters. The solutions obtained in this paper include (a) kink-shaped and bell-shaped soliton solutions, (b) rational solutions, (c) triangular periodic solutions and (d) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. Among them, the Jacobi elliptic periodic wave solutions exactly degenerate to the soliton solutions at a certain limit condition. The efficiency of the method can be demonstrated on a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations such as those considered in this paper, KdV-MKdV, Ito's fifth MKdV, Hirota, Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov, Broer-Kaup, generalized coupled Hirota-Satsuma, coupled Schroedinger-KdV, (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave, (2+1)-dimensional Davey-Stewartson equations. In addition, as an illustrative sample, the properties of the soliton solutions and Jacobi doubly periodic solutions for the Hirota equation are shown by some figures. The links among our proposed method, the tanh method, extended tanh method and the Jacobi elliptic function method are clarified generally. (author)

  11. A novel traveling wave piezoelectric actuated tracked mobile robot utilizing friction effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Shu, Chengyou; Jin, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhui

    2017-03-01

    A novel traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot with potential application to robotic rovers was proposed and investigated in this study. The proposed tracked mobile robot is composed of a parallelogram-frame-structure piezoelectric transducer with four rings and a metal track. Utilizing the converse piezoelectric and friction effects, traveling waves were propagated in the rings and then the metal track was actuated by the piezoelectric transducer. Compared with traditional tracked mechanisms, the proposed tracked mobile robot has a simpler and more compact structure without lubricant, which eliminates the problem of lubricant volatilization and deflation, thus, it could be operated in the vacuum environment. Dynamic characteristics were simulated and measured to reveal the mechanism of actuating track of the piezoelectric transducer. Experimental investigations of the traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot were then carried out, and the results indicated that the robot prototype with a pair of exciting voltages of 460 Vpp is able to achieve a maximum velocity of 57 mm s-1 moving on the foam plate and possesses the obstacle crossing capability with a maximum height of 27 mm. The proposed tracked mobile robot exhibits potential to be the driving system of robotic rovers.

  12. Numerical study of radial stepwise fuel load reshuffling traveling wave reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dalin; Zheng Meiyin; Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Traveling wave reactor is a new conceptual fast breeder reactor, which can adopt natural uranium, depleted uranium and thorium directly to realize the self sustainable breeding and burning to achieve very high fuel utilization fraction. Based on the mechanism of traveling wave reactor, a concept of radial stepwise fuel load reshuffling traveling wave reactor was proposed for realistic application. It was combined with the typical design of sodium-cooled fast reactors, with which the asymptotic characteristics of the inwards stepwise fuel load reshuffling were studied numerically in two-dimension. The calculated results show that the asymptotic k_e_f_f parabolically varies with the reshuffling cycle length, while the burnup increases linearly. The highest burnup satisfying the reactor critical condition is 38%. The power peak shifts from the fuel discharging zone (core centre) to the fuel uploading zone (core periphery) and correspondingly the power peaking factor decreases along with the reshuffling cycle length. In addition, at the high burnup case the axial power distribution close to the core centre displays the M-shaped deformation. (authors)

  13. Potential travel cost saving in urban public-transport networks using smartphone guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information. The approach associated with smartphone guidance that considers passengers’ preference on travel time, waiting time and transfer is proposed in the process of obtaining his/her preferred route from the potential travel routes generated by the Deep First Search (DFS) method. Two other approaches, based on the scenarios reflecting reality, include passengers with access to no real time information, and passengers that only have access to the arrival time at the platform are used as comparisons. For illustration, the same network proposed by Spiess and Florian is utilized on the experiments in an agent-based model. Two experiments are conducted respectively according to whether each passenger’s choosing method is consistent. As expected, the results in the first experiment showed that the travel for consistent passengers with smartphone guidance was clearly shorter and that it can reduce travel time exceeding 15% and weighted cost exceeding 20%, and the average saved time approximated 3.88 minutes per passenger. The second experiment presented that travel cost, as well as cost savings, gradually decreased by employing smartphone guidance, and the maximum cost savings accounted for 14.2% of the total weighted cost. PMID:29746528

  14. Potential travel cost saving in urban public-transport networks using smartphone guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cuiying; Guan, Wei; Ma, Jihui

    2018-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information. The approach associated with smartphone guidance that considers passengers' preference on travel time, waiting time and transfer is proposed in the process of obtaining his/her preferred route from the potential travel routes generated by the Deep First Search (DFS) method. Two other approaches, based on the scenarios reflecting reality, include passengers with access to no real time information, and passengers that only have access to the arrival time at the platform are used as comparisons. For illustration, the same network proposed by Spiess and Florian is utilized on the experiments in an agent-based model. Two experiments are conducted respectively according to whether each passenger's choosing method is consistent. As expected, the results in the first experiment showed that the travel for consistent passengers with smartphone guidance was clearly shorter and that it can reduce travel time exceeding 15% and weighted cost exceeding 20%, and the average saved time approximated 3.88 minutes per passenger. The second experiment presented that travel cost, as well as cost savings, gradually decreased by employing smartphone guidance, and the maximum cost savings accounted for 14.2% of the total weighted cost.

  15. Long-range traveling waves of activity triggered by local dichoptic stimulation in V1 of behaving monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Heeger, David J.; Blake, Randolph

    2014-01-01

    Traveling waves of cortical activity, in which local stimulation triggers lateral spread of activity to distal locations, have been hypothesized to play an important role in cortical function. However, there is conflicting physiological evidence for the existence of spreading traveling waves of neural activity triggered locally. Dichoptic stimulation, in which the two eyes view dissimilar monocular patterns, can lead to dynamic wave-like fluctuations in visual perception and therefore, provides a promising means for identifying and studying cortical traveling waves. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye imaging to test for the existence of traveling waves of activity in the primary visual cortex of awake, fixating monkeys viewing dichoptic stimuli. We find clear traveling waves that are initiated by brief, localized contrast increments in one of the monocular patterns and then, propagate at speeds of ∼30 mm/s. These results demonstrate that under an appropriate visual context, circuitry in visual cortex in alert animals is capable of supporting long-range traveling waves triggered by local stimulation. PMID:25343785

  16. Integrable, oblique travelling waves in quasi-charge-neutral two-fluid plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Webb

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A Hamiltonian description of oblique travelling waves in a two-fluid, charge-neutral, electron-proton plasma reveals that the transverse momentum equations for the electron and proton fluids are exactly integrable in cases where the total transverse momentum flux integrals, Py(d and Pz(d, are both zero in the de Hoffman Teller (dHT frame. In this frame, the transverse electric fields are zero, which simplifies the transverse momentum equations for the two fluids. The integrable travelling waves for the case Py(d=Pz(d=0, are investigated based on the Hamiltonian trajectories in phase space, and also on the longitudinal structure equation for the common longitudinal fluid velocity component ux of the electron and proton fluids. Numerical examples of a variety of travelling waves in a cold plasma, including oscillitons, are used to illustrate the physics. The transverse, electron and proton velocity components ujy and ujz (j=e, p of the waves exhibit complex, rosette type patterns over several periods for ux. The role of separatrices in the phase space, the rotational integral and the longitudinal structure equation on the different wave forms are discussed.

  17. Impact localization in dispersive waveguides based on energy-attenuation of waves with the traveled distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajlouni, Sa'ed; Albakri, Mohammad; Tarazaga, Pablo

    2018-05-01

    An algorithm is introduced to solve the general multilateration (source localization) problem in a dispersive waveguide. The algorithm is designed with the intention of localizing impact forces in a dispersive floor, and can potentially be used to localize and track occupants in a building using vibration sensors connected to the lower surface of the walking floor. The lower the wave frequencies generated by the impact force, the more accurate the localization is expected to be. An impact force acting on a floor, generates a seismic wave that gets distorted as it travels away from the source. This distortion is noticeable even over relatively short traveled distances, and is mainly caused by the dispersion phenomenon among other reasons, therefore using conventional localization/multilateration methods will produce localization error values that are highly variable and occasionally large. The proposed localization approach is based on the fact that the wave's energy, calculated over some time window, decays exponentially as the wave travels away from the source. Although localization methods that assume exponential decay exist in the literature (in the field of wireless communications), these methods have only been considered for wave propagation in non-dispersive media, in addition to the limiting assumption required by these methods that the source must not coincide with a sensor location. As a result, these methods cannot be applied to the indoor localization problem in their current form. We show how our proposed method is different from the other methods, and that it overcomes the source-sensor location coincidence limitation. Theoretical analysis and experimental data will be used to motivate and justify the pursuit of the proposed approach for localization in a dispersive medium. Additionally, hammer impacts on an instrumented floor section inside an operational building, as well as finite element model simulations, are used to evaluate the performance of

  18. Combined effects of traveling seismic waves and soil nonlinearity on nuclear power plant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.; Charman, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of ground motion nonuniformity on the seismic input have been actively studied in recent years by considering the passage of traveling seismic waves. These studies gave rise to a new class of soil-structure interaction problems in which the seismic input is modified as a result of the spatial variations of ground motion. The phenomena were usually studied by using the elastic half-space simulation or discrete spring-models for modeling the soil medium. Finite element methods were also used recently on a limited scope. Results obtained from these investigations are often manifested by an attenuation of translational excitation along with an addition of rotational ground motion input. The decrease in structural response resulting from the input loss in the translational component was often insignificant since the response reduction tends to be offset by the effects from rotational input. The traveling wave effects have, so far, been investigated within the framework of linear theory with soil nonlinearity ignored. Conversely, the incorporation of soil nonlinearity in soil-structure interaction analyses has been done without including wave effect. Seismic analyses considering the hysteretic behavior of soil have been performed using highly idealized models for steady-state solution. More elaborate nonlinear seismic models deal with only the strain-dependent soil modulus rather than the transient unloading-reloading type of hysteretic characteristics of soil under a time-function input of earthquake trace. Apparently, the traveling wave effect and soil nonlinearity have been separately treated in the past. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that these two major effects can be combined in one model such that the influence of wave passage is reflected through the hysteretic behavior of soil particles, and thereby achieving significant reduction in seismic loads. (orig./RW)

  19. The Influence of Drift Gas Composition on the Separation Mechanism in Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry: Insight from Electrodynamic Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jody C; McLean, John A

    2003-06-01

    The influence of three different drift gases (helium, nitrogen, and argon) on the separation mechanism in traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry is explored through ion trajectory simulations which include considerations for ion diffusion based on kinetic theory and the electrodynamic traveling wave potential. The model developed for this work is an accurate depiction of a second-generation commercial traveling wave instrument. Three ion systems (cocaine, MDMA, and amphetamine) whose reduced mobility values have previously been measured in different drift gases are represented in the simulation model. The simulation results presented here provide a fundamental understanding of the separation mechanism in traveling wave, which is characterized by three regions of ion motion: (1) ions surfing on a single wave, (2) ions exhibiting intermittent roll-over onto subsequent waves, and (3) ions experiencing a steady state roll-over which repeats every few wave cycles. These regions of ion motion are accessed through changes in the gas pressure, wave amplitude, and wave velocity. Resolving power values extracted from simulated arrival times suggest that momentum transfer in helium gas is generally insufficient to access regions (2) and (3) where ion mobility separations occur. Ion mobility separations by traveling wave are predicted to be effectual for both nitrogen and argon, with slightly lower resolving power values observed for argon as a result of band-broadening due to collisional scattering. For the simulation conditions studied here, the resolving power in traveling wave plateaus between regions (2) and (3), with further increases in wave velocity contributing only minor improvements in separations.

  20. Travelling-wave similarity solutions for a steadily translating slender dry patch in a thin fluid film

    KAUST Repository

    Yatim, Y. M.; Duffy, B. R.; Wilson, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    A novel family of three-dimensional travelling-wave similarity solutions describing a steadily translating slender dry patch in an infinitely wide thin fluid film on an inclined planar substrate when surface-tension effects are negligible

  1. Detection of traveling ionospheric disturbances induced by atmospheric gravity waves using the global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.

  2. Uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom, part II: Deformation of travelling waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A new Korteweg-de Vries type of equation for uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom has been derived in Part I. The equation retains the Hamiltonian structure of the underlying complete set of equations for surface waves. For flat bottom it reduces to the standard Korteweg-de Vries

  3. New exact travelling wave solutions of generalised sinh- Gordon and (2 + 1-dimensional ZK-BBM equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Exact travelling wave solutions have been established for generalised sinh-Gordon andgeneralised (2+1 dimensional ZK-BBM equations by using GG      expansion method whereG  G( satisfies a second-order linear ordinary differential equation. The travelling wave solutionsare expressed by hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of hepatitis A prevention in travellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Tormans; P. van Damme (Damme); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of new vaccines and the changing epidemiology of hepatitis A call for an update of the economic evaluation of costs and benefits associated with the various alternative preventative strategies. A decision-tree-based model has been developed which enables the calculation of

  5. Theory of multiwave mixing within the superconducting kinetic-inductance traveling-wave amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, R. P.; Pappas, D. P.

    2017-03-01

    We present a theory of parametric mixing within the coplanar waveguide (CPW) of a superconducting nonlinear kinetic-inductance traveling-wave (KIT) amplifier engineered with periodic dispersion loadings. This is done by first developing a metamaterial band theory of the dispersion-engineered KIT using a Floquet-Bloch construction and then applying it to the description of mixing of the nonlinear RF traveling waves. Our theory allows us to calculate signal gain versus signal frequency in the presence of a frequency stop gap, based solely on loading design. We present results for both three-wave mixing (3WM), with applied dc bias, and four-wave mixing (4WM), without dc. Our theory predicts an intrinsic and deterministic origin to undulations of 4WM signal gain with signal frequency, apart from extrinsic sources, such as impedance mismatch, and shows that such undulations are absent from 3WM signal gain achievable with dc. Our theory is extensible to amplifiers based on Josephson junctions in a lumped LC-ladder transmission line (TWPA).

  6. Drag reduction by streamwise traveling wave-like Lorenz Force in channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamori, Hiroya; Fukagata, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Skin-friction drag reduction effect of traveling wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force in a fully developed turbulent channel flow is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. A sinusoidal profile of the wall-normal body force is assumed as the Lorenz force. While upstream traveling waves reduce the drag in the case of blowing/suction, standing waves reduce it in the case of present forcing. Visualization of vortical structure under the standing wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force reveals that the near-wall streamwise vortices, which increase the skin-friction drag, disappear and spanwise roller-like vortices are generated instead. Three component decomposition of the Reynolds shear stress indicates that the spanwise roller-like vortices contribute to the negative Reynolds shear stress in the region near the wall, similarly to the case of laminar flows. While the analogy between the wall-normal and streamwise forcings can be expected, the statistics are found to exhibit different behaviors due to the difference in the energy flow.

  7. Quantifying recreational value and the functional relationship between travel cost and visiting national park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawsar, Mahidi Hasan; Al Pavel, Muha Abdullah; Uddin, Mohammad Belal

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of recreational benefits is an important tool for both biodiversity conservation and ecotourism development in national parks and sanctuaries. The design of this work is to estimate the recreational value and to establish functional relationship between travel cost and visitation...... of Lawachara National Park (LNP) in Bangladesh. This study employed zonal approach of the travel cost method. The work is grounded on a sample of 422 visitors of the LNP. Results showed that the total value of environmental assets of the LNP is 55,694,173 Taka/Year. Moreover, our suggestion based on visitors...

  8. Pulsed Traveling-wave Quadrature Squeezing Using Quasi-phase Matched Lithium Niobate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Hsiang

    Interests in generating higher quantum noise squeezing in order to develop methods to enhance optical measurement below the shot-noise limit in various applications has grown in recent years. The noise suppression from squeezing can improve the SNR in coherent optical systems when the returning signal power is weak, such as optical coherence tomography, LADAR, confocal microscopy and low-light coherent imaging. Unlike the generation of squeezing with a continuous wave, which is currently developed mainly for gravitational wave detection in LIGO project, the study of pulsed-traveling waves is focused on industrial, medical and other commercial interests. This dissertation presents the experimental results of pulsed traveling wave squeezing. The intention of the study is to explore the possibility of using quasi-phase matched crystals to generate the highest possible degree of quadrature squeezing. In order to achieve this goal, efforts to test the various effects from spatial Gaussian modes and relative beam waist placement for the second-harmonic pump were carried out in order to further the understanding of limiting factors to pulsed traveling wave squeezing. 20mm and 30mm-long periodically poled lithium noibate (PPLN) crystals were used in the experiment to generate a squeezed vacuum state. A maximum of 4.2+/-0.2dB quadrature squeezing has been observed, and the measured anti-squeezing exceeds 20dB.The phase sensitive amplification (PSA) gain and de-gain performance were also measured to compare the results of measured squeezing. The PPLN crystals can produce high conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation (SHG) without a cavity. When a long PPLN crystal is used in a squeezer, the beam propagation in the nonlinear medium does not follow the characteristics in thin crystals. Instead, it is operated under the long-crystal criteria, which the crystal length is multiple times longer than the Rayleigh range of the injected beam i n the crystals. Quasi

  9. Field theory of a terahertz staggered double-grating arrays waveguide Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenqiu; He, Fangming [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zicheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Ding; Liu, Qinglun [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Based on a rectilinear sheet electron beam propagating through the tunnel of a staggered double-grating arrays waveguide (SDGAW) slow-wave structure (SWS), a three dimensional field theory for describing the modes and the beam-wave interaction is presented, in which the higher order terms inside the grooves are retained. The fields' distribution and the conductivity losses are also calculated utilizing the theoretical model. With the optimized parameters of the SWS and the electron beam, a 1 THz SDGAW Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier may obtain a moderate net gain (the peak gain is 12.7 dB/cm) and an ultra 3 dB wideband (0.19 THz) considering the serious Ohmic losses. The theoretical results have been compared with those calculated by 3D HFSS code and CST STUDIO particle-in-cell simulations.

  10. Smooth and non-smooth traveling wave solutions of a class of nonlinear dispersive equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoshan; Wu Aidi; He Wenzhang

    2009-01-01

    There is the widespread existence of wave phenomena in physics, mechanics. This clearly necessitates a study of traveling waves in depth and of the modeling and analysis involved. In this paper, we study a nonlinear dispersive K(n,-n,2n) equation, which can be regarded as a generalized K(n,n) equation. Applying the bifurcation theory and the method of phase portraits analysis, we obtain the dynamical behavior and special exact solutions of the K(n,-n,2n) equation. As a result, the conditions under which peakon and compacton solutions appear are also given and the analytic expressions of peakon solutions, compacton and periodic cusp wave solutions are obtained.

  11. Traveling-wave tube amplifier characteristics study for stochastic beam-cooling experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1982-03-01

    The characteristics of continuous-wave wideband traveling-wave tube amplifiers have been experimentally investigated over a frequency range of 1.5 to 4.5 GHz. We present measurements of characteristics important for stochastic beam cooling systems that are generally not available from manufacturers' data sheets. The amplifers measured include models 1177 H01 and 1277 H01 having output power capabilities of 10 to 20 W, respectively, at frequencies of 2 to 4 GHz. The power transfer characteristics, the phase-shift characteristics as functions of frequency and the input power level, the voltage standing-wave ratio, noise drive transfer characteristics, harmonics and intermodulation products content were accurately measured and are discussed. Measurement procedures and description of measuring systems, which include measuring system error corrections, are given in detail. Also several approaches are discussed for the reduction of harmonics and intermodulation products

  12. Doubly Periodic Traveling Waves in a Cellular Neural Network with Linear Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin JianJhong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Szekeley observed that the dynamic pattern of the locomotion of salamanders can be explained by periodic vector sequences generated by logical neural networks. Such sequences can mathematically be described by "doubly periodic traveling waves" and therefore it is of interest to propose dynamic models that may produce such waves. One such dynamic network model is built here based on reaction-diffusion principles and a complete discussion is given for the existence of doubly periodic waves as outputs. Since there are 2 parameters in our model and 4 a priori unknown parameters involved in our search of solutions, our results are nontrivial. The reaction term in our model is a linear function and hence our results can also be interpreted as existence criteria for solutions of a nontrivial linear problem depending on 6 parameters.

  13. SPREADING SPEEDS AND TRAVELING WAVES FOR NON-COOPERATIVE INTEGRO-DIFFERENCE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The study of spatially explicit integro-difference systems when the local population dynamics are given in terms of discrete-time generations models has gained considerable attention over the past two decades. These nonlinear systems arise naturally in the study of the spatial dispersal of organisms. The brunt of the mathematical research on these systems, particularly, when dealing with cooperative systems, has focused on the study of the existence of traveling wave solutions and the characterization of their spreading speed. Here, we characterize the minimum propagation (spreading) speed, via the convergence of initial data to wave solutions, for a large class of non cooperative nonlinear systems of integro-difference equations. The spreading speed turns out to be the slowest speed from a family of non-constant traveling wave solutions. The applicability of these theoretical results is illustrated through the explicit study of an integro-difference system with local population dynamics governed by Hassell and Comins’ non-cooperative competition model (1976). The corresponding integro-difference nonlinear systems that results from the redistribution of individuals via a dispersal kernel is shown to satisfy conditions that guarantee the existence of minimum speeds and traveling waves. This paper is dedicated to Avner Friedman as we celebrate his immense contributions to the fields of partial differential equations, integral equations, mathematical biology, industrial mathematics and applied mathematics in general. His leadership in the mathematical sciences and his mentorship of students and friends over several decades has made a huge difference in the personal and professional lives of many, including both of us. PMID:24899868

  14. Exact solution for the reflection and diffraction of atomic de Broglie waves by a travelling evanescent laser wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    The exact solution to the problem of reflection and diffraction of atomic de Broglie waves by a travelling evanescent wave is found starting with a bare-state formulation. The solution for the wavefunctions, the tunnelling losses and the non-adiabatic losses are given exactly in terms of hyper-Bessel functions, and are valid for all detuning and Rabi frequencies, thus generalizing previous approximate methods. Furthermore we give the limiting cases of all amplitudes in the uniform semiclassical limit, which is valid in all regions including near the classical turning points, and in the large and weak coupling cases. Exact results for the zero detuning case are obtained in terms of Bessel functions. We find our uniform semiclassical limit to be closer to the exact result over the full range of parameter values than the previously reported calculations. The current knowledge of hyper-Bessel function properties is reviewed in order to apply this to the physical problems imposed

  15. Frequency modulation and compression of optical pulses in an optical fibre with a travelling refractive-index wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotovskii, I O; Lapin, V A; Sementsov, D I [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    We have studied the conditions for spectral broadening, frequency modulation and compression (both temporal and spectral) of Gaussian pulses propagating in a fibre with a travelling refractive-index wave. Analytical expressions have been derived for the dependences of pulse duration, chirp and spectral width on the distance travelled through the fibre, parameters of the fibre and radiation launched into it. Based on the numerical analysis we have studied the behaviour of these characteristics by changing the coefficient of the refractive-index modulation and other parameters of the travelling refractive-index wave. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. Expression for time travel based on diffusive wave theory: applicability and considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, J. C.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Passalacqua, P.; Gironas, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Prediction of hydrological response is of utmost importance when dealing with urban planning, risk assessment, or water resources management issues. With the advent of climate change, special care must be taken with respect to variations in rainfall and runoff due to rising temperature averages. Nowadays, while typical workstations have adequate power to run distributed routing hydrological models, it is still not enough for modeling on-the-fly, a crucial ability in a natural disaster context, where rapid decisions must be made. Semi-distributed time travel models, which compute a watershed's hydrograph without explicitly solving the full shallow water equations, appear as an attractive approach to rainfall-runoff modeling since, like fully distributed models, also superimpose a grid on the watershed, and compute runoff based on cell parameter values. These models are heavily dependent on the travel time expression for an individual cell. Many models make use of expressions based on kinematic wave theory, which is not applicable in cases where watershed storage is important, such as mild slopes. This work presents a new expression for concentration times in overland flow, based on diffusive wave theory, which considers not only the effects of storage but also the effects on upstream contribution. Setting upstream contribution equal to zero gives an expression consistent with previous work on diffusive wave theory; on the other hand, neglecting storage effects (i.e.: diffusion,) is shown to be equivalent to kinematic wave theory, currently used in many spatially distributed time travel models. The newly found expression is shown to be dependent on plane discretization, particularly when dealing with very non-kinematic cases. This is shown to be the result of upstream contribution, which gets larger downstream, versus plane length. This result also provides some light on the limits on applicability of the expression: when a certain kinematic threshold is reached, the

  17. Physical design of 9 MeV travelling wave electron linac accelerating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huaibi; Ding Xiaodong; Lin Yuzheng

    2000-01-01

    An accelerating tube is described. It is a part of an accelerator used for inspection of vehicle cargoes in rail cars, trucks, shipping containers, or airplanes in customs. A klystron with power of 4 MW and frequency of 2856 MHz will be applied to supply microwave power. The electrons can be accelerated by a travelling wave in the accelerating tube about 220 cm long, with a buncher whose capture efficiency is more than 80%. Energy of electrons after travelling through the tube can reach 9 MeV (pulse current intensity 170 mA) or 6 MeV (pulse current intensity 300 mA). Physical design of the accelerating tube, including the calculations of longitudinal particle dynamics, structure parameter and working character is carried out

  18. Enhanced traveling wave amplification of co-planar slow wave structure by extended phase-matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Andrew; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar; Shin, Young-Min

    2015-01-01

    The electron beam co-propagating with slow waves in a staggered double grating array (SDGA) efficiently amplifies millimeter and sub-millimeter waves over a wide spectrum. Our theoretical and numerical analyses show that the power amplification in the fundamental passband is enhanced by the extended beam-wave phase-matching. Particle-in-cell simulations on the SDGA slow wave structure, designed with 10.4 keV and 50–100 mA sheet beam, indicate that maintaining beam-wave synchronization along the entire length of the circuit improves the gain by 7.3% leading to a total gain of 28 dB, corresponding to 62 W saturated power at the middle of operating band, and a 3-dB bandwidth of 7 GHz with 10.5% at V-band (73.5 GHz center frequency) with saturated peak power reaching 80 W and 28 dB at 71 GHz. These results also show a reasonably good agreement with analytic calculations based on Pierce small signal gain theory

  19. Phase defects and spatiotemporal disorder in traveling-wave convection patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Porta, A.; Surko, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Spatiotemporal disorder is studied in traveling-wave convection in ethanol-water mixtures. Spectral measures of disorder, linear correlation functions, and mutual information are used to characterize the patterns, and are found to give a weak indication of the level of disorder. The calculation of the complex order parameter for experimental patterns is described. It is found that the ordering of the patterns is accompanied by a dramatic change in the topological structure of the order parameter. Specific arrangements of defects are found to be associated with the elements of traveling-wave patterns, and the net charge and total number of defects is introduced as a measure of disorder in the patterns. The coarsening of the patterns is marked by an accumulation of net charge and a dramatic decrease in the number of defects. The physical significance of the defects is discussed, and it is shown that the phase velocity of the waves is lower in the vicinity of the defects. The defect-defect correlation functions are calculated for the convection patterns. It is shown that the ordering of the patterns is closely related to the apparent defect-defect interactions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. The response of a turbulent boundary layer to a small-amplitude traveling wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    We study the response of a turbulent boundary layer to an outer-flow disturbance in the form of a small-amplitude wave travelling along the bottom of a smooth channel. In a previous paper we proposed a model for the viscous attenuation of a wave propagating along the interface between two superposed fluids inside a laminar boundary layer attached to the bottom wall. We obtained precise estimates on the amount of attenuation suffered by the oscillatory component of the motion as a result of viscous dissipation. This was accomplished by means of a representation of the solution as the asymptotic sum of a Blasius boundary layer profile and a modified Stokes layer profile. The present paper contains a similar asymptotic decomposition of the solution of the appropriate turbulent Prandtl equations when the outer flow is a small-amplitude travelling wave, and so it may be considered an extension of our previous work to the more realistic case of turbulent flow. 4 refs

  1. Efficiency Comparison of Various Parking Charge Schemes Considering Daily Travel Cost in a Linear City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new duration dependent parking fee regime based on the travel cost for an entire day, rather than a single commute trip. Commuters are assumed to reside at one end of a linear city and work in a business center at the other end. A two-stage differential method is used

  2. A Real-Time Holding Decision Rule Accounting for Passenger Travel Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskaris,; Cats, O.; Jenelius, E; Viti, F

    2016-01-01

    Holding has been extensively investigated as a strategy to mitigate the inherently stochastic nature of public transport operations. Holding focuses on either regulating vehicle headways using a rule-based approach or minimizing passenger travel cost by employing optimization models. This paper

  3. A travel cost analysis of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Zawacki; Allan Marsinko; J. Michael Bowker

    2000-01-01

    Increased emphasis on sustainable resource management in forestry has effectuated a demand for various nontimber values. Nonconsumptive wildlife recreation is an important nontimber service produced on forest and rangeland. Travel cost models and data from the 1991 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation are used to estimate the demand...

  4. Individual single-site travel cost model for Czech paradise geopark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Špaček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geotourism is a new phenomenon, which has emerged in the tourism literature during the past two decades, and whose meaning suffered from global census. Geotourism is still a new discipline and relatively little has been written about its demand side, demonstrated by a lack of studies in the literature This article studies the recreational value of geotourism areas, and focuses on the first geopark in the Czech Republic, namely the Czech Paradise Geopark. To assess the recreational value the travel cost method is applied, specifically the individual travel cost model. The necessary research data was gathered through intensive tourist surveys conducted in the study area. Data gathered in the respondents’ survey served to determine the consumer surplus as a measure of recreational value and to develop the single site travel cost model. The dependent variable in the conducted model is the number of visits in the area and among the independent variables, studied age, education, travel cost, family status, economic activity and income. The results were subsequently compared to findings in the available literature, research works and case studies.

  5. Anderson transition on the Cayley tree as a traveling wave critical point for various probability distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monthus, Cecile; Garel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    For Anderson localization on the Cayley tree, we study the statistics of various observables as a function of the disorder strength W and the number N of generations. We first consider the Landauer transmission T N . In the localized phase, its logarithm follows the traveling wave form T N ≅(ln T N )-bar + ln t* where (i) the disorder-averaged value moves linearly (ln(T N ))-bar≅-N/ξ loc and the localization length diverges as ξ loc ∼(W-W c ) -ν loc with ν loc = 1 and (ii) the variable t* is a fixed random variable with a power-law tail P*(t*) ∼ 1/(t*) 1+β(W) for large t* with 0 N are governed by rare events. In the delocalized phase, the transmission T N remains a finite random variable as N → ∞, and we measure near criticality the essential singularity (ln(T ∞ ))-bar∼-|W c -W| -κ T with κ T ∼ 0.25. We then consider the statistical properties of normalized eigenstates Σ x |ψ(x)| 2 = 1, in particular the entropy S = -Σ x |ψ(x)| 2 ln |ψ(x)| 2 and the inverse participation ratios (IPR) I q = Σ x |ψ(x)| 2q . In the localized phase, the typical entropy diverges as S typ ∼( W-W c ) -ν S with ν S ∼ 1.5, whereas it grows linearly as S typ (N) ∼ N in the delocalized phase. Finally for the IPR, we explain how closely related variables propagate as traveling waves in the delocalized phase. In conclusion, both the localized phase and the delocalized phase are characterized by the traveling wave propagation of some probability distributions, and the Anderson localization/delocalization transition then corresponds to a traveling/non-traveling critical point. Moreover, our results point toward the existence of several length scales that diverge with different exponents ν at criticality

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF HIGH VOLTAGE DIELECTRIC MATERIAL FOR TRAVELING WAVE KICKER MAGNET APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHANG, W.; SANDBERG, J.; TUOZZOLO, J.; CASSEL, R.; DUCIMETIERE, L.; JENSEN, C.; BARNES, M.; WAIT, G.; WANG, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed 1-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas. Their implication in the traveling wave magnet application has to be well understood. In this presentation, the areas requiring further quantitative study will be outlined

  7. Numerical investigation of a looped-tube travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a bypass pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kayiem, Ali; Yu, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A new configuration (“a looped-tube with a bypass pipe”) was recently proposed for low temperature travelling wave thermoacoustic engines and a prototype using atmospheric air as the working gas achieved an onset temperature difference as low as 65 °C. However, no further research has been reported about this new configuration to reveal its advantages and disadvantages. This paper aims to analyse this type of engine through a comprehensive numerical research. An engine of this type having dimensions similar to the reported prototype was firstly modelled. The calculated results were then qualitatively compared with the reported experimental data, showing a good agreement. The working principle of the engine was demonstrated and analysed. The research results show that an engine with such a bypass configuration essentially operates on the same thermodynamic principle as other travelling wave thermoacoustic engines, differing only in the design of the acoustic resonator. Both extremely short regenerators and a near-travelling wave resonator minimise the engine's acoustic losses, and thus significantly reduce its onset temperature difference. However, such short regenerators likely cause severe heat conduction losses, especially if the engine is applied to heat sources with higher temperatures. Furthermore, the acoustic power flowing back to the engine core is relatively low, while a large stream of acoustic power has to propagate within its resonator to maintain an acoustic resonance, potentially leading to low power density. The model was then applied to design an engine with a much longer regenerator and higher mean pressure to increase its power density. A thermoacoustic cooler was also added to the engine to utilise its acoustic power, allowing the evaluation of thermal efficiency. The pros and cons of the engine configuration are then discussed. - Highlights: • Analysed the working principle of a bypass type thermoacoustic engine. • Analysed the pros and

  8. A cost comparison of travel models and behavioural telemedicine for rural, Native American populations in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Brady P; Barragan, Gary N; Fore, Chis; Bonham, Caroline A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the cost of delivering behavioural health services to rural Native American populations using telecommunications and compare these costs with the travel costs associated with providing equivalent care. Behavioural telehealth costs were modelled using equipment, transmission, administrative and IT costs from an established telecommunications centre. Two types of travel models were estimated: a patient travel model and a physician travel model. These costs were modelled using the New Mexico resource geographic information system program (RGIS) and ArcGIS software and unit costs (e.g. fuel prices, vehicle depreciation, lodging, physician wages, and patient wages) that were obtained from the literature and US government agencies. The average per-patient cost of providing behavioural healthcare via telehealth was US$138.34, and the average per-patient travel cost was US$169.76 for physicians and US$333.52 for patients. Sensitivity analysis found these results to be rather robust to changes in imputed parameters and preliminary evidence of economies of scale was found. Besides the obvious benefits of increased access to healthcare and reduced health disparities, providing behavioural telehealth for rural Native American populations was estimated to be less costly than modelled equivalent care provided by travelling. Additionally, as administrative and coordination costs are a major component of telehealth costs, as programmes grow to serve more patients, the relative costs of these initial infrastructure as well as overall per-patient costs should decrease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. An analysis of travel costs on transport of load and nest building in golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Rogerio F.; Ades, Cesar

    2002-03-28

    We investigated the effects of travel costs on transporting nest material and nest-building activity in golden hamsters. Nest-deprived animals were submitted to run alleys 30, 90 and 180 cm long to access a source containing paper strips as nest material (Experiment 1) or were submitted to the same travel costs in 24-h experimental sessions (Experiment 2). We noted that increased travel costs were related to a decreased number of trips to the source, larger amounts (cm(2)) of nest material transported per trip (although total loads also decreased in longer alleys), longer intervals between trips, and increased time spent at the source and in nest building activity. Foraging efficiency (i.e. size of load divided by the time spent at the source) decreased as a function of travel costs, and animals transported their loads in two fundamental ways: in 30-cm alleys, they simply used their mouth to pull the paper strips, but in 90- or 180-cm alleys they transported the loads in their cheek pouches. The animals were faster when returning to the home-cage and their running speed (cm/s) increased as a function of the length of the alley, showing that animals are under different environmental pressures when searching for resources and subsequently running back with the load to the nest. Both male and female subjects were sensitive to travel costs, but males engaged in nest building activity more promptly and exhibited higher mean performances in most measures. We conclude that nest material is a good reinforcer, and our major results are in accordance with the predictions of microeconomic and optimal foraging theories.

  10. Integrating a Traveling Wave Tube into an AECR-U ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff; Benitez, Janilee Y.; Ratti, Alessandro; Vujic, Jasmina L.

    2011-07-01

    An RF system of 500W - 10.75 to 12.75 GHz was designed and integrated into the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance - Upgrade (AECR-U) ion source of the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The AECR-U produces ion beams for the Cyclotron giving large flexibility of ion species and charge states. The broadband frequency of a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) allows modifying the volume that couples and heats the plasma. The TWT system design and integration with the AECR-U ion source and results from commissioning are presented.

  11. Experiments on pumping of liquids using arrays of microelectrodes subjected to travelling wave potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sanchez, P; Ramos, A [Dpto. de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Green, Nicolas G; Morgan, H [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: pablogarcia@us.es

    2008-12-01

    Net fluid flow of electrolytes driven on an array of microelectrodes subjected to a travelling-wave potential is presented. Two sizes of platinum microelectrodes have been studied. In both arrays, at low voltages the liquid flows according to the prediction given by ac electroosmotic theory. At voltages above a threshold the fluid flow is reversed. Measurements of the electrical current when the microelectrode array is pumping the liquid are also reported. Transient behaviours in both electrical current and fluid velocity have been observed.

  12. Experiments on pumping of liquids using arrays of microelectrodes subjected to travelling wave potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, P; Ramos, A; Green, Nicolas G; Morgan, H

    2008-01-01

    Net fluid flow of electrolytes driven on an array of microelectrodes subjected to a travelling-wave potential is presented. Two sizes of platinum microelectrodes have been studied. In both arrays, at low voltages the liquid flows according to the prediction given by ac electroosmotic theory. At voltages above a threshold the fluid flow is reversed. Measurements of the electrical current when the microelectrode array is pumping the liquid are also reported. Transient behaviours in both electrical current and fluid velocity have been observed.

  13. Development of a nonresonant perturbation technique and its application to multicell traveling-wave deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jianhao; Tong, Dechun; Gu, Qiang; Fang, Wencheng; Zhao, Zhentang

    2016-01-01

    A tuning method augmented by the bead-pull technique based on nonresonant perturbation field distribution measurements has been widely applied for traveling-wave (TW) accelerating structures. The method is also suitable for deflecting structures, but some key considerations of the field components of the HEM_1_1 mode and the selection of bead merit discussion. A “cage”-type perturbing object has been designed, fabricated and applied in nonresonant perturbation measurements. Measurements on an S-band TW deflecting structure are carried out, and the measurement and tuning method will be used on the newly developed X-band deflecting structure at Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics.

  14. Representations and Classification of Traveling Wave Solutions to sinh-Goerdon Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2008-01-01

    Two concepts named atom solution and combinatory solution are defined. The classification of all single traveling wave atom solutions to sinh-Goerdon equation is obtained, and qualitative properties of solutions are discussed. In particular, we point out that some qualitative properties derived intuitively from dynamic system method are not true. Finally, we prove that our solutions to sinh-Goerdon equation include all solutions obtained in the paper [Z.T. Fu, et al., Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 45 (2006) 55]. Through an example, we show how to give some new identities on Jacobian elliptic functions.

  15. Development of a nonresonant perturbation technique and its application to multicell traveling-wave deflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jianhao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shanghai Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China); Tong, Dechun [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu, Qiang; Fang, Wencheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shanghai Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China); Zhao, Zhentang, E-mail: zhaozhentang@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Cryogenics & Superconducting RF Technology, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shanghai Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2016-11-01

    A tuning method augmented by the bead-pull technique based on nonresonant perturbation field distribution measurements has been widely applied for traveling-wave (TW) accelerating structures. The method is also suitable for deflecting structures, but some key considerations of the field components of the HEM{sub 11} mode and the selection of bead merit discussion. A “cage”-type perturbing object has been designed, fabricated and applied in nonresonant perturbation measurements. Measurements on an S-band TW deflecting structure are carried out, and the measurement and tuning method will be used on the newly developed X-band deflecting structure at Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics.

  16. CONDOR simulation of an 11.4-GHz traveling wave output cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, Y.; Yu, D.

    1991-01-01

    The CONDOR code is used to simulate the cold test and the beam-induced microwave amplification of an 11.4-GHz, six-cell, disk-loaded, traveling wave cavity. Cold test simulation results are in agreement with a modified Slater's theory. Power extraction at the output port is calculated by launching a train of Gaussian electron bunches through the structure. Results are consistent with recent relativistic klystron experiments using a similar TW output cavity. It is further shown that, depending on operating beam parameters, the power extraction efficiency can be maximized by modification of various cells in the TW structure

  17. An investigation of r.f. travelling wave current drive using the model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    Previous experimental investigations in the use of travelling r.f. waves to drive steady toroidal currents in a toroidal plasma have shown that I t , the amount of current driven, is strongly dependent on the ratio of the static toroidal magnetic field B z , to the strength of the r.f. magnetic field B ω . This dependence is characterised by an initial increase and subsequent decrease of I t when B t /B ω increases. It is shown that this observed behaviour is entirely consistent with the behaviour predicted by the current drive model. Results from numerical computations using the model show good quantitative agreement with the published experimental results

  18. Splitting of quantum information in travelling wave fields using only linear optical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, W B; De Almeida, N G; Avelar, A T; Baseia, B [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, 74.001-970, Goiania-GO (Brazil)

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we present a feasible post-selection scheme to split quantum information in the realm of travelling waves with success probability of 50%. Taking advantage of this scheme we have also proposed the generation of a class of W states useful for perfect teleportation and superdense coding. The scheme employs only linear optical elements as beam splitters (BS) and phase shifters, plus two photon counters and a source of two spontaneous parametric down-conversion photons. It is shown that splitting of quantum information with high fidelity is possible, even when using inefficient detectors and photoabsorption BS.

  19. Analytical theory of frequency-multiplying gyro-traveling-wave-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusinovich, G.S.; Chen, W.; Granatstein, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    The theory is developed which describes analytically the gain and bandwidth in frequency-multiplying gyro-traveling-wave-tubes. In this theory the input waveguide is considered in the small-signal approximation. Then, in the drift region separating the input and output waveguides, the electron ballistic bunching evolves which causes the appearance in the electron current density of the harmonics of the signal frequency. The excitation of the output waveguide by one of these harmonics is considered in a specified current approximation. This makes the analytical study of a large-signal operation possible. The theory is illustrated by using it to analyze the performance of an existing experimental tube

  20. The traveling-wave amplifier model of the cochlea adapted to dolphins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Au, W.W.L.

    1999-01-01

    The traveling-wave amplifier (TWA) model of the cochlea [A. Hubbard, Science 259, 68–71 (1993)] has been shown to produce outputs that compare quite well with experimental data. A TWA model with parameters adjusted to fit the physiological properties of the dolphin cochlea was used as part...... of a sonar signal discrimination system. The system was tested on a cylinder wall thickness discrimination problem. Broadband echoes from cylinders with different wall thicknesses were aligned using a matched filter and envelope detection. The aligned signals were used as inputs to the TWA model and energy...

  1. Traveling waves and the renormalization group improvedBalitsky-Kovchegov equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enberg, Rikard

    2006-12-01

    I study the incorporation of renormalization group (RG)improved BFKL kernels in the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation whichdescribes parton saturation. The RG improvement takes into accountimportant parts of the next-to-leading and higher order logarithmiccorrections to the kernel. The traveling wave front method for analyzingthe BK equation is generalized to deal with RG-resummed kernels,restricting to the interesting case of fixed QCD coupling. The resultsshow that the higher order corrections suppress the rapid increase of thesaturation scale with increasing rapidity. I also perform a "diffusive"differential equation approximation, which illustrates that someimportant qualitative properties of the kernel change when including RGcorrections.

  2. Travelling wave solutions of the Schamel–Korteweg–de Vries and the Schamel equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Kangalgil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the extended (G′/G-expansion method has been suggested for constructing travelling wave solutions of the Schamel–Korteweg–de Vries (s-KdV and the Schamel equations with aid of computer systems like Maple or Mathematica. The hyperbolic function solutions and the trigonometric function solutions with free parameters of these equations have been obtained. Moreover, it has been shown that the suggested method is elementary, effective and has been used to solve nonlinear evolution equations in applied mathematics, engineering and mathematical physics.

  3. Traveling wave solutions for two nonlinear evolution equations with nonlinear terms of any order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qing-Hua; Zhang Yao-Ming; Meng Fan-Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, based on the known first integral method and the Riccati sub-ordinary differential equation (ODE) method, we try to seek the exact solutions of the general Gardner equation and the general Benjamin—Bona—Mahoney equation. As a result, some traveling wave solutions for the two nonlinear equations are established successfully. Also we make a comparison between the two methods. It turns out that the Riccati sub-ODE method is more effective than the first integral method in handling the proposed problems, and more general solutions are constructed by the Riccati sub-ODE method. (general)

  4. An interleaved structure for a high-voltage planar transformer for a Travelling-wave Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Gang; Hurley, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Fully interleaved structure can significantly reduce leakage inductance in transformers, However, it is hard to apply them into high-voltage applications due to the electric insulation. In this paper, a partially interleaved structure that is suitable for high-voltage high frequency applications...... is proposed to reduce leakage inductance and the insulation’s thickness is adjusted to optimize the electric isolation. In addition, the resistance and parasitic capacitance are investigated. With this method, a planar transformer used for a Travelling-Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA) is designed. Calculations...

  5. Wavelength selection in traveling-wave convection in a fluid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surko, C.M.; Eaton, K.D.; Baxter, G.W.; Iwata, K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms by which a one-dimensional pattern of traveling waves changes wavelength (i.e. the Eckhaus instability) is studied in a binary fluid mixture. Propagating wavelength modulations develop when the Rayleigh number of the system is decreased below a wavelength-dependent threshold, commonly referred to as the Eckhaus boundary. These wavelength modulations increase in amplitude and narrow in spatial extent until they trigger the creation or annihilation of convection roll pairs and thereby change the average wavelength of the system. The authors find qualitatively different dynamics for wavelength-increasing events and wavelength-decreasing events; these differences are due to the strong wavelength dependence of the group velocity

  6. Optimal Control of the Valve Based on Traveling Wave Method in the Water Hammer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H. Z.; Wang, F.; Feng, J. L.; Tan, H. P.

    2011-09-01

    Valve regulation is an effective method for process control during the water hammer. The principle of d'Alembert traveling wave theory was used in this paper to construct the exact analytical solution of the water hammer, and the optimal speed law of the valve that can reduce the water hammer pressure in the maximum extent was obtained. Combining this law with the valve characteristic curve, the principle corresponding to the valve opening changing with time was obtained, which can be used to guide the process of valve closing and to reduce the water hammer pressure in the maximum extent.

  7. Dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic waves in dipolar (m=±1) modes travelling along a magnetized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Ghanashev, I.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1992-01-01

    The modelling of isotropic plasma columns sustained by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar mode (angular dependence exp imφ, m=±1) shows that the m=±1 modes have identical dispersion characteristics. In the presence of an external static magnetic field, however, the modes behave rather differently. This observation arose in studying the axial structures of magnetized plasma columns surrounded by vacuum and produced by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar modes. We examine the propagation of electromagnetic waves along a homogeneous cold plasma column of radius R and electron number density n immersed in an axial constant magnetic field. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  8. Levelized Cost of Energy of the Weptos wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the cost of energy calculations of a wave energy array of 90 MW, consisting of 25 x 3.6 MW Weptos wave energy converters. The calculation has been made in analogy with a publically available document presented by the UK government, covering the case of a similar size wind...

  9. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of travelling pulses and spiral waves in the lattice Lotka-Volterra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeev, Alexei G; Kurkina, Elena S; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2012-06-01

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the stochastic two-species Lotka-Volterra model on a square lattice. For certain values of the model parameters, the system constitutes an excitable medium: travelling pulses and rotating spiral waves can be excited. Stable solitary pulses travel with constant (modulo stochastic fluctuations) shape and speed along a periodic lattice. The spiral waves observed persist sometimes for hundreds of rotations, but they are ultimately unstable and break-up (because of fluctuations and interactions between neighboring fronts) giving rise to complex dynamic behavior in which numerous small spiral waves rotate and interact with each other. It is interesting that travelling pulses and spiral waves can be exhibited by the model even for completely immobile species, due to the non-local reaction kinetics.

  10. A parametric costing model for wave energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the philosophy and technical approach to a parametric cost model for offshore wave energy systems. Consideration is given both to existing known devices and other devices yet to be conceptualised. The report is complementary to a spreadsheet based cost estimating model. The latter permits users to derive capital cost estimates using either inherent default data or user provided data, if a particular scheme provides sufficient design definition for more accurate estimation. The model relies on design default data obtained from wave energy device designs and a set of specifically collected cost data. (author)

  11. 25 CFR 39.703 - What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Funds § 39.703 What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation? 39.703 Section 39.703 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  12. Bandwidth broadening effect in a traveling-wave-tube amplifier by using impulse electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sang Wook; Choi, Jin Joo; Kim, Seon Joo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a wideband amplification mechanism involving an impulse electron beam. To prove broadband amplification with the impulse beam, we perform 3-dimensional particle-in-cell (3D PIC) code simulation. An impulse electron beam with a pulse width of 1 ns with electric potential 17.2 kV is injected into an interaction circuit of a coupled-cavity traveling-wave-tube (CCTWT) driven by a continuous-wave (CW) signal of 29.1 GHz. The resulting output bandwidth was 2.96%, and the peak output power of 713 W was the same as that obtained with CW operation at a single frequency. The simulation yielded very similar results with ultra short impulse signal from the simulation.

  13. Theory of a Traveling Wave Feed for a Planar Slot Array Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2012-01-01

    Planar arrays of waveguide-fed slots have been employed in many radar and remote sensing applications. Such arrays are designed in the standing wave configuration because of high efficiency. Traveling wave arrays can produce greater bandwidth at the expense of efficiency due to power loss in the load or loads. Traveling wave planar slot arrays may be designed with a long feed waveguide consisting of centered-inclined coupling slots. The feed waveguide is terminated in a matched load, and the element spacing in the feed waveguide is chosen to produce a beam squinted from the broadside. The traveling wave planar slot array consists of a long feed waveguide containing resonant-centered inclined coupling slots in the broad wall, coupling power into an array of stacked radiating waveguides orthogonal to it. The radiating waveguides consist of longitudinal offset radiating slots in a standing wave configuration. For the traveling wave feed of a planar slot array, one has to design the tilt angle and length of each coupling slot such that the amplitude and phase of excitation of each radiating waveguide are close to the desired values. The coupling slot spacing is chosen for an appropriate beam squint. Scattering matrix parameters of resonant coupling slots are used in the design process to produce appropriate excitations of radiating waveguides with constraints placed only on amplitudes. Since the radiating slots in each radiating waveguide are designed to produce a certain total admittance, the scattering (S) matrix of each coupling slot is reduced to a 2x2 matrix. Elements of each 2x2 S-matrix and the amount of coupling into the corresponding radiating waveguide are expressed in terms of the element S11. S matrices are converted into transmission (T) matrices, and the T matrices are multiplied to cascade the coupling slots and waveguide sections, starting from the load end and proceeding towards the source. While the use of non-resonant coupling slots may provide an

  14. A computational role for bistability and traveling waves in motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eHeitmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive changes in behavior require rapid changes in brain states yet the brain must also remain stable. We investigated two neural mechanisms for evoking rapid transitions between spatiotemporal synchronization patterns of beta oscillations (13--30Hz in motor cortex. Cortex was modeled as a sheet of neural oscillators that were spatially coupled using a center-surround connection topology. Manipulating the inhibitory surround was found to evoke reliable transitions between synchronous oscillation patterns and traveling waves. These transitions modulated the simulated local field potential in agreement with physiological observations in humans. Intermediate levels of surround inhibition were also found to produce bistable coupling topologies that supported both waves and synchrony. State-dependent perturbation between bistable states produced very rapid transitions but were less reliable. We surmise that motor cortex may thus employ state-dependent computation to achieve very rapid changes between bistable motor states when the demand for speed exceeds the demand for accuracy.

  15. Standing and travelling waves in a spherical brain model: The Nunez model revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, S.; Nicks, R.; Faugeras, O.; Coombes, S.

    2017-06-01

    The Nunez model for the generation of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is naturally described as a neural field model on a sphere with space-dependent delays. For simplicity, dynamical realisations of this model either as a damped wave equation or an integro-differential equation, have typically been studied in idealised one dimensional or planar settings. Here we revisit the original Nunez model to specifically address the role of spherical topology on spatio-temporal pattern generation. We do this using a mixture of Turing instability analysis, symmetric bifurcation theory, centre manifold reduction and direct simulations with a bespoke numerical scheme. In particular we examine standing and travelling wave solutions using normal form computation of primary and secondary bifurcations from a steady state. Interestingly, we observe spatio-temporal patterns which have counterparts seen in the EEG patterns of both epileptic and schizophrenic brain conditions.

  16. Travelling waves of density for a fourth-gradient model of fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Henri; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    In mean-field theory, the non-local state of fluid molecules can be taken into account using a statistical method. The molecular model combined with a density expansion in Taylor series of the fourth order yields an internal energy value relevant to the fourth-gradient model, and the equation of isothermal motions takes then density's spatial derivatives into account for waves travelling in both liquid and vapour phases. At equilibrium, the equation of the density profile across interfaces is more precise than the Cahn and Hilliard equation, and near the fluid's critical point, the density profile verifies an Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, allowing kinks, which converges towards the Cahn-Hillard equation when approaching the critical point. Nonetheless, we also get pulse waves oscillating and generating critical opalescence.

  17. Propagation characteristics of bedrock waves traveling from pre-Tertiary basement to engineering bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, S.

    2007-11-01

    This study uses borehole array recordings to measure the propagation characteristics of bedrock waves traveling from pre-Tertiary basement (seismic bedrock) to engineering bedrock with an S-wave velocity of approximately 0.5-0.8 km/s. To avoid the destructive interference of surface-reflected down-going waves and incidence waves in seismic and engineering bedrock, borehole data recorded at sufficient depth levels are used in this study. This is the most important aspect of the fundamental basis of this study. The propagation characteristics, i.e., the transfer function, of bedrock motions for S-waves are well represented by a Butterworth-type low-pass filter model with a high corner frequency in excess of 15 Hz and a low decay rate of -3 power of frequency. The use of such a filter model is based on the concise representation of the transfer function from an engineering viewpoint. Simple one-dimensional ray theory with a plane wave approximation explains the characteristics of the model filter at low frequencies of less than approximately 5 Hz; however, one-dimensional ray theory with a plane wave approximation at high frequencies in excess of 5 Hz requires the unusual frequency characteristics of Q_S-1(f), which increases with increasing frequency, to explain the frequency characteristics of the model filter. These facts imply that the filter gain can be determined using the impedance ratio of seismic bedrock to engineering bedrock and the attenuation characteristics of the intervening media at low frequencies less than 5 Hz. However, the cutoff frequency and decay rate of the filter must be determined from observational data.

  18. Analytical structural optimization and experimental verifications for traveling wave generation in self-assembling swimming smart boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bani-Hani, M A; Karami, M A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents vibration analysis and structural optimization of a swimming–morphing structure. The swimming of the structure is achieved by utilization of piezoelectric patches to generate traveling waves. The third mode shape of the structure in the longitudinal direction resembles the body waveform of a swimming eel. After swimming to its destination, the morphing structure changes shape from an open box to a cube using shape memory alloys (SMAs). The SMAs used for the configuration change of the box robot cannot be used for swimming since they fail to operate at high frequencies. Piezoelectric patches are actuated at the third natural frequency of the structure. We optimize the thickness of the panels and the stiffness of the springs at the joints to generate swimming waveforms that most closely resemble the body waveform of an eel. The traveling wave is generated using two piezoelectric sets of patches bonded to the first and last segments of the beams in the longitudinal direction. Excitation of the piezoelectric results in coupled system dynamics equations that can be translated into the generation of waves. Theoretical analysis based on the distributed parameter model is conducted in this paper. A scalar measure of the traveling to standing wave ratio is introduced using a 2-dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FFT) of the body deformation waveform. An optimization algorithm based on tuning the flexural transverse wave is established to obtain a higher traveling to standing wave ratio. The results are then compared to common methods in the literature for assessment of standing to traveling wave ratios. The analytical models are verified by the close agreement between the traveling waves predicted by the model and those measured in the experiments. (paper)

  19. Experimental verification of theoretical equations for acoustic radiation force on compressible spherical particles in traveling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kennita A.; Vormohr, Hannah R.; Doinikov, Alexander A.; Bouakaz, Ayache; Shields, C. Wyatt; López, Gabriel P.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Acoustophoresis uses acoustic radiation force to remotely manipulate particles suspended in a host fluid for many scientific, technological, and medical applications, such as acoustic levitation, acoustic coagulation, contrast ultrasound imaging, ultrasound-assisted drug delivery, etc. To estimate the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces, equations derived for an inviscid host fluid are commonly used. However, there are theoretical predictions that, in the case of a traveling wave, viscous effects can dramatically change the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces, which make the equations obtained for an inviscid host fluid invalid for proper estimation of acoustic radiation forces. To date, experimental verification of these predictions has not been published. Experimental measurements of viscous effects on acoustic radiation forces in a traveling wave were conducted using a confocal optical and acoustic system and values were compared with available theories. Our results show that, even in a low-viscosity fluid such as water, the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces is increased manyfold by viscous effects in comparison with what follows from the equations derived for an inviscid fluid.

  20. A new traveling wave ultrasonic motor using thick ring stator with nested PZT excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Pei

    2010-05-01

    To avoid the disadvantages of conventional traveling wave ultrasonic motors--lower efficiency PZT working mode of d(31), fragility of the PZT element under strong excitation, fatigue of the adhesive layer under harsh environmental conditions, and low volume of the PZT material in the stator--a new type of traveling wave ultrasonic motor is presented in this paper. Here we implement the stator by nesting 64 PZT stacks in 64 slots specifically cut in a thick metal ring and 64 block springs nested within another 64 slots to produce preloading on the PZT stacks. In this new design, the d33 mode of the PZT is used to excite the flexural vibrations of the stator, and fragility of the PZT ceramics and fatigue of the adhesive layer are no longer an issue. The working principle, FEM simulation, fabrication, and performance measurements of a prototype motor were demonstrated to validate the proposed ideas. Typical output of the prototype motor is no-load speed of 15 rpm and maximum torque of 7.96 N x m. Further improvement will potentially enhance its features by increasing the accuracy in fabrication and adopting appropriate frictional material into the interface between the stator and the rotor.

  1. Cloud-based design of high average power traveling wave linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsaev, S. V.; Eidelman, Y.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Moeller, P.; Nagler, R.; Barbe Welzel, J.

    2017-12-01

    The design of industrial high average power traveling wave linacs must accurately consider some specific effects. For example, acceleration of high current beam reduces power flow in the accelerating waveguide. Space charge may influence the stability of longitudinal or transverse beam dynamics. Accurate treatment of beam loading is central to the design of high-power TW accelerators, and it is especially difficult to model in the meter-scale region where the electrons are nonrelativistic. Currently, there are two types of available codes: tracking codes (e.g. PARMELA or ASTRA) that cannot solve self-consistent problems, and particle-in-cell codes (e.g. Magic 3D or CST Particle Studio) that can model the physics correctly but are very time-consuming and resource-demanding. Hellweg is a special tool for quick and accurate electron dynamics simulation in traveling wave accelerating structures. The underlying theory of this software is based on the differential equations of motion. The effects considered in this code include beam loading, space charge forces, and external magnetic fields. We present the current capabilities of the code, provide benchmarking results, and discuss future plans. We also describe the browser-based GUI for executing Hellweg in the cloud.

  2. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a valveless magnetic travelling-wave micropump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huawei; Ye, Weixiang; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Zhao; Liu, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a valveless magnetic micropump for lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic applications. The micropump, based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), consists primarily of a saw-toothed microchannel, two substrates, and two integrated NdFeB permanent magnetic arrays. The travelling wave beneath the top wall of the elastic microchannel can be induced by the proper magnetic pole orientation arrangement of these magnetic arrays, and the liquid particles are then transported along with the travelling wave in the microchannel. Appropriate geometry of the saw-toothed microchannel was also studied for optimizing the performance of the micropump. Experimental characterization of the micropump has been performed in terms of the frequency response of the flow rate and backpressure. The results demonstrate that this micropump is capable of reliably generating a maximum flow rate of 342.4 μL min −1 and operating against a high backpressure of 1.67 kPa. (paper)

  3. A nonlinear analysis of the terahertz serpentine waveguide traveling-wave amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Cao, Miaomiao; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear model for the numerical simulation of terahertz serpentine waveguide traveling-wave tube (SW-TWT) is described. In this model, the electromagnetic wave transmission in the SW is represented as an infinite set of space harmonics to interact with an electron beam. Analytical expressions for axial electric fields in axisymmetric interaction gaps of SW-TWTs are derived and compared with the results from CST simulation. The continuous beam is treated as discrete macro-particles with different initial phases. The beam-tunnel field equations, space-charge field equations, and motion equations are combined to solve the beam-wave interaction. The influence of backward wave and relativistic effect is also considered in the series of equations. The nonlinear model is used to design a 340 GHz SW-TWT. Several favorable comparisons of model predictions with results from a 3-D Particle-in-cell simulation code CHIPIC are presented, in which the output power versus beam voltage and interaction periods are illustrated. The relative error of the predicted output power is less than 15% in the 3 dB bandwidth and the relative error of the saturated length is less than 8%.The results show that the 1-D nonlinear analysis model is appropriate to solve the terahertz SW-TWT operation characteristics

  4. Simulation analysis of rectangular dielectric-loaded traveling wave amplifiers for THz sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbiao Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear simulation results for a 220-GHz rectangular dielectric-loaded traveling-wave amplifier are presented. Simulations are used to check a linear theory that is developed by phenomenological introduction of an effective dielectric parameter for electron beam channel, and it is found that the rf power gains from Pierce three-wave theory and particle simulations are in reasonable agreement. It is shown that the rf power gain during initial beam-wave interaction is positive; the falling on the initial rf power profile, which has been thought to be the rf power transferred to the beam for bunching buildup (negative gain effect, is probably resulting from numerical errors. Beam-wave interaction mechanism is analyzed by examining the evolution of beam bunching centers. Influences of various parameters on amplifier performance are examined, and transverse space-charge effect is analyzed. A symmetric excitation scheme for rf couplers is proposed, and rf field jumps on the common intersection line of vacuum, dielectric, and metal wall, which were found in rf simulations, are explained theoretically.

  5. A Simple Mathematical Model Inspired by the Purkinje Cells: From Delayed Travelling Waves to Fractional Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipierro, Serena; Valdinoci, Enrico

    2018-07-01

    Recently, several experiments have demonstrated the existence of fractional diffusion in the neuronal transmission occurring in the Purkinje cells, whose malfunctioning is known to be related to the lack of voluntary coordination and the appearance of tremors. Also, a classical mathematical feature is that (fractional) parabolic equations possess smoothing effects, in contrast with the case of hyperbolic equations, which typically exhibit shocks and discontinuities. In this paper, we show how a simple toy-model of a highly ramified structure, somehow inspired by that of the Purkinje cells, may produce a fractional diffusion via the superposition of travelling waves that solve a hyperbolic equation. This could suggest that the high ramification of the Purkinje cells might have provided an evolutionary advantage of "smoothing" the transmission of signals and avoiding shock propagations (at the price of slowing a bit such transmission). Although an experimental confirmation of the possibility of such evolutionary advantage goes well beyond the goals of this paper, we think that it is intriguing, as a mathematical counterpart, to consider the time fractional diffusion as arising from the superposition of delayed travelling waves in highly ramified transmission media. The case of a travelling concave parabola with sufficiently small curvature is explicitly computed. The new link that we propose between time fractional diffusion and hyperbolic equation also provides a novelty with respect to the usual paradigm relating time fractional diffusion with parabolic equations in the limit. This paper is written in such a way as to be of interest to both biologists and mathematician alike. In order to accomplish this aim, both complete explanations of the objects considered and detailed lists of references are provided.

  6. Imaging the Mediterranean upper mantle by p- wave travel time tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morelli

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Travel times of P-waves in the Euro-Mediterranean region show strong and consistent lateral variations, which can be associated to structural heterogeneity in the underlying crust and mantle. We analyze regional and tele- seismic data from the International Seismological Centre data base to construct a three-dimensional velocity model of the upper mantle. We parameterize the model by a 3D grid of nodes -with approximately 50 km spacing -with a linear interpolation law, which constitutes a three-dimensional continuous representation of P-wave velocity. We construct summary travel time residuals between pairs of cells of the Earth's surface, both inside our study area and -with a broader spacing -on the whole globe. We account for lower mantle heterogeneity outside the modeled region by using empirical corrections to teleseismic travel times. The tomo- graphic images show generai agreement with other seismological studies of this area, with apparently higher detail attained in some locations. The signature of past and present lithospheric subduction, connected to Euro- African convergence, is a prominent feature. Active subduction under the Tyrrhenian and Hellenic arcs is clearly imaged as high-velocity bodies spanning the whole upper mantle. A clear variation of the lithospheric structure beneath the Northem and Southern Apennines is observed, with the boundary running in correspon- dence of the Ortona-Roccamonfina tectonic lineament. The western section of the Alps appears to have better developed roots than the eastern, possibly reflecting à difference in past subduction of the Tethyan lithosphere and subsequent continental collision.

  7. Fault Classification and Location in Transmission Lines Using Traveling Waves Modal Components and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Namdari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate fault classification and localization are the bases of protection for transmission systems. This paper presents a new method for classifying and showing location of faults by travelling waves and modal analysis. In the proposed method, characteristics of different faults are investigated using Clarke transformation and initial current traveling wave; then, appropriate indices are introduced to identify different types of faults. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT is employed to extract information of current and voltage travelling waves. Fault location and classification algorithm is being designed according to wavelet transform coefficients relating to current and voltage modal components. The performance of the proposed method is tested for different fault conditions (different fault distance, different fault resistances, and different fault inception angles by using PSCAD and MATLAB with satisfactory results

  8. A finite volume method and experimental study of a stator of a piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolborici, V; Dawson, F P; Pugh, M C

    2014-03-01

    Piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motors are motors that generate torque by using the friction force between a piezoelectric composite ring (or disk-shaped stator) and a metallic ring (or disk-shaped rotor) when a traveling wave is excited in the stator. The motor speed is proportional to the amplitude of the traveling wave and, in order to obtain large amplitudes, the stator is excited at frequencies close to its resonance frequency. This paper presents a non-empirical partial differential equations model for the stator, which is discretized using the finite volume method. The fundamental frequency of the discretized model is computed and compared to the experimentally-measured operating frequency of the stator of Shinsei USR60 piezoelectric motor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating the demand for drop-off recycling sites: a random utility travel cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidique, Shaufique F; Lupi, Frank; Joshi, Satish V

    2013-09-30

    Drop-off recycling is one of the most widely adopted recycling programs in the United States. Despite its wide implementation, relatively little literature addresses the demand for drop-off recycling. This study examines the demand for drop-off recycling sites as a function of travel costs and various site characteristics using the random utility model (RUM). The findings of this study indicate that increased travel costs significantly reduce the frequency of visits to drop-off sites implying that the usage pattern of a site is influenced by its location relative to where people live. This study also demonstrates that site specific characteristics such as hours of operation, the number of recyclables accepted, acceptance of commingled recyclables, and acceptance of yard-waste affect the frequency of visits to drop-off sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of a new technique for measuring the travel time of ultrasonic waves using the frequency spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Allan Xavier dos

    2010-01-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant and other industrial plants, the operational time and the exposition to severe working conditions may cause the wear of its components, consequently, compromising the safety and the performance of the installation. The implementation of periodical inspections helps to ensure the safe operation and the best performance of the plant. In this way, the use of ultrasonic techniques for inspection and materials characterization becomes more and more attractive, since they offer quick, precise results and are technically ease to implement. The usual ultrasonic techniques, need to the measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in the material examined in order to extract information useful to characterize it. Thus, the measurement of the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave is the overriding factor in most of the applications made with ultrasound. In this work a new technique was developed for measuring the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave using a Fourier's Fast Transformer (FFT). It will be shown mathematically and experimentally that it is possible to use the ultrasonic signal in the frequency domain to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave. Five experiments were carried out for the experimental validation of this new technique. The materials used were 20 ceramic pastilles with different porosities and 3 aluminum plates of different thicknesses. The obtained results have shown that the new technique proposed in this work was able to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave with the same precision as the conventional technique. It was shown, furthermore, that this new technique is able to measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in situations where the conventional technique cannot be applied greatly expanding the range of application of ultrasonic testing and inspections. (author)

  11. Experimental study of deceleration process of traveling wave direct energy converter for advanced fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Hormasa; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Takada, Kousuke; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Advanced fusion is attractive in the view point of utilization of high efficiency direct energy conversion from fusion produced ions. Deuterium-helium-3 reaction is the most possible, however, the energy of created fast proton is so enormous that conventional electro-static converters cannot be applied. Use of a traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC), the principle of which was inverse process of a linear accelerator, was proposed for recovering energy of the fast protons. In order to realize the TWDEC, the authors are continuing experimental study by employing a small-scale simulator. A TWDEC consists of a modulator and a decelerator. Fast proton beam extracted from a reactor is introduced in the modulator where radio frequency (RF) electrostatic field modulate the beam velocity, and hence, the protons are bunched and density-modulated in the downstream. The density-modulated protons flow into the decelerator where a number of electrodes connected to a transmission circuit are axially aligned. The flowing protons induce RF current which creates RF traveling voltage on the electrodes. The RF traveling field between aligned electrodes decelerates the protons, thus their energy is recovered into RF power. In this paper, deceleration process of TWDEC is experimentally examined. In our experimental simulator, because of the small beam current, the induced potential, i.e. the deceleration field is so weak that the beam cannot be decelerated. Thus, we examined the process by dividing into two: one was induction of the deceleration field by the modulated beam, which was called as passive decelerator. The other was energy recovery through interaction between the deceleration field and the modulated beam. In this latter experiment, the deceleration field was supplied externally, and we called this as active decelerator. As for the active decelerator mode, we performed higher beam energy experiment than previous one. As the beam energy increases, the divergence of

  12. Variable population exposure and distributed travel speeds in least-cost tsunami evacuation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart A.; Wood, Nathan J.; Johnston, David A.; Leonard, Graham S.; Greening, Paul D.; Rossetto, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Evacuation of the population from a tsunami hazard zone is vital to reduce life-loss due to inundation. Geospatial least-cost distance modelling provides one approach to assessing tsunami evacuation potential. Previous models have generally used two static exposure scenarios and fixed travel speeds to represent population movement. Some analyses have assumed immediate departure or a common evacuation departure time for all exposed population. Here, a method is proposed to incorporate time-variable exposure, distributed travel speeds, and uncertain evacuation departure time into an existing anisotropic least-cost path distance framework. The method is demonstrated for hypothetical local-source tsunami evacuation in Napier City, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. There is significant diurnal variation in pedestrian evacuation potential at the suburb level, although the total number of people unable to evacuate is stable across all scenarios. Whilst some fixed travel speeds approximate a distributed speed approach, others may overestimate evacuation potential. The impact of evacuation departure time is a significant contributor to total evacuation time. This method improves least-cost modelling of evacuation dynamics for evacuation planning, casualty modelling, and development of emergency response training scenarios. However, it requires detailed exposure data, which may preclude its use in many situations.

  13. Tonotopically Ordered Traveling Waves in the Hearing Organs of Bushcrickets in-vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayashankar, Arun Palghat; Kössl, Manfred; Nowotny, Manuela

    2011-11-01

    Experimental investigation of auditory mechanics in the mammalian cochlea has been difficult to address in-vivo due to its secure housing inside the temporal bone. Here we studied the easily accessible hearing organ of bushcrickets, located in their forelegs, known as the crista acustica. A characteristic feature of the organ is that it is lined with an array of auditory receptors in a tonotopic fashion with lower frequencies processed at the proximal part and higher frequencies at the distal part of the foreleg. Each receptor cell is associated with so called cap cells. The cap cells, graded in size, are directly involved in the mechanics of transduction along with the part of the acoustic trachea that supports the cap cells. Functional similarities between the crista acustica and the vertebrate cochlea such as frequency selectivity and distortion product otoacoustic emissions have been well documented. In this study we used laser Doppler vibrometry to study the mechanics of the organ and observed sound induced traveling waves (TW) along it's length. Frequency representation was tonotopic with TW propagating from the high frequency to the low frequency region of the organ similar to the situation in the cochlea. Traveling wave velocity increased monotonically from 4 to 12 m/s for a frequency range of 6 to 60 kHz, reflecting a smaller topographic spread (organ length: 1 mm) compared to the guinea pig cochlea (organ length: 18 mm). The wavelength of the traveling wave decreased monotonically from 0.67 mm to 0.27 mm for the same frequency range. Vibration velocity of the organ reached noise threshold levels (10 μm/s) at 30 dB SPL for a frequency of 21 kHz. A small non-linear compression (73 dB increase in velocity for an 80 dB increase in SPL) was also observed at the 21 kHz. Our results indicate that bushcrickets can be a good model system for exploration of auditory mechanics in-vivo.

  14. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by “fresh” electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam

  15. Low-order-mode harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in W band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Chen, C. H.; Yang, S. J.; Lai, C. H.; Lin, T. Y.; Lo, Y. C.; Hong, J. W.; Hung, C. L.; Chang, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWAs) allow for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. To avoid absolute instabilities, this work proposes a W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA operating at low-order modes. By amplifying a fundamental harmonic TE 11 drive wave, the second harmonic component of the beam current initiates a TE 21 wave to be amplified. Absolute instabilities in the gyro-TWA are suppressed by shortening the interaction circuit and increasing wall losses. Simulation results reveal that compared with Ka-band gyro-TWTs, the lower wall losses effectively suppress absolute instabilities in the W-band gyro-TWA. However, a global reflective oscillation occurs as the wall losses decrease. Increasing the length or resistivity of the lossy section can reduce the feedback of the oscillation to stabilize the amplifier. The W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA is predicted to yield a peak output power of 111 kW at 98 GHz with an efficiency of 25%, a saturated gain of 26 dB, and a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz for a 60 kV, 7.5 A electron beam with an axial velocity spread of 8%.

  16. Cost Analysis of Plug-In Hybred Electric Vehicles Using GPS-Based Longitudinal Travel Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing [Lamar University; Dong, Jing [Iowa State University; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Using spatial, longitudinal travel data of 415 vehicles over 3 18 months in the Seattle metropolitan area, this paper estimates the operating costs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) of various electric ranges (10, 20, 30, and 40 miles) for 3, 5, and 10 years of payback period, considering different charging infrastructure deployment levels and gasoline prices. Some key findings were made. (1) PHEVs could help save around 60% or 40% in energy costs, compared with conventional gasoline vehicles (CGVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), respectively. However, for motorists whose daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) is significant, HEVs may be even a better choice than PHEV40s, particularly in areas that lack a public charging infrastructure. (2) The incremental battery cost of large-battery PHEVs is difficult to justify based on the incremental savings of PHEVs operating costs unless a subsidy is offered for largebattery PHEVs. (3) When the price of gasoline increases from $4/gallon to $5/gallon, the number of drivers who benefit from a larger battery increases significantly. (4) Although quick chargers can reduce charging time, they contribute little to energy cost savings for PHEVs, as opposed to Level-II chargers.

  17. A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Active Travel Intervention with Health and Carbon Emission Reduction Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Mark; Witten, Karen; Woodward, Alistair

    2018-01-01

    Active travel (walking and cycling) is beneficial for people’s health and has many co-benefits, such as reducing motor vehicle congestion and pollution in urban areas. There have been few robust evaluations of active travel, and very few studies have valued health and emissions outcomes. The ACTIVE before-and-after quasi-experimental study estimated the net benefits of health and other outcomes from New Zealand’s Model Communities Programme using an empirical analysis comparing two intervention cities with two control cities. The Programme funded investment in cycle paths, other walking and cycling facilities, cycle parking, ‘shared spaces’, media campaigns and events, such as ‘Share the Road’, and cycle-skills training. Using the modified Integrated Transport and Health Impacts Model, the Programme’s net economic benefits were estimated from the changes in use of active travel modes. Annual benefits for health in the intervention cities were estimated at 34.4 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and two lives saved due to reductions in cardiac disease, diabetes, cancer, and respiratory disease. Reductions in transport-related carbon emissions were also estimated and valued. Using a discount rate of 3.5%, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 11:1 and was robust to sensitivity testing. It is concluded that when concerted investment is made in active travel in a city, there is likely to be a measurable, positive return on investment. PMID:29751618

  18. Clustering and traveling waves in the Monte Carlo criticality simulation of decoupled and confined media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dumonteil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Monte Carlo criticality simulation of decoupled systems, as for instance in large reactor cores, has been a challenging issue for a long time. In particular, due to limited computer time resources, the number of neutrons simulated per generation is still many order of magnitudes below realistic statistics, even during the start-up phases of reactors. This limited number of neutrons triggers a strong clustering effect of the neutron population that affects Monte Carlo tallies. Below a certain threshold, not only is the variance affected but also the estimation of the eigenvectors. In this paper we will build a time-dependent diffusion equation that takes into account both spatial correlations and population control (fixed number of neutrons along generations. We will show that its solution obeys a traveling wave dynamic, and we will discuss the mechanism that explains this biasing of local tallies whenever leakage boundary conditions are applied to the system.

  19. Travelling wave resonators fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Timo; Amthor, Julia; Trieu, Hoc Khiem; Müller, Jörg

    2013-05-01

    Low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon is employed for the fabrication of various planar integrated travelling wave resonators. Microring, racetrack, and disk resonators of different dimensions were fabricated with CMOS-compatible processes and systematically investigated. The key properties of notch filter ring resonators as extinction ratio, Q-factor, free spectral range, and the group refractive index were determined for resonators of varying radius, thereby achieving critically coupled photonic systems with high extinction ratios of about 20 dB for both polarizations. Racetrack resonators that are arranged in add/drop configuration and high quality factor microdisk resonators were optically characterized, with the microdisks exhibiting Q-factors of greater than 100000. Four-channel add/drop wavelength-division multiplexing filters that are based on cascaded racetrack resonators are studied. The design, the fabrication, and the optical characterization are presented.

  20. PSO-based PID Speed Control of Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor under Temperature Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin Mat Piah, Kamal; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; Azmi, Nur Iffah Mohamed; Romlay, Fadhlur Rahman Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Traveling wave ultrasonic motors (TWUSMs) have a time varying dynamics characteristics. Temperature rise in TWUSMs remains a problem particularly in sustaining optimum speed performance. In this study, a PID controller is used to control the speed of TWUSM under temperature disturbance. Prior to developing the controller, a linear approximation model which relates the speed to the temperature is developed based on the experimental data. Two tuning methods are used to determine PID parameters: conventional Ziegler-Nichols(ZN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The comparison of speed control performance between PSO-PID and ZN-PID is presented. Modelling, simulation and experimental work is carried out utilizing Fukoku-Shinsei USR60 as the chosen TWUSM. The results of the analyses and experimental work reveal that PID tuning using PSO-based optimization has the advantage over the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method.

  1. One-dimensional nonlinear theory for rectangular helix traveling-wave tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Chengfang, E-mail: fchffchf@126.com; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Yudong; Ju, Yongfeng [Faculty of Electronic Information Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China); Wei, Yanyu [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A 1-D nonlinear theory of a rectangular helix traveling-wave tube (TWT) interacting with a ribbon beam is presented in this paper. The RF field is modeled by a transmission line equivalent circuit, the ribbon beam is divided into a sequence of thin rectangular electron discs with the same cross section as the beam, and the charges are assumed to be uniformly distributed over these discs. Then a method of computing the space-charge field by solving Green's Function in the Cartesian Coordinate-system is fully described. Nonlinear partial differential equations for field amplitudes and Lorentz force equations for particles are solved numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. The tube's gain, output power, and efficiency of the above TWT are computed. The results show that increasing the cross section of the ribbon beam will improve a rectangular helix TWT's efficiency and reduce the saturated length.

  2. Ku-Band Traveling Wave Slot Array Using Simple Scanning Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a feeding concept aimed at simplifying the backend (phase shifters) of traditional phased arrays. As an alternative to traditional phased arrays, we employ a traveling wave array (TWA) using a single feedline whose propagation constant is controlled via a single, small mechanical movement without a need for phase shifters to enable scanning. Specifically, a dielectric plunger is positioned within a parallel plate waveguide (PPW) transmission line (TL) that feeds the TWA. By adjusting the position of the dielectric plunger within the PPW feeding the TWA, beam steering is achieved. A 20 element array is designed at 13GHz shown to give stable realized gain across the angular range of -25 deg. less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 25 deg. A proof of concept array is fabricated and measured to demonstrate and validate the concept's operation.

  3. DC current in the collisionless limit induced by a travelling wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midzuno, Yukio; Fukuda, Masaji.

    1977-03-01

    The DC current induced by a Travelling Wave is calculated on the basis of the assumption that the distribution function of electrons in the collisionless limit should be determined by a condition derived from the nature of the collision operator, as in the case of the calculation of the neoclassical transport in a torus. The resultant net current is found to have the same parameter dependence as the one derived in a previous analysis, in which we assumed the initial distribution of electrons to be uniform and isotropic Maxwellian. The numerical coefficient is found, however, to be a little different from the previous one. The importance of the accurate matching of the distribution function of untrapped particles to the Maxwellian one for large velocity is demonstrated. (auth.)

  4. An analysis of current drive by travelling wave based on theory of intrinsic stochasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Akihiko; Midzuno, Yukio.

    1982-04-01

    The mechanism of the current generation in a collisionless plasma by a train of travelling mirrors with modulated phase velocity is studied based on the theory of intrinsic stochasticity. It is shown that, if the phase modulation is small, the main contribution to the current generation comes from the phase mixing of the trajectories of trapped electrons in each Fourier component of a driving wave. For the case of a moderate phase modulation, however, formation of a large stochastic region due to the overlapping of primary resonances is very effective for increasing the generated current. Large phase modulation has little advantage in the current generation because the stochastic regions are formed, so to speak, at random in the phase plane. The results of analytical evaluation based on the above theory agree quite well with results of numerical experiments. (author)

  5. Traveling wave parametric amplifier with Josephson junctions using minimal resonator phase matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T. C.; Mutus, J. Y.; Hoi, I.-C.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, John M.; Megrant, A.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2015-01-01

    Josephson parametric amplifiers have become a critical tool in superconducting device physics due to their high gain and quantum-limited noise. Traveling wave parametric amplifiers (TWPAs) promise similar noise performance, while allowing for significant increases in both bandwidth and dynamic range. We present a TWPA device based on an LC-ladder transmission line of Josephson junctions and parallel plate capacitors using low-loss amorphous silicon dielectric. Crucially, we have inserted λ/4 resonators at regular intervals along the transmission line in order to maintain the phase matching condition between pump, signal, and idler and increase gain. We achieve an average gain of 12 dB across a 4 GHz span, along with an average saturation power of −92 dBm with noise approaching the quantum limit

  6. Investigation of terahertz sheet beam traveling wave tube amplifier with nanocomposite cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young-Min; Zhao Jinfeng; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Neville C. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations of a staggered double grating array traveling wave tube intended as a wideband amplifier for terahertz communications, sensing, and imaging applications showed that, for an electron beam power of 5 kW, it produces 150-275 W, corresponding to 3%-5.5% electronic efficiency, at 0.22 THz with over ∼30% bandwidth and with greater than 12 dB/cm growth rate. The circuit has been fabricated by both UV lithography and high precision computer-numerical-control machining with ∼2-3 μm dimensional tolerance and ∼50 nm surface roughness. A scandate nanocomposite (Sc 2 O 3 -W) cathode for the electron beam source has successfully emitted 120 A/cm 2 (space charge limited) at 1150 deg. C and 50 A/cm 2 at 1050 deg. C for 8000 h as required to produce the requisite high current density electron beam.

  7. Travelling-wave amplitudes as solutions of the phase-field crystal equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizovtseva, I. G.; Galenko, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of the diffuse interface between liquid and solid states is analysed. The diffuse interface is considered as an envelope of atomic density amplitudes as predicted by the phase-field crystal model (Elder et al. 2004 Phys. Rev. E 70, 051605 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.70.051605); Elder et al. 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75, 064107 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.75.064107)). The propagation of crystalline amplitudes into metastable liquid is described by the hyperbolic equation of an extended Allen-Cahn type (Galenko & Jou 2005 Phys. Rev. E 71, 046125 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.71.046125)) for which the complete set of analytical travelling-wave solutions is obtained by the method (Malfliet & Hereman 1996 Phys. Scr. 15, 563-568 (doi:10.1088/0031-8949/54/6/003); Wazwaz 2004 Appl. Math. Comput. 154, 713-723 (doi:10.1016/S0096-3003(03)00745-8)). The general solution of travelling waves is based on the function of hyperbolic tangent. Together with its set of particular solutions, the general solution is analysed within an example of specific task about the crystal front invading metastable liquid (Galenko et al. 2015 Phys. D 308, 1-10 (doi:10.1016/j.physd.2015.06.002)). The influence of the driving force on the phase-field profile, amplitude velocity and correlation length is investigated for various relaxation times of the gradient flow. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  8. Spreading Speed, Traveling Waves, and Minimal Domain Size in Impulsive Reaction–Diffusion Models

    KAUST Repository

    Lewis, Mark A.

    2012-08-15

    How growth, mortality, and dispersal in a species affect the species\\' spread and persistence constitutes a central problem in spatial ecology. We propose impulsive reaction-diffusion equation models for species with distinct reproductive and dispersal stages. These models can describe a seasonal birth pulse plus nonlinear mortality and dispersal throughout the year. Alternatively, they can describe seasonal harvesting, plus nonlinear birth and mortality as well as dispersal throughout the year. The population dynamics in the seasonal pulse is described by a discrete map that gives the density of the population at the end of a pulse as a possibly nonmonotone function of the density of the population at the beginning of the pulse. The dynamics in the dispersal stage is governed by a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation in a bounded or unbounded domain. We develop a spatially explicit theoretical framework that links species vital rates (mortality or fecundity) and dispersal characteristics with species\\' spreading speeds, traveling wave speeds, as well as minimal domain size for species persistence. We provide an explicit formula for the spreading speed in terms of model parameters, and show that the spreading speed can be characterized as the slowest speed of a class of traveling wave solutions. We also give an explicit formula for the minimal domain size using model parameters. Our results show how the diffusion coefficient, and the combination of discrete- and continuous-time growth and mortality determine the spread and persistence dynamics of the population in a wide variety of ecological scenarios. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the theoretical results. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  9. Generation of chaotic radiation in a driven traveling wave tube amplifier with time-delayed feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchewka, Chad; Larsen, Paul; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Booske, John; Sengele, Sean; Ryskin, Nikita; Titov, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The application of chaos in communications and radar offers new and interesting possibilities. This article describes investigations on the generation of chaos in a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and the experimental parameters responsible for sustaining stable chaos. Chaos is generated in a TWT amplifier when it is made to operate in a highly nonlinear regime by recirculating a fraction of the TWT output power back to the input in a delayed feedback configuration. A driver wave provides a constant external force to the system making it behave like a forced nonlinear oscillator. The effects of the feedback bandwidth, intensity, and phase are described. The study illuminates the different transitions to chaos and the effect of parameters such as the frequency and intensity of the driver wave. The detuning frequency, i.e., difference frequency between the driver wave and the natural oscillation of the system, has been identified as being an important physical parameter for controlling evolution to chaos. Among the observed routes to chaos, besides the more common period doubling, a new route called loss of frequency locking occurs when the driving frequency is adjacent to a natural oscillation mode. The feedback bandwidth controls the nonlinear dynamics of the system, particularly the number of natural oscillation modes. A computational model has been developed to simulate the experiments and reasonably good agreement is obtained between them. Experiments are described that demonstrate the feasibility of chaotic communications using two TWTs, where one is operated as a driven chaotic oscillator and the other as a time-delayed, open-loop amplifier

  10. Generation of chaotic radiation in a driven traveling wave tube amplifier with time-delayed feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Chad; Larsen, Paul; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Booske, John; Sengele, Sean; Ryskin, Nikita; Titov, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The application of chaos in communications and radar offers new and interesting possibilities. This article describes investigations on the generation of chaos in a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and the experimental parameters responsible for sustaining stable chaos. Chaos is generated in a TWT amplifier when it is made to operate in a highly nonlinear regime by recirculating a fraction of the TWT output power back to the input in a delayed feedback configuration. A driver wave provides a constant external force to the system making it behave like a forced nonlinear oscillator. The effects of the feedback bandwidth, intensity, and phase are described. The study illuminates the different transitions to chaos and the effect of parameters such as the frequency and intensity of the driver wave. The detuning frequency, i.e., difference frequency between the driver wave and the natural oscillation of the system, has been identified as being an important physical parameter for controlling evolution to chaos. Among the observed routes to chaos, besides the more common period doubling, a new route called loss of frequency locking occurs when the driving frequency is adjacent to a natural oscillation mode. The feedback bandwidth controls the nonlinear dynamics of the system, particularly the number of natural oscillation modes. A computational model has been developed to simulate the experiments and reasonably good agreement is obtained between them. Experiments are described that demonstrate the feasibility of chaotic communications using two TWTs, where one is operated as a driven chaotic oscillator and the other as a time-delayed, open-loop amplifier.

  11. Application of Modified G'/G-Expansion Method to Traveling Wave Solutions for Whitham-Broer-Kaup-Like Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yubin; Li Chao

    2009-01-01

    A modified G'/G-expansion method is presented to derive traveling wave solutions for a class of nonlinear partial differential equations called Whitham-Broer-Kaup-Like equations. As a result, the hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions with parameters to the equations are obtained. When the parameters are taken as special values the solitary wave solutions can be obtained. (general)

  12. Modeling spatial segregation and travel cost influences on utilitarian walking: Towards policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Auchincloss, Amy H; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Brown, Daniel G; Riolo, Rick; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2015-05-01

    We develop an agent-based model of utilitarian walking and use the model to explore spatial and socioeconomic factors affecting adult utilitarian walking and how travel costs as well as various educational interventions aimed at changing attitudes can alter the prevalence of walking and income differentials in walking. The model is validated against US national data. We contrast realistic and extreme parameter values in our model and test effects of changing these parameters across various segregation and pricing scenarios while allowing for interactions between travel choice and place and for behavioral feedbacks. Results suggest that in addition to income differences in the perceived cost of time, the concentration of mixed land use (differential density of residences and businesses) are important determinants of income differences in walking (high income walk less), whereas safety from crime and income segregation on their own do not have large influences on income differences in walking. We also show the difficulty in altering walking behaviors for higher income groups who are insensitive to price and how adding to the cost of driving could increase the income differential in walking particularly in the context of segregation by income and land use. We show that strategies to decrease positive attitudes towards driving can interact synergistically with shifting cost structures to favor walking in increasing the percent of walking trips. Agent-based models, with their ability to capture dynamic processes and incorporate empirical data, are powerful tools to explore the influence on health behavior from multiple factors and test policy interventions.

  13. Traveling wave solutions of a biological reaction-convection-diffusion equation model by using $(G'/G$ expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnam Javadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the $(G'/G$-expansion method is applied to solve a biological reaction-convection-diffusion model arising in mathematical biology. Exact traveling wave solutions are obtained by this method. This scheme can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear partial differential equations.

  14. Study on W-band sheet-beam traveling-wave tube based on flat-roofed sine waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shuanzhu; Xu, Jin; Jiang, Xuebing; Lei, Xia; Wu, Gangxiong; Li, Qian; Ding, Chong; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Wenxiang; Gong, Yubin; Wei, Yanyu

    2018-05-01

    A W-band sheet electron beam (SEB) traveling-wave tube (TWT) based on flat-roofed sine waveguide slow-wave structure (FRSWG-SWS) is proposed. The sine wave of the metal grating is replaced by a flat-roofed sine wave around the electron beam tunnel. The slow-wave characteristics including the dispersion properties and interaction impedance have been investigated by using the eigenmode solver in the 3-D electromagnetic simulation software Ansoft HFSS. Through calculations, the FRSWG SWS possesses the larger average interaction impedance than the conventional sine waveguide (SWG) SWS in the frequency range of 86-110 GHz. The beam-wave interaction was studied and particle-in-cell simulation results show that the SEB TWT can produce output power over 120 W within the bandwidth ranging from 90 to 100 GHz, and the maximum output power is 226 W at typical frequency 94 GHz, corresponding electron efficiency of 5.89%.

  15. Ultrafast traveling wave dominates the electric organ discharge of Apteronotus leptorhynchus: an inverse modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, Aaron R; Longtin, André; Lewis, John E

    2015-10-30

    Identifying and understanding the current sources that give rise to bioelectric fields is a fundamental problem in the biological sciences. It is very difficult, for example, to attribute the time-varying features of an electroencephalogram recorded from the head surface to the neural activity of specific brain areas; model systems can provide important insight into such problems. Some species of fish actively generate an oscillating (c. 1000 Hz) quasi-dipole electric field to communicate and sense their environment in the dark. A specialized electric organ comprises neuron-like cells whose collective signal underlies this electric field. As a step towards understanding the detailed biophysics of signal generation in these fish, we use an anatomically-detailed finite-element modelling approach to reverse-engineer the electric organ signal over one oscillation cycle. We find that the spatiotemporal profile of current along the electric organ constitutes a travelling wave that is well-described by two spatial Fourier components varying in time. The conduction velocity of this wave is faster than action potential conduction in any known neuronal axon (>200 m/s), suggesting that the spatiotemporal features of high-frequency electric organ discharges are not constrained by the conduction velocities of spinal neuron pathways.

  16. Stability analysis of a coaxial-waveguide gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.L.; Yeh, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    The gyrotron traveling-wave tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier is known to be highly susceptible to spurious oscillations. This study develops a simulation approach to analyze the stability of a coaxial-waveguide gyro-TWT with distributed wall losses. The interplay among the absolute instabilities, the gyrotron backward-wave oscillations, and the circuit parameters is analyzed. Simulation results reveal that the distributed wall losses effectively stabilize spurious oscillations in the coaxial gyro-TWT. Furthermore, the wall resistivity of the center conductor is shown to be an additional effective mechanism for suppressing oscillations. Under stable operation conditions, the coaxial gyro-TWT with distributed losses is predicted to generate 435 kW in the Ka band with 31% efficiency, a saturated gain of 45 dB, and a bandwidth of 1.86 GHz (≅5.8%) for a 70 kV, 20 A electron beam with an α(=ν perpendicular )/ν z )=1.0 and an axial velocity spread of Δν z /ν z =5%

  17. Synchronization of finite-size particles by a traveling wave in a cylindrical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, D. E.; Pushkin, D. O.; Shevtsova, V. M.

    2013-09-01

    Motion of small finite-size particles suspended in a cylindrical thermocapillary flow with an azimuthally traveling wave is studied experimentally and numerically. At certain flow regimes the particles spontaneously align in dynamic accumulation structures (PAS) of spiral shape. We find that long-time trajectories of individual particles in this flow fall into three basic categories that can be described, borrowing the dynamical systems terminology, as the stable periodic, the quasiperiodic, and the quasistable periodic orbits. Besides these basic types of orbits, we observe the "doubled" periodic orbits and shuttle-like particle trajectories. We find that ensembles of particles having periodic orbits give rise to one-dimensional spiral PAS, while ensembles of particles having quasiperiodic orbits form two-dimensional PAS of toroidal shape. We expound the reasons why these types of orbits and the emergence of the corresponding accumulation structures should naturally be anticipated based on the phase locking theory of PAS formation. We give a further discussion of PAS features, such as the finite thickness of PAS spirals and the probable scenarios of the spiral PAS destruction. Finally, in numerical simulations of inertial particles we observe formation of the spiral structures corresponding to the 3:1 "resonance" between the particle turnover frequency and the wave oscillations frequency, thus confirming another prediction of the phase locking theory. In view of the generality of the arguments involved, we expect the importance of this structure-forming mechanism to go far beyond the realm of the laboratory-friendly thermocapillary flows.

  18. Cost-benefit of WC/rBS oral cholera vaccine for vaccination against ETEC-caused travelers' diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundkvist, Jonas; Steffen, Robert; Jönsson, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    The most common infectious health problem encountered by travelers to countries in the developing region is travelers' diarrhea (TD), with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) being the most common pathogen isolated. Although mild in most cases, the disease still leads to the loss of a significant part of a vacation or business trip. There is currently a lack of knowledge about the costs in relation to the benefits of vaccination against TD caused by ETEC, and the purposes of this study were to estimate and develop a cost-benefit analysis of vaccination using whole-cell/recombinant-B-subunit oral cholera vaccine. The consequences of the vaccination were identified and quantified in monetary terms. The cost-benefits for leisure and business travelers were assessed separately. The value of the travel was separated into the cost of the trip and of lost leisure time/business opportunities. A person with TD was in base case estimated to lose on average 3.5 days of a 7-day leisure trip and 2.5 days of a 4-day business trip. Results are presented for a Canadian traveler to endemic areas in year 2007 in US$. The average cost of a TD event was estimated at $1,460 and $1,996 for leisure and business travelers, respectively. The net value of the vaccination, however, varied with the risk of the disease. Through extensive literature searches, an updated ETEC map illustrating the proportion of ETEC-caused TD was created. The analysis indicated that vaccination would be considered cost-effective at incidence rates of ETEC-caused TD above about 13 and 9% for leisure and business travelers, respectively. It is, however, important to keep in mind that it is the value of the travel for the individual traveler that will decide if the vaccination provides good value for money.

  19. Whole body traveling wave magnetic resonance imaging at high field strength: homogeneity, efficiency, and energy deposition as compared with traditional excitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Sodickson, Daniel K; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Duan, Qi; Stoeckel, Bernd; Wiggins, Graham C

    2012-04-01

    In 7 T traveling wave imaging, waveguide modes supported by the scanner radiofrequency shield are used to excite an MR signal in samples or tissue which may be several meters away from the antenna used to drive radiofrequency power into the system. To explore the potential merits of traveling wave excitation for whole-body imaging at 7 T, we compare numerical simulations of traveling wave and TEM systems, and juxtapose full-wave electrodynamic simulations using a human body model with in vivo human traveling wave imaging at multiple stations covering the entire body. The simulated and in vivo traveling wave results correspond well, with strong signal at the periphery of the body and weak signal deep in the torso. These numerical results also illustrate the complicated wave behavior that emerges when a body is present. The TEM resonator simulation allowed comparison of traveling wave excitation with standard quadrature excitation, showing that while the traveling wave B +1 per unit drive voltage is much less than that of the TEM system, the square of the average B +1 compared to peak specific absorption rate (SAR) values can be comparable in certain imaging planes. Both systems produce highly inhomogeneous excitation of MR signal in the torso, suggesting that B(1) shimming or other parallel transmission methods are necessary for 7 T whole body imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Synergy temporal sequences and topography in the spinal cord: evidence for a traveling wave in frog locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Philippe; d'Avella, Andrea; Wyler-Duda, Kuno; Bizzi, Emilio

    2016-11-01

    Locomotion is produced by a central pattern generator. Its spinal cord organization is generally considered to be distributed, with more rhythmogenic rostral lumbar segments. While this produces a rostrocaudally traveling wave in undulating species, this is not thought to occur in limbed vertebrates, with the exception of the interneuronal traveling wave demonstrated in fictive cat scratching (Cuellar et al. J Neurosci 29:798-810, 2009). Here, we reexamine this hypothesis in the frog, using the seven muscle synergies A to G previously identified with intraspinal NMDA (Saltiel et al. J Neurophysiol 85:605-619, 2001). We find that locomotion consists of a sequence of synergy activations (A-B-G-A-F-E-G). The same sequence is observed when focal NMDA iontophoresis in the spinal cord elicits a caudal extension-lateral force-flexion cycle (flexion onset without the C synergy). Examining the early NMDA-evoked motor output at 110 sites reveals a rostrocaudal topographic organization of synergy encoding by the lumbar cord. Each synergy is preferentially activated from distinct regions, which may be multiple, and partially overlap between different synergies. Comparing the sequence of synergy activation in locomotion with their spinal cord topography suggests that the locomotor output is achieved by a rostrocaudally traveling wave of activation in the swing-stance cycle. A two-layer circuitry model, based on this topography and a traveling wave reproduces this output and explores its possible modifications under different afferent inputs. Our results and simulations suggest that a rostrocaudally traveling wave of excitation takes advantage of the topography of interneuronal regions encoding synergies, to activate them in the proper sequence for locomotion.

  1. A spatially resolved network spike in model neuronal cultures reveals nucleation centers, circular traveling waves and drifting spiral waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevov, A V; Zendrikov, D K

    2017-03-23

    We show that in model neuronal cultures, where the probability of interneuronal connection formation decreases exponentially with increasing distance between the neurons, there exists a small number of spatial nucleation centers of a network spike, from where the synchronous spiking activity starts propagating in the network typically in the form of circular traveling waves. The number of nucleation centers and their spatial locations are unique and unchanged for a given realization of neuronal network but are different for different networks. In contrast, if the probability of interneuronal connection formation is independent of the distance between neurons, then the nucleation centers do not arise and the synchronization of spiking activity during a network spike occurs spatially uniform throughout the network. Therefore one can conclude that spatial proximity of connections between neurons is important for the formation of nucleation centers. It is also shown that fluctuations of the spatial density of neurons at their random homogeneous distribution typical for the experiments in vitro do not determine the locations of the nucleation centers. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations.

  2. Impact of a University-Based Outpatient Telemedicine Program on Time Savings, Travel Costs, and Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullet, Navjit W; Geraghty, Estella M; Kaufman, Taylor; Kissee, Jamie L; King, Jesse; Dharmar, Madan; Smith, Anthony C; Marcin, James P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate travel-related and environmental savings resulting from the use of telemedicine for outpatient specialty consultations with a university telemedicine program. The study was designed to retrospectively analyze the telemedicine consultation database at the University of California Davis Health System (UCDHS) between July 1996 and December 2013. Travel distances and travel times were calculated between the patient home, the telemedicine clinic, and the UCDHS in-person clinic. Travel cost savings and environmental impact were calculated by determining differences in mileage reimbursement rate and emissions between those incurred in attending telemedicine appointments and those that would have been incurred if a visit to the hub site had been necessary. There were 19,246 consultations identified among 11,281 unique patients. Telemedicine visits resulted in a total travel distance savings of 5,345,602 miles, a total travel time savings of 4,708,891 minutes or 8.96 years, and a total direct travel cost savings of $2,882,056. The mean per-consultation round-trip distance savings were 278 miles, average travel time savings were 245 minutes, and average cost savings were $156. Telemedicine consultations resulted in a total emissions savings of 1969 metric tons of CO 2 , 50 metric tons of CO, 3.7 metric tons of NO x , and 5.5 metric tons of volatile organic compounds. This study demonstrates the positive impact of a health system's outpatient telemedicine program on patient travel time, patient travel costs, and environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Smooth, cusped, and discontinuous traveling waves in the periodic fluid resonance equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Matthew Thomas

    The principal motivation for this dissertation is to extend the study of small amplitude high frequency wave propagation in solutions for hyperbolic conservation laws begun by A. Majda and R. Rosales in 1984. It was then that Majda and Rosales obtained equations governing the leading order wave amplitudes of resonantly interacting weakly nonlinear high frequency wave trains in the compressible Euler equations. The equations were obtained through systematic application of multiple scales and result in a pair of nonlinear acoustic wave equations coupled through a convolution operator. The extended solutions satisfy a pair of inviscid Burgers' equations coupled via a spatial convolution operator. Since then, many mathematicians have used this technique to extend the time validity of solutions to systems of equations other than the Euler equations and have arrived at similar nonlinear non-local systems. This work attempts to look at some of the basic features of the linear and nonlinear coupled and decoupled non- local equations, offering some analytic solutions and numerical insight into the phenomena associated with these equations. We do so by examining a single non-local linear equation, and then a single equation coupling a Burgers' nonlinearity with a linear convolution operator. The linear case is completely solvable. Analytic solutions are provided along with numerical results showing the fundamental properties of the linear non- local equations. In the nonlinear case some analytic solutions, including steady state profiles and traveling wave solutions, are provided along with a battery of numerical simulations. Evidence indicates the existence of attractors for solutions of the single equation with a single mode kernel. Provided resonant interaction takes place, the profile of the attractor is uniquely dependent on the kernel alone. Hamiltonian equations are obtained for both the linear and nonlinear equations with the condition that the resonant kernel must

  4. Ferruleless coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube cold-test characteristics simulated with micro-SOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Dana L.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional, electromagnetic circuit analysis code, Micro-SOS, can be used to reduce expensive and time consuming experimental 'cold-testing' of traveling-wave tube (TWT) circuits. The frequency-phase dispersion and beam interaction impedance characteristics of a ferruleless coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube slow-wave circuit were simulated using the code. Computer results agree closely with experimental data. Variations in the cavity geometry dimensions of period length and gap-to-period ratio were modeled. These variations can be used in velocity taper designs to reduce the radiofrequency (RF) phase velocity in synchronism with the decelerating electron beam. Such circuit designs can result in enhanced TWT power and efficiency.

  5. Traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation via the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Nur; Akbar, M Ali; Roshid, Harun-Or-

    2014-01-01

    Exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) play a vital role to reveal the internal mechanism of complex physical phenomena. In this work, the exact traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation is studied by using the new generalized (G'/G)-expansion method. Abundant traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are successfully obtained by this method and the wave solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational functions. It is shown that the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is a powerful and concise mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics and engineering. 05.45.Yv, 02.30.Jr, 02.30.Ik.

  6. Exact traveling wave solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-like equations by applying Exp-function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have computed new exact traveling wave solutions, including complex solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-Like equations, occurring in physical sciences and engineering, by applying Exp-function method. The method is blended with fractional complex transformation and modified Riemann-Liouville fractional order operator. Our obtained solutions are verified by substituting back into their corresponding equations. To the best of our knowledge, no other technique has been reported to cope with the said fractional order nonlinear problems combined with variety of exact solutions. Graphically, fractional order solution curves are shown to be strongly related to each other and most importantly, tend to fixate on their integer order solution curve. Our solutions comprise high frequencies and very small amplitude of the wave responses. Keywords: Exp-function method, New exact traveling wave solutions, Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative, Fractional complex transformation, Fractional order Boussinesq-like equations, Symbolic computation

  7. Modeling the costs and benefits of temporary recommendations for poliovirus exporting countries to vaccinate international travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2017-07-05

    Recognizing that infectious agents readily cross international borders, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee issues Temporary Recommendations (TRs) that include vaccination of travelers from countries affected by public health emergencies, including serotype 1 wild polioviruses (WPV1s). This analysis estimates the costs and benefits of TRs implemented by countries with reported WPV1 during 2014-2016 while accounting for numerous uncertainties. We estimate the TR costs based on programmatic data and prior economic analyses and TR benefits by simulating potential WPV1 outbreaks in the absence of the TRs using the rate and extent of WPV1 importation outbreaks per reported WPV1 case during 2004-2013 and the number of reported WPV1 cases that occurred in countries with active TRs. The benefits of TRs outweigh the costs in 77% of model iterations, resulting in expected incremental net economic benefits of $210 million. Inclusion of indirect costs increases the costs by 13%, the expected savings from prevented outbreaks by 4%, and the expected incremental net benefits by 3%. Despite the considerable costs of implementing TRs, this study provides health and economic justification for these investments in the context of managing a disease in advanced stages of its global eradication. Copyright © 2017 The Auhors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW travelling wave electron linac for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Nita S.; Dhingra, Rinky; Kumar, Vinit

    2016-01-01

    We present the physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW S-band (2856 MHz) electron linear accelerator (linac), which has been recently built and successfully operated at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. The accelerating structure is a 2π/3 mode constant impedance travelling wave structure, which comprises travelling wave buncher cells, followed by regular accelerating cells. The structure is designed to accelerate 50 keV electron beam from the electron gun to 10 MeV. This paper describes the details of electromagnetic design simulations to fix the mechanical dimensions and tolerances, as well as heat loss calculations in the structure. Results of design simulations have been compared with those obtained using approximate analytical formulae. The beam dynamics simulation with space charge is performed and the required magnetic field profile for keeping the beam focussed in the linac has been evaluated and discussed. An important feature of a travelling wave linac (in contrast with standing wave linac) is that it accepts the RF power over a band of frequencies. Three dimensional transient simulations of the accelerating structure along with the input and output couplers have been performed using the software CST-MWS to explicitly demonstrate this feature. (author)

  9. Experiments to Improve Power Conversion Parameters in a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Hiromasa; Kiriyama, Yuusuke; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study of direct power conversion for D- 3 He fusion is presented. In a small-scale simulator of direct energy converter, which is based on a principle of deceleration of 14.7MeV protons by traveling wave field, a new structure of an external transmission circuit in experiment is proposed for the purpose of enhancement of deceleration electrode voltages. A prototype circuit was designed and constructed, resulting improvement of voltage amplitude in an order of magnitude. A more practical circuit, in which inductor elements were manufactured by using coaxial cables, was also constructed and tested. An excitation of the third harmonic frequency with a significant amplitude was observed. The cause of this problem is attributed to the modulated ion beam which has a third harmonic component and fact that the inductance of the element nonlinearly depends on frequency. This problem is serious for a practical scale energy converter, and a careful design of the circuit could avoid the problem

  10. Cantilever-detected high-frequency ESR measurement using a backward travelling wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Y; Hirano, S; Ohmichi, E; Ohta, H

    2012-01-01

    Our cantilever-detected electron spin resonance (ESR) technique is motivated for terahertz ESR spectroscopy of a tiny single crystal at low temperature. In this technique, ESR signal is detected as deflection of a sample-mounted cantilever, which is sensitively detected by built-in piezoresistors. So far, ESR detection at 315 GHz was succeeded using Gunn oscillator. In this study, we combine our ESR technique with a backward traveling wave oscillator (BWO), which can cover a wide frequency range 120-1200 GHz, to achieve better spectral resolution. Experiments were carried out at 4.2 K for a single crystal of Co Tutton salt with a newly constructed optical system. We successfully observed two ESR absorption lines in BWO frequencies up to 370 GHz. From multi-frequency measurements, the observed ESR lines shifted linearly with BWO frequency, being consistent with paramagnetic resonance. The estimated g values are g 1 = 3.00 and g 2 = 3.21. The spin sensitivity was estimated to ∼10 12 spins/gauss at 370 GHz.

  11. Thermal effect on the thermomechanical behavior of contacts in a Traveling Wave Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chbiki Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new elasto-plastic study of the contact between the helix and the rods of the delay line of Traveling Waves Tubes (TWT was realized. Our study is focused on the analysis of the hot lines shrinking phenomenon. In the studied case, unlike brazed configuration, the contact areas are not perfect, resulting in a diminution of the heat transfer process. In order to maximize the contact area and to homogenize the contact pressure, a soft thermal conductive material is coated on the helix: copper was chosen for this study. In the present work, an analytical model is used to identify the properties of the copper coating at a given temperature. We focused on the mechanical properties in order to improve the assembly process with a better numerical study. Experimental method have been made to validate the proposed model. The first comparison results seem to indicate that the model represents the reality with a good agreement. It is very clearly shown that the temperature decreases the mechanical properties. (Young’s modulus, yield strength, tensile strength…. And the thickness of the coating increases the contact area. This last point is less important at room temperature (6% of increase than at 140°C (22%.

  12. Suppression of Gain Ripples in Superconducting Traveling-Wave Kinetic Inductance Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Mustafa; Erickson, Robert P.; Ku, Hsiang Sheng; Wu, Xian; Pappas, David P.

    Superconducting traveling-wave kinetic inductance (KIT) amplifiers demonstrated gain over a wide bandwidth with high dynamic range and low noise. However, the gain curve exhibits ripples. Impedance mismatch at the input and output ports of the KIT amplifier as wells as split ground planes of the coplanar waveguide (CPW) geometry are potential contributors to the ripple in the gain curve. Here we study the origin of these ripples in KIT amplifiers configured in CPW geometry using approximately 20 nm thick NbTiN films grown by reactive co-sputtering of NbN and TiN. Our NbTiN films have non-linear kinetic inductance as a function of current, described by L =L0 (1 +(I /I*) 2) , where I* = 15 . 96 +/- 0 . 11 mA measured by time domain reflectometry. We report the results of implementing an impedance taper that takes into account a significantly reduced phase velocity as it narrows, adding Au onto the CPW split grounds, as well as employing different designs of dispersion engineering. Qubit Measurements using KIT amplifiers will also be reported.

  13. Compact Single-Layer Traveling-Wave Antenna DesignUsing Metamaterial Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibakhshikenari, Mohammad; Virdee, Bal Singh; Limiti, Ernesto

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a single-layer traveling-wave antenna (TWA) that is based on composite right/left-handed (CRLH)-metamaterial (MTM) transmission line (TL) structure, which is implemented by using a combination of interdigital capacitors and dual-spiral inductive slots. By embedding dual-spiral inductive slots inside the CRLH MTM-TL results in a compact TWA. Dimensions of the proposed CRLH MTM-TL TWA is 21.5 × 30.0 mm2 or 0.372λ0 × 0.520λ0 at 5.2 GHz (center frequency). The fabricated TWA operates over 1.8-8.6 GHz with a fractional bandwidth greater than 120%, and it exhibits a peak gain and radiation efficiency of 4.2 dBi and 81%, respectively, at 5 GHz. By avoiding the use of lumped components, via-holes or defected ground structures, the proposed TWA design is economic for mass production as well as easy to integrate with wireless communication systems.

  14. A high-power two stage traveling-wave tube amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiffler, D.; Nation, J.A.; Schachter, L.; Ivers, J.D.; Kerslick, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of a two stage high-efficiency, high-power 8.76-GHz traveling-wave tube amplifier. The work presented augments previously reported data on a single stage amplifier and presents new data on the operational characteristics of two identical amplifiers operated in series and separated from each other by a sever. Peak powers of 410 MW have been obtained over the complete pulse duration of the device, with a conversion efficiency from the electron beam to microwave energy of 45%. In all operating conditions the severed amplifier showed a ''sideband''-like structure in the frequency spectrum of the microwave radiation. A similar structure was apparent at output powers in excess of 70 MW in the single stage device. The frequencies of the ''sidebands'' are not symmetric with respect to the center frequency. The maximum, single frequency, average output power was 210 MW corresponding to an amplifier efficiency of 24%. Simulation data is also presented that indicates that the short amplifiers used in this work exhibit significant differences in behavior from conventional low-power amplifiers. These include finite length effects on the gain characteristics, which may account for the observed narrow bandwidth of the amplifiers and for the appearance of the sidebands. It is also found that the bunching length for the beam may be a significant fraction of the total amplifier length

  15. A continuous high-throughput bioparticle sorter based on 3D traveling-wave dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Fang; Froude, Victoria E; Zhu, Yingxi; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2009-11-21

    We present a high throughput (maximum flow rate approximately 10 microl/min or linear velocity approximately 3 mm/s) continuous bio-particle sorter based on 3D traveling-wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP) at an optimum AC frequency of 500 kHz. The high throughput sorting is achieved with a sustained twDEP particle force normal to the continuous through-flow, which is applied over the entire chip by a single 3D electrode array. The design allows continuous fractionation of micron-sized particles into different downstream sub-channels based on differences in their twDEP mobility on both sides of the cross-over. Conventional DEP is integrated upstream to focus the particles into a single levitated queue to allow twDEP sorting by mobility difference and to minimize sedimentation and field-induced lysis. The 3D electrode array design minimizes the offsetting effect of nDEP (negative DEP with particle force towards regions with weak fields) on twDEP such that both forces increase monotonically with voltage to further increase the throughput. Effective focusing and separation of red blood cells from debris-filled heterogeneous samples are demonstrated, as well as size-based separation of poly-dispersed liposome suspensions into two distinct bands at 2.3 to 4.6 microm and 1.5 to 2.7 microm, at the highest throughput recorded in hand-held chips of 6 microl/min.

  16. Thermal analysis of a transmission line for Traveling Wave Tube TWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chbiki, Mounir; Laraqi, Najib; Jarno, Jean-François; Herrewyn, Jacques; Silva Botelho, Tony da

    2012-01-01

    A new analytical method has been developed to study the delay line of Traveling Waves Tubes (TWT). Our study is focused on the analysis of the hot lines shrinking phenomenon. In the studied case, unlike brazed configuration, the contact areas are not perfect, resulting in a diminution of the heat transfer process. In this work, we highlight the influence of the macro-constriction on the heat transfer rate in the various parts of a TWT the geometry of which is also relatively complex. We propose in this work an analytical study of the thermal behavior of a transmission line in established regime. First, we determine the individual thermal resistance of each component. Secondly, we estimate the global resistance of the device according to the geometrical parameters and the respective conductivities of the various elements of this line. In this analytical model, we proceed to parametric studies in order to determine the geometrical configurations that will provide the lowest global thermal resistance. We will emphasize the potential gain according to the used materials and the increase of contact areas.

  17. The 938 MHz resonant damping loops for the 200 MHz SPS travelling wave cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the beam stability in the SPS in 1982 - 1983 have shown a transversal instability for high intensity beams [1]. The fact that this related technical note is published nearly 30 years later, is related to the revival of interest in the frame of SPS impedance evaluation for LS1. Until now there was just a barely known paper folder available which could be consulted on request. The instability mentioned above was identified from beam measurements as raised by a deflecting mode at approximately 940 MHz in the 200 MHz travelling wave cavities of the SPS. Estimates showed that an attenuation of this particular mode by 20 dB would be desirable. In order to achieve this attenuation some vacuum ports on top of the cavities were available. For the damping devices three requirements had to be met: - sufficient damping at about 940 MHz - no serious change of cavity input VSWR at 200 MHz - no water cooling requirement for this higher order mode coupler.

  18. The influence of (toll-related) travel costs in residential location decisions of households : A stated choice approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, T.; van Wee, B.; Ettema, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of travel costs, in particular toll costs, on the residential location choice of households, using a stated choice survey. Within the stated choice experiment, car drivers that frequently face traffic congestion, traded-off several trip-related (including

  19. Exact traveling wave solutions of the KP-BBM equation by using the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Nur; Akbar, M Ali

    2013-01-01

    The new approach of the generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is an effective and powerful mathematical tool in finding exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) in science, engineering and mathematical physics. In this article, the new approach of the generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is applied to construct traveling wave solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (KP-BBM) equation. The solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions. By means of this scheme, we found some new traveling wave solutions of the above mentioned equation.

  20. Analysis Of Tourism Object Demand In The Pekanbaru City With Travel Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriyati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The tourism sector gets attention when world oil prices are decreasing. It can not be denied that during this time the largest contribution of Pekanbaru city revenue from profit-sharing funding comes from the oil and gas sector. Currently Pekanbaru revenue is small from the oil and gas sector as oil prices continue to decline. The existence of Pekanbaru City away from the coast and mountains causing focus on the development of artificial attractions such as Alam Mayang artificial lake Bandar Kayangan Lembah Sari Pekanbaru Mosque and the tomb of the founder of Pekanbaru city. Many people bring families visiting artificial tourist attractions on weekends and holidays.This study aims to determine the factors that affect the demand and economic value of tourist attractions in Kota Pekanbaru with Travel Cost Method. Sampling non probability as much as 100 respondents visitor attraction in Pekanbaru City of population 224896 people with sampling technique using slovin formula data analysis method used in this research is descriptive quantitative method. From the results of research states that the factors that influence the demand for tourist attraction in the city of Pekanbaru is income cost and distance. The economic value of tourism object of Pekanbaru city with cost of travel method is Rp42.679.638.400 per year. This means that the price given by a person to something at a certain place and time with the size of the price specified by time goods or money that will be sacrificed by someone to own or use goods and services in want.

  1. Simulating nonlinear steady-state traveling waves on the falling liquid film entrained by a gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvelodub, O. Yu; Bocharov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The article is devoted to the simulation of nonlinear waves on a liquid film flowing under gravity in the known stress field at the interface. The paper studies nonlinear waves on a liquid film, flowing under the action of gravity in a known stress field at the interface. In the case of small Reynolds numbers the problem is reduced to the consideration of solutions of the nonlinear integral-differential equation for film thickness deviation from the undisturbed level. The periodic and soliton steady-state traveling solutions of this equation have been numerically found. The analysis of branching of new families of steady-state traveling solutions has been performed. In particular, it is shown that this model equation has solutions in the form of solitons-humps.

  2. Travelling wave solutions and proper solutions to the two-dimensional Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaosheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study the two-dimensional Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries (2D-BKdV) equation by analysing an equivalent two-dimensional autonomous system, which indicates that under some particular conditions, the 2D-BKdV equation has a unique bounded travelling wave solution. Then by using a direct method, a travelling solitary wave solution to the 2D-BKdV equation is expressed explicitly, which appears to be more efficient than the existing methods proposed in the literature. At the end of the paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the proper solutions of the 2D-BKdV equation is established by applying the qualitative theory of differential equations

  3. Use of acoustic wave travel-time measurements to probe the near-surface layers of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, S. M.; Osaki, Y.; Shibahashi, H.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Harvey, J. W.; Pomerantz, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The variation of solar p-mode travel times with cyclic frequency nu is shown to provide information on both the radial variation of the acoustic potential and the depth of the effective source of the oscillations. Observed travel-time data for waves with frequency lower than the acoustic cutoff frequency for the solar atmosphere (approximately equals 5.5 mHz) are inverted to yield the local acoustic cutoff frequency nu(sub c) as a function of depth in the outer convection zone and lower atmosphere of the Sun. The data for waves with nu greater than 5.5 mHz are used to show that the source of the p-mode oscillations lies approximately 100 km beneath the base of the photosphere. This depth is deeper than that determined using a standard mixing-length calculation.

  4. Wildfire effects on hiking and biking demand in New Mexico: a travel cost study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesseln, Hayley; Loomis, John B; González-Cabán, Armando; Alexander, Susan

    2003-12-01

    We use a travel cost model to test the effects of wild and prescribed fire on visitation by hikers and mountain bikers in New Mexico. Our results indicate that net benefits for mountain bikers is $150 per trip and that they take an average of 6.2 trips per year. Hikers take 2.8 trips per year with individual net benefits per trip of $130. Both hikers' and mountain bikers' demand functions react adversely to prescribed burning. Net benefits for both groups fall as areas recover from prescribed burns. Because both visitation and annual recreation benefits decrease to these two types of visitors, this gives rise to multiple use costs associated with prescribed burning. With respect to wildfire, hikers and mountain bikers both exhibit decreased visitation as areas recover from wildfires, however, only hikers indicate an increase in per trip net benefits. Bikers' demand effectively drops to zero. These results differ from previous findings in the literature and have implications for efficient implementation of the National Fire Plan and whether prescribed burning is a cost effective tool for multiple use management of National Forests. Specifically, that fire and recreation managers cannot expect recreation users to react similarly to fire across recreation activities, or different geographic regions. What is cost effective in one region may not be so in another.

  5. New Traveling Wave Solutions of the Higher Dimensional Nonlinear Partial Differential Equation by the Exp-Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibun Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct new analytical solutions of the (3+1-dimensional modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsev equation by the Exp-function method. Plentiful exact traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are effectively obtained by the method. The obtained results show that the Exp-function method is effective and straightforward mathematical tool for searching analytical solutions with arbitrary parameters of higher-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation.

  6. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Mark H.; Macklin, John J.; Harris, Stephen E.

    1989-09-26

    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  7. Characterizing Global Flood Wave Travel Times to Optimize the Utility of Near Real-Time Satellite Remote Sensing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. H.; David, C. H.; Andreadis, K. M.; Emery, C. M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observing satellites provide valuable near real-time (NRT) information about flood occurrence and magnitude worldwide. This NRT information can be used in early flood warning systems and other flood management applications to save lives and mitigate flood damage. However, these NRT products are only useful to early flood warning systems if they are quickly made available, with sufficient time for flood mitigation actions to be implemented. More specifically, NRT data latency, or the time period between the satellite observation and when the user has access to the information, must be less than the time it takes a flood to travel from the flood observation location to a given downstream point of interest. Yet the paradigm that "lower latency is always better" may not necessarily hold true in river systems due to tradeoffs between data latency and data quality. Further, the existence of statistical breaks in the global distribution of flood wave travel time (i.e. a jagged statistical distribution) would represent preferable latencies for river-observation NRT remote sensing products. Here we present a global analysis of flood wave velocity (i.e. flow celerity) and travel time. We apply a simple kinematic wave model to a global hydrography dataset and calculate flow wave celerity and travel time during bankfull flow conditions. Bankfull flow corresponds to the condition of maximum celerity and thus we present the "worst-case scenario" minimum flow wave travel time. We conduct a similar analysis with respect to the time it takes flood waves to reach the next downstream city, as well as the next downstream reservoir. Finally, we conduct these same analyses, but with regards to the technical capabilities of the planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, which is anticipated to provide waterbody elevation and extent measurements at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. We validate these results with discharge records from paired

  8. Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Zeyad Ghaleb; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs.

  9. Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs. PMID:28056020

  10. Modified method of simplest equation: Powerful tool for obtaining exact and approximate traveling-wave solutions of nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the class of equations ∑i,j=0mAij(u){∂iu}/{∂ti}∂+∑k,l=0nBkl(u){∂ku}/{∂xk}∂=C(u) where Aij( u), Bkl( u) and C( u) are functions of u( x, t) as follows: (i) Aij, Bkl and C are polynomials of u; or (ii) Aij, Bkl and C can be reduced to polynomials of u by means of Taylor series for small values of u. For these two cases the above-mentioned class of equations consists of nonlinear PDEs with polynomial nonlinearities. We show that the modified method of simplest equation is powerful tool for obtaining exact traveling-wave solution of this class of equations. The balance equations for the sub-class of traveling-wave solutions of the investigated class of equations are obtained. We illustrate the method by obtaining exact traveling-wave solutions (i) of the Swift-Hohenberg equation and (ii) of the generalized Rayleigh equation for the cases when the extended tanh-equation or the equations of Bernoulli and Riccati are used as simplest equations.

  11. A dynamic model of the piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor stator with the finite volume method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria Marquez, I A; Bolborici, V

    2017-05-01

    This manuscript presents a method to model in detail the piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor (PTRUSM) stator response under the action of DC and AC voltages. The stator is modeled with a discrete two dimensional system of equations using the finite volume method (FVM). In order to obtain accurate results, a model of the stator bridge is included into the stator model. The model of the stator under the action of DC voltage is presented first, and the results of the model are compared versus a similar model using the commercial finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. One can observe that there is a difference of less than 5% between the displacements of the stator using the proposed model and the one with COMSOL Multiphysics. After that, the model of the stator under the action of AC voltages is presented. The time domain analysis shows the generation of the traveling wave in the stator surface. One can use this model to accurately calculate the stator surface velocities, elliptical motion of the stator surface and the amplitude and shape of the stator traveling wave. A system of equations discretized with the finite volume method can easily be transformed into electrical circuits, because of that, FVM may be a better choice to develop a model-based control strategy for the PTRUSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Global paths of time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation connecting arbitrary traveling waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, David M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-12-11

    We classify all bifurcations from traveling waves to non-trivial time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation that are predicted by linearization. We use a spectrally accurate numerical continuation method to study several paths of non-trivial solutions beyond the realm of linear theory. These paths are found to either re-connect with a different traveling wave or to blow up. In the latter case, as the bifurcation parameter approaches a critical value, the amplitude of the initial condition grows without bound and the period approaches zero. We propose a conjecture that gives the mapping from one bifurcation to its counterpart on the other side of the path of non-trivial solutions. By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the form of the exact solutions on the path connecting two traveling waves, which represents the Fourier coefficients of the solution as power sums of a finite number of particle positions whose elementary symmetric functions execute simple orbits in the complex plane (circles or epicycles). We then solve a system of algebraic equations to express the unknown constants in the new representation in terms of the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase, four integers (enumerating the bifurcation at each end of the path) and one additional bifurcation parameter. We also find examples of interior bifurcations from these paths of already non-trivial solutions, but we do not attempt to analyze their algebraic structure.

  13. Comparing Value of Urban Green Space Using Contingent Valuation and Travel Cost Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintantya, Dea; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Green urban open space are an important element of the city. They gives multiple benefits for social life, human health, biodiversity, air quality, carbon sequestration, and water management. Travel Cost Method (TCM) and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) are the most frequently used method in various studies that assess environmental good and services in monetary term for valuing urban green space. Both of those method are determined the value of urban green space through willingness to pay (WTP) for ecosystem benefit and collected data through direct interview and questionnaire. Findings of this study showed the weaknesses and strengths of both methods for valuing urban green space and provided factors influencing the probability of user's willingness to pay in each method.

  14. Comparing Value of Urban Green Space Using Contingent Valuation and Travel Cost Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintantya Dea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Green urban open space are an important element of the city. They gives multiple benefits for social life, human health, biodiversity, air quality, carbon sequestration, and water management. Travel Cost Method (TCM and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM are the most frequently used method in various studies that assess environmental good and services in monetary term for valuing urban green space. Both of those method are determined the value of urban green space through willingness to pay (WTP for ecosystem benefit and collected data through direct interview and questionnaire. Findings of this study showed the weaknesses and strengths of both methods for valuing urban green space and provided factors influencing the probability of user’s willingness to pay in each method.

  15. The travel cost method and the economic value of leisure time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent estimates of high values for tourist related recreation USA amenity values indicate that allocation of basic water and terrestrial resources to recreation activities should be given precedence over conventional market oriented activities that often degrade or even extirpate the resource. We discuss at length the travel cost method (TCM), a survey based technique that quantifies the non-market benefits of trips to recreation sites. The TCM has been cast in the role of an ‘umpire’ in recent resource allocation debates. Understanding the key role of the TCM in the debate will aid tourist agency officials throughout the world. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  16. A PPM-focused klystron at X-band with a traveling-wave output structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed algorithms for designing disk-loaded traveling-wave output structures for X-band klystrons to be used in the SLAC NLC. We use either a four- or five-cell structure in a π/2 mode. The disk radii are tapered to produce an approximately constant gradient. The matching calculation is not performed on the tapered structure, but rather on a coupler whose input and output cells are the same as the final cell of the tapered structure, and whose interior cells are the same as the penultimate cell in the tapered structure. 2-D calculations using CONDOR model the waveguide as a radial transmission line of adjustable impedance. 3-D calculations with MAFIA model the actual rectangular waveguide and coupling slot. A good match is obtained by adjusting the impedance of the final cell. In 3-D, this requires varying both the radius of the cell and the width of the aperture. When the output cell with the best match is inserted in the tapered structure, we obtain excellent cold-test agreement between the 2-D and 3-D models. We use hot-test simulations with CONDOR to design a structure with maximum efficiency and minimum surface fields. We have designed circuits at 11.424 Ghz for different perveances. At 440 kV, microperveance 1.2, we calculated 81 MW, 53 percent efficiency, with peak surface field 76 MV/m. A microperveance 0.6 design was done using a PPM stack for focusing. At 470 kV, 193 amps, we calculated 58.7 MW, 64.7 percent efficiency, peak surface field 62.3 MV/m. At 500 kV, 212 amps, we calculated 67.1 MW, 63.3 percent efficiency, peak surface field 66.0 MV/m. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. Electromagnetic Modeling of Distributed-Source-Excitation of Coplanar Waveguides: Applications to Traveling-Wave Photomixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Davide; Neto, Andrea; Wyss, Rolf A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work an electromagnetic model and subsequent design is presented for a traveling-wave, coplanar waveguide (CPW) based source that will operate in the THz frequency regime. The radio frequency (RF) driving current is a result of photoexcitation of a thin GaAs membrane using two frequency-offset lasers. The GaAs film is grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) and displays sub-ps carrier lifetimes which enable the material conductivity to be modulated at a very high rate. The RF current flows between electrodes deposited on the GaAs membrane which are biased with a DC voltage source. The electrodes form a CPW and are terminated with a double slot antenna that couples the power to a quasi-optical system. The membrane is suspended above a metallic reflector to launch all radiation in one direction. The theoretical investigation and consequent design is performed in two steps. The first step consists of a direct evaluation of the magnetic current distribution on an infinitely extended coplanar waveguide excited by an impressed electric current distributed over a finite area. The result of the analysis is the difference between the incident angle of the laser beams and the length of the excited area that maximizes the RF power coupled to the CPW. The optimal values for both parameters are found as functions of the CPW and membrane dimensions as well as the dielectric constants of the layers. In the second step, a design is presented of a double slot antenna that matches the CPW characteristic impedance and gives good overall performance. The design is presently being implemented and measurements will soon be available.

  18. Bifurcations of nonlinear ion acoustic travelling waves in the frame of a Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in magnetized plasma with a kappa distributed electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Samanta, Utpal; Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2013-01-01

    Bifurcations of nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic waves (IAWs) in a magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold ions and kappa distributed electron are investigated using a two component plasma model. The standard reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for IAWs. By using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems to this ZK equation, the existence of solitary wave solutions and periodic travelling wave solutions is established. All exact explicit solutions of these travelling waves are determined. The results may have relevance in dense space plasmas

  19. Traveling waves in a spatially-distributed Wilson-Cowan model of cortex: From fronts to pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeremy D.; Ermentrout, Bard

    2018-04-01

    Wave propagation in excitable media has been studied in various biological, chemical, and physical systems. Waves are among the most common evoked and spontaneous organized activity seen in cortical networks. In this paper, we study traveling fronts and pulses in a spatially-extended version of the Wilson-Cowan equations, a neural firing rate model of sensory cortex having two population types: Excitatory and inhibitory. We are primarily interested in the case when the local or space-clamped dynamics has three fixed points: (1) a stable down state; (2) a saddle point with stable manifold that acts as a threshold for firing; (3) an up state having stability that depends on the time scale of the inhibition. In the case when the up state is stable, we look for wave fronts, which transition the media from a down to up state, and when the up state is unstable, we are interested in pulses, a transient increase in firing that returns to the down state. We explore the behavior of these waves as the time and space scales of the inhibitory population vary. Some interesting findings include bistability between a traveling front and pulse, fronts that join the down state to an oscillation or spatiotemporal pattern, and pulses which go through an oscillatory instability.

  20. Cost estimates to guide manufacturing of composite waved beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jinrui; Zhang Boming; Qi Haiming

    2009-01-01

    A cost estimation model on the basis of manufacturing process has been presented. In the model, the effects of the material, labor, tool and equipment were discussed, and the corresponding formulas were provided. A method of selecting estimation variables has been provided based on a case study of composite waved beam using autoclave cure. The model parameters related to the process time estimation of the lay-up procedure were analyzed and modified for different part configurations. The result shows that there is little error while comparing the estimated process time with the practical one. The model is verified to be applicable to guide the design and manufacturing of the composite material