WorldWideScience

Sample records for cost solar array

  1. Low-cost solar array structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-06-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  2. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  3. Low-cost solar array progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    It is pointed out that significant redirection has occurred in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaics Program, and thus in the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), since the 3rd European Communities Conference. The Silicon Materials Task has now the objective to sponsor theoretical and experimental research on silicon material refinement technology suitable for photovoltaic flat-plate solar arrays. With respect to the hydrochlorination reaction, a process proof of concept was completed through definition of reaction kinetics, catalyst, and reaction characteristics. In connection with the dichlorosilane chemical vapor desposition process, a preliminary design was completed of an experimental process system development unit with a capacity of 100 to 200 MT/yr of Si.Attention is also given to the silicon-sheet formation research area, environmental isolation research, the cell and module formation task, the engineering sciences area, and the module performance and failure analysis area.

  4. Assessment of low-cost manufacturing process sequences. [photovoltaic solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive research and development activity to reduce the cost of manufacturing photovoltaic solar arrays by a factor of approximately one hundred is discussed. Proposed and actual manufacturing process descriptions were compared to manufacturing costs. An overview of this methodology is presented.

  5. Array automated assembly task low cost silicon solar array project. Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Clayton

    1980-12-01

    The initial contract was a Phase II Process Development for a process sequence, but with concentration on two particular process steps: laserscribing and spray-on junction formation. The add-on portion of the contract was to further develop these tasks, to incorporate spray-on of AR Coating and aluminum and to study the application of microwave energy to solar cell fabrication. The overall process cost projection is 97.918 cents/Wp. The major contributor to this excess cost is the module encapsulation materials cost. During the span of this contract the study of microwave application to solar cell fabrication produced the ability to apply this technique to any requirement of 600/sup 0/C or less. Above this temperature, non-uniformity caused the processing to be unreliable. The process sequence is described in detail, and a SAMICS cost analysis for each valid process step studied is presented. A temporary catalog for expense items is included, and engineering specifications for the process steps are given. (WHK)

  6. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  7. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  8. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  9. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  10. Silicon materials task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project: Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R.; Rohatgi, A.; Hanes, M. H.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of impurities and processing on the characteristics of silicon and terrestrial silicon solar cells were defined in order to develop cost benefit relationships for the use of cheaper, less pure solar grades of silicon. The amount of concentrations of commonly encountered impurities that can be tolerated in typical p or n base solar cells was established, then a preliminary analytical model from which the cell performance could be projected depending on the kinds and amounts of contaminants in the silicon base material was developed. The impurity data base was expanded to include construction materials, and the impurity performace model was refined to account for additional effects such as base resistivity, grain boundary interactions, thermal processing, synergic behavior, and nonuniform impurity distributions. A preliminary assessment of long term (aging) behavior of impurities was also undertaken.

  11. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  12. Multi-kW solar arrays for Earth orbit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The multi-kW solar array program is concerned with developing the technology required to enable the design of solar arrays required to power the missions of the 1990's. The present effort required the design of a modular solar array panel consisting of superstrate modules interconnected to provide the structural support for the solar cells. The effort was divided into two tasks: (1) superstrate solar array panel design, and (2) superstrate solar array panel-to-panel design. The primary objective was to systematically investigate critical areas of the transparent superstrate solar array and evaluate the flight capabilities of this low cost approach.

  13. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solar cell metallization pattern design on solar cell performance and the costs and performance effects of different metallization processes are discussed. Definitive design rules for the front metallization pattern for large area solar cells are presented. Chemical and physical deposition processes for metallization are described and compared. An economic evaluation of the 6 principal metallization options is presented. Instructions for preparing Format A cost data for solar cell manufacturing processes from UPPC forms for input into the SAMIC computer program are presented.

  14. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

  15. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 12, January-April 1979 and proceedings of the 12th Project Integration Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This report describes progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period January through April 1979. It includes reports on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering and operations, and a discussion of the steps taken to integrate these efforts. It includes a report on, and copies of viewgraphs presented at the Project Integration Meeting held April 4-5, 1979.

  16. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  17. Development of a low cost integrated 15 kW A.C. solar tracking sub-array for grid connected PV power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-02-01

    Utility Power Group has achieved a significant reduction in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems. The two part technical approach focused on 1) The utilization of a large area factory assembled PV panel, and 2) The integration and packaging of all sub-array power conversion and control functions within a single factory produced enclosure. Eight engineering prototype 15kW ac single axis solar tracking sub-arrays were designed, fabricated, and installed at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's Hedge Substation site in 1996 and are being evaluated for performance and reliability. A number of design enhancements will be implemented in 1997 and demonstrated by the field deployment and operation of over twenty advanced sub-array PV power systems.

  18. Array Automated Assembly Task Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Phase 2. Annual technical report, September 20, 1977-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Sang S.; Jones, Gregory T.; Allison, Kimberly L.

    1978-01-01

    This program was conducted to develop and demonstrate those solar cells and module process steps which have the technological readiness or capability to achieve the 1986 LSA goals. Results are reported. Seventeen process groups were investigated. Very promising results were achieved. A laserscribe computer program was developed. It demonstrated that silicon solar cells could be trimmed and holed by laser without causing mechanical defects (i.e., microcracks) nor any major degradation in solar cell electrical performance. The silicon wafer surface preparation task demonstrated a low-cost, high throughput texturizing process readily adaptable to automation. Performance verification tests of a laser scanning system showed a limited capability to detect hidden cracks or defects in solar cells. A general review of currently available thick film printing equipment provided the indication that state-of-the-art technology can adequately transform the capability of current printing machines to the elevated rate of 7200 wafers per hour. The LFE System 8000 silicon nitride plasma deposition system with the inclusion of minor equipment modifications was shown to be consistent with the 1986 LSA pricing goals. The performance verification test of the silicon nitride A.R. coating process provided the result that texturized, A.R. coated solar cells display a 14.1% improvement in electrical performance over identical solar cells without an A.R. coating. A new electroless nickel plating system was installed and demonstrated a low-cost, high throughput process readily adaptable to automation. A multiple wafer dipping method was investigated and operational parameters defined. A flux removal method consisting of a three stage D.I. water cascade rinse system with ultrasonic agitator was found to be very promising. Also, a SAMICS cost analysis was performed. (WHK)

  19. Analysis and evaluation of process and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the Low Cost Solar Array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that substantial cost reductions can be realized from technical advancements which fall into four categories: an increase in furnace productivity; the reduction of crucible cost through use of the crucible for the equivalent of multiple state-of-the-art crystals; the combined effect of several smaller technical improvements; and a carry over effect of the expected availability of semiconductor grade polysilicon at greatly reduced prices. A format for techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed, called the University of Pennsylvania Process Characterization (UPPC) format. The accumulated Cz process data are presented.

  20. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  1. Crossed BiOI flake array solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kewei; Jia, Falong; Zhang, Lizhi [Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Zheng, Zhi [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University (China)

    2010-12-15

    We report a new kind of solar cell based on crossed flake-like BiOI arrays for the first time. The BiOI flake arrays were fabricated on an FTO glass with a TiO{sub 2} block layer at room temperature by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The resulting BiOI flake array solar cell exhibited enhanced photovoltaic performance under solar illumination. This work provides an attractive and new solar cell system and a facile route to fabricate low cost and non-toxic solar cell. (author)

  2. Heat-rejection design for large concentrating solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of heat rejection devices (radiators) on the performance and cost of large concentrating solar arrays for space application. Overall array characteristics are derived from the weight, cost, and performance of four major components; namely primary structure, optics/secondary structure, radiator, and solar panel. An ideal concentrator analysis is used to establish general cost and performance trends independent of specific array design. Both passive and heat-pipe radiation are evaluated, with an incremental cost-of-power approach used in the evaluation. Passive radiators are found to be more cost effective with silicon than with gallium arsenide (GaAs) arrays. Representative concentrating arrays have been evaluated for both near-term and advanced solar cell technology. Minimum cost of power is achieved at geometric concentration ratios in the range 2 to 6.

  3. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  4. SEP solar array Shuttle flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Hill, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to verify the operational performance of a full-scale Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) solar array is described. Scheduled to fly on the Shuttle in 1983, the array will be deployed from the bay for ten orbits, with dynamic excitation to test the structural integrity being furnished by the Orbiter verniers; thermal, electrical, and sun orientation characteristics will be monitored, in addition to safety, reliability, and cost effective performance. The blanket, with aluminum and glass as solar cell mass simulators, is 4 by 32 m, with panels (each 0.38 by 4 m) hinged together; two live Si cell panels will be included. The panels are bonded to stiffened graphite-epoxy ribs and are storable in a box in the bay. The wing support structure is detailed, noting the option of releasing the wing into space by use of the Remote Manipulator System if the wing cannot be refolded. Procedures and equipment for monitoring the array behavior are outlined, and comprise both analog data and TV recording for later playback and analysis. The array wing experiment will also aid in developing measurement techniques for large structure dynamics in space.

  5. TiO2 nanorod arrays functionalized with In2S3 shell layer by a low-cost route for solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Xiaoyan; Li Xiaomin; Gao Xiangdong; Qiu Jijun; Zhuge Fuwei

    2011-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a TiO 2 -In 2 S 3 core-shell nanorod array structure for application of semiconductor-sensitized solar cells. Hydrothermally synthesized TiO 2 nanorod arrays on FTO glass substrates are functionalized with a uniform In 2 S 3 shell layer by using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. This low-cost technique promotes a uniform deposition of In 2 S 3 nanoshells on the surface of TiO 2 nanorods, thus forming an intact interface between the In 2 S 3 shell and TiO 2 core. Results show that the thickness of In 2 S 3 shell layers as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process. The best reproducible performance of the sandwich solar cell using the TiO 2 -In 2 S 3 core-shell nanorod arrays as photoelectrodes was obtained after 30 SILAR cycles, exhibiting a short-circuit current (I sc ) of 2.40 mA cm -2 , an open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (ff) of 0.40 and a conversion efficiency (η) of 0.54%, respectively. These results demonstrate a feasible and controllable route towards In 2 S 3 coating on a highly structured substrate and a proof of concept that such TiO 2 -In 2 S 3 core-shell architectures are novel and promising photoelectrodes in nanostructured solar cells.

  6. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of slicing processes and junction formation processes are presented. A simple method for evaluation of the relative economic merits of competing process options with respect to the cost of energy produced by the system is described. An energy consumption analysis was developed and applied to determine the energy consumption in the solar module fabrication process sequence, from the mining of the SiO2 to shipping. The analysis shows that, in current technology practice, inordinate energy use in the purification step, and large wastage of the invested energy through losses, particularly poor conversion in slicing, as well as inadequate yields throughout. The cell process energy expenditures already show a downward trend based on increased throughput rates. The large improvement, however, depends on the introduction of a more efficient purification process and of acceptable ribbon growing techniques.

  7. Low cost Czochralski crystal growing technology. Near implementation of the flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction of the low cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    Equipment developed for the manufacture of over 100 kg of silicon ingot from one crucible by rechanging from another crucible is described. Attempts were made to eliminate the cost of raising the furnace temperature to 250 C above the melting point of silicon by using an RF coil to melt polycrystalline silicon rod as a means of rechanging the crucible. Microprocessor control of the straight growth process was developed and domonstrated for both 4 inch and 6 inch diameter. Both meltdown and melt stabilization processes were achieved using operator prompting through the microprocessor. The use of the RF work coil in poly rod melting as a heat sink in the accelerated growth process was unsuccessful. The total design concept for fabrication and interfacing of the total cold crucible system was completed.

  8. Space solar array reliability: A study and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Rodiek, Julie A.

    2008-12-01

    Providing reliable power over the anticipated mission life is critical to all satellites; therefore solar arrays are one of the most vital links to satellite mission success. Furthermore, solar arrays are exposed to the harshest environment of virtually any satellite component. In the past 10 years 117 satellite solar array anomalies have been recorded with 12 resulting in total satellite failure. Through an in-depth analysis of satellite anomalies listed in the Airclaim's Ascend SpaceTrak database, it is clear that solar array reliability is a serious, industry-wide issue. Solar array reliability directly affects the cost of future satellites through increased insurance premiums and a lack of confidence by investors. Recommendations for improving reliability through careful ground testing, standardization of testing procedures such as the emerging AIAA standards, and data sharing across the industry will be discussed. The benefits of creating a certified module and array testing facility that would certify in-space reliability will also be briefly examined. Solar array reliability is an issue that must be addressed to both reduce costs and ensure continued viability of the commercial and government assets on orbit.

  9. Process research of non-cz silicon material. Low cost solar array project, cell and module formation research area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid applied dopants to replace the CVD Silox masking and gaseous diffusion operations specified for forming junctions in the Westinghouse baseline process sequence for producing solar cells from dendritic web silicon were investigated.

  10. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Study 4, task 3: Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

    1977-01-01

    Methods of accelerated and abbreviated testing were developed and applied to solar cell encapsulants. These encapsulants must provide protection for as long as 20 years outdoors at different locations within the United States. Consequently, encapsulants were exposed for increasing periods of time to the inherent climatic variables of temperature, humidity, and solar flux. Property changes in the encapsulants were observed. The goal was to predict long term behavior of encapsulants based upon experimental data obtained over relatively short test periods.

  11. High-power, ultralow-mass solar arrays: FY-77 solar arrays technology readiness assessment report, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Development efforts are reported in detail for: (1) a lightweight solar array system for solar electric propulsion; (2) a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell; (3) conceptual design of 200 W/kg solar arrays; (4) fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell array; and (5) technology assessment of concentrator solar arrays.

  12. Low Cost Solar Array Project. Feasibility of the silane process for producing semiconductor-grade silicon. Final report, October 1975-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The commercial production of low-cost semiconductor-grade silicon is an essential requirement of the JPL/DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project. A 1000-metric-ton-per-year commercial facility using the Union Carbide Silane Process will produce molten silicon for an estimated price of $7.56/kg (1975 dollars, private financing), meeting the DOE goal of less than $10/kg. Conclusions and technology status are reported for both contract phases, which had the following objectives: (1) establish the feasibility of Union Carbide's Silane Process for commercial application, and (2) develop an integrated process design for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) and a commercial facility, and estimate the corresponding commercial plant economic performance. To assemble the facility design, the following work was performed: (a) collection of Union Carbide's applicable background technology; (b) design, assembly, and operation of a small integrated silane-producing Process Development Unit (PDU); (c) analysis, testing, and comparison of two high-temperature methods for converting pure silane to silicon metal; and (d) determination of chemical reaction equilibria and kinetics, and vapor-liquid equilibria for chlorosilanes.

  13. Low cost solar array project cell and module formation research area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid applied dopants to replace the CVD Silox masking and gaseous diffusion operations specified for forming junctions in the Westinghouse baseline process sequence for producing solar cells from dendritic web silicon were investigated. The baseline diffusion masking and drive processes were compared with those involving direct liquid applications to the dendritic web silicon strips. Attempts were made to control the number of variables by subjecting dendritic web strips cut from a single web crystal to both types of operations. Data generated reinforced earlier conclusions that efficiency levels at least as high as those achieved with the baseline back junction formation process can be achieved using liquid diffusion masks and liquid dopants. The deliveries of dendritic web sheet material and solar cells specified by the current contract were made as scheduled.

  14. Low cost solar array project. Cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid dopants to replace the more expensive CVD SiO2 mask and gaseous diffusion processes were investigated. Silicon pellets were prepared in the silicon shot tower; and solar cells were fabricated using web grown where the pellets were used as a replenishment material. Verification runs were made using the boron dopant and liquid diffusion mask materials. The average of cells produced in these runs was 13%. The relationship of sheet resistivity, temperature, gas flows, and gas composition for the diffusion of the P-8 liquid phosphorus solution was investigated. Solar cells processed from web grown from Si shot material were evaluated, and results qualified the use of the material produced in the shot tower for web furnace feed stock.

  15. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS proposes to systematically mature, mitigate risk for; and perform hardware-based ground validations / demonstrations of a low-cost, high technology payoff,...

  16. Solar array qualification through qualified analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijdemans, J.; Cruijssen, H. J.; Wijker, J. J.

    1991-04-01

    To achieve qualification is in general a very expensive exercise. For solar arrays this is done by a dedicated test program through which final qualification is achieved. Due to severe competition on the solar array market, cheaper means are looked for to achieve a qualified product for the customers. One of the methods is to drastically limit the environmental test program and to qualify the solar-array structure against its environmental loads by analysis. Qualification by analysis is possible. The benefits are that a significant amount of development effort can be saved in case such a powerful tool is available. Extensive testing can be avoided thus saving time and money.

  17. Radiation hard solar cell and array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A power generating solar cell for a spacecraft solar array is hardened against transient response to nuclear radiation while permitting normal operation of the cell in a solar radiation environment by shunting the cell with a second solar cell whose contacts are reversed relative to the power cell to form a cell module, exposing the power cell only to the solar radiation in a solar radiation environment to produce an electrical output at the module terminals, and exposing both cells to the nuclear radiation in a nuclear radiation environment so that the radiation induced currents generated by the cells suppress one another

  18. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin, flexible, and highly efficient solar arrays are needed that package compactly for launch and deploy into large, structurally stable high power generators....

  19. Strain Actuated Solar Arrays (SASA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team of CU Aerospace and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign propose multifunctional solar arrays, which can be used for attitude control of a...

  20. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  1. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task: A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Several major modifications were made to the design presented at the PDR. The frame was deleted in favor of a "frameless" design which will provide a substantially improved cell packing factor. Potential shaded cell damage resulting from operation into a short circuit can be eliminated by a change in the cell series/parallel electrical interconnect configuration. The baseline process sequence defined for the MEPSON was refined and equipment design and specification work was completed. SAMICS cost analysis work accelerated, format A's were prepared and computer simulations completed. Design work on the automated cell interconnect station was focused on bond technique selection experiments.

  2. Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.

  3. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  4. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  5. Study of solar array switching power management technology for space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents work performed on the Solar Array Switching Power Management Study. Mission characteristics for three missions were defined to the depth necessary to determine their power management requirements. Solar array switching concepts which could satisfy the mission requirements were identified. The switching concepts were compared with a conventional buck regulator system for cost, weight and volume, reliability, efficiency and thermal control. Solar array switching provided significant advantages in all areas of comparison for the reviewed missions.

  6. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  7. Analysis and evalaution in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project. [including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The manufacturing methods for photovoltaic solar energy utilization are assessed. Economic and technical data on the current front junction formation processes of gaseous diffusion and ion implantation are presented. Future proposals, including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation, to decrease the cost of junction formation are studied. Technology developments in current processes and an economic evaluation of the processes are included.

  8. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  9. Low cost solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single glazed low cost solar air heater is more efficient during summer while double glazed is better in winter. ► For the same initial investment, low cost solar air heaters collect more energy than packed bed solar air heater. ► During off season low cost solar air heater can be stored inside as it is light in weight. - Abstract: Two low cost solar air heaters viz. single glazed and double glazed were designed, fabricated and tested. Thermocole, ultraviolet stabilised plastic sheet, etc. were used for fabrication to reduce the fabrication cost. These were tested simultaneously at no load and with load both in summer and winter seasons along with packed bed solar air heater using iron chips for absorption of radiation. The initial costs of single glazed and double glazed are 22.8% and 26.8% of the initial cost of packed bed solar air heater of the same aperture area. It was found that on a given day at no load, the maximum stagnation temperatures of single glazed and double glazed solar air heater were 43.5 °C and 62.5 °C respectively. The efficiencies of single glazed, double glazed and packed bed solar air heaters corresponding to flow rate of 0.02 m 3 /s-m 2 were 30.29%, 45.05% and 71.68% respectively in winter season. The collector efficiency factor, heat removal factor based on air outlet temperature and air inlet temperature for three solar air heaters were also determined.

  10. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  11. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 7: Module encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Encapsulation Task was to develop, demonstrate, and qualify photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation systems that would provide 20 year (later decreased to 30 year) life expectancies in terrestrial environments, and which would be compatible with the cost and performance goals of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The scope of the Encapsulation Task included the identification, development, and evaluation of material systems and configurations required to support and protect the optically and electrically active solar cell circuit components in the PV module operating environment. Encapsulation material technologies summarized include the development of low cost ultraviolet protection techniques, stable low cost pottants, soiling resistant coatings, electrical isolation criteria, processes for optimum interface bonding, and analytical and experimental tools for evaluating the long term durability and structural adequacy of encapsulated modules. Field testing, accelerated stress testing, and design studies have demonstrated that encapsulation materials, processes, and configurations are available that meet the FSA cost and performance goals.

  12. Hardened Solar Array High Temperature Adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    SHERWOOO. D SASIU.IS F3361S-0-C-201S UNCLASSI ED 1AC-SCG-IOOIIR AFVAL-TR-OL-201? NLm,,hinii EhhhEE11I1 AFWAL-TR-81- 2017 i : HARDENED SOLAR ARRAY D HIGH...Tg and as a consequence forms a film on the container and also precipitates as tacky waxlike particles, rather than the desired flocullated

  13. Solar panels offer array of hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The installation of what is believed to be the largest array of solar thermal panels currently in use at a UK NHS hospital has taken place at an ideal time for the facility in question, Harlow's Princess Alexandra Hospital, with the hospital's gas bill alone having risen by 153% over the past nine months thanks to soaring energy prices, and the estates department keen to mitigate the effects in any way possible. Jonathan Baillie reports.

  14. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  15. Thermal design of spacecraft solar arrays using a polyimide foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, N; Iasiello, M; Naso, V

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of spacecraft solar arrays plays a fundamental role. Indeed, the spacecraft components must operate within a certain range of temperature. If this doesn't occur, their performance is reduced and they may even break. Solar arrays, which are employed to recharge batteries, are directly exposed to the solar heat flux, and they need to be insulated from the earth's surface irradiation. Insulation is currently provided either with a white paint coating or with a Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) system [1]. A configuration based on an open-cell polyimide foam has also been recently proposed [2]. Using polyimide foams in TCSs looks very attractive in terms of costs, weight and assembling. An innovative thermal analysis of the above cited TCS configurations is carried out in this paper, by solving the porous media energy equation, under the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) between the two phases. Radiation effects through the solar array are also considered by using the Rosseland approximation. Under a stationary daylight condition, temperature profiles are obtained by means of the finite-element based code COMSOL Multiphysics ® . Finally, since the weight plays an important role in aerospace applications, weights of the three TCS configurations are compared. (paper)

  16. Thermal design of spacecraft solar arrays using a polyimide foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, N.; Iasiello, M.; Naso, V.

    2015-11-01

    The design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of spacecraft solar arrays plays a fundamental role. Indeed, the spacecraft components must operate within a certain range of temperature. If this doesn't occur, their performance is reduced and they may even break. Solar arrays, which are employed to recharge batteries, are directly exposed to the solar heat flux, and they need to be insulated from the earth's surface irradiation. Insulation is currently provided either with a white paint coating or with a Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) system [1]. A configuration based on an open-cell polyimide foam has also been recently proposed [2]. Using polyimide foams in TCSs looks very attractive in terms of costs, weight and assembling. An innovative thermal analysis of the above cited TCS configurations is carried out in this paper, by solving the porous media energy equation, under the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) between the two phases. Radiation effects through the solar array are also considered by using the Rosseland approximation. Under a stationary daylight condition, temperature profiles are obtained by means of the finite-element based code COMSOL Multiphysics®. Finally, since the weight plays an important role in aerospace applications, weights of the three TCS configurations are compared.

  17. Series-parallel method of direct solar array regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooder, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    A 40 watt experimental solar array was directly regulated by shorting out appropriate combinations of series and parallel segments of a solar array. Regulation switches were employed to control the array at various set-point voltages between 25 and 40 volts. Regulation to within + or - 0.5 volt was obtained over a range of solar array temperatures and illumination levels as an active load was varied from open circuit to maximum available power. A fourfold reduction in regulation switch power dissipation was achieved with series-parallel regulation as compared to the usual series-only switching for direct solar array regulation.

  18. TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays functionalized with In{sub 2}S{sub 3} shell layer by a low-cost route for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Xiaoyan; Li Xiaomin; Gao Xiangdong; Qiu Jijun; Zhuge Fuwei, E-mail: ganxiaoyan@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding Xi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2011-07-29

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a TiO{sub 2}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} core-shell nanorod array structure for application of semiconductor-sensitized solar cells. Hydrothermally synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays on FTO glass substrates are functionalized with a uniform In{sub 2}S{sub 3} shell layer by using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. This low-cost technique promotes a uniform deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoshells on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanorods, thus forming an intact interface between the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} shell and TiO{sub 2} core. Results show that the thickness of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} shell layers as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process. The best reproducible performance of the sandwich solar cell using the TiO{sub 2}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} core-shell nanorod arrays as photoelectrodes was obtained after 30 SILAR cycles, exhibiting a short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) of 2.40 mA cm{sup -2}, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (ff) of 0.40 and a conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 0.54%, respectively. These results demonstrate a feasible and controllable route towards In{sub 2}S{sub 3} coating on a highly structured substrate and a proof of concept that such TiO{sub 2}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} core-shell architectures are novel and promising photoelectrodes in nanostructured solar cells.

  19. Low cost thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugderah, M. M.; Schneider, E. L.; Tontini, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

  20. Quality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Luca; Gröbner, Julian; Hülsen, Gregor; Bachmann, Luciano; Blumthaler, Mario; Dubard, Jimmy; Khazova, Marina; Kift, Richard; Hoogendijk, Kees; Serrano, Antonio; Smedley, Andrew; Vilaplana, José-Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The reliable quantification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the earth's surface requires accurate measurements of spectral global solar UV irradiance in order to determine the UV exposure to human skin and to understand long-term trends in this parameter. Array spectroradiometers (ASRMs) are small, light, robust and cost-effective instruments, and are increasingly used for spectral irradiance measurements. Within the European EMRP ENV03 project "Solar UV", new devices, guidelines and characterization methods have been developed to improve solar UV measurements with ASRMs, and support to the end user community has been provided. In order to assess the quality of 14 end user ASRMs, a solar UV intercomparison was held on the measurement platform of the World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) in Davos, Switzerland, from 10 to 17 July 2014. The results of the blind intercomparison revealed that ASRMs, currently used for solar UV measurements, show a large variation in the quality of their solar UV measurements. Most of the instruments overestimate the erythema-weighted UV index - in particular at large solar zenith angles - due to stray light contribution in the UV-B range. The spectral analysis of global solar UV irradiance further supported the finding that the uncertainties in the UV-B range are very large due to stray light contribution in this wavelength range. In summary, the UV index may be detected by some commercially available ASRMs within 5 % compared to the world reference spectroradiometer, if well characterized and calibrated, but only for a limited range of solar zenith angles. Generally, the tested instruments are not yet suitable for solar UV measurements for the entire range between 290 and 400 nm under all atmospheric conditions.

  1. Affordable High Performance Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an Electromagnetically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) with enhanced performance, in Watts/kg and Watts/m2, using flight proven, high efficiency solar cells. For...

  2. Solar Array Power Conditioning for a Spinning Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Antonio; Chirulli, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    The conditioning of the output power from a solar array can mainly be achieved by the adoption of DET or MPPT based architecture. There are several factors that can orientate the choice of the system designer towards one solution or the other; some of them maybe inherent to the mission derived requirements (Illumination levels, EMC cleanliness, etc.), others come directly from a careful assessment of performances and losses of both power conditioner and solar array.Definition of the criteria on which basis the final choice is justified is important as they have to guarantee a clear determination of the available versus the required power in all those mission conditions identifiable as design drivers for the overall satellite system both in terms of mass and costs.Such criteria cannot just be simple theoretical enunciations of principles; nor the meticulous definition of them on a case by case basis for different types of missions as neither option gives a guarantee of being conclusive.The aim of this paper is then to suggest assessment steps and guidelines that can be considered generically valid for any mission case, starting from the exposition of the trade off activity performed in order to choose the power conditioning solution for a spinning satellite having unregulated power bus architecture. Calculations and numerical simulations have been made in order to establish the needed solar array surface in case of adoption of a DET or MPPT solution, taking into account temperature and illumination levels on the solar cells, as well as power losses and inefficiencies from the solar generator to the main power bus, in different mission phases. Particular attention has been taken in order to correctly evaluate the thermal effects on the rest of the spacecraft as function of the adopted power system regulation.

  3. Solar array technology evaluation program for SEPS (Solar Electrical Propulsion Stage)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the technology and the development of a preliminary design for a 25 kilowatt solar array system for solar electric propulsion are discussed. The solar array has a power to weight ratio of 65 watts per kilogram. The solar array system is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, an array electrical harness, and hardware for supporting the system for launch and in the operating position. The technology evaluation was performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define supporting research necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the solar electric propulsion system solar array design requirements.

  4. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The primary objective of this contract is to develop equipment and methods for the economic production of single crystal ingot material by the continuous Czochralski (CZ) process. Continuous CZ is defined for the purpose of this work as the growth of at least 100 kilograms of ingot from only one melt container. During the reporting period (October, 1977 - September, 1978), a modified grower was made fully functional and several recharge runs were performed. The largest run lasted 44 hours and over 42 kg of ingot was produced. Little, if any, degradation in efficiency was observed as a result of pulling multiple crystals from one crucible. Solar efficiencies observed were between 9.3 and 10.4% AMO (13.0 and 14.6% AMI) compared to 10.5% (14.7% AMI) for optimum CZ material control samples. Using the SAMICS/IPEG format, economic analysis of continuous CZ suggests that 1986 DoE cost goals can only be met by the growth of large diameter, large mass crystals.

  5. APSA - A new generation of photovoltaic solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, P. M.; Kurland, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides details on the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) wing design, fabrication, and testing. The impact of array size change on performance and mechanical characteristics is discussed. Projections for future performance enhancements that may be expected through the use of advanced solar cells presently under development are examined.

  6. A Practical Guide To Solar Array Simulation And PCDU Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Noah; Carroll, Greg; Clegg, Russell

    2011-10-01

    Solar arrays consisting of multiple photovoltaic segments provide power to satellites and charge internal batteries for use during eclipse. Solar arrays have unique I-V characteristics and output power which vary with environmental and operational conditions such as temperature, irradiance, spin, and eclipse. Therefore, specialty power solutions are needed to properly test the satellite on the ground, especially the Power Control and Distribution Unit (PCDU) and the Array Power Regulator (APR.) This paper explores some practical and theoretical considerations that should be taken into account when choosing a commercial, off-the-shelf solar array simulator (SAS) for verification of the satellite PCDU. An SAS is a unique power supply with I-V output characteristics that emulate the solar arrays used to power a satellite. It is important to think about the strengths and the limitations of this emulation capability, how closely the SAS approximates a real solar panel, and how best to design a system using SAS as components.

  7. Theoretical models of Kapton heating in solar array geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to understand pyrolysis of Kapton in solar arrays, a computational heat transfer program was developed. This model allows for the different materials and widely divergent length scales of the problem. The present status of the calculation indicates that thin copper traces surrounded by Kapton and carrying large currents can show large temperature increases, but the other configurations seen on solar arrays have adequate heat sinks to prevent substantial heating of the Kapton. Electron currents from the ambient plasma can also contribute to heating of thin traces. Since Kapton is stable at temperatures as high as 600 C, this indicates that it should be suitable for solar array applications. There are indications that the adhesive sued in solar arrays may be a strong contributor to the pyrolysis problem seen in solar array vacuum chamber tests.

  8. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-30

    An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays.

  9. InP nanowire array solar cell with cleaned sidewalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Y.; Plissard, S.; Wang, J.; Vu, T.T.T.; Smalbrugge, E.; Geluk, E.J.; de Vries, T.; Bolk, J.; Trainor, M.J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haverkort, J.E.M.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated InP nanowire array solar cells with an axial p-n junction. Catalyst gold nanoparticles were first patterned into an array by nanoimprint lithography. The nanowire array was grown in 19 minutes by vapor-liquid-solid growth. The sidewalls were in-situ etched by HCl and ex-situ

  10. Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University (India)

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the simulation and hardware implementation of maximum power point (MPP) tracking of a partially shaded solar photovoltaic (PV) array using a variant of Particle Swarm Optimization known as Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO). Under partially shaded conditions, the photovoltaic (PV) array characteristics get more complex with multiple maxima in the power-voltage characteristic. The paper presents an algorithmic technique to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array using an APPSO. The APPSO algorithm has also been validated in the current work. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This result in lower cost and higher accuracy of 97.7% compared to earlier obtained accuracy of 96.41% using Particle Swarm Optimization. The proposed tracking technique has been mapped onto a MSP430FG4618 microcontroller for tracking and control purposes. The whole system based on the proposed has been realized on a standard two stage power electronic system configuration. (author)

  11. Simulated Space Environmental Effects on Thin Film Solar Array Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Carr, John; SanSoucie, Michael; Boyd, Darren; Phillips, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) experiment consists of thin-film, low mass, low volume solar panels. Given the variety of thin solar cells and cover materials and the lack of environmental protection typically afforded by thick coverglasses, a series of tests were conducted in Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Environmental Effects Facility to evaluate the performance of these materials. Candidate thin polymeric films and nitinol wires used for deployment were also exposed. Simulated space environment exposures were selected based on SSP 30425 rev. B, "Space Station Program Natural Environment Definition for Design" or AIAA Standard S-111A-2014, "Qualification and Quality Requirements for Space Solar Cells." One set of candidate materials were exposed to 5 eV atomic oxygen and concurrent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation for low Earth orbit simulation. A second set of materials were exposed to 1 MeV electrons. A third set of samples were exposed to 50, 100, 500, and 700 keV energy protons, and a fourth set were exposed to >2,000 hours of near ultraviolet (NUV) radiation. A final set was rapidly thermal cycled between -55 and +125degC. This test series provides data on enhanced power generation, particularly for small satellites with reduced mass and volume resources. Performance versus mass and cost per Watt is discussed.

  12. Gravity Probe B Completed With Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is completed during the solar array installation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  13. Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yongfeng; Li Ming; Lin Wenxian; Wang Liuling; Xiang Ming; Zhang Xinghua; Wang Yunfeng; Wei Shengxian

    2009-01-01

    Performance of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is researched by experiment and simulation calculation. The results show that the I-V curve of the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays and the exergy produced by 9.51% electrical efficiency of the GaAs solar cell array can reach 68.93% of the photovoltaic/thermal system. So improving the efficiency of solar cell arrays can introduce more exergy and the system value can be upgraded. At the same time, affecting factors of solar cell arrays such as series resistance, temperature and solar irradiance also have been analyzed. The output performance of a solar cell array with lower series resistance is better and the working temperature has a negative impact on the voltage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system. (semiconductor devices)

  14. Daytime Solar Heating of Photovoltaic Arrays in Low Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current work is to determine the out-gassing rate of H2O molecules for a solar array placed under daytime solar heating (full sunlight) conditions typically encountered in a Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment. Arc rates are established for individual arrays held at 14 C and are used as a baseline for future comparisons. Radiated thermal solar flux incident to the array is simulated by mounting a stainless steel panel equipped with resistive heating elements several centimeters behind the array. A thermal plot of the heater plate temperature and the array temperature as a function of heating time is then obtained. A mass spectrometer is used to record the levels of partial pressure of water vapor in the test chamber after each of the 5 heating/cooling cycles. Each of the heating cycles was set to time duration of 40 minutes to simulate the daytime solar heat flux to the array over a single orbit. Finally the array is cooled back to ambient temperature after 5 complete cycles and the arc rates of the solar arrays is retested. A comparison of the various data is presented with rather some unexpected results.

  15. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  16. Modular Ultra-High Power Solar Array Architecture, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR program on the development of a new highly-modularized and extremely-scalable solar array that...

  17. Multijunction Ultralight Solar Cells and Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a continuing need within NASA for solar cells and arrays with very high specific power densities (1000-5000 kW/kg) for generating power in a new generation...

  18. Robust, Highly Scalable Solar Array System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar array systems currently under development are focused on near-term missions with designs optimized for the 30-50 kW power range. However, NASA has a vital...

  19. Thermal analysis for folded solar array of spacecraft in orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.H.; Cheng, H.E.; Cai, A.

    2004-01-01

    The combined radiation-conduction heat transfer in folded solar array was considered as a three-dimensional anisotropic conduction without inner heat source. The three-dimensional equivalent conductivity in cell plate were obtained. The especially discrete equation coefficients of the nodes on the surfaces of adjacent cell plates were deduced by utilizing the simplified radiation network among the two adjacent cell plate surfaces and the deep cold space. All the thermal influence factors on the temperature response of the folded solar array were considered carefully. SIP method was used to solve the discrete equation. By comparing the calculation results under three cases, the temperature response and the maximum average difference of the folded solar array was obtained during the period of throw-radome of the launch vehicle and spread of the folded solar array. The obtained result is a valuable reference for the selection of the launch time of the spacecraft

  20. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-10-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  1. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  2. Continuous Czochralski Growth. Silicon Sheet Growth Development of the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, F.

    1979-01-01

    During the reporting period, a successful 100 kilogram run was performed. Six ingots of 13 cm diameter were grown, ranging in size from 15.5 kg to 17.7 kg. Melt replenishment methods included both poly rod and lump feed material. Samples from each ingot were prepared for solar cell fabrication and analyses, impurity analysis, and structural studies. The furnace was converted to the 14-inch hot zone and preliminary heat runs were performed. Two sucessful runs were demonstrated, by growing 25 kg ingots from 30 kg melts. Also, a 100 kg run was attempted, utilizing the 14 inch crucible hot zone, but was prematurely terminated due to excessive monoxide which accumulated on the viewports and a seed failure.

  3. Novel Deployment Mechanism for Conventional Solar Array Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgetts Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mechanism is described, by which flexible blankets could be deployed from existing solar panel designs. These blankets could be covered with flexible cells, or they could be reflective films to form a concentrator array. Either way, the performance of an existing array design could be enhanced.

  4. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 3: Silicon sheet: Wafers and ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briglio, A.; Dumas, K.; Leipold, M.; Morrison, A.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the Silicon Sheet Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was the development of one or more low cost technologies for producing silicon sheet suitable for processing into cost-competitive solar cells. Silicon sheet refers to high purity crystalline silicon of size and thickness for fabrication into solar cells. Areas covered in the project were ingot growth and casting, wafering, ribbon growth, and other sheet technologies. The task made and fostered significant improvements in silicon sheet including processing of both ingot and ribbon technologies. An additional important outcome was the vastly improved understanding of the characteristics associated with high quality sheet, and the control of the parameters required for higher efficiency solar cells. Although significant sheet cost reductions were made, the technology advancements required to meet the task cost goals were not achieved.

  5. A Novel Robot of Manufacturing Space Solar Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuexin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel robot employed to manufacture space solar cell arrays. First of all including the mechanical configuration and control system, the architecture of the robot is described. Then the flow velocity field of adhesive in the dispensing needles is acquired based on hydrodynamics. The accurate section form model of adhesive dispensed on the solar cells is obtained, which is essential for the robot to control the uniformity of dispensing adhesive. Finally the experiment validates the feasibility and reliability of the robot system. The application of robots instead of manual work in manufacturing space solar cell arrays will enhance the development of space industry.

  6. A Novel Robot of Manufacturing Space Solar Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuexin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel robot employed to manufacture space solar cell arrays. First of all including the mechanical configuration and control system, the architecture of the robot is described. Then the flow velocity field of adhesive in the dispensing needles is acquired based on hydrodynamics. The accurate section form model of adhesive dispensed on the solar cells is obtained, which is essential for the robot to control the uniformity of dispensing adhesive. Finally the experiment validates the feasibility and reliability of the robot system. The application of robots instead of manual work in manufacturing space solar cell arrays will enhance the development of space industry.

  7. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktur, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) project is to design and demonstrate an effective and efficien toptically transparent, high-gain, lightweight, conformal X-band antenna array that is integrated with the solar panels of a CubeSat. The targeted demonstration is for a Near Earth Network (NEN)radio at X-band, but the design can be easilyscaled to other network radios for higher frequencies. ISAAC is a less expensive and more flexible design for communication systemscompared to a deployed dish antenna or the existing integrated solar panel antenna design.

  8. Solution processed bismuth sulfide nanowire array core/silver shuffle shell solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.; Bernechea, M.; Maclachlan, A.; Zardetto, V.; Creatore, M.; Haque, S.A.; Konstantatos, G.

    2015-01-01

    Low bandgap inorganic semiconductor nanowires have served as building blocks in solution processed solar cells to improve their power conversion capacity and reduce fabrication cost. In this work, we first reported bismuth sulfide nanowire arrays grown from colloidal seeds on a transparent

  9. Rapid thermal cycling of new technology solar array blanket coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, David A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Kurland, Richard M.; Mesch, Hans G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting thermal cycle testing of a new solar array blanket technologies. These technologies include test coupons for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the advanced photovoltaic solar array (APSA). The objective of this testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array interconnect design and blanket technology within a low earth orbit (LEO) or geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) thermal cycling environment. Both the SSF and the APSA array survived all rapid thermal cycling with little or no degradation in peak performance. This testing includes an equivalent of 15 years in LEO for SSF test coupons and 30 years of GEO plus ten years of LEO for the APSA test coupon. It is concluded that both the parallel gap welding of the SSF interconnects and the soldering of the APSA interconnects are adequately designed to handle the thermal stresses of space environment temperature extremes.

  10. Design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel for enhancing solar energy collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Jiang, Dongyue; Park, Sung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an arrayed tunable prism panel enabling wide tracking and high solar concentration. • A microfluidic technology allows a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system. • Our prism panel enables high solar concentration up to 2032× factor. • Various liquid prism configurations (stacked prism arrays) and optical materials are considered. • Their impacts on solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration are studied. - Abstract: We present the design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel that enables wide solar tracking and high solar concentration while minimizing energy loss. Each of the liquid prism modules is implemented by a microfluidic (i.e. non-mechanical) technology based on electrowetting for adaptive solar beam steering. Therefore the proposed platform offers a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system while obviating the need for bulky and heavy mechanical moving parts essentially required for a conventional motor-driven solar tracker. In this paper, various liquid prism configurations in terms of design (single, double, triple and quad-stacked prism arrays) as well as optical materials are considered and their impact on optical performance aspects such as solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration is studied. Our system is able to achieve a wide solar tracking covering the whole-day movement of the Sun and a reflection loss below 4.4% with a Rayleigh’s film for a quad-stacked prism configuration. Furthermore, an arrayed prism panel is proposed to increase the aperture area and thus allows for the collection of large amounts of sunlight. Our simulation study based on the optical design software, ZEMAX, indicates that the prism panel is capable of high solar concentration up to 2032× factor even without conventional solar tracking devices. We also deal with dispersion characteristics of the materials and their corresponding effect on

  11. Minimisation of Power loss from partially shaded solar cell arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maine, Tony; Bell, John [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). Built Environment Engineering; Martin, Stewart [University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA (Australia). School of Electrical and Information Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In conventional wiring schemes the output from a partially shaded solar cell array drops rapidly to that of the fully shaded array even when only a small fraction is shaded. In this paper circuit simulation has been used to show that by dynamically reconfiguring the array, the power losses due to shading can be significantly reduced. Reconfiguration is achieved by using switching microcircuits with on-chip photo detectors to determine which parts of the array are in shade. The currents from the shaded and unshaded sections of the array are separated and then connected in parallel to a maximum power point tracker. It is shown that by using this reconfiguration that the power output from a partially shaded array can be increased by at least 100% compared with that from a conventional series connected array over a range of shading conditions. (orig.)

  12. Solar radiation on Mars: Stationary photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, J.; Sherman, I.; Landis, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy is likely to be an important power source for surface-based operation on Mars. Photovoltaic cells offer many advantages. In this article we have presented analytical expressions and solar radiation data for stationary flat surfaces (horizontal and inclined) as a function of latitude, season and atmospheric dust load (optical depth). The diffuse component of the solar radiation on Mars can be significant, thus greatly affecting the optimal inclination angle of the photovoltaic surface.

  13. Low-cost solar electric power

    CERN Document Server

    Fraas, Lewis M

    2014-01-01

    ?This book describes recent breakthroughs that promise major cost reductions in solar energy production in a clear and highly accessible manner. The author addresses the three key areas that have commonly resulted in criticism of solar energy in the past: cost, availability, and variability. Coverage includes cutting-edge information on recently developed 40? efficient solar cells, which can produce double the power of currently available commercial cells. The discussion also highlights the potentially transformative emergence of opportunities for integration of solar energy storage and natura

  14. Design of a Solar Motor Drive System Fed by a Direct-Connected Photovoltaic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYDOGMUS, O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solar motor pump drive system is modeled and simulated. The proposed drive system does not require any kind of energy storage system and dc-dc converter. The system is connected directly to a photovoltaic (PV array. Thus, a low cost solar system can be achieved. A vector controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM is used as a solar motor to increase the efficiency of system. The motor is designed for a low rated voltage level about 24V. The hill climbing MPPT method is used for balanced the motor power and PV power to obtain a high efficiency. The results are performed by using MATLAB/SimPowerSystem blocks. In addition, the PV array is modeled to allow for the possibility of running as on-line adjustable in simulation environment without using lookup table. The performances of motor, MPPT and drive system are analyzed in different conditions as temperature and irradiation of PV array.

  15. Mars Array Technology Experiment Developed to Test Solar Arrays on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Solar arrays will be the power supply for future missions to the planet Mars, including landers, rovers, and eventually human missions to explore the Martian surface. Until Mars Pathfinder landed in July 1997, no solar array had been used on the surface. The MATE package is intended to measure the solar energy reaching the surface, characterize the Martian environment to gather the baseline information required for designing power systems for long-duration missions, and to quantify the performance and degradation of advanced solar cells on the Martian surface. To measure the properties of sunlight reaching the Martian surface, MATE incorporates two radiometers and a visible/NIR spectrometer. The radiometers consist of multiple thermocouple junctions using thin-film technology. These devices generate a voltage proportional to the solar intensity. One radiometer measures the global broadband solar intensity, including both the direct and scattered sunlight, with a field of view of approximately 130. The second radiometer incorporates a slit to measure the direct (unscattered) intensity radiation. The direct radiometer can only be read once per day, with the Sun passing over the slit. The spectrometer measures the global solar spectrum with two 256-element photodiode arrays, one Si sensitive in the visible range (300 to 1100 nm), and a second InGaAs sensitive to the near infrared (900 to 1700 nm). This range covers 86 percent of the total energy from the Sun, with approximately 5-nm resolution. Each photodiode array has its own fiber-optic feed and grating. Although the purpose of the MATE is to gather data useful in designing solar arrays for Mars surface power systems, the radiometer and spectrometer measurements are expected to also provide important scientific data for characterizing the properties of suspended atmospheric dust. In addition to measuring the solar environment of Mars, MATE will measure the performance of five different individual solar cell types

  16. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  17. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Inverted Metamorphic (IMM) solar cells have achieved high efficiency at very low mass, but integration of the thin crystalline photovoltaic device into a flexible...

  18. Distributed Wind Cost Reduction: Learning from Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-02-23

    The distributed wind energy industry can learn several lessons from the solar industry regarding reducing soft costs. Suzanne Tegen presented this overview at the 2016 Distributed Wind Energy Association Business Conference in Washington, D.C., on February 23, 2016.

  19. Flat-plate solar array progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, W. T.; Henry, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has achieved progress in a broad range of technical activities since that reported at the Fourth European Communities Conference. A particularly important analysis has been completed recently which confirms the adoption into practice by the U.S. Photovoltaic (PV Industry, of all the low-cost module technology elements proposed at the 16th Project Integration Meeting for a $2.80/Wp (1980 U.S. Dollars) design approach in the fall of 1980. This work presents along with a projection, using the same techniques, for what is believed to be a very credible ribbon-based module design for less that $0.55/Wp (1980 U.S. Dollars). Other areas to be reported upon include low-cost Si feedstock refinement; ribbon growth; process sequence development for cells; environmental isolation; engineering science investigations; and module testing progress.

  20. Experimental Study of Arcing on High-voltage Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris; Galofaro, Joel; Ferguson, Dale

    2005-01-01

    The main obstacle to the implementation of a high-voltage solar array in space is arcing on the conductor-dielectric junctions exposed to the surrounding plasma. One obvious solution to this problem would be the installation of fully encapsulated solar arrays which were not having exposed conductors at all. However, there are many technological difficulties that must be overcome before the employment of fully encapsulated arrays will turn into reality. An alternative solution to raise arc threshold by modifications of conventionally designed solar arrays looks more appealing, at least in the nearest future. A comprehensive study of arc inception mechanism [1-4] suggests that such modifications can be done in the following directions: i) to insulate conductor-dielectric junction from a plasma environment (wrapthrough interconnects); ii) to change a coverglass geometry (overhang); iii) to increase a coverglass thickness; iiii) to outgas areas of conductor-dielectric junctions. The operation of high-voltage array in LEO produces also the parasitic current power drain on the electrical system. Moreover, the current collected from space plasma by solar arrays determines the spacecraft floating potential that is very important for the design of spacecraft and its scientific apparatus. In order to verify the validity of suggested modifications and to measure current collection five different solar array samples have been tested in large vacuum chamber. Each sample (36 silicon based cells) consists of three strings containing 12 cells connected in series. Thus, arc rate and current collection can be measured on every string independently, or on a whole sample when strings are connected in parallel. The heater installed in the chamber provides the possibility to test samples under temperature as high as 80 C that simulates the LEO operational temperature. The experimental setup is described below.

  1. Development of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.; Krumweide, Duane; Gaddy, Edward; Katz, Ira

    2000-01-01

    The results of design, analysis, and qualification of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panel are described. The objective of the ECSA design is to provide an electrostatic environment that does not interfere with sensitive instruments on scientific spacecraft. The ECSA design uses large, ITO-coated coverglasses that cover multiple solar cells, an aperture grid that covers the intercell areas, stress-relieved interconnects for connecting the aperture grid to the coverglasses, and edge clips to provides an electromagnetically shielded enclosure for the solar array active circuitry. Qualification coupons were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic response, conductivity, and survivability to launch acoustic and thermal cycling environments simulating LEO and GEO missions. The benefits of reducing solar panel interaction with the space environment are also discussed.

  2. Solar Radiation on Mars: Tracking Photovoltaic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.; Crutchik, Marcos

    1994-01-01

    A photovoltaic power source for surface-based operation on Mars can offer many advantages. Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars and the insolation on various types of collector surfaces are necessary for effective design of future planned photovoltaic systems. In this article we have presented analytical expressions for solar radiation calculation and solar radiation data for single axis (of various types) and two axis tracking surfaces and compared the insulation to horizontal and inclined surfaces. For clear skies (low atmospheric dust load) tracking surfaces resulted in higher insolation than stationary surfaces, whereas for highly dusty atmospheres, the difference is small. The insolation on the different types of stationary and tracking surfaces depend on latitude, season and optical depth of the atmosphere, and the duration of system operation. These insolations have to be compared for each mission.

  3. Science with the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Gary, Dale E.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Chen, Bin; White, Stephen M.; Hurford, Gordon J.; McTiernan, James; Hickish, Jack; Yu, Sijie; Nelin, Kjell B.

    2017-08-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is a solar-dedicated radio array that makes images and spectra of the full Sun on a daily basis. Our main science goals are to understand the basic physics of solar activity, such as how the Sun releases stored magnetic energy on timescales of seconds, and how that solar activity, in the form of solar flares and coronal mass ejections, influences the Earth and near-Earth space environment, through disruptions of communication and navigation systems, and effects on satellites and systems on the ground. The array, which is composed out of thirteen 2.1 m dishes and two 27 m dishes (used only for calibration), has a footprint of 1.1 km EW x 1.2 km NS and it is capable of producing, every second, microwave images at two polarizations and 500 science channels spanning the 1-18 GHz frequency range. Such ability to make multi-frequency images of the Sun in this broad range of frequencies, with a frequency dependent resolution ranging from ˜53” at 1 GHz to ˜3”at 18 GHz, is unique in the world. Here we present an overview of the EOVSA instrument and a first set of science-quality active region and solar flare images produced from data taken during April 2017.This research is supported by NSF grant AST-1615807 and NASA grant NNX14AK66G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  4. Innovative Solar Tracking Concept by Rotating Prism Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become one of the most promising renewable energies and is the most widely used nowadays. In order to achieve an optimum performance, both photovoltaic and solar thermal applications are required to track the position of the sun throughout the day and year in the most effective way possible to avoid a high negative impact on the system efficiency. The present paper attempts to describe a novel semipassive solar tracking concentrator (SPSTC in which, in order to track the sun, two independent arrays of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA prisms are implemented to refract sunlight by rotating said prisms, thus being able to redirect solar radiation as desired. The first set is responsible for eliminating one of the directional components of the solar radiation; the task is achieved by rotating the prisms within the array at a specific angle. The second set deals with another of the sunlight’s directional components, transforming its direction into a completely perpendicular pattern to the array. Having downward vertical radiation makes it possible to implement a stationary Fresnel lens to concentrate the solar radiation for any application desired. The system is designed and validated using simulation software to prove the feasibility of the concept.

  5. High Voltage Solar Array Arc Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Todd; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Vaughn, J. A.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.; Ferguson, D.; Kerslake, T. W.; Peterson, T.; Snyder, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (D2HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration trigger arcs as well as long duration sustained arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of voltage, current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (greater than 300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  6. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  7. A Unique test for Hubble's new Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    In mid-October, a team from the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA will perform a difficult, never-before-done test on one of the Hubble Space Telescope's new solar array panels. Two of these panels, or arrays, will be installed by astronauts in November 2001, when the Space Shuttle Columbia visits Hubble on a routine service mission. The test will ensure that the new arrays are solid and vibration free before they are installed on orbit. The test will be conducted at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Because of the array's size, the facility's special features, and ESA's longstanding experience with Hubble's solar arrays, ESTEC is the only place in the world the test can be performed. This test is the latest chapter in a longstanding partnership between ESA and NASA on the Hubble Space Telescope. The Large Space Simulator at ESTEC, ESA's world-class test facility, features a huge vacuum chamber containing a bank of extremely bright lights that simulate the Sun's intensity - including sunrise and sunset. By exposing the solar wing to the light and temperature extremes of Hubble's orbit, engineers can verify how the new set of arrays will act in space. Hubble orbits the Earth once every 90 minutes. During each orbit, the telescope experiences 45 minutes of searing sunlight and 45 minutes of frigid darkness. This test will detect any tiny vibrations, or jitters, caused by these dramatic, repeated changes. Even a small amount of jitter can affect Hubble's sensitive instruments and interfere with observations. Hubble's first set of solar arrays experienced mild jitter and was replaced in 1993 with a much more stable pair. Since that time, advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of even more efficient arrays. In 2001, NASA will take advantage of these improvements, by fitting Hubble with a third-generation set of arrays. Though smaller, this new set generates more power than the previous

  8. HST Solar Arrays photographed by Electronic Still Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This close-up view of one of two Solar Arrays (SA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC), and downlinked to ground controllers soon afterward. Electronic still photography is a technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  9. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  10. Thermally-Induced Structural Disturbances of Rigid Panel Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D.; Thornton, Earl A.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a significant number of spacecraft has been impacted negatively by attitude disturbances resulting from thermally-induced motions of flexible structures. Recent examples of spacecraft affected by these disturbances include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Thermally-induced structural disturbances occur as the result of rapid changes in thermal loading typically initiated as a satellite exits or enters the Earth's shadow. Temperature differences in flexible appendages give rise to structural deformations, which in turn result in disturbance torques reacting back on the spacecraft. Structures which have proven susceptible to these disturbances include deployable booms and solar arrays. This paper investigates disturbances resulting from thermally-induced deformations of rigid panel solar arrays. An analytical model for the thermal-structural response of the solar array and the corresponding disturbance torque are presented. The effect of these disturbances on the attitude dynamics of a simple spacecraft is then investigated using a coupled system of governing equations which includes the effects of thermally-induced deformations. Numerical results demonstrate the effect of varying solar array geometry on the dynamic response of the system.

  11. Solar observations with the prototype of the Brazilian Decimetric Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Ramesh, R.; Faria, C.; Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Madsen, F. H. R.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sundararajan, M. S.

    The prototype of the Brazilian Decimetric Array BDA consists of 5 element alt-az mounted parabolic mesh type dishes of 4-meter diameter having base lines up to 220 meters in the E--W direction The array was put into regular operation at Cachoeira Paulista Brazil longitude 45 r 00 20 W and latitude 22 r 41 19 S This array operates in the frequency range of 1 2 -- 1 7 GHz Solar observations are carried at sim 1 4 GHz in transit and tracking modes Spatial fine structures superimposed on the one dimensional brightness map of the sun associated with active regions and or with solar activity and their time evolution will be presented In the second phase of the project the frequency range will be increased to 1 2 - 1 7 2 8 and 5 6 GHz Central part of the array will consist of 26 antennas with 4-meter diameter laid out randomically in the square of 256 by 256 meter with minimum and maximum base lines of 8 and 256 meters respectively Details of this array with imaging capabilities in snap shot mode for solar observations and procedure of the phase and amplitude calibrations will be presented The development of instrument will be completed by the beginning of 2008

  12. Mechanical design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, M. S.; Hsu, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study and conceptual design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application with approximately a 100 kW power requirement. The baseline design calls for a multiple series of inverted, truncated, pyramidal optical elements with a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of 6. It also calls for low life cycle cost, simple on-orbit maintainability, 1984 technology readiness date, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) of silicon (Si) solar cell interchangeability. Due to the large area needed to produce the amount of power required for the baseline space station, a symmetrical wing design, making maximum use of the commonality of parts approach, was taken. This paper will describe the mechanical and structural design of a mass-producible solar array that is very easy to tailor to the needs of the individual user requirement.

  13. Assessment of High-Voltage Photovoltaic Technologies for the Design of a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Schneider, T.; Carruth, M. R.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    A three-year program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster system (D2HET) begun in 2001 as part of the NASA Advanced Cross-Enterprise Technology Development initiative. The system, which is expected to reduce significantly the power processing, complexity, weight, and cost over conventional low-voltage systems, will employ solar arrays that operate at voltages higher than (or equal to) 300 V. The lessons learned from the development of the technology also promise to become a stepping-stone for the production of the next generation of power systems employing high voltage solar arrays. This paper summarizes the results from experiments conducted mainly at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center with two main solar array technologies. The experiments focused on electron collection and arcing studies, when the solar cells operated at high voltages. The tests utilized small coupons representative of each solar array technology. A hollow cathode was used to emulate parts of the induced environment on the solar arrays, mostly the low-energy charge-exchange plasma (1012-1013 m-3 and 0.5-1 eV). Results and conclusions from modeling of electron collection are also summarized. The observations from the total effort are used to propose a preliminary, new solar array design for 2 kW and 30-40 kW class, deep space missions that may employ a single or a cluster of Hall- Effect thrusters.

  14. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  15. Realistic generation cost of solar photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parm Pal; Singh, Sukhmeet

    2010-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plants have long working life with zero fuel cost and negligible maintenance cost but requires huge initial investment. The generation cost of the solar electricity is mainly the cost of financing the initial investment. Therefore, the generation cost of solar electricity in different years depends on the method of returning the loan. Currently levelized cost based on equated payment loan is being used. The static levelized generation cost of solar electricity is compared with the current value of variable generation cost of grid electricity. This improper cost comparison is inhibiting the growth of SPV electricity by creating wrong perception that solar electricity is very expensive. In this paper a new method of loan repayment has been developed resulting in generation cost of SPV electricity that increases with time like that of grid electricity. A generalized capital recovery factor has been developed for graduated payment loan in which capital and interest payment in each installment are calculated by treating each loan installment as an independent loan for the relevant years. Generalized results have been calculated which can be used to determine the cost of SPV electricity for a given system at different places. Results show that for SPV system with specific initial investment of 5.00 cents /kWh/year, loan period of 30 years and loan interest rate of 4% the levelized generation cost of SPV electricity with equated payment loan turns out to be 28.92 cents /kWh, while the corresponding generation cost with graduated payment loan with escalation in annual installment of 8% varies from 9.51 cents /kWh in base year to 88.63 cents /kWh in 30th year. So, in this case, the realistic current generation cost of SPV electricity is 9.51 cents /kWh and not 28.92 cents /kWh. Further, with graduated payment loan, extension in loan period results in sharp decline in cost of SPV electricity in base year. Hence, a policy change is required

  16. Signal processing for solar array monitoring, fault detection, and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Henry; Spanias, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Although the solar energy industry has experienced rapid growth recently, high-level management of photovoltaic (PV) arrays has remained an open problem. As sensing and monitoring technology continues to improve, there is an opportunity to deploy sensors in PV arrays in order to improve their management. In this book, we examine the potential role of sensing and monitoring technology in a PV context, focusing on the areas of fault detection, topology optimization, and performance evaluation/data visualization. First, several types of commonly occurring PV array faults are considered and detection algorithms are described. Next, the potential for dynamic optimization of an array's topology is discussed, with a focus on mitigation of fault conditions and optimization of power output under non-fault conditions. Finally, monitoring system design considerations such as type and accuracy of measurements, sampling rate, and communication protocols are considered. It is our hope that the benefits of monitoring presen...

  17. Costs of solar and wind power variability for reducing CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Colleen; Cohen, Gilbert E; Apt, Jay

    2012-09-04

    We compare the power output from a year of electricity generation data from one solar thermal plant, two solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and twenty Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) wind farms. The analysis shows that solar PV electricity generation is approximately one hundred times more variable at frequencies on the order of 10(-3) Hz than solar thermal electricity generation, and the variability of wind generation lies between that of solar PV and solar thermal. We calculate the cost of variability of the different solar power sources and wind by using the costs of ancillary services and the energy required to compensate for its variability and intermittency, and the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. We show the costs of variability are highly dependent on both technology type and capacity factor. California emissions data were used to calculate the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. Variability cost is greatest for solar PV generation at $8-11 per MWh. The cost of variability for solar thermal generation is $5 per MWh, while that of wind generation in ERCOT was found to be on average $4 per MWh. Variability adds ~$15/tonne CO(2) to the cost of abatement for solar thermal power, $25 for wind, and $33-$40 for PV.

  18. Silicon web process development. [for low cost solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Hopkins, R. H.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, a single crystal ribbon shaped during growth by crystallographic forces and surface tension (rather than dies), is a highly promising base material for efficient low cost solar cells. The form of the product smooth, flexible strips 100 to 200 microns thick, conserves expensive silicon and facilitates automation of crystal growth and the subsequent manufacturing of solar cells. These characteristics, coupled with the highest demonstrated ribbon solar cell efficiency-15.5%-make silicon web a leading candidate to achieve, or better, the 1986 Low Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project cost objective of 50 cents per peak watt of photovoltaic output power. The main objective of the Web Program, technology development to significantly increase web output rate, and to show the feasibility for simultaneous melt replenishment and growth, have largely been accomplished. Recently, web output rates of 23.6 sq cm/min, nearly three times the 8 sq cm/min maximum rate of a year ago, were achieved. Webs 4 cm wide or greater were grown on a number of occassions.

  19. Impacts of Solar PV Arrays on Physicochemical Properties of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, A.; Choi, C. S.; Macknick, J.; Ravi, S.; Bickhart, R.

    2017-12-01

    The deployment of renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is rapidly escalating. While PV can provide clean, renewable energy, there is uncertainty regarding its potential positive and/or negative impacts on the local environment. Specifically, its effects on the physicochemical properties of the underlying soil have not been systematically quantified. This study facilitates the discussion on the effects of PV installations related to the following questions: i. How do soil moisture, infiltration rates, total organic carbon, and nitrogen contents vary spatially under a PV array? ii. How do these physicochemical properties compare to undisturbed and adjacent land covered in native vegetation? iii. Are these variations statistically significant to provide insight on whether PV installations have beneficial or detrimental impacts on soil? We address these questions through field measurements of soil moisture, infiltration, grain particle size distribution, total organic carbon, and nitrogen content at a 1-MW solar PV array located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. We collect data via multiple transects underneath the PV array as as well as in an adjacent plot of undisturbed native vegetation. Measurements are taken at four positions under the solar panels; the east-facing edge, center area under the panel, west-facing edge, and interspace between panel rows to capture differences in sun exposure as well as precipitation runoff of panels. Measurements are collected before and after a precipitation event to capture differences in soil moisture and infiltration rates. Results of this work can provide insights for research fields associated with the co-location of agriculture and PV installations as well as the long term ecological impacts of solar energy development. Trends in physicochemical properties under and between solar panels can affect the viability of co-location of commercial crops in PV arrays, the

  20. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Morrison, A.; Anderson, J.; Clifford, A.; Lafky, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing photovoltaic solar array modules by the use of energy obtained from similar or identical photovoltaic sources are presented. The primary objective of this investigation was the characterization of the energy requirements of current and developing technologies which comprise the photovoltaic field. For cross-checking the energies of prevailing technologies data were also used and the wide-range assessment of alternative technologies included different refinement methods, various ways of producing light sheets, semicrystalline cells, etc. Energy data are utilized to model the behavior of a future solar breeder plant under various operational conditions.

  1. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  2. Hubble gets new ESA-supplied solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Derek Eaton, ESA project manager, was overjoyed with the success of the day's spacewalk. "To build two such massive arrays some years apart to such tight tolerances and have one replace the other with so few problems is a tribute to the design and manufacturing skills of ESA and British Aerospace, the prime contractor for the arrays", he said. "The skill of Kathy and Tom contributed greatly to this success". The astronauts began their spacewalk at 09h30 p.m. CST (04h30 a.m. CET, Monday). Their first task was to jettison the troublesome solar array that failed to retract yesterday. Perched on the end of the shuttle's robot arm, 7.5 metres above the cargo bay, Thornton carefully released the array. ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier then pulled the arm away from the free-floating panel and mission commander Dick Covey fired the shuttle's thrusters to back away. Endeavour and the discarded array are moving apart at a rate of 18.5 kilometres each 90-minute orbit of the Earth. The array is expected to burn up in the Earth's atmosphere harmlessly within a year or so. The astronauts had no problems installing the new arrays and stowing the left-hand wing in the cargo bay for the return to Earth. The new arrays will remain rolled-up against the side of the telescope until the fifth spacewalk on Wednesday/Thursday. The telescope itself will be deployed on Saturday. The telescope's first set of arrays flexed in orbit because of the sudden swing in temperature as the craft moved in and out of sunlight. The movement, or "jitter", affected the telescope's pointing system and disrupted observations at times. The Space Telescope Operations Control Centre largely compensated for the problem with special software but this occupied a large amount of computer memory. The new arrays incorporate three major changes to eliminate the problem. The metal bi-stem booms, which support the solar blankets, is protected from extreme temperature changes by a concertina-style sleeve made up of one

  3. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Crystal Gowth for High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, K. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A Workshop on Crystal Growth for High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells was held December 3 and 4, 1984, in San Diego, California. The Workshop offered a day and a half of technical presentations and discussions and an afternoon session that involved a panel discussion and general discussion of areas of research that are necessary to the development of materials for high-efficiency solar cells. Topics included the theoretical and experimental aspects of growing high-quality silicon crystals, the effects of growth-process-related defects on photovoltaic devices, and the suitability of various growth technologies as cost-effective processes. Fifteen invited papers were presented, with a discussion period following each presentation. The meeting was organized by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These Proceedings are a record of the presentations and discussions, edited for clarity and continuity.

  4. Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna for High Bandwidth Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorothy; Agasid, Elwood Floyd; Ardila, David R.; Hunter, Roger C.; Baker, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna (ISARA) mission will demonstrate a reflectarray antenna that increases downlink data rates for CubeSats from the existing baseline rate of 9.6 kilobits per second (kbps) to more than100 megabits per second (Mbps). A secondary payload called the CubeSat Multispectral Observation System (CUMULOS), is an experimental remote sensing payload also being demonstrated on this mission. A launch date for the ISARA spacecraft is currently pending.

  5. Initial solar observations with Prototype Brazilian Decimetric Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F. C. R.; Ramesh, R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Andrade, M. C.; Subramanian, K. R.; Rajan, M. S. Sundara; Sawant, H. S.

    The Prototype Brazilian Decimetre Array (PBDA) consists of 5 element alt-azimuth mounted parabolic dishes of 4-m diameter, having baselines up to 216 m in East-West direction. We present initial solar observations carried out with the PBDA during the period 22nd November to 11th December, 2004. The frequency of observation was 1.6 GHz. The temporal and spatial resolution were 100 ms and 3 arcmin, respectively.

  6. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, W.; Mcdonald, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1975, the U.S. Government contracted the Jet Propulsion Lab. to develop, by 1985, in conjunction with industry, the photovoltaics (PV) module and array technology required for widespread use of photovoltaics as a significant terrestrial energy source. As a result, a project that eventually became known as the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was formed to manage an industry, university, and Government team to perform the necessary research and development. The original goals were to achieve widespread commercial use of PV modules and arrays through the development of technology that would allow them to be profitably sold for $1.07/peak watts (1985 dollars). A 10% module conversion efficiency and a 20 year lifetime were also goals. It is intended that the executive summary provide the means by which one can gain a perspective on 11 years of terrestrial photovoltaic research and development conducted by the FSA Project.

  7. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  8. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  9. Development of a Solar Array Drive Assembly for CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaretti, Mike; Hayes, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Small satellites and in particular CubeSats, have increasingly become more viable as platforms for payloads typically requiring much larger bus structures. As advances in technology make payloads and instruments for space missions smaller, lighter and more power efficient, a niche market is emerging from the university community to perform rapidly developed, low-cost missions on very small spacecraft - micro, nano, and picosatellites. In just the last few years, imaging, biological and new technology demonstration missions have been either proposed or have flown using variations of the CubeSat structure as a basis. As these missions have become more complex, and the CubeSat standard has increased in both size (number of cubes) and mass, available power has become an issue. Body-mounted solar cells provide a minimal amount of power; deployable arrays improve on that baseline but are still limited. To truly achieve maximum power, deployed tracked arrays are necessary. To this end, Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation, along with MMA of Nederland Colorado, has developed a solar array drive assembly (SADA) and deployable solar arrays specifically for CubeSat missions. In this paper, we discuss the development of the SADA.

  10. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  11. Technology for Solar Array Production on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon, aluminum, and glass are the primary raw materials that will be required for production of solar arrays on the moon. A process sequence is proposed for producing these materials from lunar regolith is proposed, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. Fluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O. Aluminum, calcium oxide, and magnesium oxide are recovered to manufacture structural materials and glass.

  12. An IBM PC-based math model for space station solar array simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses and documents the design, development, and verification of a microcomputer-based solar cell math model for simulating the Space Station's solar array Initial Operational Capability (IOC) reference configuration. The array model is developed utilizing a linear solar cell dc math model requiring only five input parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and orbit inclination. The accuracy of this model is investigated using actual solar array on orbit electrical data derived from the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE), conducted during the STS-41D mission. This simulator provides real-time simulated performance data during the steady state portion of the Space Station orbit (i.e., array fully exposed to sunlight). Eclipse to sunlight transients and shadowing effects are not included in the analysis, but are discussed briefly. Integrating the Solar Array Simulator (SAS) into the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) subsystem is also discussed.

  13. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Li, Xueping [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  14. Development of the solar array deployment and drive system for the XTE spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Rodger; Ngo, Son

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) spacecraft is a NASA science low-earth orbit explorer-class satellite to be launched in 1995, and is an in-house Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project. It has two deployable aluminum honeycomb solar array wings with each wing being articulated by a single axis solar array drive assembly. This paper will address the design, the qualification testing, and the development problems as they surfaced of the Solar Array Deployment and Drive System.

  15. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  16. SOLAR OPACITY CALCULATIONS USING THE SUPER-TRANSITION-ARRAY METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D.

    2016-01-01

    A new opacity model has been developed based on the Super-Transition-Array (STA) method for the calculation of monochromatic opacities of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The atomic code, named STAR (STA-Revised), is described and used to calculate spectral opacities for a solar model implementing the recent AGSS09 composition. Calculations are carried out throughout the solar radiative zone. The relative contributions of different chemical elements and atomic processes to the total Rosseland mean opacity are analyzed in detail. Monochromatic opacities and charge-state distributions are compared with the widely used Opacity Project (OP) code, for several elements near the radiation–convection interface. STAR Rosseland opacities for the solar mixture show a very good agreement with OP and the OPAL opacity code throughout the radiation zone. Finally, an explicit STA calculation was performed of the full AGSS09 photospheric mixture, including all heavy metals. It was shown that, due to their extremely low abundance, and despite being very good photon absorbers, the heavy elements do not affect the Rosseland opacity

  17. Solar Array Panels With Dust-Removal Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Stephen; Mardesich, Nick; Spence, Brian; White, Steve

    2004-01-01

    It has been proposed to incorporate piezoelectric vibrational actuators into the structural supports of solar photovoltaic panels, for the purpose of occasionally inducing vibrations in the panels in order to loosen accumulated dust. Provided that the panels were tilted, the loosened dust would slide off under its own weight. Originally aimed at preventing obscuration of photovoltaic cells by dust accumulating in the Martian environment, the proposal may also offer an option for the design of solar photovoltaic panels for unattended operation at remote locations on Earth. The figure depicts a typical lightweight solar photovoltaic panel comprising a backside grid of structural spars that support a thin face sheet that, in turn, supports an array of photovoltaic cells on the front side. The backside structure includes node points where several spars intersect. According to the proposal, piezoelectric buzzers would be attached to the node points. The process of designing the panel would be an iterative one that would include computational simulation of the vibrations by use of finite- element analysis to guide the selection of the vibrational frequency of the actuators and the cross sections of the spars to maximize the agitation of dust.

  18. SOLAR OPACITY CALCULATIONS USING THE SUPER-TRANSITION-ARRAY METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D., E-mail: menahem.krief@mail.huji.ac.il [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-04-10

    A new opacity model has been developed based on the Super-Transition-Array (STA) method for the calculation of monochromatic opacities of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The atomic code, named STAR (STA-Revised), is described and used to calculate spectral opacities for a solar model implementing the recent AGSS09 composition. Calculations are carried out throughout the solar radiative zone. The relative contributions of different chemical elements and atomic processes to the total Rosseland mean opacity are analyzed in detail. Monochromatic opacities and charge-state distributions are compared with the widely used Opacity Project (OP) code, for several elements near the radiation–convection interface. STAR Rosseland opacities for the solar mixture show a very good agreement with OP and the OPAL opacity code throughout the radiation zone. Finally, an explicit STA calculation was performed of the full AGSS09 photospheric mixture, including all heavy metals. It was shown that, due to their extremely low abundance, and despite being very good photon absorbers, the heavy elements do not affect the Rosseland opacity.

  19. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  20. Research and Development of solar cell frame. Study on solar cell array solid with building material-business building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This is a NEDO annual report for 1985. A feasibility study was carried out from the viewpoints demanded both from the building material side and the solar cell. Evaluation from the technical, institutional, and economical viewpoints indicated the possibility of using a roof material solid with carbon-fiber-reinforced concrete and a curtain wall. The solar cell module was verified as a building material to be resistant against the external force, water, and heat. A problem left is how to enlarge the module. Integrated use of CFRC (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete) and a cell of maximum size (1,240 x 700 mm), which is industrially available, can be expected. Present solar cell array can be utilized as a building material as it is for a curtain wall. Cost calculation of the CFRC solid roofing material indicates 276 yen/KWH for 15 years depreciation, 10 % residual value, and 8% annual interest, which is a little expensive, but this cost may be applicable to the use as a curtain wall.

  1. The cost - effective solar energy applications in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines several cost-effective solar energy application in Canada, and estimates the GHG emission reduction potential for each. The applications include: (1) passive solar building design; (2) solar water heating applications; (3) solar photovoltaics for remote power; and (4) solar assisted space heating and cooling in industrial buildings. Each technology is briefly profiled in terms of functionality, cost characteristics, energy production characteristics and potential emission reduction benefits. Real-life examples of each application are also included. Finally, the paper concludes on the potential role of solar energy in the reduction of Canadian GHG emissions. (author)

  2. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaoyue; Misra, Mano

    2010-01-01

    In this work we describe a novel bifacial design concept for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Bifacial DSCs are fabricated with ruthenium complex chemisorbed double-sided TiO 2 nanotube arrays on a Ti metal substrate, in combination with two electron-collecting counter electrodes. Our investigation shows that the present bifacial DSCs have similar conversion efficiencies when illuminated from either their front or rear side, and a summated output power when illuminated on both sides. Furthermore, this type of bifacial DSC is also able to summate the output power of each side when working at an 'unsymmetrical' mode, in which much different output powers are generated by the front and rear sides. Therefore, this bifacial design concept exhibits a promising potential to reduce the cost of solar electricity when DSCs are operated at a location where a high albedo radiation is available.

  3. Solar Array Sails: Possible Space Plasma Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Willie R.

    2005-01-01

    An examination of the interactions between proposed "solar sail" propulsion systems with photovoltaic energy generation capabilities and the space plasma environments. Major areas of interactions ere: Acting from high voltage arrays, ram and wake effects, V and B current loops and EMI. Preliminary analysis indicates that arcing will be a major risk factor for voltages greater than 300V. Electron temperature enhancement in the wake will be produce noise that can be transmitted via the wake echo process. In addition, V and B induced potential will generate sheath voltages with potential tether like breakage effects in the thin film sails. Advocacy of further attention to these processes is emphasized so that plasma environmental mitigation will be instituted in photovoltaic sail design.

  4. States reducing solar's soft costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Chris

    2012-07-01

    In 2012 the costs of modules will drop below the balance of system costs or 'soft costs' of solar in the US. Federal policy that nationalizes permitting processes could reduce some of the soft costs, but is unlikely. That's why states like California, Colorado, Connecticut and Vermont passed own laws to reduce soft costs by speeding solar permitting and reducing fees. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of candidate solar array maximum power utilization approaches. [for spacecraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Lindena, S.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of five potential approaches that can be utilized to detect the maximum power point of a solar array while sustaining operations at or near maximum power and without endangering stability or causing array voltage collapse. The approaches studied included: (1) dynamic impedance comparator, (2) reference array measurement, (3) onset of solar array voltage collapse detection, (4) parallel tracker, and (5) direct measurement. The study analyzed the feasibility and adaptability of these approaches to a future solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission, and, specifically, to a comet rendezvous mission. Such missions presented the most challenging requirements to a spacecraft power subsystem in terms of power management over large solar intensity ranges of 1.0 to 3.5 AU. The dynamic impedance approach was found to have the highest figure of merit, and the reference array approach followed closely behind. The results are applicable to terrestrial solar power systems as well as to other than SEP space missions.

  6. Output performance analyses of solar array on stratospheric airship with thermal effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Lv, Mingyun; Tan, Dongjie; Zhu, Weiyu; Sun, Kangwen; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A model investigating the output power of solar array is proposed. • The output power in the cruise condition with thermal effect is researched. • The effect of some factors on output performance is discussed in detail. • A suitable transmissivity of external layer is crucial in preliminary design step. - Abstract: Output performance analyses of the solar array are very critical for solving the energy problem of a long endurance stratospheric airship, and the solar cell efficiency is very sensitive to temperature of the solar cell. But the research about output performance of solar array with thermal effect is rare. This paper outlines a numerical model including the thermal model of airship and solar cells, the incident solar radiation model on the solar array, and the power output model. Based on this numerical model, a MATLAB computer program is developed. In the course of the investigation, the comparisons of the simulation results with and without considering thermal effect are reported. Furthermore, effects of the transmissivity of external encapsulation layer of solar array and wind speed on the thermal performance and output power of solar array are discussed in detail. The results indicate that this method is helpful for planning energy management.

  7. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 5: The 1950 Osaka solar grating array proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Ishiguro, Masato; Nakamura, Tsuko

    2017-04-01

    In November 1950, a paper was presented at the 5th Annual Assembly of the Physical Society of Japan that outlined the plan for a radio frequency grating array, designed to provide high-resolution observations of solar radio emission at 3.3 GHz. This short paper provides details of the invention of this array, which occurred independently of W.N. Christiansen's invention of the solar grating array in Australia at almost the same time.

  8. Understanding InP Nanowire Array Solar Cell Performance by Nanoprobe-Enabled Single Nanowire Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otnes, Gaute; Barrigón, Enrique; Sundvall, Christian; Svensson, K Erik; Heurlin, Magnus; Siefer, Gerald; Samuelson, Lars; Åberg, Ingvar; Borgström, Magnus T

    2018-05-09

    III-V solar cells in the nanowire geometry might hold significant synthesis-cost and device-design advantages as compared to thin films and have shown impressive performance improvements in recent years. To continue this development there is a need for characterization techniques giving quick and reliable feedback for growth development. Further, characterization techniques which can improve understanding of the link between nanowire growth conditions, subsequent processing, and solar cell performance are desired. Here, we present the use of a nanoprobe system inside a scanning electron microscope to efficiently contact single nanowires and characterize them in terms of key parameters for solar cell performance. Specifically, we study single as-grown InP nanowires and use electron beam induced current characterization to understand the charge carrier collection properties, and dark current-voltage characteristics to understand the diode recombination characteristics. By correlating the single nanowire measurements to performance of fully processed nanowire array solar cells, we identify how the performance limiting parameters are related to growth and/or processing conditions. We use this understanding to achieve a more than 7-fold improvement in efficiency of our InP nanowire solar cells, grown from a different seed particle pattern than previously reported from our group. The best cell shows a certified efficiency of 15.0%; the highest reported value for a bottom-up synthesized InP nanowire solar cell. We believe the presented approach have significant potential to speed-up the development of nanowire solar cells, as well as other nanowire-based electronic/optoelectronic devices.

  9. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  10. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  11. Summary of flat-plate solar array project documentation: Abstracts of published documents, 1975-1986, revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts of final reports, or the latest quarterly or annual, of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Contractor of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in-house activities are presented. Also presented is a list of proceedings and publications, by author, of work connected with the project. The aim of the program has been to stimulate the development of technology that will enable the private sector to manufacture and widely use photovoltaic systems for the generation of electricity in residential, commercial, industrial, and Government applications at a cost per watt that is competitive with utility generated power. FSA Project activities have included the sponsoring of research and development efforts in silicon refinement processes, advanced silicon sheet growth techniques, higher efficiency solar cells, solar cell/module fabrication processes, encapsulation, module/array engineering and reliability, and economic analyses.

  12. A cost roadmap for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Faaij, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  13. A Cost Roadmap for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, Ruud; Faaij, A.

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  14. New Low Cost Structure for Dual Axis Mount Solar Tracking System Using Adaptive Solar Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    A solar tracking system is designed to optimize the operation of solar energy receivers. The objective of this paper is proposing a new tracking system structure with two axis. The success strategy of this new project focuses on the economical analysis of solar energy. Therefore it is important...... to determine the most cost effective design, to consider the costs of production and maintenance, and operating. The proposed tracking system uses a new solar sensor position with an adaptive feature....

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells with vertically aligned TiO2 nanowire arrays grown on carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun

    2014-02-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) have received widespread attention from solar cell and related optoelectronics scientists. The controllable synthesis of ordered TNW arrays on arbitrary substrates would benefit both fundamental research and practical applications. Herein, vertically aligned TNW arrays in situ grown on carbon fiber (CF) substrates through a facile, controllable, and seed-assisted thermal process is presented. Also, hierarchical TiO2 -nanoparticle/TNW arrays were prepared that favor both the dye loading and depressed charge recombination of the CF/TNW photoanode. An impressive conversion efficiency of 2.48 % (under air mass 1.5 global illumination) and an apparent efficiency of 4.18 % (with a diffuse board) due to the 3D light harvesting of the wire solar cell were achieved. Moreover, efficient and inexpensive wire solar cells made from all-CF electrodes and completely flexible CF-based wire solar cells were demonstrated, taking into account actual application requirements. This work may provide an intriguing avenue for the pursuit of lightweight, cost-effective, and high-performance flexible/wearable solar cells. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and very large array observations of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The research deals mainly with Very Large Array and Solar Maximum Mission observations of the ubiquitous coronal loops that dominate the structure of the low corona. As illustrated, the observations of thermal cyclotron lines at microwave wavelengths provide a powerful new method of accurately specifying the coronal magnetic field strength. Processes are delineated that trigger solar eruptions from coronal loops, including preburst heating and the magnetic interaction of coronal loops. Evidence for coherent burst mechanisms is provided for both the Sun and nearby stars, while other observations suggest the presence of currents that may amplify the coronal magnetic field to unexpectedly high levels. The existence is reported of a new class of compact, variable moving sources in regions of apparently weak photospheric field.

  17. Development of a solar array drive mechanism for micro-satellite platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatis, Giorgos; Guo, Jian; Buursink, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    Photovoltaic solar array (PVSA) systems are the most widely used method for spacecraft power generation. However, in many satellite missions, the optimum orientation of the PVSA system is not always compatible with that of the payload orientation. Many methods, have been examined in the past to overcome this problem. Up to date, the most widely used active method for large costly satellites is the Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM). The SADM serves as the interface between the satellite body and the PVSA subsystem, enabling the decoupling of their spatial orientation. Nonetheless, there exists a research and development gap for such systems regarding low cost micro-satellites. During the literature study of this paper, individual orbital parameters of various micro-satellites have been extracted and compared to the rotational freedom of the corresponding SADMs used. The findings demonstrated that the implemented SADMs are over designed. It is therefore concluded that these components are not tailored made for each spacecraft mission individually, but rather, exhibit a generic design to full fill a majority of mission profiles and requirements. Motivated by the above analysis, the cardinal objective of the current research is to develop a low cost mechanism that will be precisely tailored for the use of a low Earth orbit (LEO) micro-satellite platform orbiting in altitudes of 500 - 1000km . The design of the mechanism may vary from the existing miniaturized SADMs. For example, the preliminary analysis of the current research suggests, that the conventional use of the slip ring system as the electronic transfer unit can be replaced by a seMI Orientation Unit (MIOU). Systems engineering tools for concept generation and selection have been used. In addition, simulation and mathematical modelling have been implemented on component and system level, to accurately predict the behaviour of the system under various modes of operation. The production and system testing of

  18. Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power System And Diesel Generator System For Remote Residential Application In Nigeria. ... like capital cost, and diesel fuel costs are varied. The results show the photovoltaic system to be more cost-effective at low-power ranges of electrical energy supply.

  19. Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism: Design, Build and Environmental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Noemy; Ferris, Mark; Phillips, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The development of the Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism (BSADM) presented in this paper is a demonstration of SSTL's unique space manufacturing approach that enables performing rapid development cycles for cost-effective products that meet ever-challenging mission requirements: The BSADM is designed to orient a solar array wing towards the sun, using its first rotation axis to track the sun, and its second rotation axis to compensate for the satellite orbit and attitude changes needed for a successful payload operation. The tight development schedule, with manufacture of 7 Flight Models within 1.5 year after kick-off, is offset by the risk-reduction of using qualified key component-families from other proven SSTL mechanisms. This allowed focusing the BSADM design activities on the mechanism features that are unique to the BSADM, and having an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) built 8 months after kick-off. The EQM is currently undergoing a full environmental qualification test campaign. This paper presents the BSADM design approach that enabled meeting such a challenging schedule, its design particularities, and the ongoing verification activities.

  20. Input Shaping to Reduce Solar Array Structural Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael J.; Tolson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Structural vibrations induced by actuators can be minimized using input shaping. Input shaping is a feedforward method in which actuator commands are convolved with shaping functions to yield a shaped set of commands. These commands are designed to perform the maneuver while minimizing the residual structural vibration. In this report, input shaping is extended to stepper motor actuators. As a demonstration, an input-shaping technique based on pole-zero cancellation was used to modify the Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) actuator commands for the Lewis satellite. A series of impulses were calculated as the ideal SADA output for vibration control. These impulses were then discretized for use by the SADA stepper motor actuator and simulated actuator outputs were used to calculate the structural response. The effectiveness of input shaping is limited by the accuracy of the knowledge of the modal frequencies. Assuming perfect knowledge resulted in significant vibration reduction. Errors of 10% in the modal frequencies caused notably higher levels of vibration. Controller robustness was improved by incorporating additional zeros in the shaping function. The additional zeros did not require increased performance from the actuator. Despite the identification errors, the resulting feedforward controller reduced residual vibrations to the level of the exactly modeled input shaper and well below the baseline cases. These results could be easily applied to many other vibration-sensitive applications involving stepper motor actuators.

  1. Securitization of residential solar photovoltaic assets: Costs, risks and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alafita, T.; Pearce, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Limited access to low-cost financing is an impediment to high-velocity technological diffusion and high grid penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Securitization of solar assets provides a potential solution to this problem. This paper assesses the viability of solar asset-backed securities (ABS) as a lower cost financing mechanism and identifies policies that could facilitate implementation of securitization. First, traditional solar financing is examined to provide a baseline for cost comparisons. Next, the securitization process is modeled. The model enables identification of several junctures at which risk and uncertainty influence costs. Next, parameter values are assigned and used to generate cost estimates. Results show that, under reasonable assumptions, securitization of solar power purchase agreements (PPA) can significantly reduce project financing costs, suggesting that securitization is a viable mechanism for improving the financing of PV projects. The clear impediment to the successful launch of a solar ABS is measuring and understanding the riskiness of underlying assets. This study identifies three classes of policy intervention that lower the cost of ABS by reducing risk or by improving the measurement of risk: (i) standardization of contracts and the contracting process, (ii) improved access to contract and equipment performance data, and (iii) geographic diversification. - Highlights: • Limited access to low-cost financing is hampering penetration of solar PV. • Solar asset-backed securities (ABS) provide a low cost financing mechanism. • Results for securitization of solar leases and power purchase agreements (PPA). • Securitization can significantly reduce project financing costs. • Identifies policy intervention that lower cost of ABS by reducing risk

  2. Micro solar concentrators: Design and fabrication for microcells arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutteau, Sébastien; Paire, Myriam; Proise, Florian; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    In this work we look at a micro-concentrating system adapted to a new type of concentrator photovoltaic material, well known for flate-plate applications, Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells are polycrystalline thin film devices that can be deposited by a variety of techniques. We proposed to use a microcell architecture [1], [2], with lateral dimensions varying from a few μm to hundreds of μm, to adapt the film cell to concentration conditions. A 5% absolute efficiency increase on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 microcells at 475 suns has been observed for a final efficiency of 21.3%[3]. We study micro-concentrating systems adapted to the low and middle concentration range, where thin film concentrator cells will lean to substrate fabrication simplification and cost savings. Our study includes optical design, fabrication and experimental tests of prototypes.

  3. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. (Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  4. Extremely Black Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Solar Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhe; Wang, Huimin; Jian, Muqiang; Li, Yanshen; Xia, Kailun; Zhang, Mingchao; Wang, Chunya; Wang, Qi; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Quan-Shui; Zhang, Yingying

    2017-08-30

    The unique structure of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array makes it behave most similarly to a blackbody. It is reported that the optical absorptivity of an extremely black VACNT array is about 0.98-0.99 over a large spectral range of 200 nm-200 μm, inspiring us to explore the performance of VACNT arrays in solar energy harvesting. In this work, we report the highly efficient steam generation simply by laminating a layer of VACNT array on the surface of water to harvest solar energy. It is found that under solar illumination the temperature of upper water can significantly increase with obvious water steam generated, indicating the efficient solar energy harvesting and local temperature rise by the thin layer of VACNTs. We found that the evaporation rate of water assisted by VACNT arrays is 10 times that of bare water, which is the highest ratio for solar-thermal-steam generation ever reported. Remarkably, the solar thermal conversion efficiency reached 90%. The excellent performance could be ascribed to the strong optical absorption and local temperature rise induced by the VACNT layer, as well as the ultrafast water transport through the VACNT layer due to the frictionless wall of CNTs. Based on the above, we further demonstrated the application of VACNT arrays in solar-driven desalination.

  5. Process Development of Gallium Nitride Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chen

    Dilute Nitride GaNP is a promising materials for opto-electronic applications due to its band gap tunability. The efficiency of GaNxP1-x /GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire solar cell (NWSC) is expected to reach as high as 44% by 1% N and 9% N in the core and shell, respectively. By developing such high efficiency NWSCs on silicon substrate, a further reduction of the cost of solar photovoltaic can be further reduced to 61$/MWh, which is competitive to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of fossil fuels. Therefore, a suitable NWSC structure and fabrication process need to be developed to achieve this promising NWSC. This thesis is devoted to the study on the development of fabrication process of GaNxP 1-x/GaNyP1-y core-shell Nanowire solar cell. The thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first parts, previously grown GaP/GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire samples are used to develop the fabrication process of Gallium Nitride Phosphide nanowire solar cell. The design for nanowire arrays, passivation layer, polymeric filler spacer, transparent col- lecting layer and metal contact are discussed and fabricated. The property of these NWSCs are also characterized to point out the future development of Gal- lium Nitride Phosphide NWSC. In the second part, a nano-hole template made by nanosphere lithography is studied for selective area growth of nanowires to improve the structure of core-shell NWSC. The fabrication process of nano-hole templates and the results are presented. To have a consistent features of nano-hole tem- plate, the Taguchi Method is used to optimize the fabrication process of nano-hole templates.

  6. NPS-SCAT (Solar Cell Array Tester), The Construction of NPS' First Prototype CubeSat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Alexander L

    2008-01-01

    .... This Master's Thesis describes the NPS-SCAT (solar cell array tester) project, including the author's experience as program manager of the project, responsible for budget, schedule and technical deliverables...

  7. Affordable, Lightweight, Compactly Stowable, High Strength / Stiffness Lander Solar Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system specifically for NASA's future Lander and sample return...

  8. Affordable, Lightweight, Compactly Stowable, High Strength / Stiffness Lander Solar Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system specifically for NASA's future Lander and sample return...

  9. High-Performance Elastically Self-Deployed Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable roll-out solar array (ROSA) structural platform that when combined with...

  10. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a new subsystem technology for CubeSats. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) is an efficient, compact, high gain, low...

  11. Next-Generation Ultra-Compact Stowage/Lightweight Solar Array System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system that has game-changing performance metrics in terms of...

  12. Foldable Compactly Stowable Extremely High Power Solar Array System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a high performance solar array system that has game-changing performance metrics in terms of ultra-compact stowage...

  13. Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being...

  14. FDM-HAWK, A High Performance Compact Modular Solar Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Developing a next generation high performance solar array with significant reduction in size and weight will result in improved NASA mission capabilities at lower...

  15. TRUSSELATOR - On-Orbit Fabrication of High Performance Support Structures for Solar Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Trusselator technology will enable on-orbit fabrication of support structures for high-power solar arrays and large antennas, achieving order-of-magnitude...

  16. Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being...

  17. Tensioned Rollable Ultra-light Solar array System (TRUSS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRUSS is a structurally efficient solar array concept that utilizes a TRAC rollable boom and tension-stiffened structure to exceed the program requirements for very...

  18. Influences of misprediction costs on solar flare prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Wang, HuaNing; Dai, XingHua

    2012-10-01

    The mispredictive costs of flaring and non-flaring samples are different for different applications of solar flare prediction. Hence, solar flare prediction is considered a cost sensitive problem. A cost sensitive solar flare prediction model is built by modifying the basic decision tree algorithm. Inconsistency rate with the exhaustive search strategy is used to determine the optimal combination of magnetic field parameters in an active region. These selected parameters are applied as the inputs of the solar flare prediction model. The performance of the cost sensitive solar flare prediction model is evaluated for the different thresholds of solar flares. It is found that more flaring samples are correctly predicted and more non-flaring samples are wrongly predicted with the increase of the cost for wrongly predicting flaring samples as non-flaring samples, and the larger cost of wrongly predicting flaring samples as non-flaring samples is required for the higher threshold of solar flares. This can be considered as the guide line for choosing proper cost to meet the requirements in different applications.

  19. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  20. Degradation of Solar Array Components in a Combined UV/VUV High Temperature Test Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nömayr Christel

    2017-01-01

    A design verification test under UV/VUV conditions of sun exposed materials and technologies on component level is presented which forms part of the overall verification and qualification of the solar array design of the MTM and MPO. The test concentrates on the self-contamination aspects and the resulting performance losses of the solar array under high intensity and elevated temperature environment representative for the photovoltaic assembly (PVA.

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Solar Photovoltaic Array at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-24

    fire hazard to solar panel array. ● Where applicable, reduce erosion using rough grade slopes or terrace slopes. ● Identify areas of existing...method would entail the installation of numerous smaller solar PV systems on the roofs of various buildings on the base. This alternative was...panel array.  Where applicable, reduce erosion using rough grade slopes or terrace slopes.  Identify areas of existing vegetation that the proponent

  2. Performance study of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Shengxian; Li, YingFeng; Shi, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied. → The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were studied by experiments. → The influences between the solar cell's performance and the series resistances, the working temperature, solar irradiation intensity were explored. - Abstract: The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied via both experiment and theoretical calculation. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell arrays and the output performances of the TCPV/T system demonstrated that among the investigated four types of solar cell arrays, the triple junction GaAs cells possessed good performance characteristics and the polysilicon cells exhibited poor performance characteristics under concentrating conditions. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were also studied by experiments. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cells and Super cells were 4.23 and 8.46 respectively, and the triple junction GaAs cells could work well at higher concentration ratio. Besides, some theoretical calculations and experiments were performed to explore the influences of the series resistances and the working temperature. When the series resistances R s changed from 0 Ω to 1 Ω, the maximum power P m of the single crystalline silicon, the polycrystalline silicon, the Super cell and the GaAs cell arrays decreased by 67.78%, 74.93%, 77.30% and 58.07% respectively. When the cell temperature increased by 1 K, the short circuit current of the four types of solar cell arrays decreased by 0.11818 A, 0.05364 A, 0.01387 A and 0.00215 A respectively. The research results demonstrated that the output performance of the solar cell arrays with lower

  3. Technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., CdTe module and array at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Strand, T.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Powell, R.; Sasala, R. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Engineering and Technology Validation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules and arrays. This paper focuses on the technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., (SCI) cadmium telluride (CdTe) module and array performance by attempting to correlate individual module and array performance. This is done by examining the performance and stability of the modules and array over a period of more than one year. Temperature coefficients for module and array parameters (P{sub max}, V{sub oc}, V{sub max}, I{sub sc}, I{sub max}) are also calculated.

  4. Investment opportunity : the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1988-01-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying cycle time, green lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  5. Assessment of SEPS solar array technology for orbital service module application

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Work performed in the following assessment areas on the SEPS solar array is reported: (1) requirements definition, (2) electrical design evaluation, (3) mechanical design evaluation, and (4) design modification analysis. General overall assessment conclusions are summarized. There are no known serious design limitations involved in the implementation of the recommended design modifications. A section of orbiter and array engineering drawings is included.

  6. Development of processes for the production of low cost silicon dendritic web for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hill, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    High area output rates and continuous, automated growth are two key technical requirements for the growth of low-cost silicon ribbons for solar cells. By means of computer-aided furnace design, silicon dendritic web output rates as high as 27 sq cm/min have been achieved, a value in excess of that projected to meet a $0.50 per peak watt solar array manufacturing cost. The feasibility of simultaneous web growth while the melt is replenished with pelletized silicon has also been demonstrated. This step is an important precursor to the development of an automated growth system. Solar cells made on the replenished material were just as efficient as devices fabricated on typical webs grown without replenishment. Moreover, web cells made on a less-refined, pelletized polycrystalline silicon synthesized by the Battelle process yielded efficiencies up to 13% (AM1).

  7. NREL Adds Solar Array Field to Help Inform Consumers | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar panels at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are ubiquitous to . No matter how long the solar panels undergo testing, all of the power they generate will flow into

  8. The prospects for cost competitive solar PV power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelstein, Stefan; Yorston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations have grown globally at a rapid pace in recent years. We provide a comprehensive assessment of the cost competitiveness of this electric power source. Based on data available for the second half of 2011, we conclude that utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. In contrast, commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in the sense that the generating cost of power from solar PV is comparable to the retail electricity prices that commercial users pay, at least in certain parts of the U.S. This conclusion is shown to depend crucially on both the current federal tax subsidies for solar power and an ideal geographic location for the solar installation. Projecting recent industry trends into the future, we estimate that utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade. Furthermore, commercial-scale installations could reach “grid parity” in about ten years, if the current federal tax incentives for solar power were to expire at that point. - Highlights: ► Assessment of the cost competitiveness of new solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations. ► Utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. ► Commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in certain parts of the U.S. ► Utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade

  9. Low-cost production of solar-cell panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale production model combines most modern manufacturing techniques to produce silicon-solar-cell panels of low costs by 1982. Model proposes facility capable of operating around the clock with annual production capacity of 20 W of solar cell panels.

  10. The cost of solar refrigeration: The rococo project; Was solare Kuehlung kostet - das Rococo-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.P.

    2008-01-21

    The cost of modern solar refrigerators is between 1,300 and 8,000 Euros per kW of refrigeration capacity. The biggest potential for savings is in the peripheral components, as well as in the operating cost and especially in servicing. Cost reduction must have priority if solar refrigeration is to be successful in the market. In the context of the European research project ''Reduction of costs of Solar Cooling systems'' (Rococo), a team of scientists from France, Spain and Austria investigated existing systems. (orig.)

  11. Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project. Heat Exchanger Method - Ingot Casting Fixed Abrasive Method - Multi-Wire Slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    Solar cells fabricated from HEM cast silicon yielded up to 15% conversion efficiencies. This was achieved in spite of using unpurified graphite parts in the HEM furnace and without optimization of material or cell processing parameters. Molybdenum retainers prevented SiC formation and reduced carbon content by 50%. The oxygen content of vacuum cast HEM silicon is lower than typical Czochralski grown silicon. Impregnation of 45 micrometers diamonds into 7.5 micrometers copper sheath showed distortion of the copper layer. However, 12.5 micrometers and 15 micrometers copper sheath can be impregnated with 45 micrometers diamonds to a high concentration. Electroless nickel plating of wires impregnated only in the cutting edge showed nickel concentration around the diamonds. This has the possibility of reducing kerf. The high speed slicer fabricated can achieve higher speed and longer stroke with vibration isolation.

  12. Low cost solar dryer for fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Department of Electrical and Other Energy Sources, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, DBSKKV, ... The average solar energy ranged between 450 - 500 ..... classification and selection of dryers, In Handbook of industrial.

  13. Solar cell array for driving MOS type FET gate. MOS gata EFT gate kudoyo taiyo denchi array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, S; Yoshida, K; Yoshiki, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Nakayama, T; Owada, Y

    1990-03-12

    There has been a semiconductor relay utilizing MOS type FET (field effect transistor). Concerning the solar cells used for a semiconductor relay, it is required to separate the cells by forming insulating oxide films first and to form semiconductor layers by using many mask patterns, since a crystal semiconductor is used. Thereby its manufacturing process becomes complicated and laminification as well as thin film formation are difficult, In view of the above, this invention proposes a solar cell array for driving a MOS type FET gate consisting of amorphous silicon semiconductor cells, which are used for a semiconductor relay with solar cells generating electromotive power by the light of a light emitting diode and a MOS type FET that the power output of the above solar cells is supplied to its gate, and which are connected in series with many steps. 9 figs.

  14. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  15. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-23

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  16. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final Report. Volume II: Silicon material

    OpenAIRE

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, funded by the U.S. Government and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was formed in 1975 to develop the module/array technology needed to attain widespread terrestrial use of photovoltaics by 1985. To accomplish this, the FSA Project established and managed an Industry, University, and Federal Government Team to perform the needed research and development. The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the FSA Project, was to develop and ...

  17. Silicon Ingot Casting - Heat Exchanger Method (HEM). Multi-Wire Slicing - Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (Fast). Phase 4 Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.

    1981-01-01

    The crystallinity of large HEM silicon ingots as a function of heat flow conditions is investigated. A balanced heat flow at the bottom of the ingot restricts spurious nucleation to the edge of the melted-back seed in contact with the crucible. Homogeneous resistivity distribution over all the ingot has been achieved. The positioning of diamonds electroplated on wirepacks used to slice silicon crystals is considered. The electroplating of diamonds on only the cutting edge is described and the improved slicing performance of these wires evaluated. An economic analysis of value added costs of HEM ingot casting and band saw sectioning indicates the projected add on cost of HEM is well below the 1986 allocation.

  18. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  19. Low-cost modular array-field designs for flat-panel and concentrator photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, H. N.; Carmichael, D. C.; Alexander, G.; Castle, J. A.

    1982-09-01

    Described are the design and development of low-cost, modular array fields for flat-panel and concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems. The objective of the work was to reduce substantially the cost of the array-field Balance-of-System (BOS) subsystems and site-specific design costs as compared to previous PV installations. These subsystems include site preparation, foundations, support structures, electrical writing, grounding, lightning protection, electromagnetic interference considerations, and controls. To reduce these BOS and design costs, standardized modular (building-block) designs for flat-panel and concentrator array fields have been developed that are fully integrated and optimized for lowest life-cycle costs. Using drawings and specifications now available, these building-block designs can be used in multiples to install various size array fields. The developed designs are immediately applicable (1982) and reduce the array-field BOS costs to a fraction of previous costs.

  20. Cost Effective Polymer Solar Cells Research and Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing [Norfolk State Univ, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The technical or research objective of this project is to investigate and develop new polymers and polymer based optoelectronic devices for potentially cost effective (or cost competitive), durable, lightweight, flexible, and high efficiency solar energy conversion applications. The educational objective of this project includes training of future generation scientists, particularly young, under-represented minority scientists, working in the areas related to the emerging organic/polymer based solar energy technologies and related optoelectronic devices. Graduate and undergraduate students will be directly involved in scientific research addressing issues related to the development of polymer based solar cell technology.

  1. Value and cost analyses for solar thermal-storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, W.; Copeland, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    Value and cost data for thermal energy storage are presented for solar thermal central receiver systems for which thermal energy storage appears to be attractive. Both solar thermal electric power and industrial process heat applications are evaluated. The value of storage is based on the cost for fossil fuel and solar thermal collector systems in 1990. The costing uses a standard lifetime methodology with the storage capacity as a parameter. Both value and costs are functions of storage capacity. However, the value function depends on the application. Value/cost analyses for first-generation storage concepts for five central receiver systems (molten salt, water/steam, organic fluid, air, and liquid metal) established the reference against which new systems were compared. Some promising second-generation energy storage concepts have been identified, and some more advanced concepts have also been evaluated.

  2. Evaluation end-of-life power generation of a satellite solar array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taherbaneh, Mohsen; Ghafooifard, H.; Rezaie, A.H.; Rahimi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We present detailed design description and necessary considerations for solar panels utilized in a specific space mission. → All sources of losses and degradation of the solar panels are fully taken into account. → We introduce a comprehensive novel approach to investigate the electrical behavior of the solar panels. → We use a simple model to calculate the operating temperature range of the solar panels. → We also calculate Mission End-of-Life electrone fluence using SPENVIS. -- Abstract: Knowing the power generated by of solar arrays in a space missions shall satisfy mission requirements; prediction of the power generated by a solar array used in a space mission is very important and necessary. In this research, a detailed design description and necessary considerations for solar panels utilized in a specific space mission is presented. All sources of losses and degradation of solar panels are fully taken into account. This research emphasizes on investigation, analysis and verification of a manufactured solar assembly for a satellite before launch. Solar panels' generated power should be estimated at the end of the mission. For this purpose, radiation values and temperature operating range are specified for the mission. Panels' temperature operating rate is determined through considering a simple model and different spins for the satellite. Mission end-of-life 1 MeV equivalent dose is calculated by SPENVIS suite software. Finally, a comprehensive novel approach is introduced to investigate the electrical behavior of the solar panels. This approach can be implemented in MATLAB environment to obtain output power characteristics of the solar panels for each specific mission. The results are in full accordance with the mission requirements either in beginning-of-life or end-of-life. Therefore, the power prediction of the designed solar array for the mentioned satellite completely satisfies its mission requirements.

  3. Silicon Ingot Casting - Heat Exchanger Method Multi-wire Slicing - Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique. Phase 3 Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low-cost Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Several 20 cm diameter silicon ingots, up to 6.3 kg. were cast with good crystallinity. The graphite heat zone can be purified by heating it to high temperatures in vacuum. This is important in reducing costs and purification of large parts. Electroplated wires with 45 um synthetic diamonds and 30 um natural diamonds showed good cutting efficiency and lifetime. During slicing of a 10 cm x 10 cm workpiece, jerky motion occurred in the feed and rocking mechanisms. This problem is corrected and modifications were made to reduce the weight of the bladeheat by 50%.

  4. Concept, Design, and Prototyping of XSAS: A High Power Extendable Solar Array for CubeSat Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Patrick; Klesh, Andrew; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; McKague, Darren; Cutler, James

    2010-01-01

    CubeSats have proven themselves as a reliable and cost-effective method to perform experiments in space, but they are highly constrained by their specifications and size. One such constraint is the average continuous power, about 5 W, which is available to the typical CubeSat. To improve this constraint, we have developed the eXtendable Solar Array System (XSAS), a deployable solar array prototype in a CubeSat package, which can provide an average 23 W of continuous power. The prototype served as a technology demonstrator for the high risk mechanisms needed to release, deploy, and control the solar array. Aside from this drastic power increase, it is in the integration of each mechanism, their application within the small CubeSat form-factor, and the inherent passive control benefit of the deployed geometry that make XSAS a novel design. In this paper, we discuss the requirements and design process for the XSAS system and mechanical prototype, and provide qualitative and quantitative results from numerical simulations and prototype tests. We also discuss future work, including an upcoming NASA zero-gravity flight campaign, to further improve on XSAS and prepare it for future launch opportunities.

  5. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  6. ParaSol - A Novel Deployable Approach for Very Large Ultra-lightweight Solar Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High power solar arrays with capabilities of >100kW are needed for projected NASA missions. Photovoltaic arrays using deployable membranes with thin cells have...

  7. Solar Avoided Cost Solution SunShot 6 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, John [Genability, San Francisco, CA (United States); Danziger, Eric [Genability, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The core objectives of this project were two separate but integrated products, collectively providing game-changing Avoided Cost capabilities. The first was a kit of avoided cost tools and data that any solar provider can use a-lacarte or as a whole. It’s open and easily accessible nature allows the rapid and accurate calculation of avoided cost in whatever context and software that make sense (“Typical and Avoided Cost Tools”). This kit includes a dataset of typical energy rates, costs and usage that can be used for solar prospecting, lead generation and any situation where data about an opportunity is missing or imperfect. The second is a web application and related APIs specifically built for solar providers to radically streamline their lead-to-sale process (“Solar Provider Module”). The typical and Avoided Cost tools are built directly into this, and allow for solar providers to track their opportunities, collaborate with their installers and financiers, and close more sales faster.

  8. Reliability analysis of the solar array based on Fault Tree Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianing; Yan Shaoze

    2011-01-01

    The solar array is an important device used in the spacecraft, which influences the quality of in-orbit operation of the spacecraft and even the launches. This paper analyzes the reliability of the mechanical system and certifies the most vital subsystem of the solar array. The fault tree analysis (FTA) model is established according to the operating process of the mechanical system based on DFH-3 satellite; the logical expression of the top event is obtained by Boolean algebra and the reliability of the solar array is calculated. The conclusion shows that the hinges are the most vital links between the solar arrays. By analyzing the structure importance(SI) of the hinge's FTA model, some fatal causes, including faults of the seal, insufficient torque of the locking spring, temperature in space, and friction force, can be identified. Damage is the initial stage of the fault, so limiting damage is significant to prevent faults. Furthermore, recommendations for improving reliability associated with damage limitation are discussed, which can be used for the redesigning of the solar array and the reliability growth planning.

  9. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  10. Reliability analysis of the solar array based on Fault Tree Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jianing; Yan Shaoze, E-mail: yansz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University,Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-07-19

    The solar array is an important device used in the spacecraft, which influences the quality of in-orbit operation of the spacecraft and even the launches. This paper analyzes the reliability of the mechanical system and certifies the most vital subsystem of the solar array. The fault tree analysis (FTA) model is established according to the operating process of the mechanical system based on DFH-3 satellite; the logical expression of the top event is obtained by Boolean algebra and the reliability of the solar array is calculated. The conclusion shows that the hinges are the most vital links between the solar arrays. By analyzing the structure importance(SI) of the hinge's FTA model, some fatal causes, including faults of the seal, insufficient torque of the locking spring, temperature in space, and friction force, can be identified. Damage is the initial stage of the fault, so limiting damage is significant to prevent faults. Furthermore, recommendations for improving reliability associated with damage limitation are discussed, which can be used for the redesigning of the solar array and the reliability growth planning.

  11. Development of a New, High-Power Solar Array for Telecommunication Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann C.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Airbus is currently developing the Next Generation Solar Array (NGSA for telecommunication satellites. It is based on a hybrid array concept which combines a conventional rigid panel array with lightweight, semi-rigid lateral panels. The main figures of merit power/mass and power/volume can be doubled through this concept. Mechanically, the semi-rigid panels are the key new element. Through acoustic testing as well as sine vibration testing in air and in vacuum it was verified that these panels are suitable as cell support in stowed configuration. With the help of finite element modelling it is demonstrated that the semi-rigid panels are compatible with a free deployment. Electrically, the new array is to be equipped with a new generation of 4 junction solar cells with efficiencies above 30%. The increased radiation dose due to electric orbit raising has to be taken into account to arrive at the optimum shielding while still minimizing the array mass. By adjusting the ratio of rigid to semi-rigid panels and through the choice of solar cell type and mass, the NGSA can be tailored in a wide range to needs of a given platform. This is illustrated for the solar array to be flown on the new Airbus platform Eurostar Neo.

  12. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  13. 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling...

  14. 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling...

  15. Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yongfeng; Li Ming; Wang Liuling; Lin Wenxian; Xiang Ming; Zhang Xinghua; Wang Yunfeng; Wei Shengxian

    2009-01-01

    tage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system.

  16. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Wenzler, C. J.; Rom, F. E.; Vanarsdale, D. R.

    1980-09-01

    A low cost, bare plate solar collector for preheating ambient air was developed. This type of solar heating system would be applicable for preheating ventilation air for public buildings or other commercial and industrial ventilation requirements. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60 percent or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20 degrees for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that this type of solar system was economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, costs for the bare plate solar collector are attainable. Applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  17. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  18. Teaching Photovoltaic Array Modelling and Characterization Using a Graphical User Interface and a Flash Solar Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a set of laboratory tools aimed to support students with various backgrounds (no programming) to understand photovoltaic array modelling and characterization techniques. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed in Matlab, for modelling PV arrays and characterizing...... the effect of different types of parameters and operating conditions, on the current-voltage and power-voltage curves. The GUI is supported by experimental investigation and validation on PV module level, with the help of an indoor flash solar simulator....

  19. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  20. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-06-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  1. Interspace modification of titania-nanorod arrays for efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Jin, Zhixin; Wang, Yinglin; Wang, Meiqi; Chen, Shixin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The fabrication of perovskite solar cells utilizing TiO_2 NR arrays. • Investigation of the interspace effect of TiO_2 NR on perovskite layer. • Understanding of the balance between perovskite capping layer and pore filling. - Abstract: Morphology of electron transport layers (ETLs) has an important influence on the device architecture and electronic processes of mesostructured solar cells. In this work, we thoroughly investigated the effect of the interspace of TiO_2 nanorod (NR) arrays on the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Along with the interspace in TiO_2-NR arrays increasing, the thickness as well as the crystal size of perovskite capping layer are reduced accordingly, and the filling of perovskite in the channel becomes incomplete. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that this variation of perovskite absorber layer, induced by interspace of TiO_2 NR arrays, causes the change of charge recombination process at the TiO_2/perovskite interface, suggesting that a balance between capping layer and the perovskite filling is critical to obtain high charge collection efficiency of PSCs. A power conversion efficiency of 10.3% could be achieved through careful optimization of interspace in TiO_2-NR arrays. Our research will shed light on the morphology control of ETLs with 1D structure for heterojunction solar cells fabricated by solution-deposited method.

  2. Interspace modification of titania-nanorod arrays for efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peng; Jin, Zhixin; Wang, Yinglin, E-mail: wangyl100@nenu.edu.cn; Wang, Meiqi; Chen, Shixin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong, E-mail: xtzhang@nenu.edu.cn; Liu, Yichun, E-mail: ycliu@nenu.edu.cn

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The fabrication of perovskite solar cells utilizing TiO{sub 2} NR arrays. • Investigation of the interspace effect of TiO{sub 2} NR on perovskite layer. • Understanding of the balance between perovskite capping layer and pore filling. - Abstract: Morphology of electron transport layers (ETLs) has an important influence on the device architecture and electronic processes of mesostructured solar cells. In this work, we thoroughly investigated the effect of the interspace of TiO{sub 2} nanorod (NR) arrays on the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Along with the interspace in TiO{sub 2}-NR arrays increasing, the thickness as well as the crystal size of perovskite capping layer are reduced accordingly, and the filling of perovskite in the channel becomes incomplete. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that this variation of perovskite absorber layer, induced by interspace of TiO{sub 2} NR arrays, causes the change of charge recombination process at the TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface, suggesting that a balance between capping layer and the perovskite filling is critical to obtain high charge collection efficiency of PSCs. A power conversion efficiency of 10.3% could be achieved through careful optimization of interspace in TiO{sub 2}-NR arrays. Our research will shed light on the morphology control of ETLs with 1D structure for heterojunction solar cells fabricated by solution-deposited method.

  3. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  4. Numerical analysis of ALADIN optics contamination due to outgassing of solar array materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markelov, G; Endemann, M; Wernham, D

    2008-01-01

    ALADIN is the very first space-based lidar that will provide global wind profile and a special attention has been paid to contamination of ALADIN optics. The paper presents a numerical approach, which is based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The method allows one to accurately compute collisions between various species, in the case under consideration, free-stream flow and outgassing from solar array materials. The collisions create a contamination flux onto the optics despite there is no line-of-sight from the solar arrays to the optics. Comparison of obtained results with a simple analytical model prediction shows that the analytical model underpredicts mass fluxes

  5. Numerical analysis of ALADIN optics contamination due to outgassing of solar array materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markelov, G [Advanced Operations and Engineering Services (AOES) Group BV, Postbus 342, 2300 AH Leiden (Netherlands); Endemann, M [ESA-ESTEC/EOP-PAS, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Wernham, D [ESA-ESTEC/EOP-PAQ, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)], E-mail: Gennady.Markelov@aoes.com

    2008-03-01

    ALADIN is the very first space-based lidar that will provide global wind profile and a special attention has been paid to contamination of ALADIN optics. The paper presents a numerical approach, which is based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The method allows one to accurately compute collisions between various species, in the case under consideration, free-stream flow and outgassing from solar array materials. The collisions create a contamination flux onto the optics despite there is no line-of-sight from the solar arrays to the optics. Comparison of obtained results with a simple analytical model prediction shows that the analytical model underpredicts mass fluxes.

  6. Analysis of radiation damage in on-orbit solar array of Venus explorer Akatsuki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Takanobu; Takahashi, You; Imamura, Takeshi; Hada, Yuko; Ishii, Takako T.; Isobe, Hiroaki; Asai, Ayumi; Shiota, Daikou

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of radiation damage in solar array of Venus explorer Akatsuki observed on orbit. The output voltage of the solar array have shown sudden drops, which are most reasonably associated with radiation damage, three times since its launch. The analysis of these radiation damages is difficult, because no direct observation data of the spectra and the amount of the high-energy particles is available. We calculated the radiation damage using the relative damage coefficient (RDC) method assuming a typical spectral shape of protons. (author)

  7. Simulation of solar array slewing of Indian remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, P. K.; Goel, P. S.

    The effect of flexible arrays on sun tracking for the IRS satellite is studied. Equations of motion of satellites carrying a rotating flexible appendage are developed following the Newton-Euler approach and utilizing the constrained modes of the appendage. The drive torque, detent torque and friction torque in the SADA are included in the model. Extensive simulations of the slewing motion are carried out. The phenomena of back-stepping, step-missing, step-slipping and the influences of array flexibility in the acquisition mode are observed for certain combinations of parameters.

  8. Cost reductions in photovoltaics - Solar selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzing, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of the economic recession on the solar industry. Whilst certain companies fight to survive, margins are sinking and badly-positioned companies and expensive technologies are being pushed out of the market. The author goes on to take a look at business figures and the throttling back of production, even in China. Sinking module prices and sufficient supplies of silicon are commented on. Top companies that provide good value for money are noted and markets such as that in the USA will, according to the author, develop further, thanks to government funding

  9. Design and Development of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John; Fatemi, Navid; Gamica, Robert; Sharma, Surya; Senft, Donna; Maybery, Clay

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Technology 5 (ST5) is designed to flight-test the concept of miniaturized 'small size" satellites and innovative technologies in Earth's magnetosphere. Three satellites will map the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields within the inner magnetosphere. Due to the small area available for the solar arrays, and to meet the mission power requirements, very high-efficiency multijunction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This was done in partnership with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) through the Dual-Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program. Emcore's InGaP/lnGaAs/Ge Advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 28.0% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the arrays. Each spacecraft employs 8 identical solar panels (total area of about 0.3 square meters), with 15 large-area solar cells per panel. The requirement for power is to support on-orbit average load of 13.5 W at 8.4 V, with plus or minus 5% off pointing. The details of the solar array design, development and qualification considerations, as well as ground electrical performance & shadowing analysis results are presented.

  10. Compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A

    2017-05-10

    In order to maximize solar energy utilization in a limited space (e.g., rooftops), solar collectors should track the sun. As an alternative to rotational tracking systems, this paper presents a compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array which has been designed, analyzed, and tested for solar applications. The proposed prism array enables a linear concentrator system to remain stationary so that it can integrate with a variety of different solar concentrators, and which should be particularly useful for systems which require a low profile (namely rooftop-mounted systems). A case study of this prism array working within a specific rooftop solar collector demonstrates that it can boost the average daily optical efficiency of the collector by 32.7% and expand its effective working time from 6 h to 7.33 h. Overall, the proposed design provides an alternative way to "follow" the sun for a wide range of solar thermal and photovoltaic concentrator systems.

  11. Solar Powered Aircraft, Photovoltaic Array/Battery System Tabletop Demonstration: Design and Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A system was constructed to demonstrate the power system operation of a solar powered aircraft. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a charge controller, a battery, an electric motor and propeller. The system collects energy from the PV array and either utilizes this energy to operate an electric motor or stores it in a rechargeable battery for future use. The system has a control panel which displays the output of the array and battery as well as the total current going to the electric motor. The control panel also has a means for adjusting the output to the motor to control its speed. The entire system is regulated around 12 VDC.

  12. Low-cost solar module manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Roger G.; Nowlan, Michael J.; Matthei, Keith W.; Darkazalli, Ghazi

    1997-01-01

    As the market for terrestrial photovoltaic modules expands beyond the 80 MW per year level, module manufacturers are adopting a number of cost-reduction strategies, including the use of higher throughput equipment, increased process automation, and the fabrication of larger area cells and modules. This paper reviews recent activities at Spire Corporation in the development of advanced module manufacturing and testing equipment

  13. Low cost, efficient hybrid solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Malinkiewicz, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Actualmente, existen diversas estrategias para producir energía limpia mediante fuentes renovables, pero es la explotación directa de la energía del Sol la que se presenta como una solución ideal, siendo la mayor fuente de energía verde en la Tierra. La potencia de la energía solar que llega a la Tierra cada año es del orden de 86000 TW (Terawatt, 1012 Watt). Esto representa 4800 veces la demanda energética anual del mundo, estimada en 18 TW. Además, todos los depósitos de energía fósil recon...

  14. Effects of pillar height and junction depth on the performance of radially doped silicon pillar arrays for solar energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, R.; Vijselaar, Wouter Jan, Cornelis; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of pillar height and junction depth on solar cell characteristics are investigated to provide design rules for arrays of such pillars in solar energy applications. Radially doped silicon pillar arrays are fabricated by deep reactive ion etching of silicon substrates followed by the

  15. Simple, Fast, and Cost-Effective Fabrication of Wafer-Scale Nanohole Arrays on Silicon for Antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast, and cost-effective method was developed in this paper for the high-throughput fabrication of nanohole arrays on silicon (Si, which is utilized for antireflection. Wafer-scale polystyrene (PS monolayer colloidal crystal was developed as templates by spin-coating method. Metallic shadow mask was prepared by lifting off the oxygen etched PS beads from the deposited chromium film. Nanohole arrays were fabricated by Si dry etching. A series of nanohole arrays were fabricated with the similar diameter but with different depth. It is found that the maximum depth of the Si-hole was determined by the diameter of the Cr-mask. The antireflection ability of these Si-hole arrays was investigated. The results show that the reflection decreases with the depth of the Si-hole. The deepest Si-hole arrays show the best antireflection ability (reflection 600 nm, which was about 28 percent of the nonpatterned silicon wafer’s reflection. The proposed method has the potential for high-throughput fabrication of patterned Si wafer, and the low reflectivity allows the application of these wafers in crystalline silicon solar cells.

  16. LOW COST SMART SOLAR POWERED AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsermu Alemayehu*, Kena Likassa

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries Photovoltaic energy can find many applications in agriculture, providing electrical energy in various cases, particularly OFF grid and desert area. Today Modern irrigation methods in developing country are needed to fulfill the food demands. Although in these countries Ethiopia, there are many diesel engine operated and rare solar operated water pumps for irrigation; but due to the running cost of diesel and capital cost of photovoltaic irrigation system. So Photovolta...

  17. Climate impacts on the cost of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, Mallory E.; Smith, Matthew K.; Parsekian, Ara W.; Boyuk, Dmitriy S.; McGrath, Jenna K.; Yates, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) estimates are widely utilized by decision makers to predict the long-term cost and benefits of solar PV installations, but fail to consider local climate, which impacts PV panel lifetime and performance. Specific types of solar PV panels are known to respond to climate factors differently. Mono-, poly-, and amorphous-silicon (Si) PV technologies are known to exhibit varying degradation rates and instantaneous power losses as a function of operating temperature, humidity, thermal cycling, and panel soiling. We formulate an extended LCOE calculation, which considers PV module performance and lifespan as a function of local climate. The LCOE is then calculated for crystalline and amorphous Si PV technologies across several climates. Finally, we assess the impact of various policy incentives on reducing the firm's cost of solar deployment when controlling for climate. This assessment is the first to quantify tradeoffs between technologies, geographies, and policies in a unified manner. Results suggest crystalline Si solar panels as the most promising candidate for commercial-scale PV systems due to their low degradation rates compared to amorphous technologies. Across technologies, we note the strong ability of investment subsidies in removing uncertainty and reducing the LCOE, compared to production incentives. - Highlights: •We integrate local climate into the Levelized Cost of photovoltaic technology. •Climate dictates panel degradation rates and the impact of temperature on efficiency. •We compare LCOE under policy scenarios for three technologies in four U. S. states. •Degradation is highly variable, increasing costs by shortening panel life in many regions. •Incentives targeting investment are most effective at reducing solar deployment costs.

  18. Improving solar-pumped laser efficiency by a ring-array concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibúrcio, Bruno D.; Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Matos, Rodrigo; Vistas, Cláudia R.

    2018-01-01

    We report here a compact pumping scheme for achieving large improvement in collection and conversion efficiency of a Nd:YAG solar-pumped laser by an innovative ring-array solar concentrator. An aspheric fused silica lens was used to further concentrate the solar radiation from the focal region of the 1.5-m-diameter ring-array concentrator to a 5.0-mm-diameter, 20-mm-length Nd:YAG single-crystal rod within a conical-shaped pump cavity, enabling multipass pumping to the laser rod. 67.3-W continuous-wave solar laser power was numerically calculated, corresponding to 38.2-W / m2 solar laser collection efficiency, being 1.22 and 1.27 times more than the state-of-the-art records by both heliostat-parabolic mirror and Fresnel lens solar laser systems, respectively. 4.0% conversion efficiency and 0.021-W brightness figure of merit were also numerically obtained, corresponding to 1.25 and 1.62 times enhancement over the previous records, respectively. The influence of tracking error on solar laser output power was also analyzed.

  19. A DP based scheme for real-time reconfiguration of solar cell arrays exposed to dynamic changing inhomogeneous illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liping; Brehm, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The overall energy conversion efficiency of solar cell arrays is highly effected by partial shading effects. Especially for solar panel arrays installed in environments which are exposed to inhomogeneous dynamic changing illuminations such as on roof tops of electrical vehicles the overall system...... efficiency is drastically reduced. Dynamic real-time reconfiguration of the solar panel array can reduce effects on the output efficiency due to partial shading. This results in a maximized power output of the panel array when exposed to dynamic changing illuminations. The optimal array configuration...... with respect to shading patterns can be stated as a combinatorial optimization problem and this paper proposes a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm which finds the optimal feasible solution to reconfigure the solar panel array for maximum efficiency in real-time with linear time complexity. It is shown...

  20. LEO resistant PI-B-PDMS block copolymer films for solar array applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuyzen, H. van; Bongers, E.; Fischer, H.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Semprimoschnig, C.

    2013-01-01

    Due to their low atomic oxygen erosion yields PI-b-PDMS block copolymer films have considerable potential for application onto space exposed surfaces of satellites in low earth orbit. On solar arrays these materials might be used as electrical electrical insulation film, flexprint outer layer,

  1. Characterization of a Ga-assisted GaAs nanowire array solar cell on si substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; Wood, B.

    2016-01-01

    A single-junction core-shell GaAs nanowire (NW) solar cell on Si (1 1 1) substrates is presented. A Ga-assisted vapor–liquid–solid growth mechanism was used for the formation of a patterned array of radial p-i-n GaAs NWs encapsulated in AlInP passivation. Novel device fabrication utilizing facet-...

  2. EOL performance comparison of GaAs/Ge and Si BSF/R solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woike, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    EOL power estimates for solar array designs are significantly influenced by the predicted degradation due to charged particle radiation. New radiation-induced power degradation data for GaAs/Ge solar arrays applicable to missions ranging from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) and compares these results to silicon BSF/R arrays. These results are based on recently published radiation damage coefficients for GaAs/Ge cells. The power density ratio (GaAs/Ge to Si BSF/R) was found to be as high as 1.83 for the proton-dominated worst-case altitude of 7408 km medium Earth orbit (MEO). Based on the EOL GaAs/Ge solar array power density results for MEO, missions which were previously considered infeasible may be reviewed based on these more favorable results. The additional life afforded by using GaAs/Ge cells is an important factor in system-level trade studies when selecting a solar cell technology for a mission and needs to be considered. The data presented supports this decision since the selected orbits have characteristics similar to most orbits of interest.

  3. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on Photovoltaic Metallization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A photovoltaic Metallization Research forum, under the sponsorship of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project consisted of five sessions, covering: (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques, and (5) future metallization challenges.

  4. Clearance Analysis of Node 3 Aft CBM to the Stowed FGB Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, the ISS Vehicle Configuration Office began considering the relocation of the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) to the aft facing Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) on Node 3 to open a berthing location for visiting vehicles on the Node 1 nadir CBM. In this position, computer-aided design (CAD) models indicated that the aft end of the PMM would be only a few inches from the stowed Functional Cargo Block (FGB) port solar array. To validate the CAD model clearance analysis, in the late summer of 2011 the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) was asked to determine the true geometric relationship between the on-orbit aft facing Node 3 CBM and the FGB port solar array. The desired measurements could be computed easily by photogrammetric analysis if current imagery of the ISS hardware were obtained. Beginning in the fall of 2011, ISAG used the Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) program to design a way to acquire imagery of the aft face of Node 3, the aft end-cone of Node 1, the port side of pressurized mating adapter 1 (PMA1), and the port side of the FGB out to the tip of the port solar array using cameras on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This was complicated by the need to thread the SSRMS under the truss, past Node 3 and the Cupola, and into the space between the aft side of Node 3 and the FGB solar array to acquire more than 100 images from multiple positions. To minimize the number of SSRMS movements, the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) would be attached to the SSRMS. This would make it possible to park the SPDM in one position and acquire multiple images by changing the viewing orientation of the SPDM body cameras using the pan/tilt units on which the cameras are mounted. Using this implementation concept, ISAG identified four SSRMS/SPDM positions from which all of the needed imagery could be acquired. Based on a photogrammetric simulation, it was estimated that the location of the FGB solar array could be

  5. Sine sweep and steady-state response of simplified solar array models with nonlinear elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey, R.H.B.; van Liempt, F.P.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of two simplified solar array systems is investigated experimentally and numerically. A simplified beam model supported by one snubber (a bilinear spring which can only take compressive forces) is used to investigate the dynamics of the extension arm on

  6. Cost analysis of two silicon heterojunction solar cell designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Research and Development of Silicon Heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. This paper investigates the production costs associated with two different SHJ cell designs investigated within the FLASH programme, a

  7. The Potential for Low-Cost Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Carpenter, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Concern over the possibility of global climate change as a result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas buildup in the atmosphere is resulting in increased interest in renewable energy technologies. The World Bank recently sponsored a study to determine whether solar thermal power plants can achieve cost parity with conventional power plants. The paper reviews the conclusions of that study

  8. Large area, low cost solar cell development and production readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, D.

    1982-01-01

    A process sequence for a large area ( or = 25 sq. cm) silicon solar cell was investigated. Generic cell choice was guided by the expected electron fluence, by the packing factors of various cell envelope designs onto each panel to provide needed voltage as well as current, by the weight constraints on the system, and by the cost goals of the contract.

  9. Impact of solar energy cost on water production cost of seawater desalination plants in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamei, A.; Zaag, P. van der; Munch, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries in North Africa and the Middle East are experiencing localized water shortages and are now using desalination technologies with either reverse osmosis (RO) or thermal desalination to overcome part of this shortage. Desalination is performed using electricity, mostly generated from fossil fuels with associated greenhouse gas emissions. Increased fuel prices and concern over climate change are causing a push to shift to alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy, since solar radiation is abundant in this region all year round. This paper presents unit production costs and energy costs for 21 RO desalination plants in the region. An equation is proposed to estimate the unit production costs of RO desalination plants as a function of plant capacity, price of energy and specific energy consumption. This equation is used to calculate unit production costs for desalinated water using photovoltaic (PV) solar energy based on current and future PV module prices. Multiple PV cells are connected together to form a module or a panel. Unit production costs of desalination plants using solar energy are compared with conventionally generated electricity considering different prices for electricity. The paper presents prices for both PV and solar thermal energy. The paper discusses at which electricity price solar energy can be considered economical to be used for RO desalination; this is independent of RO plant capacity. For countries with electricity prices of 0.09 US$/kWh, solar-generated electricity (using PV) can be competitive starting from 2 US$/W p (W p is the number of Watts output under standard conditions of sunlight). For Egypt (price of 0.06 US$/kWh), solar-generated electricity starts to be competitive from 1 US$/W p . Solar energy is not cost competitive at the moment (at a current module price for PV systems including installation of 8 US$/W p ), but advances in the technology will continue to drive the prices down, whilst penalties on usage

  10. Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays for efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinlian; Wang, Yanqing; Cui, Zhendong; Li, Long; Shi, Chengwu

    2018-05-01

    To improve the electron transportation in TiO2 nanorod arrays and charge separation in the interface of TiO2/perovskite, Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays with the length of 200 nm, diameter of 11 nm and areal density of 1050 μm-2 were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method and the influence of Y/Ti molar ratios of 0%, 3%, 5% in the hydrothermal grown solutions on the growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays was investigated. The results revealed that the appropriate Y/Ti molar ratios can increase the areal density of the corresponding TiO2 nanorod arrays and improve the charge separation in the interface of the TiO2/perovskite. The Y-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells with the Y/Ti molar ratio of 3% exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.11% along with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 22.50 mA cm-2 and fill factor (FF) of 76.16%, while the un-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells gave a PCE of 16.42% along with Voc of 1.04 V, Jsc of 21.66 mA cm-2 and FF of 72.97%.

  11. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective and highly ... in the proposed system because of its similar operational characteristics compared to SPV generator. .... (CCM) regardless of the atmospheric conditions.

  12. Two-dimensional photonic crystal arrays for polymer:fullerene solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sungho; Han, Jiyoung; Do, Young Rag; Kim, Hwajeong; Yim, Sanggyu; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2011-11-18

    We report the application of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) array substrates for polymer:fullerene solar cells of which the active layer is made with blended films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The 2D PC array substrates were fabricated by employing a nanosphere lithography technique. Two different hole depths (200 and 300 nm) were introduced for the 2D PC arrays to examine the hole depth effect on the light harvesting (trapping). The optical effect by the 2D PC arrays was investigated by the measurement of optical transmittance either in the direction normal to the substrate (direct transmittance) or in all directions (integrated transmittance). The results showed that the integrated transmittance was higher for the 2D PC array substrates than the conventional planar substrate at the wavelengths of ca. 400 nm, even though the direct transmittance of 2D PC array substrates was much lower over the entire visible light range. The short circuit current density (J(SC)) was higher for the device with the 2D PC array (200 nm hole depth) than the reference device. However, the device with the 2D PC array (300 nm hole depth) showed a slightly lower J(SC) value at a high light intensity in spite of its light harvesting effect proven at a lower light intensity.

  13. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  14. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  15. Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

  16. Parameters affecting the performance of a low cost solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, A.; Imteaz, M.; Thomas, U.A.; Azmi, M.; Rahman, A.; Nik Daud, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The triangular solar still is designed using cheap and durable materials. • The initial water depth has an inverse relationship with the production. • The water productivity is nearly proportional to the solar radiation. • The water quality parameters are within the accepted ranges of drinking water. - Abstract: This study aims at developing a low cost technique to be used in rural and coastal areas for converting saline water into potable water using solar energy. A triangular solar still (TrSS) was, therefore, designed and developed with cheap, lightweight, local and available materials. A number of field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of solar radiation intensity, ambient air temperature and the initial water depth on the daily water production of the TrSS. A time lag of about and hour between the hourly peaks of solar radiation and water production is observed. Finally, a few essential relationships were attained, e.g. between the daily production and the initial water depth, between the daily production and daily solar radiation, and between the daily production and the average ambient temperature. The effect of the initial water depth in the basin on the daily water productivity was evaluated by varying the water depths (1.5, 2.5 and 5 cm) with the climatic condition of Malaysia and an inverse proportional relationship was revealed between them. However, the daily water productivity is nearly proportional to the daily solar radiation. In addition, some important water quality parameters were tested in the laboratory to evaluate the distillate quality and were then compared with the drinking water standards

  17. Interspace modification of titania-nanorod arrays for efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Jin, Zhixin; Wang, Yinglin; Wang, Meiqi; Chen, Shixin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun

    2017-04-01

    Morphology of electron transport layers (ETLs) has an important influence on the device architecture and electronic processes of mesostructured solar cells. In this work, we thoroughly investigated the effect of the interspace of TiO2 nanorod (NR) arrays on the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Along with the interspace in TiO2-NR arrays increasing, the thickness as well as the crystal size of perovskite capping layer are reduced accordingly, and the filling of perovskite in the channel becomes incomplete. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that this variation of perovskite absorber layer, induced by interspace of TiO2 NR arrays, causes the change of charge recombination process at the TiO2/perovskite interface, suggesting that a balance between capping layer and the perovskite filling is critical to obtain high charge collection efficiency of PSCs. A power conversion efficiency of 10.3% could be achieved through careful optimization of interspace in TiO2-NR arrays. Our research will shed light on the morphology control of ETLs with 1D structure for heterojunction solar cells fabricated by solution-deposited method.

  18. Performance, size, mass, and cost estimates for projected 1kW EOL Si, InP, and GaAs arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifer, Luther W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    One method of evaluating the potential of emerging solar cell and array technologies is to compare their projected capabilities in space flight applications to those of established Si solar cells and arrays. Such an application-oriented comparison provides an integrated view of the elemental comparisons of efficiency, radiation resistance, temperature sensitivity, size, mass, and cost in combination. In addition, the assumptions necessary to make the comparisons provide insights helpful toward determining necessary areas of development or evaluation. Finally, as developments and evaluations progress, the results can be used in more precisely defining the overall potential of the new technologies in comparison to existing technologies. The projected capabilities of Si, InP, and GaAs cells and arrays are compared.

  19. Cost estimates for flat plate and concentrator collector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1982-01-01

    The current module and installation costs for the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program's grid-connected systems are significantly higher than required for economic viability of this alternative. Attention is accordingly given to the prospects for installed module cost reductions in flat plate, linear focus Fresnel concentrator, and point focus Fresnel concentrator candidate systems. Cost projections indicate that all three systems would meet near-term and midterm goals, provided that module costs of $2.80/W(p) and $0.70/W(p), respectively, are met. The point focus Fresnel system emerges as the most viable for the near term.

  20. Solar array deployment analysis considering path-dependent behavior of a tape spring hinge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Young Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Solar array deployment analysis is conducted considering the path-dependent nonlinear behavior of tape spring hinge. Such hinges offer many advantages over rigid hinges; they are self-deployable, self-locking, lightweight, and simple. However, they show strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to rotation angle, making deployment analysis difficult. To accurately consider the characteristics of tape spring hinges for deployment analysis, a path-dependent path identification (PI) method for tracing the previous path of the moment is introduced. To analyze the deployment motion, the governing equation for solar array deployment is derived within the framework of Kane's dynamic equation for three deployable solar panels. The numerical solution is compared with the Recurdyn's multi-body dynamics analysis solution using experimentally measured moment-rotation profiles. Solar array deployment analysis is conducted by considering and not considering the path-dependent PI method. This simulation example shows that the proposed path-dependent PI method is very effective for accurately predicting the deployment motion.

  1. Low-cost electrodes for stable perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João P.; Manghooli, Sara; Jaysankar, Manoj; Tait, Jeffrey G.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; De Volder, Michael; Uytterhoeven, Griet; Poortmans, Jef; Paetzold, Ulrich W.

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effective production of perovskite solar cells on an industrial scale requires the utilization of exclusively inexpensive materials. However, to date, highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells rely on expensive gold electrodes since other metal electrodes are known to cause degradation of the devices. Finding a low-cost electrode that can replace gold and ensure both efficiency and long-term stability is essential for the success of the perovskite-based solar cell technology. In this work, we systematically compare three types of electrode materials: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), alternative metals (silver, aluminum, and copper), and transparent oxides [indium tin oxide (ITO)] in terms of efficiency, stability, and cost. We show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes are the only electrode that is both more cost-effective and stable than gold. Devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes present remarkable shelf-life stability, with no decrease in the efficiency even after 180 h of storage in 77% relative humidity (RH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to achieve high efficiencies. These developments are an important step forward to mass produce perovskite photovoltaics in a commercially viable way.

  2. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  3. Electrostatic Discharge Testing of Carbon Composite Solar Array Panels for Use in the Jovian Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nelson W.; Dawson, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is currently considering a mission to investigate the moons of Jupiter. When designing a spacecraft for this type of mission, there are a number of engineering challenges, especially if the mission chooses to utilize solar arrays to provide the spacecraft power. In order for solar arrays to be feasible for the mission, their total mass needed to fit within the total budget for the mission, which strongly suggested the use of carbon composite facesheets on an aluminum core for the panel structure. While these composite structures are a good functional substitution for the metallic materials they replace, they present unique challenges when interacting with the harsh Jovian space environment. As a composite material, they are composed of more than one material and can show different base properties depending in differing conditions. Looking at the electrical properties, in an Earth-based environment the carbon component of the composite dominates the response of the material to external stimulus. Under these conditions, the structures strongly resembles a conductor. In the Jovian environment, with temperatures reaching 50K and under the bombardment from energetic electrons, the non-conducting pre-preg binding materials may come to the forefront and change the perceived response. Before selecting solar arrays as the baseline power source for a mission to Jupiter, the response of the carbon composites to energetic electrons while held at cryogenic temperatures needed to be determined. A series of tests were devised to exam the response of a sample solar array panel composed of an M55J carbon weave layup with an RS-3 pre-preg binder. Test coupons were fabricated and exposed to electrons ranging from 10 keV to 100 keV, at 1 nA/cm2, while being held at cryogenic temperatures. While under electron bombardment, electrical discharges were observed and recorded with the majority of discharges occurring with electron energies of 25 keV. A decrease in temperature to liquid

  4. Distributed solar photovoltaic array location and extent dataset for remote sensing object identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kyle; Saboo, Raghav; L. Johnson, Timothy; Malof, Jordan M.; Devarajan, Arjun; Zhang, Wuming; M. Collins, Leslie; G. Newell, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales. We created a dataset of solar PV arrays to initiate and develop the process of automatically identifying solar PV locations using remote sensing imagery. This dataset contains the geospatial coordinates and border vertices for over 19,000 solar panels across 601 high-resolution images from four cities in California. Dataset applications include training object detection and other machine learning algorithms that use remote sensing imagery, developing specific algorithms for predictive detection of distributed PV systems, estimating installed PV capacity, and analysis of the socioeconomic correlates of PV deployment.

  5. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  6. The concentration principle applied to spaceborne solar arrays. AGORA mission: Studies synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laget, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies that led to selection of the distributed 25 kW SARA LOUVRE concept for the solar cell generator to be flown on the AGORA asteroid mission, and the major characteristics of such a spaceborne solar array are summarized. In the SARA LOUVRE concept, a parabolic cross section reflector concentrates incident light over the rear face of the identical, preceding reflector dish. The whole set of reflectors is pivotally commanded, thus compensating the effects of depointing. Geometric concentration factor is 10. End of life power level at 2.5 AU is 4.5 kW.

  7. Development of Space Qualified Microlens Arrays for Solar Cells Used on Satellite Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Keser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The power system, one of the main systems of satellite, provides energy required for the satellite. Solar cells are also the most used energy source in the power system. The third generation multi-junction solar cells are known as the ones with highest performance. One of the methods to increase the performance of the solar cells is anti-reflective surface coatings with the Micro Lens Array-MLA. It's expected that satellite technologies has high power efficiency and low mass. The space environment has many effects like atomic oxygen, radiation and thermal cycles. Researches for increasing the solar cells performance shows that MLA coated solar cell has increased light absorption performance and less cell heating with very low additional mass. However, it is established that few studies on MLA coatings of solar cells are not applicable on space platforms. In this study, the process of development of MLA which is convenient to space power systems is investigated in a methodological way. In this context, a method which is developed based on MLA coatings of multi-junction solar cells for satellite power systems is presented.

  8. Design, development, manufacture, testing, and delivery of devices for connection of solar cell panel circuitry to flat conductor cable solar cell array harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.; Waddington, D.

    1971-01-01

    The technology status and problem areas which exist for the application of flat conductor cabling to solar cell arrays are summarized. Details covering the design, connector manufacture, and prototype test results are also summarized.

  9. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  10. Singular formalism and admissible control of spacecraft with rotating flexible solar array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Dongning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the attitude control of a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft which consists of a central rigid body and a flexible sun-tracking solar array driven by a solar array drive assembly. Based on the linearization of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the modal identities about the flexible and rigid coupling matrices, the spacecraft attitude dynamics is reduced to a formally singular system with periodically varying parameters, which is quite different from a spacecraft with fixed appendages. In the framework of the singular control theory, the regularity and impulse-freeness of the singular system is analyzed and then admissible attitude controllers are designed by Lyapunov’s method. To improve the robustness against system uncertainties, an H∞ optimal control is designed by optimizing the H∞ norm of the system transfer function matrix. Comparative numerical experiments are performed to verify the theoretical results.

  11. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  12. Tunable TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Flexible Bio-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    microid extender followed by a colloidal silica /wetted imperial cloth. The foil was then cut into 1- × 2-cm samples. Then, the substrates were...17. Lei, B.; Liao, J.; Wang, R. J.; Su, C.; Kuang, D. Ordered Crystalline Ti02 Nanotube Arrays on Transparent FTO Glass for Efficient Dye...combined with a transparent , Indium Tin Dioxide coated PET film are attractive candidates for efficient, flexible DSSC’s. Flexible solar cells offer

  13. Lightweight solar array blanket tooling, laser welding and cover process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    A two phase technology investigation was performed to demonstrate effective methods for integrating 50 micrometer thin solar cells into ultralightweight module designs. During the first phase, innovative tooling was developed which allows lightweight blankets to be fabricated in a manufacturing environment with acceptable yields. During the second phase, the tooling was improved and the feasibility of laser processing of lightweight arrays was confirmed. The development of the cell/interconnect registration tool and interconnect bonding by laser welding is described.

  14. Integrated ZnO nanotube arrays as efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Y., E-mail: yxi6@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Wu, W.Z.; Fang, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Hu, C.G. [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tuning the reaction parameters, we got the best reaction conditions on ITO glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduce ZnO NTs design of photoanode featuring high aspect ratio structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design strategy integrates the optical fibers or ITO with ZnO NTs grown. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconducting material and has been considered as an alternative material in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. A high-performance nanotube (NT) photoanode must have a large surface area for dye adsorption in order to enhance conversion efficiency. In this work, the way of hydrothermally grown ZnO NT arrays on the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate is presented by utilizing a systematic study. By adjusting the hydrothermal reaction parameters, we attained the optimizing reaction conditions on the ITO substrate. Moreover, ZnO NT arrays are introduced as a photoanode on various substrates, such as optical fiber and ITO glass, for DSSCs applications. We took the contrast test with conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on ZnO NT arrays versus ZnO nanowire arrays on the ITO substrate, which the DSSC based on ZnO NT arrays shows significantly enhanced power conversion efficiency. Furthermore, the conversion efficiency of DSSC based on the ZnO NT arrays grown on an optical fiber substrate is enhanced up to 1.44%.

  15. Experiences of a grid connected solar array energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymássy, Zoltán; Vántus, András

    2015-04-01

    Solar energy possibilities of Hungary are higher than in Central Europe generally. The Institute for Land Utilisation, Technology and Regional Development of the University of Debrecen installed a photovoltaic (PV) system. The PV system is structured into 3 subsystems (fields). The first subsystem has 24 pieces of Kyocera KC 120 W type modules, the second subsystem has 72 pieces of Siemens ST 40W, and the remaining has 72 pieces of Dunasolar DS 40W In order to be operable independently of each other three inverter modules (SB 2500) had been installed. The recorder can be connected directly to a desktop PC. Operating and meteorological dates are recorded by MS Excel every 15 minutes. The power plant is connected to a weather station, which contents a PT 100 type temperature and humidity combined measuring instrument, a CM 11 pyranometer, and a wind speed measuring instrument. The produced DC, and AC power, together with the produced energy are as well, and the efficiency can be determined for each used PV technology. The measured operating and meteorological dates are collected by Sunny Boy Control, produced by the SMA. The energy productions of the subsystems are measured continually and the subsystems are measured separately. As an expected, the produced energy of polycrystalline -Si PV module and monocrystalline -Si PV was higher than amorphous-Si PV module. It is well known that energy analysis is more suitable for energy balance when we design a system. The air temperature and the temperature of the panels and the global irradiation conditions were measured. In summertime the panel temperature reaches 60-80 degrees in a sunny day. The panel temperatures are in a spring sunny day approximately 30-40 degrees. It can be concluded that the global irradiation is a major impact feature to influence the amount of energy produced. The efficiency depends on several parameters (spectral distribution of the incoming light, temperature values, etc.). The energy efficiency

  16. Design of coated standing nanowire array solar cell performing beyond the planar efficiency limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzshen@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Solar Energy, and Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-28

    The single standing nanowire (SNW) solar cells have been proven to perform beyond the planar efficiency limits in both open-circuit voltage and internal quantum efficiency due to the built-in concentration and the shifting of the absorption front. However, the expandability of these nano-scale units to a macro-scale photovoltaic device remains unsolved. The main difficulty lies in the simultaneous preservation of an effective built-in concentration in each unit cell and a broadband high absorption capability of their array. Here, we have provided a detailed theoretical guideline for realizing a macro-scale solar cell that performs furthest beyond the planar limits. The key lies in a complementary design between the light-trapping of the single SNWs and that of the photonic crystal slab formed by the array. By tuning the hybrid HE modes of the SNWs through the thickness of a coaxial dielectric coating, the optimized coated SNW array can sustain an absorption rate over 97.5% for a period as large as 425 nm, which, together with the inherited carrier extraction advantage, leads to a cell efficiency increment of 30% over the planar limit. This work has demonstrated the viability of a large-size solar cell that performs beyond the planar limits.

  17. Implementing a solar energy technology in Canada: The costs, benefits, and role of government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, M K

    1978-01-01

    Canadian studies on the cost of solar energy to the user are described. Realistic estimates are developed of the initial capital cost and comparative lifetime costs of solar and conventional heating systems. Interfacing solar home heating with electric utilities is also discussed, along with the social benefits of solar space and water heating. Results are presented of a Canada-wide survey of public attitudes to the energy situation in general and to solar energy in particular. A computer simulation was used to examine the cost to the government and effects on the lifetime cost to the user of various incentive schemes to encourage solar use. Optimal government strategy is suggested and recommendations implied by the analyses in this study are made. It was found that not only is a package-designed solar heating system cost-effective when compared with conventional systems, but the public is eager and receptive to large-scale solar use. 14 refs.

  18. 16.1% Efficient Hysteresis-Free Mesostructured Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Synergistically Improved ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Significant efficiency improvements are reported in mesoscopic perovskite solar cells based on the development of a low-temperature solution-processed ZnO nanorod (NR) array exhibiting higher NR aspect ratio, enhanced electron density

  19. Design of DSP-based high-power digital solar array simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Zhilong; Tong, Weichao; Feng, Jian; Ji, Yibo

    2013-12-01

    To satisfy rigid performance specifications, a feedback control was presented for zoom optical lens plants. With the increasing of global energy consumption, research of the photovoltaic(PV) systems get more and more attention. Research of the digital high-power solar array simulator provides technical support for high-power grid-connected PV systems research.This paper introduces a design scheme of the high-power digital solar array simulator based on TMS320F28335. A DC-DC full-bridge topology was used in the system's main circuit. The switching frequency of IGBT is 25kHz.Maximum output voltage is 900V. Maximum output current is 20A. Simulator can be pre-stored solar panel IV curves.The curve is composed of 128 discrete points .When the system was running, the main circuit voltage and current values was feedback to the DSP by the voltage and current sensors in real-time. Through incremental PI,DSP control the simulator in the closed-loop control system. Experimental data show that Simulator output voltage and current follow a preset solar panels IV curve. In connection with the formation of high-power inverter, the system becomes gridconnected PV system. The inverter can find the simulator's maximum power point and the output power can be stabilized at the maximum power point (MPP).

  20. A dynamical approach in exploring the unknown mass in the Solar system using pulsar timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. J.; Lee, K. J.; Caballero, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The error in the Solar system ephemeris will lead to dipolar correlations in the residuals of pulsar timing array for widely separated pulsars. In this paper, we utilize such correlated signals, and construct a Bayesian data-analysis framework to detect the unknown mass in the Solar system and to measure the orbital parameters. The algorithm is designed to calculate the waveform of the induced pulsar-timing residuals due to the unmodelled objects following the Keplerian orbits in the Solar system. The algorithm incorporates a Bayesian-analysis suit used to simultaneously analyse the pulsar-timing data of multiple pulsars to search for coherent waveforms, evaluate the detection significance of unknown objects, and to measure their parameters. When the object is not detectable, our algorithm can be used to place upper limits on the mass. The algorithm is verified using simulated data sets, and cross-checked with analytical calculations. We also investigate the capability of future pulsar-timing-array experiments in detecting the unknown objects. We expect that the future pulsar-timing data can limit the unknown massive objects in the Solar system to be lighter than 10-11-10-12 M⊙, or measure the mass of Jovian system to a fractional precision of 10-8-10-9.

  1. Optimizing the solar array of stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems as a function of time and load profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hussein, M. S.; El-Maghraby, M. H.; Groumpos, P. P.; El-Geldawy, F. A.; El-Tamaly, H. H.

    This paper presents a proposed novel technique in which an accurate optimum design of the solar array (SCA) can be attained. It depends on an hour-by-hour approach with different daily load profiles. A generalized mathematical formula has been developed for sizing of the solar array given the geographical and one year's insolation data for a particular site in Egypt. This approach can reduce the required size compared to other methods using the same tilt angle.

  2. Lightweight Battery Charge Regulator Used to Track Solar Array Peak Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.; Button, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    A battery charge regulator based on the series-connected boost regulator (SCBR) technology has been developed for high-voltage spacecraft applications. The SCBR regulates the solar array power during insolation to prevent battery overcharge or undercharge conditions. It can also be used to provide regulated battery output voltage to spacecraft loads if necessary. This technology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. The high-voltage SCBR shown in the photograph has demonstrated power densities of over 1000 watts per kilogram (W/kg). Using four 150-W dc-dc converter modules, it can process 2500 W of power at 120 Vdc with a minimum input voltage of 90 Vdc. Efficiency of the SCBR was 94 to 98 percent over the entire operational range. Internally, the unit is made of two separate SCBR s, each with its own analog control circuitry, to demonstrate the modularity of the technology. The analog controllers regulate the output current and incorporate the output voltage limit with active current sharing between the two units. They also include voltage and current telemetry, on/off control, and baseplate temperature sensors. For peak power tracking, the SCBR was connected to a LabView-based data acquisition system for telemetry and control. A digital control algorithm for tracking the peak power point of a solar array was developed using the principle of matching the source impedance with the load impedance for maximum energy transfer. The algorithm was successfully demonstrated in a simulated spacecraft electrical system at the Boeing PhantomWorks High Voltage Test Facility in Seattle, Washington. The system consists of a 42-string, high-voltage solar array simulator, a 77-cell, 80-ampere-hour (A-hr) nickel-hydrogen battery, and a constant power-load module. The SCBR and the LabView control algorithm successfully tracked the solar array peak

  3. Development of an industrialized space-frame system for the support of medium to large solar collector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-01

    A low-cost industrialized space-frame system suitable for the economical support of medium to large solar collector arrays was designed following a study of building types, collector interface conditions, structural design requirements, and market and procurement factors. The system consists of a series of welded truss modular sections which may be bolted together in the field to create a support structure with a span capability up to 25 m, thus minimizing expensive structural beams and roof penetrations. Collectors can be readily attached to top and bottom channels. The system meets all current government specifications for collector support. A full-size prototype was built to prove the concept and identify any fabrication and on-site assembly problems. Collectors were attached to test collector interface conditions, and a manufacturing strategy developed. 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Detection of very long period solar free oscillations in ambient seismic array noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, R.; Pavlis, G. L.; Thomson, D. J.; Vernon, F.

    2017-12-01

    For nearly two decades long-period seismologists have been aware that the Earth's free oscillations are in a constant state of excitement, even in the absence of large earthquakes. This phenomenon is now called the "Earth's hum," and much research has been done to determine what generates this hum. Here we examine a hypothesis first put forward by Thomson et al. in 2007 that a portion of the hum's energy comes from the sun. They hypothesized that solar free oscillations couple into the solid Earth, likely through electromagnetic processes, and produce signals that are observable in the frequency domain. If this is true, then at least some measurement of helioseismic oscillations may be possible using relatively cheap, ground-based instruments rather than spacecraft. In this project we attempt to improve upon previous studies by producing spectra from seismic arrays, rather than a single station. We use data from two arrays: The Homestake Mine 3D array in Lead, SD, and the Pinyon Flats array, which has seismometers in boreholes drilled into bedrock. Both have exceptionally low noise levels at ultra long periods and show easily visible earth tides on horizontal component data filtered to below the microseism band. In the Homestake data, below 500 μHz we have found evidence of what we suggest may be closely spaced solar g-mode lines. Such modes are produced by a density inversion at the top of the solar core. There is no sign of these modes in the Pinyon Flats data, but we find this is likely due to the signal-to-noise ratio of those data, which is significantly lower than Homestake. Significance tests of bands below 500 μHz indicate with probability levels as high as 40σ that these lines are not the result of random processes. Critical examination of our processing steps for sources of bias indicate that the observed line structure is not a processing artifact.

  5. High-efficiency perovskite solar cells based on anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yan, E-mail: huangyan@ecust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Wu, Jiamin; Gao, Di [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on one-dimensional anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by using a two-step deposition method to fill the arrays of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes in different lengths with perovskite. The photovoltaic performance of PSCs was found to be significantly dependent on the length of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, and the power conversion efficiency decreased as the length of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes increased from ~ 0.40 μm to ~ 0.65 and then to ~ 0.93 μm. The PSC fabricated with ~ 0.40 μm-long anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays yielded a power conversion efficiency of 11.3% and a fill factor of 0.68 under illumination of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} AM 1.5G simulated sunlight, which is significantly higher than previously reported solar cells based on 1-D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures. Incident photon-to-current efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements indicated that longer TiO{sub 2} nanotubes led to higher recombination losses of charge carriers, possibly due to poor filling of the nanotube arrays with perovskite. - Highlights: • 1D anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were used to fabricate perovskite solar cells. • The best efficiency of 11.3% was achieved with ~ 0.40 μm-long TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • The efficiency of the devices decreased with increasing TiO{sub 2} nanotube lengths.

  6. Heterostructured TiO2/NiTiO3 Nanorod Arrays for Inorganic Sensitized Solar Cells with Significantly Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-Ying; Wang, Jian-Gan; Sun, Huan-Huan; Wei, Bingqing

    2018-04-11

    Organic dyes used in the conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) suffer from poor light stability and high cost. In this work, we demonstrate a new inorganic sensitized solar cell based on ordered one-dimensional semiconductor nanorod arrays of TiO 2 /NiTiO 3 (NTO) heterostructures prepared via a facile two-step hydrothermal approach. The semiconductor heterostructure arrays are highly desirable and promising for DSSCs because of their direct charge transport capability and slow charge recombination rate. The low-cost NTO inorganic semiconductor possesses an appropriate band gap that matches well with TiO 2 , which behaves like a "dye" to enable efficient light harvesting and fast electron-hole separation. The solar cells constructed by the ordered TiO 2 /NTO heterostructure photoanodes show a significantly improved power conversion efficiency, high fill factor, and more promising, outstanding life stability. The present work will open up an avenue to design heterostructured inorganics for high-performance solar cells.

  7. Review of thin film solar cell technology and applications for ultra-light spacecraft solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in thin-film amorphous and polycrystalline photovoltaic cells are reviewed and discussed with a view to potential applications in space. Two important figures of merit are discussed: efficiency (i.e., what fraction of the incident solar energy is converted to electricity), and specific power (power to weight ratio).

  8. Optimizing the size of a solar cell array; Optimiser la taille d'un panneau solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, J. [Linear Technology, 94 - Rungis (France)

    2006-06-15

    The electronic power conversion system is a strategic part of solar power supply systems. An ideal diode controller combined to a compensated switching regulator allows to optimize the operation of the battery and to optimize the dimensioning of the solar cells array. The ideal diode controller limits the discharge of the battery inside the non-exposed solar cells and limits the related direct voltage drop and loss of power. The switching regulator charger lowers the solar cells voltage to charge the battery and ensures the optimum operation of the solar elements. (J.S.)

  9. Three-dimensional electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis of indium-tin-oxide nanowire arrays and ITO/TiO2 core-shell nanowire arrays by electrophoretic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H-W; Ting, C-F; Hung, M-K; Chiou, C-H; Liu, Y-L; Liu Zongwen; Ratinac, Kyle R; Ringer, Simon P

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) show promise as a cheaper alternative to silicon-based photovoltaics for specialized applications, provided conversion efficiency can be maximized and production costs minimized. This study demonstrates that arrays of nanowires can be formed by wet-chemical methods for use as three-dimensional (3D) electrodes in DSSCs, thereby improving photoelectric conversion efficiency. Two approaches were employed to create the arrays of ITO (indium-tin-oxide) nanowires or arrays of ITO/TiO 2 core-shell nanowires; both methods were based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD) within a polycarbonate template. The 3D electrodes for solar cells were constructed by using a doctor-blade for coating TiO 2 layers onto the ITO or ITO/TiO 2 nanowire arrays. A photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 4.3% was achieved in the DSSCs made from ITO nanowires; this performance was better than that of ITO/TiO 2 core-shell nanowires or pristine TiO 2 films. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the reaction current was significantly enhanced when a 3D ITO-nanowire electrode was used. Better separation of charge carriers and improved charge transport, due to the enlarged interfacial area, are thought to be the major advantages of using 3D nanowire electrodes for the optimization of DSSCs.

  10. High Efficiency Solar Cell on Low Cost Metal Foil Substrate, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future space missions will require Solar cell arrays having specific power ratings in excess of 1000 W/kg. Conventional crystalline photovoltaic technology comprised...

  11. The Solar Umbrella: A Low-cost Demonstration of Scalable Space Based Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Sherwood, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Within the past decade, the Space Solar Power (SSP) community has seen an influx of stakeholders willing to entertain the SSP prospect of potentially boundless, base-load solar energy. Interested parties affiliated with the Department of Defense (DoD), the private sector, and various international entities have all agreed that while the benefits of SSP are tremendous and potentially profitable, the risk associated with developing an efficient end to end SSP harvesting system is still very high. In an effort to reduce the implementation risk for future SSP architectures, this study proposes a system level design that is both low-cost and seeks to demonstrate the furthest transmission of wireless power to date. The overall concept is presented and each subsystem is explained in detail with best estimates of current implementable technologies. Basic cost models were constructed based on input from JPL subject matter experts and assume that the technology demonstration would be carried out by a federally funded entity. The main thrust of the architecture is to demonstrate that a usable amount of solar power can be safely and reliably transmitted from space to the Earth's surface; however, maximum power scalability limits and their cost implications are discussed.

  12. The environmental and cost implications of solar energy preferences in Renewable Portfolio Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novacheck, Joshua; Johnson, Jeremiah X.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) include preferences for solar generation, with goals of increasing the generation diversity, reducing solar costs, and encouraging local solar industries. Depending on their policy design, these preferences can impact the RPS program costs and emissions reduction. This study evaluates the impact of these policies on costs and emissions, coupling an economic dispatch model with optimized renewable site selection. Three policy designs of an increased RPS in Michigan are investigated: (1) 20% Solar Carve-Out, (2) 5% Distributed Generation Solar Carve-Out, and (3) 3× Solar Multiplier. The 20% Solar Carve-Out scenario was found to increase RPS costs 28%, while the 5% Distributed Generation Solar Carve-Out increased costs by 34%. Both of these solar preferences had minimal impact on total emissions. The 3× Solar Multiplier decreases total RPS program costs by 39%, but adds less than half of the total renewable generation of the other cases, significantly increasing emissions of CO_2, NO_x, and SO_2 relative to an RPS without the solar credit multiplier. Sensitivity analysis of the installed cost of solar and the natural gas price finds small changes in the results of the Carve-Out cases, with a larger impact on the 3× Solar Multiplier. - Highlights: • A unit commitment and economic dispatch model is used to assess Renewable Portfolio Standard expansion. • The impact of solar carve-outs and multipliers on costs and benefits of Renewable Portfolio Standards are analyzed. • Solar carve-outs increase costs and have minimal impact on emissions. • The solar multiplier decreases total renewable energy expansion. • The multiplier decreases the emissions reduction potential of the Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  13. Fixed Nadir Focus Concentrated Solar Power Applying Reflective Array Tracking Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B.; DAMayanti, A. M.; Murdani, A.; Habibi, I. I. A.; Wakidah, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The Sun is one of the most potential renewable energy develoPMent to be utilized, one of its utilization is for solar thermal concentrators, CSP (Concentrated Solar Power). In CSP energy conversion, the concentrator is as moving the object by tracking the sunlight to reach the focus point. This method need quite energy consumption, because the unit of the concentrators has considerable weight, and use large CSP, means the existence of the usage unit will appear to be wider and heavier. The addition of weight and width of the unit will increase the torque to drive the concentrator and hold the wind gusts. One method to reduce energy consumption is direct the sunlight by the reflective array to nadir through CSP with Reflective Fresnel Lens concentrator. The focus will be below the nadir direction, and the position of concentrator will be fixed position even the angle of the sun’s elevation changes from morning to afternoon. So, the energy concentrated maximally, because it has been protected from wind gusts. And then, the possibility of dAMage and changes in focus construction will not occur. The research study and simulation of the reflective array (mechanical method) will show the reflective angle movement. The distance between reflectors and their angle are controlled by mechatronics. From the simulation using fresnel 1m2, and efficiency of solar energy is 60.88%. In restriction, the intensity of sunlight at the tropical circles 1KW/peak, from 6 AM until 6 PM.

  14. Cost reduction has priority in solar cell research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zolingen, R.J.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    The main topic in the research and development of photovoltaic cells is cost reduction. Although new materials, improved techniques and increasing efficiency are promising aspects of the clean and sustainable option of a photovoltaic conversion of sunlight to produce electricity at a large scale, the high prices form an obstacle. Photovoltaic conversion is at least a factor three too expensive compared to the conventional power generation techniques by means of fossil fuels. Attention is paid to the theoretical maximum efficiency of photovoltaic conversion, the efficiencies realized sofar, the importance of thin film solar cells, the payback period of photovoltaic modules, the environmental impacts of using photovoltaic cells, and finally the costs. 2 figs., 1 ill., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  15. Cost-effectiveness optimization of a solar hot water heater with integrated storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Syahri, M.; Shahrir, A.; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2006-01-01

    Solar processes are generally characterized by high first cost and low operating costs. Therefore, the basic economic problem is one of comparing an initial known investment with estimated future operating cost. This paper present the cost-benefit ratio of solar collector with integrated storage system. Evaluation of the annual cost (AC) and the annual energy gain (AEG) of the collector are performed and the ratio of AC/AEG or the cost benefit ratio is presented for difference combination of mass flow rate, solar collector length and channel depth. Using these cost-effectiveness curves, the user can select optimum design features, which correspond to minimum AC/AEG

  16. Investigation on the Tunable-Length Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Yi Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We had successfully fabricated ZnO-based nanowires by vapor transport method in the furnace tube. ZnO nanowire arrays grown in 600°C for 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes had applied to the dye-sensitized solar cells. The dye loading is proportional to the total equivalent surface area of ZnO nanowire arrays in the cells and plays an important role in improving power conversion efficiency. The highest efficiency was observed in DSSC sample with ZnO nanowires grown for 90 minutes, which had the largest equivalent surface area and also the highest dye loading. According to our experimental results, the enhancement in power conversion efficiency is attributed to the higher light harvesting and reduction of carrier recombination. In addition, ZnO nanowires also contribute to the photocurrent in the UV region.

  17. Native Vegetation Performance under a Solar PV Array at the National Wind Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buckner, David [ESCO Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-16

    Construction activities at most large-scale ground installations of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are preceded by land clearing and re-grading to uniform slope and smooth surface conditions to facilitate convenient construction access and facility operations. The impact to original vegetation is usually total eradication followed by installation of a gravel cover kept clear of vegetation by use of herbicides. The degree to which that total loss can be mitigated by some form of revegetation is a subject in its infancy, and most vegetation studies at PV development sites only address weed control and the impact of tall plants on the efficiency of the solar collectors from shading.This study seeks to address this void, advancing the state of knowledge of how constructed PV arrays affect ground-level environments, and to what degree plant cover, having acceptable characteristics within engineering constraints, can be re-established.

  18. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU). [flat plate solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a cost effective process sequence that has the potential for the production of flat plate photovoltaic modules which meet the price goal in 1986 of 70 cents or less per Watt peak is described. The major accomplishments include (1) an improved AR coating technique; (2) the use of sand blast back clean-up to reduce clean up costs and to allow much of the Al paste to serve as a back conductor; and (3) the development of wave soldering for use with solar cells. Cells were processed to evaluate different process steps, a cell and minimodule test plan was prepared and data were collected for preliminary Samics cost analysis.

  19. Towards Cost-Effective Crystalline Silicon Based Flexible Solar Cells: Integration Strategy by Rational Design of Materials, Process, and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.

    2017-11-30

    The solar cells market has an annual growth of more than 30 percent over the past 15 years. At the same time, the cost of the solar modules diminished to meet both of the rapid global demand and the technological improvements. In particular for the crystalline silicon solar cells, the workhorse of this technology. The objective of this doctoral thesis is enhancing the efficiency of c-Si solar cells while exploring the cost reduction via innovative techniques. Contact metallization and ultra-flexible wafer based c-Si solar cells are the main areas under investigation. First, Silicon-based solar cells typically utilize screen printed Silver (Ag) metal contacts which affect the optimal electrical performance. To date, metal silicide-based ohmic contacts are occasionally used for the front contact grid lines. In this work, investigation of the microstructure and the electrical characteristics of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) ohmic contacts on the rear side of c-Si solar cells has been carried out. Significant enhancement in the fill factor leading to increasing the total power conversion efficiency is observed. Second, advanced classes of modern application require a new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience. However, silicon is a brittle material with a fracture strains <1%. Highly flexible Si-based solar cells are available in the form thin films which seem to be disadvantageous over thick Si solar cells due to the reduction of the optical absorption with less active Si material. Here, a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology based integration strategy is designed where corrugation architecture to enable an ultra-flexible solar cell module from bulk mono-crystalline silicon solar wafer with 17% efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells

  20. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1981-02-10

    A prototype design for an evacuated tube air cooled solar collector module has been completed. A product cost study, based on the production of 60,000 of the prototype modules per year (approx. 1,000,000 square feet annually), estimates that the module as shipped would have a cost at inventory of $7.09 to $7.40 per square foot of aperture. Computer programs were developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the module. Antireflective coatings (porous aluminum oxide) which could be formed by spraying or dipping were demonstrated but degraded more rapidly when exposed to a high humidity ambient than acid etched films. A selective black chromium oxide multi-layered graded film was vapor deposited which had an absorptivity of about 0.9 and an emissivity of 0.03. When the film was heated to temperatures of 400/sup 0/C in a gettered vacuum for as little as 24 hours, however, irreversible changes took place both between and within coating layers which resulted in ..cap alpha.. decreasing to about 0.73 and epsilon increasing to 0.14. The product cost studies indicate that module design changes are warranted to reduce product cost prior to tooling for production.

  1. Enhanced Electron Photoemission by Collective Lattice Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle-Array Photodetectors and Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Uskov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We propose to use collective lattice resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays to enhance and tailor photoelectron emission in Schottky barrier photodetectors and solar cells. We show that the interaction between narrow-band lattice resonances (the Rayleigh anomaly) and broader-band individual-particle...... excitations (localized surface plasmon resonances) leads to stronger local field enhancement. In turn, this causes a significant increase of the photocurrent compared to the case when only individual-particle excitations are present. The results can be used to design new photodetectors with highly selective......, tunable spectral response, which are able to detect photons with the energy below the semiconductor bandgap. The findings can also be used to develop solar cells with increased efficiency....

  2. Multiple Solutions for Reconfiguration to Address Partial Shading Losses in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikesh; Pareek, Smita; Chaturvedi, Nitin; Dahiya, Ratna

    2018-03-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems are steadily rising and considered as the best alternatives to meet the rising demand of energy. In developing countries like India, SPV’s contribution being a clean energy is the most favourable. However, experiences have shown that produced power of these systems is usually affected due to day, night, seasonal variations, insolation, partial shading conditions etc. Among these parameters, partial shading causes a huge reduction in output power of PV systems. This results in lack of confidence for this technology among users. Thus, it is important and a major challenge in PV systems to minimize the effect of partial shading on their energy production. The work in this paper aims to propose solutions for reconfiguration of solar photovoltaic arrays in order to reduce partial shading losses and thus to enhance power generation.

  3. Optimizing of solar chimney performance using electrohydrodynamic system based on array geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamchi, Mehrdad; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Ghalamchi, Mehran; Fadaei, Niloufar; Daneshazarian, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different electrohydrodynamic layouts are applied in the solar chimney pilot. • Effective parameters of electrohydrodynamic is represented in every layout. • The air velocity and heat transfer were increased outstandingly. • The temperature distribution in the absorber surface and the fluid is investigated. • The performance and the efficiency of the solar chimney pilot are increased. - Abstract: The effect of the electrohydrodynamic system with various electrode layouts on a solar chimney pilot is investigated experimentally. A pilot setup was constructed which consisted of a chimney with 3 m height and 3 m collector diameter. The purpose of this research was to enhance the solar chimney performance with the electrohydrodynamic system for the parallel, radial, and symmetric layouts. By using of corona wind, the outlet fluid temperature is increased, and the outlet absorber is decreased. For the three layouts, the most growth in the outlet fluid temperature is 14 °C, which is observed in the parallel layout. Also, in the parallel array, the most outlet absorber temperature drop is 7 °C. The results show that parallel layout with six electrodes and 3 cm spacing between the electrodes has the best performance. Also, various hours of the day are studied and the best time for turning on the electrohydrodynamic system is 1:00 p.m. The electrohydrodynamic system makes an increase in the fluid velocity from 1.7 to 2.3 m s −1 , and this growth improves the performance about 28%.

  4. Optimizing laser beam profiles using micro-lens arrays for efficient material processing: applications to solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Dirk; Homburg, Oliver; Mitra, Thomas; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Jarczynski, Manfred; Meinschien, Jens; Bayer, Andreas; Lissotschenko, Vitalij

    2009-02-01

    High power laser sources are used in various production tools for microelectronic products and solar cells, including the applications annealing, lithography, edge isolation as well as dicing and patterning. Besides the right choice of the laser source suitable high performance optics for generating the appropriate beam profile and intensity distribution are of high importance for the right processing speed, quality and yield. For industrial applications equally important is an adequate understanding of the physics of the light-matter interaction behind the process. In advance simulations of the tool performance can minimize technical and financial risk as well as lead times for prototyping and introduction into series production. LIMO has developed its own software founded on the Maxwell equations taking into account all important physical aspects of the laser based process: the light source, the beam shaping optical system and the light-matter interaction. Based on this knowledge together with a unique free-form micro-lens array production technology and patented micro-optics beam shaping designs a number of novel solar cell production tool sub-systems have been built. The basic functionalities, design principles and performance results are presented with a special emphasis on resilience, cost reduction and process reliability.

  5. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  6. Omniscopes: Large area telescope arrays with only NlogN computational cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2010-01-01

    We show that the class of antenna layouts for telescope arrays allowing cheap analysis hardware (with correlator cost scaling as NlogN rather than N 2 with the number of antennas N) is encouragingly large, including not only previously discussed rectangular grids but also arbitrary hierarchies of such grids, with arbitrary rotations and shears at each level. We show that all correlations for such a 2D array with an n-level hierarchy can be efficiently computed via a fast Fourier transform in not two but 2n dimensions. This can allow major correlator cost reductions for science applications requiring exquisite sensitivity at widely separated angular scales, for example, 21 cm tomography (where short baselines are needed to probe the cosmological signal and long baselines are needed for point source removal), helping enable future 21 cm experiments with thousands or millions of cheap dipolelike antennas. Such hierarchical grids combine the angular resolution advantage of traditional array layouts with the cost advantage of a rectangular fast Fourier transform telescope. We also describe an algorithm for how a subclass of hierarchical arrays can efficiently use rotation synthesis to produce global sky maps with minimal noise and a well-characterized synthesized beam.

  7. Mechanical design of a low cost parabolic solar dish concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Hijazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design a low cost parabolic solar dish concentrator with small-to moderate size for direct electricity generation. Such model can be installed in rural areas which are not connected to governmental grid. Three diameters of the dish; 5, 10 and 20 m are investigated and the focal point to dish diameter ratio is set to be 0.3 in all studied cases. Special attention is given to the selection of the appropriate dimensions of the reflecting surfaces to be cut from the available sheets in the market aiming to reduce both cutting cost and sheets cost. The dimensions of the ribs and rings which support the reflecting surface are optimized in order to minimize the entire weight of the dish while providing the minimum possible total deflection and stresses in the beams. The study applies full stress analysis of the frame of the dish using Autodesk Inventor. The study recommends to use landscape orientation for the reflective facets and increase the ribs angle and the distance between the connecting rings. The methodology presented is robust and can be extended to larger dish diameters.

  8. Thermal efficiency of low cost solar collectors - CSBC; Eficiencia termica de coletores solares de baixo custo - CSBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Renato C.; Shiota, Robson T.; Mello, Samuel F.; Assis Junior, Valdir; Bartoli, Julio R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica. Dept. de Tecnologia de Polimeros

    2006-07-01

    The thermal performance of a low cost flat panel solar collector was measured. This Low Cost Solar Collector is a novel concept for water heating using only thermoplastics materials, used on building: ceiling and tubes made of unplasticized PVC, but without transparent cover. The top side of the UPVC panel was black painted to be the solar radiation absorber surface. Prototypes were installed on two charity houses around Campinas and at the FEQ campus, being used without any trouble for one year. The thermal efficiency analysis followed ABNT NBR 10184 standard at the Green-Solar Laboratory, Brazilian Centre for Development of Solar Thermal Energy, PUC-Minas. It was measured a thermal efficiency of 67%, compared to the 75% usually found on conventional solar collectors made of copper tubes and with glass cover. (author)

  9. Boost Converter Fed High Performance BLDC Drive for Solar PV Array Powered Air Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Rani Depuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the utilization of a DC-DC boost converter as a mediator between a Solar Photovoltaic (SPV array and the Voltage Source Inverters (VSI in an SPV array powered air cooling system to attain maximum efficiency. The boost converter, over the various common DC-DC converters, offers many advantages in SPV based applications. Further, two Brushless DC (BLDC motors are employed in the proposed air cooling system: one to run the centrifugal water pump and the other to run a fan-blower. Employing a BLDC motor is found to be the best option because of its top efficiency, supreme reliability and better performance over a wide range of speeds. The air cooling system is developed and simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink environment considering the steady state variation in the solar irradiance. Further, the efficiency of BLDC drive system is compared with a conventional Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC motor drive system and from the simulated results it is found that the proposed system performs better.

  10. Analytical Kinematics and Coupled Vibrations Analysis of Mechanical System Operated by Solar Array Drive Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M.; Wei, C.; Jalali, A.; Sattar, R.

    2017-07-01

    To address the impact of solar array (SA) anomalies and vibrations on performance of precision space-based operations, it is important to complete its accurate jitter analysis. This work provides mathematical modelling scheme to approximate kinematics and coupled micro disturbance dynamics of rigid load supported and operated by solar array drive assembly (SADA). SADA employed in analysis provides a step wave excitation torque to activate the system. Analytical investigations into kinematics is accomplished by using generalized linear and Euler angle coordinates, applying multi-body dynamics concepts and transformations principles. Theoretical model is extended, to develop equations of motion (EoM), through energy method (Lagrange equation). The main emphasis is to research coupled frequency response by determining energies dissipated and observing dynamic behaviour of internal vibratory systems of SADA. The disturbance model captures discrete active harmonics of SADA, natural modes and vibration amplifications caused by interactions between active harmonics and structural modes of mechanical assembly. The proposed methodology can help to predict true micro disturbance nature of SADA operating rigid load. Moreover, performance outputs may be compared against actual mission requirements to assess precise spacecraft controller design to meet next space generation stringent accuracy goals.

  11. ZnO-nanorod arrays for solar cells with extremely thin sulfidic absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belaidi, A.; Dittrich, Th.; Kieven, D.; Tornow, J.; Schwarzburg, K.; Kunst, M.; Allsop, N.; Lux-Steiner, M.-Ch. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Glienicker Str. 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Gavrilov, S. [Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology, 124 498 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Solar cells with an extremely thin sulfidic absorber have been prepared by spray ion layer gas reaction (ILGAR) of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} on ZnO-nanorod arrays. As transparent hole conductor, CuSCN was deposited on the coated ZnO nanorods by impregnation. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy was applied to characterize states contributing to excess carrier generation and charge separation. The charge-selective contact is formed at the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CuSCN interface region the states of which also contribute significantly to the photocurrent. The influence of annealing temperature and annealing time of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CuSCN contact region on the open-circuit potential (V{sub OC}), short-circuit current (I{sub SC}) and fill factor (FF) was studied in detail. For solar cells based on ZnO-nanorod arrays (rod length 1.5 {mu}m), efficiency of 2.8% is obtained at AM1.5. (author)

  12. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  13. Pre-Flight Dark Forward Electrical Testing of the Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheiman, David A.; Hoffman, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. After final assembly in Russia, the MCSA was shipped to the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the summer of 1995 and launched to Mir in November 1995. Program managers were concerned of the potential for MCSA damage during the transatlantic shipment and the associated handling operations. To address this concern, NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) developed an innovative dark-forward electrical test program to assess the gross electrical condition of each generator following shipment from Russia. The use of dark test techniques, which allow the array to remain in the stowed configuration, greatly simplifies the checkout of large area solar arrays. MCSA dark electrical testing was successfully performed at KSC in July 1995 following transatlantic shipment. Data from this testing enabled engineers to quantify the effects of potential MCSA physical damage that would degrade on-orbit electrical performance. In this paper, an overview of the principles and heritage of photovoltaic array dark testing is given. The specific MCSA dark test program is also described including the hardware, software, testing procedures and test results. The current-voltage (4) response of both solar cell circuitry and by-pass diode circuitry was obtained. To guide the development of dark test hardware, software and procedures, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the dark 4 responses of generators with a variety of feasible damage modes. By comparing the actual test data with the predictions, the physical condition of the generator could be inferred. Based on this data analysis, no electrical short-circuits or open-circuits were detected. This suggested the MCSA did not sustain physical damage that affected electrical performance during handling and shipment from Russia to the US. Good

  14. Cost-covering remuneration - wind and solar energy skinned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the details of Switzerland's cost-covering remuneration scheme for electrical energy from renewable resources are discussed. Several experts from the renewable energies area express their opinions on the scheme's tariffs for the remuneration of electrical energy fed into the public mains. Wind energy is quoted as being 'skinned', with a lower tariff than before and solar energy is quoted as being promoted 'with the hand brake still on'. Geothermal energy and power from biomass power stations is quoted as being 'undamaged' by the new remuneration system. In general, the opinion is expressed that small investors and producers have, once more, been put at a disadvantage. The situation in Switzerland is briefly compared with that in Germany, France, Spain and Italy. An overview of the tariffs is presented in tabular form

  15. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  16. Generation of electrical power under human skin by subdermal solar cell arrays for implantable bioelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwangsun; Han, Jung Hyun; Yang, Hyung Chae; Nam, Kwang Il; Lee, Jongho

    2017-06-15

    Medical electronic implants can significantly improve people's health and quality of life. These implants are typically powered by batteries, which usually have a finite lifetime and therefore must be replaced periodically using surgical procedures. Recently, subdermal solar cells that can generate electricity by absorbing light transmitted through skin have been proposed as a sustainable electricity source to power medical electronic implants in bodies. However, the results to date have been obtained with animal models. To apply the technology to human beings, electrical performance should be characterized using human skin covering the subdermal solar cells. In this paper, we present electrical performance results (up to 9.05mW/cm 2 ) of the implantable solar cell array under 59 human skin samples isolated from 10 cadavers. The results indicate that the power densities depend on the thickness and tone of the human skin, e.g., higher power was generated under thinner and brighter skin. The generated power density is high enough to operate currently available medical electronic implants such as pacemakers that require tens of microwatt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hybrid heterojunction solar cell based on organic-inorganic silicon nanowire array architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Baoquan; Liu, Dong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-12-07

    Silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) on a planar silicon wafer can be fabricated by a simple metal-assisted wet chemical etching method. They can offer an excellent light harvesting capability through light scattering and trapping. In this work, we demonstrated that the organic-inorganic solar cell based on hybrid composites of conjugated molecules and SiNWs on a planar substrate yielded an excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.70%. The high efficiency was ascribed to two aspects: one was the improvement of the light absorption by SiNWs structure on the planar components; the other was the enhancement of charge extraction efficiency, resulting from the novel top contact by forming a thin organic layer shell around the individual silicon nanowire. On the contrary, the sole planar junction solar cell only exhibited a PCE of 6.01%, due to the lower light trapping capability and the less hole extraction efficiency. It indicated that both the SiNWs structure and the thin organic layer top contact were critical to achieve a high performance organic/silicon solar cell. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells. Flat-Plate Solar Array Project of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program: 10 years of progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Elmer

    1985-01-01

    The objectives were to develop the flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) array technologies required for large-scale terrestrial use late in the 1980s and in the 1990s; advance crystalline silicon PV technologies; develop the technologies required to convert thin-film PV research results into viable module and array technology; and to stimulate transfer of knowledge of advanced PV materials, solar cells, modules, and arrays to the PV community. Progress reached on attaining these goals, along with future recommendations are discussed.

  19. Method of evaluation of solar collector cost under fuel price change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klychev, Sh. I.; Sadykova, N. S.; Saifiev, A. U.; Ismanzhanov, A. I.; Samiev, M.

    2013-01-01

    When we take into account the problems of large-scale use of solar energy, the matters of economic perspectives of solar plants in the future become vital. We present the method on whose basis evaluation of the cost of solar collectors is performed taking into account the change in the fuel prices. The method is based on the approach to evaluation of the cost of energy generated by the solar plants offered previously by the authors. Assuming that the components of expenditures for production are not changed, we obtained that the cost of solar collectors will grow, at approximately the same ratio as the growth of the prices for fuel (energy). Thus, the problem of creation of the economically effective solar collectors should be solved already today, at the existing prices for materials and fuel. At present, it is assumed that competitiveness of the solar plants will increase with the growth of the fuel prices. (authors)

  20. Low-cost scalable quartz crystal microbalance array for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anazagasty, Cristain [University of Puerto Rico; Hianik, Tibor [Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of environmental sensors for internet of things (IoT) applications has increased the need for low-cost platforms capable of accommodating multiple sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals coated with nanometer-thin sensor films are suitable for use in high-resolution (~1 ng) selective gas sensor applications. We demonstrate a scalable array for measuring frequency response of six QCM sensors controlled by low-cost Arduino microcontrollers and a USB multiplexer. Gas pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a LabVIEW user interface. We test the sensor array by measuring the frequency shift of crystals coated with different compositions of polymer composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) while films are exposed to water vapor and oxygen inside a controlled environmental chamber. Our sensor array exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial QCM system, while enabling high-throughput 6 QCM testing for under $1,000. We use deep neural network structures to process sensor response and demonstrate that the QCM array is suitable for gas sensing, environmental monitoring, and electronic-nose applications.

  1. Design of cascaded low cost solar cell with CuO substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, Mil' shtein; Anup, Pillai; Shiv, Sharma; Garo, Yessayan [Advanced Electronic Technology Center, ECE Dept., University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA-01851 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    For many years the main focus of R and D in solar cells was the development of high-efficiency solar convertors. However with solar technology beginning to be a part of national grids and stand-alone power supplies for variety of individual customers, the emphasis has changed, namely, the cost per kilowatt- hour (kW-hr) started to be an important figure of merit. Although Si does dominate the market of solar convertors, this material has total cost of kilowatt-hour much higher than what the power grid is providing presently to customers. It is well known that the cost of raw semiconductor material is a major factor in formulation of the final cost of a solar cell. That motivated us to search and design a novel solar cell using cheap materials. The new p-i-n solar cell consists of hetero-structure cascade of materials with step by step decreasing energy gap. Since the lattice constant of these three materials do differ not more than 2%, the more expensive epitaxial fabrication methods can be used as well. It should be emphasized that designed solar cell is not a cascade of three solar cells connected in series. Our market study shows that Si solar panel which costs $250–400 / m{sup 2} leads to a cost of $0.12–0.30 / kW-hr. To the contrary, CuO based solar cells with Cadmium compounds on top, would cost $100 / m{sup 2}. This will allow the novel solar cell to produce electricity at a cost of $0.06–0.08 / kW-hr.

  2. Decoration of PbS nanoparticles on Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as a photoelectrode for solar water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Chao-Hong [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Dong-Hwang, E-mail: chendh@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-03-25

    Highlights: ► AZO nanorod array thin film is used as a photoanode for solar water splitting. ► Hydrogen treatment and sensitization by PbS nanoparticles enhance photocurrent. ► A novel ITO/FTO-free composite photoelectrode is developed. ► The pre-fabrication and use of an extra TCO thin film substrate is unnecessary. -- Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanorod arrays thin film with hydrogen treatment is directly used as a photoelectrode for solar water splitting without an extra transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin film because it possesses the functions of TCO thin film and photoactive 1-dimensional nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible region, PbS nanoparticles decorated the AZO nanorods via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction route. The PbS nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic structure and their decoration does not destroy the 1-dimensional morphology of AZO nanorod arrays. With increasing the cycle number of PbS nanoparticles decoration, the grain size and loading of PbS nanoparticles become larger gradually which leads to lower energy bandgap and stronger absorption. A maximum photocurrent density of 1.65 mW cm{sup −2} is obtained when the cycle number is 20, which is much higher than those without PbS nanoparticles sensitization or hydrogen treatment. This demonstrates that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment can be directly used as a photoelectrode without an extra TCO thin film. Because the use of expensive metals can be avoided and the pre-fabrication of TCO thin film substrate is necessary no more, the fabrication of such a composite photoelectrode becomes simple and low-cost. So, it has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption.

  3. GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Maoqing; Huang, Ningfeng; Cong, Sen; Chi, Chun-Yung; Seyedi, M Ashkan; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cao, Yu; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-06-11

    Because of unique structural, optical, and electrical properties, solar cells based on semiconductor nanowires are a rapidly evolving scientific enterprise. Various approaches employing III-V nanowires have emerged, among which GaAs, especially, is under intense research and development. Most reported GaAs nanowire solar cells form p-n junctions in the radial direction; however, nanowires using axial junction may enable the attainment of high open circuit voltage (Voc) and integration into multijunction solar cells. Here, we report GaAs nanowire solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions that achieve 7.58% efficiency. Simulations show that axial junctions are more tolerant to doping variation than radial junctions and lead to higher Voc under certain conditions. We further study the effect of wire diameter and junction depth using electrical characterization and cathodoluminescence. The results show that large diameter and shallow junctions are essential for a high extraction efficiency. Our approach opens up great opportunity for future low-cost, high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  4. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 6: Engineering sciences and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Smokler, M. I.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project activities directed at developing the engineering technology base required to achieve modules that meet the functional, safety, and reliability requirements of large scale terrestrial photovoltaic systems applications are reported. These activities included: (1) development of functional, safety, and reliability requirements for such applications; (2) development of the engineering analytical approaches, test techniques, and design solutions required to meet the requirements; (3) synthesis and procurement of candidate designs for test and evaluation; and (4) performance of extensive testing, evaluation, and failure analysis of define design shortfalls and, thus, areas requiring additional research and development. A summary of the approach and technical outcome of these activities are provided along with a complete bibliography of the published documentation covering the detailed accomplishments and technologies developed.

  5. Vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays in Rose Bengal-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Basudev; Batabyal, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J. [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Solid State Physics, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2007-05-23

    We fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using vertically oriented, high density, and crystalline array of ZnO nanowires, which can be a suitable alternative to titanium dioxide nanoparticle films. The vertical nanowires provide fast routes or channels for electron transport to the substrate electrode. As an alternative to conventional ruthenium complex, we introduce Rose Bengal dye, which acts as a photosensitizer in the dye-sensitized solar cells. The dye energetically matches the ZnO with usual KI-I{sub 2} redox couple for dye-sensitized solar cell applications. (author)

  6. Low-cost photovoltaics: Luminescent solar concentrators and colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Shin Woei

    Solar energy has long been lauded as an inexhaustible fuel source with more energy reaching the earth's surface in one hour than the global consumption for a year. Although capable of satisfying the world's energy requirements, solar energy remains an expensive technology that has yet to attain grid parity. Another drawback is that existing solar farms require large quantities of land in order to generate power at useful rates. In this work, we look to luminescent solar concentrator systems and quantum dot technology as viable solutions to lowering the cost of solar electricity production with the flexibility to integrate such technologies into buildings to achieve dual land use. Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) windows with front-facing photovoltaic (PV) cells were built and their gain and power efficiency were investigated. Conventional LSCs employ a photovoltaic (PV) cell that is placed on the edge of the LSC, facing inward. This work describes a new design with the PV cells on the front-face allowing them to receive both direct solar irradiation and wave-guided photons emitted from a dye embedded in an acrylic sheet, which is optically coupled to the PV cells. Parameters investigated include the thickness of the waveguide, edge treatment of the window, cell width, and cell placement. The data allowed us to make projections that aided in designing windows for maximized overall efficiency. A gain in power of 2.2x over the PV cells alone was obtained with PV cell coverage of 5%, and a power conversion efficiency as high as 6.8% was obtained with a PV cell coverage of 31%. Balancing the trade-offs between gain and efficiency, the design with the lowest cost per watt attained a power efficiency of 3.8% and a gain of 1.6x. With the viability of the LSC demonstrated, a weighted Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in the LSC to aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption

  7. A 1 cm space debris impact onto the Sentinel-1A solar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, H.; Serrano, M.; Braun, V.; Kuchynka, P.; Catania, M.; Siminski, J.; Schimmerohn, M.; Marc, X.; Kuijper, D.; Shurmer, I.; O'Connell, A.; Otten, M.; Muñoz, Isidro; Morales, J.; Wermuth, M.; McKissock, D.

    2017-08-01

    Sentinel-1A is a 2-ton spacecraft of the Copernicus Earth observation program operated by ESA's Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Germany. Sentinel-1A and its sister spacecraft Sentinel-1B operate in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 700 km altitude. On 2016/08/23 17:07:37 UTC, Sentinel-1A suffered from an anomaly resulting in a sudden permanent partial power loss and significant impulsive orbit and attitude changes. A deeper investigation identified that an impulsive orbit change against flight direction of 0.7 mm/s, estimated at the time of the event, gave the best results in terms of GPS residuals. At the same time, a peak attitude off-pointing of 0.7° (around the spacecraft yaw axis) and peak attitude rate increase of 0.04°/s (around the same axis) were observed. The simultaneous occurrence of these anomalies, starting from a sudden attitude change and ending with a permanent partial power loss, made an MMOD (Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris) impact onto a solar array a possible explanation for this event. While the spacecraft is able to continue its mission nominally, a detailed investigation involving ESA's Space Debris and Flight Dynamics experts was conducted. An MMOD impact as an explanation gained further credibility, due to the pictures of the solar array taken by the on-board camera displaying a significant damage area. On September 7th, JSpOC (US Joint Space Operations Centre) informed SDO on 8 tracked fragments that are considered to be released by Sentinel-1A after the impact. This paper addresses the analysis that was performed on the data characterising the attitude and orbit change, the on-board camera image, and the tracked fragments. The data helped to identify the linear momentum vector while a flux analysis helped to identify the origin of the impactor and allowed to understand its mass and size characteristics.

  8. Theoretical and Field Experimental Investigation of an Arrayed Solar Thermoelectric Flat-Plate Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Naveed ur; Siddiqui, Mubashir Ali

    2018-05-01

    This work theoretically and experimentally investigated the performance of an arrayed solar flat-plate thermoelectric generator (ASFTEG). An analytical model, based on energy balances, was established for determining load voltage, power output and overall efficiency of ASFTEGs. An array consists of TEG devices (or modules) connected electrically in series and operating in closed-circuit mode with a load. The model takes into account the distinct temperature difference across each module, which is a major feature of this model. Parasitic losses have also been included in the model for realistic results. With the given set of simulation parameters, an ASFTEG consisting of four commercially available Bi2Te3 modules had a predicted load voltage of 200 mV and generated 3546 μW of electric power output. Predictions from the model were in good agreement with field experimental outcomes from a prototype ASFTEG, which was developed for validation purposes. Later, the model was simulated to maximize the performance of the ASFTEG by adjusting the thermal and electrical design of the system. Optimum values of design parameters were evaluated and discussed in detail. Beyond the current limitations associated with improvements in thermoelectric materials, this study will eventually lead to the successful development of portable roof-top renewable TEGs.

  9. Lessons Learned in the Flight Qualification of the S-NPP and NOAA-20 Solar Array Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Daniel; Sexton, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Deployable solar arrays are the energy source used on almost all Earth orbiting spacecraft and their release and deployment are mission-critical; fully testing them on the ground is a challenging endeavor. The 8 meter long deployable arrays flown on two sequential NASA weather satellites were each comprised of three rigid panels almost 2 meters wide. These large panels were deployed by hinges comprised of stacked constant force springs, eddy current dampers, and were restrained through launch by a set of four releasable hold-downs using shape memory alloy release devices. The ground qualification testing of such unwieldy deployable solar arrays, whose design was optimized for orbital operations, proved to be quite challenging and provides numerous lessons learned. A paperwork review and follow-up inspection after hardware storage determined that there were negative torque margins and missing lubricant, this paper will explain how these unexpected issues were overcome. The paper will also provide details on how the hinge subassemblies, the fully-assembled array, and mechanical ground support equipment were subsequently improved and qualified for a follow-on flight with considerably less difficulty. The solar arrays built by Ball Aerospace Corp. for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1) satellite (now NOAA-20) were both successfully deployed on-obit and are performing well.

  10. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  11. Laser-based microstructuring of materials surfaces using low-cost microlens arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Daniel; Vara, G.; Diez, J. A.; O`Connor, Gerard M.; Arines, Justo; Gómez-Reino, C.; Flores-Arias, M.

    2012-03-01

    Since frictional interactions in microscopically small components are becoming increasingly important for the development of new products for all modern technology, we present a laser-based technique for micro-patterning surfaces of materials using low-cost microlens arrays. The microlens used were fabricated on soda-lime glass using a laser direct-write technique, followed by a thermal treatment into an oven. By combining laser direct-write and the thermal treatment it was possible to obtain high quality elements using a low cost infrared laser widely implemented in industry which makes this technique attractive in comparison with other more expensive methods. The main advantage of using microlens arrays for micropatterning surfaces is the possibility of fabricating a large number of identical structures simultaneously, leading to a highly efficient process. In order to study the capabilities of the microlens fabricated for microstructuring materials, identical structures and arrays of holes were fabricated over a variety of materials, such us, stainless steel, polymer and ceramic. The minimum diameter of the individual microstructure generated at surface is 5 μm. Different nanosecond lasers operating at Infrared, Green and UV were used. The topography and morphology of the elements obtained were determined using a confocal microscope SENSOFAR 2300 Plμ.

  12. Polyoxometalate-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode materials for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Sun, Zhixia; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Xu, Lin; Li, Na

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we prepared for the first time the TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) photoanode with polyoxometalate(POMs)-modified TiO2 electron-transport layer for improving the performance of zinc phthalocyanine(ZnPc)-sensitized solar cells. The as-prepared POMs/TNAs/ZnPc composite photoanode exhibited higher photovoltaic performances than the TNAs/ZnPc photoanode, so that the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device based on the POMs/TNAs/ZnPc photoanode displayed a notable improvement of 45%. These results indicated that the POMs play a key role in reducing charge recombination in phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells, together with TiO2 nanotube arrays being helpful for electron transport. The mechanism of the performance improvement was demonstrated by the measurements of electrochemical impedance spectra and open-circuit voltage decay curves. Although the resulting performance is still below that of the state-of-the-art dye-sensitized solar cells, this study presents a new insight into improving the power conversion efficiency of phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells via polyoxometalate-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode.

  13. Solar cost reduction through technical improvements: the concepts of learning and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Flaim, T.

    1979-10-01

    The concepts of learning and experience are reviewed and their usefulness for predicting the future costs of solar technologies are evaluated. The literature review indicated that the cost estimates for solar energy technologies are typically made assuming a fixed production process, characterized by standard capacity factors, overhead, and labor costs. The learning curve is suggested as a generalization of the costs of potential solar energy systems. The concept of experience is too ambiguous to be useful for cost estimation. There is no logical reason to believe that costs will decline purely as a function of cumulative production, and experience curves do not allow the analyst to identify logical sources of cost reduction directly. The procedures for using learning and aggregated cost curves to estimate the costs of solar technologies are outlined. It is recommended that production histories of analogous products and processes are analyzed and the learning and cost curves for these surrogates are estimated. These curves, if judged applicable, can be used to predict the cost reductions in manufacturing solar energy technologies.

  14. Design and implementation of a low-cost multichannel seismic noise recorder for array measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Llorens, Juan Luis; Juan Giner-Caturla, Jose; Molina-Palacios, Sergio; Galiana-Merino, Juan Jose; Rosa-Herranz, Julio; Agea-Medina, Noelia

    2017-04-01

    Soil characterization is the starting point for seismic hazard studies. Currently, the methods based on ambient noise measurements are very used because they are non-invasive methods and relatively easy to implement in urban areas. Among these methods, the analysis of array measurements provides the dispersion curve and subsequently the shear-wave velocity profile associated to the site under study. In this case, we need several sensors recording simultaneously and a data acquisition system with one channel by sensor, what can become the complete equipment unaffordable for small research groups. In this work, we have designed and implemented a low-cost multichannel ambient noise recorder for array measurements. The complete system is based on Arduino, an open source electronic development platform, which allows recording 12 differential input channels simultaneously. Besides, it is complemented with a conditioning circuit that includes an anti-aliasing filter and a selectable gain between 0 and 40dB. The data acquisition is set up through a user-friendly graphical user interface. It is important to note that the electronic scheme as well as the programming code are open hardware and software, respectively, so it allows other researchers to suite the system to their particular requirements. The developed equipment has been tested at several sites around the province of Alicante (southeast of Spain), where the soil characteristics are well-known from previous studies. Array measurements have been taken and after that, the recorded data have been analysed using the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) and the extended spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) methods. The comparison of the obtained dispersion curves with the ones obtained in previous studies shows the suitability of the implemented low-cost system for array measurements.

  15. Solar Irradiance Measurements Using Smart Devices: A Cost-Effective Technique for Estimation of Solar Irradiance for Sustainable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Al-Taani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiance measurement is a key component in estimating solar irradiation, which is necessary and essential to design sustainable energy systems such as photovoltaic (PV systems. The measurement is typically done with sophisticated devices designed for this purpose. In this paper we propose a smartphone-aided setup to estimate the solar irradiance in a certain location. The setup is accessible, easy to use and cost-effective. The method we propose does not have the accuracy of an irradiance meter of high precision but has the advantage of being readily accessible on any smartphone. It could serve as a quick tool to estimate irradiance measurements in the preliminary stages of PV systems design. Furthermore, it could act as a cost-effective educational tool in sustainable energy courses where understanding solar radiation variations is an important aspect.

  16. When are solar refrigerators less costly than on-grid refrigerators: A simulation modeling study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A.; Brown, Shawn T.; Wedlock, Patrick; Connor, Diana L.; Spiker, Marie; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? Methods Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as “electric refrigerators”) at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances. Results At their current price premium, the annual cost of each solar refrigerator is 132% more than each electric refrigerator at the district level and 241% more at health facilities. Solar refrigerators provided savings over electric refrigerators when one-day electrical outages occurred more than five times per year at either the district level or the health facilities, even when the electric refrigerator holdover time exceeded the duration of the outage. Two-day outages occurring more than three times per year at the district level or more than twice per year at the health facilities also caused solar refrigerators to be cost saving. Lowering the annual cost of a solar refrigerator to 75% more than an electric refrigerator allowed solar refrigerators to be cost saving at either level when one-day outages occurred more than once per year, or when two-day outages occurred more than once per year at the district level or even once per year at the health facilities. Conclusion Our study supports WHO and Gavi guidelines. In fact, solar refrigerators may provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electrical refrigerators when electrical outages are less frequent. Our study identified the frequency and duration at which electrical outages need to occur for solar refrigerators to provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electric refrigerators at different solar

  17. When are solar refrigerators less costly than on-grid refrigerators: A simulation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Wedlock, Patrick; Connor, Diana L; Spiker, Marie; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-04-19

    Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as "electric refrigerators") at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances. At their current price premium, the annual cost of each solar refrigerator is 132% more than each electric refrigerator at the district level and 241% more at health facilities. Solar refrigerators provided savings over electric refrigerators when one-day electrical outages occurred more than five times per year at either the district level or the health facilities, even when the electric refrigerator holdover time exceeded the duration of the outage. Two-day outages occurring more than three times per year at the district level or more than twice per year at the health facilities also caused solar refrigerators to be cost saving. Lowering the annual cost of a solar refrigerator to 75% more than an electric refrigerator allowed solar refrigerators to be cost saving at either level when one-day outages occurred more than once per year, or when two-day outages occurred more than once per year at the district level or even once per year at the health facilities. Our study supports WHO and Gavi guidelines. In fact, solar refrigerators may provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electrical refrigerators when electrical outages are less frequent. Our study identified the frequency and duration at which electrical outages need to occur for solar refrigerators to provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electric refrigerators at different solar refrigerator prices. Copyright © 2017. Published

  18. Performance and cost benefits analysis of double-pass solar collector with and without fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fudholi, Ahmad; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Othman, Mohd Yusof

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal performances and cost analysis of the double-pass solar collector with and without fins absorber were discussed. • The theoretical and experimental study on the double-pass solar air collector with and without fins absorber was conducted. • The ratio of AC/AEG or the cost benefit ratio was presented. • The double-pass solar collector with fins absorber is more cost-effective compared to without fins absorber. - Abstract: The performance and cost benefit analysis of double-pass solar collector with and without fins have been conducted. The theoretical model using steady state analysis has been developed and compared with the experimental results. The performance curves of the double-pass solar collector with and without fins, which included the effects of mass flow rate and solar intensity on the thermal efficiency of the solar collector, were obtained. Results indicated that the thermal efficiency is proportional to the solar intensity at a specific mass flow rate. The thermal efficiency increased by 9% at a solar intensity of 425–790 W/m 2 and mass flow rate of 0.09 kg/s. The theoretical and experimental analysis showed a similar trend as well as close agreement. Moreover, a cost-effectiveness model has been developed examine the cost benefit ratio of double-pass solar collector with and without fins. Evaluation of the annual cost (AC) and the annual energy gain (AEG) of the collector were also performed. The results show that the double-pass solar collector with fins is more cost-effective compared to the double-pass solar collector without fins for mass flow rate of 0.01–0.07 kg/s. Also, simulations were obtained for the double-pass solar collector with fins at Nusselt number of 5.42–36.21. The energy efficiency of collector increases with the increase of Nusselt number. The results show that by increasing the Nusselt number simultaneously would drop the outlet temperature at any solar intensity. Increase in Nusselt number

  19. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanoparticle and nanorod array hybrid photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Hung-Jue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of ZnO photoanode morphology on the performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is reported. Four different structures of dye-loaded ZnO layers have been fabricated in conjunction with poly(3-hexylthiophene. A significant improvement in device efficiency with ZnO nanorod arrays as photoanodes has been achieved by filling the interstitial voids of the nanorod arrays with ZnO nanoparticles. The overall power conversion efficiency increases from 0.13% for a nanorod-only device to 0.34% for a device with combined nanoparticles and nanorod arrays. The higher device efficiency in solid-state DSSCs with hybrid nanorod/nanoparticle photoanodes is originated from both large surface area provided by nanoparticles for dye adsorption and efficient charge transport provided by the nanorod arrays to reduce the recombinations of photogenerated carriers.

  20. Low-Cost Fabrication of Hollow Microneedle Arrays Using CNC Machining and UV Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lê Thanh, Hoà; Ta, B.Q.; Le The, H.

    2015-01-01

    In order to produce disposable microneedles for blood-collection devices in smart homecare monitoring systems, we have developed a simple low-cost scalable process for mass fabrication of sharp-tipped microneedle arrays. The key feature in this process is a design of computer numerical control......-machined aluminum sample (CAS). The inclined sidewalls on the CAS enable microfabricated traditional-shaped microneedles (TMNs) to be produced in the desired shape. This process provides significant advantages over other methods that use inclined lithography or anisotropic wet etching. TMNs with a length of 1510 mu...

  1. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...

  2. 600 Volt Stretched Lens Array for Solar Electric Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ENTECH, Auburn, NASA, and others have recently developed a new space photovoltaic array called the Stretched Lens Array (SLA), offering unprecedented performance...

  3. Solar-assisted heat pump system for cost-effective space heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J W; Kush, E A; Metz, P D

    1978-03-01

    The use of heat pumps for the utilization of solar energy is studied. Two requirements for a cost-effective system are identified: (1) a special heat pump whose coefficient of performance continues to rise with source temperature over the entire range appropriate for solar assist, and (2) a low-cost collection and storage subsystem able to supply solar energy to the heat pump efficiently at low temperatures. Programs leading to the development of these components are discussed. A solar assisted heat pump system using these components is simulated via a computer, and the results of the simulation are used as the basis for a cost comparison of the proposed system with other solar and conventional systems.

  4. Survey costs associated with the replacement of electric showers for solar heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes; Araujo, Jose Euripedes de

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the benefits of replacing electric shower for solar water heaters, and a consequent drop in peak demand for electric power generation and residential consumption in the economy. For this, will be shown the lifting of solar radiation per square meter in Brazil, studied in 250 locations, the most representative in terms of solar energy in this country. The costs presented are associated with replacement of 5 million, 10 million and 20 million electric showers. (author)

  5. The influence of passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H coverage on silicon nanowire array solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for radial p-n junction solar cells offer potential advantages of light trapping effects and quick charge collection. Nevertheless, lower open circuit voltages (Voc) lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. In such cases, the performance of the solar cells depends critically on the quality of the SiNW interfaces. In this study, SiNW core-shell solar cells have been fabricated by growing crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanowires via the metal-assisted chemical etching method and by depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) via the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The influence of deposition parameters on the coverage and, consequently, the passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H layers on SiNW solar cells have been analyzed. PMID:24059343

  6. Free-floating epithelial micro-tissue arrays: a low cost and versatile technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, P; Alvarez, L; Reynaud, E G

    2016-10-11

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissue models are invaluable tools that can closely reflect the in vivo physiological environment. However, they are usually difficult to develop, have a low throughput and are often costly; limiting their utility to most laboratories. The recent availability of inexpensive additive manufacturing printers and open source 3D design software offers us the possibility to easily create affordable 3D cell culture platforms. To demonstrate this, we established a simple, inexpensive and robust method for producing arrays of free-floating epithelial micro-tissues. Using a combination of 3D computer aided design and 3D printing, hydrogel micro-moulding and collagen cell encapsulation we engineered microenvironments that consistently direct the growth of micro-tissue arrays. We described the adaptability of this technique by testing several immortalised epithelial cell lines (MDCK, A549, Caco-2) and by generating branching morphology and micron to millimetre scaled micro-tissues. We established by fluorescence and electron microscopy that micro-tissues are polarised, have cell type specific differentiated phenotypes and regain native in vivo tissue qualities. Finally, using Salmonella typhimurium we show micro-tissues display a more physiologically relevant infection response compared to epithelial monolayers grown on permeable filter supports. In summary, we have developed a robust and adaptable technique for producing arrays of epithelial micro-tissues. This in vitro model has the potential to be a valuable tool for studying epithelial cell and tissue function/architecture in a physiologically relevant context.

  7. Experimental study on direct-contact liquid film cooling simulated dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Shi, Xusheng; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Kang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact liquid film cooling dense-array solar cells was first proposed. • Average temperature was controlled well below 80 °C. • The maximum temperature difference was less than 10 °C. • The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m"2·K) under 589X. - Abstract: This paper presented a new method of cooling dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system by direct-contact liquid film, and water was used as working fluid. An electric heating plate was designed to simulate the dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The input power of electric heating plate simulated the concentration ratios. By heat transfer experiments, the effect of water temperatures and flow rates on heat transfer performance was investigated. The results indicated that: the average temperature of simulated solar cells was controlled well below 80 °C under water temperature of 30 °C and flow rate of 300 L/h when concentration ratio ranged between 300X and 600X. The maximum temperature difference among temperature measurement points was less than 10 °C, which showed the temperature distribution was well uniform. The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m"2·K) under concentration ratio of 589X. To improve heat transfer performance and obtain low average temperature of dense-array solar cells, lower water temperature and suitable water flow rate are preferred.

  8. SunShot solar power reduces costs and uncertainty in future low-carbon electricity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva, Ana; Nelson, James H; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-08-20

    The United States Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative has set cost-reduction targets of $1/watt for central-station solar technologies. We use SWITCH, a high-resolution electricity system planning model, to study the implications of achieving these targets for technology deployment and electricity costs in western North America, focusing on scenarios limiting carbon emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that achieving the SunShot target for solar photovoltaics would allow this technology to provide more than a third of electric power in the region, displacing natural gas in the medium term and reducing the need for nuclear and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, which face technological and cost uncertainties, by 2050. We demonstrate that a diverse portfolio of technological options can help integrate high levels of solar generation successfully and cost-effectively. The deployment of GW-scale storage plays a central role in facilitating solar deployment and the availability of flexible loads could increase the solar penetration level further. In the scenarios investigated, achieving the SunShot target can substantially mitigate the cost of implementing a carbon cap, decreasing power costs by up to 14% and saving up to $20 billion ($2010) annually by 2050 relative to scenarios with Reference solar costs.

  9. Effects of Titanium Oxide Nanotube Arrays with Different Lengths on the Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Guo Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-aligned highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TNT arrays were fabricated by potentiostatic anodization of Ti foil, and we found that the TNT-array length and diameter were dependent on the electrolyte (NH4F concentration in ethylene glycol and anodization time. The characteristics of the fabricated TNT arrays were characterized by XRD pattern, FESEM, and absorption spectrum. As the electrolyte NH4F concentration in the presence of H2O (2 vol% with anodization was changed from 0.25 to 0.75 wt% and the anodization period was increased from 1 to 5 h, the TNT-array length was changed from 9.55 to 30.2 μm and the TNT-array diameter also increased. As NH4F concentration was 0.5 wt%, the prepared TNT arrays were also used to fabricate the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. We would show that the measured photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs was dependent on the TNT-array length.

  10. Optical analysis of a III-V-nanowire-array-on-Si dual junction solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Höhn, Oliver; Tucher, Nico; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Anttu, Nicklas

    2017-08-07

    A tandem solar cell consisting of a III-V nanowire subcell on top of a planar Si subcell is a promising candidate for next generation photovoltaics due to the potential for high efficiency. However, for success with such applications, the geometry of the system must be optimized for absorption of sunlight. Here, we consider this absorption through optics modeling. Similarly, as for a bulk dual-junction tandem system on a silicon bottom cell, a bandgap of approximately 1.7 eV is optimum for the nanowire top cell. First, we consider a simplified system of bare, uncoated III-V nanowires on the silicon substrate and optimize the absorption in the nanowires. We find that an optimum absorption in 2000 nm long nanowires is reached for a dense array of approximately 15 nanowires per square micrometer. However, when we coat such an array with a conformal indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact layer, a substantial absorption loss occurs in the ITO. This ITO could absorb 37% of the low energy photons intended for the silicon subcell. By moving to a design with a 50 nm thick, planarized ITO top layer, we can reduce this ITO absorption to 5%. However, such a planarized design introduces additional reflection losses. We show that these reflection losses can be reduced with a 100 nm thick SiO 2 anti-reflection coating on top of the ITO layer. When we at the same time include a Si 3 N 4 layer with a thickness of 90 nm on the silicon surface between the nanowires, we can reduce the average reflection loss of the silicon cell from 17% to 4%. Finally, we show that different approximate models for the absorption in the silicon substrate can lead to a 15% variation in the estimated photocurrent density in the silicon subcell.

  11. Robust and Low-Cost Flame-Treated Wood for High-Performance Solar Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guobin; Liu, Kang; Chen, Qian; Yang, Peihua; Li, Jia; Ding, Tianpeng; Duan, Jiangjiang; Qi, Bei; Zhou, Jun

    2017-05-03

    Solar-enabled steam generation has attracted increasing interest in recent years because of its potential applications in power generation, desalination, and wastewater treatment, among others. Recent studies have reported many strategies for promoting the efficiency of steam generation by employing absorbers based on carbon materials or plasmonic metal nanoparticles with well-defined pores. In this work, we report that natural wood can be utilized as an ideal solar absorber after a simple flame treatment. With ultrahigh solar absorbance (∼99%), low thermal conductivity (0.33 W m -1 K -1 ), and good hydrophilicity, the flame-treated wood can localize the solar heating at the evaporation surface and enable a solar-thermal efficiency of ∼72% under a solar intensity of 1 kW m -2 , and it thus represents a renewable, scalable, low-cost, and robust material for solar steam applications.

  12. A novel fabrication of MEH-PPV/Al:ZnO nanorod arrays based ordered bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M.F., E-mail: firz_solarzelle@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Sahdan, M.Z.; Mamat, M.H.; Musa, M.Z. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z.; Husairi, S.S. [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA -UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Md Sin, N.D. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-06-15

    Vertically aligned Al:ZnO nanorod arrays has been used as window layer in the fabrication of ordered bulk heterojuction hybrid solar cells. The utilization of the nanorod arrays will enhance the electron transport in vertical direction and also for light harvesting applications for high performance devices. The performance of this hybrid polymer/metal oxide photovoltaic devices based on MEH-PPV [poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene)] and oriented Al:ZnO nanorod arrays is studied. The Al:ZnO nanorod arrays with a diameter of about 70–80 nm and thickness of approximately 500 nm were successfully grown on Al:ZnO-coated ITO substrate by sonicated sol–gel immersion technique. The photovoltaic performance of a short-circuit current density of 5.320 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open-circuit voltage of 195 mV and a fill factor of 27.71%, with a power conversion efficiency of about 0.287% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). To the best of our knowledge, preparation of aligned Al:ZnO nanorod arrays for this type of solar cell fabrication has not been reported by any research group.

  13. Effects of ZnS layer on the performance improvement of the photosensitive ZnO nanowire arrays solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Hafiz Muhammad Asif [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Gao, Yanping; Xing, Yonglei [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Kong, Ling Bing, E-mail: ELBKong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-08-01

    The impact of ZnS layer as an interface modification on the photosensitive ZnO nanowire arrays solar cells was studied. CdS, CdSe and ZnS were deposited on ZnO nanowire arrays by SILAR method. When a ZnS layer was deposited, the quantum dot barrier was indirectly become in contact with the electrolyte, which thus restrained the flow of electrons. The CdS sensitized solar cells has an efficiency of 0.55% with the deposition of the ZnS(3) layer, that is, with a deposition of three times, whereas the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells has an efficiency of 2.03% with the deposition of the ZnS(1) layer. It was also noted that as the thickness of the of ZnS layer was increased, V{sub oc}, I{sub sc} and efficiencies of both the solar cells were first increased and then decreased. In addition, the CdS/N719 solar cells has an efficiency of 0.75% with the deposition of the ZnS(2) layer. - Highlights: • The impact of ZnS layer on the photosensitive ZnO nanowire solar cells was studied. • ZnS layer restrained the flow of electrons to the electrolyte. • CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells have higher efficiency than CdS solar cells. • When ZnS layer was increased, V{sub oc} and I{sub sc} firstly increased and then decreased.

  14. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering: conceptual design and cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    This volume contains the appendix to the conceptual design and cost estimate report on solar repowering the Reeves Unit No. 2 power plant in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Included are the engineering drawings and the work breakdown structure estimate report. (WHK)

  15. Low-Cost High-Efficiency Solar Cells with Wafer Bonding and Plasmonic Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanake, Katsuaki

    InP/Si substrates for bulk InP in the fabrication of such a four-junction solar cell could significantly reduce the substrate cost since the current prices for commercial InP substrates are much higher than those for Si substrates by two orders of magnitude. Direct heteroepitaxial growth of InP thin films on Si substrates has not produced the low dislocation-density high quality layers required for active InGaAs/InP in optoelectronic devices due to the ˜8% lattice mismatch between InP and Si. We successfully fabricated InP/Si substrates by He implantation of InP prior to bonding to a thermally oxidized Si substrate and annealing to exfoliate an InP thin film. The thickness of the exfoliated InP films was only 900 nm, which means hundreds of the InP/Si substrates could be prepared from a single InP wafer in principle. The photovoltaic current-voltage characteristics of the In0.53Ga0.47As cells fabricated on the wafer-bonded InP/Si substrates were comparable to those synthesized on commercially available epi-ready InP substrates, and had a ˜20% higher short-circuit current which we attribute to the high reflectivity of the InP/SiO2/Si bonding interface. This work provides an initial demonstration of wafer-bonded InP/Si substrates as an alternative to bulk InP substrates for solar cell applications. We have observed photocurrent enhancements up to 260% at 900 nm for a GaAs cell with a dense array of Ag nanoparticles with 150 nm diameter and 20 nm height deposited through porous alumina membranes by thermal evaporation on top of the cell, relative to reference GaAs cells with no metal nanoparticle array. This dramatic photocurrent enhancement is attributed to the effect of metal nanoparticles to scatter the incident light into photovoltaic layers with a wide range of angles to increase the optical path length in the absorber layer. GaAs solar cells with metallic structures at the bottom of the photovoltaic active layers, not only at the top, using semiconductor

  16. GaAs nanopillar-array solar cells employing in situ surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Scofield, Adam C.; Hung, Chung-Hong; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Arrays of III–V direct-bandgap semiconductor nanopillars represent promising photovoltaic candidates due to their inherent high optical absorption coefficients and minimized reflection arising from light trapping, efficient charge collection in the radial direction and the ability to synthesize them on low-cost platforms. However, the increased surface area results in surface states that hamper the power conversion efficiency. Here, we report the first demonstration of GaAs nanopillar-array photovoltaics employing epitaxial passivation with air mass 1.5 global power conversion efficiencies of 6.63%. High-bandgap epitaxial InGaP shells are grown in situ and cap the radial p–n junctions to alleviate surface-state effects. Under light, the photovoltaic devices exhibit open-circuit voltages of 0.44 V, short-circuit current densities of 24.3 mA cm−2 and fill factors of 62% with high external quantum efficiencies >70% across the spectral regime of interest. A novel titanium/indium tin oxide annealed alloy is exploited as transparent ohmic anode. PMID:23422665

  17. New Cloud and Precipitation Research Avenues Enabled by low-cost Phased-array Radar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, P.; Oue, M.; Fridlind, A. M.; Matsui, T.; McLaughlin, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    For over half a century, radars operating in a wide range of frequencies have been the primary source of observational insights of clouds and precipitation microphysics and dynamics and contributed to numerous significant advancements in the field of cloud and precipitation physics. The development of multi-wavelength and polarization diversity techniques has further strengthened the quality of microphysical and dynamical retrievals from radars and has assisted in overcoming some of the limitations imposed by the physics of scattering. Atmospheric radars have historically employed a mechanically-scanning dish antenna and their ability to point to, survey, and revisit specific points or regions in the atmosphere is limited by mechanical inertia. Electronically scanned, or phased-array, radars capable of high-speed, inertialess beam steering, have been available for several decades, but the cost of this technology has limited its use to military applications. During the last 10 years, lower power and lower-cost versions of electronically scanning radars have been developed, and this presents an attractive and affordable new tool for the atmospheric sciences. The operational and research communities are currently exploring phased array advantages in signal processing (i.e. beam multiplexing, improved clutter rejection, cross beam wind estimation, adaptive sensing) and science applications (i.e. tornadic storm morphology studies). Here, we will present some areas of atmospheric research where inertia-less radars with ability to provide rapid volume imaging offers the potential to advance cloud and precipitation research. We will discuss the added value of single phased-array radars as well as networks of these radars for several problems including: multi-Doppler wind retrieval techniques, cloud lifetime studies and aerosol-convection interactions. The performance of current (dish) and future (e-scan) radar systems for these atmospheric studies will be evaluated using

  18. Impacts on Hubble Space Telescope solar arrays: discrimination between natural and man-made particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Drolshagen, G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Mandeville, J.-C.; Moussi, A.

    A Post-Flight Investigation was initiated by the European Space Agency to analyze impact fluxes on solar arrays of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), exposed to space for 8.25 years at approximately 600 km altitude. The solar cells were deployed during servicing mission SM-1 (December 1993), and retrieved by shuttle orbiter Columbia in March 2002 (SM-3B). A sub-panel of 2 m2 was cut from the --V2 wing and cells were selected for in-depth analysis. Twelve cells (9.6x10-3 m2) were surveyed for flux of all craters of sizes greater than 5 microns Dco; six at the NHM, and six at ONERA. Cumulative flux plots reveal slightly greater abundance of very small craters than in a comparable survey of SM-1 cells. Analytical scanning electron microscopy was used to locate impact features and to analyse residues at the NHM. 103 features of 3 -- 4000 micron conchoidal detachment diameter (Dco) were located on a total of 17 solar cells. 78 features show identifiable residue: 36 are Space Debris impacts and 42 Micrometeoroid impacts. Of the remaining 25: 4 contain residue of ambiguous origin, 1 is a minor manufacturing flaw, 1 is obscured by contamination, and 19 are unresolved, lacking recognizable residue. Space debris impacts on the SM-3B cells are all less than 80 microns Dco, dominated by Al- rich residue, probably of solid rocket motor origin, some may be unburnt fuel. Three craters may be sodium metal droplet impacts. No residues from paint pigment, aluminium or ferrous alloys, or copper- and tin-bearing metal were found. All craters larger than 100 microns are of micrometeoroid origin, or unresolved. Most residues are magnesium-iron silicate or iron sulfide. A few craters show vesicular Mg, S, Fe and Ni residue. A single Fe Ni metal residue was found, as well as enigmatic Mg- and S-bearing residues, all considered of micrometeoroid origin. A few Fe-, O- and C-bearing residues were classified as of ambiguous origin. The quality and quantity of residue is clearly linked to the

  19. Costs comparison between solar photovoltaic system and moto-generator for supplying the isolated small community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadigas, E.A.F.A.; Faga, M.T.W.

    1993-01-01

    This work describes a technical configuration from which making an economic evaluation that comparing the photovoltaic option with moto-generator, energy source very used in rural community, presenting the relations of implantation cost between two options, showing the sensibility of these cost in function of some variables like: demand, reduction tax, solar radiation, and, as the solar energy market photovoltaic presents cost upper than international cost due to the inexpressive scale economy, make the analysis with one prices range, possibility an evaluation not limited to the national market. 3 refs, 8 figs

  20. Low cost thin film poly-silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design and develop a high density plasma based thin-film poly-silicon (TFPS) deposition system based on PQL proprietary advanced plasma technology to produce semiconductor quality TFPS for fabricating a TFPS solar cell. Details are given of the TFPS deposition system, the material development programme, solar cell structure, and cell efficiencies. The reproducibility of the deposition process and prospects for commercial exploitation are discussed.

  1. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, P.; Henry, P.

    1986-01-01

    Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

  2. Planar rigid-flexible coupling spacecraft modeling and control considering solar array deployment and joint clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zilu; Wang, Cong; Huang, Wenhu

    2018-01-01

    Based on Nodal Coordinate Formulation (NCF) and Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF), this paper establishes rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model of the spacecraft with large deployable solar arrays and multiple clearance joints to analyze and control the satellite attitude under deployment disturbance. Considering torque spring, close cable loop (CCL) configuration and latch mechanisms, a typical spacecraft composed of a rigid main-body described by NCF and two flexible panels described by ANCF is used as a demonstration case. Nonlinear contact force model and modified Coulomb friction model are selected to establish normal contact force and tangential friction model, respectively. Generalized elastic force are derived and all generalized forces are defined in the NCF-ANCF frame. The Newmark-β method is used to solve system equations of motion. The availability and superiority of the proposed model is verified through comparing with numerical co-simulations of Patran and ADAMS software. The numerical results reveal the effects of panel flexibility, joint clearance and their coupling on satellite attitude. The effects of clearance number, clearance size and clearance stiffness on satellite attitude are investigated. Furthermore, a proportional-differential (PD) attitude controller of spacecraft is designed to discuss the effect of attitude control on the dynamic responses of the whole system.

  3. Low Cost Automated Manufacture of High Efficiency THINS ZTJ PV Blanket Technology (P-NASA12-007), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs lower cost solar arrays with high performance for a variety of missions. While high efficiency, space-qualified solar cells are in themselves costly, >...

  4. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2016 (Q1 2016). Our methodology includes bottom-up accounting for all system and project-development costs incurred when installing residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems, and it models the capital costs for such systems.

  5. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Lowder, Travis; Feldman, David; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2016-07-19

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2016 (Q1 2016). Our methodology includes bottom-up accounting for all system and project-development costs incurred when installing residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems, and it models the capital costs for such systems.

  6. Residential heating costs: A comparison of geothermal solar and conventional resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomster, C. H.; Garrett-Price, B. A.; Fassbender, L. L.

    1980-08-01

    The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location, being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, climate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

  7. Flexible organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on conjugated polymer and ZnO nanorod array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Fei; Kim, Kyusang; Martinez, Daniel; Thapa, Resham; Ahyi, Ayayi; Williams, John; Park, Minseo; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Sungkoo; Lim, Eunhee; Lee, Kyeong K

    2012-01-01

    We report on the photovoltaic characteristics of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ‘flexible’ transparent substrates. The solar cell device is composed of ZnO nanorod array and the bulk heterojunction structured organic layer which is the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The ZnO nanorod array was grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates via a low-temperature (85 °C) aqueous solution process. The blend solution consisting of conjugated polymer P3HT and fullerene PCBM was spin coated at a low spinning rate of 400 rpm on top of the ZnO nanorod array structure and then the photoactive layer was slow dried at room temperature in air to promote its infiltration into the nanorod network. As a top electrode, silver was sputtered on top of the photoactive layer. The flexible solar cell with the structure of PET/ITO/ZnO thin film/ZnO nanorods/P3HT:PCBM/Ag exhibited a photovoltaic performance with an open circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.52 V, a short circuit current density (J SC ) of 9.82 mA cm −2 , a fill factor (FF) of 35% and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.78%. All the measurements were performed under 100 mW cm −2 of illumination with an air mass 1.5 G filter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of investigation into the fabrication and characterization of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on bulk heterojunction structured conjugated polymer/fullerene photoactive layer and ZnO nanorod array constructed on flexible transparent substrates. (paper)

  8. Optimal control of stretching process of flexible solar arrays on spacecraft based on a hybrid optimization strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijia Yao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimal control of multibody spacecraft during the stretching process of solar arrays is investigated, and a hybrid optimization strategy based on Gauss pseudospectral method (GPM and direct shooting method (DSM is presented. First, the elastic deformation of flexible solar arrays was described approximately by the assumed mode method, and a dynamic model was established by the second Lagrangian equation. Then, the nonholonomic motion planning problem is transformed into a nonlinear programming problem by using GPM. By giving fewer LG points, initial values of the state variables and control variables were obtained. A serial optimization framework was adopted to obtain the approximate optimal solution from a feasible solution. Finally, the control variables were discretized at LG points, and the precise optimal control inputs were obtained by DSM. The optimal trajectory of the system can be obtained through numerical integration. Through numerical simulation, the stretching process of solar arrays is stable with no detours, and the control inputs match the various constraints of actual conditions. The results indicate that the method is effective with good robustness. Keywords: Motion planning, Multibody spacecraft, Optimal control, Gauss pseudospectral method, Direct shooting method

  9. Simulation of a solar collector array consisting of two types of solar collectors, with and without convection barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    The installed area of solar collectors in solar heating fields is rapidly increasing in Denmark. In this scenario even relatively small performance improvements may lead to a large increase in the overall energy production. Both collectors with and without polymer foil, functioning as convection...... barrier, can be found on the Danish market. Depending on the temperature level at which the two types of collectors operate, one can perform better than the other. This project aimed to study the behavior of a 14 solar collector row made of these two different kinds of collectors, in order to optimize...... the composition of the row. Actual solar collectors available on the Danish market (models HT-SA and HT-A 35-10 manufactured by ARCON Solar A/S) were used for this analysis. To perform the study, a simulation model in TRNSYS was developed based on the Danish solar collector field in Braedstrup. A parametric...

  10. Solar energy for process heat: Design/cost studies of four industrial retrofit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. L.; Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Five specific California plants with potentially attractive solar applications were identified in a process heat survey. These five plants were visited, process requirements evaluated, and conceptual solar system designs were generated. Four DOE (ERDA) sponsored solar energy system demonstration projects were also reviewed and compared to the design/cost cases included in this report. In four of the five cases investigated, retrofit installations providing significant amounts of thermal energy were found to be feasible. The fifth was rejected because of the condition of the building involved, but the process (soap making) appears to be an attractive potential solar application. Costs, however, tend to be high. Several potential areas for cost reduction were identified including larger collector modules and higher duty cycles.

  11. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office (SETO) residential 2030 photovoltaics (PV) cost target of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour by identifying could influence system costs in key market segments. This report examines two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof

  12. Tunable silver-shell dielectric core nano-beads array for thin-film solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong, E-mail: a0920146302@gmail.com, E-mail: chou.fong@ubd.edu.bn; Lim, Chee Ming [Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences (Brunei) (Brunei Darussalam); Chiang, Chien-Ying [National Taipei University of Technology, Department of Electro-Optical Engineering (China); Voo, Nyuk Yoong; Muhammad Idris, Nur Syafi’ie; Chai, Siew Ung [Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences (Brunei) (Brunei Darussalam)

    2016-04-15

    The absorbance spectra of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) can be enhanced by constructing the tunable periodic Ag-shell nano-bead (PASNB) arrays in the active material. In this paper, we investigated a plasmonic thin-film solar cell (TFSC) which composed of the arrays of PASNB deposited onto a crystalline silicon layer. By performing three-dimensional finite element method, we demonstrate that near field coupling among the PASNB arrays results in SPR modes with enhanced absorbance and field intensity. The proposed structure can significantly enhance the plasmonic activity in a wide range of incident light and enlarge working wavelength of absorbance in the range of near-UV, visible and near-infrared. We show that the sensitivity of the PASNB arrays reveals a linear relationship with the thickness of Ag-shell nano-bead (ASNB) for both the anti-bonding and bonding modes in the absorbance spectra. The broadband of absorbance spectra could be expanded as a wide range by varying the thickness of ASNB while the particle size is kept constant. Simulation results suggest this alternative scheme to the design and improvements on plasmonic enhanced TFSCs can be extended to other nanophotonic applications.

  13. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The

  14. Ultrasonic Substrate Vibration-Assisted Drop Casting (SVADC) for the Fabrication of Photovoltaic Solar Cell Arrays and Thin-Film Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Zabihi, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    A simple, low-cost, versatile, and potentially scalable casting method is proposed for the fabrication of micro- and nano-thin films, herein termed as ultrasonic "substrate vibration-assisted drop casting" (SVADC). The impingement of a solution drop onto a substrate in a simple process called drop casting, usually results in spreading of the liquid solution and the formation of a non-uniform thin solid film after solvent evaporation. Our previous and current supporting results, as well as few similar reports by others, confirm that imposing ultrasonic vibration on the substrate can simply convert the uncontrollable drop casting method into a controllable coating technique. Therefore, the SVADC may be used to fabricate an array of emerging thin-film solar cells, such as polymer, perovskite, and quantum-dot solar cells, as well as other small thin-film devices, in a roll-to-roll and automated fabrication process. The preliminary results demonstrate a ten-fold increase in electrical conductivity of PSS made by SVADC compared with the film made by conventional drop casting. Also, simple planar perovskite solar cells made here using SVADC show promising performance with an efficiency of over 3 % for a simple structure without performing process optimization or using expensive materials and treatments.

  15. 600 Volt Stretched Lens Array for Solar Electric Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past six years, ENTECH, Auburn, NASA, and other organizations have developed a new space photovoltaic array called the Stretched Lens Array (SLA), which...

  16. Low-cost silver capped polystyrene nanotube arrays as super-hydrophobic substrates for SERS applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Pierre; Creedon, Niamh; Alatawi, Hanan; Mitchell, Micki; Burke, Micheal; Quinn, Aidan J; O'Riordan, Alan

    2014-05-02

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, simulation and characterization of dense arrays of freestanding silver capped polystyrene nanotubes, and demonstrate their suitability for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Substrates are fabricated in a rapid, low-cost and scalable way by melt wetting of polystyrene (PS) in an anodized alumina (AAO) template, followed by silver evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that substrates are composed of a dense array of freestanding polystyrene nanotubes topped by silver nanocaps. SERS characterization of the substrates, employing a monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ABT) as a model molecule, exhibits an enhancement factor of ∼1.6 × 10(6), in agreement with 3D finite difference time domain simulations. Contact angle measurements of the substrates revealed super-hydrophobic properties, allowing pre-concentration of target analyte into a small volume. These super-hydrophobic properties of the samples are taken advantage of for sensitive detection of the organic pollutant crystal violet, with detection down to ∼400 ppt in a 2 μl aliquot demonstrated.

  17. Low-cost silver capped polystyrene nanotube arrays as super-hydrophobic substrates for SERS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovera, Pierre; Creedon, Niamh; Alatawi, Hanan; Mitchell, Micki; Burke, Micheal; Quinn, Aidan J; O’Riordan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, simulation and characterization of dense arrays of freestanding silver capped polystyrene nanotubes, and demonstrate their suitability for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Substrates are fabricated in a rapid, low-cost and scalable way by melt wetting of polystyrene (PS) in an anodized alumina (AAO) template, followed by silver evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that substrates are composed of a dense array of freestanding polystyrene nanotubes topped by silver nanocaps. SERS characterization of the substrates, employing a monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ABT) as a model molecule, exhibits an enhancement factor of ∼1.6 × 10 6 , in agreement with 3D finite difference time domain simulations. Contact angle measurements of the substrates revealed super-hydrophobic properties, allowing pre-concentration of target analyte into a small volume. These super-hydrophobic properties of the samples are taken advantage of for sensitive detection of the organic pollutant crystal violet, with detection down to ∼400 ppt in a 2 μl aliquot demonstrated. (paper)

  18. Growth and analysis of micro and nano CdTe arrays for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Brandon Adrian

    CdTe is an excellent material for infrared detectors and photovoltaic applications. The efficiency of CdTe/CdS solar cells has increased very rapidly in the last 3 years to ˜20% but is still below the maximum theoretical value of 30%. Although the short-circuit current density is close to its maximum of 30 mA/cm2, the open circuit voltage has potential to be increased further to over 1 Volt. The main limitation that prevents further increase in the open-circuit voltage and therefore efficiency is the high defect density in the CdTe absorber layer. Reducing the defect density will increase the open-circuit voltage above 1 V through an increase in the carrier lifetime and concentration to tau >10 ns and p > 10 16 cm-3, respectively. However, the large lattice mismatch (10%) between CdTe and CdS and the polycrystalline nature of the CdTe film are the fundamental reasons for the high defect density and pose a difficult challenge to solve. In this work, a method to physically and electrically isolate the different kinds of defects at the nanoscale and understand their effect on the electrical performance of CdTe is presented. A SiO2 template with arrays of window openings was deposited between the CdTe and CdS to achieve selective-area growth of the CdTe via close-space sublimation. The diameter of the window openings was varied from the micro to the nanoscale to study the effect of size on nucleation, grain growth, and defect density. The resulting structures enabled the possibility to electrically isolate and individually probe micrometer and nanoscale sized CdTe/CdS cells. Electron back-scattered diffraction was used to observe grain orientation and defects in the miniature cells. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology, grain boundaries, grain orientation, defect structure, and strain in the layers. Finally, conducting atomic force microscopy was used to study the current-voltage characteristics of the solar cells. An

  19. Self-Powered Solar-Blind Photodetector with Fast Response Based on Au/β-Ga2O3 Nanowires Array Film Schottky Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Liu, Kewei; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Chunrui; Li, Binghui; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Dongxu; Shen, Dezhen

    2016-02-17

    Because of the direct band gap of 4.9 eV, β-Ga2O3 has been considered as an ideal material for solar-blind photodetection without any bandgap tuning. Practical applications of the photodetectors require fast response speed, high signal-to-noise ratio, low energy consumption and low fabrication cost. Unfortunately, most reported β-Ga2O3-based photodetectors usually possess a relatively long response time. In addition, the β-Ga2O3 photodetectors based on bulk, the individual 1D nanostructure, and the film often suffer from the high cost, the low repeatability, and the relatively large dark current, respectively. In this paper, a Au/β-Ga2O3 nanowires array film vertical Schottky photodiode is successfully fabricated by a simple thermal partial oxidation process. The device exhibits a very low dark current of 10 pA at -30 V with a sharp cutoff at 270 nm. More interestingly, the 90-10% decay time of our device is only around 64 μs, which is much quicker than any other previously reported β-Ga2O3-based photodetectors. Besides, the self-powering, the excellent stability and the good reproducibility of Au/β-Ga2O3 nanowires array film photodetector are helpful to its commercialization and practical applications.

  20. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  1. Virginia Solar Pathways Project: Economic Study of Utility-Administered Solar Programs: Soft Costs, Community Solar, and Tax Normalization Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mercer, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-23

    This report presents economic considerations for solar development in support of the Virginia Solar Pathways Project (VSPP), an effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative that seeks to develop a collaborative utility-administered solar strategy for the Commonwealth of Virginia. The results presented are intended to be considered alongside the results of other studies conducted under the VSPP that evaluate the impacts of solar energy on the electric distribution, transmission, and generation systems in Virginia.

  2. Power Generation Potential and Cost of a Roof Top Solar PV System in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjel, N.; Zhand, A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a comparative study of the 3 most used solar PV module technologies in Nepal, which are Si-mono-crystalline, Si-poly-crystalline and Si-amorphous. The aim of the paper is to present and discuss the recorded Global Solar Radiation, received in the Kathmandu valley by three different, Si-mono-crystalline, Si-poly-crystalline and Si-amorphous calibrated solar cell pyranometers and to propose the best-suited solar PV module technology for roof top solar PV systems inside the Kathmandu valley. Data recorded over the course of seven months, thus covering most of the seasonal meteorological conditions determining Kathmandu valley's global solar radiation reception are presented. The results indicate that the Si-amorphous pyranometer captured 1.56% more global solar radiation than the Si-mono-crystalline and 18.4% more than Si-poly-crystalline pyranometer over the course of seven months. Among the three pyranometer technologies the maximum and minimum cell temperature was measured by the Si-mono-crystalline pyranometer. Following the technical data and discussion, an economical analysis, using the versatile software tool PVSYST V5.01is used to calculate the life cycle costs of a 1kW roof top solar PV RAPS system, with battery storage, and a 1kW roof top solar PV grid connected system with no energy storage facility, through simulations, using average recorded global solar radiation data for the KTM valley and investigated market values for each solar PV module and peripheral equipment costs.

  3. Proceedings of the Flat-plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the High-speed Growth and Characterization of Crystals for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, K. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental phenomena, applications, and characterization including stress/strain and other problem areas that limit the rate of growth of crystals suitable for processing into efficient, cost-effective solar cells are discussed. Melt spinning, ribbon growth, rapid solidification, laser recrystallization, and ignot growth of silicon and metals are also discussed.

  4. TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Composite Film as Photoanode for High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A double-layered photoanode made of hierarchical TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNT-arrays as the overlayer and commercial-grade TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 as the underlayer is designed for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Crystallized free-standing TNT-arrays films are prepared by two-step anodization process. For photovoltaic applications, DSSCs based on double-layered photoanodes produce a remarkably enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE of up to 6.32% compared with the DSSCs solely composed of TNT-arrays (5.18% or nanoparticles (3.65% with a similar thickness (24 μm at a constant irradiation of 100 mW cm−2. This is mainly attributed to the fast charge transport paths and superior light-scattering ability of TNT-arrays overlayer and good electronic contact with F-doped tin oxide (FTO glass provided from P25 nanoparticles as a bonding layer.

  5. Low-cost storage options for solar hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaib Muhammad Ali; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Equipment for storing hydrogen gas under pressure typically accounts for a significant proportion of the total capital cost of solar-hydrogen systems for remote area power supply (RAPS). RAPS remain a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. In the present paper the storage requirements of PV-based solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing PEM electrolysers and fuel cells to meet a range of typical remote area daily and annual demand profiles are investigated using a spread sheet-based simulation model. It is found that as the costs of storage are lowered the requirement for longer-term storage from summer to winter is increased with consequent potential gains in the overall economics of the solar-hydrogen system. In many remote applications, there is ample space for hydrogen storages with relatively large volumes. Hence it may be most cost-effective to store hydrogen at low to medium pressures achievable by using PEM electrolysers directly to generate the hydrogen at the pressures required, without a requirement for separate electrically-driven compressors. The latter add to system costs while requiring significant parasitic electricity consumption. Experimental investigations into a number of low-cost storage options including plastic tanks and low-to-medium pressure metal and composite cylinders are reported. On the basis of these findings, the economics of solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing large-volume low-cost storage are investigated. (authors)

  6. Design and construction of a low cost solar simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supranto; Daud, W.R.W.; Sopian, K.; Othman, M.Y.; Yatim, B.

    2000-01-01

    A solar simulator has been designed and constructed for indoor testing for solar collectors. The simulator consists of 45 halogen lamps. Each lamp has a rated power of a 300 watts. The lamps in ten rows where each row consists of 4 to 5 lamps. The lamps occupied area 6 m 2 . Dimmers are used to control the amount of lamp intensities. The spacing between the lamps and the collector is about 150 cm. The intensities of the lamps are measured using a pyranometer. The intensity contours or mappings for minimum and maximum average pyranometer readings about 280 to 640 W/m 2 are produced, with errors are about of 3.16 % to 4.5 %. (Author)

  7. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...

  8. 3D-printed concentrator arrays for external light trapping on thin film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Lourens; Marcus, E.A.P.; Oostra, A.J.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Vece, Di M.

    2015-01-01

    After our recent demonstration of a 3D-printed external light trap on a small solar cell, we now consider its potential for large solar panels. An external light trap consists of a parabolic concentrator and a spacer that redirects the photons that are reflected by the solar cell back towards the

  9. 3D-printed concentrator arrays for external light trapping on thin film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Lourens; Marcus, E. A. Pepijn; Oostra, A. Jolt; Schropp, Ruud E. I.; Di Vece, Marcel

    After our recent demonstration of a 3D-printed external light trap on a small solar cell, we now consider its potential for large solar panels. An external light trap consists of a parabolic concentrator and a spacer that redirects the photons that are reflected by the solar cell back towards the

  10. Low cost and efficient photovoltaic conversion by nanocrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetzel, M. [Institut de Chimie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-09-01

    Solar cells are expected to provide environmentally friendly solutions to the world`s energy supply problem. Learning from the concepts used by green plants we have developed a molecular photovoltaic device whose overall efficiency for AM 1.5 solar light to electricity has already attained 8-11%. The system is based on the sensitization of nanocrystalline oxide films by transition metal charge transfer sensitizers. In analogy to photosynthesis, the new chemical solar cell achieves the separation of the light absorption and charge carrier transport processes. Extraordinary yields for the conversion of incident photons into electric current are obtained, exceeding 90% for transition metal complexes within the wavelength range of their absorption band. The use of molten salt electrolytes together with coordination complexes of ruthenium as sensitizers and adequate sealing technology has endowed these cells with a remarkable stability making practical applications feasible. Seven industrial cooperations are presently involved in the development to bring these cells to the market. The first cells will be applied to supply electric power for consumer electronic devices. The launching of production of several products of this type is imminent and they should be on the market within the next two years. Quite aside from their intrinsic merits as photovoltaic device, the mesoscopic oxide semiconductor films developed in our laboratory offer attractive possibilities for a number of other applications. Thus, the first example of a nanocrystalline rocking chair battery will be demonstrated and its principle briefly discussed.

  11. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  12. Solid State Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator for 3-, 4- and 6-Junction Solar Cell Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I was successful in delivering a complete prototype of the proposed innovation, an LED-based, solid state, large area, pulsed, solar simulator (ssLAPSS)....

  13. Final Technical Report: Low-Cost Solar Variability Sensors for Ubiquitous Deployment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this project, an integrated solution to measuring and collecting solar variability data called the solar variability datalogger (SVD) was developed, tested, and the value of its data to distribution grid integration studies was demonstrated. This work addressed the problem that high-frequency solar variability is rarely measured – due to the high cost and complex installation of existing solar irradiance measuring pyranometers – but is critical to the accurate determination of the impact of photovoltaics to electric grid operation. For example, up to a 300% difference in distribution grid voltage regulator tap change operations (a measure of the impact of PV) [1] has been observed due solely to different solar variability profiles.

  14. Ink jet assisted metallization for low cost flat plate solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, K. F.; Vest, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Computer-controlled ink-jet-assisted metallization of the front surface of solar cells with metalorganic silver inks offers a maskless alternative method to conventional photolithography and screen printing. This method can provide low cost, fine resolution, reduced process complexity, avoidance of degradation of the p-n junction by firing at lower temperature, and uniform line film on rough surface of solar cells. The metallization process involves belt furnace firing and thermal spiking. With multilayer ink jet printing and firing, solar cells of about 5-6 percent efficiency without antireflection (AR) coating can be produced. With a titanium thin-film underlayer as an adhesion promoter, solar cells of average efficiency 8.08 percent without AR coating can be obtained. This efficiency value is approximately equal to that of thin-film solar cells of the same lot. Problems with regard to lower inorganic content of the inks and contact resistance are noted.

  15. SolAir. Innovative solar collectors for efficient and cost-effective solar thermal power generation - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbato, M. C.; Haueter, Ph.; Bader, R.; Steinfeld, A.; Pedretti, A.

    2008-12-15

    This report presents the main results of the project. The project has been started at the end of 2007 and has been successfully finished in December 2008. The present project of ALE AirLight Energy aims at the engineering investigation and design of a novel concept of a solar collector system for efficient and cost-effective solar thermal power generation. The technology exploits an air-inflated reflective structure to concentrate solar radiation. This new arrangement reduces investment costs of the collector field and promises to be economically competitive. A first prototype, built in 2007, has been redesigned and heavily modified during this project. In the new configuration, by using secondary mirrors, the focal area is located close to the main structure and allows the integration of the receiver into the inflated structure. The topics developed in this document are as follows: (i) Design solutions for the concentrated energy receiver suitable for the revised SolAir concentrator concept. (ii) Solar flux simulation via Monte Carlo method. (iii) New version of the ALE AirLight Energy concentrator prototype. (iv) Prototype radiative flux measurements. (author)

  16. 16.1% Efficient Hysteresis-Free Mesostructured Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Synergistically Improved ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Significant efficiency improvements are reported in mesoscopic perovskite solar cells based on the development of a low-temperature solution-processed ZnO nanorod (NR) array exhibiting higher NR aspect ratio, enhanced electron density, and substantially reduced work function than conventional ZnO NRs. These features synergistically result in hysteresis-free, scan-independent, and stabilized devices with an efficiency of 16.1%. Electron-rich, nitrogen-doped ZnO (N:ZnO) NR-based electron transporting materials (ETMs) with enhanced electron mobility produced using ammonium acetate show consistently higher efficiencies by one to three power points than undoped ZnO NRs. Additionally, the preferential electrostatic interaction between the -nonpolar facets of N:ZnO and the conjugated polyelectrolyte polyethylenimine (PEI) has been relied on to promote the hydrothermal growth of high aspect ratio NR arrays and substantially improve the infiltration of the perovskite light absorber into the ETM. Using the same interactions, a conformal PEI coating on the electron-rich high aspect ratio N:ZnO NR arrays is -successfully applied, resulting in a favorable work function shift and altogether leading to the significant boost in efficiency from <10% up to >16%. These results largely surpass the state-of-the-art PCE of ZnO-based perovskite solar cells and highlight the benefits of synergistically combining mesoscale control with doping and surface modification. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. First detection of thermal radio emission from solar-type stars with the Karl G. Jansky very large array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Güdel, Manuel [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Rupen, Michael, E-mail: jrv@astro.caltech.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  18. First detection of thermal radio emission from solar-type stars with the Karl G. Jansky very large array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen; Güdel, Manuel; Rupen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  19. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions. Semiannual Progress Report, 1 February 1985-30 January 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, K.R.

    1985-08-01

    Simultaneous observations of solar active regions with the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and the Very Large Array (VLA) have been obtained and analyzed. Combined results enhance the scientific return for beyond that expeted from using either SMM or VLA alone. A total of two weeks of simultaneous SMM/VLA data were obtained. The multiple wavelength VLA observations were used to determine the temperature and magnetic structure at different heights within coronal loops. These data are compared with simultaneous SMM observations. Several papers on the subject are in progress. They include VLA observations of compact, transient sources in the transition region; simultaneous SMM/VLA observations of the coronal loops in one active region and the evolution of another one; and sampling of the coronal plasma using thermal cyclotron lines (magnetic field - VLA) and soft X ray spectral lines (electron density and electron temperaure-SMM)

  20. Operation of Grid-tied 5 kWDC solar array to develop Laboratory Experiments for Solar PV Energy System courses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jaime [Univ. of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX (United States)

    2012-12-14

    To unlock the potential of micro grids we plan to build, commission and operate a 5 kWDC PV array and integrate it to the UTPA Engineering building low voltage network, as a micro grid; and promote community awareness. Assisted by a solar radiation tracker providing on-line information of its measurements and performing analysis for the use by the scientific and engineering community, we will write, perform and operate a set of Laboratory experiments and computer simulations supporting Electrical Engineering (graduate and undergraduate) courses on Renewable Energy, as well as Senior Design projects.

  1. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  2. Life cycle cost analysis of solar heating and DHW systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, R.; Gilliaert, D.

    1992-01-01

    Economic Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) is an easy and friendly computer program, IBM compatible for economic evaluation of solar energy system which involves comparison of the capital and operating costs of a conventional system. In this section we would like to suggest the ELCCA-PC program as a new tools using life cycle cost analysis for annual and cumulative cash flow methodology that take into account all future expenses. ELCCA-PC program considers fixed and changeable items that are involved in installing the equipment such as interest of money borrowed, property and income taxes, current energy cost for electricity operating system, maintenance, insurance and fuel costs and other economic operating expenses. Moreover fraction of annual heating load supplied from solar system is considered in this analysis. ECC-PC program determines the yearly outflow of money over the period of an economic analysis that can be converted to a series of equal payments in today's money

  3. System optimization of solar hydrogen energy system based on hydrogen production cost. 2; Suiso seizo cost wo hyoka shihyo to shita taiyo suiso energy system no saiteki sekkei. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, D; Yamagami, Y; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In this paper, to evaluate the hydrogen production cost per unit volume, system optimization of solar hydrogen energy system is discussed. Based on the simulation of the I-V characteristics of amorphous Si (a-Si) photovoltaic array, the working point between the array and hydrogen generator was determined. The cost ratio of each design point was calculated. The optimum design points were 500 W/m{sup 2} for the single crystal Si system, and 600 W/m{sup 2} for the a-Si system. When the rating capacity of design point was constant, almost constant cost ratio was obtained independent of the type of photovoltaic cells. It was found that the photovoltaic cells can be fabricated in about 15% lower cost at maximum. It was also found that the optimum design point sifts to the lower insolation site due to reduction of the photovoltaic cell cost. Since the annual hydrogen generation quantity does not depend on the type of photovoltaic cells under the constant rating capacity of design point, hydrogen can be produced in lower cost by using photovoltaic cell of lower cost. 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Solar Array Disturbances to Spacecraft Pointing During the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Inertial Measurement Unit (MIMU) to provide body rates for attitude propagation. Rate is computed by differentiating accumulated angle provided by the MIMU. The Observing Mode controller is required to maintain fine pointing while a large fully-articulated solar array (SA) maintains its panel normal to the solar incidence. This paper describes the disturbances to the attitude control resulting from the SA articulation. Observing Mode performance in the presence of this disturbance was assessed while the spacecraft was in an initial elliptical low altitude orbit during the commissioning phase, which started about two weeks after launch and lasted for 90 days. LRO demonstrated excellent pointing performance during Observing Mode nadir and inertial attitude target operations during this phase. Transient LRO attitude errors observed during commissioning resulted primarily from three sources, Diviner instrument calibrations, RW zero crossings, and SA articulation. Even during times of considerable disturbance from SA articulation, the attitude errors were maintained below the statistical attitude error requirement level of 15 arc-sec (3 sigma).

  5. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  6. Builder experience with low-cost high-value passive solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.W.; Neuffer, P.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports on passive solar tract home construction in the Reno, Nevada, area, that has enhanced the builder's market, made buying a home more affordable for the entry-level customer and made living in that home more attractive, displaced energy at $1.50/MMBtu, and attracted the local utility into seriously considering offering cash incentives for the construction and sale of those homes as a very cost-effective gas demand side management program. The builder's solar models, costs and marketing experience are described, and the utility's economic analysis is presented

  7. Low-Cost Planar MM-Wave Phased Array Antenna for Use in Mobile Satellite (MSAT) Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a compact 8×8 phased array antenna for mobile satellite (MSAT) devices is designed and investigated. 64-elements of 22 GHz patch antennas with coaxial-probe feeds have been used for the proposed planar design. The antenna is designed on a low-cost FR4 substrate with thickness, diel...

  8. Solar Energy Technology Office Portfolio Review: Promotion of PV Soft Cost Reductions in the Southeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-20

    From 2016-2021, the installed solar capacity in South Carolina will mushroom from less than 20 megawatts to more than 300 megawatts. Concurrently, the number of customer-sited, load-centered solar generation is expected to grow from less than 500 statewide to as many as 10,000 by 2021. This growth is anticipated to be the direct result of a landmark state policy initiative, Act 236, passed by the South Carolina General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor in June of 2014. Local policy makers in South Carolina are ill-equipped to handle the onslaught of solar permitting and zoning requests expected over the next five years. Similarly, the state’s building inspectors, first responders, and tax assessors know little about photovoltaic (PV) technology and best practices. Finally, South Carolina’s workforce and workforce trainers are underprepared to benefit from the tremendous opportunity created by the passage of Act 236. Each of these deficits in knowledge of and preparedness for solar PV translates into higher “soft costs” of installed solar PV in South Carolina. Currently, we estimate that the installed costs of residential rooftop solar are as much as 25 percent higher than the national average. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), together with almost a dozen electricity stakeholders in the Southeast, proposes to create a replicable model for solar PV soft cost reduction in South Carolina through human capacity-building at the local level and direct efforts to harmonize policy at the inter-county or regional level. The primary goal of this effort is to close the gap between South Carolina installed costs of residential rooftop solar and national averages. The secondary goal is to develop a portable and replicable model that can be applied to other jurisdictions in the Southeastern US.

  9. Distribution Grid Integration Unit Cost Database | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    consulting companies, IEEE Some data is provided to give a sense of the order of magnitude of the lifetime , as O&M and component lifetime data is sparse, the effects of PV on device O&M and lifetimes Inverter manufacturers, PV developers The cost of advanced inverters depends on whether the capability of

  10. NREL Funds Research into Low-Cost Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    to the introduction of innovative thin film PV modules. R&D Partners are universities and be awarded under the Thin Film PV (photovoltaic) Partnership program at the U.S. Department of . The goal is to develop thin film technology that can reduce that cost to $1 a watt, making clean

  11. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  12. Solarbus Solar Array Innovative Light Weight Mechanical Architecture with Thin Lateral Panels Deployed with Shape Memory Alloy Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrigeon, Laurent; Carpine, Anne; Laduree, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    The standard ALCATEL SOLAR ARRAY PLANAR CONCEPT on the TELECOM market today on flight is named SOLARBUS.This concept is:• 3 to 10 identical panels covered with Si Hi-η celltechnology.• A central mast constitute by 3 to 4 panels and 1yoke linked together by hinges and synchronizedby cables.• From 2 to 6 lateral panelsThis concept is able to fit with the customer requirements in order to have a competitive "global offer at system level" (mass to power ratio 48-50 W/Kg)But, for the near future, in line with the market trend, and based on the previous experience, an improvement of the SOLARBUS Solar Array concept in term of W/kg/€ is essential in order to maintain the competitiveness of the global ALCATEL offer at system level.In order to increase the W/Kg performance Alcatel has developed a new architecture named Lightweight Panel Structure (LPS). The objectives of this new structure are :• To decrease the kg/m2 ratio • To be compatible of all promising cells technology including Si Hi-n, GaAs, GaAs+ small reflectors. This new architecture is based on the fact that during the 3 major life phases of a Solar Array (Launch/Deployment/Deployed orbital life), the structural needs are more important for the central panels than for the lateral panels.So two different panels have been designed :• Central panels (named LPS1)• Lateral panels (named LPS2)The stowing configuration as been adapted : 2 thin lateral panels LPS2 between 2 structural central panels LPS1, and local bumpers to transfer the loads from LPS2 to LPS1.Also one of the more stringent loads applied to the panels are corresponding to deployment loads. In order to limit the mass of reinforcement of the panels, a deployment speed regulator shall be used. In the frame of the new generation of solar arrays, Alcatel has developed a new actuator based on shape memory alloy torsional rod. This light weight component is directly connected to heaters lines and is able to provide great actuation torque

  13. Broadband photocurrent enhancement and light-trapping in thin film Si solar cells with periodic Al nanoparticle arrays on the front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, C.; Villesen, T. F.; Tetu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metal nanoparticles are considered candidates for improved thin film Si photovoltaics. In periodic arrays the influence of collective modes can enhance the resonant properties of such arrays. We have investigated the use of periodic arrays of Al nanoparticles placed...... on the front of a thin film Si test solar cell. It is demonstrated that the resonances from the Al nanoparticle array cause a broadband photocurrent enhancement ranging from the ultraviolet to the infrared with respect to a reference cell. From the experimental results as well as from numerical simulations...

  14. Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Electron Transfer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long; Li, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Shi, Wen-Jia; Liu, Yue-Feng; Gao, Hui-Ping; Mao, Yan-Li

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, N-doped TiO 2 (N-TiO 2 ) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO 2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been achieved 11.1%, which was 14.7% higher than that of solar cells based on un-doped TiO 2 . To get an insight into the improvement, some investigations were performed. The structure was examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Tauc plot spectra indicated the incorporation of N in TiO 2 nanorods. Absorption spectra showed higher absorption of visible light for N-TiO 2 than un-doped TiO 2 . The N doping reduced the energy band gap from 3.03 to 2.74 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectra displayed the faster electron transfer from perovskite layer to N-TiO 2 than to un-doped TiO 2 . Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the smaller resistance of device based on N-TiO 2 than that on un-doped TiO 2 .

  15. Can hybrid solar-fossil power plants mitigate CO2 at lower cost than PV or CSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2013-03-19

    Fifteen of the United States and several nations require a portion of their electricity come from solar energy. We perform an engineering-economic analysis of hybridizing concentrating solar thermal power with fossil fuel in an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) generator. We construct a thermodynamic model of an ISCC plant in order to examine how much solar and fossil electricity is produced and how such a power plant would operate, given hourly solar resource data and hourly electricity prices. We find that the solar portion of an ISCC power plant has a lower levelized cost of electricity than stand-alone solar power plants given strong solar resource in the US southwest and market conditions that allow the capacity factor of the solar portion of the power plant to be above 21%. From a local government perspective, current federal subsidies distort the levelized cost of electricity such that photovoltaic electricity is slightly less expensive than the solar electricity produced by the ISCC. However, if the cost of variability and additional transmission lines needed for stand-alone solar power plants are taken into account, the solar portion of an ISCC power plant may be more cost-effective.

  16. A new hybrid ocean thermal energy conversion–Offshore solar pond (OTEC–OSP) design: a cost optimization approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatman, P.J.T.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Solar thermal electricity (STE) generation offers an excellent opportunity to supply electricity with a non-CO2 emitting technology. However, present costs hamper widespread deployment and therefore research and development efforts are concentrated on accelerated cost reductions and efficiency

  17. Low-cost multicrystalline back-contact silicon solar cells with screen printed metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, W.; Kress, A.; Jooss, W.; Fath, P.; Bucher, E.

    2002-01-01

    Adaptation to market requirements is a permanent challenge in industrial solar-cell production. Both increase of cell efficiency as well as lowering costs is demanded. Back-contacted solar cells offer multiple advantages in terms of reducing module assembling costs and enhanced cell efficiency. The investigated emitter-wrap-through (EWT) design [1] has a collecting emitter on front and rear side. These emitter areas are electrically connected by small holes. Due to the double-sided collecting junction, this cell design is favourable for materials with a low-minority charge carrier diffusion length leading to a higher short circuit current density. Until now most investigations on EWT solar cells were performed on Cz or even FZ silicon. This was justified as long as different processing techniques had to be developed and compared. But as an industrially applicable process sequence has recently been developed [2], the advantages of the EWT concept compared to conventionally processed cells have to be shown on multicrystalline material. In the following, a manufacturing process of EWT solar cells is presented which is especially adapted to the requirements of multicrystalline silicon. Effective surface texturization was reached by mechanical V-texturization and bulk passivation by a hydrogen plasma treatment. The efficiency of the best solar cells within this process reached 14.2% which is the highest efficiency reported so far for mc-Si 10x10 cm 2 EWT solar cells [3]. (author)

  18. Low-Cost Ultrasonic Distance Sensor Arrays with Networked Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhou Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distance has been one of the basic factors in manufacturing and control fields, and ultrasonic distance sensors have been widely used as a low-cost measuring tool. However, the propagation of ultrasonic waves is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate measurement, which is significant within industry, this paper presents a novel ultrasonic distance sensor model using networked error correction (NEC trained on experimental data. This is more accurate than other existing approaches because it uses information from indirect association with neighboring sensors, which has not been considered before. The NEC technique, focusing on optimization of the relationship of the topological structure of sensor arrays, is implemented for the compensation of erroneous measurements caused by the environment. We apply the maximum likelihood method to determine the optimal fusion data set and use a neighbor discovery algorithm to identify neighbor nodes at the top speed. Furthermore, we adopt the NEC optimization algorithm, which takes full advantage of the correlation coefficients for neighbor sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the ranging errors of the NEC system are within 2.20%; furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 0.01% after three iterations of this method, which means that the proposed method performs extremely well. The optimized method of distance measurement we propose, with the capability of NEC, would bring a significant advantage for intelligent industrial automation.

  19. Photovoltaic array sizing for Yemeni electrical needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Motawakel, M K; McVeigh, J C; Probert, S D; Norton, B

    1986-10-01

    A behavioural model has been developed for correlating the area of the solar array, the capacity of the storage batteries, and the system cost of a roof-top or centralized solar-energy system relative to the average daily electricity demand. The mathematical analysis incorporates pertinent social, economic, climatic and energy-resource factors. The model is employed to predict the average daily electrical needs for any one of the ten common energy uses currently occurring in Yemeni houses, reviews these needs in terms of the available solar energy systems, selects the relevant system components, and suggests the most cost-effective appropriate design of solar photovoltaic system.

  20. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  1. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  2. Fabrication and doping methods for silicon nano- and micropillar arrays for solar cell applications: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, R.; Vijselaar, Wouter Jan, Cornelis; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is one of the main components of commercial solar cells and is used in many other solar-light-harvesting devices. The overall efficiency of these devices can be increased by the use of structured surfaces that contain nanometer- to micrometer-sized pillars with radial p/n junctions. High

  3. Peak shifting and cross-class subsidization: The impacts of solar PV on changes in electricity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Erik; Beppler, Ross; Blackburn, Chris; Staver, Benjamin; Brown, Marilyn; Matisoff, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of distributed solar necessitates additional research into the impacts on both utilities and their customers. In this paper we use New Jersey solar data, PJM market data, and demand profiles from a PJM utility to investigate rate and bill impacts of large-scale solar penetration. In addition to the subsidization of solar adopters by non-participants, we highlight the channels through which cross-subsidization of rate classes can arise in practice. The results of our study indicate that the fear of a utility “death spiral” may be exaggerated. Significant solar can be incorporated with only a 2% increase in non-participant bills. At high levels of penetration, distributed solar has the potential to alter the system peak hour which affects the allocation of costs across rate-classes. As the peak hour shifts to the evening when solar production diminishes, residential customers face higher distribution costs. Policy makers and utilities need to be aware of these challenges in designing the next generation of rates that are better aligned with cost causality. - Highlights: • We develop a model of electricity costs with large amounts of solar adoption. • Solar adoption leads to cost redistribution across customer classes. • Costs are redistributed partially because peak utility load shifts later in the day. • Residential distributed solar generation affects electricity bills the most. • We confirm the subsidy of participants by non-participants in net metering programs.

  4. Integration Costs Revisited – An economic framework for wind and solar variability

    OpenAIRE

    Hirth, Lion (Prof. Dr.); Ueckerdt, Falko (Dr.); Edenhofer, Ottmar (Prof. Dr.)

    2015-01-01

    The integration of wind and solar generators into power systems causes “integration costs” – for grids, balancing services, more flexible operation of thermal plants, and reduced utilization of the capital stock embodied in infrastructure, among other things. This paper proposes a framework to analyze and quantify these costs. We propose a definition of integration costs based on the marginal economic value of electricity, or market value – as such a definition can be more easily used in econ...

  5. CRADA with United Solar Technologies and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL-021): Thin film materialsfor low-cost high performance solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. M.; Affinito, J. D.; Gross, M. E.; Bennett, W. D.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop and evaluate promising low-cost dielectric and polymer-protected thin-film reflective metal coatings to be applied to preformed continuously-curved solar reflector panels to enhance their solar reflectance, and to demonstrate protected solar reflective coatings on preformed solar concentrator panels. The opportunity for this project arose from a search by United Solar Technologies (UST) for organizations and facilities capable of applying reflective coatings to large preformed panels. PNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this collaborative project.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of solar energy in energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, S.; Iten, R.; Vettori, A.; Haller, A.; Ochs, M.; Keller, L.

    2005-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study that examined the potentials and restraints with respect to the use of solar energy in the new construction and refurbishment of residential buildings in Switzerland. The method used is based on a 'learning-curve' technique. The first part of the report deals with the development of prices for solar-collector installations from 1990 until now. The second part deals with today's costs and future developments up to the year 2030. A reference building is used as the basis for the comparison of eight system variants. A further eight variants combine solar technology with traditional heating installations such as oil, gas and wood boilers and heat-pumps. Scenarios for the market situation for solar energy in 2030 are discussed

  7. A generic interface to reduce the efficiency-stability-cost gap of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi; Du, Xiaoyan; Scheiner, Simon; McMeekin, David P.; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Ning; Killian, Manuela S.; Chen, Haiwei; Richter, Moses; Levchuk, Ievgen; Schrenker, Nadine; Spiecker, Erdmann; Stubhan, Tobias; Luechinger, Norman A.; Hirsch, Andreas; Schmuki, Patrik; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Fink, Rainer H.; Halik, Marcus; Snaith, Henry J.; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-12-01

    A major bottleneck delaying the further commercialization of thin-film solar cells based on hybrid organohalide lead perovskites is interface loss in state-of-the-art devices. We present a generic interface architecture that combines solution-processed, reliable, and cost-efficient hole-transporting materials without compromising efficiency, stability, or scalability of perovskite solar cells. Tantalum-doped tungsten oxide (Ta-WOx)/conjugated polymer multilayers offer a surprisingly small interface barrier and form quasi-ohmic contacts universally with various scalable conjugated polymers. In a simple device with regular planar architecture and a self-assembled monolayer, Ta-WOx-doped interface-based perovskite solar cells achieve maximum efficiencies of 21.2% and offer more than 1000 hours of light stability. By eliminating additional ionic dopants, these findings open up the entire class of organics as scalable hole-transporting materials for perovskite solar cells.

  8. Design of Arrangement of Solar Array and Energy Storage in Solar Photovoltaic Generation%光伏阵列及储能的布置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩学栋; 王海华

    2015-01-01

    Facing energy and environmental pressure, solar which is a kind natural renewable clean energy has become the focus of world development and utilization. This paper describes the optimal choice of the best dip angle of the solar array, deducing the layout spacing theoretical formula when the battery array in the horizontal plane and on the roof with a slope. Also, the paper describes the formula of the calculating components in series and parallel arrays of photovoltaic cells and storage cells in series and parallel. This paper provides some theoretical support to the design of the photovoltaic power generation system.%在能源和环境的双重压力下,太阳能这一清洁可再生的自然能源成为世界各国开发利用的重点。本文介绍了太阳能电池阵列最佳倾角的优化选择,推导了电池阵列在水平面以及带有一定坡度的屋面上进行布置时前后间距的理论计算公式,介绍了光伏电池阵列中组件的串并联以及储能蓄电池的串并联计算公式。上述工作对太阳能光伏发电系统的设计提供了一定的理论支撑。

  9. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  10. The high intensity solar cell - Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems associated with conventional solar cells at high intensities and presents the design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell which appears to eliminate the major problems. Test data obtained at greater than 250 AM1 suns gave a peak output power density of 2 W per sq cm at an efficiency exceeding 6% with an unoptimized cell operating at over 100 C. It appears that operation at 1000 AM1 suns at efficiencies greater than 10% is possible. At 1000 AM1 suns and 10% efficiency, the HI cell manufacturing cost is estimated to be $0.25/watt, with multi-megawatt annual production capability already existing within the industrial sector. A high intensity solar system was also analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency.

  11. Crystal Solar and NREL Team Up to Cut Costs | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    throughput and half the cost could be a game-changer, creating American jobs and stemming the flow of solar ," said NREL Principal Scientist Bhushan Sopori, who, along with Ullal and NREL's Steve Johnston NREL researchers Harin Ullal, left, Steve Johnston, and Bhushan Sopori were part of the team that won

  12. Inkjet printed Cu(In,Ga)S2 nanoparticles for low-cost solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Barbe, Jeremy; Eid, Jessica; Ahlswede, Erik; Spiering, Stefanie; Powalla, Michael; Agrawal, Rakesh; Del Gobbo, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells were fabricated by direct inkjet printing of Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) nanoparticles followed by rapid thermal annealing under selenium vapor. Inkjet printing is a low-cost, low-waste, and flexible patterning

  13. Design, construction and testing of a low-cost flat plate solar energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A low-cost flat plate solar energy collector has been designed and constructed with locally available materials such as mild steel and black paint of absorptance 0.94. On testing, an average daily efficiency of 55.6% was obtained. The methods are simple and illustrate the fact that construction of efficient collectors are ...

  14. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerau, Kerstin; Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G.; Gauche, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: → Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. → Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. → On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  15. Development of a Cost-Effective Solar/Diesel Independent Power Plant for a Remote Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeolu Samuel Omogoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the design, simulation, and optimization of a solar/diesel hybrid power supply system for a remote station. The design involves determination of the station total energy demand as well as obtaining the station solar radiation data. This information was used to size the components of the hybrid power supply system (HPSS and to determine its configuration. Specifically, an appropriate software package, HOMER, was used to determine the number of solar panels, deep-cycle batteries, and rating of the inverter that comprise the solar section of the HPSS. A suitable diesel generator was also selected for the HPSS after careful technical and cost analysis of those available in the market. The designed system was simulated using the HOMER software package and the simulation results were used to carry out the optimization of the system. The final design adequately meets the station energy requirement. Based on a life expectancy of twenty-five years, a cost-benefit analysis of the HPSS was carried out. This analysis shows that the HPSS has a lower cost as compared to a conventional diesel generator power supply, thus recommending the HPSS as a more cost-effective solution for this application.

  16. Qualitative performance and economic analysis of low cost solar fish driers in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood Keke Mustapha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative performance and economic analysis of five low cost solar driers were evaluated at the Zoology and Physics Laboratories of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. The solar driers were constructed from mosquito net, plastic, aluminum and glass with black stone inserted in it. The driers were found to be better than the other driers because they are cheap, reliable, safe to use, easy to repair, well insulated, and cost effective. The solar driers are compact, efficient with drying of fish with lowest moisture content achieved within a few days and the dried products of good quality, with long shelf life, highly acceptable to consumers. The driers save man-hour, money, use renewable energy, with no operational or maintenance costs. The driers have a long life span, with net income to fisher folks very high and the payback time for the driers very low. The adoption of the driers will contribute to the economy of rural populace in the developing countries where there is no electricity and the challenges of deforestation are becoming prominent. The improved low cost solar driers will ensure food safety and security and assist in combating climate change resulting from burning of wood and fossil fuel.

  17. Semiconductor wire array structures, and solar cells and photodetectors based on such structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.

    2014-08-19

    A structure comprising an array of semiconductor structures, an infill material between the semiconductor materials, and one or more light-trapping elements is described. Photoconverters and photoelectrochemical devices based on such structure also described.

  18. Electrodeposition of CdSe coatings on ZnO nanowire arrays for extremely thin absorber solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Hasti [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Baxter, Jason B., E-mail: jbaxter@drexel.ed [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We report on electrodeposition of CdSe coatings onto ZnO nanowire arrays and determine the effect of processing conditions on material properties such as morphology and microstructure. CdSe-coated ZnO nanowire arrays have potential use in extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells, where CdSe absorbs visible light and injects photoexcited electrons into the ZnO nanowires. We show that room-temperature electrodeposition enables growth of CdSe coatings that are highly crystalline, uniform, and conformal with precise control over thickness and microstructure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show nanocrystalline CdSe in both hexagonal and cubic phases with grain size {approx}5 nm. Coating morphology depends on electrodeposition current density. Uniform and conformal coatings were achieved using moderate current densities of {approx}2 mA cm{sup -2} for nanowires with roughness factor of {approx}10, while lower current densities resulted in sparse nucleation and growth of larger, isolated islands. Electrodeposition charge density controls the thickness of the CdSe coating, which was exploited to investigate the evolution of the morphology at early stages of nucleation and growth. UV-vis transmission spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical solar cell measurements demonstrate that CdSe effectively sensitizes ZnO nanowires to visible light.

  19. Electrodeposition of CdSe coatings on ZnO nanowire arrays for extremely thin absorber solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Hasti; Baxter, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    We report on electrodeposition of CdSe coatings onto ZnO nanowire arrays and determine the effect of processing conditions on material properties such as morphology and microstructure. CdSe-coated ZnO nanowire arrays have potential use in extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells, where CdSe absorbs visible light and injects photoexcited electrons into the ZnO nanowires. We show that room-temperature electrodeposition enables growth of CdSe coatings that are highly crystalline, uniform, and conformal with precise control over thickness and microstructure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show nanocrystalline CdSe in both hexagonal and cubic phases with grain size ∼5 nm. Coating morphology depends on electrodeposition current density. Uniform and conformal coatings were achieved using moderate current densities of ∼2 mA cm -2 for nanowires with roughness factor of ∼10, while lower current densities resulted in sparse nucleation and growth of larger, isolated islands. Electrodeposition charge density controls the thickness of the CdSe coating, which was exploited to investigate the evolution of the morphology at early stages of nucleation and growth. UV-vis transmission spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical solar cell measurements demonstrate that CdSe effectively sensitizes ZnO nanowires to visible light.

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Concentrated Solar Power in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, the first batch of concentrated solar power (CSP demonstration projects of China was formally approved. Due to the important impact of the cost-benefit on the investment decisions and policy-making, this paper adopted the static payback period (SP, net present value (NPV, net present value rate (NPVR, and internal rate of return (IRR to analyze and discuss the cost-benefit of CSP demonstration plants. The results showed the following. (1 The SP of CSP systems is relatively longer, due to high initial investment; but the cost-benefit of CSP demonstration plants as a whole is better, because of good expected incomes. (2 Vast majority of CSP projects could gain excess returns, on the basis of meeting the profitability required by the benchmark yield of 10%. (3 The cost-benefit of solar tower CSP technology (IRR of 12.33% is better than that of parabolic trough CSP technology (IRR of 11.72% and linear Fresnel CSP technology (IRR of 11.43%. (4 The annual electricity production and initial costs have significant impacts on the cost-benefit of CSP systems; the effects of operation and maintenance costs and loan interest rate on the cost-benefit of CSP systems are relatively smaller but cannot be ignored.

  1. Performance and costs of a roof-sized PV/thermal array combined with a ground coupled heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, M.; Zondag, H.A.; Elswijk, M.J.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.

    2005-03-01

    A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. Hence, PVT panels are an alternative for a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. A promising system concept, consisting of 25 m 2 of PVT panels and a ground coupled heat pump, has been simulated in TRNSYS. It has been found that this system is able to cover 100% of the total heat demand for a typical newly-built Dutch one-family dwelling, while covering nearly all of its own electricity use and keeping the long-term average ground temperature constant. The cost of such a system has been compared to the cost of a reference system, where the PVT panels have been replaced with separate PV panels (26 m 2 ) and solar thermal collectors (7 m 2 ), but which is otherwise identical. The electrical and thermal yield of this reference system is equal to that of the PVT system. It has been found that both systems require a nearly identical initial investment. Finally, a view on future PVT markets is given. In general, the residential market is by far the most promising market. The system discussed in this paper is expected to be most successful in newly-built low-energy housing concepts

  2. Performance and costs of a roof-sized PV/thermal array combined with a ground coupled heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, M.; Zondag, H.A.; Elswijk, M.J.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. Hence, PVT panels are an alternative for a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. A promising system concept, consisting of 25 m 2 of PVT panels and a ground coupled heat pump, has been simulated in TRNSYS. It has been found that this system is able to cover 100% of the total heat demand for a typical newly-built Dutch one-family dwelling, while covering nearly all of its own electricity use and keeping the long-term average ground temperature constant. The cost of such a system has been compared to the cost of a reference system, where the PVT panels have been replaced with separate PV panels (26 m 2 ) and solar thermal collectors (7 m 2 ), but which is otherwise identical. The electrical and thermal yield of this reference system is equal to that of the PVT system. It has been found that both systems require a nearly identical initial investment. Finally, a view on future PVT markets is given. In general, the residential market is by far the most promising market. The system discussed in this paper is expected to be most successful in newly-built low-energy housing concepts. (Author)

  3. Study on direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling dense-array solar cells under high concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Xue; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Shi, Xusheng; Sun, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling for solar cells was proposed. • A self-regulating system investigated the feasibility in temperature control. • Temperature was well controlled between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C. • Surface heat transfer coefficient was up to 23.49 kW/(m"2·K) under 398.4×. • A model illustrated the interface function was the main reason to affect light. - Abstract: A new cooling method by directly immersing the solar cells into phase-change liquid was put forward to cool dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. A self-running system was built to study the feasibility of temperature control and the effect of bubbles generated by ethanol phase change under concentration ratio ranged between 219.8× and 398.4×. The results show that the cooling system is self-regulating without consuming extra energy and ethanol flow rate reaches up to 180.6 kg/(s·m"2) under 398.4×. The temperature of solar cells distributes in the range between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C, the surface heat transfer coefficient of electric heating plate is up to 23.49 kW/(m"2·K) under 398.4×. The bubble effect on electrical performance of triple-junction solar cells is reported and the results show that I_s_c and P_m_a_x decline 10.2% and 7.3%, respectively. A model based on bubble images illustrates that light loss at the interface between ethanol and bubble is the main reason to cut down the electrical performance.

  4. Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Andrew J; Lilliedal, Mathilde R; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Aarø, Dennis; Pakalski, Heinz; Fyenbo, Jan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-09-13

    Large solar panels were constructed from polymer solar cell modules prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacture based on the previously published ProcessOne. The individual flexible polymer solar modules comprising multiple serially connected single cell stripes were joined electrically and laminated between a 4 mm tempered glass window and black Tetlar foil using two sheets of 0.5 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The panels produced up to 8 W with solar irradiance of ~960 Wm⁻², and had outer dimensions of 1 m x 1.7 m with active areas up to 9180 cm². Panels were mounted on a tracking station and their output was grid connected between testing. Several generations of polymer solar cells and panel constructions were tested in this context to optimize the production of polymer solar panels. Cells lacking a R2R barrier layer were found to degrade due to diffusion of oxygen after less than a month, while R2R encapsulated cells showed around 50% degradation after 6 months but suffered from poor performance due to de-lamination during panel production. A third generation of panels with various barrier layers was produced to optimize the choice of barrier foil and it was found that the inclusion of a thin protective foil between the cell and the barrier foil is critical. The findings provide a preliminary foundation for the production and optimization of large-area polymer solar panels and also enabled a cost analysis of solar panels based on polymer solar cells.

  5. TRUSSELATOR - On-Orbit Fabrication of High Performance Support Structures for Solar Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TUI proposes to develop and demonstrate a process for fabricating high-performance composite truss structures on-orbit and integrating them with thin film solar cell...

  6. The cost benefit analysis of implementing photovoltaic solar system in the state of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhan, Mohammad; Naseeb, Adel

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the high financial cost of energy resources required to meet the rising demand for electricity consumption in Kuwait, the negative environmental impact of fossil fuel is increasing. Hence, the objective of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility and viability of implementing PV solar energy in the State of Kuwait. It was found that the positive characteristics of solar radiation in Kuwait play a critical role in enhancing the feasibility of implementing solar systems. Under the present price of 5$/W and 15% efficiency, the LCOE of a 1 MW station is estimated to be around $0.20/kWh. This LCOE can be feasible only when the cost of oil is around 100$/barrel. The Cost Benefit Analysis showed that when the value of saved energy resources used in producing traditional electricity, and the cost of lowering CO 2 emissions are accounted for, the true economic cost of LCOE of a PV system will decline significantly. The preliminary economic analysis recommends the implementation of PV technology in Kuwait. (author)

  7. Survey costs associated with the replacement of electric showers for solar heaters; Levantamento de custos associados a substituicao de chuveiros eletricos por aquecedores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UFEI), MG (Brazil); Araujo, Jose Euripedes de

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to explain the benefits of replacing electric shower for solar water heaters, and a consequent drop in peak demand for electric power generation and residential consumption in the economy. For this, will be shown the lifting of solar radiation per square meter in Brazil, studied in 250 locations, the most representative in terms of solar energy in this country. The costs presented are associated with replacement of 5 million, 10 million and 20 million electric showers. (author)

  8. High-performance, low-cost solar collectors for disinfection of contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, A; Diaz, A I

    2000-01-01

    Although the germicidal action of sunlight has long been recognized, its potential for practical applications has to be researched more thoroughly. This paper summarizes the progress made toward a commercially practical collector for solar disinfection applications. Nontracking compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), developed originally for capturing solar photons for thermal energy applications, were examined as potential solar photoreactors. A field demonstration of solar disinfection treatment using commercially manufactured solar reactors was conducted. Field tests showed successful destruction of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis and have provided data for full-scale design of water treatment systems. From above observations, a throughput value of 50 L/m2 h for the low-cost CPC reactor tested was estimated. For a 190 m3/d (0.05 MGD) facility, the estimated total costs for disinfection using UV-A is U.S. $0.19/m3 ($0.70/1000 gal). The use of near-UV sunlight to disinfect water supplies seems promising in rural communities of developing countries where treated water is unavailable.

  9. Multi-functional hinge equipped with a magneto-rheological rotary damper for solar array deployment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Mingfu; Yu, Miao; Fu, Jie; Wu, Zhengzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the design and simulation of a novel multi-functional hinge equipped with a rotary magnetorheological damper for solar array deployment system, which is comprised of a hinge, an angular sensor, a positioning and locking mechanism and a rotary damper. In order to achieve the compact design in structure, some components were reused in different function modules. It's the first to use magnet-rheological fluid (MRF) to dissipate the energy in solar array deployment system. The main advantage in using MR rotary damper instead of a viscous fluid rotary damper is that the damping force of MR damper can be adjusted according to the external magnetic field environment excited. A mechanic model was built and the structure design was focused on the MR rotary damper, a damping force model of this damper is deduced based on hydromechanics with Bingham plastic constitutive model. A simulation of deployment motion was taken to validate the motion sequence of various components during the unfolding and locking process. It can be obtained that a constant damping coefficient can hardly balance the different performance of solar deployment system, then a simulation of the proposed deployment system equipped with rotary MR damper was carried out. According to the simulation, it can be obtained that the terminal velocity decreased by 75.81% and the deployment time decreased by 72.37% compared with a given constant damping coefficients. Therefore, the proposed new type of rotary damper can reach a compromise with different performance utilizing an on-off control strategy.

  10. Solar drying and organoleptic characteristics of two tropical African fish species using improved low-cost solar driers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K; Ajibola, Taiye B; Salako, Abdulbashir F; Ademola, Sunmola K

    2014-05-01

    This study was done to evaluate the drying performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of five different types of improved low-cost solar driers in terms of moisture loss from two tropical African fish species Clarias gariepinus (African sharp tooth catfish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and testing the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples. The driers used were made from plastic, aluminum, glass, glass with black igneous stone, and mosquito net, with traditional direct open-sun drying as a control. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in weight resulting from moisture loss in the two fish species was observed in all the driers, with the highest reduction occurring in the glass drier containing black stone. The rate of weight loss was faster in the first 4 days of drying with black stone-inserted glass drier showing the fastest drying rate with a constant weight in C. gariepinus attained on the 11th day and in O. niloticus on the eighth day. The slowest drier was plastic where a constant weight of the species were recorded on and 13th day and 11th day, respectively. Volunteers were used to assess the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples and they showed lowest acceptability for the open-sun drying, while samples from the glass drier containing black stone had the highest acceptability in terms of the taste, flavor, appearance, texture, odor, palatability, and shelf-life. The low-cost solar driers were effective found in removing water from the fish resulting in significant loss of weight and moisture. The highest drying time, efficient performance, drying effectiveness, and high acceptability of the organoleptic parameters of the dried products from the black stone-inserted glass drier were due to the ability of the glass and the black stone to retain, transmit, and radiate heat to the fish sample all the time (day and night). These low-cost driers are simple to construct, materials for its construction readily available, easy to

  11. Life cycle cost analysis of single slope hybrid (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the life cycle cost analysis of the single slope passive and hybrid photovoltaic (PV/T) active solar stills, based on the annual performance at 0.05 m water depth. Effects of various parameters, namely interest rate, life of the system and the maintenance cost have been taken into account. The comparative cost of distilled water produced from passive solar still (Rs. 0.70/kg) is found to be less than hybrid (PV/T) active solar still (Rs. 1.93/kg) for 30 years life time of the systems. The payback periods of the passive and hybrid (PV/T) active solar still are estimated to be in the range of 1.1-6.2 years and 3.3-23.9 years, respectively, based on selling price of distilled water in the range of Rs. 10/kg to Rs. 2/kg. The energy payback time (EPBT) has been estimated as 2.9 and 4.7 years, respectively. (author)

  12. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  13. An Open Source Low-Cost Wireless Control System for a Forced Circulation Solar Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2015-11-05

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a low-cost control system for a forced circulation solar plant in an outdoor test cell located near Milan. Such a system provides for the use of an electric pump for the circulation of heat transfer fluid connecting the solar thermal panel to the storage tank. The running plant temperatures are the fundamental parameter to evaluate the system performance such as proper operation, and the control and management system has to consider these parameters. A solar energy-powered wireless-based smart object was developed, able to monitor the running temperatures of a solar thermal system and aimed at moving beyond standard monitoring approaches to achieve a low-cost and customizable device, even in terms of installation in different environmental conditions. To this end, two types of communications were used: the first is a low-cost communication based on the ZigBee protocol used for control purposes, so that it can be customized according to specific needs, while the second is based on a Bluetooth protocol used for data display.

  14. Combined solar organic Rankine cycle with reverse osmosis desalination process: Energy, exergy, and cost evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafey, A.S.; Sharaf, M.A. [Department of Engineering Science, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have unique properties that are well suited to solar power generation. In this work design and performance calculations are performed using MatLab/SimuLink computational environment. The cycle consists of thermal solar collectors (Flat Plate Solar Collector (FPC), or Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC), or Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)) for heat input, expansion turbine for work output, condenser unit for heat rejection, pump unit, and Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit. Reverse osmosis unit specifications used in this work is based on Sharm El-Shiekh RO desalination plant. Different working fluids such as: butane, isobutane, propane, R134a, R152a, R245ca, and R245fa are examined for FPC. R113, R123, hexane, and pentane are investigated for CPC. Dodecane, nonane, octane, and toluene are allocated for PTC. The proposed process units are modeled and show a good validity with literatures. Exergy and cost analysis are performed for saturation and superheated operating conditions. Exergy efficiency, total exergy destruction, thermal efficiency, and specific capital cost are evaluated for direct vapor generation (DVG) process. Toluene and Water achieved minimum results for total solar collector area, specific total cost and the rate of exergy destruction. (author)

  15. An Open Source Low-Cost Wireless Control System for a Forced Circulation Solar Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a low-cost control system for a forced circulation solar plant in an outdoor test cell located near Milan. Such a system provides for the use of an electric pump for the circulation of heat transfer fluid connecting the solar thermal panel to the storage tank. The running plant temperatures are the fundamental parameter to evaluate the system performance such as proper operation, and the control and management system has to consider these parameters. A solar energy-powered wireless-based smart object was developed, able to monitor the running temperatures of a solar thermal system and aimed at moving beyond standard monitoring approaches to achieve a low-cost and customizable device, even in terms of installation in different environmental conditions. To this end, two types of communications were used: the first is a low-cost communication based on the ZigBee protocol used for control purposes, so that it can be customized according to specific needs, while the second is based on a Bluetooth protocol used for data display.

  16. Cost-effective and reliable design of a solar thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliabadi, A.A.; Wallace, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    A design study was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of solar thermal power generation in a 50 kWe power plant that could be used in a remote location. The system combines a solar collector-thermal storage system utilizing a heat transfer fluid and a simple Rankine cycle power generator utilizing R123 refrigerant. Evacuated tube solar collectors heat mineral oil and supply it to a thermal storage tank. A mineral oil to refrigerant heat exchanger generates superheated refrigerant vapor, which drives a radial turbogenerator. Supplemental natural gas firing maintains a constant thermal storage temperature irregardless of solar conditions enabling the system to produce a constant 50 kWe output. A simulation was carried out to predict the performance of the system in the hottest summer day and the coldest winter day for southern California solar conditions. A rigorous economic analysis was conducted. The system offers advantages over advanced solar thermal power plants by implementing simple fixed evacuated tube collectors, which are less prone to damage in harsh desert environment. Also, backed up by fossil fuel power generation, it is possible to obtain continued operation even during low insolation sky conditions and at night, a feature that stand-alone PV systems do not offer. (author)

  17. Cost/benefit comparison of thermal solar energy systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    A comparison is made between thermal solar energy systems of different size for five different applications in the three main climatic zones in Switzerland. Conventional ways of energy conservation are also included in the comparison. A cost/benefit ratio is calculated for each system. The investment is used as a cost indicator whereas the useful solar heat or the conventional energy saving is chosen as benefit. It is shown that the most systems sold today in Switzerland - combined hot water and space heating systems for single family houses - have the poorest cost/benefit ratio among all systems considered in the analysis. Four applications with more favourable cost/benefit ratio are identified. Large systems have generally a better cost/benefit ratio than smaller ones, although the total investment is higher. Photovoltaics is even less favourable than all thermal systems considered. The large scale penetration of technologies with good cost/benefit ratio lies in the public interest. Supporting activities should consider the priority set by the cost/benefit ratio. (author) 1 fig., 14 refs

  18. Development of an economic solar heating system with cost efficient flat plate collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder-Milchgeisser, W.; Burkart, R.

    1980-10-01

    Mass produced flat plate solar collectors were worked into the design of a system for heating a swimming pool and/or providing domestic hot water. The collector characteristics, including physical and mechanical data as well as theoretical energy conversion efficiency, are presented. The collector was tested and service life efficiency was determined. The mounting of the collector, depending on roof type, is explained. Both in service and laboratory test results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of the system. Further improvement of efficiency is envisaged with automatic flow control in the solar collector and hot water circuits.

  19. Piezo-Phototronic Effect Enhanced Flexible Solar Cells Based on n-ZnO/p-SnS Core-Shell Nanowire Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Laipan; Wang, Longfei; Xue, Fei; Chen, Libo; Fu, Jianqiang; Feng, Xiaolong; Li, Tianfeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    The piezo-phototronic effect is about the enhanced separation, transport, and recombination of the photogenerated carriers using the piezoelectric polarization charges present in piezoelectric-semiconductor materials. Here, it is presented that the piezo-phototronic effect can be effectively applied to improve the relative conversion efficiency of a flexible solar cell based on n-ZnO/p-SnS core-shell nanowire array for 37.3% under a moderate vertical pressure. The performance of the solar cell can be effectively enhanced by a gentle bending of the device, showing its potential for application in curly geometries. This study not only adds further understanding about the concept of increasing solar energy conversion efficiency via piezo-phototronic effect, but also demonstrates the great potential of piezo-phototronic effect in the application of large-scale, flexible, and lightweight nanowire array solar cells.

  20. Piezo‐Phototronic Effect Enhanced Flexible Solar Cells Based on n‐ZnO/p‐SnS Core–Shell Nanowire Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Laipan; Wang, Longfei; Xue, Fei; Chen, Libo; Fu, Jianqiang; Feng, Xiaolong; Li, Tianfeng

    2016-01-01

    The piezo‐phototronic effect is about the enhanced separation, transport, and recombination of the photogenerated carriers using the piezoelectric polarization charges present in piezoelectric‐semiconductor materials. Here, it is presented that the piezo‐phototronic effect can be effectively applied to improve the relative conversion efficiency of a flexible solar cell based on n‐ZnO/p‐SnS core–shell nanowire array for 37.3% under a moderate vertical pressure. The performance of the solar cell can be effectively enhanced by a gentle bending of the device, showing its potential for application in curly geometries. This study not only adds further understanding about the concept of increasing solar energy conversion efficiency via piezo‐phototronic effect, but also demonstrates the great potential of piezo‐phototronic effect in the application of large‐scale, flexible, and lightweight nanowire array solar cells. PMID:28105394

  1. Was it worthwhile? Where have the benefits of rooftop solar photovoltaic generation exceeded the cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnav, Parth; Horner, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2017-09-01

    We estimate the lifetime magnitude and distribution of the private and public benefits and costs of currently installed distributed solar PV systems in the United States. Using data for recently-installed systems, we estimate the balance of benefits and costs associated with installing a non-utility solar PV system today. We also study the geographical distribution of the various subsidies that are made available to owners of rooftop solar PV systems, and compare it to distributions of population and income. We find that, after accounting for federal subsidies and local rebates and assuming a discount rate of 7%, the private benefits of new installations will exceed private costs only in seven of the 19 states for which we have data and only if customers can sell excess power to the electric grid at the retail price. These states are characterized by abundant sunshine (California, Texas and Nevada) or by high electricity prices (New York). Public benefits from reduced air pollution and climate change impact exceed the costs of the various subsidies offered system owners for less than 10% of the systems installed, even assuming a 2% discount rate. Subsidies flowed disproportionately to counties with higher median incomes in 2006. In 2014, the distribution of subsidies was closer to that of population income, but subsidies still flowed disproportionately to the better-off. The total, upfront, subsidy per kilowatt of installed capacity has fallen from 5200 in 2006 to 1400 in 2014, but the absolute magnitude of subsidy has soared as installed capacity has grown explosively. We see considerable differences in the balance of costs and benefits even within states, indicating that local factors such as system price and solar resource are important, and that policies (e.g. net metering) could be made more efficient by taking local conditions into account.

  2. A large-aperture low-cost hydrophone array for tracking whales from small boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B; Dawson, S

    2009-11-01

    A passive sonar array designed for tracking diving sperm whales in three dimensions from a single small vessel is presented, and the advantages and limitations of operating this array from a 6 m boat are described. The system consists of four free floating buoys, each with a hydrophone, built-in recorder, and global positioning system receiver (GPS), and one vertical stereo hydrophone array deployed from the boat. Array recordings are post-processed onshore to obtain diving profiles of vocalizing sperm whales. Recordings are synchronized using a GPS timing pulse recorded onto each track. Sensitivity analysis based on hyperbolic localization methods is used to obtain probability distributions for the whale's three-dimensional location for vocalizations received by at least four hydrophones. These localizations are compared to those obtained via isodiachronic sequential bound estimation. Results from deployment of the system around a sperm whale in the Kaikoura Canyon in New Zealand are shown.

  3. Tårs 10000 m2 CSP + Flat Plate Solar Collector Plant - Cost-Performance Optimization of the Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Tian, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    , was established. The optimization showed that there was a synergy in combining CSP and FP collectors. Even though the present cost per m² of the CSP collectors is high, the total energy cost is minimized by installing a combination of collectors in such solar heating plant. It was also found that the CSP......A novel solar heating plant with Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors and Flat Plate (FP) collectors has been put into operation in Tårs since July 2015. To investigate economic performance of the plant, a TRNSYS-Genopt model, including a solar collector field and thermal storage tank...

  4. Installed Cost Benchmarks and Deployment Barriers for Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, Kristen; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Fu, Ran; McClurg, Chris; Huneycutt, Joshua; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-01

    In this report, we fill a gap in the existing knowledge about PV-plus-storage system costs and value by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for residential systems. We also examine other barriers to increased deployment of PV-plus-storage systems in the residential sector. The results are meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede solar plus storage deployment. In addition, our periodic cost benchmarks will document progress in cost reductions over time. To analyze costs for PV-plus-storage systems deployed in the first quarter of 2016, we adapt the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's component- and system-level cost-modeling methods for standalone PV. In general, we attempt to model best-in-class installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. In addition to our original analysis, model development, and review of published literature, we derive inputs for our model and validate our draft results via interviews with industry and subject-matter experts. One challenge to analyzing the costs of PV-plus-storage systems is choosing an appropriate cost metric. Unlike standalone PV, energy storage lacks universally accepted cost metrics, such as dollars per watt of installed capacity and lifetime levelized cost of energy. We explain the difficulty of arriving at a standard approach for reporting storage costs and then provide the rationale for using the total installed costs of a standard PV-plus-storage system as our primary metric, rather than using a system-size-normalized metric.

  5. Solar Thermoelectricity via Advanced Latent Heat Storage: A Cost-Effective Small-Scale CSP Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Rea, J.; Olsen, Michele L.; Oshman, C.; Hardin, C.; Alleman, Jeff; Sharp, J.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Hoeschele, G.; Parilla, Philip A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, Eric S.; Ginley, David S.

    2017-06-27

    We are developing a novel concentrating solar electricity-generating technology that is both modular and dispatchable. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) uses concentrated solar flux to generate high-temperature thermal energy, which directly converts to electricity via thermoelectric generators (TEGs), stored within a phase-change material (PCM) for electricity generation at a later time, or both allowing for simultaneous charging of the PCM and electricity generation. STEALS has inherent features that drive its cost-competitive scale to be much smaller than current commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Most obvious is modularity of the solid-state TEG, which favors smaller scales in the kilowatt range as compared to CSP steam turbines, which are minimally 50 MWe for commercial power plants. Here, we present techno-economic and market analyses that show STEALS can be a cost-effective electricity-generating technology with particular appeal to small-scale microgrid applications. We evaluated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STEALS and for a comparable photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. For STEALS, we estimated capital costs and the LCOE as functions of the type of PCM including the use of recycled aluminum alloys, and evaluated the cost tradeoffs between plasma spray coatings and solution-based boron coatings that are applied to the wetted surfaces of the PCM subsystem. We developed a probabilistic cost model that accounts for uncertainties in the cost and performance inputs to the LCOE estimation. Our probabilistic model estimated LCOE for a 100-kWe STEALS system that had 5 hours of thermal storage and 8-10 hours of total daily power generation. For these cases, the solar multiple for the heliostat field varied between 1.12 and 1.5. We identified microgrids as a likely market for the STEALS system. We characterized microgrid markets in terms of nominal power, dispatchability, geographic location, and

  6. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage: A cost-effective small-scale CSP application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.; Rea, J.; Olsen, M. L.; Oshman, C.; Hardin, C.; Alleman, J.; Sharp, J.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Hoeschele, G.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2017-06-01

    We are developing a novel concentrating solar electricity-generating technology that is both modular and dispatchable. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) uses concentrated solar flux to generate high-temperature thermal energy, which directly converts to electricity via thermoelectric generators (TEGs), stored within a phase-change material (PCM) for electricity generation at a later time, or both allowing for simultaneous charging of the PCM and electricity generation. STEALS has inherent features that drive its cost-competitive scale to be much smaller than current commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Most obvious is modularity of the solid-state TEG, which favors smaller scales in the kilowatt range as compared to CSP steam turbines, which are minimally 50 MWe for commercial power plants. Here, we present techno-economic and market analyses that show STEALS can be a cost-effective electricity-generating technology with particular appeal to small-scale microgrid applications. We evaluated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STEALS and for a comparable photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. For STEALS, we estimated capital costs and the LCOE as functions of the type of PCM including the use of recycled aluminum alloys, and evaluated the cost tradeoffs between plasma spray coatings and solution-based boron coatings that are applied to the wetted surfaces of the PCM subsystem. We developed a probabilistic cost model that accounts for uncertainties in the cost and performance inputs to the LCOE estimation. Our probabilistic model estimated LCOE for a 100-kWe STEALS system that had 5 hours of thermal storage and 8-10 hours of total daily power generation. For these cases, the solar multiple for the heliostat field varied between 1.12 and 1.5. We identified microgrids as a likely market for the STEALS system. We characterized microgrid markets in terms of nominal power, dispatchability, geographic location, and

  7. The upper limit of the solar antineutrino flux according to the LSD array data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'etta, M.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, D.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the experimental data obtained at the LSD liquid scintillation detector is carried out with the aim of searching the possible flux of electron antineutrinos from Sun. The most strong at present upper limit for the electron antineutrino flux of solar origin is determined: ≤ 1.0 x 10 5 cm -2 x s -1 (the reliability level of 90%)

  8. The Bepicolombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO Solar Array Design, Major Developments and Qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loehberg A.

    2017-01-01

    The MPO solar generator is composed of one wing consisting of three panels and provides an average power output up to 1800W during the nominal 1 Earth year mission around Mercury. The wing design is characterised by temperature reduction measures. The flight wing has already passed the majority of the environmental test program.

  9. Nonimaging solar concentrator with near-uniform irradiance for photovoltaic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Winston, Roland; Gee, Randy

    2001-11-01

    We report results of a study our group has undertaken to design a solar concentrator with uniform irradiance on a planar target. This attribute is especially important for photovoltaic concentrators. We find that a variety of optical mixers, some incorporating a moderate level of concentration, can be quite effective in achieving near uniform irradiance.

  10. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morosan, D.E.; et al., [Unknown; Hessels, J.W.T.; Markoff, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio

  11. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morosan, D.E.; Gallagher, P.T.; Zucca, P.; Fallows, R.; Carley, E.P.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M.M.; Kerdraon, A.; Avruch, I.M.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio

  12. Structure and dye-sensitized solar cell application of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays fabricated by the anodic oxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, Seon-Yeong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won [School of Material Science and Engineering, ERI and i-cube center, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kwang-Sun, E-mail: kkcho66@gnu.ac.k [Department of Chemistry, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-01

    Well-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were fabricated by the potentiostatic anodic oxidation method using pure Ti foil as a working electrode and ethylene glycol solution as an electrolyte with the small addition of NH{sub 4}F and H{sub 2}O. The influence of anodization temperature and time on the morphology and formation of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays was examined. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were applied as a photoelectrode to dye-sensitized solar cells. Regardless of anodizing temperature and time, the average diameter and wall thickness of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays show a similar value, whereas the length increases with decreasing reaction temperature. The conversion efficiency is very low, which is due to a morphology breaking of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays in the manufacturing process of a photoelectrode.

  13. Structure and dye-sensitized solar cell application of TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by the anodic oxidation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seon-Yeong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2010-05-01

    Well-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by the potentiostatic anodic oxidation method using pure Ti foil as a working electrode and ethylene glycol solution as an electrolyte with the small addition of NH4F and H2O. The influence of anodization temperature and time on the morphology and formation of TiO2 nanotube arrays was examined. The TiO2 nanotube arrays were applied as a photoelectrode to dye-sensitized solar cells. Regardless of anodizing temperature and time, the average diameter and wall thickness of TiO2 nanotube arrays show a similar value, whereas the length increases with decreasing reaction temperature. The conversion efficiency is very low, which is due to a morphology breaking of the TiO2 nanotube arrays in the manufacturing process of a photoelectrode.

  14. Flat-plate solar array project process development area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Several different techniques to simultaneously diffuse the front and back junctions in dendritic web silicon were investigated. A successful simultaneous diffusion reduces the cost of the solar cell by reducing the number of processing steps, the amount of capital equipment, and the labor cost. The three techniques studied were: (1) simultaneous diffusion at standard temperatures and times using a tube type diffusion furnace or a belt furnace; (2) diffusion using excimer laser drive-in; and (3) simultaneous diffusion at high temperature and short times using a pulse of high intensity light as the heat source. The use of an excimer laser and high temperature short time diffusion experiment were both more successful than the diffusion at standard temperature and times. The three techniques are described in detail and a cost analysis of the more successful techniques is provided.

  15. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  16. The 100 kW space station. [regenerative fuel cells and nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium batteries for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckhann, G.

    1977-01-01

    Solar array power systems for the space construction base are discussed. Nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen batteries are equally attractive relative to regenerative fuel cell systems at 5 years life. Further evaluation of energy storage system life (low orbit conditions) is required. Shuttle and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology appears adequate; large units (approximately four times shuttle) are most appropriate and should be studied for a 100 KWe SCB system. A conservative NiH2 battery DOD (18.6%) was elected due to lack of test data and offers considerable improvement potential. Multiorbit load averaging and reserve capacity requirements limit nominal DOD to 30% to 50% maximum, independent of life considerations.

  17. The International Telecommunications Satellite (INTELSAT) Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) atomic oxgyen flight experiment: Techniques, results and summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, S.; King, G.; Dunnet, A.; Kirkendahl, T.; Linton, R.; Vaughn, J.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques and results of the ISAC flight experiment are presented, and comparisons between flight tests results and ground based testing are made. The ISAC flight experiment, one component of a larger INTELSAT 6 rescue program, tested solar array configurations and individual silver connects in ground based facilities and during STS-41 (Space Shuttle Discovery). In addition to the INTELSAT specimens, several materials, for which little or no flight data exist, were also tested for atomic oxygen reactivity. Dry lubricants, elastomers, polymeric materials, and inorganic materials were exposed to an oxygen atom fluence of 1.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms. Many of the samples were selected to support Space Station Freedom design and decision-making.

  18. Performance of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. III - Optical characteristics of the Ritchey-Chretien and Cassegrain telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Baker, Phillip C.; Hadaway, James B.; Johnson, R. B.; Peterson, Cynthia; Gabardi, David R.; Walker, Arthur B., Jr.; Lindblom, J. F.; Deforest, Craig; O'Neal, R. H.

    1991-12-01

    The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), which is a sounding-rocket-borne observatory for investigating the sun in the soft X-ray/EUV and FUV regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum, utilizes single reflection multilayer coated Herschelian telescopes for wavelengths below 100 A, and five doubly reflecting multilayer coated Ritchey-Chretien and two Cassegrain telescopes for selected wavelengths in the EUV region between 100 and 1000 A. The paper discusses the interferometric alignment, testing, focusing, visible light testing, and optical performance characteristics of the Ritchey-Chretien and Cassegrain telescopes of MSSTA. A schematic diagram of the MSSTA Ritchey-Chretien telescope is presented together with diagrams of the system autocollimation testing.

  19. Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume I. An insolation, array shadowing, and reflector augmentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.

    1980-01-15

    This handbook provides estimates of average available solar insolation to fixed, flat-plate, south-facing collector surfaces at various array tilt angles at numerous sites in the US. This first volume contains average daily, total insolation estimates, by month, and annual totals for 235 locations. A model that estimates the direct, diffuse, and reflected components of total insolation on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis is presented. A shadow loss model and a reflector augmentation model providing estimates of the losses and gains associated with various fixed array geometries are also described. These models can be used with the insolation model provided or with other recorded data. A FORTRAN computer program with user's guide is presented. The program can be used to generate additional handbook values or to examine the effects of array shadowing and fixed reflector augmentation effects on a daily, monthly, or annual basis. Array shadowing depends on location, array size, array tilt, array separation, and time. The program can be used to examine trade-offs between array spacing and insolation losses due to shadowing. The reflector augmentation program can be used to examine trade-offs among array size and tilt, separation, and reflector tilt to determine the combination of design values that optimize the economic objectives or technical criteria of the system.

  20. CO2 prevention through solar energy: potential and costs shown for the example of Muenster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachse, M.; Bach, W.

    1994-01-01

    The two most important components of any climate protection policy committed to lowering CO 2 emissions are a more efficient energy utilisation and the rapid deployment of renewables. It is possible to cut energy consumption in Germany by about half. This can considerably increase the relative contribution of renewables to the power supply. Efficiency and renewables thus attain paramount importance from the climatological viewpoint: the former for its safety, the latter for their inexhaustibility. The present article examines on the basis of plausible assumptions what contribution solar energy can make to CO 2 prevention. It makes a detailed survey of the potential of differently structured city areas for the installation of solar energy plants and extrapolates the results obtained to the entire city on the basis of solar radiation and structural data. The authors focus on solar water heating, linking-up of solar collectors to district heating systems, and photovoltaic electricity production. The costs of investment, procurement, energy substitution, and CO 2 prevention are calculated, respectively, for flat-plate and vacuum collectors and compared. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Solar disinfection: an approach for low-cost household water treatment technology in Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Awrajaw; Alemayehu, Esayas; Mekonen, Seblework; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Ambelu, Argaw

    2014-01-10

    Disinfection of contaminated water using solar radiation (SODIS) is known to inactivate bacteria. Its inactivation efficiency depends on local conditions where the disinfection is made. This study was aiming to test the efficiency of solar disinfection using different water parameters as low-cost household water treatment technology. Inactivation of microbes was tested using fecal coliform as test organism. The SODIS experiment was carried out at turbidity 2NTU, pH 7, and various water temperature (38.1°C, 41.8°C, 45.6°Cand 51.1°C) and solar intensities, using clear and black plastic bottles filled to different depths. The results show that the rate of microbial inactivation in relation to depth of water, turbidity, container type, intensity of light and color of container was statistically significant (p solar disinfection. By adjusting the parameters, complete and irreversible fecal coliform inactivation was achieved within an exposure time of less than four hours in the areas where the solar irradiance is about 3.99 kW/m2 and above. Our results indicate that application of SODIS could play a significant role in the provision of safe water in rural communities of developing countries where there is ample sunshine, specifically in sub-Saharan African countries.

  2. Cost and performance analysis of concentrating solar power systems with integrated latent thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nithyanandam, K.; Pitchumani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating TES (thermal energy storage) in a CSP (concentrating solar power) plant allows for continuous operation even during times when solar irradiation is not available, thus providing a reliable output to the grid. In the present study, the cost and performance models of an EPCM-TES (encapsulated phase change material thermal energy storage) system and HP-TES (latent thermal storage system with embedded heat pipes) are integrated with a CSP power tower system model utilizing Rankine and s-CO 2 (supercritical carbon-dioxide) power conversion cycles, to investigate the dynamic TES-integrated plant performance. The influence of design parameters of the storage system on the performance of a 200 MW e capacity power tower CSP plant is studied to establish design envelopes that satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative requirements, which include a round-trip annualized exergetic efficiency greater than 95%, storage cost less than $15/kWh t and LCE (levelized cost of electricity) less than 6 ¢/kWh. From the design windows, optimum designs of the storage system based on minimum LCE, maximum exergetic efficiency, and maximum capacity factor are reported and compared with the results of two-tank molten salt storage system. Overall, the study presents the first effort to construct and analyze LTES (latent thermal energy storage) integrated CSP plant performance that can help assess the impact, cost and performance of LTES systems on power generation from molten salt power tower CSP plant. - Highlights: • Presents technoeconomic analysis of thermal energy storage integrated concentrating solar power plants. • Presents a comparison of different storage options. • Presents optimum design of thermal energy storage system for steam Rankine and supercritical carbon dioxide cycles. • Presents designs for maximizing exergetic efficiency while minimizing storage cost and levelized cost of energy

  3. Low-cost gossamer systems for solar sailing and spacecraft deorbiting applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a technology demonstrator platform popular amongst the research community given their relatively low cost and short development time are cubesats. Nevertheless, cubesats are by definition nano-satellites of small volume and mass, and therefore, they traditionally only allowed very limited sizes of any expandable structure onboard with final deployed areas in the order of a few square meters. This conflicts with the large areas required for efficient solar sails, making the demonstra...

  4. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the performance and cost of four 10-MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs, and energy costs. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) comprise the advanced concepts studied. This paper contains a discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems' performances and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades.

  5. Controllable preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanowire arrays on titanium mesh for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenwu; Lu, Hui; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min, E-mail: guomin@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanowire arrays with controlled morphology and density have been synthesized on Ti mesh substrates by hydrothermal approach for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells which showed well photovoltaic efficiency of 3.42%. - Highlights: • Flexible titanium mesh was first used for hydrothermal preparation of TiO{sub 2} NWAs. • The formation mechanism of the TiO{sub 2} nanostructures was discussed. • The density, average diameter, and morphology of TiO{sub 2} NWAs can be controlled. • The effects of the sensitization temperature and time on the properties were studied. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanowire arrays (NWAs) with an average diameter of 80 nm have been successfully synthesized on titanium (Ti) mesh substrates via hydrothermal method. The effects of preparing conditions such as concentration of NaOH solution, reaction time, and hydrothermal temperature on the growth of TiO{sub 2} nanoarrays and its related photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photovoltaic properties test. The growth mechanism of the Ti mesh-supported TiO{sub 2} nanostructures was discussed in detail. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to determine the optimized temperature and time of the dye sensitized process for the flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It is demonstrated that hydrothermal parameters had obvious influence on the morphology and growth density of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoarrays. In addition, the performance of the flexible DSSC depended strongly on the sensitization temperature and time. By utilizing Ti mesh-supported TiO{sub 2} NWAs (with a length of about 14 μm) as a photoanode, the flexible DSSC with a short circuit current density of 10.49 mA cm{sup −2}, an open-circuit voltage of 0.69 V, and an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.42% was achieved.

  6. Controllable preparation of TiO2 nanowire arrays on titanium mesh for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenwu; Lu, Hui; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 nanowire arrays with controlled morphology and density have been synthesized on Ti mesh substrates by hydrothermal approach for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells which showed well photovoltaic efficiency of 3.42%. - Highlights: • Flexible titanium mesh was first used for hydrothermal preparation of TiO 2 NWAs. • The formation mechanism of the TiO 2 nanostructures was discussed. • The density, average diameter, and morphology of TiO 2 NWAs can be controlled. • The effects of the sensitization temperature and time on the properties were studied. - Abstract: TiO 2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) with an average diameter of 80 nm have been successfully synthesized on titanium (Ti) mesh substrates via hydrothermal method. The effects of preparing conditions such as concentration of NaOH solution, reaction time, and hydrothermal temperature on the growth of TiO 2 nanoarrays and its related photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photovoltaic properties test. The growth mechanism of the Ti mesh-supported TiO 2 nanostructures was discussed in detail. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to determine the optimized temperature and time of the dye sensitized process for the flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It is demonstrated that hydrothermal parameters had obvious influence on the morphology and growth density of the as-prepared TiO 2 nanoarrays. In addition, the performance of the flexible DSSC depended strongly on the sensitization temperature and time. By utilizing Ti mesh-supported TiO 2 NWAs (with a length of about 14 μm) as a photoanode, the flexible DSSC with a short circuit current density of 10.49 mA cm −2 , an open-circuit voltage of 0.69 V, and an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.42% was achieved

  7. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1980-10-15

    Work has been divided into five phases. The first phase is to modify existing hardware and controlling computer software to: (1) improve cell-to-cell placement accuracy, (2) improve the solder joint while reducing the amount of solder and flux smear on the cell's surface, and (3) reduce the system cycle time to 10 seconds. The second phase involves expanding the existing system's capabilities to be able to reject broken cells and make post-solder electrical tests. Phase 3 involves developing new hardware to allow for the automated encapsulation of solar modules. This involves three discrete pieces of hardware: (1) a vacuum platen end effector for the robot which allows it to pick up the 1' x 4' array of 35 inter-connected cells. With this, it can also pick up the cover glass and completed module, (2) a lamination preparation station which cuts the various encapsulation components from roll storage and positions them for encapsulation, and (3) an automated encapsulation chamber which interfaces with the above two and applies the heat and vacuum to cure the encapsulants. Phase 4 involves the final assembly of the encapsulated array into a framed, edge-sealed module completed for installation. For this we are using MBA's Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) in panels such as those developed by MBA for JPL under contract No. 955281. The GRC panel plays the multiple role of edge frame, substrate and mounting structure. An automated method of applying the edge seal will also be developed. The final phase (5) is the fabrication of six 1' x 4' electrically active solar modules using the above developed equipment. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  8. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The installed cost of solar photovoltaics (PV) has fallen rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue declining in the future. In this report, we focus on the potential for continued PV cost reductions in the residential market. From 2010 to 2017, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for residential PV declined from 52 cents per kilowatt-hour (cents/kWh) to 16 cents/kWh (Fu et al. 2017). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) recently set new LCOE targets for 2030, including a target of 5 cents/kWh for residential PV. We present a roadmap for achieving the SETO 2030 residential PV target. Because the 2030 target likely will not be achieved under business-as-usual trends (NREL 2017), we examine two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof replacement and installing PV as part of the new home construction process. Within both market segments, we identify four key cost-reduction opportunities: market maturation, business model integration, product innovation, and economies of scale. To assess the potential impact of these cost reductions, we compare modeled residential PV system prices in 2030 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) quarter one 2017 (Q1 2017) residential PV system price benchmark (Fu et al. 2017). We use a bottom-up accounting framework to model all component and project-development costs incurred when installing a PV system. The result is a granular accounting for 11 direct and indirect costs associated with installing a residential PV system in 2030. All four modeled pathways demonstrate significant installed-system price savings over the Q1 2017 benchmark, with the visionary pathways yielding the greatest price benefits. The largest modeled cost savings are in the supply chain, sales and marketing, overhead, and installation labor cost categories. When we translate these

  9. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine

    2013-01-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  10. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaianes; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  11. Development of low-cost silicon crystal growth techniques for terrestrial photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the growing need for new sources of electrical energy, photovoltaic solar energy conversion is being developed. Photovoltaic devices are now being produced mainly from silicon wafers obtained from the slicing and polishing of cylindrically shaped single crystal ingots. Inherently high-cost processes now being used must either be eliminated or modified to provide low-cost crystalline silicon. Basic to this pursuit is the development of new or modified methods of crystal growth and, if necessary, crystal cutting. If silicon could be grown in a form requiring no cutting, a significant cost saving would potentially be realized. Therefore, several techniques for growth in the form of ribbons or sheets are being explored. In addition, novel techniques for low-cost ingot growth and cutting are under investigation.

  12. Optimization of solar cell contacts by system cost-per-watt minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, D.

    1977-01-01

    New, and considerably altered, optimum dimensions for solar-cell metallization patterns are found using the recently developed procedure whose optimization criterion is the minimum cost-per-watt effect on the entire photovoltaic system. It is also found that the optimum shadow fraction by the fine grid is independent of metal cost and resistivity as well as cell size. The optimum thickness of the fine grid metal depends on all these factors, and in familiar cases it should be appreciably greater than that found by less complete analyses. The optimum bus bar thickness is much greater than those generally used. The cost-per-watt penalty due to the need for increased amounts of metal per unit area on larger cells is determined quantitatively and thereby provides a criterion for the minimum benefits that must be obtained in other process steps to make larger cells cost effective.

  13. GaSb solar cells grown on GaAs via interfacial misfit arrays for use in the III-Sb multi-junction cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, George T.; Juang, Bor-Chau; Slocum, Michael A.; Bittner, Zachary S.; Laghumavarapu, Ramesh B.; Huffaker, Diana L.; Hubbard, Seth M.

    2017-12-01

    Growth of GaSb with low threading dislocation density directly on GaAs may be possible with the strategic strain relaxation of interfacial misfit arrays. This creates an opportunity for a multi-junction solar cell with access to a wide range of well-developed direct bandgap materials. Multi-junction cells with a single layer of GaSb/GaAs interfacial misfit arrays could achieve higher efficiency than state-of-the-art inverted metamorphic multi-junction cells while forgoing the need for costly compositionally graded buffer layers. To develop this technology, GaSb single junction cells were grown via molecular beam epitaxy on both GaSb and GaAs substrates to compare homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial GaSb device results. The GaSb-on-GaSb cell had an AM1.5g efficiency of 5.5% and a 44-sun AM1.5d efficiency of 8.9%. The GaSb-on-GaAs cell was 1.0% efficient under AM1.5g and 4.5% at 44 suns. The lower performance of the heteroepitaxial cell was due to low minority carrier Shockley-Read-Hall lifetimes and bulk shunting caused by defects related to the mismatched growth. A physics-based device simulator was used to create an inverted triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaSb model. The model predicted that, with current GaSb-on-GaAs material quality, the not-current-matched, proof-of-concept cell would provide 0.5% absolute efficiency gain over a tandem GaInP/GaAs cell at 1 sun and 2.5% gain at 44 suns, indicating that the effectiveness of the GaSb junction was a function of concentration.

  14. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report benchmarks U.S. solar photovoltaic (PV) system installed costs as of the first quarter of 2017 (Q1 2017). We use a bottom-up methodology, accounting for all system and projectdevelopment costs incurred during the installation to model the costs for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems. In general, we attempt to model the typical installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. Costs are represented from the perspective of the developer/installer; thus, all hardware costs represent the price at which components are purchased by the developer/installer, not accounting for preexisting supply agreements or other contracts. Importantly, the benchmark also represents the sales price paid to the installer; therefore, it includes profit in the cost of the hardware, 1 along with the profit the installer/developer receives, as a separate cost category. However, it does not include any additional net profit, such as a developer fee or price gross-up, which is common in the marketplace. We adopt this approach owing to the wide variation in developer profits in all three sectors, where project pricing is highly dependent on region and project specifics such as local retail electricity rate structures, local rebate and incentive structures, competitive environment, and overall project or deal structures. Finally, our benchmarks are national averages weighted by state installed capacities.

  15. Process Research On Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM). [flat plate solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance-limiting mechanisms in large-grain (greater than 1 to 2 mm in diameter) polycrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated by fabricating a matrix of 4 sq cm solar cells of various thickness from 10 cm x 10 cm polycrystalline silicon wafers of several bulk resistivities. Analysis of the illuminated I-V characteristics of these cells suggests that bulk recombination is the dominant factor limiting the short-circuit current. The average open-circuit voltage of the polycrystalline solar cells is 30 to 70 mV lower than that of co-processed single-crystal cells; the fill-factor is comparable. Both open-circuit voltage and fill-factor of the polycrystalline cells have substantial scatter that is not related to either thickness or resistivity. This implies that these characteristics are sensitive to an additional mechanism that is probably spatial in nature. A damage-gettering heat-treatment improved the minority-carrier diffusion length in low lifetime polycrystalline silicon, however, extended high temperature heat-treatment degraded the lifetime.

  16. Adaption of an array spectroradiometer for total ozone column retrieval using direct solar irradiance measurements in the UV spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ralf; Sperfeld, Peter; Riechelmann, Stefan; Nevas, Saulius; Sildoja, Meelis; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2018-04-01

    A compact array spectroradiometer that enables precise and robust measurements of solar UV spectral direct irradiance is presented. We show that this instrument can retrieve total ozone column (TOC) accurately. The internal stray light, which is often the limiting factor for measurements in the UV spectral range and increases the uncertainty for TOC analysis, is physically reduced so that no other stray-light reduction methods, such as mathematical corrections, are necessary. The instrument has been extensively characterised at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. During an international total ozone measurement intercomparison at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory in Tenerife, the high-quality applicability of the instrument was verified with measurements of the direct solar irradiance and subsequent TOC evaluations based on the spectral data measured between 12 and 30 September 2016. The results showed deviations of the TOC of less than 1.5 % from most other instruments in most situations and not exceeding 3 % from established TOC measurement systems such as Dobson or Brewer.

  17. ISS Solar Array Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Bearing Failure and Recovery: Technical and Project Management Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Krantz, Timothy L.; Dube, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The photovoltaic solar panels on the International Space Station (ISS) track the Sun through continuous rotating motion enabled by large bearings on the main truss called solar array alpha rotary joints (SARJs). In late 2007, shortly after installation, the starboard SARJ had become hard to turn and had to be shut down after exceeding drive current safety limits. The port SARJ, of the same design, had been working well for over 2 years. An exhaustive failure investigation ensued that included multiple extravehicular activities to collect information and samples for engineering forensics, detailed structural and thermal analyses, and a careful review of the build records. The ultimate root cause was determined to be kinematic design vulnerability coupled with inadequate lubrication, and manufacturing flaws; this was corroborated through ground tests, metallurgical studies, and modeling. A highly successful recovery plan was developed and implemented that included replacing worn and damaged components in orbit and applying space-compatible grease to improve lubrication. Beyond the technical aspects, however, lie several key programmatic lessons learned. These lessons, such as running ground tests to intentional failure to experimentally verify failure modes, are reviewed and discussed so they can be applied to future projects to avoid such problems.

  18. Thin film solar modules: the low cost, high throughput and versatile alternative to Si wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedus, S. [Delaware Univ., Inst. of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Thin film solar cells (TFSC) have passed adolescence and are ready to make a substantial contribution to the world's electricity generation. They can have advantages over c-Si solar modules in ease of large area, lower cost manufacturing and in several types of applications. Factors which limit TFSC module performance relative to champion cell performance are discussed along with the importance of increased throughput and yield. The consensus of several studies is that all TFSC can achieve costs below 1 $/W if manufactured at sufficiently large scale >100 MW using parallel lines of cloned equipment with high material utilization and spray-on encapsulants. There is significant new commercial interest in TFSC from small investors and large corporations, validating the thin film approach. Unique characteristics are discussed which give TFSC an advantage over c-Si in two specific markets: small rural solar home systems and building integrated photovoltaic installations. TFSC have outperformed c-Si in annual energy production (kWhrs/kW), have demonstrated outdoor durability comparable to c-Si and are being used in MW scale installations worldwide. The merits of the thin film approach cannot be judged on the basis of efficiency alone but must also account for module performance and potential for low cost. TFSC advocates should promote their unique virtues compared to c-Si: lower cost, higher kWhr/kW output, higher battery charging current, attractive visual appearance, flexible substrates, long-term stability comparable to c-Si, and multiple pathways for deposition with room for innovation and evolutionary improvement. There is a huge market for TFSC even at today's efficiency if costs can be reduced. A brief window of opportunity exists for TFSC over the next few years due the Si shortage. The demonstrated capabilities and advantages of TFSC must be proclaimed more persistently to funding decision-makers and customers without minimizing the remaining

  19. Identification of Tequila with an Array of ZnO Thin Films: A Simple and Cost-Effective Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Estanislao Acuña-Avila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An array of ZnO thin film sensors was obtained by thermal oxidation of physical vapor deposited thin Zn films. Different conditions of the thermal treatment (duration and temperature were applied in view of obtaining ZnO sensors with different gas sensing properties. Films having undergone a long thermal treatment exhibited high responses to low ethanol concentrations, while short thermal treatments generally led to sensors with high ethanol sensitivity. The sensor array was used to distinguish among Tequilas and Agave liquor. Linear discriminant analysis and the multilayer perceptron neural network reached 100% and 86.3% success rates in the discrimination between real Tequila and Agave liquor and in the identification of Tequila brands, respectively. These results are promising for the development of an inexpensive tool offering low complexity and cost of analysis for detecting fraud in spirits.

  20. Real Time Assessment of Potable Water Quality in Distribution Network based on Low Cost Multi-Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyotirmoy; Gupta, Karunesh K.; Khatri, Punit

    2018-03-01

    New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameters measurement systems. This paper proposed a new way of potable water quality assessment in distribution network using Multi Sensor Array (MSA). Extensive research suggests that following parameters i.e. pH, Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.), Conductivity, Oxygen Reduction Potential (ORP), Temperature and Salinity are most suitable to detect overall quality of potable water. Commonly MSA is not an integrated sensor array on some substrate, but rather comprises a set of individual sensors measuring simultaneously different water parameters all together. Based on research, a MSA has been developed followed by signal conditioning unit and finally, an algorithm for easy user interfacing. A dedicated part of this paper also discusses the platform design and significant results. The Objective of this proposed research is to provide simple, efficient, cost effective and socially acceptable means to detect and analyse water bodies regularly and automatically.